Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor
Murine and human cathepsin Z: cDNA-cloning, characterization of the genes and chromosomal localization. (1/15)A novel murine cysteine protease from the family of papain-like cysteine proteinases was identified by dbEST-database search. A 1. 4-kb full-length cDNA encoding a predicted polypeptide of 306 amino acids was characterized. The new protease, tentatively named cathepsin Z, exhibits all features characteristics of a papain-like cysteine protease, including the highly conserved residues of the 'catalytic triad'. Cathepsin Z shares only 26-35% overall homology with previously described mammalian papain-like cysteine peptidases and has an unusually short propeptide, which may indicate that it is a member of a putative new subfamily within the family of papain-like cysteine peptidases. Genomic clones covering the murine and human cathepsin Z genes were isolated. They comprise six exons and five introns spanning a 12-kb region of genomic DNA, respectively. Murine cathepsin Z was mapped to chromosome 2, a region with synteny homology to a region of human chromosome 20 to which human cathepsin Z has been mapped previously. Northern blot analysis revealed ubiquitous expression of murine cathepsin Z. Multiple transcriptional start sites were identified for the murine cathepsin Z gene and together with the absence of a TATA box, a high G+C content, a CpG island and the presence of several Sp1-binding sites in the promoter region, murine cathepsin Z may be classified as a 'housekeeping' gene. (+info)
Capturing protein interactions in the secretory pathway of living cells. (2/15)The secretory pathway is composed of membrane compartments specialized in protein folding, modification, transport, and sorting. Numerous transient protein-protein interactions guide the transport-competent proteins through the secretory pathway. Here we have adapted the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) to detect protein-protein interactions in the secretory pathway of living cells. Fragments of YFP were fused to the homooligomeric cargo-receptor lectin endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC)-53, to the ERGIC-53-interacting multi-coagulation factor deficiency protein MCFD2, and to ERGIC-53's cargo glycoprotein cathepsin Z. YFP PCA analysis revealed the oligomerization of ERGIC-53 and its interaction with MCFD2, as well as its lectin-mediated interaction with cathepsin Z. Mutation of the lectin domain of ERGIC-53 selectively decreased YFP complementation with cathepsin Z. Using YFP PCA, we discovered a carbohydrate-mediated interaction between ERGIC-53 and cathepsin C. We conclude that YFP PCA can detect weak and transient protein interactions in the secretory pathway and hence is a powerful approach to study luminal processes involved in protein secretion. The study extends the application of PCA to carbohydrate-mediated protein-protein interactions of low affinity. (+info)
Mapping of a novel susceptibility locus suggests a role for MC3R and CTSZ in human tuberculosis. (3/15)(+info)
Synergistic antitumor effects of combined cathepsin B and cathepsin Z deficiencies on breast cancer progression and metastasis in mice. (4/15)(+info)
Cathepsin X is secreted by human osteoblasts, digests CXCL-12 and impairs adhesion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to osteoblasts. (5/15)(+info)
Cathepsin X-deficient gastric epithelial cells in co-culture with macrophages: characterization of cytokine response and migration capability after Helicobacter pylori infection. (6/15)(+info)
Cysteine proteases bleomycin hydrolase and cathepsin Z mediate N-terminal proteolysis and toxicity of mutant huntingtin. (7/15)(+info)
Genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis associated with cathepsin Z haplotype in a Ugandan household contact study. (8/15)(+info)
Cathepsin Z is a protease enzyme that is primarily found in the lysosomes of cells. It is involved in the degradation of various proteins, including extracellular matrix proteins, and has been implicated in a number of biological processes, including tissue remodeling, inflammation, and cancer. In the medical field, cathepsin Z has been studied as a potential therapeutic target for a variety of diseases, including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. It has also been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of certain neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.
Cathepsins are a family of proteolytic enzymes that are found in the lysosomes of cells. They are responsible for breaking down a variety of proteins, including enzymes, hormones, and cellular debris. In the medical field, cathepsins are of interest because they play a role in many physiological processes, including cell growth and differentiation, immune function, and the degradation of damaged proteins. They are also involved in a number of pathological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders. As such, cathepsins are the subject of ongoing research in the field of medicine, with the goal of developing new therapeutic strategies based on their activity.
Cathepsin K is a protease enzyme that plays a crucial role in the degradation of bone matrix, particularly during bone resorption. It is primarily expressed in osteoclasts, which are specialized cells responsible for breaking down bone tissue. Cathepsin K is involved in the cleavage of specific bone proteins, such as osteocalcin and osteopontin, which are essential for bone remodeling and maintenance. In the medical field, cathepsin K is a target for the development of drugs to treat osteoporosis, a condition characterized by low bone density and increased risk of fractures. Additionally, cathepsin K has been implicated in several other diseases, including cancer, inflammatory disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.
Cathepsin B is a protease enzyme that is found in the lysosomes of cells in the human body. It plays a role in the degradation of proteins and other molecules within the cell, and is involved in a number of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). In the medical field, cathepsin B has been studied in relation to a number of diseases and conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infections. For example, cathepsin B has been shown to be involved in the development and progression of certain types of cancer, including breast cancer and pancreatic cancer. It has also been implicated in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, and in the pathogenesis of certain viral infections, including HIV and influenza. In addition to its role in disease, cathepsin B has also been studied as a potential therapeutic target. For example, drugs that inhibit the activity of cathepsin B have been investigated as potential treatments for cancer and other diseases.
Cathepsin L is a protease enzyme that is found in the lysosomes of cells in the human body. It is involved in the degradation of proteins and plays a role in the normal turnover of cellular proteins. Cathepsin L is also involved in the immune response, as it is activated during the process of phagocytosis, in which immune cells engulf and destroy pathogens. In addition, cathepsin L has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory conditions.
Cathepsin D is a protease enzyme that is primarily found in the lysosomes of cells. It is involved in the degradation of proteins and peptides, including those that are involved in cell signaling and the turnover of extracellular matrix components. In the medical field, cathepsin D is often studied in relation to cancer, as it is overexpressed in many types of tumors and is thought to play a role in tumor growth and progression. It is also being investigated as a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment.
Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor (AβPP) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. It is a transmembrane protein that is primarily found in the brain and is responsible for the production of amyloid-beta peptides, which are the main components of the amyloid plaques that are characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. AβPP is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and is transported to the Golgi apparatus, where it is processed into different forms. One of the main forms is the amyloid-beta peptide, which is produced by the cleavage of AβPP by enzymes called beta-secretase and gamma-secretase. The accumulation of amyloid-beta peptides in the brain is thought to be a key factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. The peptides can aggregate and form insoluble plaques, which can disrupt the normal functioning of neurons and lead to the death of brain cells. In addition to its role in Alzheimer's disease, AβPP has also been implicated in other neurological disorders, such as frontotemporal dementia and Parkinson's disease.
Cystatin C is a small protein that is produced by most cells in the body. It is a member of the cystatin family of proteins, which are known to play a role in regulating the activity of cysteine proteases, enzymes that break down proteins. Cystatin C is primarily filtered by the kidneys and is excreted in the urine. It is a useful biomarker for assessing kidney function, as its levels in the blood and urine can be used to detect and monitor kidney disease. In addition to its role in kidney function, cystatin C has been implicated in a number of other biological processes, including inflammation, cell proliferation, and cancer.
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. It is the most common cause of dementia, a condition characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities severe enough to interfere with daily life. The disease is named after Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist who first described it in 1906. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal protein deposits in the brain, including amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. These deposits disrupt the normal functioning of brain cells, leading to their death and the progressive loss of cognitive abilities. Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease typically begin with mild memory loss and gradually worsen over time. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience difficulty with language, disorientation, and changes in personality and behavior. Eventually, they may become unable to care for themselves and require around-the-clock care. There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but treatments are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the disease. These treatments may include medications, lifestyle changes, and support from caregivers and healthcare professionals.
Cystatins are a family of cysteine protease inhibitors that play important roles in regulating the activity of proteases in the body. They are found in a variety of tissues and fluids, including blood, saliva, and pancreatic juice. Cystatins are synthesized as inactive precursors that are activated by proteolytic cleavage. Once activated, they bind to and inhibit the activity of cysteine proteases, which are enzymes that cleave proteins at specific cysteine residues. This inhibition helps to regulate the activity of these proteases and prevent them from causing damage to cells and tissues. Cystatins have been implicated in a number of physiological and pathological processes, including inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.
Protease inhibitor (biology)
RCSB PDB - 4DMX: Cathepsin K inhibitor
Cystatin C's Naughty Side-Slowing Aβ Degradation by Cathepsin B | ALZFORUM
SensoLyte® 440 Cathepsin B Assay Kit Fluorimetric - 1 kit
Maintenance of Melanophore Morphology and Survival Is Cathepsin and vps11 Dependent in Zebrafish | PLOS ONE
Medical Science Monitor | Immunohistochemical investigations on cathepsin D activity in structures of cholesteatoma. -...
Recombinant Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus Viral cathepsin (VCATH) | CSB-EP340730ARA | Cusabio
CTSD / Cathepsin D antibody
Ctsz (cathepsin Z) Rattus norvegicus
The Role of Cathepsin B in Pathophysiologies of Non-tumor and Tumor tissues: A Systematic Review [Abstract]
Pain prediction by serum biomarkers of bone turnover in people with knee osteoarthritis: an observational study of TRAcP5b and...
cathepsins are overexpressed in a number of cancers. because lasers and - A high-throughput screen identifies miRNA inhibitors
The Diagnosis of Human Fascioliasis by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Using Recombinant Cathepsin L Protease
Cathepsin E Protein - ACROBiosystems
Cathepsin D | Profiles RNS
CD44 signalling increases cathepsin K and MT1MMP expression to potentiate breast cancer cell invasion through collagen I |...
Cathepsin-W - Triple Point Biologics, Inc.
Cathepsin D expression level affects alpha-synuclein processing, aggregation, and toxicity in vivo<...
Recombinant Schistosoma mansoni Cathepsin C | Technique alternative | 01016098355 - HistoReady
Cathepsin C is a tissue-specific regulator of squamous carcinogenesis<...
Recombinant Human Cathepsin B/CTSB (C-6His) | Bon Opus Biosciences
Inhibition of cathepsin-K and matrix metalloproteinase by photodynamic therapy. | AVESİS
SciELO - Brazil - Individuals with covert severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection: Are they a critical booby...
Cathepsin Z, the blood test we have been waiting for osteoporosis - GT health
Mechanism-based inhibition of human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G by substituted dihydrouracils
Cathepsin L Regulates Metabolic Networks Controlling Rapid Cell Growth and Proliferation. - Target Discovery Institute
Heparin Modulates the Endopeptidase Activity of Leishmania mexicana Cysteine Protease Cathepsin L-Like rCPB2.8
MedlinePlus: Genes: C
Pharmacological targeting of cathepsin C: a key therapeutic target in chronic inflammatory and auto-immune diseases | LE STUDIUM
DSpace at EWHA: Chalcones, inhibitors for topoisomerase i and cathepsin B and L, as potential anti-cancer agents
- Directed screening of nitrile compounds revealed 3 as a highly potent cathepsin K inhibitor but with cathepsin S activity and very poor stability to microsomes. (rcsb.org)
- Using mass spectrometry analysis of cells treated with a pan cathepsin inhibitor, we observed an increased abundance of proteins involved in central carbon metabolism. (ox.ac.uk)
- CTS protease activity also measured by zymograph electrophoresis of Cathepsins. (histoready.com)
- The objective of this study was to determine the effects of antimicrobial photo dynamic therapy (aPDT) with indocyanine green (ICG) and toluidine blue (TB) on protease activity (matrix-bound cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and dentin bond strength. (bezmialem.edu.tr)
- RNAi mediated depletion of CD44 and MT1-MMP expression and pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin K attenuated CD44 promoted invasion through a collagen I matrix. (biomedcentral.com)
- Inhibition of cathepsin-K and matrix metalloproteinase by photodynamic therapy. (bezmialem.edu.tr)
- Inhibition of cathepsin-K and matrix met. (bezmialem.edu.tr)
- The cathepsin family consists of 12 cysteine proteases with broad exo- and endopeptidase activity, of which Cathepsin B is a member. (eurogentec.com)
- Furthermore, CD44/HA signalling was shown to increase cathepsin K and MT1MMP mRNA and protein expression in the MDAMB231BO cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- The test is Cathepsin Z mRNA and is measured in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (gertitashkomd.com)
- Authors found a strong correlation of elevated levels of Cathepsin Z mRNA in patients with osteopenia in addition to those with osteoporosis. (gertitashkomd.com)
- Since these cell lineages produce the protease , cathepsin Z, the aim of this study was to investigate whether altered cathepsin Z mRNA levels are associated with osteoporosis in clinical samples. (gertitashkomd.com)
- Irrespective of the biological effects of cathepsin Z, it has now been shown for the FIRST TIME here that the increase in cathepsin Z mRNA in isolated PBMC fractions is very strongly diagnostic for osteoporosis, at least in the patient group studied. (gertitashkomd.com)
- These results for cathepsin Z mRNA as a single biomarker are comparable to a peripheral blood biomarker panel consisting of 10 mRNAs including cathepsin Z mRNA for diagnosis of ischaemic stroke. (gertitashkomd.com)
- Furthermore, the observation that subjects with osteopenia also showed a significant increase in cathepsin Z mRNA compared to non-osteoporotic controls, strongly suggests that if replicated in a larger study, the cathepsin Z mRNA in patients' PBMC preparations could form the basis of a test for osteoporosis , which could aid in the detection of osteoporosis before a critical and expensive fragility fracture occurs. (gertitashkomd.com)
- Cathepsin Z mRNA has been shown for the first time to be significantly elevated in the PBMCs of patients with either osteopenia or osteoporosis compared to non-osteoporotic controls. (gertitashkomd.com)
- However, the increase in cathepsin Z mRNA level in osteopenia/osteoporosis was also observed when male and female participants over the age of 50, or female participants over the age of 50 were analysed. (gertitashkomd.com)
- The enzyme, cathepsin B (CatB), caught the attention of Li Gan at the Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease in San Francisco several years ago when it appeared to prevent buildup of amyloid plaques in the brains of AD mice overexpressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP). (alzforum.org)
- The SensoLyte® 440 Cathepsin B Assay Kit provides a fluorogenic peptide for measurement of enzyme activity. (eurogentec.com)
- Reacts with mouse CTSD / Cathepsin D. Cross reacts with human and rat protein. (covalab.com)
- The encoded protein is also known as cathepsin X and cathepsin P. This gene is ubiquitously expressed in cancer cell lines and primary tumors and, like other members of this family, may be involved in tumorigenesis. (enigmadiagnostics.com)
- Quantitative real-time PCR, immuno-blotting and ELISA-based experiments have demonstrated that the transcript and protein expression of cathepsin K and MT1MMP increase in response to CD44/HA signalling in a panel of CD44-expressing breast cancer cell lines (MDA231, MDA157 and MCF7F). (biomedcentral.com)
- Immunohistochemical investigations on cathepsin D activity in structures of cholesteatoma. (medscimonit.com)
- Results: Serum TRAcP5b activity, but not cathepsin K-immunoreactivity, was associated with density of TRAcP-positive osteoclasts in the subchondral bone of medial tibia plateaux. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- A series of dihydrouracil derivatives has been synthesized and investigated for their in vitro inhibitory activity toward human leukocyte elastase (HLE) and cathepsin G (Cath G). Alkyl [sulfonyl(oxy)] uracils 1-2 were found to be efficient, time-dependent inhibitors of elastase (kobs/[I] M-1 s-1 values ranged between 480 and 8110). (wichita.edu)
- The acyl enzymes formed with cathepsin G deacylated rapidly, leading to a significant regain of enzymatic activity. (wichita.edu)
- Here we report that loss of cathepsin L (Cts L) is associated with a fast proliferation rate and enhanced glycolytic metabolism that depend on lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity. (ox.ac.uk)
- However, cathepsin D can have both anti- and pro- survival functions depending on its proteolytic activity, cellular context and stress stimulus. (bvsalud.org)
- Cathepsin D" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
- Recombinant Human Cathepsin B is produced by our Mammalian expression system and the target gene encoding Arg18-Ile339 is expressed with a 6His tag at the C-terminus. (bonopusbio.com)
- Cathepsin D has garnered increased attention in recent years, mainly since it has been associated with several human pathologies . (bvsalud.org)
- Objectives: To investigate serum biomarkers, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAcP5b) and cathepsin K, indicative of osteoclastic bone resorption, and their relationship to pain and pain change in knee osteoarthritis (OA). (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Further experiments conducted using a parental and bone-homing subclone of the MDAMB231 cell line (MDAMB213BO) have shown that the expression of CD44, cathepsin K and MT1MMP is elevated in the MDAMB231BO cells relative to their parental counterparts. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cathepsin Z is a protease synthesized by both bone remodeling cells - osteoclast and osteoblasts. (gertitashkomd.com)
- Wang J, Zheng M, Yang X, Zhou X, Zhang S. The Role of Cathepsin B in Pathophysiologies of Non-tumor and Tumor tissues: A Systematic Review. (jcancer.org)
- In this review , we provide an overview of the role of cathepsin D in physiological and pathological scenarios. (bvsalud.org)
- Emphasis is given to the role of the yeast protease Pep4p, the vacuolar counterpart of cathepsin D , in life and death . (bvsalud.org)
- Finally, we discuss how insights from yeast cathepsin D and its role in regulated cell death can unveil novel functions of mammalian cathepsin D in apoptosis and cancer . (bvsalud.org)
- Role of engineered metal oxide nanoparticle agglomeration in reactive oxygen species generation and cathepsin B release in NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pulmonary toxicity. (cdc.gov)
- In particular, cathepsin D is often overexpressed and hypersecreted in cancer cells , implying it may constitute a therapeutic target. (bvsalud.org)
- Yeast as a tool to explore cathepsin D function. (bvsalud.org)
- We then focus on the opposing functions of cathepsin D in apoptosis , particularly relevant in cancer research . (bvsalud.org)
Form a unique fingerprint1
- Immunohistochemical and biochemical changes in cathepsin D'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (elsevierpure.com)
Monitor intracellular cathepsin2
- Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Cathepsin Z from Human in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids. (noveoninc.com)
- Abrogation of cathepsin C by Helicobacter pylori impairs neutrophil activation to promote gastric infection. (bvsalud.org)
- Thus, cathepsin B inhibition is a crucial therapeutic aspect for the discovery of new anti-Alzheimer's drugs. (edu.au)
- Cathepsin G, a serine protease, is often associated with the degradation of cells and participates in a cascade of other proteolytic proinflammatory pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
- Invasion and metastasis of certain tumors are accompanied by increased mRNA protein levels and enzymatic activity of cathepsin L. Cathepsin L has also been suggested to play a role in the proteolytic cascades associated with apoptosis. (lincoln.ac.uk)
- In this study, we have employed mixed-feature ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS) by integrating pharmacophore mapping, docking, and molecular dynamics to detect small, potent molecules that act as cathepsin B inhibitors. (edu.au)
- The LBVS model was generated by using hydrophobic (HY), hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), and hydrogen bond donor (HBD) features, using a dataset of 24 known cathepsin B inhibitors of both natural and synthetic origins. (edu.au)
- The identified inhibitors were further evaluated for cathepsin-B-inhibitory activity. (edu.au)
- Description: Quantitative sandwich ELISA for measuring Human Cathepsin Z (CTSZ) in samples from cell culture supernatants, serum, whole blood, plasma and other biological fluids. (noveoninc.com)
- Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rat Cathepsin Z(CTSZ) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (noveoninc.com)
- An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS. (ouhsc.edu)
- This Magic Red kit detects cathepsin L The Magic Red reagent MR-FR2 enters each cell in a non-fluorescent state. (immunochemistry.com)
- To investigate the role of cathepsin L in brain tumor invasion and apoptosis, the human glioma cell line, IPTP, was stably transfected with full-length antisense and sense cDNA of cathepsin L. Down-regulation of cathepsin L by antisense cDNA significantly impaired (up to 70%) glioma cell invasion in vitro and markedly increased glioma cell apoptosis induced by staurosporine. (lincoln.ac.uk)
- While enhancing potency towards recombinant cathepsins, the new probe had reduced cell permeability due to additional peptide bonds. (huji.ac.il)
- Mechanical testing of carotid arteries and aortas from mice with sickle cell disease allows us to understand the changes to the elastin and collagen structures as they are remodeled due to upregulation of cathepsins in response to sickle cell disease. (nih.gov)
Considered the expression1
- Hence, we considered the expression of cathepsin G as a potential marker indicating UVA1-induced reduction of cutaneous inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cathepsin E" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cathepsin E" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ouhsc.edu)
- Compared to lesional skin of patients with AD before UVA1 irradiation, the number of cells positive for cathepsin G within the dermal infiltrate decreased significantly after treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
- In summary, our findings demonstrated that medium-dose UVA1 irradiation leads to a modulation of the expression of cathepsin G in the dermal inflammatory infiltrate in patients with severe AD. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we show the development of an improved cathepsin ABP that has a P1 positive charge by linking the tag on an additional amino acid at the end of the probe. (huji.ac.il)
- The decrease of cathepsin G + cells was closely linked to a substantial clinical improvement in skin condition. (biomedcentral.com)