A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.
An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC (Formerly EC
A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.
A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.
An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.
A papain-like cysteine protease that has specificity for amino terminal dipeptides. The enzyme plays a role in the activation of several pro-inflammatory serine proteases by removal of their aminoterminal inhibitory dipeptides. Genetic mutations that cause loss of cathepsin C activity in humans are associated with PAPILLON-LEFEVRE DISEASE.
A lysosomal papain-related cysteine proteinase that is expressed in a broad variety of cell types.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine peptidase that exhibits carboxypeptidase activity. It is highly expressed in a variety of immune cell types and may play a role in inflammatory processes and immune responses.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A cysteine endopeptidase found in NATURAL KILLER CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES. It may have a specific function in the mechanism or regulation of cytolytic activity of immune cells.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC and EC
N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.
A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC
An intracellular cystatin subtype that is found in a broad variety of cell types. It is a cytosolic enzyme inhibitor that protects the cell against the proteolytic action of lysosomal enzymes such as CATHEPSINS.
A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
A cytastin subtype found at high levels in the SKIN and in BLOOD CELLS. Cystatin A incorporates into the cornified cell envelope of stratified squamous epithelial cells and may play a role in bacteriostatic properties of skin.
A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Rare, autosomal recessive disorder occurring between the first and fifth years of life. It is characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma with periodontitis followed by the premature shedding of both deciduous and permanent teeth. Mutations in the gene for CATHEPSIN C have been associated with this disease.
An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An enzyme substrate which permits the measurement of peptide hydrolase activity, e.g. trypsin and thrombin. The enzymes liberate 2-naphthylamine, which is measured by colorimetric procedures.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A subclass of exopeptidases that includes enzymes which cleave either two or three AMINO ACIDS from the end of a peptide chain.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
An activating NK cell lectin-like receptor subfamily that regulates immune responses to INFECTION and NEOPLASMS. Members of this subfamily generally occur as homodimers.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.

Crystal structure of MHC class II-associated p41 Ii fragment bound to cathepsin L reveals the structural basis for differentiation between cathepsins L and S. (1/1976)

The lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsins S and L play crucial roles in the degradation of the invariant chain during maturation of MHC class II molecules and antigen processing. The p41 form of the invariant chain includes a fragment which specifically inhibits cathepsin L but not S. The crystal structure of the p41 fragment, a homologue of the thyroglobulin type-1 domains, has been determined at 2.0 A resolution in complex with cathepsin L. The structure of the p41 fragment demonstrates a novel fold, consisting of two subdomains, each stabilized by disulfide bridges. The first subdomain is an alpha-helix-beta-strand arrangement, whereas the second subdomain has a predominantly beta-strand arrangement. The wedge shape and three-loop arrangement of the p41 fragment bound to the active site cleft of cathepsin L are reminiscent of the inhibitory edge of cystatins, thus demonstrating the first example of convergent evolution observed in cysteine protease inhibitors. However, the different fold of the p41 fragment results in additional contacts with the top of the R-domain of the enzymes, which defines the specificity-determining S2 and S1' substrate-binding sites. This enables inhibitors based on the thyroglobulin type-1 domain fold, in contrast to the rather non-selective cystatins, to exhibit specificity for their target enzymes.  (+info)

Bile duct epithelial cells exposed to alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate produce a factor that causes neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury in vitro. (2/1976)

The acute hepatotoxicity induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) in rats is manifested as neutrophil-dependent necrosis of bile duct epithelial cells (BDECs) and hepatic parenchymal cells. This hepatotoxicity mirrors that of drug-induced cholangiolitic hepatitis in humans. Since BDECs are primary targets of ANIT-induced toxicity, we hypothesized that after exposure to ANIT, BDECs produce a factor(s) that causes neutrophil chemotaxis and neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury. To test this hypothesis BDECs were isolated from male Sprague Dawley rats and incubated with ANIT (6.25, 12.5, 25, or 50 microM) or vehicle for 24 h. The conditioned medium (CM) was collected and placed in the bottom chamber of a two-chambered chemotaxis system, while isolated neutrophils were placed in the top chamber. Chemotaxis was indicated by neutrophil migration through a membrane to the bottom chamber. CM from BDECs exposed to each concentration of ANIT was chemotactic, whereas CM from vehicle-treated BDECs was not. ANIT alone caused a modest degree of chemotaxis at 50 microM. The conditioned media were added to isolated hepatocytes or to hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures and incubated for 24 h. Hepatocyte toxicity was indicated by alanine aminotransferase release into the culture medium. CM from vehicle-treated BDECs did not cause hepatocyte killing in either hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures or hepatocyte cultures. In contrast, the addition of CM from ANIT-treated BDECs (CM-BDEC-A) to hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures resulted in hepatocyte killing. The same CM was not cytotoxic to hepatocyte cultures devoid of neutrophils. The hepatocyte killing could not be explained by residual ANIT in the CM, which was below the limit of detection (< or = 0.5 microM). The addition of antiproteases afforded protection against neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury induced by CM-BDEC-A. These results indicate that ANIT causes BDECs to release a factor(s) that attracts neutrophils and stimulates them to injure hepatocytes in vitro.  (+info)

Crystal structure of wild-type human procathepsin K. (3/1976)

Cathepsin K is a lysosomal cysteine protease belonging to the papain superfamily. It has been implicated as a major mediator of osteoclastic bone resorption. Wild-type human procathepsin K has been crystallized in a glycosylated and a deglycosylated form. The latter crystals diffract better, to 3.2 A resolution, and contain four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and refined to an R-factor of 0.194. The N-terminal fragment of the proregion forms a globular domain while the C-terminal segment is extended and shows substantial flexibility. The proregion interacts with the enzyme along the substrate binding groove and along the proregion binding loop (residues Ser138-Asn156). It binds to the active site in the opposite direction to that of natural substrates. The overall binding mode of the proregion to cathepsin K is similar to that observed in cathepsin L, caricain, and cathepsin B, but there are local differences that likely contribute to the specificity of these proregions for their cognate enzymes. The main observed difference is in the position of the short helix alpha3p (67p-75p), which occupies the S' subsites. As in the other proenzymes, the proregion utilizes the S2 subsite for anchoring by placing a leucine side chain there, according to the specificity of cathepsin K toward its substrate.  (+info)

The intracellular serpin proteinase inhibitor 6 is expressed in monocytes and granulocytes and is a potent inhibitor of the azurophilic granule protease, cathepsin G. (4/1976)

The monocyte and granulocyte azurophilic granule proteinases elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are implicated in acute and chronic diseases thought to result from an imbalance between the secreted proteinase(s) and circulating serpins such as alpha1-proteinase inhibitor and alpha1-antichymotrypsin. We show here that the intracellular serpin, proteinase inhibitor 6 (PI-6), is present in monocytes, granulocytes, and myelomonocytic cell lines. In extracts from these cells, PI-6 bound an endogenous membrane-associated serine proteinase to form an sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-stable complex. Using antibodies to urokinase, elastase, proteinase 3, or cathepsin G, we demonstrated that the complex contains cathepsin G. Native cathepsin G and recombinant PI-6 formed an SDS-stable complex in vitro similar in size to that observed in the extracts. Further kinetic analysis demonstrated that cathepsin G and PI-6 rapidly form a tight 1:1 complex (ka = 6.8 +/- 0.2 x 10(6) mol/L-1s-1 at 17 degrees C; Ki = 9.2 +/- 0.04 x 10(-10) mol/L). We propose that PI-6 complements alpha1-proteinase inhibitor and alpha1-antichymotrypsin (which control extracellular proteolysis) by neutralizing cathepsin G that leaks into the cytoplasm of monocytes or granulocytes during biosynthesis or phagocytosis. Control of intracellular cathepsin G may be particularly important, because it has recently been shown to activate the proapoptotic proteinase, caspase-7.  (+info)

Cathepsin S required for normal MHC class II peptide loading and germinal center development. (5/1976)

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules acquire antigenic peptides after degradation of the invariant chain (Ii), an MHC class II-associated protein that otherwise blocks peptide binding. Antigen-presenting cells of mice that lack the protease cathepsin S fail to process Ii beyond a 10 kDa fragment, resulting in delayed peptide loading and accumulation of cell surface MHC class II/10 kDa Ii complexes. Although cathepsin S-deficient mice have normal numbers of B and T cells and normal IgE responses, they show markedly impaired antibody class switching to IgG2a and IgG3. These results indicate cathepsin S is a major Ii-processing enzyme in splenocytes and dendritic cells. Its role in humoral immunity critically depends on how antigens access the immune system.  (+info)

Impaired invariant chain degradation and antigen presentation and diminished collagen-induced arthritis in cathepsin S null mice. (6/1976)

Cathepsins have been implicated in the degradation of proteins destined for the MHC class II processing pathway and in the proteolytic removal of invariant chain (Ii), a critical regulator of MHC class II function. Mice lacking the lysosomal cysteine proteinase cathepsin S (catS) demonstrated a profound inhibition of Ii degradation in professional APC in vivo. A marked variation in the generation of MHC class II-bound Ii fragments and presentation of exogenous proteins was observed between B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages lacking catS. CatS-deficient mice showed diminished susceptibility to collagen-induced arthritis, suggesting a potential therapeutic target for regulation of immune responsiveness.  (+info)

Characterization of novel cathepsin K mutations in the pro and mature polypeptide regions causing pycnodysostosis. (7/1976)

Cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease critical for bone remodeling by osteoclasts, was recently identified as the deficient enzyme causing pycnodysostosis, an autosomal recessive osteosclerotic skeletal dysplasia. To investigate the nature of molecular lesions causing this disease, mutations in the cathepsin K gene from eight families were determined, identifying seven novel mutations (K52X, G79E, Q190X, Y212C, A277E, A277V, and R312G). Expression of the first pro region missense mutation in a cysteine protease, G79E, in Pichia pastoris resulted in an unstable precursor protein, consistent with misfolding of the proenzyme. Expression of five mature region missense defects revealed that G146R, A277E, A277V, and R312G precursors were unstable, and no mature proteins or protease activity were detected. The Y212C precursor was activated to its mature form in a manner similar to that of the wild-type cathepsin K. The mature Y212C enzyme retained its dipeptide substrate specificity and gelatinolytic activity, but it had markedly decreased activity toward type I collagen and a cathepsin K-specific tripeptide substrate, indicating that it was unable to bind collagen triple helix. These studies demonstrated the molecular heterogeneity of mutations causing pycnodysostosis, indicated that pro region conformation directs proper folding of the proenzyme, and suggested that the cathepsin K active site contains a critical collagen-binding domain.  (+info)

Vaccination with cathepsin L proteinases and with leucine aminopeptidase induces high levels of protection against fascioliasis in sheep. (8/1976)

The potential of different parasite proteinases for use as vaccine candidates against fascioliasis in sheep was studied by vaccinating animals with the cathepsin L proteinases CL1 and CL2 and with leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) purified from adult flukes. In the first trial, sheep were immunized with CL1 or CL2 and the mean protection levels obtained were 33 and 34%, respectively. Furthermore, a significant reduction in egg output was observed in sheep vaccinated either with CL1 (71%) or with CL2 (81%). The second trial was performed to determine the protective potential of the two cathepsin L proteinases assayed together, as well as in combination with LAP, and of LAP alone. The combination of CL1 and CL2 induced higher levels of protection (60%) than those produced when these enzymes were administered separately. Those sheep that received the cocktail vaccine including CL1, CL2, and LAP were significantly protected (78%) against metacercarial challenge, but vaccination with LAP alone elicited the highest level of protection (89%). All vaccine preparations induced high immunoglobulin G titers which were boosted after the challenge infection, but no correlations between antibody titers and worm burdens were found. However, the sera of those animals vaccinated with LAP contained LAP-neutralizing antibodies. Reduced liver damage, as assessed by the level of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase, was observed in the groups vaccinated with CL1, CL2, and LAP or with LAP alone.  (+info)

Cysteine cathepsin proteases contribute to many normal cellular functions, and their aberrant activity within various cell types can contribute to many diseases, including breast cancer. It is now well accepted that cathepsin proteases have numerous cell-specific functions within the tumor microenvironment that function to promote tumor growth and invasion, such that they may be valid targets for anti-metastatic therapeutic approaches. Using activity-based probes, we have examined the activity and expression of cysteine cathepsins in a mouse model of breast cancer metastasis to bone. In mice bearing highly metastatic tumors, we detected abundant cysteine cathepsin expression and activity in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These immature immune cells have known metastasis-promoting roles, including immunosuppression and osteoclastogenesis, and we assessed the contribution of cysteine cathepsins to these functions. Blocking cysteine cathepsin activity with multiple small-molecule ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cathepsin S activity is detectable in human keratinocytes and is selectively upregulated upon stimulation with interferon-gamma. AU - Schwarz, Gerold. AU - Boehncke, Wolf-Henning. AU - Braun, Manuela. AU - Schröter, Christian J. AU - Burster, Timo. AU - Flad, Thomas. AU - Dressel, Daniela. AU - Weber, Ekkehard. AU - Schmid, Heide. AU - Kalbacher, Hubert. PY - 2002/7. Y1 - 2002/7. N2 - Keratinocytes are an integral component of the skin immune system and function as nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells in pathophysiologic conditions when they express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, e.g., in psoriasis. In order to analyze further this function we investigated the activity of cathepsin S in comparison with cathepsins B and L. These enzymes were suggested to be involved in antigen presentation. Specific catalytic activities of these cathepsins were determined fluorometrically by hydrolysis of a synthetic substrate (Z-Phe-Arg-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin) in ...
Purpose: : To evaluate the utility of Cathepsin S (CATS) as a biomarker for diagnosing Sjögrens Syndrome (SjS), CATS levels in the tears of patients with SjS were compared to CATS levels in patients with other forms of autoimmune diseases and keratoconjuctivitis sicca (KCS). Current markers utilized for diagnosis of SjS include SSA/SBB autoantigens; however, these markers lack sensitivity and specificity in unequivocally diagnosing SjS. Methods: : 111 patients were recruited. Schirmers tests were administered to 41 patients diagnosed with primary or secondary SjS, 23 patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) without secondary SjS, 17 patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) without secondary SjS, 20 patients with other autoimmune diseases without secondary SjS, and 10 patients with KCS. Schirmers strips were placed on ice after tear collection. Tear proteins were subsequently eluted and analyzed within 4 hours for CATS activity using the BioVision Cathepsin S Activity Assay Kits with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lysosomal cathepsins in embryonic programmed cell death. AU - Zuzarte-Luis, Vanessa. AU - Montero, Juan A.. AU - Kawakami, Yasuhiko. AU - Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos. AU - Hurle, Juan M.. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - During limb development, expression of cathepsin D and B genes prefigure the pattern of interdigital apoptosis including the differences between the chick and the webbed digits of the duck. Expression of cathepsin L is associated with advanced stages of degeneration. Analysis of Gremlin-/- and Dkk-/- mouse mutants and local treatments with BMP proteins reveal that the expression of cathepsin B and D genes is regulated by BMP signaling, a pathway responsible for triggering cell death. Further cathepsin D protein is upregulated in the preapoptotic mesenchyme before being released into the cytosol, and overexpression of cathepsin D induces cell death in embryonic tissues by a mechanism including mitochondrial permeabilization and nuclear translocation of AIF. ...
Compounds of the formula (I), wherein R.sub.1 is aryl or biaryl; R.sub.2 is aryl-lower alkyl, biaryl-lower alkyl, benzo-fused cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, bicycloalkyl-lower alkyl, aryloxy-lower alkyl, or aryl-C.sub.2 -C.sub.7 -alkyl in which C.sub.2 -C.sub.7 -alkyl is interrupted by Y; Y is O, S, SO, SO.sub.2, CO or NR.sub.6 ; R.sub.3 is hydrogen or lower alkyl; or R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 combined are C.sub.2 -C.sub.7 -alkylene or C.sub.2 -C.sub.7 -alkylene interrupted by Y; R.sub.4 is hydrogen or lower alkyl; R.sub.5 is hydrogen, optionally substituted lower alkyl, aryl-lower alkyl, biaryl-lower alkyl, cycloalkyl-lower alkyl, bicycloalkyl-lower alkyl, aryloxy-lower alkyl, or aryl-C.sub.2 -C.sub.7 -alkyl in which C.sub.2 -C.sub.7 -alkyl is interrupted by Y; R.sub.6 is hydrogen, lower alkyl or aryl-lower alkyl; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, which are useful as cysteine cathepsin inhibitors ##STR1##
Introduction: The Cathepsins are a group of lysosomal thiol proteinases or endopeptidases found in extracts of various tissues.Cathepsins, with the…
Cathepsins are intracellular proteinases that hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins. These enzyme have been implicated in the tenderization of aging beef, with the deterioration of radiation-stabilized meats on storage, and in the spoilage of fish prior to processing. Hence, the cathepsins of edible muscles are of concern to the food scientist. The purpose of the research reported herein was to develop procedures for the purification of the cathepsin from salmon muscle. The availability of a purified preparation of salmon muscle cathepsins should stimulate interest and research in the characterization of these enzymes and lead to better means for the control of catheptic activity in fish muscle. Results from these investigations indicate that salmon muscle cathepsins exhibit pH optima at 3.7, 6.9, and 8.5 when Folins reagent was used to determine the products of protein hydrolysis; whereas, pH optima at 3.7 and 7.3 were obtained when the products of protein hydrolysis were determined by ...
Complexes of gold( I) have long been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis although the precise biological targets of gold are not well understood. One intriguing therapeutic target of Au( I) is the cathepsin family of lysosomal cysteine proteases. Here, we present the inhibition of cathepsin B by a known Au( I)-based drug and a series of derivatives. The complexes investigated were reversible, competitive inhibitors with IC50 values ranging from 0.3 to 250 mu M, depending on the substituents around the Au( I). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cathepsin S Is Involved in Th17 Differentiation Through the Upregulation of IL-6 by Activating PAR-2 after Systemic Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis. AU - Dekita, Masato. AU - Wu, Zhou. AU - Ni, Junjun. AU - Zhang, Xinwen. AU - Liu, Yicong. AU - Yan, Xu. AU - Nakanishi, Hiroshi. AU - Takahashi, Ichiro. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Positive links have been found between periodontitis and numerous diseases in humans via persistent inflammation throughout the body. However, the main factors responsible for maintaining this pro-inflammatory condition are poorly understood. The spleen, the largest secondary immune organ, is a central hub regulating the immune response/inflammation due to the dendritic cell (DC) response to CD4(+) T cell subtype differentiation, and lysosomal proteinase cathepsin S (CatS) is known to be involved in DC functions. In the present study, we found that CatS-induced IL-6 production by splenic DCs subsequently promotes Th17 ...
AbstractCardiovascular disease is responsible for the majority of deaths in the developed world. Particularly in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the imbalance of calcium and phosphate may accelerate both vascular and valve inflammation and calcification. One in two patients with CKD are reported as dying from cardiovascular causes due to the resulting acceleration in the development of atherosclerosis plaques. In addition, CKD patients on hemodialysis are prone to aortic valve calcification and often need valve replacement before they undergo kidney transplantation. The lysosomal proteases, cathepsins, are composed of 11 cysteine members (cathepsin B, C, F, H, K, L, O, S, V, W, and Z), as well as serine proteases cathepsin A and G, which cleave peptide bonds with serine as the amino acid, and aspartyl proteases D and E, which use an activated water molecule bound to aspartate to break peptide substrate. Cysteine proteases, also known as thiol proteases, degrade protein via the deprotonation
The first part of this thesis addresses the design and synthesis of amine building blocks accomplished by applying two different synthetic procedures, both of which were developed using solid-phase chemistry. Chapter 1 presents the first of these methods, entailing a practical solid-phase parallel synthesis route to N-monoalkylated aminopiperidines and aminopyrrolidines achieved by selective reductive alkylation of primary and/or secondary amines. Solid-phase NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the reactions for which a new pulse sequence was developed. The second method, reported in Chapter 2, involves a novel approach to the synthesis of secondary amines starting from reactive alkyl halides and azides. The convenient solid-phase protocol that was devised made use of the Staudinger reaction in order to accomplish highly efficient alkylations of N-alkyl phosphimines or N-aryl phosphimines with reactive alkyl halides.. The second part of the thesis describes the design and synthesis of three ...
Cathepsin S, Human, Recombinant, E. coli, is prepared without a tag or fusion protein. A major lysosomal cysteine proteinase with high specific activity. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
When the researchers combined the two cathepsins and allowed them to attack samples of elastin, they expected to see increased degradation of the protein. What they saw, however, was not much more damage than cathepsin K did by itself. Platt at first believed the experiment was flawed, and asked Barry - an undergraduate student in his lab who specializes in modeling - to examine what possible conditions could account for the experimental result. Barrys modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the elastin - a protein essential in arteries and the cardiovascular system.. That theoretical result led to additional experiments in which the researchers measured a direct correlation between an increase in the amount of cathepsin S added to the experiment and a reduction in the degradation of collagen. By increasing the amount of cathepsin S ten-fold over the amount used in the original experiment, Platt and Barry were able to ...
Human cysteine cathepsins constitute an 11-membered family of proteases responsible for degradation of proteins in cellular endosomal-lysosomal compartments as such, they play important roles in antigen processing, cellular stress signaling, autophagy, and senescence. Moreover, for many years these …
Cathepsin X; the only papain-like lysosomal cysteine peptidase exhibiting carboxymonopeptidase activity. It can also act as a carboxydipeptidase, like cathepsin B, but has been shown to preferentially cleave substrates through a monopeptidyl carboxypeptidase pathway. The propeptide region of cathepsin X, the shortest among papain-like peptidases, is covalently attached to the active site cysteine in the inactive form of the enzyme. Little is known about the biological function of cathepsin X. Some studies point to a role in early tumorigenesis. A more recent study indicates that cathepsin X expression is restricted to immune cells suggesting a role in phagocytosis and the regulation of the immune response. ...
Principal Investigator:KATUNUMA Nobuhiko, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1990, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Developmental Scientific Research (B)., Research Field:Pathological medical chemistry
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Cathepsin Inhibitor 1 is an inhibitor of Cathepsin (L, L2, S, K, B) with pIC50 of 7.9, 6.7, 6.0, 5.5 and 5.2, respectively. Quality confirmed by NMR & HPLC. See customer reviews, validations & product citations.
Complete information for CTSS gene (Protein Coding), Cathepsin S, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The catalytic activation of some caspases and cathepsins in human and mouse monocytes undergoing M-CSF-driven differentiation generates 2 NPM1 fragments that contribute to the differentiated phenotype by decreasing the migration, motility, and bacteria phagocytosis capabilities of the resting cells. As soon as the macrophage is activated by LPS, the proteolytic process is stopped, and the native NPM1 negatively regulates cytokine and chemokine gene expression and their secretion; that is, the full-length NPM1 is a transcriptional corepressor that maintains the right amount of cytokine gene expression.. Proteolysis of cellular components by cysteine proteases, including various combinations of caspases and cathepsins, has been associated with specific pathways of cell differentiation.23,24 Caspases and cathepsins are activated along M-CSF-driven differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes.2,3,25 One of the protease targets in this differentiation context is NPM1,5 the proteolysis of which ...
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Mouse monoclonal Cathepsin B antibody [CB131] validated for IHC and tested in Human. Referenced in 3 publications. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full…
Mouse Polyclonal Anti-Cathepsin A/Lysosomal Carboxypeptidase A Antibody. Validated: WB. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
J:162893 Baston-Buest DM, Schanz A, Buest S, Fischer JC, Kruessel JS, Hess AP, The embryos cystatin C and F expression functions as a protective mechanism against the maternal proteinase cathepsin S in mice. Reproduction. 2010 Apr;139(4):741-8 ...
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Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Deficiency for the cysteine protease cathepsin L promotes tumor progression in mouse epidermis. AU - Dennemärker, J.. AU - Lohmüller, T.. AU - Mayerle, J.. AU - Tacke, M.. AU - Lerch, M. M.. AU - Coussens, L. M.. AU - Peters, C.. AU - Reinheckel, T.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Ulrike Reif and Susanne Dollwet-Mack for excellent technical assistance and Dr Marie Follo for comments on the paper. The work was supported by a grant from the Deutsche Krebshilfe (Re106977) and in part by the Excellence Initiative of the German Federal and State Governments (EXC 294) and the European Union Framework Program (FP7 MICRO-ENVIMET No 201279).. PY - 2010/3. Y1 - 2010/3. N2 - To define a functional role for the endosomal/lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin L (Ctsl) during squamous carcinogenesis, we generated mice harboring a constitutive Ctsl deficiency in addition to epithelial expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 oncogenes (human cytokeratin 14 (K14)-HPV16). We found ...
Cathepsin Z, also called cathepsin X or cathepsin P, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSZ gene. It is a member of the cysteine cathepsin protease family, which has 11 members. As one of the 11 cathepsins, cathepsin Z contains distinctive features from others. Cathepsin Z has been reported involved in cancer malignancy and inflammation. The CTSZ gene is located at 20q13.32 on chromosome 20, consisting of 6 exons. At least two transcript variants of this gene have been found, but the full-length nature of only one of them has been determined. Cathepsin Z is characterized by an unusual and unique 3-amino acid insertion in the highly conserved region between the glutamine of the putative oxynion hole and the active site cysteine. The pro-region of cathepsin Z shares no significant similarity with other cathepsin family sequences. It contains only 41 amino acid residues without the conserved motif of ERFNIN or GNFD found in other cysteine proteinases. Besides, the proregion sequence ...
The aim of the work was to identify and characterize the cysteine proteinases of bone tissue, as these enzymes appear necessary for bone resorption. Three cysteine-dependent proteolytic activities were separated from a homogenate of mouse calvaria by a fractionation procedure involving (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The first two are typical cathepsins B and L with respect to (1) their reactivity with anti-(cathepsin B) and anti-(cathepsin L) antibodies respectively, (2) their relative rate constants for inhibition by benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Phe-CHN2 and L-3-carboxy-trans-2,3-epoxypropionyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanid ino)butane and (3) their enzymic properties, such as the higher activities of cathepsin L against collagen and gelatin as compared with cathepsin B, and the fact that benzyloxycarbonyl-Arg-Arg 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamide is hydrolysed only by cathepsin B. Cathepsin L was mainly recovered in its precursor form, as indicated by its apparent 40 kDa ...
SID 26681509 is a reversible and potent human cathepsin L inhibitor. SID 26681509 displays no inhibitory activity of cathepsin G.
Apoptosis can be mediated by mechanisms other than the traditional caspase-mediated cleavage cascade. There is growing recognition that alternative proteolytic enzymes such as the lysosomal cathepsin proteases may initiate or propagate proapoptotic signals. Cathepsins are lysosomal enzymes that are also used as sensitive markers in various toxicological investigations. The Cathepsin D Activity Assay kit is a fluorescence-based assay that utilizes the preferred cathepsin D substrate sequence GKPILFFRLK(Dnp)-D-R-NH2) labeled with MCA. Cathepsin D will cleave the synthetic substrate to release the quenched fluorescent group MCA, which can then easily be measured using a fluorometer or fluorescence plate reader at Ex/Em = 328/460 nm. The relative efficacy of test inhibitors are compared to the positive control inhibitor, Pepstatin A (IC50 , 0.1 nM). The Cathepsin D assay is simple, straightforward, and can be adapted to 96-well plate assays and is suitable for high throughput screening (HTS). ...
Cathepsin K, a cysteine protease predominantly expressed in osteoclasts, is a major drug target for the treatment of osteoporosis. Recent findings, however, indicate that cathepsin K is also involved in non-skeletal metabolism. The development of fibrotic phenotypes in lung and skin is a concern for cathepsin K inhibitors presently evaluated in clinical trials. Cathepsin K is expressed in lung tissue and has been implicated in lung fibrosis. However, little is known about the role of cathepsin K in airway development and its effect on TGF-β1 degradation. We investigated the effects of cathepsin K-deficiency on alterations in airway integrity, extracellular matrix composition, and TGF-β1 expression and degradation. Lung homogenates of wild-type and cathepsin K-deficient mice were used to evaluate their contents of collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and TGF-β1. The accessibility of TGF-β1 to cathepsin K-mediated degradation was determined in vitro and lung fibroblast proliferations in wild-type and
Looking for online definition of Cathepsin S in the Medical Dictionary? Cathepsin S explanation free. What is Cathepsin S? Meaning of Cathepsin S medical term. What does Cathepsin S mean?
Cathepsin F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSF gene. Cathepsins are papain family cysteine proteinases that represent a major component of the lysosomal proteolytic system. In general, cathepsins contain a signal sequence, followed by a propeptide and then a catalytically active mature region. The very long (251-amino acid residues) proregion of the cathepsin F precursor contains a C-terminal domain similar to the pro-segment of cathepsin L-like enzymes, a 50-residue flexible linker peptide, and an N-terminal domain predicted to adopt a cystatin-like fold. The cathepsin F proregion is unique within the papain family cysteine proteases in that it contains this additional N-terminal segment predicted to share structural similarities with cysteine protease inhibitors of the cystatin superfamily. This cystatin-like domain contains some of the elements known to be important for inhibitory activity. CTSF encodes a predicted protein of 484 amino acids that contains a 19-residue signal ...
Global Markets Directs, Cathepsin K (Cathepsin O or Cathepsin O2 or Cathepsin X or CTSK or EC - Pipeline Review, H1 2019, provides
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cathepsins in the osteoclast. AU - Goto, Tetsuya. AU - Yamaza, Takayoshi. AU - Tanaka, Teruo. PY - 2003/12/1. Y1 - 2003/12/1. N2 - The mechanism by which bone collagen and other organic components are degraded by the osteoclast during osteoclastic bone resorption was unclear until the 1980s. Studies conducted since the early 1990s have identified lysosomal proteases, mainly cathepsins that are active at low pH, involved in osteoclastic bone resorption. Several cathepsins, such as cathepsins C, D, B, E, G and L, were initially demonstrated to take part in the degradation of organic bone matrix in osteoclasts. Cathepsin K, which has high proteolytic activity and localizes primarily in osteoclasts, was discovered in 1995. This first tissue-specific cathepsin was associated with pycnodysostosis, a genetic disorder observable as an osteopetrotic phenotype in cathepsin K-deficient mice. Cystatin C, an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine proteases, regulates the activity of cathepsin K. ...
We infused microgram quantities of active or inactive PMN elastase and cathepsin G into the renal arteries of rats. Both active and inactive elastase localized to the glomerular capillary wall equally, and in amounts that could be achieved physiologically in GN. However, elastase-perfused rats developed marked proteinuria (196 +/- 32 mg/24 h) compared with control rats receiving inactive elastase (19 +/- 2 mg/24 h, p less than 0.005). Similar results were seen with active and inactive cathepsin G. Neither elastase nor cathepsin G infusion was associated with histologic evidence of glomerular injury. We conclude that the PMN neutral serine proteinases elastase and cathepsin G can mediate marked changes in glomerular permeability in vivo due to their proteolytic activity, and thus, may contribute to the proteinuria observed in PMN-dependent models of GN. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in Activity of Cysteine Cathepsins B and L in Brain Structures of Mice with Aggressive and Depressive-Like Behavior Formed under Conditions of Social Stress. AU - Zhanaeva, S. Ya. AU - Rogozhnikova, A. A.. AU - Alperina, E. L.. AU - Gevorgyan, M. M.. AU - Idov, G. V.. PY - 2018/3/1. Y1 - 2018/3/1. N2 - We studied activity of lysosomal cysteine proteases, cathepsins B and L, in brain structures (frontal cortex, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) of C57Bl/6J mice with aggressive and depressive-like behavior formed under conditions of chronic social stress (repeated experience of victories and defeats within 20 days). Mice with depressive-like behavior showed increased activity of cathepsin В in the hypothalamus and nucleus caudatus and increased activity of cathepsin L in the hippocampus compared to control animals not subjected to agonistic confrontations. In mice with aggressive behavior, protease activity in the studied brain structures was not changed. In ...
Podosomes mediate cell migration and invasion by coordinating the reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and focal matrix degradation. MMP and serine proteases have been found to function at podosomes. The lysosomal cysteine cathepsins, a third major class of matrix-degrading enzymes involved in tumor invasion and tissue remodeling, have yet to be linked to podosomes with the exception of cathepsin K in osteoclasts. Using inhibitors and shRNA-mediated depletion, we show that cathepsin B participates in podosomes-mediated focal matrix degradation and invasion in v-Src-transformed fibroblasts. We observed that lysosomal marker LAMP-1 localized at the center of podosome rosettes protruding into extracellular matrix using confocal microscopy. Time-lapse live-cell imaging revealed that lysosomal vesicles moved to and fused with podosomes. Disruption of lysosomal pH gradient with Bafilomycin A1, chloroquine, or ammonium chloride greatly enhanced the formation of podosomes and increased the matrix degradation.
CTSL3P (ENST00000354530.2) at chr9:87772915-87786884 - Homo sapiens cathepsin L family member 3, pseudogene (CTSL3P), non-coding RNA. (from RefSeq NR_027917) CTSL (ENST00000343150.10) at chr9:87726119-87731469 - Homo sapiens cathepsin L (CTSL), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_001912) CTSL (ENST00000495822.1) at chr9:87726134-87731393 - cathepsin L (from HGNC CTSL) CTSL (ENST00000482054.1) at chr9:87726140-87729680 - cathepsin L (from HGNC CTSL) CTSL3P (ENST00000412179.5) at chr9:87772453-87774299 - cathepsin L family member 3, pseudogene (from HGNC CTSL3P) CTSL (ENST00000375894.9) at chr9:87726114-87731073 - cathepsin L (from HGNC CTSL) CTSL (ENST00000342020.5) at chr9:87726140-87728997 - Belongs to the peptidase C1 family. (from UniProt Q5T8F0) CTSL (ENST00000340342.10) at chr9:87726109-87731386 - Homo sapiens cathepsin L (CTSL), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_145918) CTDSPL2 (ENST00000558966.5) at chr15:44427793-44524543 - Probable phosphatase (By similarity). (from ...
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant human Cathepsin L protein (ab81780). Please download our general protocols booklet
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Abundance of MMPs and cysteine cathepsins in caries-affected dentin. AU - Vidal, C. M.P.. AU - Tjäderhane, L.. AU - Scaffa, P. M.. AU - Tersariol, I. L.. AU - Pashley, David Henry. AU - Nader, H. B.. AU - Nascimento, F. D.. AU - Carrilho, M. R.. PY - 2014/3/1. Y1 - 2014/3/1. N2 - Degradation of dentin matrix components within caries dentin has been correlated with the activity of host-derived proteases, such as matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins (CTs). Since this relationship has not been fully established, we hypothesized that the abundance of MMPs and CTs in caries-affected dentin must be higher than in intact dentin. To test this premise, we obtained 5 slices (200 μm) from 5 intact teeth and from 5 caries-affected teeth (1 slice/tooth) and individually incubated them with primary antibodies for CT-B, CT-K, MMP-2, or MMP-9. Negative controls were incubated with pre-immune serum. Specimens were washed and re-incubated with the respective fluorescent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cathepsin G activity lowers plasma LDL and reduces atherosclerosis. AU - Wang, J.. AU - Tang, T.-T.. AU - Öörni, K.. AU - Wu, W.. AU - Liu, C.. AU - Secco, B.. AU - Tia, V.. AU - Sukhova, G.K.. AU - Fernandes, C.. AU - Lesner, A.. AU - Kovanen, P.T.. AU - Libby, P.. AU - Cheng, X.. AU - Shi, G.-P.. N1 - Cited By :7 Export Date: 30 October 2017 Volume: Proceeding volume: PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. U2 - 10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.07.026. DO - 10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.07.026. M3 - Artikkeli. VL - 1842. SP - 2174. EP - 2183. JO - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular Basis of Disease. JF - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular Basis of Disease. SN - 0925-4439. IS - 11. ER - ...
Cathepsin S (catS) and cathepsin L (catL) mediate late stages of invariant chain (Ii) degradation in discrete antigen-presenting cell types. Macrophages (Mϕs) a
Vectors based on different serotypes of adeno-associated virus hold great promise for human gene therapy, based on their unique tissue tropisms and distinct immunological profiles. A particularly interesting candidate is AAV8, which can efficiently and rapidly transduce a wide range of tissues in vivo. To further unravel the mechanisms behind AAV8 transduction, we used yeast two-hybrid analyses to screen a mouse liver complementary DNA library for cellular proteins capable of interacting with the viral capsid proteins. In total, we recovered approximately 700 clones, comprising over 300 independent genes. Sequence analyses revealed multiple hits for over 100 genes, including two encoding the endosomal cysteine proteases cathepsins B and L. Notably, these two proteases also physically interacted with the corresponding portion of the AAV2 capsid in yeast, but not with AAV5. We demonstrate that cathepsins B and L are essential for efficient AAV2- and AAV8-mediated transduction of mammalian cells, and
Cathepsin O Goat anti-Human, Polyclonal, R&D Systems™ 100μg; Unlabeled Cathepsin O Goat anti-Human, Polyclonal, R&D Systems™ Primary Antibodies...
|i|Background|/i|. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Cathepsin S (CTSS), a cysteine protease, is involved in the inflammatory activity in T2D and hypoxia conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether CTSS could be involved in the inflammatory reaction of OSA in patients with T2D. |i|Methods|/i|. We included 158 participants in this study matched for age, gender, and body mass index in 4 groups (control, non-OSA&T2D, OSA&non-T2D, and OSA&T2D). After overnight polysomnography, we collected the clinical data including anthropometrical characteristics, blood pressure, and fasting blood samples in the morning. Plasma CTSS concentration was evaluated using the human Magnetic Luminex Assay. |i|Results|/i|. Compared with the control group, both the non-OSA&T2D group and the OSA&non-T2D group showed higher CTSS levels. Plasma CTSS expression was significantly increased in subjects with OSA&T2D compared to subjects with
Cathepsin B, H, L and D activities in liver lysosomes were compared between species. Although cathepsin B and D were detected in bovine, pig, chicken and rat liver, striking species differences were evident for cathepsin H and L. Cathepsin L activity was particularly high in chicken lysosomal extracts, but could not be detected in bovine and pig extracts. Whereas there was no significant cathepsin H activity in bovine extracts, rat liver lysosomal extracts contained large amounts of cathepsin H activity. ...
Cathepsin L antibody [2H7] (cathepsin L1) for ELISA, WB. Anti-Cathepsin L mAb (GTX50040) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
|p||strong|CA-074|/strong|, a specific cathepsin B inhibitor, also abolished the neurotoxic effects caused by Abeta42-activated BV2 cell [1]. Co-treatment of cultures with the cathepsin B inhibitors CA-074 or Z-FA-FMK suppressed the cytostatic effects of
There is considerable interest in investigating conserved roles for protease in the Hypersensitive Response (HR), a plant defence response which shares some morphological characteristics with apoptosis. a cysteine protease, with homology to mammalian Cathepsin B proteases, was isolated in a screen for genes up-regulated in the HR. The focus of this current research is to examine the roles of Cathepsin B genes in the model plant Arabidopsis. There are three Cathepsin B homologues in Arabidopsis for which knock-out lines were isolated and genetically crossed using a combination of T-DNA insert lines and RNAi to generate double and triple mutants. These genes were found to act redundantly with triple mutants showing increased susceptibility to both virulent and avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Moreover, these genes are also involved in non-host resistance to fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici, where they positively regulate the HR but negatively regulate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficacy of calcium supplementation for human bone health by mass spectrometry profiling and cathepsin K measurement in plasma samples. AU - Zhao, Yingchun. AU - Cao, Rui. AU - Ma, Danjun. AU - Zhang, Hengwei. AU - Lappe, Joan. AU - Recker, Robert R.. AU - Xiao, Gary Guishan. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Osteoporosis is a common disease among older people, especially postmenopausal women. Calcium supplementation is effective in decreasing the occurrence of osteoporosis. We tested the effect of different calcium sources (i.e., calcium carbonate chew, milk mineral chew, milk drink and placebo chew) by direct mass spectrometry (dMS) profiling and cathepsin K measurement in the serum of subjects. The dMS method is promising for plasma biomarker discovery, and cathepsin K level in the plasma is an indicator for osteoporosis. Our result shows that dMS detected characteristic ion peaks after different calcium supplement interventions; ion peak 4281.0 m/z was commonly inhibited by ...
A pyridazin-4-one fragment 4 (hCatS IC(50)=170 microM) discovered through Tethering was modeled into cathepsin S and predicted to overlap in S2 with the tetrahydropyridinepyrazole core of a previously disclosed series of CatS inhibitors. This fragment served as a template to design pyridazin-3-one 1 …
Mouse monoclonal Cathepsin K antibody (Clone 3F9) validated for WB, IHC and ELISA, specific for Human Cathepsin K, produced in vitro, azide-free.
We synthesized one series of fluorogenic substrates for cathepsin B derived from the peptide Bz-F-R-MCA (Bz = benzoyl, MCA = 7-methyl-coumarin amide) substituting Phe at the P(2) position by non-natural basic amino acids that combine a positively charged group with aromatic or aliphatic radicals at the same side chain, namely, 4-aminomethyl-phenylalanine, 4-guanidine-phenylalanine. 4-aminomethyl-N-isopropyl-phenylalanine. 3-pyridyl-alanine, 4-piperidinyl-alanine, 4-amino-methyl-cyclohexyl-alanine. 4-aminocyclohexyl-alanine, and N(im)-dimethyl-histidine. Bz-F-R-MCA was the best substrate for cathepsin B but also hydrolyzed Bz-R-R-MCA with lower efficiency, since the protease accepts Arg at St due to the presence of Glu(245) at the bottom of this subsite. the presence of the basic non-natural amino acids at the Pt position of the substrate partially restored the catalytic efficiency of cathepsin B. All the kinetic parameters for hydrolysis of the peptides described in this paper are in accordance ...
Recombinant Human Cathepsin B /CTSB Protein, APP secretase (APPS), belongs to peptidase C1 family, produced in human 293 cells (HEK293).
Enzymatic activity of cathepsin B, cathepsin B and L, plasmin, trypsin and collagenase in hepatocellular carcinoma]. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2002 Jul; 108(1):653-62 ...
Objectives. Contemporary adhesives lose their bond strength to dentin regardless of the bonding system used. This loss relates to the hydrolysis of collagen matrix of the hybrid layers. the preservation of the collagen matrix integrity is a key issue in the attempts to improve the dentin bonding durability.Methods. Dentin contains collagenolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins, which are responsible for the hydrolytic degradation of collagen matrix in the bonded interface.Results. the identities, roles and function of collagenolytic enzymes in mineralized dentin has been gathered only within last 15 years, but they have already been demonstrated to have an important role in dental hard tissue pathologies, including the degradation of the hybrid layer. Identifying responsible enzymes facilitates the development of new, more efficient methods to improve the stability of dentin-adhesive bond and durability of bond strength.Significance. Understanding the nature and ...
Cathepsin B (CtsB) is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase that is specifically translocated to the extracellular milieu during cancer progression. The development of a lipidated CtsB inhibitor incorporated into the envelope of a liposomal nanocarrier (LNC-NS-629) is described. Ex vivo and in vivo studies confirmed selective targeting and internalization of LNC-NS-629 by tumor and stromal cells, thus validating CtsB targeting as a highly promising approach to cancer diagnosis and treatment ...
PC-AssaySubmit ::= { assay descr { aid { id 832, version 2 }, aid-source db { name PCMD, source-id str CAT_G_IC50 }, name Cathepsin G dose-response confirmation, description { Screening Center: Penn Center for Molecular Discovery, Center Affiliation: University of Pennsylvania, Network: Molecular Library Screening Center Network (MLSCN), Assay Provider: Scott Diamond, University of Pennsylvania, Grant number: MH076406-01, , Cathepsin G (EC is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease that is secreted from neutrophils. Disregulated cathepsin G activity is implicated in the progression of various chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and chronic pulmonary obstructive disease. Thus cathepsin G inhibitors represent useful probes to further elucidate the role of this enzyme in inflammation and may provide a starting point for the development of novel therapeutic agents., , A high-throughput screen for cathepsin G inhibitors was designed as an end-point assay ...
Targeting EMT with a small-molecule inhibitor may be important in therapeutics, since it is increasingly being proven that EMT plays an integral role in cell migration, invasion, and metastasis (10, 11). Cat K and Cat S inhibitors have been tried in clinical trials, with many side effects and little progress (12, 13). However, no Cat L inhibitor has been evaluated in clinical trials. Our study was a preclinical mechanistic study to evaluate the feasibility of using the Cat L small-molecule inhibitor Z-FY-CHO in prostate and breast cancer cells that display EMT and are thus more aggressive. In this study, we showed that mesenchymal cells with high Snail expression displayed increased nuclear Cat L expression as well as increased expression of nuclear p110 and p90 isoforms of CUX1, which indicates higher Cat L activity within the nucleus since CUX1 is a substrate of Cat L in the nucleus (6). So far, only few substrates of nuclear cysteine peptidases have been identified, namely, CUX1, the histones ...
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Cathepsin G binds to human lymphocytes.: Cathepsin G is a serine protease located in the azurophil granules of neutrophils. We have shown previously that cathep
Cathepsin G ELISA Kits für viele Reaktivitäten. Human, Säugetier, Maus und weitere. Cathepsin G ELISA Kits vergleichen und bestellen.
Canine OS cells contain preformed CatK within cytoplasmic vesicles. In OS cells, TGFβ1 induced the secretion of CatK, which degraded bone-derived type I collagen in vitro. CatK concentrations were higher in dogs with OS than healthy dogs (11.3 ± 5.2 pmol/L versus 8.1 ± 5.0 pmol/L, P = .03). In a subset of dogs with OS, pretreatment CatK concentrations gradually decreased after palliative radiation and antiresorptive treatment, from 9.3 ± 3.2 pmol/L to 5.0 ± 3.1 pmol/L, P = .03. ...
Cathepsin D Substrate I - Calbiochem Useful as a substrate for the determination of cathepsin D activity. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
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Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
Cathepsin B is an enzymatic protein belonging to the peptidase (or protease) families. In humans, it is coded by the CTSB gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a lysosomal cysteine protease composed of a dimer of disulfide-linked heavy and light chains, both produced from a single protein precursor. It is a member of the peptidase C1 family. At least five transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.
Certain cysteine proteases, such as cathepsin L (Ctsl), have been involved in yolk processing mechanisms in oocytes and embryos of lower vertebrates. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), three different ctsl genes, ctsla, ctslb and ctslc, have been found in the genome, but their pattern of expression, as well as information on which the encoded enzymes are potentially involved in yolk absorption during embryogenesis, is unknown. Here, phylogenetic and gene structure analysis revealed that zebrafish ctsla and ctslb genes are similar, showing a highly conserved structure in comparison with human ctsl, while ctslc presents different exon organization together with an earlier evolution. Thus, ctslc appears to be evolved from a common ancestral ctsl-like gene, possibly through an early duplication event, whereas ctsla and ctslb may be originated from a second duplication mechanism. Zebrafish ctsla, ctslb and ctslc also showed different patterns of mRNA expression during embryogenesis and in adult tissues. ...
CA-074 methyl ester is a cell-permeable analog of CA-074 that acts as an irreversible cathepsin B inhibitor. CA-074 methyl ester is reported to inhibit bone resorption in rodent models and shown to inhibit B16 melanoma cell invasion in vitro.
In the present study, screening for increased cathepsin S (Cat S) expression levels was performed in MHCC97-H cells and various other hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. A pcDNA3.1-small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-Cat S vector was stably transfected into MHCC97-H cells (shRNA/MHCC97-H) in order to knockdown the expression of Cat S. The effects resulting from the inhibition of Cat S-induced proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis by melittin were examined using cell proliferation, cell viability, flat plate colony formation, migration, wound healing, Transwell migration and ELISA assays. In order to substantiate the evidence for melittin-mediated inhibition of Cat S-induced angiogenesis, Cat S RNA was transfected into primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (Cat S-HUVECs) to induce overexpression of the Cat S gene ...
Of these hydrolytic enzymes, cathepsin K is of most importance. Cathepsin K and other cathepsins[edit]. Cathepsin K is a ... Several other cathepsins are expressed in osteoclasts including cathepsins B, C, D, E, G, and L. The function of these cysteine ... characterised by a lack of functional cathepsin K expression. Knockout studies of cathepsin K in mice lead to an osteopetrotic ... Studies on cathepsin L knockout mice have been mixed, with a report of reduced trabecular bone in homozygous and heterozygous ...
"Cathepsins as transcriptional activators? Developmental Cell 2004, 6(5):610-1. Goulet B, and Nepveu A. "Complete and Limited ...
... s were discovered in 1884 by Albrecht Kossel.[17] The word "histone" dates from the late 19th century and is derived from the German word "Histon", a word itself of uncertain origin - perhaps from the Greek histanai or histos. In the early 1960s, before the types of histones were known and before histones were known to be highly conserved across taxonomically diverse organisms, James F. Bonner and his collaborators began a study of these proteins that were known to be tightly associated with the DNA in the nucleus of higher organisms.[18] Bonner and his postdoctoral fellow Ru Chih C. Huang showed that isolated chromatin would not support RNA transcription in the test tube, but if the histones were extracted from the chromatin, RNA could be transcribed from the remaining DNA.[19] Their paper became a citation classic.[20] Paul T'so and James Bonner had called together a World Congress on Histone Chemistry and Biology in 1964, in which it became clear that there was no consensus on the ...
... , Histones & Cathepsin; PMAP The Proteolysis Map-animation [ Recent chromatin publications and news] Protocol for in ...
BACE1, BACE2 Cathepsin D Cathepsin E Chymosin (or "rennin") Napsin-A Nepenthesin Pepsin Presenilin Renin BACE1; BACE2; CTSD; ... Eukaryotic aspartic proteases include pepsins, cathepsins, and renins. They have a two-domain structure, arising from ancestral ... Cathepsin D". In Rawlings ND, Salvesen G (eds.). Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes (Third ed.). Academic Press. pp. 54-63. doi: ...
... collagenases such as cathepsin B1; and hyaluronidase. PSGAG inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which is released upon ...
Cathepsin A Breddam, K. (1986). "Serine carboxypeptidases. A review". Carlsberg Res. Commun. 51: 83-128. doi:10.1007/bf02907561 ... Miller JJ, Changaris DG, Levy RS (December 1992). "Purification, subunit structure and inhibitor profile of cathepsin A". ... Carboxypeptidase C (EC, carboxypeptidase Y, serine carboxypeptidase I, cathepsin A, lysosomal protective protein, ...
Mediation by cathepsin G has been suggested. The treatment of RAS usually involves administering dexamethasone IV, with the ...
Hook G, Yu J, Toneff T, Kindy M, Hook V. "Brain pyroglutamate amyloid-β is produced by cathepsin B and is reduced by the ... Kumar P, Nachagari D, Fields C, Franks J, Albritton LM (October 2007). "Host cell cathepsins potentiate Moloney murine leukemia ... reduces brain amyloid-β and improves memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease animal models by inhibiting cathepsin B, but not ... and Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Epoxysuccinyl-Peptide Derivatives as Cathepsin B Inhibitors". Biological & ...
Im E, Kazlauskas A (March 2007). "The role of cathepsins in ocular physiology and pathology". Experimental Eye Research. 84 (3 ... PMID 17322367.[dead link] Gacko M, Chyczewski L, Chrostek L (1999). "Distribution, activity and concentration of cathepsin B ...
Cathepsin E. TALE homeodomain transcription factors. Hydrocortisone. Since keratinocyte differentiation inhibits keratinocyte ... "The role of cathepsin E in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes". Biological Chemistry. 392 (6): 571-85. doi:10.1515/BC. ...
Cathepsin D is involved in CLN10. DNA analysis can be used to help confirm the diagnosis of Batten disease. When the mutation ...
SDF stops the degradation of cysteine cathepsins, which are also responsible for dentine collagen degradation. A systematic ... "The inhibitory effects of silver diamine fluorides on cysteine cathepsins". primary. Journal of Dentistry. 42 (3): 329-35. doi: ...
... these include cathepsin L, papain, and procaricain. It forms an alpha-helical domain that runs through the substrate-binding ...
The lysosome contains a large number of proteases such as cathepsins. The ubiquitin-mediated process is selective. Proteins ...
Lushbaugh WB, Hofbauer AF, Pittman FE (June 1985). "Entamoeba histolytica: purification of cathepsin B". Experimental ...
The protein is able to form a dimer stabilized by noncovalent forces, inhibiting papain and cathepsins l, h and b. The protein ... 1994). "Cathepsin B activity in human lung tumor cell lines: ultrastructural localization, pH sensitivity, and inhibitor status ... 1988). "Cathepsin D inactivates cysteine proteinase inhibitors, cystatins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 154 (2): 765-72. doi ... Cystatin B has been shown to interact with Cathepsin B. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000160213 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ...
These cysteine proteases include calpain, caspase, and cathepsin. These three proteins are examples of detectable signs of ...
It is an inhibitor of cathepsin K, an enzyme involved in bone resorption. The drug was developed by Merck & Co. The phase III ... Le Gall, C. L.; Bonnelye, E.; Clézardin, P. (2008). "Cathepsin K inhibitors as treatment of bone metastasis". Current Opinion ... February 2008). "The discovery of odanacatib (MK-0822), a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18 (3 ...
... α: cathepsin L-like protein in sponge biosilica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95(11), pp.6234- ... Silicateins are homologous to the cysteine protease cathepsin. In sponges, the silicatein enzymes reside in the axial filaments ...
Major sites of cleavage by cathepsins B, D, and L". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (30): 20198-204. PMID 1939080. Lamas L, Anderson PC, Fox ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... 2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... by proteases such as cathepsins. Collagen is a component of epithelial and endothelial basement membranes. Endostatin, as a ...
Cathepsin A is also required for normal elastin biosynthesis. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000170266 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... The elastin receptor complex includes S-Gal, neuraminidase and Cathepsin A. When elastin-derived peptides bind to the S-Gal ... cathepsin) A is required for proper elastic fiber formation and inactivation of endothelin-1". Circulation. 117 (15): 1973-81. ...
Under the direction of Joseph S. Fruton, Jones' dissertation research involved the catalytic properties of cathepsin C, a type ... She pursued these interests by studying androsterone and monopalmitin at Armour, and cathepsin C at Yale. Jones worked as ... Her doctorate was entitled: Transamidation reactions catalyzed by cathepsin C. Jones completed her studies in three years ... Transamidation Reactions Catalyzed by Cathepsin C. Yale University, 1952. Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L. ( ...
McDonald JK, Zeitman BB, Reilly TJ, Ellis S (May 1969). "New observations on the substrate specificity of cathepsin C ( ... Planta RJ, Gorter J, Gruber M (September 1964). "The catalytic properties of cathepsin C". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ... Dipeptidyl peptidase I (EC, cathepsin C, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase I, dipeptidyl transferase, dipeptide arylamidase I ... Metroione RM, Neves AG, Fruton JS (May 1966). "Purification and properties of dipeptidyl transferase (Cathepsin C)". ...
1982). "Action of rat liver cathepsin L on glucagon". Acta Biol. Med. Ger. 40 (9): 1139-43. PMID 7340337. Kaushal GP, Walker PD ...
... cathepsin G and proteinase 3. Phthalimide derivatives were seen to be inactive, while saccharin derivatives were seen to be ... cathepsin G and proteinase 3". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 3 (2): 187-193. doi:10.1016/0968-0896(95)00013-7. PMID 7796053 ...
It is cleavable by cathepsin and safe for therapy. Trastuzumab emtansine is a combination of the microtubule-formation ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ...
Cleavage of PARP, by enzymes such as caspases or cathepsins, typically inactivates PARP. The size of the cleavage fragments can ...
Cathepsin: Cathepsins ( Ancient Greek kata- "down" and hepsein "boil"; abbreviated CTS ) are proteases ( enzymes that degrades ... Cathepsins have a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover, e.g. bone resorption. They degrade polypeptides and are ... There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone ...
"Human cathepsins W and F form a new subgroup of cathepsins that is evolutionary separated from the cathepsin B- and L-like ... Wex T, Levy B, Wex H, Brömme D (1999). "Human cathepsins F and W: A new subgroup of cathepsins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ... 2003). "Characterization of novel anti-cathepsin W antibodies and cellular distribution of cathepsin W in the gastrointestinal ... Cathepsin W is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSW gene.[5][6][7] ...
"Entrez Gene: CTSD cathepsin D".. *^ Barrett AJ (April 1970). "Cathepsin D. Purification of isoenzymes from human and chicken ... Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes.[7] The main function of cathepsin D is ... The optimum pH for cathepsin D in vitro is 4.5-5.0.[13] Cathepsin-D is an aspartic protease that depends critically on ... Cathepsin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSD gene.[5][6] This gene encodes a lysosomal aspartyl protease ...
Cathepsins are proteases, which are enzymes that are responsible for degrading proteins. There are around 12 different types of ... Cathepsin inhibitors can stop cathepsin function, which can stop tumors from forming through blocking angiogenesis. Cathepsin ... but some cathepsins function above the optimal pH 5 level, namely cathepsin S, which is active at pH 6.5. Cathepsin D is ... Cathepsin Z (or X). All cathepsins are made up of a signal peptide, a propeptide, and a mature functional enzyme that is ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
Cathepsin A (serine protease) Cathepsin B (cysteine protease) Cathepsin C (cysteine protease) Cathepsin D (aspartyl protease) ... Cathepsin H (cysteine protease) Cathepsin K (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L1 (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L2 (or V) (cysteine ... Cathepsin S (cysteine protease) Cathepsin W (cysteine proteinase) Cathepsin Z (or X) (cysteine protease) Cathepsins have been ... Cathepsin K has also been shown to play a role in arthritis. Mouse cathepsin L is homologous to human cathepsin V. Mouse ...
cathepsin K. Names. cathepsin O. cathepsin O1. cathepsin O2. cathepsin X. NP_000387.1. *EC ... Metabolic mapping showed that cathepsin B, but not cathepsin K is active in GSC niches. Title: Cysteine cathepsins B, X and K ... cathepsin K in the development of chronic subdural hematoma Title: Role of cathepsin K in the development of chronic subdural ... Cathepsin K degradation of sclerostin is affected by hypoxia. Title: The regulation of sclerostin by cathepsin K in periodontal ...
Cathepsin B. A. 266. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 3 Gene Names: CTSB, CPSB. EC: ... Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique ... Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique ... The chagasin-cathepsin B complex provides a structural framework for modeling and design of inhibitors for cruzipain, the ...
Cathepsin T (EC is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Interconversion of the three ... Cathepsin Gohda E, Pitot HC (May 1981). "Purification and characterization of a new thiol proteinase from rat kidney". ... Cathepsin+T at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ... Pitot HC, Gohda E (1987). "Cathepsin T". Methods in Enzymology. 142: 279-89. doi:10.1016/s0076-6879(87)42038-7. PMID 2885716. ...
Incubation with the cathepsin L specific inhibitor, Z-FY-DMK, blocked cathepsin L signals, confirming the cathepsin L bands in ... Z-FY-DMK cathepsin L inhibitor does not inhibit all cathepsin activity of murine endometriotic lesions. Incubation with Z-FY- ... DMK, a selective inhibitor of cathepsin L, inhibited many of the cathepsin active bands but did not block all active cathepsin ... E-64 blocks all cathepsin proteolytic activity in murine endometriotic lesions. Incubation with the broad cathepsin inhibitor, ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
... cathepsin B+/−/L−/− (lane 3), cathepsin B+/+/L+/− (lane 4), cathepsin B+/−/L+/− (lane 5), and cathepsin B−/−/L+/− (lane 6) mice ... Early death in cathepsin B−/−/L−/− mice. (a) Genotyping of wild-type (lanes 1), cathepsin B−/−/L−/− (lanes 2), and cathepsin B ... Several cathepsin B−/−/L−/− brains were serial sectioned. Samples of all tissues were analyzed from six cathepsin B−/−/L−/− ... Cathepsin B−/−/L−/− Mice Die in Infancy.. Mice homozygous for cathepsin B and L deficiency were generated by intercrossing ...
USA Home > Product Directory > Cell Biology > Cell Signaling and Neuroscience > Apoptosis and Cell Cycle > Cathepsins and ... Cathepsin B Active human recombinant, expressed in FreeStyle™ 293-F cells, ≥90% (SDS-PAGE) * pricing ... Cathepsin F Active human recombinant, expressed in FreeStyle™ 293-F cells, ≥90% (SDS-PAGE) * pricing ... Cathepsin L Active human recombinant, expressed in FreeStyle™ 293-F cells, ≥90% (SDS-PAGE) * pricing ...
Cysteine cathepsins belong to the papain-like family C1 of clan CA cysteine peptidases. These enzymes are ubiquitously ... Cysteine cathepsins: cellular roadmap to different functions Biochimie. 2008 Feb;90(2):194-207. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2007.07. ... Cysteine cathepsins belong to the papain-like family C1 of clan CA cysteine peptidases. These enzymes are ubiquitously ... Moreover, cysteine cathepsins are active in pericellular environments as soluble enzymes or bound to cell surface receptors at ...
V. Zavanik-Bergant, A. Sekirnik, R. Golouh, V. Turk, and J. Kos, "Immunochemical localisation of cathepsin S, cathepsin L and ... Both stimulants caused a significant cathepsin S upregulation. A significantly elevated cathepsin S expression in gingival ... Role of Cathepsin S in Periodontal Inflammation and Infection. S. Memmert,1,2 A. Damanaki,1 A. V. B. Nogueira,3 S. Eick,4 M. ... "Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is both a substrate of cathepsins S and K and a selective inhibitor of cathepsin L," Biochemistry, ...
Cathepsin K degrades both collagen and elastin, and is one of the most powerful proteases. Cathepsin S degrades elastin, and ... "We saw that the cathepsin K was going away much faster when there was cathepsin S present than when it was by itself," said ... "We kept increasing the amount of cathepsin S until the collagen was not affected at all because all of the cathepsin K was ... Barrys modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the ...
The cathepsin S protease is implicated in generation of chronic pain by releasing a cytokine. ... The cathepsin S protease is implicated in generation of chronic pain by releasing a cytokine. ...
Levičar, N., Strojnik, T., Kos, J. et al. Lysosomal Enzymes, Cathepsins in Brain Tumour Invasion. J Neurooncol 58, 21-32 (2002 ... Aspartic endopeptidase cathepsin (Cat) D levels were found to be elevated in high-grade astrocytoma and partial inhibition of ... Kos J, Štabuc B, Schweiger A, Krašovec M, Cimerman N, Kopitar-Jerala N, Vrhovec I: Cathepsins B, H, and L and their inhibitors ... Lah TT, Buck MR, Honn KV, Crissman JF, Rao NC, Liotta LA, Sloane BF: Degradation of laminin by human tumour cathepsin B. Clin ...
Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry. Graham Simmons, Dhaval N. Gosalia, ... Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry. Graham Simmons, Dhaval N. Gosalia, ... Cathepsin-L-specific inhibitor blocks infection. (A) MDL28170 inhibits CTSL activity with an IC50 of 2.5 nM. A 1,000-compound ... Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ...
A direct immunohistochemical method of high specificity is presented for the demonstration of sites of cathepsin B1. Antisera ... Snellman, O.: Cathepsin B, the lysosomal thiol proteinase of calf liver. Biochem. J. 114, 673-678 (1969)Google Scholar ... Otto, K.: Cathepsins B1 and B2. In: Tissue proteinases, ed. by A. J. Barrett and J. T. Dingle, p. 1-28. North-Holland ... V. Cathepsin B as a potential effector of LNA hydrolysis. Histochemie 12, 240-243 (1968)Google Scholar ...
Cathepsin S is a cysteine protease highly expressed in many type of cancers including colorectal, prostate, breast, and ... This mini-review provides an overview of therapeutic antibody targeting Cathepsin S strategies in the last half decade, ... In recent years, antibody research specifically targeting Cathepsin S to block/inhibit tumorigenic effects were generated some ... focusing on the rationale of cell-surface Cathepsin S targeted and their potential clinical application. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin E antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 3 publication(s ... Anti-Cathepsin E antibody (ab36996) at 1/1000 dilution + Murine reticulocyte lysate at 10 µg. Predicted band size: 42 kDa. ... High Expression of Cathepsin E in Tissues but Not Blood of Patients with Barretts Esophagus and Adenocarcinoma.. Ann Surg ... Cathepsin E is expressed abundantly in the stomach, Clara cells and alveolar macrophages of the lung, brain microglia, spleen, ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin D antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication ... This antibody reacts with human liver cathepsin D, and does not react with cathepsins B, H and L. ... IHC image of Cathepsin D staining in Human Lung formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica Bond™ ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) - Anti-Cathepsin D antibody (ab19555) ...
Hence, the cathepsins of edible muscles are of concern to the food scientist. The purpose of the research reported herein was ... Cathepsins are intracellular proteinases that hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins. These enzyme have been implicated in the ... It was decided to attempt the purification of the cathepsin optimally active at pH 3.7. The stability of this enzyme was found ... The purification was accomplished by extracting the salmon muscle cathepsin with two parts 0.2 N KC1. The pH of this crude ...
Cathepsin B. Cathepsin B, EC (APP secretase, APPS) (Cathepsin B1) [Cleaved into: Cathepsin B light chain; Cathepsin B ... Cathepsin BImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ... tr,E9PL32,E9PL32_HUMAN Cathepsin B (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CTSB PE=1 SV=2 ...
Cathepsin GAdd BLAST. ›26. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of ... sp,P17977,CATG_RAT Cathepsin G (Fragment) OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Ctsg PE=1 SV=1 IIGGREARPNSHPYMAFLLIQSPEGL ...
The cathepsin family contains chiefly cysteine (Cys) proteases, although cathepsins A and G are serine proteases and cathepsins ... Cathepsin. Class. Distribution. Function. Involvement in disease. Cathepsin B. Cysteine. Ubiquitous. Early neutrophil, T and B ... Once secreted, cathepsins such as cathepsins B, D, L and S, are known to induce degradation of the extracellular matrix and to ... While cathepsins B and H function as exopeptidases and endopeptidases, cathepsins D, E, F, G, K, L, S and V are endopeptidases ...
Cathepsins are proteolytic enzymes with a broad spectrum of substrates. They are known to reside within endo-lysosomes where ... Aspartic cathepsins Cysteine cathepsins Serine cathepsins Nuclear cathepsins Trafficking Activity-based probes Green ... Cathepsin B-deficient mice as source of monoclonal anti-cathepsin B antibodies. Biol Chem. 2015;396(3):277-81.PubMed ... Cysteine cathepsins and the cutting edge of cancer invasion. Cell Cycle. 2007;6(1):60-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Cathepsin G is the serine protease released by neutrophils upon their activation. Cathepsin G is currently being explored as a ... Cathepsins - A class of globular lysosomal proteases. Cathepsins play a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover. There are ... Cathepsin L, a lysosomal endopeptidase, is a member of the papain-like family of cysteine proteinases. It is involved in the ... Cathepsin E is a non-lysosomal aspartic proteinase of the pepsin superfamily. It plays an important role in protein degradation ...
  • Cathepsins are proteases, which are enzymes that are responsible for degrading proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • We hypothesize that cysteine cathepsins, a group of powerful extracellular matrix proteases, facilitate endometrial tissue invasion and endometriosis lesion establishment in the peritoneal wall and inhibiting this activity would decrease endometriosis lesion implantation. (nih.gov)
  • Intraperitoneal injection of the broad cysteine cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, significantly reduced the number of attached endometriosis lesions in our murine model compared to vehicle-treated controls demonstrating that cathepsin proteases contribute to endometriosis lesion establishment, and their inhibition may provide a novel, nonhormonal therapy for endometriosis. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsins B and L are widely expressed cysteine proteases implicated in both intracellular proteolysis and extracellular matrix remodeling. (pnas.org)
  • Cathepsins B and L are widely expressed cysteine proteases. (pnas.org)
  • To assess whether cathepsins B and L compensate for each other and to identify specific roles for these two proteases in vivo , all organs of mice lacking from one to four cathepsin B and L alleles were analyzed at various ages. (pnas.org)
  • Dubbed "cathepsin cannibalism," the phenomenon may help explain problems with drugs that have been developed to inhibit the effects of these powerful proteases. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsin K degrades both collagen and elastin, and is one of the most powerful proteases. (innovations-report.com)
  • In this review we discuss recent advances addressing the role of lysosomal proteases in the diverse aspects of the immune response, and also the involvement of cathepsins in the pathogenesis of diseases in which these proteases seem not to be properly under control. (smw.ch)
  • Cathepsin cysteine proteases are effectors of invasive growth and angiogenesis during multistage tumorigenesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • There is growing recognition that alternative proteolytic enzymes such as the lysosomal cathepsin proteases may initiate or propagate proapoptotic signals, but it is currently unclear how cathepsins mediate apoptosis. (biovision.com)
  • Though cytokines and phagocyte, as host factors, have been shown to participate in defence against Aspergillus species yet the role of cysteine proteases, that is cathepsins, a lysosomal enzymes of phagocytes, remains unknown in fungal infection. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Cathepsins are cysteine proteases, act as endopeptidases and are mainly involved in intracellular protein degradation and involved in large number of diseases [ 11 , 12 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Lysosomes contain many well-characterized proteases, and cathepsin B has previously been utilized to release chemotherapeutics in the context of targetable antibody-based treatments. (bloodjournal.org)
  • SerpinB1 is a potent inhibitor of neutrophil serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G (CG). (bloodjournal.org)
  • 6 , 7 Interestingly, noncaspase cysteine proteases calpain and cathepsin D were reported to induce PMN apoptosis through activation of caspases. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 8 ⇓ ⇓ - 11 In addition, PMNs carry a unique set of serine proteases (neutrophil serine proteases [NSPs]) including elastase (NE), cathepsin G (CG), and proteinase-3 (PR3) stored active in primary granules. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Cathepsin B is an ancient family of eukaryotic cysteine proteases. (apsnet.org)
  • Our findings provide evidence for the highly specialized functions of closely related cysteine cathepsin proteases in extra-embryonic development, and reinforce their importance for a successful outcome of pregnancy. (biologists.org)
  • Two of the genes identified from this screen were the cathepsin proteases Cts7 and Cts8 . (biologists.org)
  • Cathepsins are lysosomal proteases that breakdown peptide bonds linked to specific amino acids. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cathepsin B is the first described member of the family of lysosomal cysteine proteases. (neuromics.com)
  • Here we adopt a novel in silico target fishing method to reveal the target profile of RD. Cathepsin K (Ctsk) is one of the cysteine proteases that is over-expressed in osteoclasts and accounts for the increase in bone resorption in metabolic bone disorders such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. (mdpi.com)
  • To clarify the mode by which natural protein inhibitors manage to overcome this obstacle, we have analyzed the structure and function of cathepsin B in complexes with the Trypanosoma cruzi inhibitor, chagasin. (rcsb.org)
  • Incubation with the broad cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, completely abolished cathepsin activity detected by zymography identifying the active bands as cysteine cathepsins (A). Cathepsin protein levels in lesions were compared to eutopic uterine tissue by Western blot (B, n = 6). (nih.gov)
  • The requirement for cathepsin L proteolysis identifies a previously uncharacterized class of inhibitor for SARS-CoV infection. (pnas.org)
  • Using mass spectrometry analysis of cells treated with a pan cathepsin inhibitor, we observed an increased abundance of proteins involved in central carbon metabolism. (mcponline.org)
  • View detailed cathepsin H Inhibitor specifications, including cathepsin H Inhibitor CAS number, molecular weight, molecular formula and chemical structure, by clicking on the product name. (scbt.com)
  • Serine protease inhibitor serpinB1 protects neutrophils by inhibition of their own azurophil granule protease cathepsin G. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The anionic cathepsin B inhibitor ( l -3- trans -propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-carbony)- l -isoleucyl- l -proline (CA-074), at a concentration of 1 μ m , caused a nearly quantitative inhibition of extracellular cathepsin B but had no effect on Matrigel invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The membrane-permeant cathepsin B inhibitor, CA-074 methyl ester, and the higher concentration of CA-074 that inhibited intracellular cathepsin B both significantly reduced Matrigel invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our data demonstrate that cathepsin-L released from ex vivo rat hearts after ischaemia, and the cathepsin-L inhibitor CAA0225 improves cardiac function during ischaemia-reperfusion ex vivo . (bmj.com)
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain I, calpain II, cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. (promocell.com)
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain 1, calpain 2 which also inhibits cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. (promocell.com)
  • There were many hurdles in the drug discovery of cathepsin K inhibitors such as species differences not only in bone metabolism but also in amino acid sequences in the critical site of the target enzyme, discrepancies between PK/PD due to unique tissue distribution of the inhibitor affecting both efficacy and side effects originated from a characteristic intracellular or tissue distribution of some classes of compounds. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The cathepsin K inhibitor drug discovery was initiated based on a strong and osteoclast-specific expression of this enzyme. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Aspartic endopeptidase cathepsin (Cat) D levels were found to be elevated in high-grade astrocytoma and partial inhibition of glioblastoma cell invasion by anti-Cat D antibody suggests that the enzyme activity is involved in the invasion process. (springer.com)
  • This antibody is specific for Cathepsin E. (abcam.com)
  • This antibody reacts with human liver cathepsin D, and does not react with cathepsins B, H and L. (abcam.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-14270, RRID AB_2087668. (thermofisher.com)
  • This antibody reacts with the zymogen as well as the activated form of cathepsin D. It stains fibroblasts and macrophages strongly but stains the myoepithelial cells of breast weakly. (novusbio.com)
  • Cathepsin D Polyclonal antibody specifically detects Cathepsin D in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Cathepsin 6 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Cathepsin 6 in Mouse samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Cathepsin W is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSW gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSD gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Each cathepsin works to degrade a different protein, and they have different structures and work via different mechanisms. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsin B may function as a beta-secretase 1, cleaving amyloid precursor protein to produce amyloid beta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoclasts are the bone resorbing cells of the body, and they secrete cathepsin K in order to break down collagen, the major component of the non-mineral protein matrix of the bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro studies using purified enzymes and cysteine protease inhibitors suggested roles for these cathepsins in lysosomal protein turnover at acidic pH. (pnas.org)
  • Cathepsin S was upregulated most strongly and thus further studied in vitro at gene and protein levels. (hindawi.com)
  • When the researchers combined the two cathepsins and allowed them to attack samples of elastin, they expected to see increased degradation of the protein. (innovations-report.com)
  • Barry's modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the elastin - a protein essential in arteries and the cardiovascular system. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsin D is a lysosomal aspartic proteinase, active in intracellular protein breakdown. (anaspec.com)
  • H. Phipps-Yonas, V. Semik, and K. T. Hastings, "GILT expression in B cells diminishes cathepsin S steady-state protein expression and activity," European Journal of Immunology , vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 65-74, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Cathepsin D Kits (99) und Cathepsin D Proteine (58) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Additionally we are shipping Cathepsin D Antibodies (347) and Cathepsin D Proteins (55) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cathepsin H is a disulfide-linked heavy and light chain dimer which belongs to the peptidase C1 protein family, can act both as an aminopeptidase and as an endopeptidase. (scbt.com)
  • cathepsin H Inhibitors offered by Santa Cruz inhibit cathepsin H and, in some cases, other cellular metabolism and protein degradation related proteins. (scbt.com)
  • After 4 days of diabetes, cathepsin B and L activities were decreased by 15-45% when correlated with the levels of glomerular protein or DNA. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cathepsin D is an estrogen-regulated protein associated with tissue breakdown. (genetex.com)
  • NanoString mRNA analysis and Western Blotting (WB) were used to examine the transcript and protein expression of these cathepsins, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Partially purified Cathepsin B protein was inhibited by a variety of peptide inhibitors but evidence of inhibition by several pathogen-derived inhibitors that are secreted during infection was inconclusive. (bl.uk)
  • Mechanistic studies indicated that the absence of CatL reduced lesion chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 content, macrophage and T-cell in vitro transmigration, and angiogenesis, and altered the expression and activities of matrix metalloproteinases and other cysteinyl cathepsins in inflammatory cells, vascular cells, and AAA lesions. (harvard.edu)
  • Over-expression of cathepsin D stimulates tumorigenicity and metastasis as well as initiation of tumor apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • [21] [22] Knock-out of CTSD gene would cause intestinal necrosis and hemorrhage and increase apoptosis in thymus , indicating that cathepsin D is required in certain epithelial cells for tissue remodeling and renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Almost all cathepsin activity is found in lysosome organelles, which are a type of organelle responsible for breaking down excess or aging parts of cells and in aiding apoptosis (cell death). (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsin B null mice show no obvious phenotype ( 10 ), but a reduction in premature intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation ( 11 ) and increased resistance to tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis ( 12 ) were observed under experimental conditions. (pnas.org)
  • Although a lysosomal, cathepsin B-dependent (Ctsb-dependent) pathway of apoptosis has been described, the contribution of this pathway to tissue damage remains unclear. (jci.org)
  • Schwartz-Roberts, Shajahan, Cook, Wärri, Abu-Asab, Clarke: GX15-070 (obatoclax) induces apoptosis and inhibits cathepsin D- and L-mediated autophagosomal lysis in antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This suggests that cathepsin D exerts its apoptosis-stimulating effect upstream of caspase-3-like activation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • The catalytic sites of cathepsin D include two critical aspartic residues ( amino acid 33 and 231) located on the 14 kDa and 34kDa chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • [13] Cathepsin-D is an aspartic protease that depends critically on protonation of its active site Asp residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin E is a non-lysosomal aspartic proteinase of the pepsin superfamily. (anaspec.com)
  • Active cathepsins, cathepsin inhibitors and cathepsin antibodies are also available. (biovision.com)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 88 Cathepsin D (CTSD) ELISA Kits from 20 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The main physiological functions of cathepsin D consist of metabolic degradation of intracellular proteins, activation and degradation of polypeptide hormones and growth factors , activation of enzymatic precursors, processing of enzyme activators and inhibitors, brain antigen processing and regulation of programmed cell death . (wikipedia.org)
  • All cathepsins are made up of a signal peptide, a propeptide, and a mature functional enzyme that is catalytically active. (news-medical.net)
  • Five cyclic peptides show inhibitory activity towards human cathepsins L, B, H, and K. Zymography is a type of gel electrophoresis that uses a polyacrylamide gel co-polymerized with a substrate in order to detect enzyme activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin T (EC is an enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers used a variety of tests to determine the amount of each enzyme, including fluorogenic substrate analysis, Western blotting and multiplex cathepsin zymography - a sensitive technique developed in the Platt laboratory. (innovations-report.com)
  • Beyond demonstrating for the first time that cathepsins can attack one another, the research also shows the complexity of the body's enzyme system - and may suggest why drugs designed to inhibit cathepsins haven't worked as intended. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsin D purified from a mutant strain has a lower activity per unit mass of pure enzyme. (genetics.org)
  • The active cathepsin L activity (without activation by pepsin digestion), its percentage in the total activity (after pepsin activation), and the expression of the mature single-chain enzyme were the lowest in the umbilical cord arteries and the highest in Wharton's jelly. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The presence of a cathepsin B-like enzyme in rabbit ear cartilage was established by the use of the synthetic substrates benzoyl- l -arginine amide and benzoyl- dl -arginine 2-naphthylamide. (biochemj.org)
  • The enzymic properties of cathepsin B in cartilage have been compared with an endogenous enzyme that liberates chondromucopeptide by degrading the cartilage matrix autocatalytically at pH5. (biochemj.org)
  • The experimental evidence indicates that a cathepsin B-like enzyme may be partly responsible for the autolytic degradation of cartilage matrix at pH5. (biochemj.org)
  • A Novel Dual Fluorochrome Near-Infrared Imaging Probe for Potential Alzheimer's Enzyme Biomarkers-BACE1 and Cathepsin D. Molecules. (harvard.edu)
  • As cathepsin D activity is increased by cigarette smoke, the enzyme may contribute to lung tissue damage in smokers. (genetex.com)
  • We offer various assays to detect and quantify cathepsin, calpain and granzyme B activity and screen for respective enzyme inhibitors. (promocell.com)
  • Enzyme activity assays showed functional activity of cathepsin B and cathepsin D. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cathepsin D was released from lysosomes to the cytosol upon exposure to naphthazarin, and the enzyme activity decreased simultaneously. (diva-portal.org)
  • Later, cathepsin D reappeared in granules of increased size, and enzyme activity was restored. (diva-portal.org)
  • Herein, we describe the preparation of a fused silica capillary, cathepsin D (CatD)-immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) using in a multidimensional High Performance Liquid Chromatography-based method (2D-HPLC) and zonal affinity chromatography as an alternative in the search for new ligands. (ovid.com)
  • The prodrug demonstrates enzyme-responsive drug release features, and over 95% GEM was released from the carrier with the Cathepsin B within 3 h. (rsc.org)
  • It was catalytically active, as demonstrated by active-site-directed radioiodination, and hydrolysed three cathepsin B substrates, two with Km values similar to those of lysosomal cathepsin B. In addition, the rates of inactivation of the sputum and lysosomal forms of the enzyme by L-3-carboxy-2,3-transepoxypropionyl-leucylamido(4-guanidino) butane (Compound E-64) were very similar. (portlandpress.com)
  • However, the sputum enzyme differed from lysosomal cathepsin B in the following respects. (portlandpress.com)
  • Inhibition by chicken cystatin was much weaker for sputum cathepsin B than for the lysosomal enzyme. (portlandpress.com)
  • [7] The main function of cathepsin D is to degrade proteins and activate precursors of bioactive proteins in pre-lysosomal compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are classified in these families based on the amino acids present in the proteins that the cathepsins break down. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsins play a role in the degradation of proteins, energy metabolism, and the body's immune responses, among other functions. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsins break down proteins by cutting the peptide bonds that link amino acids together. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsins are important in neurodegenerative diseases as they break down several important proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers for the first time have shown that members of a family of enzymes known as cathepsins - which are implicated in many disease processes - may attack one another instead of the bodily proteins they normally degrade. (innovations-report.com)
  • Because cathepsins have harmful effects on critical proteins such as collagen and elastin, pharmaceutical companies have been developing drugs to inhibit activity of the enzymes, but so far these compounds have had too many side effects to be useful and have failed clinical trials. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsins are intracellular proteinases that hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Cathepsin L is a potent cysteine protease engaged in degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We further demonstrate that incorporating a cathepsin B-cleavable linker between the BIM BH3 peptide and the hydrophobic tail within individual amphiphiles results in increased binding to recombinant BCL-2 proteins while also allowing for increased cellular uptake and mitochondrial localization leading to faster and more potent dose-dependent cytotoxicity and caspase activation in malignant cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Therefore, a pilot study was performed in order to ascertain the expression of several cathepsin proteins in cytological samples from solid pancreatic masses obtained by EUS-FNA. (isciii.es)
  • NanoString mRNA analysis showed significantly greater transcript expression of cathepsin B and cathepsin D, compared to cathepsin G. WB confirmed expression of cathepsin B and cathepsin D proteins, while cathepsin G was below detectable levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • Spi2A defects were ameliorated by cathepsin-B/L inhibition, and by genetic co-deletion of lysosomal cathepsin B. Pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin B/L enhanced EPO-induced red cell formation in normal mice. (rupress.org)
  • This review sought to evaluate recent findings in this field, highlighting how among cathepsins, the inhibition of cathepsin S in particular, could play a significant role in diminishing the effects of CVD, especially for patients with CKD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lysosomes and lysosomal cathepsins in cell death. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pepstatin A pretreatment did not prevent release of cathepsin D from lysosomes but did significantly inhibit subsequent naphthazarin-induced caspase activation and apoptotic morphology. (diva-portal.org)
  • The lysosomal cysteine protease, cathepsin S, is increased in Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome brain: an immunocytochemical study," American Journal of Pathology , vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 848-860, 1995. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent work shows that the cysteine protease cathepsin S (Cat S) is required for the terminal step in CLIP formation in B cells and most dendritic cells (DCs), and in vitro can mediate all steps of digestion of class II-Ii complexes ( 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Stroke Traumatic brain injury Alzheimer's disease Arthritis Ebola, Cathepsin B and to a lesser extent cathepsin L have been found to be necessary for the virus to enter host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elevated levels of Cathepsin B were detected in metastases and neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). (anaspec.com)
  • Additionally cathepsin D has been associated with amyloid formation in Alzheimer's plaques. (genetex.com)
  • Osteocytes express genes required in osteoclasts for bone resorption, including cathepsin K (Ctsk), and lactation elevates their expression. (jci.org)
  • Cathepsin zymography separates different cathepsins based on their migration through a polyacrylamide gel co-polymerized with a gelatin substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gel is then put into an activation buffer of a specific pH and left to incubate overnight at 37 °C. This activation step allows the cathepsins to degrade the gelatin substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • An in vivo validation of specific roles for cathepsins B and L proved to be difficult, likely due to overlapping substrate specificities of cysteine-type cathepsins. (pnas.org)
  • BioVision's newly developed Cathepsin Activity Assay kits are fluorescence-based assays that utilize the preferred substrate sequence for each cathepsin, labeled with AFC (amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin). (biovision.com)
  • Cell lysates or other samples that contain cathepsins will cleave the synthetic substrate to release free AFC. (biovision.com)
  • Cathepsin F has the substrate specificity similar to that of cathepsins L and S. (neuromics.com)
  • Cathepsins have a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover, e.g. bone resorption. (genenames.org)
  • Cathepsin K is the most potent mammalian collagenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arampatzidou M, Rehders M, Dauth S, Yu DMT, Tedelind S, Brix K. Imaging of protease functions-current guide to spotting cysteine cathepsins in classical and novel scenes of action in mammalian epithelial cells and tissues. (springer.com)
  • The collagenolytic activity of cathepsin K is unique among mammalian proteinases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cysteinyl cathepsin K (CatK) is one of the most potent mammalian collagenases involved in cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Human AAA lesions express high levels of cathepsin L (CatL), one of the most potent mammalian elastases. (harvard.edu)
  • It is widely held that invasion is facilitated by a membrane or secreted form of cathepsin B that acts outside the cell to degrade ECM components at or adjacent to the surface of the invading cell. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These cells were tested in an in vitro Matrigel invasion assay with membrane-permeant and impermeant inhibitors of cathepsin B. The results, which provided direct proof for the participation of cathepsin B in matrix penetration, also yielded the unexpected finding that an intracellular form of cathepsin B was required for Matrigel invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sputum cathepsin B had greater stability at pH 7.5 and a higher apparent Mr, even after deglycosylation, than lysosomal cathepsin B. We conclude that the form of cathepsin B found in sputum is probably a truncated form of human procathepsin B, with some differences in properties that could be of physiological importance. (portlandpress.com)
  • The area of contact is slightly larger than in chagasin complexes with the endopeptidase, cathepsin L. However, residues important for high affinity to both enzymes are mainly found in the outer loops L4 and L6 of chagasin. (rcsb.org)
  • Cathepsin L , a lysosomal endopeptidase, is a member of the papain-like family of cysteine proteinases. (anaspec.com)
  • Cathepsin B possesses both endopeptidase and exopeptidase activities, in the latter case acting as a peptidyl-dipeptidase. (neuromics.com)
  • A composite docking approach for the identification and characterization of ectosteric inhibitors of cathepsin K. Law S, et al . (nih.gov)
  • The availability of a purified preparation of salmon muscle cathepsins should stimulate interest and research in the characterization of these enzymes and lead to better means for the control of catheptic activity in fish muscle. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Cathepsin L-deficient mice were shown to have less adipose tissue, lower serum glucose and insulin levels, more insulin receptor subunits, more glucose transporter (GLUT4) and more fibronectin than wild type controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • To test this, we used an immunocompetent endometriosis mouse model and found that endometriotic lesions exhibited a greater than 5-fold increase in active cathepsins compared to tissue from peritoneal wall or eutopic endometrium, with cathepsins L and K specifically implicated. (nih.gov)
  • Human endometriosis lesions also exhibited greater cathepsin activity than adjacent peritoneum tissue, supporting the mouse results. (nih.gov)
  • Platt's long-term research has focused on cathepsins, including the development of sensitive tools and assays to quantify their activity in cells and tissue, as well as potential diagnostic applications for breast, lung and cervical cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • Keilová, H.: On the specificity and inhibition of cathepsins D and B. In: Tissue proteinases, ed. by A. J. Barrett and J. T. Dingle, p. 45-65. (springer.com)
  • IHC image of Cathepsin D staining in Human Lung formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica Bond™ system using the standard protocol F. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6, epitope retrieval solution 1) for 20 mins. (abcam.com)
  • Arkona C, Wiederanders B. Expression, subcellular distribution and plasma membrane binding of cathepsin B and gelatinases in bone metastatic tissue. (springer.com)
  • Weight loss reduces adipose tissue cathepsin S and its circulating levels in morbidly obese women," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 1042-1047, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • The activity profiles of four cathepsins in the kidney and liver tissue were analysed and correlated with blood cytokines level in the presence and absence of antifungal compounds (amphotericin B, a standard drug and 2-(3,4-dimethyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-2-yl)-1-methylethyl pentanoate, isolated in our laboratory from natural source) treatment. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Cathepsins D, B, and L in malignant human lung tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The levels of cathepsins in malignant and surrounding nonmalignant lung tissue were determined in 17 non-small cell lung cancer specimens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vitro studies suggest that cathepsin tissue expression might allow the use of techniques such as cathepsin-activatable near-infrared (NIRF) probes and confocal fluorescence laser microscopy (CFL) for early diagnosis 14 , 17 , 21 . (isciii.es)
  • Cathepsin F staining of paraffin-embedded human heart tissue sections. (neuromics.com)
  • Results: Cathepsin D demonstrates high activity in perimatrix cells adjacent to bone tissue, while it occurs in trace amounts in the matrix. (medscimonit.com)
  • Conclusions: Cathepsin D places a major role in bone tissue destruction due to cholesteatoma. (medscimonit.com)
  • Cathepsin K, among other cathepsins, plays a role in cancer metastasis through the degradation of the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin K associates with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Elevated Cathepsin K potentiates metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsins are involved in disease processes as varied as cancer metastasis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and arthritis. (innovations-report.com)
  • Besides caspases, cathepsins have recently been shown to be associated with cell death regulation [6-12] and various other physiological and pathological processes, such as maturation of the MHC class II complex, bone remodelling, keratinocyte differentiation, tumour progression and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, as well as atherosclerosis [13, 14] (table 1). (smw.ch)
  • Involvement of cathepsins in the invasion, metastasis and proliferation of cancer cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Cathepsin B is among the candidate proteinases believed to participate in invasion and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 344 Cathepsin D (CTSD) Antikörper von 36 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The purpose of the research reported herein was to develop procedures for the purification of the cathepsin from salmon muscle. (oregonstate.edu)
  • It was decided to attempt the purification of the cathepsin optimally active at pH 3.7. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The purification was accomplished by extracting the salmon muscle cathepsin with two parts 0.2 N KC1. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The purification of cathepsin D from pig uterus by two-step affinity chromatography on concanavalin A- and pepstatin-Sepharose was described previously [Afting & Becker (1981) Biochem. (biochemj.org)
  • In addition, loss-of-function mutations in the human cathepsin C gene have been associated with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, an autosomal recessive palmoplantar keratosis with periodontopathia ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans. (genetics.org)
  • These data suggest that cad-1 is a structural gene for cathepsin D. (genetics.org)
  • These results suggest that the ecdysone response elements are vital for activation of the promoter by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in the larval fat body and further support the crucial role of ecdysone signaling to control cathepsin D gene transcription. (antibodies-online.com)
  • By making use of EST data, sequenced cDNAs, and genomic trace sequences of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, we identified a total of 28 cathepsin B-like gene copies in the genome of A. pisum. (inria.fr)
  • In addition, this work also implicates Cathepsin B genes in senescence, a developmental form of PCD, via regulation of the senescence marker gene Senescence Associated Gene 12 ( SAG12 ). (bl.uk)
  • When in the extracellular matrix, cysteine cathepsins, in particular, can degrade the structural components of the ECM, such as collagen or elastin, and contribute to the processing of chemokines, which are molecules that are involved in activating inflammatory immune responses. (news-medical.net)
  • These diseases may also involve the degradation of the extracellular matrix by cathepsins. (news-medical.net)
  • In a number of pathological conditions, both cathepsins are reported to be secreted and involved in degradation of extracellular matrix components ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Surprisingly, at a concentration of 10 μ m , CA-074 slowly permeated the cells, causing an 80-95% inhibition of intracellular cathepsin B after 12 h, the duration of the invasion assay. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Collectively, these results identify an intracellular role for cathepsin B in matrix degradation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we describe how intracellular sigma peptide modulation of RPTPσ induces enhanced protease Cathepsin B activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • [23] Cathepsin D enzymatic activity induces hydrolytic modification of apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins, including LDL, which means it may be involved in atherosclerosis as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dysregulated cathepsin synthesis and activity have been seen in several diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and inflammatory neurological diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Dysregulated cathepsin activity can result in the overexpression (over-activity) of the cathepsins and cause them to be secreted outside of cells. (news-medical.net)
  • The cathepsin A activity in lysates of metastatic lesions of malignant melanoma is significantly higher than in primary focus lysates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike some of the other cathepsins, cathepsin D has some protease activity at neutral pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxLDL inhibits differentiation and functional activity of osteoclasts via scavenger receptor-A mediated autophagy and cathepsin K secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique occluding loop that restricts access to the active site cleft. (rcsb.org)
  • Finally, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting cathepsin activity could block endometriosis lesion attachment and implantation in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Mouse endometriotic lesions exhibit elevated cathepsin proteolytic activity. (nih.gov)
  • E-64 blocks all cathepsin proteolytic activity in murine endometriotic lesions. (nih.gov)
  • The work could affect not only the development of drugs to inhibit cathepsin activity, but could also lead to a better understanding of how the enzymes work together. (innovations-report.com)
  • By increasing the amount of cathepsin S ten-fold over the amount used in the original experiment, Platt and Barry were able to completely block the activity of cathepsin K, preventing damage to the collagen sample. (innovations-report.com)
  • The selective demonstration of cathepsin B activity by means of the naphthylamide reaction. (springer.com)
  • Mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans having about 10% of wild-type activity of the aspartyl protease cathepsin D have been isolated by screening. (genetics.org)
  • We evaluated the activity and expression of cathepsin L, and the inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors in the umbilical cord arteries, vein and Wharton's jelly. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin L activity and anti-papain inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors were quantified in extracts of separated umbilical cord tissues using fluorogenic substrates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Distribution of the activity and expression of mature cathepsin L within the umbilical cord probably results from distinctions in the proenzyme activation process. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin K (CatK) is a lysosomal protease with collagenolytic activity, and its secretion by osteoclasts is responsible for degrading organic bone matrix. (wiley.com)
  • Here we report that loss of cathepsin L (Cts L) is associated with a fast proliferation rate and enhanced glycolytic metabolism that depend on lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity. (mcponline.org)
  • Cathepsin (Cat) D activity was assayed using hemoglobin, whereas Cat B and Cat L activities were assayed using fluorimetric substrates, benzoylcarbonyl-Ala-Arg-Arg-7-amino-4-methylcoumarine and benzoylcarbonyl-Phe-Arg-7-amino-4-methylcoumarine, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transient expression of human cathepsin B in a poorly metastatic B16F1 murine melanoma variant produced a 3-5-fold increase in cathepsin B activity and a comparable increase in invasiveness. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For measuring cathepsin B activity by fluorometer or fluorescence plate reader. (promocell.com)
  • This project aims to examine the utility of the proteolytic activity signatures of caspase 1 and cathepsin S (CTSS) as readouts of particle-induced inflammation and to elucidate the role and dynamic regulation of CTSS in response to cellular stress. (bl.uk)
  • Dariusz Szajda S, Jankowski M, Zalewska B, Kożuszko B, Gabrylewski W, Skrzydlewski Z. Activity of cancer procoagulant and cathepsin D in breast cancer. (termedia.pl)
  • Immunohistochemical investigations on cathepsin D activity in structures of cholesteatoma. (medscimonit.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of cathepsin D in the structures of cholesteatoma. (medscimonit.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Serum cathepsin B activity has been considered a potential marker of tumor progression. (lu.se)
  • The aim of this study was to assess serum cathepsin activity during tumor progression and regression. (lu.se)
  • Serum cathepsin B activity was determined, tumor volumes were measured, and. (lu.se)
  • RESULTS: Of the 45 BRT-treated rats, tumor regression was observed in 31 rats, and serum cathepsin activity was analyzed in these rats. (lu.se)
  • However, we here report an unexpected finding that cysteine protease genes of the family cathepsin B are massively amplified in the lineage of aphids, and that many of the protease genes exhibit gut-specific over-expression. (inria.fr)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of all the cathepsin B genes in aphids revealed that genic expansion has continuously proceeded with basal, intermediary and recent duplications. (inria.fr)
  • There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone resorption. (genenames.org)
  • This process of invasion includes increased synthesis and secretion of lysosomal proteolytic enzymes - cathepsins. (springer.com)
  • Here, we have found that one important mechanism by which peptide modulation of the receptor enhances axon outgrowth is through secretion of a protease, Cathepsin B, which enables digestion of CSPGs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Leukocyte cathepsin S is a potent regulator of both cell and matrix turnover in advanced atherosclerosis," Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology , vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 188-194, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Novel, Nonpeptidic Cyanamides as Potent and Reversible Inhibitors of Human Cathepsins K and L, J. Med. (patentgenius.com)
  • In particular, no defects in granulopoiesis or PMN homeostasis have been reported in mice deficient in cathepsin G ( CG −/− ), 15 neutrophil elastase ( NE −/− ), 16 , 17 or dipeptidylpeptidase I ( DPPI −/− ), which lack active NSPs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Neutrophil cathepsin G increases calcium flux and inositol polyphosphate production in cultured endothelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Exposure of endothelial cells (ENDO) to human neutrophil cathepsin G (CG) increases albumin flux across the endothelial monolayer. (jimmunol.org)
  • Identification of a human neutrophil angiotension II-generating protease as cathepsin G. J Clin Invest. (umassmed.edu)
  • Cathepsin K is involved in osteoporosis, a disease in which a decrease in bone density causes an increased risk for fracture. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, cathepsin K deficiency causes pyknodysostosis in mice and humans, consistent with its expression in osteoclasts and function in bone resorption ( 15 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cathepsin K is the lysosomal cysteine protease involved in bone remodeling and resorption. (anaspec.com)
  • Impaired osteoclastic bone resorption leads to osteopetrosis in cathepsin-K-deficient mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cathepsin S controls angiogenesis and tumor growth via matrix-derived angiogenic factors," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 281, no. 9, pp. 6020-6029, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Targeting cathepsin S induces tumor cell autophagy via the EGFR-ERK signaling pathway," Cancer Letters , vol. 317, no. 1, pp. 89-98, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • We have manipulated the expression of cathepsin B in several tumor cell lines and measured their capacity to invade through a reconstituted extracellular (Matrigel) matrix. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we selectively manipulated the expression of cathepsin B in three different tumor cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several experimental and human studies have shown the expression of different cathepsins in tumor cells 13 , 14 as well as in serum and pancreatic juice from patients with PDAC 15 , 16 . (isciii.es)
  • Furthermore, the relationship between cathepsin expression and tumor stage was also assessed. (isciii.es)
  • IF IHC staining demonstrated the expression of both cathepsin B and cathepsin D by the OCT4 − cells within the tumor nests and the OCT4 + CSC subpopulation within the peritumoral stroma. (frontiersin.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cathepsin B may play an important role, not only in tumor expansion, but also during the processes of cancer cell death and resorption. (lu.se)
  • Moreover, cysteine cathepsins are active in pericellular environments as soluble enzymes or bound to cell surface receptors at the plasma membrane, and possibly even within secretory vesicles, the cytosol, mitochondria, and within the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsins are proteolytic enzymes with a broad spectrum of substrates. (springer.com)
  • Cathepsins are lysosomal enzymes that are also used as sensitive markers in various toxicological investigations. (biovision.com)
  • Furthermore, it is also evident that cathepsins such as cathepsin B and L are highly active lysosomal enzymes and play very important role in phagocytosis [ 10 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • We conclude that in lung cancers the three lysosomal enzymes are regulated in a noncoordinate manner and that there is specific induction of cysteine cathepsins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cathepsin D (an aspartyl protease) appears to cleave a variety of substrates such as fibronectin and laminin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorometric kit to for fast screening of potential cathepsin B (CTSB) inhibitors. (promocell.com)
  • Cathepsin B has also been implicated in the progression of various human tumors including ovarian cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elevated levels of cathepsin H correlates with malignant progression of prostate tumors. (scbt.com)
  • Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase whose expression and trafficking are frequently altered in cancer, and plasma membrane and secreted forms are thought to contribute to the invasive and metastatic properties of malignant tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The role of some cathepsins, especially B, L, S and H, has been studied in the pathogenesis of cancer and their utility as prognostic markers which has been assessed in different tumors. (isciii.es)
  • The protease cathepsin D is one such target involved in several diseases such as tumors, degenerative processes, and vital processes of parasites causing schistosomiasis. (ovid.com)
  • The cathepsin assays are simple, straightforward, and can be adapted to 96-well plate assays. (biovision.com)
  • Gingival biopsies from periodontitis patients showed a significantly higher cathepsin S expression than those from healthy gingiva. (hindawi.com)
  • The genetic knockout for cathepsin S and K in mice with atherosclerosis was shown to reduce the size of atherosclerotic lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin S is a cysteine proteinase involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity and related diseases. (anaspec.com)
  • More importantly, cathepsins play a crucial role in various conditions that involve large biological systems such as autoimmune disease, cardiac repair, cardiomyopathy, heart valve disease, and atherosclerosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cathepsin K is a recently identified lysosomal cysteine proteinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cathepsin-Z (CTSZ) is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase and member of the peptidase C1 family. (prospecbio.com)
  • For instance, cathepsins have been found to degrade low-density lipoprotein (LDL-P) and reduce the effect of cholesterol leaving macrophages. (news-medical.net)
  • We saw that the cathepsin K was going away much faster when there was cathepsin S present than when it was by itself," said Platt, who is also a Georgia Cancer Coalition Distinguished Scholar and a Fellow of the Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology. (innovations-report.com)
  • Combined deletion of cathepsin protease family members reveals compensatory mechanisms in cancer. (springer.com)
  • Recent studies have particularly suggested that Cathepsin E is important in host defense against cancer cells and invading microorganisms. (anaspec.com)
  • p53, cathepsin D, Bcl-2 are joint prognostic indicators of breast cancer metastatic spreading. (harvard.edu)
  • Essential role for cathepsin S in MHC class II-associated invariant chain processing and peptide loading," Immunity , vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 357-366, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • A direct immunohistochemical method of high specificity is presented for the demonstration of sites of cathepsin B1. (springer.com)
  • In this review we cover specific roles of cathepsins in innate and adaptive immunity, as well as their implication in the pathogenesis of several diseases. (smw.ch)
  • It is of note to mention that this review is not meant to comprehensively cover the present literature on viruses encountering cathepsins but rather illustrates, on some representative examples, the possible roles of cathepsins in replication of viruses and in the course of disease. (springer.com)
  • Levels of cathepsin D have been positively correlated with recurring breast cancers of both node negative and node positive types. (genetex.com)
  • To assess the expression of cathepsins in pancreatic samples obtained by endoscopic ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and to investigate their relationship with the staging of the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). (isciii.es)
  • Expression of cathepsins in the cytological material of PDAC is diverse but still poor to be useful in the pre-operative diagnosis. (isciii.es)
  • To our knowledge, the expression of cathepsins in cytological samples from pancreatic EUS-FNA has not been previously reported. (isciii.es)
  • DAB IHC staining demonstrated expression of cathepsins B, D and G within LMCA. (frontiersin.org)