A cysteine endopeptidase found in NATURAL KILLER CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES. It may have a specific function in the mechanism or regulation of cytolytic activity of immune cells.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.
An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).
An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.
An activating NK cell lectin-like receptor subfamily that regulates immune responses to INFECTION and NEOPLASMS. Members of this subfamily generally occur as homodimers.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous rodents through chemical, biological, or other means.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.

Crystal structure of MHC class II-associated p41 Ii fragment bound to cathepsin L reveals the structural basis for differentiation between cathepsins L and S. (1/644)

The lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsins S and L play crucial roles in the degradation of the invariant chain during maturation of MHC class II molecules and antigen processing. The p41 form of the invariant chain includes a fragment which specifically inhibits cathepsin L but not S. The crystal structure of the p41 fragment, a homologue of the thyroglobulin type-1 domains, has been determined at 2.0 A resolution in complex with cathepsin L. The structure of the p41 fragment demonstrates a novel fold, consisting of two subdomains, each stabilized by disulfide bridges. The first subdomain is an alpha-helix-beta-strand arrangement, whereas the second subdomain has a predominantly beta-strand arrangement. The wedge shape and three-loop arrangement of the p41 fragment bound to the active site cleft of cathepsin L are reminiscent of the inhibitory edge of cystatins, thus demonstrating the first example of convergent evolution observed in cysteine protease inhibitors. However, the different fold of the p41 fragment results in additional contacts with the top of the R-domain of the enzymes, which defines the specificity-determining S2 and S1' substrate-binding sites. This enables inhibitors based on the thyroglobulin type-1 domain fold, in contrast to the rather non-selective cystatins, to exhibit specificity for their target enzymes.  (+info)

Crystal structure of wild-type human procathepsin K. (2/644)

Cathepsin K is a lysosomal cysteine protease belonging to the papain superfamily. It has been implicated as a major mediator of osteoclastic bone resorption. Wild-type human procathepsin K has been crystallized in a glycosylated and a deglycosylated form. The latter crystals diffract better, to 3.2 A resolution, and contain four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and refined to an R-factor of 0.194. The N-terminal fragment of the proregion forms a globular domain while the C-terminal segment is extended and shows substantial flexibility. The proregion interacts with the enzyme along the substrate binding groove and along the proregion binding loop (residues Ser138-Asn156). It binds to the active site in the opposite direction to that of natural substrates. The overall binding mode of the proregion to cathepsin K is similar to that observed in cathepsin L, caricain, and cathepsin B, but there are local differences that likely contribute to the specificity of these proregions for their cognate enzymes. The main observed difference is in the position of the short helix alpha3p (67p-75p), which occupies the S' subsites. As in the other proenzymes, the proregion utilizes the S2 subsite for anchoring by placing a leucine side chain there, according to the specificity of cathepsin K toward its substrate.  (+info)

Vaccination with cathepsin L proteinases and with leucine aminopeptidase induces high levels of protection against fascioliasis in sheep. (3/644)

The potential of different parasite proteinases for use as vaccine candidates against fascioliasis in sheep was studied by vaccinating animals with the cathepsin L proteinases CL1 and CL2 and with leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) purified from adult flukes. In the first trial, sheep were immunized with CL1 or CL2 and the mean protection levels obtained were 33 and 34%, respectively. Furthermore, a significant reduction in egg output was observed in sheep vaccinated either with CL1 (71%) or with CL2 (81%). The second trial was performed to determine the protective potential of the two cathepsin L proteinases assayed together, as well as in combination with LAP, and of LAP alone. The combination of CL1 and CL2 induced higher levels of protection (60%) than those produced when these enzymes were administered separately. Those sheep that received the cocktail vaccine including CL1, CL2, and LAP were significantly protected (78%) against metacercarial challenge, but vaccination with LAP alone elicited the highest level of protection (89%). All vaccine preparations induced high immunoglobulin G titers which were boosted after the challenge infection, but no correlations between antibody titers and worm burdens were found. However, the sera of those animals vaccinated with LAP contained LAP-neutralizing antibodies. Reduced liver damage, as assessed by the level of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase, was observed in the groups vaccinated with CL1, CL2, and LAP or with LAP alone.  (+info)

Acidic pH as a physiological regulator of human cathepsin L activity. (4/644)

Human cysteine protease cathepsin L was inactivated at acid pH by a first-order process. The inactivation rate decreased with increasing concentrations of a small synthetic substrate, suggesting that substrates stabilize the active conformation. The substrate-independent inactivation rate constant increased with organic solvent content of the buffer, consistent with internal hydrophobic interactions, disrupted by the organic solvent, also stabilizing the enzyme. Circular dichroism showed that the inactivation is accompanied by large structural changes, a decrease in alpha-helix content being especially pronounced. The high activation energy of the reaction at pH 3.0 (200 kJ.mol-1) supported such a major conformational change occurring. The acid inactivation of cathepsin L was irreversible, consistent with the propeptide being needed for proper folding of the enzyme. Aspartic protease cathepsin D was shown to cleave denatured, but not active cathepsin L, suggesting a potential mechanism for in-vivo regulation and turnover of cathepsin L inside lysosomes.  (+info)

A novel egg-derived tyrosine phosphatase, EDTP, that participates in the embryogenesis of Sarcophaga peregrina (flesh fly). (5/644)

We have previously reported that cathepsin L mRNA is present in unfertilized eggs of Sarcophaga peregrina (flesh fly) as a maternal mRNA, which suggests that cathepsin L is required for embryogenesis. Now we have identified an egg protein, with a molecular mass of 100 kDa, that is extremely susceptible to cathepsin L digestion and which disappears rapidly as the embryos develop. We purified this protein to homogeneity, cloned its cDNA, and found that it contained a consensus sequence for the active site of tyrosine phosphatase. In fact this protein showed tyrosine phosphatase activity, indicating that it is a novel tyrosine phosphatase. The expression and subsequent disappearance of this protein, which we have named egg-derived tyrosine phosphatase (EDTP), may be indispensable for embryogenesis of Sarcophaga.  (+info)

Collagenase, cathepsin B and cathepsin L gene expression in the synovial membrane of patients with early inflammatory arthritis. (6/644)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-1, and the cysteine proteases, cathepsin B (CB) and cathepsin L (CL), in the synovial membrane (SM) of patients with early inflammatory arthritis. METHODS: Samples of SM were obtained by blind needle biopsy or needle arthroscopy from inflamed knees of 28 patients with early inflammatory arthritis (mean disease duration 10.2 months, range 2 weeks-18 months). Sixteen patients had rheumatoid arthritis (RA), nine psoriatic arthritis and there was one each with ankylosing spondylitis, gout and an undifferentiated arthritis. Comparison was made with tissue from two patients with established erosive RA and three normal synovial tissue samples. In situ hybridization was performed using digoxigenin-labelled RNA probes. RESULTS: MMP-1, CB and CL were expressed in all patients with early arthritis and in established erosive RA, whereas normal synovium showed only scanty expression. The three proteases were prominent in perivascular infiltrates and endothelial cells of early arthritis tissue. MMP-1 was observed primarily in the lining layer, but was also evident in the sublining area. CB and CL were expressed to a lesser extent in the lining layer, and were present mainly in the subintima. The three proteases were not found in lymphoid aggregrates. No differences were observed between the disease categories. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of MMP-1, CB and CL in the synovium shortly after symptom onset implies that the potential for joint destruction exists at a very early stage in the disease. In addition, the perivascular and endothelial cell expression suggests a role for these proteases in mononuclear cell influx to the inflamed synovium and in angiogenesis.  (+info)

Short report: Diagnosis of human fascioliasis: detection of anti-cathepsin L antibodies in blood samples collected on filter paper. (7/644)

We have developed an ELISA for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis based on the detection of IgG4 antibodies to Fasciola hepatica cathepsin LI cysteine protease. Use of this assay in the Bolivian Altiplano, a region with a high prevalence of the disease, was hampered by the reluctance of the indigenous population to provide blood. To overcome this problem, we have investigated the method of collecting small quantities of blood from the finger onto filter paper, followed by the elution of antibodies for use in the diagnostic assay. Serum samples and blood samples collected onto filter paper were obtained from 57 individuals living in the village of Cutusuma in 1987 and from 11 individuals in Chijipata in 1996. Analysis of the IgG4-ELISA results revealed that there is highly significant linear relationship (P < 0.001) between the two methods of sampling. Most importantly, a reliable diagnosis was made with the blood-filter samples from Cutusuma, which had been stored for 10 years at 40 degrees C. While some deterioration of the blood-filter samples from Cutusuma had occurred over the 10-year storage period, no deterioration occurred with the Chijipata samples, which were stored for one year. Therefore, the method of collecting blood onto filter paper should prove useful for large-scale epidemiologic studies on human fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano and in other regions where this disease is prevalent.  (+info)

Short report: Immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis using recombinant Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L1 cysteine proteinase. (8/644)

Our laboratory recently developed a diagnostic test (ELISA) for human fascioliasis based on the detection of serum IgG4 antibodies reactive with Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L1 (CL1). In the present study, we have used recombinant CL1, generated by functional expression of the cDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in this immunodiagnostic test and compared its performance with native CL1. Sera obtained from 64 individuals living in Cutusuma village in the northern Altiplano of Bolivia, a region with a high prevalence of human fascioliasis, were analyzed by the IgG4-ELISA. A highly statistically significant correlation (r2 = 0.751, P < 0.001) was demonstrated between the absorbances obtained using the recombinant and native proteins. These assays showed that 38 (59%) of the individuals tested were seropositive for fascioliasis, whereas only 26 of them were coprologically positive for F. hepatica eggs. All seronegative patients were also coprologically negative. Serum from individuals infected with schistosomiasis mansoni, cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and Chagas disease did not contain antibodies reactive with the recombinant or native CL1. Therefore, recombinant CL1 shows excellent potential for the development of the first standardized assay for the sensitive and specific diagnosis of human fascioliasis. Finally, our data supports earlier reports on the high prevalence of human fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano, which collectively suggest that the disease has been endemic there for more than a decade.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Deficiency for the cysteine protease cathepsin L promotes tumor progression in mouse epidermis. AU - Dennemärker, J.. AU - Lohmüller, T.. AU - Mayerle, J.. AU - Tacke, M.. AU - Lerch, M. M.. AU - Coussens, L. M.. AU - Peters, C.. AU - Reinheckel, T.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Ulrike Reif and Susanne Dollwet-Mack for excellent technical assistance and Dr Marie Follo for comments on the paper. The work was supported by a grant from the Deutsche Krebshilfe (Re106977) and in part by the Excellence Initiative of the German Federal and State Governments (EXC 294) and the European Union Framework Program (FP7 MICRO-ENVIMET No 201279).. PY - 2010/3. Y1 - 2010/3. N2 - To define a functional role for the endosomal/lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin L (Ctsl) during squamous carcinogenesis, we generated mice harboring a constitutive Ctsl deficiency in addition to epithelial expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 oncogenes (human cytokeratin 14 (K14)-HPV16). We found ...
Taenia solium metacestode, a larval pork tapeworm, is a causative agent of neurocysticercosis, one of the most common parasitic diseases in the human central nervous system. In this study, we identified a cDNA encoding for a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from the T solium metacestode (TsCL-1) and characterized the biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme. The cloned cDNA of 1216 bp encoded 339 amino acids with an approximate molecular weight of 37.6 kDa which containing a typical signal peptide sequence (17 amino acids), a pro-domain (106 amino acids), and a mature domain (216 amino acids). Sequence alignments of TsCL-1 showed low sequence similarity of 27.3-44.6 to cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases from other helminth parasites, but the similarity was increased to 35.9-55.0 when compared to mature domains. The bacterially expressed recombinant protein (rTsCL-1) did not show enzyme activity; however, the rTsCL-1 expressed in Pichia pastoris showed typical biochemical ...
SID 26681509 is a reversible and potent human cathepsin L inhibitor. SID 26681509 displays no inhibitory activity of cathepsin G.
CTSL3P (ENST00000354530.2) at chr9:87772915-87786884 - Homo sapiens cathepsin L family member 3, pseudogene (CTSL3P), non-coding RNA. (from RefSeq NR_027917) CTSL (ENST00000343150.10) at chr9:87726119-87731469 - Homo sapiens cathepsin L (CTSL), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_001912) CTSL (ENST00000495822.1) at chr9:87726134-87731393 - cathepsin L (from HGNC CTSL) CTSL (ENST00000482054.1) at chr9:87726140-87729680 - cathepsin L (from HGNC CTSL) CTSL3P (ENST00000412179.5) at chr9:87772453-87774299 - cathepsin L family member 3, pseudogene (from HGNC CTSL3P) CTSL (ENST00000375894.9) at chr9:87726114-87731073 - cathepsin L (from HGNC CTSL) CTSL (ENST00000342020.5) at chr9:87726140-87728997 - Belongs to the peptidase C1 family. (from UniProt Q5T8F0) CTSL (ENST00000340342.10) at chr9:87726109-87731386 - Homo sapiens cathepsin L (CTSL), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_145918) CTDSPL2 (ENST00000558966.5) at chr15:44427793-44524543 - Probable phosphatase (By similarity). (from ...
The aim of the work was to identify and characterize the cysteine proteinases of bone tissue, as these enzymes appear necessary for bone resorption. Three cysteine-dependent proteolytic activities were separated from a homogenate of mouse calvaria by a fractionation procedure involving (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The first two are typical cathepsins B and L with respect to (1) their reactivity with anti-(cathepsin B) and anti-(cathepsin L) antibodies respectively, (2) their relative rate constants for inhibition by benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Phe-CHN2 and L-3-carboxy-trans-2,3-epoxypropionyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanid ino)butane and (3) their enzymic properties, such as the higher activities of cathepsin L against collagen and gelatin as compared with cathepsin B, and the fact that benzyloxycarbonyl-Arg-Arg 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamide is hydrolysed only by cathepsin B. Cathepsin L was mainly recovered in its precursor form, as indicated by its apparent 40 kDa ...
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant human Cathepsin L protein (ab81780). Please download our general protocols booklet
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cathepsin L inhibition by the small molecule KGP94 suppresses tumor microenvironment enhanced metastasis associated cell functions of prostate and breast cancer cells. AU - Sudhan, Dhivya R.. AU - Siemann, Dietmar W.. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgments The authors thank Dr. Kevin Pinney of Baylor University for providing KGP94 and Drs. Yao Dai and Kyung-Mi Bae as well as Sharon Lepler for scientific input. The H4A3 mouse LAMP1 antibody developed by J. Thomas August and James E.K. Hildreth was obtained from the Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank developed under the auspices of the NICHD and maintained by The University of Iowa, Department of Biology, Iowa City, IA 52242. These studies were supported in part by a Grant from the National Cancer Institute (US Public Health Service Grant R01 CA169300).. PY - 2013/10. Y1 - 2013/10. N2 - Metastasis remains the major cause of therapeutic failure, poor prognosis and high mortality in breast and prostate cancer patients. Aberrant ...
Purpose : We have previously demonstrated that an accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the Bruchs membrane (BrM) can alter retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) lysosomal activity by changing expression of key effectors and inhibitors. Altered activity of lysosomal cysteine proteases, the cathepsins, can in turn impact signalling via the NF-kB pathway. The aim of this study therefore was to analyse the effects of AGEs on specific lysosomal cathepsins, and the endogenous levels of effectors of the NF-kB signalling pathway in RPE. Methods : ARPE-19 cells were cultured on AGE-containing BrM mimics in vitro for 7-14 days. Intracellular processing of the cysteine proteases cathepsins B, L and S were assessed by qPCR and immunoblotting, while their intracellular activity was assessed using fluorescence-based cleavage assays. Expression of NF-kB (p65) and its main regulatory protein, IκBα, was assessed by qPCR and immunoblotting. Statistical analysis was performed using the ...
Cathepsin L antibody [2H7] (cathepsin L1) for ELISA, WB. Anti-Cathepsin L mAb (GTX50040) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
19 products from 13 suppliers. Compare and order Cathepsin L2 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products for the most popular species. Our scientists will help you find the right ELISA kit for your needs.
Certain cysteine proteases, such as cathepsin L (Ctsl), have been involved in yolk processing mechanisms in oocytes and embryos of lower vertebrates. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), three different ctsl genes, ctsla, ctslb and ctslc, have been found in the genome, but their pattern of expression, as well as information on which the encoded enzymes are potentially involved in yolk absorption during embryogenesis, is unknown. Here, phylogenetic and gene structure analysis revealed that zebrafish ctsla and ctslb genes are similar, showing a highly conserved structure in comparison with human ctsl, while ctslc presents different exon organization together with an earlier evolution. Thus, ctslc appears to be evolved from a common ancestral ctsl-like gene, possibly through an early duplication event, whereas ctsla and ctslb may be originated from a second duplication mechanism. Zebrafish ctsla, ctslb and ctslc also showed different patterns of mRNA expression during embryogenesis and in adult tissues. ...
Cathepsin S (catS) and cathepsin L (catL) mediate late stages of invariant chain (Ii) degradation in discrete antigen-presenting cell types. Macrophages (Mϕs) a
Targeting EMT with a small-molecule inhibitor may be important in therapeutics, since it is increasingly being proven that EMT plays an integral role in cell migration, invasion, and metastasis (10, 11). Cat K and Cat S inhibitors have been tried in clinical trials, with many side effects and little progress (12, 13). However, no Cat L inhibitor has been evaluated in clinical trials. Our study was a preclinical mechanistic study to evaluate the feasibility of using the Cat L small-molecule inhibitor Z-FY-CHO in prostate and breast cancer cells that display EMT and are thus more aggressive. In this study, we showed that mesenchymal cells with high Snail expression displayed increased nuclear Cat L expression as well as increased expression of nuclear p110 and p90 isoforms of CUX1, which indicates higher Cat L activity within the nucleus since CUX1 is a substrate of Cat L in the nucleus (6). So far, only few substrates of nuclear cysteine peptidases have been identified, namely, CUX1, the histones ...
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Cathepsin L (Ctsl) is a proposed therapeutic target to control inflammatory responses in a number of disease states. However, Ctsl is thought to support host defense via its involvement in antigen presentation pathways. Hypothesizing that Ctsl helps combat bacterial infection, we investigated its role in Mycoplasma pulmonis-infected mice as a model of acute and chronic infectious airway inflammation. Responses to the airway inoculation of mycoplasma were compared in Ctsl(-/-) and Ctsl(+/+) mice. After infection, Ctsl(-/-) mice demonstrated more body weight loss, greater mortality (22% versus 0%, respectively), and heavier lungs than Ctsl(+/+) mice, but had smaller bronchial lymph nodes. The burden of live mycoplasma in lungs was 247-fold greater in Ctsl(-/-) mice than in Ctsl(+/+) mice after infection for 3 days. Ctsl(-/-) mice exhibited more severe pneumonia and neutrophil-rich, airway-occlusive exudates, which developed more rapidly than in Ctsl(+/+) mice. Compared with the conspicuous ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin L/MEP antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Mouse, Human. Independently reviewed in 1 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to full length protein.
2014 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 43, no S127, 53-53 p.Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published ...
Cysteine cathepsins normally function in the lysosomal degradation system where they are critical for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and the MHC II immune response, and have been found to have major roles in several diseases and in tumor progression. Selective visualization of individual pr …
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The process of tumour growth and of developing metastases leads to a kind of cellular stress in some cancer cells. Cells inside the tumour are cut off from oxygen and nutrients due to the lack of blood vessels. The tumour cannot grow and metastasise. Reinheckel found higher than normal cathepsin L (CTSL) levels in breast cancer cells, even though they were in an obviously stressed state. He therefore wondered how cells managed to produce such high cathepsin L levels despite high cancer stress conditions. In the absence of oxygen or nutrients, tumour cells are prompted to initiate a programme that shuts down new protein synthesis in order to save material and energy. The cells achieve this by inhibiting the translation of mRNA into protein. Under stress conditions, newly formed ribosomes fail to associate with cytoskeletal mRNA, preventing the formation of new actin molecules. Moreover, cells that are under stress form granular aggregations in which the mRNA can be temporarily wrapped to protect ...
Remodeling of cellular metabolism is a genuine feature of rapidly growing cells. Herein we report that mouse embryonic fibroblasts, lacking the Cathepsin L (Cts L) gene, proliferate faster than wild-types and display a noticeable glycolytic shift to satisfy their ever-growing metabolic needs. Mass spectrometry analyses identified LDHA as an essential metabolic junction in these cells, and downstream biochemical studies suggested that Cts L regulates LDHA expression and function. Together, these data uncover an unprecedented role for Cathepsin L in cell metabolism. ...
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|p|E-64-c, which is also known as Ep-475, is an analog of E-64 and inhibitor of cysteine proteinases. [1]|br /|The cysteine proteinases, of which Cathepsins B and H and cathepsin L exist in mammals, contain an essential highly reactive thiol group, and th
Cathepsin L (CTSL) is a cysteine protease known to have important roles in regulating cancer cellular resistance to chemotherapy. However mechanism underlying w
This domain is found at the N-terminus of some C1 peptidases such as Cathepsin L where it acts as a propeptide. There are also a number of proteins that are composed solely of multiple copies of this domain such as the peptidase inhibitor salarin. This family is classified as I29 by MEROPS. Peptide proteinase inhibitors can be found as single domain proteins or as single or multiple domains within proteins; these are referred to as either simple or compound inhibitors, respectively. In many cases they are synthesised as part of a larger precursor protein, either as a prepropeptide or as an N-terminal domain associated with an inactive peptidase or zymogen. This domain prevents access of the substrate to the active site. Removal of the N-terminal inhibitor domain either by interaction with a second peptidase or by autocatalytic cleavage activates the zymogen. Other inhibitors interact direct with proteinases using a simple noncovalent lock and key mechanism; while yet others use a conformational ...
A review of the Soon This Will All Be Gone by catl. Published June 9, 2012. ; !earshot magazine features campus/community radio charts, cd reviews, articles and interviews, label profiles and more.
Proteases play an intricate role in the numerous functions of a living organism. Proteases are responsible for the cleavage of proteins into smaller fragments by catalysing the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. The class of cysteine proteases have a cysteine thiol group in their active site have been found in lower and higher organisms. They have been investigated as promising drug targets for various diseases due to their fundamental functions in catabolism and protein processing. The thermal stability of a protease is a key characteristic feature that is largely dependent on its amino acid sequence and composition and quantified through the determination of its melting temperature (TM). Papain is the most well characterised cysteine protease and is commonly used as a model for other cysteine proteases. Congopain is the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma congolense which has been identified as the main causative agent of trypanosomiasis in livestock. The thermal stability for papain and ...
Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury contributes to the cardiac damage following myocardial infarction and paradoxically reduces the benefits of reperfusion therapy. In patients with ischaemic heart disease, cathepsin-L is elevated in the serum and correlates with disease severity. Our data demonstrate that cathepsin-L released from ex vivo rat hearts after ischaemia, and the cathepsin-L inhibitor CAA0225 improves cardiac function during ischaemia-reperfusion ex vivo. However, the effects of the CAA0225 in in vivo hearts during ischaemia-reperfusion are unknown. We hypothesised that using CAA0225 in an in vivo mouse model of ischaemia-reperfusion would identify the role cathepsin-L plays during ischaemia-reperfusion. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury was induced by 45 min temporary coronary artery ligation and CAA0225 was given by intra-venous injection during ischaemia before reperfusion. Double-dye staining demonstrated no difference in area at risk between groups whereas CAA0225 significantly reduced ...
Efficacy of Sandwich and Dot-ELISA in Diagnosis of Fascioliasis using a Pair of Polyclonal Antibodies Against Cathepsin L Antigen in Naturally Infected Sheep ...
Increased human cathepsin L activity is linked to invasive and metastatic cancers where it promotes degradation of the extracellular matrix. This major cysteine protease found in cell lysosomes and secreted from tissues ...
Nanomaterials are being incorporated into many biological applications for use as therapeutics sensors or labels. silver nanoparticles due to the increased use of these materials in biological applications. This manuscript depicts how both of these types of nanomaterials affect cathepsin activity which could impact the hosts immune system and its ability to respond to pathogens. Cathepsin B activity decreases in a dose-dependent manner with all nanoparticles tested. Alternatively the impact of nanoparticles on cathepsin L activity depends greatly on the type and size of the material. ≤ 0.05 was used as the level for significance. A-867744 Results Ag-NP Biocompatibility in Vero cells After a 24-h exposure a 25% decline in cell viability was observed in Vero cells exposed to 50 μg/ml of 10-nm uncoated Ag-NPs Mouse monoclonal to MAP2. MAP2 is the major microtubule associated protein of brain tissue. There are three forms of MAP2; two are similarily sized with apparent molecular weights of 280 ...
3d0g), namely at residues 31, 35, 38, & 353 in ACE2 or residues 479 and 487 in the SARS-CoV RBD, are what allowed for SARS transmission from Civets to Humans. In fact, in those SARS strains which were determined to be most infectious, the unfavorable electrostatic interactions at the binding interface were removed via mutations at the critical residues 479 and 487. [16] In 2020 Zhou et al. (Nature. 2020; 579: 270-273) and Hoffmann et al. (Cell. 2020; 181: 271-280) showed that SARS-CoV-2, the COVID-19 coronavirus causing the global 2019-2020 pandemia, uses ACE2 as a receptor protein to enter and infect cells, just as SARS-CoV does. Cell entry requires the binding of the S1 region of the virus spike (S) protein to ACE2 followed by the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes produced by the S2 subunit of the S protein. Beforehand, this process requires priming of the S protein by host cell proteases, which is performed by TMPRSS2 and the endosomal cysteine proteases cathepsin B and L (CatB/L). ...
Cathepsin S, Human, Recombinant, E. coli, is prepared without a tag or fusion protein. A major lysosomal cysteine proteinase with high specific activity. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Tomasz Gogiel, Małgorzata Wolańska, Zofia Galewska, Piotr Kinalski, Krzysztof Sobolewski, Lech Romanowicz].
The protein therapeutic and CD95L inhibitor asunercept is currently under clinical investigation for the treatment of glioblastoma and myelodysplastic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to predict the asunercept pharmacokinetics in children and to give dose recommendations for its first use in pediatric glioblastoma patients. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of asunercept in healthy and diseased adults was successfully developed using the available clinical Phase I and Phase II study data. This model was then extrapolated to different pediatric populations, to predict the asunercept exposure in children and to find equivalent starting doses. Simulation of the asunercept serum concentration-time curves in children between 1–18 years of age shows that a dosing regimen based on body weight results in a similar asunercept steady-state exposure in all patients (pediatric or adult) above 12 years of age. For children between 1–12 years, higher doses per kg body weight are
Savalas, L. R., Gasnier, B., Damme, M., Lübke, T., Wrocklage, C., Debacker, C., Jezeqou, A., Reinheckel, T., Hasilik, A., Saftig, P., et al. (2011). Disrupted in renal carcinoma 2 (DIRC2), a novel transporter of the lysosomal membrane, is proteolytically processed by cathepsin L. Biochemical Journal 436, 113-121 ...
|p|EPZ5676 is a potent inhibitor of DOT1L histone methyltransferase, according to X-ray crystallographic analysis, that occupies the S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) binding pocket of DOT1L and induces conformational changes in DOT1L resulting in the opening o
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Cysteine cathepsin proteases contribute to many normal cellular functions, and their aberrant activity within various cell types can contribute to many diseases, including breast cancer. It is now well accepted that cathepsin proteases have numerous cell-specific functions within the tumor microenvironment that function to promote tumor growth and invasion, such that they may be valid targets for anti-metastatic therapeutic approaches. Using activity-based probes, we have examined the activity and expression of cysteine cathepsins in a mouse model of breast cancer metastasis to bone. In mice bearing highly metastatic tumors, we detected abundant cysteine cathepsin expression and activity in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These immature immune cells have known metastasis-promoting roles, including immunosuppression and osteoclastogenesis, and we assessed the contribution of cysteine cathepsins to these functions. Blocking cysteine cathepsin activity with multiple small-molecule ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in Activity of Cysteine Cathepsins B and L in Brain Structures of Mice with Aggressive and Depressive-Like Behavior Formed under Conditions of Social Stress. AU - Zhanaeva, S. Ya. AU - Rogozhnikova, A. A.. AU - Alperina, E. L.. AU - Gevorgyan, M. M.. AU - Idov, G. V.. PY - 2018/3/1. Y1 - 2018/3/1. N2 - We studied activity of lysosomal cysteine proteases, cathepsins B and L, in brain structures (frontal cortex, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) of C57Bl/6J mice with aggressive and depressive-like behavior formed under conditions of chronic social stress (repeated experience of victories and defeats within 20 days). Mice with depressive-like behavior showed increased activity of cathepsin В in the hypothalamus and nucleus caudatus and increased activity of cathepsin L in the hippocampus compared to control animals not subjected to agonistic confrontations. In mice with aggressive behavior, protease activity in the studied brain structures was not changed. In ...
Cathepsin F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSF gene. Cathepsins are papain family cysteine proteinases that represent a major component of the lysosomal proteolytic system. In general, cathepsins contain a signal sequence, followed by a propeptide and then a catalytically active mature region. The very long (251-amino acid residues) proregion of the cathepsin F precursor contains a C-terminal domain similar to the pro-segment of cathepsin L-like enzymes, a 50-residue flexible linker peptide, and an N-terminal domain predicted to adopt a cystatin-like fold. The cathepsin F proregion is unique within the papain family cysteine proteases in that it contains this additional N-terminal segment predicted to share structural similarities with cysteine protease inhibitors of the cystatin superfamily. This cystatin-like domain contains some of the elements known to be important for inhibitory activity. CTSF encodes a predicted protein of 484 amino acids that contains a 19-residue signal ...
Looking for online definition of Cathepsin S in the Medical Dictionary? Cathepsin S explanation free. What is Cathepsin S? Meaning of Cathepsin S medical term. What does Cathepsin S mean?
Complexes of gold( I) have long been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis although the precise biological targets of gold are not well understood. One intriguing therapeutic target of Au( I) is the cathepsin family of lysosomal cysteine proteases. Here, we present the inhibition of cathepsin B by a known Au( I)-based drug and a series of derivatives. The complexes investigated were reversible, competitive inhibitors with IC50 values ranging from 0.3 to 250 mu M, depending on the substituents around the Au( I). ...
Cathepsin B, H, L and D activities in liver lysosomes were compared between species. Although cathepsin B and D were detected in bovine, pig, chicken and rat liver, striking species differences were evident for cathepsin H and L. Cathepsin L activity was particularly high in chicken lysosomal extracts, but could not be detected in bovine and pig extracts. Whereas there was no significant cathepsin H activity in bovine extracts, rat liver lysosomal extracts contained large amounts of cathepsin H activity. ...
Vectors based on different serotypes of adeno-associated virus hold great promise for human gene therapy, based on their unique tissue tropisms and distinct immunological profiles. A particularly interesting candidate is AAV8, which can efficiently and rapidly transduce a wide range of tissues in vivo. To further unravel the mechanisms behind AAV8 transduction, we used yeast two-hybrid analyses to screen a mouse liver complementary DNA library for cellular proteins capable of interacting with the viral capsid proteins. In total, we recovered approximately 700 clones, comprising over 300 independent genes. Sequence analyses revealed multiple hits for over 100 genes, including two encoding the endosomal cysteine proteases cathepsins B and L. Notably, these two proteases also physically interacted with the corresponding portion of the AAV2 capsid in yeast, but not with AAV5. We demonstrate that cathepsins B and L are essential for efficient AAV2- and AAV8-mediated transduction of mammalian cells, and
The parasitic protozoon Leishmania mexicana possesses an abundance of developmentally regulated cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinases expressed at highest levels in amastigotes. We recently characterised lmcpa, a single-copy gene encoding one such proteinase, LmCPa, which differs from other homologues by possessing a 3-amino-acid insertion at the amino terminal of the predicted mature proteinase. To investigate the role of LmCPa in L. mexicana, we used gene-targeting of promastigotes with hygromycin- and phleomycin-resistance markers to generate null mutants by disrupting sequentially both alleles of lmcpa. The promastigote null mutants did not differ significantly from wild-type L. mexicana in growth rate or morphology and could differentiate to metacyclics and the amastigote-like form, both of which could infect the J774G8 macrophage-like cell line. The null mutant amastigote-like form obtained from the J774G8 cells could also establish rump lesions in CBA mice. By these criteria, therefore, ...
1CPJ: CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF RECOMBINANT RAT CATHEPSIN B AND A CATHEPSIN B-INHIBITOR COMPLEX: IMPLICATIONS FOR STRUCTURE-BASED INHIBITOR DESIGN
Recombinant Human Cathepsin B /CTSB Protein, APP secretase (APPS), belongs to peptidase C1 family, produced in human 293 cells (HEK293).
Alopecia X occurs in several arctic breeds with plush undercoat such as the Keeshond, Pomeranian, Samojede, Chow-Chow, and Alaskan Malamute. It is characterized by hair loss and dark coloration of the affected skin areas. The disease typically starts at 1-5 years of age and predominantly affects the rump of the animals. Alopecia X has also been termed growth hormone-responsive alopecia and black skin disease. Although many experts believe in a genetic cause for alopecia X, the exact mode of inheritance is still under discussion. The primary aim of this study is to collect a suitable sample collection for genetic analyses. During the project DNA samples from healthy and affected Keeshonden and Pomeranians will be collected. Pedigree analysis of these dogs will allow the determination of the mode of inheritance. The second aim of this study concerns the investigation of the cathepsin L gene (CTSL) in the acquired samples. Mutations in this gene cause hair loss in the so-called furless mouse mutant and
Cathepsin B is an enzymatic protein belonging to the peptidase (or protease) families. In humans, it is coded by the CTSB gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a lysosomal cysteine protease composed of a dimer of disulfide-linked heavy and light chains, both produced from a single protein precursor. It is a member of the peptidase C1 family. At least five transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.
The Spike protein exists in two structurally distinct conformations: pre-fusion and post-fusion. In its pre-fusion state, Spike is a closed trimer and RBDs are buried in the inner S1 head-trimer, at the interface between each protomer [2]. This closed conformation exerts a physical constraint on the S2 subunit until specific proteases cleave the S1/S2 and S2 sites [3]. The exact mechanisms driving the opening of an S1-CTD domain and the subsequent exposition of RBD so that it can bind the ACE2 receptor are not elucidated yet. It has been proposed that the S protein is cleaved into S1 and S2 subunits by proteases, including furin, the host surface-associated transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and the endocytic cathepsin L [9-12]. S1 binds to ACE2 through its RBD, and S2 is further cleaved and activated by TMPRSS2 and/or cathepsin L [9, 10]. Together these actions result in host-viral membrane fusion and release of the viral RNA genome into the host cell cytoplasm. ...
Cathepsin B (CtsB) is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase that is specifically translocated to the extracellular milieu during cancer progression. The development of a lipidated CtsB inhibitor incorporated into the envelope of a liposomal nanocarrier (LNC-NS-629) is described. Ex vivo and in vivo studies confirmed selective targeting and internalization of LNC-NS-629 by tumor and stromal cells, thus validating CtsB targeting as a highly promising approach to cancer diagnosis and treatment ...
We synthesized one series of fluorogenic substrates for cathepsin B derived from the peptide Bz-F-R-MCA (Bz = benzoyl, MCA = 7-methyl-coumarin amide) substituting Phe at the P(2) position by non-natural basic amino acids that combine a positively charged group with aromatic or aliphatic radicals at the same side chain, namely, 4-aminomethyl-phenylalanine, 4-guanidine-phenylalanine. 4-aminomethyl-N-isopropyl-phenylalanine. 3-pyridyl-alanine, 4-piperidinyl-alanine, 4-amino-methyl-cyclohexyl-alanine. 4-aminocyclohexyl-alanine, and N(im)-dimethyl-histidine. Bz-F-R-MCA was the best substrate for cathepsin B but also hydrolyzed Bz-R-R-MCA with lower efficiency, since the protease accepts Arg at St due to the presence of Glu(245) at the bottom of this subsite. the presence of the basic non-natural amino acids at the Pt position of the substrate partially restored the catalytic efficiency of cathepsin B. All the kinetic parameters for hydrolysis of the peptides described in this paper are in accordance ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cathepsin S Is Involved in Th17 Differentiation Through the Upregulation of IL-6 by Activating PAR-2 after Systemic Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis. AU - Dekita, Masato. AU - Wu, Zhou. AU - Ni, Junjun. AU - Zhang, Xinwen. AU - Liu, Yicong. AU - Yan, Xu. AU - Nakanishi, Hiroshi. AU - Takahashi, Ichiro. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Positive links have been found between periodontitis and numerous diseases in humans via persistent inflammation throughout the body. However, the main factors responsible for maintaining this pro-inflammatory condition are poorly understood. The spleen, the largest secondary immune organ, is a central hub regulating the immune response/inflammation due to the dendritic cell (DC) response to CD4(+) T cell subtype differentiation, and lysosomal proteinase cathepsin S (CatS) is known to be involved in DC functions. In the present study, we found that CatS-induced IL-6 production by splenic DCs subsequently promotes Th17 ...
Cathepsin H antibody (cathepsin H) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Cathepsin H pAb (GTX33065) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Impaired T cell priming and cytokine production in OX40L-deficient mice and MGP34-treated mice. (A) OX40L-deficient mice have impaired recall proliferative responses to protein antigens. OX40L-deficient (□) or wild-type (▪) mice (four per group) were immunized with KLH, HEL, or OVA in the hind footpads. 9 d after immunization, draining lymph nodes were extracted and subjected to an in vitro challenge of the various protein antigens. After culturing for 3 d, their [3H]thymidine uptake was measured. (B) Impairment of recall proliferative response of the CD4+ T cells of OX40L-deficient mice. Purified CD4+ T cells from the draining lymph nodes of the OX40L-deficient (□) or wild-type mice (▪) were assayed for their recall proliferation in response to KLH in the presence of APCs from wild-type mice. (C) Defective APC function in OX40L-deficient mice. Purified CD4+ T cells from the draining lymph nodes from wild-type mice primed with KLH were assayed for their recall proliferation in response ...
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When the researchers combined the two cathepsins and allowed them to attack samples of elastin, they expected to see increased degradation of the protein. What they saw, however, was not much more damage than cathepsin K did by itself. Platt at first believed the experiment was flawed, and asked Barry - an undergraduate student in his lab who specializes in modeling - to examine what possible conditions could account for the experimental result. Barrys modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the elastin - a protein essential in arteries and the cardiovascular system.. That theoretical result led to additional experiments in which the researchers measured a direct correlation between an increase in the amount of cathepsin S added to the experiment and a reduction in the degradation of collagen. By increasing the amount of cathepsin S ten-fold over the amount used in the original experiment, Platt and Barry were able to ...
Cathepsin D小鼠单克隆抗体[CTD-19](ab6313)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被13篇文献引用并得到14个独立的用户反馈。
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Polyclonal antibody for Cathepsin B/CTSB detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. Cathepsin B/CTSB information: Molecular Weight: 37822 MW; Subcellular Localization: Lysosome. Melanosome. Secreted, extrac
Heparanase, also known as HPSE, is an enzyme that acts both at the cell-surface and within the extracellular matrix to degrade polymeric heparan sulfate molecules into shorter chain length oligosaccharides. The protein is originally synthesised in an inactive 65 kDa proheparanase form in the golgi apparatus and transferred to late endosomes/lysosomes for transport to the cell-surface. In the lysosome it is proteolytically processed into its active form. Proteolytic processing results in the production of three products, a linker peptide an 8 kDa proheparanase fragment and a 50 kDa proheparanase fragment The 8 kDa and 50 kDa fragments form a heterodimer and it is this heterodimer that constitutes the active heparanase molecule. The linker protein is so called because prior to its excision it physically links the 8 kDa and 50 kDa proheparanase fragments. Complete excision of the linker peptide appears to be a prerequisite to the complete activation of the heparanase enzyme. Crystal structures of ...
A pyridazin-4-one fragment 4 (hCatS IC(50)=170 microM) discovered through Tethering was modeled into cathepsin S and predicted to overlap in S2 with the tetrahydropyridinepyrazole core of a previously disclosed series of CatS inhibitors. This fragment served as a template to design pyridazin-3-one 1 …
Exerts, in vitro, a potent antimicrobial activity. Probably due to an impairment of the function of the respiratory chain and of energy-dependent activities in the inner membrane of susceptible microorganisms (By similarity).
Immunoelectron microscopy identifying avidin (8-nm gold) and cathepsin L (15-nm gold) immunoreactivity in organelles from late endosome, lysosome, and hybrid
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab6313 交差種: Hu 適用: WB…Cathepsin D抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
We develop a simple fluorescence method for the sensitive detection of cathepsin B activity based on the integration of a peptide-DNA conjugate with multiple cyclic signal amplification. This method can detect cathepsin B activity with an extremely low detection limit of 8.1 × 10⁻¹² g mL⁻¹ and a large dynamic range of 4 orders of magnitude from 1 × 10⁻¹¹ to 1 × 10⁻⁷ g mL⁻¹, and it can even measure ...
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Impaired T cell priming and cytokine production in OX40L-deficient mice and MGP34-treated mice. (A) OX40L-deficient mice have impaired recall proliferative resp
Principal Investigator:KATUNUMA Nobuhiko, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1990, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Developmental Scientific Research (B)., Research Field:Pathological medical chemistry
In Present study our aim is to purify and characterize GroES and GroEL from genetically modified strain E.coli U1/pUS01/pUSS1?CAT L .GroES was eluted at 0.2M NaCl and GroEL was at 0.3M NaCl. From1.4 litres culture 7.5mg GroEL and 50mg GroES was purified.
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... , Histones & Cathepsin; PMAP The Proteolysis Map-animation [ Recent chromatin publications and news] Protocol for in ...
... collagenases such as cathepsin B1; and hyaluronidase. PSGAG inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which is released upon ...
Cathepsin A Breddam, K. (1986). "Serine carboxypeptidases. A review". Carlsberg Res. Commun. 51: 83-128. doi:10.1007/bf02907561 ... Miller JJ, Changaris DG, Levy RS (December 1992). "Purification, subunit structure and inhibitor profile of cathepsin A". ... Carboxypeptidase C (EC 3.4.16.5, carboxypeptidase Y, serine carboxypeptidase I, cathepsin A, lysosomal protective protein, ...
Cathepsin E. TALE homeodomain transcription factors. Hydrocortisone. Since keratinocyte differentiation inhibits keratinocyte ... "The role of cathepsin E in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes". Biological Chemistry. 392 (6): 571-85. doi:10.1515/BC. ...
Cathepsin D is involved in CLN10. DNA analysis can be used to help confirm the diagnosis of Batten disease. When the mutation ...
Mediation by cathepsin G has been suggested. The treatment of RAS usually involves administering dexamethasone IV, with the ...
... these include cathepsin L, papain, and procaricain. It forms an alpha-helical domain that runs through the substrate-binding ...
"Cathepsins as transcriptional activators? Developmental Cell 2004, 6(5):610-1. Goulet B, and Nepveu A. "Complete and Limited ...
Lushbaugh WB, Hofbauer AF, Pittman FE (June 1985). "Entamoeba histolytica: purification of cathepsin B". Experimental ...
The protein is able to form a dimer stabilized by noncovalent forces, inhibiting papain and cathepsins l, h and b. The protein ... 1994). "Cathepsin B activity in human lung tumor cell lines: ultrastructural localization, pH sensitivity, and inhibitor status ... 1988). "Cathepsin D inactivates cysteine proteinase inhibitors, cystatins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 154 (2): 765-72. doi ... Cystatin B has been shown to interact with Cathepsin B. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000160213 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ...
These cysteine proteases include calpain, caspase, and cathepsin. These three proteins are examples of detectable signs of ...
It is an inhibitor of cathepsin K, an enzyme involved in bone resorption. The drug was developed by Merck & Co. The phase III ... Le Gall, C. L.; Bonnelye, E.; Clézardin, P. (2008). "Cathepsin K inhibitors as treatment of bone metastasis". Current Opinion ... February 2008). "The discovery of odanacatib (MK-0822), a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18 (3 ...
... α: cathepsin L-like protein in sponge biosilica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95(11), pp.6234- ... Silicateins are homologous to the cysteine protease cathepsin. In sponges, the silicatein enzymes reside in the axial filaments ...
Of these hydrolytic enzymes, cathepsin K is of most importance. Cathepsin K and other cathepsins[edit]. Cathepsin K is a ... Several other cathepsins are expressed in osteoclasts including cathepsins B, C, D, E, G, and L. The function of these cysteine ... characterised by a lack of functional cathepsin K expression. Knockout studies of cathepsin K in mice lead to an osteopetrotic ... Studies on cathepsin L knockout mice have been mixed, with a report of reduced trabecular bone in homozygous and heterozygous ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... 2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... by proteases such as cathepsins. Collagen is a component of epithelial and endothelial basement membranes. Endostatin, as a ...
Cathepsin A is also required for normal elastin biosynthesis. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000170266 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... The elastin receptor complex includes S-Gal, neuraminidase and Cathepsin A. When elastin-derived peptides bind to the S-Gal ... cathepsin) A is required for proper elastic fiber formation and inactivation of endothelin-1". Circulation. 117 (15): 1973-81. ...
Under the direction of Joseph S. Fruton, Jones' dissertation research involved the catalytic properties of cathepsin C, a type ... She pursued these interests by studying androsterone and monopalmitin at Armour, and cathepsin C at Yale. Jones worked as ... Her doctorate was entitled: Transamidation reactions catalyzed by cathepsin C. Jones completed her studies in three years ... Transamidation Reactions Catalyzed by Cathepsin C. Yale University, 1952. Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L. ( ...
McDonald JK, Zeitman BB, Reilly TJ, Ellis S (May 1969). "New observations on the substrate specificity of cathepsin C ( ... Planta RJ, Gorter J, Gruber M (September 1964). "The catalytic properties of cathepsin C". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ... Dipeptidyl peptidase I (EC 3.4.14.1, cathepsin C, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase I, dipeptidyl transferase, dipeptide arylamidase I ... Metroione RM, Neves AG, Fruton JS (May 1966). "Purification and properties of dipeptidyl transferase (Cathepsin C)". ...
1982). "Action of rat liver cathepsin L on glucagon". Acta Biol. Med. Ger. 40 (9): 1139-43. PMID 7340337. Kaushal GP, Walker PD ...
... cathepsin G and proteinase 3. Phthalimide derivatives were seen to be inactive, while saccharin derivatives were seen to be ... cathepsin G and proteinase 3". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 3 (2): 187-193. doi:10.1016/0968-0896(95)00013-7. PMID 7796053 ...
It is cleavable by cathepsin and safe for therapy. Trastuzumab emtansine is a combination of the microtubule-formation ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ...
1990). "Generation of human endothelin by cathepsin E." FEBS Lett. 273 (1-2): 99-102. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(90)81060-2. PMID ...
... contains cathepsin B, lysozymes, chymotrypsin, neutrophil elastase and cytokines, which aid the immune system. According ... Frohlich E, Schaumburg-Lever G, Klessen C (1993). "Immunelectron microscopic localization of cathepsin B in human exocrine ...
Cathepsin B and L play a crucial role in arthritic cartilage degeneration. The inhibitor of cathepsin isolated from this fungus ... The fungal metabolite, aurantiamide acetate, has been isolated from Aspergillus penicillioides, as a cathepsin inhibitor. ... a Selective Cathepsin Inhibitor, Produced by Aspergillus penicillioides". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 65 (5): ...
... cathepsin G". Blood. 93 (6): 2089-97. doi:10.1182/blood.V93.6.2089.406k10_2089_2097. PMID 10068683. Tan J, Prakash MD, ... antitrypsin to inhibit cathepsin proteases". Biochemistry. 41 (15): 4998-5004. doi:10.1021/bi0159985. PMID 11939796. Schick C, ... "Squamous cell carcinoma antigen 2 is a novel serpin that inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteinases cathepsin G and mast cell ... "DNA accelerates the inhibition of human cathepsin V by serpins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (51): 36980-6. doi: ...
BACE1, BACE2 Cathepsin D Cathepsin E Chymosin (or "rennin") Napsin-A Nepenthesin Pepsin Presenilin Renin BACE1; BACE2; CTSD; ... Eukaryotic aspartic proteases include pepsins, cathepsins, and renins. They have a two-domain structure, arising from ancestral ... Cathepsin D". In Rawlings ND, Salvesen G (eds.). Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes (Third ed.). Academic Press. pp. 54-63. doi: ...
2000). "Cathepsin G activates protease-activated receptor-4 in human platelets". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (10): 6819-23. doi:10.1074/ ...
In humans, the group of cathepsin cysteine proteases or cysteine cathepsins comprises 11 family members, cathepsins B, C, F, H ... Examination of cathepsin activity by using chemical probes and in vivo imaging techniques demonstrated an increase in cathepsin ... Cathepsins also can be secreted by cells, associate with the cell surface, and degrade the ECM. A study of all 11 members of ... Cathepsin L is active at neutral pH by associating with a p41 splice variant of the MHC class II-associated invariant chain ...
Yamashima T (2013). "Reconsider Alzheimer's disease by the 'calpain-cathepsin hypothesis'--a perspective review". Progress in ... which clearly distinguished it from the cathepsin family of proteases. The calcium-dependent activity, intracellular ...
Cathepsin: Cathepsins ( Ancient Greek kata- "down" and hepsein "boil"; abbreviated CTS ) are proteases ( enzymes that degrades ... Cathepsins have a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover, e.g. bone resorption. They degrade polypeptides and are ... There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone ...
"Human cathepsins W and F form a new subgroup of cathepsins that is evolutionary separated from the cathepsin B- and L-like ... Wex T, Levy B, Wex H, Brömme D (1999). "Human cathepsins F and W: A new subgroup of cathepsins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ... 2003). "Characterization of novel anti-cathepsin W antibodies and cellular distribution of cathepsin W in the gastrointestinal ... Cathepsin W is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSW gene.[5][6][7] ...
"Entrez Gene: CTSD cathepsin D".. *^ Barrett AJ (April 1970). "Cathepsin D. Purification of isoenzymes from human and chicken ... Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes.[7] The main function of cathepsin D is ... The optimum pH for cathepsin D in vitro is 4.5-5.0.[13] Cathepsin-D is an aspartic protease that depends critically on ... Cathepsin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSD gene.[5][6] This gene encodes a lysosomal aspartyl protease ...
Cathepsin A (serine protease) Cathepsin B (cysteine protease) Cathepsin C (cysteine protease) Cathepsin D (aspartyl protease) ... Cathepsin H (cysteine protease) Cathepsin K (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L1 (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L2 (or V) (cysteine ... Cathepsin S (cysteine protease) Cathepsin W (cysteine proteinase) Cathepsin Z (or X) (cysteine protease) Cathepsins have been ... Cathepsin K has also been shown to play a role in arthritis. Mouse cathepsin L is homologous to human cathepsin V. Mouse ...
Cathepsin T (EC 3.4.22.24) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Interconversion of the three ... Cathepsin Gohda E, Pitot HC (May 1981). "Purification and characterization of a new thiol proteinase from rat kidney". ... Cathepsin+T at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ... Pitot HC, Gohda E (1987). "Cathepsin T". Methods in Enzymology. 142: 279-89. doi:10.1016/s0076-6879(87)42038-7. PMID 2885716. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
cathepsin K. Names. cathepsin O. cathepsin O1. cathepsin O2. cathepsin X. NP_000387.1. *EC 3.4.22.38 ... Metabolic mapping showed that cathepsin B, but not cathepsin K is active in GSC niches. Title: Cysteine cathepsins B, X and K ... cathepsin K in the development of chronic subdural hematoma Title: Role of cathepsin K in the development of chronic subdural ... Cathepsin K degradation of sclerostin is affected by hypoxia. Title: The regulation of sclerostin by cathepsin K in periodontal ...
Cathepsin B. A. 266. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 3 Gene Names: CTSB, CPSB. EC: 3.4.22.1. ... Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique ... Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique ... The chagasin-cathepsin B complex provides a structural framework for modeling and design of inhibitors for cruzipain, the ...
Incubation with the cathepsin L specific inhibitor, Z-FY-DMK, blocked cathepsin L signals, confirming the cathepsin L bands in ... Z-FY-DMK cathepsin L inhibitor does not inhibit all cathepsin activity of murine endometriotic lesions. Incubation with Z-FY- ... DMK, a selective inhibitor of cathepsin L, inhibited many of the cathepsin active bands but did not block all active cathepsin ... E-64 blocks all cathepsin proteolytic activity in murine endometriotic lesions. Incubation with the broad cathepsin inhibitor, ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Cathepsins are proteases, which are enzymes that are responsible for degrading proteins. There are around 12 different types of ... Cathepsin inhibitors can stop cathepsin function, which can stop tumors from forming through blocking angiogenesis. Cathepsin ... but some cathepsins function above the optimal pH 5 level, namely cathepsin S, which is active at pH 6.5. Cathepsin D is ... Cathepsin Z (or X). All cathepsins are made up of a signal peptide, a propeptide, and a mature functional enzyme that is ...
V. Zavanik-Bergant, A. Sekirnik, R. Golouh, V. Turk, and J. Kos, "Immunochemical localisation of cathepsin S, cathepsin L and ... Both stimulants caused a significant cathepsin S upregulation. A significantly elevated cathepsin S expression in gingival ... Role of Cathepsin S in Periodontal Inflammation and Infection. S. Memmert,1,2 A. Damanaki,1 A. V. B. Nogueira,3 S. Eick,4 M. ... "Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is both a substrate of cathepsins S and K and a selective inhibitor of cathepsin L," Biochemistry, ...
Cathepsin K degrades both collagen and elastin, and is one of the most powerful proteases. Cathepsin S degrades elastin, and ... "We saw that the cathepsin K was going away much faster when there was cathepsin S present than when it was by itself," said ... "We kept increasing the amount of cathepsin S until the collagen was not affected at all because all of the cathepsin K was ... Barrys modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the ...
The cathepsin S protease is implicated in generation of chronic pain by releasing a cytokine. ... The cathepsin S protease is implicated in generation of chronic pain by releasing a cytokine. ...
Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry. Graham Simmons, Dhaval N. Gosalia, ... Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry. Graham Simmons, Dhaval N. Gosalia, ... Cathepsin-L-specific inhibitor blocks infection. (A) MDL28170 inhibits CTSL activity with an IC50 of 2.5 nM. A 1,000-compound ... Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ...
A direct immunohistochemical method of high specificity is presented for the demonstration of sites of cathepsin B1. Antisera ... Snellman, O.: Cathepsin B, the lysosomal thiol proteinase of calf liver. Biochem. J. 114, 673-678 (1969)Google Scholar ... Otto, K.: Cathepsins B1 and B2. In: Tissue proteinases, ed. by A. J. Barrett and J. T. Dingle, p. 1-28. North-Holland ... V. Cathepsin B as a potential effector of LNA hydrolysis. Histochemie 12, 240-243 (1968)Google Scholar ...
Cathepsin S is a cysteine protease highly expressed in many type of cancers including colorectal, prostate, breast, and ... This mini-review provides an overview of therapeutic antibody targeting Cathepsin S strategies in the last half decade, ... In recent years, antibody research specifically targeting Cathepsin S to block/inhibit tumorigenic effects were generated some ... focusing on the rationale of cell-surface Cathepsin S targeted and their potential clinical application. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin E antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 3 publication(s ... Anti-Cathepsin E antibody (ab36996) at 1/1000 dilution + Murine reticulocyte lysate at 10 µg. Predicted band size: 42 kDa. ... High Expression of Cathepsin E in Tissues but Not Blood of Patients with Barretts Esophagus and Adenocarcinoma.. Ann Surg ... Cathepsin E is expressed abundantly in the stomach, Clara cells and alveolar macrophages of the lung, brain microglia, spleen, ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin D antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication ... This antibody reacts with human liver cathepsin D, and does not react with cathepsins B, H and L. ... IHC image of Cathepsin D staining in Human Lung formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica Bond™ ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) - Anti-Cathepsin D antibody (ab19555) ...
... administration of rat recombinant cathepsin B and rat recombinant cathepsin L at the same or higher doses than rrCatS had no ... Inhibition of spinal microglial cathepsin S for the reversal of neuropathic pain. Anna K. Clark, Ping K. Yip, John Grist, Clive ... cathepsin S;. rrCatS,. rat recombinant CatS;. LHVS,. morpholinurea-leucine-homophenylalanine-vinyl phenyl sulfone;. PNL,. ... Here, we report that in peripheral nerve-injured rats, the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) is critical for the ...
Protease activity Apolipoprotein A-I Aortic valve stenosis Cathepsin S C. Gebhard and F. Maafi contributed equally to this work ... Hooshdaran B, Kolpakov MA, Guo X, Miller SA, Wang T, Tilley DG, Rafiq K, Sabri A (2017) Dual inhibition of cathepsin G and ... Lindstedt L, Lee M, Oorni K, Bromme D, Kovanen PT (2003) Cathepsins F and S block HDL3-induced cholesterol efflux from ... Targeting circulating cathepsin S may lead to new therapies for human aortic valve disease. ...
Cathepsin B. Cathepsin B, EC 3.4.22.1 (APP secretase, APPS) (Cathepsin B1) [Cleaved into: Cathepsin B light chain; Cathepsin B ... Cathepsin BImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ... tr,E9PL32,E9PL32_HUMAN Cathepsin B (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CTSB PE=1 SV=2 ...
Cathepsin GAdd BLAST. ›26. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of ... sp,P17977,CATG_RAT Cathepsin G (Fragment) OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Ctsg PE=1 SV=1 IIGGREARPNSHPYMAFLLIQSPEGL ...
MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN B KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin B. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ... MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN K KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin K. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ... MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN L KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin L. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ...
Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) and Flow Cytometry ... Protein Aliases: Cathepsin K; Cathepsin O; cathepsin O1; Cathepsin O2; Cathepsin X; CTSK; CTSO; CTSO2 ... Cite Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from ...
Although a lysosomal, cathepsin B-dependent (Ctsb-dependent) pathway of apoptosis has been described, the contribution of this ...
C.-S. Hsieh, P. DeRoos, K. Honey, C. Beers, and A. Y. Rudensky, "A role for cathepsin L and cathepsin S in peptide generation ... J. Ärnlv, "Cathepsin S as a biomarker: where are we now and what are the future challenges?" Biomarkers in Medicine, vol. 6, no ... Inhibition of Cathepsin S Produces Neuroprotective Effects after Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice. Jianguo Xu,1 Handong Wang,1 Ke ... D. M. Small, R. E. Burden, and C. J. Scott, "The emerging relevance of the cysteine protease cathepsin S in disease," Clinical ...
Cathepsin D purified from a mutant strain has a lower activity per unit mass of pure enzyme. These data suggest that cad-1 is a ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ...
CATHEPSIN L-HUMAN LIVER. Cathepsin L is unstable at neutral pH, but is relatively stable in the range 4.5 to 5.5.. ...
  • We hypothesize that cysteine cathepsins, a group of powerful extracellular matrix proteases, facilitate endometrial tissue invasion and endometriosis lesion establishment in the peritoneal wall and inhibiting this activity would decrease endometriosis lesion implantation. (nih.gov)
  • Intraperitoneal injection of the broad cysteine cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, significantly reduced the number of attached endometriosis lesions in our murine model compared to vehicle-treated controls demonstrating that cathepsin proteases contribute to endometriosis lesion establishment, and their inhibition may provide a novel, nonhormonal therapy for endometriosis. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsins are proteases, which are enzymes that are responsible for degrading proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Dubbed "cathepsin cannibalism," the phenomenon may help explain problems with drugs that have been developed to inhibit the effects of these powerful proteases. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsin K degrades both collagen and elastin, and is one of the most powerful proteases. (innovations-report.com)
  • There is growing recognition that alternative proteolytic enzymes such as the lysosomal cathepsin proteases may initiate or propagate proapoptotic signals, but it is currently unclear how cathepsins mediate apoptosis. (biovision.com)
  • Lysosomes contain many well-characterized proteases, and cathepsin B has previously been utilized to release chemotherapeutics in the context of targetable antibody-based treatments. (bloodjournal.org)
  • SerpinB1 is a potent inhibitor of neutrophil serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G (CG). (bloodjournal.org)
  • 6 , 7 Interestingly, noncaspase cysteine proteases calpain and cathepsin D were reported to induce PMN apoptosis through activation of caspases. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 8 ⇓ ⇓ - 11 In addition, PMNs carry a unique set of serine proteases (neutrophil serine proteases [NSPs]) including elastase (NE), cathepsin G (CG), and proteinase-3 (PR3) stored active in primary granules. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In this review we discuss recent advances addressing the role of lysosomal proteases in the diverse aspects of the immune response, and also the involvement of cathepsins in the pathogenesis of diseases in which these proteases seem not to be properly under control. (smw.ch)
  • Cathepsin B is an ancient family of eukaryotic cysteine proteases. (apsnet.org)
  • Our findings provide evidence for the highly specialized functions of closely related cysteine cathepsin proteases in extra-embryonic development, and reinforce their importance for a successful outcome of pregnancy. (biologists.org)
  • Two of the genes identified from this screen were the cathepsin proteases Cts7 and Cts8 . (biologists.org)
  • Cathepsin cysteine proteases are effectors of invasive growth and angiogenesis during multistage tumorigenesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cathepsins are lysosomal proteases that breakdown peptide bonds linked to specific amino acids. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cathepsin B is the first described member of the family of lysosomal cysteine proteases. (neuromics.com)
  • Here we adopt a novel in silico target fishing method to reveal the target profile of RD. Cathepsin K (Ctsk) is one of the cysteine proteases that is over-expressed in osteoclasts and accounts for the increase in bone resorption in metabolic bone disorders such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. (mdpi.com)
  • Though cytokines and phagocyte, as host factors, have been shown to participate in defence against Aspergillus species yet the role of cysteine proteases, that is cathepsins, a lysosomal enzymes of phagocytes, remains unknown in fungal infection. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Cathepsins are cysteine proteases, act as endopeptidases and are mainly involved in intracellular protein degradation and involved in large number of diseases [ 11 , 12 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • [13] Cathepsin-D is an aspartic protease that depends critically on protonation of its active site Asp residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with Asp-protonation, lower pH also leads to conformational switch in cathepsin-D : the N-terminal segment of the protease moves out of the active site as pH drops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin D (an aspartyl protease) appears to cleave a variety of substrates such as fibronectin and laminin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike some of the other cathepsins, cathepsin D has some protease activity at neutral pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique occluding loop that restricts access to the active site cleft. (rcsb.org)
  • The chagasin-cathepsin B complex provides a structural framework for modeling and design of inhibitors for cruzipain, the parasite cysteine protease and a virulence factor in Chagas disease. (rcsb.org)
  • Cathepsin Protease Inhibition Reduces Endometriosis Lesion Establishment. (nih.gov)
  • All types of cathepsin are classified into three of these protease families. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsin S is a cysteine protease and regulator of autophagy with possible involvement in periodontitis. (hindawi.com)
  • The cathepsin S protease is implicated in generation of chronic pain by releasing a cytokine. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we report that in peripheral nerve-injured rats, the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) is critical for the maintenance of neuropathic pain and spinal microglia activation. (pnas.org)
  • We have recently found that after peripheral nerve injury, the mRNA for the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) was up-regulated in the DRG because of CatS expression in infiltrating macrophages ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The lysosomal cysteine protease, cathepsin S, is increased in Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome brain: an immunocytochemical study," American Journal of Pathology , vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 848-860, 1995. (hindawi.com)
  • Mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans having about 10% of wild-type activity of the aspartyl protease cathepsin D have been isolated by screening. (genetics.org)
  • Cathepsin L is a potent cysteine protease engaged in degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We evaluated the activity and expression of cathepsin L, and the inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors in the umbilical cord arteries, vein and Wharton's jelly. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin L activity and anti-papain inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors were quantified in extracts of separated umbilical cord tissues using fluorogenic substrates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin B kit detects protease activity within whole living cells as a marker of intracellular cathepsin B activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin B, K, and L protease activities can be detected within whole living cells using substrate-based fluorescent assays, which utilize cathepsin target sequence peptides, derivatives of the cresyl violet fluorophore, conjugated to Magic Red™ (MR) fluorogenic substrate (cresyl violet). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B is thought to play a central role in intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation and the onset of experimental pancreatitis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin G (CatG) is a chymotrypsin-like protease released upon degranulation of neutrophils. (mdpi.com)
  • Cathepsin K (CatK) is a lysosomal protease with collagenolytic activity, and its secretion by osteoclasts is responsible for degrading organic bone matrix. (wiley.com)
  • Recent work shows that the cysteine protease cathepsin S (Cat S) is required for the terminal step in CLIP formation in B cells and most dendritic cells (DCs), and in vitro can mediate all steps of digestion of class II-Ii complexes ( 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cathepsin-D (Cat-D) is a lysosomal protease that is present at elevated levels in amyloid plaques and neurons in patients with AD and is also elevated in some cancers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Serine protease inhibitor serpinB1 protects neutrophils by inhibition of their own azurophil granule protease cathepsin G. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Combined deletion of cathepsin protease family members reveals compensatory mechanisms in cancer. (springer.com)
  • Arampatzidou M, Rehders M, Dauth S, Yu DMT, Tedelind S, Brix K. Imaging of protease functions-current guide to spotting cysteine cathepsins in classical and novel scenes of action in mammalian epithelial cells and tissues. (springer.com)
  • However, we here report an unexpected finding that cysteine protease genes of the family cathepsin B are massively amplified in the lineage of aphids, and that many of the protease genes exhibit gut-specific over-expression. (inria.fr)
  • Cathepsin F is a cysteine protease that plays a role in invariant chain processing and major histocompatibility complex class II peptide loading by macrophages. (neuromics.com)
  • The protease cathepsin D is one such target involved in several diseases such as tumors, degenerative processes, and vital processes of parasites causing schistosomiasis. (ovid.com)
  • Here, we describe how intracellular sigma peptide modulation of RPTPσ induces enhanced protease Cathepsin B activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we have found that one important mechanism by which peptide modulation of the receptor enhances axon outgrowth is through secretion of a protease, Cathepsin B, which enables digestion of CSPGs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Identification of a human neutrophil angiotension II-generating protease as cathepsin G. J Clin Invest. (umassmed.edu)
  • Cathepsin D is the lysosomal protease in the retinal pigment epithelium which is presumed to be the major enzyme involved in the degradation of shed discs during the photoreceptor renewal process. (arvojournals.org)
  • This antibody is specific for Cathepsin E. (abcam.com)
  • This antibody reacts with human liver cathepsin D, and does not react with cathepsins B, H and L. (abcam.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-14270, RRID AB_2087668. (thermofisher.com)
  • This antibody reacts with the zymogen as well as the activated form of cathepsin D. It stains fibroblasts and macrophages strongly but stains the myoepithelial cells of breast weakly. (novusbio.com)
  • Cathepsin D Polyclonal antibody specifically detects Cathepsin D in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Cathepsin 6 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Cathepsin 6 in Mouse samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Active cathepsins, cathepsin inhibitors and cathepsin antibodies are also available. (biovision.com)
  • 75 Cathepsin S (CTSS) Antibodies from 18 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 88 Cathepsin D (CTSD) ELISA Kits from 20 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Cathepsin D Antibodies (347) and Cathepsin D Proteins (55) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Over-expression of cathepsin D stimulates tumorigenicity and metastasis as well as initiation of tumor apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • [21] [22] Knock-out of CTSD gene would cause intestinal necrosis and hemorrhage and increase apoptosis in thymus , indicating that cathepsin D is required in certain epithelial cells for tissue remodeling and renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Almost all cathepsin activity is found in lysosome organelles, which are a type of organelle responsible for breaking down excess or aging parts of cells and in aiding apoptosis (cell death). (news-medical.net)
  • Although a lysosomal, cathepsin B-dependent (Ctsb-dependent) pathway of apoptosis has been described, the contribution of this pathway to tissue damage remains unclear. (jci.org)
  • Cathepsins are apoptosis markers associated with Alzheimer′s disease, numerous types of cancer, autoimmune arthritis, and the breakdown of bone structure seen with osteoporosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Schwartz-Roberts, Shajahan, Cook, Wärri, Abu-Asab, Clarke: GX15-070 (obatoclax) induces apoptosis and inhibits cathepsin D- and L-mediated autophagosomal lysis in antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This suggests that cathepsin D exerts its apoptosis-stimulating effect upstream of caspase-3-like activation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cathepsin W is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSW gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSD gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin B may function as a beta-secretase 1, cleaving amyloid precursor protein to produce amyloid beta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoclasts are the bone resorbing cells of the body, and they secrete cathepsin K in order to break down collagen, the major component of the non-mineral protein matrix of the bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • To clarify the mode by which natural protein inhibitors manage to overcome this obstacle, we have analyzed the structure and function of cathepsin B in complexes with the Trypanosoma cruzi inhibitor, chagasin. (rcsb.org)
  • Incubation with the broad cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, completely abolished cathepsin activity detected by zymography identifying the active bands as cysteine cathepsins (A). Cathepsin protein levels in lesions were compared to eutopic uterine tissue by Western blot (B, n = 6). (nih.gov)
  • Each cathepsin works to degrade a different protein, and they have different structures and work via different mechanisms. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsin S was upregulated most strongly and thus further studied in vitro at gene and protein levels. (hindawi.com)
  • When the researchers combined the two cathepsins and allowed them to attack samples of elastin, they expected to see increased degradation of the protein. (innovations-report.com)
  • Barry's modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the elastin - a protein essential in arteries and the cardiovascular system. (innovations-report.com)
  • H. Phipps-Yonas, V. Semik, and K. T. Hastings, "GILT expression in B cells diminishes cathepsin S steady-state protein expression and activity," European Journal of Immunology , vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 65-74, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Cathepsin D Kits (99) und Cathepsin D Proteine (58) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Cathepsin H is a disulfide-linked heavy and light chain dimer which belongs to the peptidase C1 protein family, can act both as an aminopeptidase and as an endopeptidase. (scbt.com)
  • cathepsin H Inhibitors offered by Santa Cruz inhibit cathepsin H and, in some cases, other cellular metabolism and protein degradation related proteins. (scbt.com)
  • After 4 days of diabetes, cathepsin B and L activities were decreased by 15-45% when correlated with the levels of glomerular protein or DNA. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cathepsin D is an estrogen-regulated protein associated with tissue breakdown. (genetex.com)
  • Partially purified Cathepsin B protein was inhibited by a variety of peptide inhibitors but evidence of inhibition by several pathogen-derived inhibitors that are secreted during infection was inconclusive. (bl.uk)
  • Mechanistic studies indicated that the absence of CatL reduced lesion chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 content, macrophage and T-cell in vitro transmigration, and angiogenesis, and altered the expression and activities of matrix metalloproteinases and other cysteinyl cathepsins in inflammatory cells, vascular cells, and AAA lesions. (harvard.edu)
  • The main physiological functions of cathepsin D consist of metabolic degradation of intracellular proteins, activation and degradation of polypeptide hormones and growth factors , activation of enzymatic precursors, processing of enzyme activators and inhibitors, brain antigen processing and regulation of programmed cell death . (wikipedia.org)
  • Five cyclic peptides show inhibitory activity towards human cathepsins L, B, H, and K. Zymography is a type of gel electrophoresis that uses a polyacrylamide gel co-polymerized with a substrate in order to detect enzyme activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin T (EC 3.4.22.24) is an enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • All cathepsins are made up of a signal peptide, a propeptide, and a mature functional enzyme that is catalytically active. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers used a variety of tests to determine the amount of each enzyme, including fluorogenic substrate analysis, Western blotting and multiplex cathepsin zymography - a sensitive technique developed in the Platt laboratory. (innovations-report.com)
  • Beyond demonstrating for the first time that cathepsins can attack one another, the research also shows the complexity of the body's enzyme system - and may suggest why drugs designed to inhibit cathepsins haven't worked as intended. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsin D purified from a mutant strain has a lower activity per unit mass of pure enzyme. (genetics.org)
  • The active cathepsin L activity (without activation by pepsin digestion), its percentage in the total activity (after pepsin activation), and the expression of the mature single-chain enzyme were the lowest in the umbilical cord arteries and the highest in Wharton's jelly. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A Novel Dual Fluorochrome Near-Infrared Imaging Probe for Potential Alzheimer's Enzyme Biomarkers-BACE1 and Cathepsin D. Molecules. (harvard.edu)
  • As cathepsin D activity is increased by cigarette smoke, the enzyme may contribute to lung tissue damage in smokers. (genetex.com)
  • We offer various assays to detect and quantify cathepsin, calpain and granzyme B activity and screen for respective enzyme inhibitors. (promocell.com)
  • Cathepsin D was released from lysosomes to the cytosol upon exposure to naphthazarin, and the enzyme activity decreased simultaneously. (diva-portal.org)
  • Later, cathepsin D reappeared in granules of increased size, and enzyme activity was restored. (diva-portal.org)
  • Lysosomal serine carboxypeptidase Cathepsin A (CTSA) is a multifunctional enzyme with distinct protective and catalytic function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Herein, we describe the preparation of a fused silica capillary, cathepsin D (CatD)-immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) using in a multidimensional High Performance Liquid Chromatography-based method (2D-HPLC) and zonal affinity chromatography as an alternative in the search for new ligands. (ovid.com)
  • The prodrug demonstrates enzyme-responsive drug release features, and over 95% GEM was released from the carrier with the Cathepsin B within 3 h. (rsc.org)
  • The presence of a cathepsin B-like enzyme in rabbit ear cartilage was established by the use of the synthetic substrates benzoyl- l -arginine amide and benzoyl- dl -arginine 2-naphthylamide. (biochemj.org)
  • The enzymic properties of cathepsin B in cartilage have been compared with an endogenous enzyme that liberates chondromucopeptide by degrading the cartilage matrix autocatalytically at pH5. (biochemj.org)
  • The experimental evidence indicates that a cathepsin B-like enzyme may be partly responsible for the autolytic degradation of cartilage matrix at pH5. (biochemj.org)
  • It was catalytically active, as demonstrated by active-site-directed radioiodination, and hydrolysed three cathepsin B substrates, two with Km values similar to those of lysosomal cathepsin B. In addition, the rates of inactivation of the sputum and lysosomal forms of the enzyme by L-3-carboxy-2,3-transepoxypropionyl-leucylamido(4-guanidino) butane (Compound E-64) were very similar. (portlandpress.com)
  • However, the sputum enzyme differed from lysosomal cathepsin B in the following respects. (portlandpress.com)
  • Inhibition by chicken cystatin was much weaker for sputum cathepsin B than for the lysosomal enzyme. (portlandpress.com)
  • There were many hurdles in the drug discovery of cathepsin K inhibitors such as species differences not only in bone metabolism but also in amino acid sequences in the critical site of the target enzyme, discrepancies between PK/PD due to unique tissue distribution of the inhibitor affecting both efficacy and side effects originated from a characteristic intracellular or tissue distribution of some classes of compounds. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The cathepsin K inhibitor drug discovery was initiated based on a strong and osteoclast-specific expression of this enzyme. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The data suggest that the higher levels of cathepsin D activity observed in the freshly isolated RPE from the area centralis result from modulators of enzyme activity which are not present in culture. (arvojournals.org)
  • When in the extracellular matrix, cysteine cathepsins, in particular, can degrade the structural components of the ECM, such as collagen or elastin, and contribute to the processing of chemokines, which are molecules that are involved in activating inflammatory immune responses. (news-medical.net)
  • As such, extracellular cysteine cathepsins may be implicated in certain inflammatory diseases such as arthritis or psoriasis and could be important in studying treatments for these types of diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Cysteine cathepsins belong to the papain-like family C1 of clan CA cysteine peptidases. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, cysteine cathepsins are active in pericellular environments as soluble enzymes or bound to cell surface receptors at the plasma membrane, and possibly even within secretory vesicles, the cytosol, mitochondria, and within the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Proteolytic actions performed by cysteine cathepsins are essential in the maintenance of homeostasis and depend heavily upon their correct sorting and trafficking within cells. (nih.gov)
  • This review focuses upon the transport pathways directing cysteine cathepsins to their points of action and thus emphasizes the broader role and functionality of cysteine cathepsins in a number of specific cellular locales. (nih.gov)
  • This review sought to evaluate recent findings in this field, highlighting how among cathepsins, the inhibition of cathepsin S in particular, could play a significant role in diminishing the effects of CVD, especially for patients with CKD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Spi2A defects were ameliorated by cathepsin-B/L inhibition, and by genetic co-deletion of lysosomal cathepsin B. Pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin B/L enhanced EPO-induced red cell formation in normal mice. (rupress.org)
  • A composite docking approach for the identification and characterization of ectosteric inhibitors of cathepsin K. Law S, et al . (nih.gov)
  • The availability of a purified preparation of salmon muscle cathepsins should stimulate interest and research in the characterization of these enzymes and lead to better means for the control of catheptic activity in fish muscle. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Osteocytes express genes required in osteoclasts for bone resorption, including cathepsin K (Ctsk), and lactation elevates their expression. (jci.org)
  • Cathepsin zymography separates different cathepsins based on their migration through a polyacrylamide gel co-polymerized with a gelatin substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gel is then put into an activation buffer of a specific pH and left to incubate overnight at 37 °C. This activation step allows the cathepsins to degrade the gelatin substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hoechst stain can be used to label the cell nuclei after labeling with the MR-Cathepsin B substrate. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • BioVision's newly developed Cathepsin Activity Assay kits are fluorescence-based assays that utilize the preferred substrate sequence for each cathepsin, labeled with AFC (amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin). (biovision.com)
  • Cell lysates or other samples that contain cathepsins will cleave the synthetic substrate to release free AFC. (biovision.com)
  • Cathepsin F has the substrate specificity similar to that of cathepsins L and S. (neuromics.com)
  • The catalytic sites of cathepsin D include two critical aspartic residues ( amino acid 33 and 231) located on the 14 kDa and 34kDa chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pepstatin A pretreatment did not prevent release of cathepsin D from lysosomes but did significantly inhibit subsequent naphthazarin-induced caspase activation and apoptotic morphology. (diva-portal.org)
  • Lysosomes and lysosomal cathepsins in cell death. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cathepsins have a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover, e.g. bone resorption. (genenames.org)
  • Cathepsin K is the most potent mammalian collagenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysteinyl cathepsin K (CatK) is one of the most potent mammalian collagenases involved in cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • The collagenolytic activity of cathepsin K is unique among mammalian proteinases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human AAA lesions express high levels of cathepsin L (CatL), one of the most potent mammalian elastases. (harvard.edu)
  • It is widely held that invasion is facilitated by a membrane or secreted form of cathepsin B that acts outside the cell to degrade ECM components at or adjacent to the surface of the invading cell. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These cells were tested in an in vitro Matrigel invasion assay with membrane-permeant and impermeant inhibitors of cathepsin B. The results, which provided direct proof for the participation of cathepsin B in matrix penetration, also yielded the unexpected finding that an intracellular form of cathepsin B was required for Matrigel invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sputum cathepsin B had greater stability at pH 7.5 and a higher apparent Mr, even after deglycosylation, than lysosomal cathepsin B. We conclude that the form of cathepsin B found in sputum is probably a truncated form of human procathepsin B, with some differences in properties that could be of physiological importance. (portlandpress.com)
  • Elevated levels of cathepsin H correlates with malignant progression of prostate tumors. (scbt.com)
  • Levels of cathepsin D have been positively correlated with recurring breast cancers of both node negative and node positive types. (genetex.com)
  • Cathepsins are intracellular proteinases that hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Surprisingly, at a concentration of 10 μ m , CA-074 slowly permeated the cells, causing an 80-95% inhibition of intracellular cathepsin B after 12 h, the duration of the invasion assay. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The membrane-permeant cathepsin B inhibitor, CA-074 methyl ester, and the higher concentration of CA-074 that inhibited intracellular cathepsin B both significantly reduced Matrigel invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Collectively, these results identify an intracellular role for cathepsin B in matrix degradation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cathepsin K, among other cathepsins, plays a role in cancer metastasis through the degradation of the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin K associates with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Elevated Cathepsin K potentiates metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsins are involved in disease processes as varied as cancer metastasis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and arthritis. (innovations-report.com)
  • Involvement of cathepsins in the invasion, metastasis and proliferation of cancer cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Cathepsin B is among the candidate proteinases believed to participate in invasion and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Besides caspases, cathepsins have recently been shown to be associated with cell death regulation [6-12] and various other physiological and pathological processes, such as maturation of the MHC class II complex, bone remodelling, keratinocyte differentiation, tumour progression and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, as well as atherosclerosis [13, 14] (table 1). (smw.ch)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 344 Cathepsin D (CTSD) Antikörper von 36 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The purpose of the research reported herein was to develop procedures for the purification of the cathepsin from salmon muscle. (oregonstate.edu)
  • It was decided to attempt the purification of the cathepsin optimally active at pH 3.7. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The purification was accomplished by extracting the salmon muscle cathepsin with two parts 0.2 N KC1. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The purification of cathepsin D from pig uterus by two-step affinity chromatography on concanavalin A- and pepstatin-Sepharose was described previously [Afting & Becker (1981) Biochem. (biochemj.org)
  • Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans. (genetics.org)
  • These data suggest that cad-1 is a structural gene for cathepsin D. (genetics.org)
  • These results suggest that the ecdysone response elements are vital for activation of the promoter by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in the larval fat body and further support the crucial role of ecdysone signaling to control cathepsin D gene transcription. (antibodies-online.com)
  • By making use of EST data, sequenced cDNAs, and genomic trace sequences of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, we identified a total of 28 cathepsin B-like gene copies in the genome of A. pisum. (inria.fr)
  • In addition, this work also implicates Cathepsin B genes in senescence, a developmental form of PCD, via regulation of the senescence marker gene Senescence Associated Gene 12 ( SAG12 ). (bl.uk)
  • These diseases may also involve the degradation of the extracellular matrix by cathepsins. (news-medical.net)
  • Stroke Traumatic brain injury Alzheimer's disease Arthritis Ebola, Cathepsin B and to a lesser extent cathepsin L have been found to be necessary for the virus to enter host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally cathepsin D has been associated with amyloid formation in Alzheimer's plaques. (genetex.com)
  • [7] The main function of cathepsin D is to degrade proteins and activate precursors of bioactive proteins in pre-lysosomal compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are classified in these families based on the amino acids present in the proteins that the cathepsins break down. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsins play a role in the degradation of proteins, energy metabolism, and the body's immune responses, among other functions. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsins break down proteins by cutting the peptide bonds that link amino acids together. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsins are important in neurodegenerative diseases as they break down several important proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers for the first time have shown that members of a family of enzymes known as cathepsins - which are implicated in many disease processes - may attack one another instead of the bodily proteins they normally degrade. (innovations-report.com)
  • Because cathepsins have harmful effects on critical proteins such as collagen and elastin, pharmaceutical companies have been developing drugs to inhibit activity of the enzymes, but so far these compounds have had too many side effects to be useful and have failed clinical trials. (innovations-report.com)
  • Using mass spectrometry analysis of cells treated with a pan cathepsin inhibitor, we observed an increased abundance of proteins involved in central carbon metabolism. (mcponline.org)
  • We further demonstrate that incorporating a cathepsin B-cleavable linker between the BIM BH3 peptide and the hydrophobic tail within individual amphiphiles results in increased binding to recombinant BCL-2 proteins while also allowing for increased cellular uptake and mitochondrial localization leading to faster and more potent dose-dependent cytotoxicity and caspase activation in malignant cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • [23] Cathepsin D enzymatic activity induces hydrolytic modification of apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins, including LDL, which means it may be involved in atherosclerosis as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cathepsin A activity in lysates of metastatic lesions of malignant melanoma is significantly higher than in primary focus lysates. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxLDL inhibits differentiation and functional activity of osteoclasts via scavenger receptor-A mediated autophagy and cathepsin K secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Human endometriosis lesions also exhibited greater cathepsin activity than adjacent peritoneum tissue, supporting the mouse results. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting cathepsin activity could block endometriosis lesion attachment and implantation in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Mouse endometriotic lesions exhibit elevated cathepsin proteolytic activity. (nih.gov)
  • E-64 blocks all cathepsin proteolytic activity in murine endometriotic lesions. (nih.gov)
  • Dysregulated cathepsin synthesis and activity have been seen in several diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and inflammatory neurological diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Dysregulated cathepsin activity can result in the overexpression (over-activity) of the cathepsins and cause them to be secreted outside of cells. (news-medical.net)
  • The work could affect not only the development of drugs to inhibit cathepsin activity, but could also lead to a better understanding of how the enzymes work together. (innovations-report.com)
  • By increasing the amount of cathepsin S ten-fold over the amount used in the original experiment, Platt and Barry were able to completely block the activity of cathepsin K, preventing damage to the collagen sample. (innovations-report.com)
  • Platt's long-term research has focused on cathepsins, including the development of sensitive tools and assays to quantify their activity in cells and tissue, as well as potential diagnostic applications for breast, lung and cervical cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • The selective demonstration of cathepsin B activity by means of the naphthylamide reaction. (springer.com)
  • Distribution of the activity and expression of mature cathepsin L within the umbilical cord probably results from distinctions in the proenzyme activation process. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the assay (z-Arginine-Arginine) 2 (z-RR) 2 derivative of the cresyl violet fluorophore easily penetrates the cell membrane and the membranes of the internal cellular organelles enabling to detect cathepsin B activity within whole living cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here we report that loss of cathepsin L (Cts L) is associated with a fast proliferation rate and enhanced glycolytic metabolism that depend on lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity. (mcponline.org)
  • Transient expression of human cathepsin B in a poorly metastatic B16F1 murine melanoma variant produced a 3-5-fold increase in cathepsin B activity and a comparable increase in invasiveness. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For measuring cathepsin B activity by fluorometer or fluorescence plate reader. (promocell.com)
  • This project aims to examine the utility of the proteolytic activity signatures of caspase 1 and cathepsin S (CTSS) as readouts of particle-induced inflammation and to elucidate the role and dynamic regulation of CTSS in response to cellular stress. (bl.uk)
  • Dariusz Szajda S, Jankowski M, Zalewska B, Kożuszko B, Gabrylewski W, Skrzydlewski Z. Activity of cancer procoagulant and cathepsin D in breast cancer. (termedia.pl)
  • Immunohistochemical investigations on cathepsin D activity in structures of cholesteatoma. (medscimonit.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of cathepsin D in the structures of cholesteatoma. (medscimonit.com)
  • Results: Cathepsin D demonstrates high activity in perimatrix cells adjacent to bone tissue, while it occurs in trace amounts in the matrix. (medscimonit.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Serum cathepsin B activity has been considered a potential marker of tumor progression. (lu.se)
  • The aim of this study was to assess serum cathepsin activity during tumor progression and regression. (lu.se)
  • Serum cathepsin B activity was determined, tumor volumes were measured, and. (lu.se)
  • RESULTS: Of the 45 BRT-treated rats, tumor regression was observed in 31 rats, and serum cathepsin activity was analyzed in these rats. (lu.se)
  • The activity profiles of four cathepsins in the kidney and liver tissue were analysed and correlated with blood cytokines level in the presence and absence of antifungal compounds (amphotericin B, a standard drug and 2-(3,4-dimethyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-2-yl)-1-methylethyl pentanoate, isolated in our laboratory from natural source) treatment. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Regional comparisons of cathepsin D activity in bovine retinal pigment epithelium. (arvojournals.org)
  • In this study, the cathepsin D activity in RPE cells from the posterior area centralis was compared to the activity in cells from the equatorial region of the same bovine eyes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Analysis of freshly isolated RPE cells from 30 eyes indicated that cells from the area centralis have significantly higher cathepsin D activity than cells from the more peripheral retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • Genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and expression of human cathepsin W". Biochem Biophys Res Commun . (wikipedia.org)
  • CTSZ, which has been also known as cathepsin X and cathepsin P, exhibits carboxy-monopeptidase and carboxy-dipeptidase activities. (prospecbio.com)
  • Leukocyte cathepsin S is a potent regulator of both cell and matrix turnover in advanced atherosclerosis," Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology , vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 188-194, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Novel, Nonpeptidic Cyanamides as Potent and Reversible Inhibitors of Human Cathepsins K and L, J. Med. (patentgenius.com)
  • In particular, no defects in granulopoiesis or PMN homeostasis have been reported in mice deficient in cathepsin G ( CG −/− ), 15 neutrophil elastase ( NE −/− ), 16 , 17 or dipeptidylpeptidase I ( DPPI −/− ), which lack active NSPs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Neutrophil cathepsin G increases calcium flux and inositol polyphosphate production in cultured endothelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Exposure of endothelial cells (ENDO) to human neutrophil cathepsin G (CG) increases albumin flux across the endothelial monolayer. (jimmunol.org)
  • Fluorometric kit to for fast screening of potential cathepsin B (CTSB) inhibitors. (promocell.com)
  • There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone resorption. (genenames.org)
  • Cathepsin K is involved in osteoporosis, a disease in which a decrease in bone density causes an increased risk for fracture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arkona C, Wiederanders B. Expression, subcellular distribution and plasma membrane binding of cathepsin B and gelatinases in bone metastatic tissue. (springer.com)
  • Impaired osteoclastic bone resorption leads to osteopetrosis in cathepsin-K-deficient mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Conclusions: Cathepsin D places a major role in bone tissue destruction due to cholesteatoma. (medscimonit.com)
  • Cathepsin L-deficient mice were shown to have less adipose tissue, lower serum glucose and insulin levels, more insulin receptor subunits, more glucose transporter (GLUT4) and more fibronectin than wild type controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • To test this, we used an immunocompetent endometriosis mouse model and found that endometriotic lesions exhibited a greater than 5-fold increase in active cathepsins compared to tissue from peritoneal wall or eutopic endometrium, with cathepsins L and K specifically implicated. (nih.gov)
  • Keilová, H.: On the specificity and inhibition of cathepsins D and B. In: Tissue proteinases, ed. by A. J. Barrett and J. T. Dingle, p. 45-65. (springer.com)
  • IHC image of Cathepsin D staining in Human Lung formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica Bond™ system using the standard protocol F. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6, epitope retrieval solution 1) for 20 mins. (abcam.com)
  • Weight loss reduces adipose tissue cathepsin S and its circulating levels in morbidly obese women," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 1042-1047, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Cathepsin F staining of paraffin-embedded human heart tissue sections. (neuromics.com)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of all the cathepsin B genes in aphids revealed that genic expansion has continuously proceeded with basal, intermediary and recent duplications. (inria.fr)
  • Cathepsin B has also been implicated in the progression of various human tumors including ovarian cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase whose expression and trafficking are frequently altered in cancer, and plasma membrane and secreted forms are thought to contribute to the invasive and metastatic properties of malignant tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain I, calpain II, cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. (promocell.com)
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain 1, calpain 2 which also inhibits cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. (promocell.com)
  • Cathepsin-Z (CTSZ) is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase and member of the peptidase C1 family. (prospecbio.com)
  • Cathepsin K is a recently identified lysosomal cysteine proteinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CTSC / Cathepsin C / JP, a member of the peptidase C1 family, is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase that appears to be a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteinases in immune/inflammatory cells. (lsbio.com)
  • The cathepsin assays are simple, straightforward, and can be adapted to 96-well plate assays. (biovision.com)
  • For instance, cathepsins have been found to degrade low-density lipoprotein (LDL-P) and reduce the effect of cholesterol leaving macrophages. (news-medical.net)
  • Essential role for cathepsin S in MHC class II-associated invariant chain processing and peptide loading," Immunity , vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 357-366, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • A direct immunohistochemical method of high specificity is presented for the demonstration of sites of cathepsin B1. (springer.com)
  • In this review we cover specific roles of cathepsins in innate and adaptive immunity, as well as their implication in the pathogenesis of several diseases. (smw.ch)
  • It is of note to mention that this review is not meant to comprehensively cover the present literature on viruses encountering cathepsins but rather illustrates, on some representative examples, the possible roles of cathepsins in replication of viruses and in the course of disease. (springer.com)
  • We saw that the cathepsin K was going away much faster when there was cathepsin S present than when it was by itself," said Platt, who is also a Georgia Cancer Coalition Distinguished Scholar and a Fellow of the Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology. (innovations-report.com)
  • These data strongly suggest that decreases in the lysosomal cathepsin activities may contribute to IDDM-induced glomerular cellular hypertrophy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, cytosolic and nuclear forms of cathepsins have been described and are currently an emerging field of research aiming at understanding their functions in such unexpected cellular locations. (springer.com)
  • Gingival biopsies from periodontitis patients showed a significantly higher cathepsin S expression than those from healthy gingiva. (hindawi.com)
  • Cathepsins are proteolytic enzymes with a broad spectrum of substrates. (springer.com)
  • A synthetic peptide made to the C-terminus of mouse Cathepsin E. (abcam.com)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/730869/all/cathepsins. (tabers.com)