A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.
An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC (Formerly EC
A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.
An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.
A papain-like cysteine protease that has specificity for amino terminal dipeptides. The enzyme plays a role in the activation of several pro-inflammatory serine proteases by removal of their aminoterminal inhibitory dipeptides. Genetic mutations that cause loss of cathepsin C activity in humans are associated with PAPILLON-LEFEVRE DISEASE.
A lysosomal papain-related cysteine proteinase that is expressed in a broad variety of cell types.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine peptidase that exhibits carboxypeptidase activity. It is highly expressed in a variety of immune cell types and may play a role in inflammatory processes and immune responses.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A cysteine endopeptidase found in NATURAL KILLER CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES. It may have a specific function in the mechanism or regulation of cytolytic activity of immune cells.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Defective bone formation involving individual bones, singly or in combination.
A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC and EC
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
A variety of rare sarcoma having a reticulated fibrous stroma enclosing groups of sarcoma cells, which resemble epithelial cells and are enclosed in alveoli walled with connective tissue. It is a rare tumor, usually occurring between 15 and 35 years of age. It appears in the muscles of the extremities in adults and most commonly in the head and neck regions of children. Though slow-growing, it commonly metastasizes to the lungs, brain, bones, and lymph nodes. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1365)
N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by delayed closing of CRANIAL SUTURES, short stature, ACRO-OSTEOLYSIS of distal phalanges, dental and MAXILLOFACIAL ABNORMALITIES and an increase in bone density that results in frequent BONE FRACTURES. It is associated with BONE RESORPTION defect due to mutations in the lysosomal cysteine protease CATHEPSIN K.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
Resorption of calcified dental tissue, involving demineralization due to reversal of the cation exchange and lacunar resorption by osteoclasts. There are two types: external (as a result of tooth pathology) and internal (apparently initiated by a peculiar inflammatory hyperplasia of the pulp). (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p676)
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC
Distinctive neoplastic disorders of histiocytes. Included are malignant neoplasms of MACROPHAGES and DENDRITIC CELLS.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Hydrolytic enzyme activity used as a histocytochemical test for the presence of esterases in tissue. Substrate used is 3-hydroxy-4'-nitro-2-naphthanilide chloroacetate (naphthol AS-D).

Crystal structure of wild-type human procathepsin K. (1/284)

Cathepsin K is a lysosomal cysteine protease belonging to the papain superfamily. It has been implicated as a major mediator of osteoclastic bone resorption. Wild-type human procathepsin K has been crystallized in a glycosylated and a deglycosylated form. The latter crystals diffract better, to 3.2 A resolution, and contain four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and refined to an R-factor of 0.194. The N-terminal fragment of the proregion forms a globular domain while the C-terminal segment is extended and shows substantial flexibility. The proregion interacts with the enzyme along the substrate binding groove and along the proregion binding loop (residues Ser138-Asn156). It binds to the active site in the opposite direction to that of natural substrates. The overall binding mode of the proregion to cathepsin K is similar to that observed in cathepsin L, caricain, and cathepsin B, but there are local differences that likely contribute to the specificity of these proregions for their cognate enzymes. The main observed difference is in the position of the short helix alpha3p (67p-75p), which occupies the S' subsites. As in the other proenzymes, the proregion utilizes the S2 subsite for anchoring by placing a leucine side chain there, according to the specificity of cathepsin K toward its substrate.  (+info)

Characterization of novel cathepsin K mutations in the pro and mature polypeptide regions causing pycnodysostosis. (2/284)

Cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease critical for bone remodeling by osteoclasts, was recently identified as the deficient enzyme causing pycnodysostosis, an autosomal recessive osteosclerotic skeletal dysplasia. To investigate the nature of molecular lesions causing this disease, mutations in the cathepsin K gene from eight families were determined, identifying seven novel mutations (K52X, G79E, Q190X, Y212C, A277E, A277V, and R312G). Expression of the first pro region missense mutation in a cysteine protease, G79E, in Pichia pastoris resulted in an unstable precursor protein, consistent with misfolding of the proenzyme. Expression of five mature region missense defects revealed that G146R, A277E, A277V, and R312G precursors were unstable, and no mature proteins or protease activity were detected. The Y212C precursor was activated to its mature form in a manner similar to that of the wild-type cathepsin K. The mature Y212C enzyme retained its dipeptide substrate specificity and gelatinolytic activity, but it had markedly decreased activity toward type I collagen and a cathepsin K-specific tripeptide substrate, indicating that it was unable to bind collagen triple helix. These studies demonstrated the molecular heterogeneity of mutations causing pycnodysostosis, indicated that pro region conformation directs proper folding of the proenzyme, and suggested that the cathepsin K active site contains a critical collagen-binding domain.  (+info)

Expression of cathepsin K messenger RNA in giant cells and their precursors in human osteoarthritic synovial tissues. (3/284)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of cathepsin K messenger RNA (mRNA) in the giant cells found in human osteoarthritic (OA) synovium and associated reparative connective tissues, and to compare this with mRNA expression of cathepsins B, L, and S, which are cysteine proteases known to be highly expressed by cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. METHODS: Sections of human OA synovium were processed for in situ hybridization and probed for cathepsins K, B, L, and S. Serial sections were reacted for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and nonspecific esterase (NSE) activity, which are selective markers for the osteoclast and cells of the macrophage/monocyte lineage, respectively. RESULTS: At 3 sites of monocyte infiltration/giant cell formation (granulation tissue, the intimal and subintimal synovial layers, and deep stroma extending to the periphery of osteophytic tissue), both TRAP-positive mono- and multinucleated cells and TRAP-negative, NSE-positive mononuclear precursors were identified. Cells containing both enzyme activities were also found, potentially indicating an intermediate stage of differentiation. The TRAP-positive mononuclear/giant cells, and the occasional NSE-positive precursor, expressed an intense signal for cathepsin K mRNA, but did not express cathepsins B, L, and S. In contrast, the deep zone of phagocytic-like cells adjacent to sites of ossification expressed high levels of mRNA for cathepsins L, B, and S as well as cathepsin K mRNA. CONCLUSION: Giant cells that form within OA synovial tissue express high levels of cathepsin K mRNA. It appears that cathepsin K acts principally to digest the bone (and cartilage) fragments sheered from the joint surface during OA. The high TRAP activity and the undetectable expression of the macrophage-associated degradative proteases (cathepsins B, L, and S) by synovial giant cells strengthens the hypothesis that cathepsin K is the primary protease involved in bone degradation. At sites of synovial osteogenesis, a population of phagocytic-like cells expressed TRAP and cathepsins B, L, S, and K, and may represent blood-derived macrophages pushed toward an osteoclast phenotype.  (+info)

Osteopetrosis and osteoporosis: two sides of the same coin. (4/284)

Together, osteoporosis and osteopetrosis comprise a substantial proportion of the bone diseases that severely affect humans. In order to understand and effectively treat these disorders, an understanding of the mechanisms controlling bone remodelling is essential. While numerous animal models of bone disease have been generated, the lack of correlation between these animal models and human disease has limited their utility in terms of defining therapeutic strategies. The generation and analysis of cathepsin K knockout mice has resulted in a model for pycnodysostosis, a rare human osteopetrotic disease, and is now providing considerable insights into both osteoclast function and potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of bone disease. This review highlights the importance of genes such as cathepsin K in understanding bone remodelling and illustrates a new trend towards understanding bone disease as a complete entity rather than as a series of unrelated disorders.  (+info)

Cathepsin P, a novel protease in mouse placenta. (5/284)

The complete cDNA nucleotide sequence of a novel cathepsin derived from mouse placenta, termed cathepsin P, was determined. mRNA for cathepsin P was expressed in placenta and at lower levels in visceral yolk sac, but could not be detected in a range of adult tissues. The expression pattern of this protease indicates that it probably plays an important role during implantation and fetal development.  (+info)

Expression of cathepsin K in the human embryo and fetus. (6/284)

Cathepsin K is a protease with high collagenolytic and elastinolytic activity. Its cellular expression was previously thought to be restricted to osteoclasts and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. In this study, the expression of cathepsin K in the human embryo and fetus was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and by Northern blotting of fetal tissue extracts. Besides osteoclasts and chondroclasts and their precursors, epithelial cells of various organ systems expressed significant amounts of this enzyme. Respiratory and gastrointestinal mucosa, including bile duct epithelia and urothelia, showed high levels of cathepsin K expression. With the exception of the urothelium, showing a more homogenous expression pattern, the protease was usually accentuated in the surface cell layers of pithelia. In summary, these findings in the human embryo and early fetus demonstrated a significant expression of cathepsin K in different epithelial cell types besides osteoclasts. The functional aspects of cathepsin K expression in nonosteoclastic cells and potential conclusions on physiological and pathological conditions in the embryo-fetal or adult organism remain to be investigated. Dev Dyn 1999;216:89-95.  (+info)

Synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis is a source of osteoclast differentiation factor. (7/284)

OBJECTIVE: Osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF; also known as osteoprotegerin ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand, and tumor necrosis factor-related activation-induced cytokine) is a recently described cytokine known to be critical in inducing the differentiation of cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage into osteoclasts. The role of osteoclasts in bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been demonstrated, but the exact mechanisms involved in the formation and activation of osteoclasts in RA are not known. These studies address the potential role of ODF and the bone and marrow microenvironment in the pathogenesis of osteoclast-mediated bone erosion in RA. METHODS: Tissue sections from the bone-pannus interface at sites of bone erosion were examined for the presence of osteoclast precursors by the colocalization of messenger RNA (mRNA) for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K in mononuclear cells. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to identify mRNA for ODF in synovial tissues, adherent synovial fibroblasts, and activated T lymphocytes derived from patients with RA. RESULTS: Multinucleated cells expressing both TRAP and cathepsin K mRNA were identified in bone resorption lacunae in areas of pannus invasion into bone in RA patients. In addition, mononuclear cells expressing both TRAP and cathepsin K mRNA (preosteoclasts) were identified in bone marrow in and adjacent to areas of pannus invasion in RA erosions. ODF mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in whole synovial tissues from patients with RA but not in normal synovial tissues. In addition, ODF mRNA was detected in cultured adherent synovial fibroblasts and in activated T lymphocytes derived from RA synovial tissue, which were expanded by exposure to anti-CD3. CONCLUSION: TRAP-positive, cathepsin K-positive osteoclast precursor cells are identified in areas of pannus invasion into bone in RA. ODF is expressed by both synovial fibroblasts and by activated T lymphocytes derived from synovial tissues from patients with RA. These synovial cells may contribute directly to the expansion of osteoclast precursors and to the formation and activation of osteoclasts at sites of bone erosion in RA.  (+info)

Cloning and function of rabbit peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta/beta in mature osteoclasts. (8/284)

Osteoclasts modulate bone resorption under physiological and pathological conditions. Previously, we showed that both estrogens and retinoids regulated osteoclastic bone resorption and postulated that such regulation was directly mediated through their cognate receptors expressed in mature osteoclasts. In this study, we searched for expression of other members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily in osteoclasts. Using the low stringency homologous hybridization method, we isolated the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta/beta (PPARdelta/beta) cDNA from mature rabbit osteoclasts. Northern blot analysis showed that PPARdelta/beta mRNA was highly expressed in highly enriched rabbit osteoclasts. Carbaprostacyclin, a prostacyclin analogue known to be a ligand for PPARdelta/beta, significantly induced both bone-resorbing activities of isolated mature rabbit osteoclasts and mRNA expression of the cathepsin K, carbonic anhydrase type II, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase genes in these cells. Moreover, the carbaprostacyclin-induced bone resorption was completely blocked by an antisense phosphothiorate oligodeoxynucleotide of PPARdelta/beta but not by the sense phosphothiorate oligodeoxynucleotide of the same DNA sequence. Our results suggest that PPARdelta/beta may be involved in direct modulation of osteoclastic bone resorption.  (+info)

Cathepsin K, a cysteine protease predominantly expressed in osteoclasts, is a major drug target for the treatment of osteoporosis. Recent findings, however, indicate that cathepsin K is also involved in non-skeletal metabolism. The development of fibrotic phenotypes in lung and skin is a concern for cathepsin K inhibitors presently evaluated in clinical trials. Cathepsin K is expressed in lung tissue and has been implicated in lung fibrosis. However, little is known about the role of cathepsin K in airway development and its effect on TGF-β1 degradation. We investigated the effects of cathepsin K-deficiency on alterations in airway integrity, extracellular matrix composition, and TGF-β1 expression and degradation. Lung homogenates of wild-type and cathepsin K-deficient mice were used to evaluate their contents of collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and TGF-β1. The accessibility of TGF-β1 to cathepsin K-mediated degradation was determined in vitro and lung fibroblast proliferations in wild-type and
Two cathepsin K inhibitors (CatKIs) were compared with alendronate (ALN) for their effects on bone resorption and formation in ovariectomized (OVX) rabbits. The OVX model was validated by demonstrating significant loss (9.8% to 12.8%) in lumbar vertebral bone mineral density (LV BMD) in rabbits at 13-weeks after surgery, which was prevented by estrogen or ALN. A potent CatKI, L-006235 (L-235), dosed at 10 mg/kg per day for 27 weeks, significantly decreased LV BMD loss (p , .01) versus OVX-vehicle control. ALN reduced spine cancellous mineralizing surface by 70%, whereas L-235 had no effect. Similarly, endocortical bone-formation rate and the number of double-labeled Haversian canals in the femoral diaphysis were not affected by L-235. To confirm the sparing effects of CatKI on bone formation, odanacatib (ODN) was dosed in food to achieve steady-state exposures of 4 or 9 µM/day in OVX rabbits for 27 weeks. ODN at both doses prevented LV BMD loss (p , .05 and p , .001, respectively) versus ...
Canine OS cells contain preformed CatK within cytoplasmic vesicles. In OS cells, TGFβ1 induced the secretion of CatK, which degraded bone-derived type I collagen in vitro. CatK concentrations were higher in dogs with OS than healthy dogs (11.3 ± 5.2 pmol/L versus 8.1 ± 5.0 pmol/L, P = .03). In a subset of dogs with OS, pretreatment CatK concentrations gradually decreased after palliative radiation and antiresorptive treatment, from 9.3 ± 3.2 pmol/L to 5.0 ± 3.1 pmol/L, P = .03. ...
Global Markets Directs, Cathepsin K (Cathepsin O or Cathepsin O2 or Cathepsin X or CTSK or EC - Pipeline Review, H1 2019, provides
Approximately 90% of patients with advanced breast cancer develop bone metastases; an event that results in severe decrease of quality of life and a drasti
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficacy of calcium supplementation for human bone health by mass spectrometry profiling and cathepsin K measurement in plasma samples. AU - Zhao, Yingchun. AU - Cao, Rui. AU - Ma, Danjun. AU - Zhang, Hengwei. AU - Lappe, Joan. AU - Recker, Robert R.. AU - Xiao, Gary Guishan. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Osteoporosis is a common disease among older people, especially postmenopausal women. Calcium supplementation is effective in decreasing the occurrence of osteoporosis. We tested the effect of different calcium sources (i.e., calcium carbonate chew, milk mineral chew, milk drink and placebo chew) by direct mass spectrometry (dMS) profiling and cathepsin K measurement in the serum of subjects. The dMS method is promising for plasma biomarker discovery, and cathepsin K level in the plasma is an indicator for osteoporosis. Our result shows that dMS detected characteristic ion peaks after different calcium supplement interventions; ion peak 4281.0 m/z was commonly inhibited by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cathepsins in the osteoclast. AU - Goto, Tetsuya. AU - Yamaza, Takayoshi. AU - Tanaka, Teruo. PY - 2003/12/1. Y1 - 2003/12/1. N2 - The mechanism by which bone collagen and other organic components are degraded by the osteoclast during osteoclastic bone resorption was unclear until the 1980s. Studies conducted since the early 1990s have identified lysosomal proteases, mainly cathepsins that are active at low pH, involved in osteoclastic bone resorption. Several cathepsins, such as cathepsins C, D, B, E, G and L, were initially demonstrated to take part in the degradation of organic bone matrix in osteoclasts. Cathepsin K, which has high proteolytic activity and localizes primarily in osteoclasts, was discovered in 1995. This first tissue-specific cathepsin was associated with pycnodysostosis, a genetic disorder observable as an osteopetrotic phenotype in cathepsin K-deficient mice. Cystatin C, an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine proteases, regulates the activity of cathepsin K. ...
Mouse monoclonal Cathepsin K antibody (Clone 3F9) validated for WB, IHC and ELISA, specific for Human Cathepsin K, produced in vitro, azide-free.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Background: Cysteinyl cathepsin K (CatK) is one of the most potent mammalian collagenases involved in cardiovascular disease. We investigated the clinical predictive value of serum CatK levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).. Methods and Results: We examined 134 patients with CHF, measuring their serum CatK, troponin I, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and pre-operative N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels. The patients were divided into two groups: the 44 patients who showed a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) , 40% (the lowLVEF group) and the 90 patients showing LVEF values ≥ 40% (the highLVEF group). The lowLVEF patients had significantly higher serum CatK levels compared to the highLVEF patients (58.4 ± 12.2 vs. 44.7 ± 16.4, P , 0.001). Overall, a linear regression analysis showed that CatK levels correlated negatively with LVEF (r = -0.4, P , 0.001) and positively with LV end-diastolic dimensions (r = 0.2, P , 0.01), LV end-systolic dimensions ...
Altmann, Eva and Jacob, Sandra and Missbach, Martin (2004) Novel purine nitrile derived inhibitors of the cysteine protease cathepsin K. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 47 (24). pp. 5833-5836. ISSN 0022-2623 Altmann, Karl-Heinz and Floersheimer, Andreas and OReilly, Terence and Wartmann, Markus (2004) 4. The natural products epothilones A and B as lead structures for anticancer drug discovery: chemistry, biology, and SAR studies. Progress in Medicinal Chemistry, 42. pp. 171-205. ISSN 0079-6468 Atadja, Peter and Gao, Lin and Kwon, Paul and Trogani, Nancy and Walker, Heather and Hsu, Meier and Yeleswarapu, N. and Chandramouli, Nagarajan and Perez, Lawrence and Versace, Richard and Wu, Arthur and Sambucetti, Lidia and Lassota, Piotr and Cohen, Dalia and Bair, Kenneth and Wood, Alexander and Remiszewski, Stacy (2004) Selective growth inhibition of tumor cells by a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, NVP-LAQ824. Cancer Research, 64 (2). pp. 689-695. ISSN 0008-5472 Atadja, Peter and Hsu, Meier and ...
PubMedID: 23321671 | Osteoclast-specific cathepsin K deletion stimulates S1P-dependent bone formation. | The Journal of clinical investigation | 2/1/2013
Cathepsin O Goat anti-Human, Polyclonal, R&D Systems™ 100μg; Unlabeled Cathepsin O Goat anti-Human, Polyclonal, R&D Systems™ Primary Antibodies...
Polarized secretion of Drosophila EGFR ligand from photoreceptor neurons is controlled by ER localization of the ligand-processing machinery. We recommend these approaches in similar settings, especially those with health endpoints. Analysis of written responses to an open-ended question as a part of a questionnaire survey. The uptake of information and generic cialis available communication technologies (ICTs) in health professions education can have far-reaching consequences on assessment. SAR of potency enhancing P2-P3 groups coupled with ketoheterocyclic warheads to provide cathepsin K inhibitors have been described. The relatively high overuse injury incidence rate and the high recurrence rate for (severe) thigh muscle strains, especially during games, warrants prevention strategies.. With the administration of nifedipine (Adalat), the grade of nephrocalcinosis could be generic cialis available significantly reduced. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that proper ...
Odanacatib is an inhibiter of cathepsin K which was originally developed be Merck & Co as a new treatment for osteoporosis . The drug made it to phase III trials before abandoned due to increased stroke.
These methods were optimized as previously. described with some modification [27]. For both methods, each mass spectrum was obtained from the sum of 10 scans of 150 laser shots each and using 512 K data points. Typically, the target plate offset was 100 V with the deflector plate set at 180 V. The ion funnels operated at 100 V and 6.0 V, respectively, with the skimmers at 15 and 5 V. The analyzer entrance was maintained at −7 V, and side kick technology was used to further optimize peak shape and signal intensity. The two acquisition settings differentiate for the trapping potentials (LM, 0.6 and 0.55 V; Alpelisib datasheet HM, 0.95 and 0.80 V), the required excitation power (LM, 25%; HM, 28%) and pulse time (LM, 10 μs; HM, 20 μs), the time of flight to the ICR cell (LM, 1.350 ms; HM, 2.700 ms) and the quadrupole filter mass (LM, m/z 1300; HM, m/z 2500). For each spotted sample, two duplicate spots were measured using the LM and the other two using the HM. Approximately 4.5 h were needed to ...
Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Dieter Bromme on Cathepsin K in bone and joint diseases, part of a collection of multimedia lectures.
Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) and Flow Cytometry applications. This antibody reacts with Human samples. Supplied as 400 µL purified antibody (0.4 mg/ml) in PBS with 0.09% sodium azide.
Results At baseline gene expression of MTOR, MMP-9, cathepsin K, and TNFα measured in the PBMCs was significantly upregulated (p,0.05) in the examined RA patients compared to healthy subjects. Significant downregulation of MTOR gene expression in response to RAP treatment of the PBMCs in three of the examined patients compared to the untreated cells was associated with significant inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα and the joint destruction-related MMP-9 and cathepsin K gene expression. The absence of RAP effect on MTOR gene expression in the PBMCs of other examined patients compared to untreated counterparts was accompanied by no change in gene expression of the examined pro-inflammatory mediator and genes associated with bone turnover. ...
BioVendor - BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products.
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Objective: To review the latest developments in the mechanisms of epithelium sodium stations (ENaCs) induced bone tissue formation and regulation. that ENaC includes Odanacatib a central ion-channel situated in the central symmetry axis from the three subunits. ENaCs are protease delicate stations whose iron-channel activity is normally regulated with the proteolytic response. Route starting possibility of ENaCs is normally controlled by proteinases mechanised drive and shear tension. Several molecules are Odanacatib involved in rules of ENaCs in bone formation including nitride oxide synthases voltage-sensitive calcium channels and cyclooxygenase-2. Summary: The pathway of ENaC involved in shear stress has an effect on stimulating osteoblasts actually bone formation by estrogen interference. reveals a fact that ENaCs are users of a family of ion channels that personal a character of mechanical-sensitive.[42] Hydrostatic pressure has been discovered to increase the activity of ENaCs. The bad ...
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R, this data suggests that Mtap may be acting in a haploinsufficient manner. To develop evidence that germline heterozygosity for Mtap can have phenotypic
Of the siRNA species indicated above each graph (only three out of the six sets of trajectories are depicted). (C) Box plots show the distributions of lengths
Cathepsin K is a protease whose expression is driven by microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) in osteoclasts. TFE3 and TFEB are members of the same transcription factor subfamily as MITF and all three have overlapping transcriptional targets. We have shown that all t(6;11) renal cell carcinomas, which harbor an Alpha-TFEB gene fusion, as well as a subset of the Xp11 translocation renal carcinomas, which harbor various TFE3 gene fusions, express cathepsin K, while no other common renal carcinoma does. We have hypothesized that overexpression of TFEB or certain TFE3 fusion proteins function like MITF in these neoplasms, and thus activate cathepsin K expression. However, the expression of cathepsin K in specific genetic subtypes of Xp11 translocation carcinomas, as well as alveolar soft part sarcoma, which harbors the same ASPSCR1-TFE3 gene fusion as some Xp11 translocation carcinomas, has not been addressed. We performed immunohistochemistry for cathepsin K on 14 genetically confirmed ...
In this report, we show that the Wnt antagonist Dkk-1 suppressed canonical Wnt signaling in bone marrow endosteal cells, suggesting a role for Dkk-1 in the regulation of the bone marrow stem cell niche. Intriguingly, Dkk-1 mobilized vasculogenic progenitor cells without concomitant release of inflammatory cells as compared to G-CSF. These effects are reminiscent of the recently described effect of RANKL.16 Indeed, Dkk-1 induced expression of the osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL and the bone-resorbing protease cathepsin K. Subsequently, the vasculogenic progenitor mobilizing effect of systemically administered Dkk-1 resulted in enhanced neovascularization in the Matrigel plug assay, because higher numbers of GFP+ transgenic bone marrow-derived cells were recruited to newly formed vessels. Therefore, Dkk-1 appears to be a potent regulator of vasculogenic progenitors.. The mechanisms by which Dkk-1 stimulates RANKL expression and mobilization of vasculogenic progenitors may include a direct ...
How is osteoclast-specific colony-stimulating factor abbreviated? O-CSF stands for osteoclast-specific colony-stimulating factor. O-CSF is defined as osteoclast-specific colony-stimulating factor rarely.
When the researchers combined the two cathepsins and allowed them to attack samples of elastin, they expected to see increased degradation of the protein. What they saw, however, was not much more damage than cathepsin K did by itself. Platt at first believed the experiment was flawed, and asked Barry - an undergraduate student in his lab who specializes in modeling - to examine what possible conditions could account for the experimental result. Barrys modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the elastin - a protein essential in arteries and the cardiovascular system.. That theoretical result led to additional experiments in which the researchers measured a direct correlation between an increase in the amount of cathepsin S added to the experiment and a reduction in the degradation of collagen. By increasing the amount of cathepsin S ten-fold over the amount used in the original experiment, Platt and Barry were able to ...
Cathepsin X; the only papain-like lysosomal cysteine peptidase exhibiting carboxymonopeptidase activity. It can also act as a carboxydipeptidase, like cathepsin B, but has been shown to preferentially cleave substrates through a monopeptidyl carboxypeptidase pathway. The propeptide region of cathepsin X, the shortest among papain-like peptidases, is covalently attached to the active site cysteine in the inactive form of the enzyme. Little is known about the biological function of cathepsin X. Some studies point to a role in early tumorigenesis. A more recent study indicates that cathepsin X expression is restricted to immune cells suggesting a role in phagocytosis and the regulation of the immune response. ...
Dieter Bromme Lab Simon Law Email me Masters Student I received my BSc from UBC in Biochemistry and Chemistry. My current project involves the identification of novel inhibitors for cathepsin K, an enzyme implicated in osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases.
Cathepsin Z, also called cathepsin X or cathepsin P, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSZ gene. It is a member of the cysteine cathepsin protease family, which has 11 members. As one of the 11 cathepsins, cathepsin Z contains distinctive features from others. Cathepsin Z has been reported involved in cancer malignancy and inflammation. The CTSZ gene is located at 20q13.32 on chromosome 20, consisting of 6 exons. At least two transcript variants of this gene have been found, but the full-length nature of only one of them has been determined. Cathepsin Z is characterized by an unusual and unique 3-amino acid insertion in the highly conserved region between the glutamine of the putative oxynion hole and the active site cysteine. The pro-region of cathepsin Z shares no significant similarity with other cathepsin family sequences. It contains only 41 amino acid residues without the conserved motif of ERFNIN or GNFD found in other cysteine proteinases. Besides, the proregion sequence ...
Signs of Pycnodysostosis including medical signs and symptoms of Pycnodysostosis, symptoms, misdiagnosis, tests, common medical issues, duration, and the correct diagnosis for Pycnodysostosis signs or Pycnodysostosis symptoms.
Human cysteine cathepsins constitute an 11-membered family of proteases responsible for degradation of proteins in cellular endosomal-lysosomal compartments as such, they play important roles in antigen processing, cellular stress signaling, autophagy, and senescence. Moreover, for many years these …
Mouse models. Generation of Lhb-/-, Osteocalcin-/-, Gprc6a-/-, Opg-/-, and InsRosb-/- mice was reported previously (2, 7, 16, 19, 32). CtskCre;DTAfl/+ mice were generated by crossing CtskCre/+ mice, which express Cre recombinase under the control of the osteoclast-specific Cathepsin K locus (16), with DTAfl/+ mice, which harbor a flox-STOP-flox-DTA gene cassette under the control of the Rosa26 promoter (18). CD45.2+ fetal liver stem cells isolated from E14.5 control (CtskCre/+ and DTAfl/+) or CtskCre;DTA embryos were transplanted (2 × 106/mice) via tail-vein injection into 5-week-old CD45.1+-irradiated WT recipient mice. Genetic backgrounds of mice were as follows: Lhb-/- (C57BL/6J: 100%), Osteocalcin-/- (129/Sv: 100%), Gprc6a-/- (129/Sv: 100%), InsRosb-/- (129/Sv: 87.5%; C57BL/6J: 12.5%), InsRosb+/-;Osteocalcin+/- (129/Sv: 75%; C57BL/6J: 25%) InsRosb+/-;Gprc6a+/- (129/Sv: 75%; C57BL/6J: 25%), InsRosb+/- (129/Sv: 75%; C57BL/6J: 25%), Opg-/- (C57BL/6J: 100%), and CtskCre;DTAfl/+ (C57BL/6J: ...
Results From among 47000 probes, 18253 were filtered out. Probes with a p-value below than 0.005 were chosen and classified as up- or down-regulated ones. By this way, 465 differentially expressed genes between N/R and I areas were identified. Many inflammatory mediators appear differentially expressed. The interferon alpha-inductible protein 6 (IFI6) was the most up-regulated. We also identified the hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1), the cathepsin K (CTSK), the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) and the EBV-induced G-protein coupled receptor 2 (EBI2). The differential expression of intermediates involved in angiogenesis pathway was also revealed between N/R and I areas. Among them, R-spondin-3 (RSPO3), the secreted phopshoprotein 1 (SPP1) and aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were up-regulated whereas ADAMTS1 was down-regulated. Finally, in the Wnt signaling, RSPO3 was up-regulated unlike dickkopf homolog 3 (DKK3) which was in turn down-regulated. We next performed a class comparison ...
Fast delivery of PPM1K knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Includes matched wildtype control.
Looking for online definition of pycnodysostosis in the Medical Dictionary? pycnodysostosis explanation free. What is pycnodysostosis? Meaning of pycnodysostosis medical term. What does pycnodysostosis mean?
Patients with defective osteoclastic acidification have increased numbers of osteoclasts, with decreased resorption, but bone formation that remains unchanged. We demonstrate that osteoclast survival is increased when acidification is impaired, and that impairment of acidification results in inhibition of bone resorption without inhibition of bone formation. We investigated the role of acidification in human osteoclastic resorption and life span in vitro using inhibitors of chloride channels (NS5818/NS3696), the proton pump (bafilomycin) and cathepsin K. We found that bafilomycin and NS5818 dose dependently inhibited acidification of the osteoclastic resorption compartment and bone resorption. Inhibition of bone resorption by inhibition of acidification, but not cathepsin K inhibition, augmented osteoclast survival, which resulted in a 150 to 300% increase in osteoclasts compared to controls. We investigated the effect of inhibition of osteoclastic acidification in vivo by using the rat ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in Activity of Cysteine Cathepsins B and L in Brain Structures of Mice with Aggressive and Depressive-Like Behavior Formed under Conditions of Social Stress. AU - Zhanaeva, S. Ya. AU - Rogozhnikova, A. A.. AU - Alperina, E. L.. AU - Gevorgyan, M. M.. AU - Idov, G. V.. PY - 2018/3/1. Y1 - 2018/3/1. N2 - We studied activity of lysosomal cysteine proteases, cathepsins B and L, in brain structures (frontal cortex, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) of C57Bl/6J mice with aggressive and depressive-like behavior formed under conditions of chronic social stress (repeated experience of victories and defeats within 20 days). Mice with depressive-like behavior showed increased activity of cathepsin В in the hypothalamus and nucleus caudatus and increased activity of cathepsin L in the hippocampus compared to control animals not subjected to agonistic confrontations. In mice with aggressive behavior, protease activity in the studied brain structures was not changed. In ...
From NCBI Gene:. The protein encoded by this gene is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase involved in bone remodeling and resorption. This protein, which is a member of the peptidase C1 protein family, is predominantly expressed in osteoclasts. However, the encoded protein is also expressed in a significant fraction of human breast cancers, where it could contribute to tumor invasiveness. Mutations in this gene are the cause of pycnodysostosis, an autosomal recessive disease characterized by osteosclerosis and short stature. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2013]. From UniProt: ...
Cathepsin B is an enzymatic protein belonging to the peptidase (or protease) families. In humans, it is coded by the CTSB gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a lysosomal cysteine protease composed of a dimer of disulfide-linked heavy and light chains, both produced from a single protein precursor. It is a member of the peptidase C1 family. At least five transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.
Collagen Hybridizing Peptides (CHP) conjugates from Advanced BioMatrix are labeled with 5-FAM (F-CHP, Catalog No. 5264-60UG) / sulfo-Cyanine3 (R-CHP, Catalog No. 5276-60UG) for fluorescence detection, or biotin (B-CHP, Catalog No. 5265-UG) for avidin/streptavidin-mediated detection.. The triple helix is the hallmark protein structure of collagen. During tissue remodeling, the triple helical collagen molecules are degraded by specific proteases (e.g., MMP or cathepsin K) and become unfolded at body temperature. The Collagen Hybridizing Peptide (CHP) is a synthetic peptide that can specifically bind to such denatured collagen strands through hydrogen bonding, both in histology, in vivo, and in vitro (3D cell culture). By sharing the structural motif and the Gly-X-Y repeating sequence of natural collagen, CHP has a strong capability to hybridize with denatured collagen strands, in a fashion that is similar to a DNA fragment annealing to its complimentary DNA strand during PCR. CHP is an extremely ...
Researchers at VCU have developed a hybrid molecule of melatonin and curcumin originally intended for neurodegenerative disorders, but have found it to pertain anti-fibrotic activities. The hybrid molecule has been shown to be a potent inhibitor against induced proliferation of (1) lung fibroblasts, (2) fibroblast-to-myoblast differentiation, (3) deposition of extracellular matrix, collagen and (4) alveolar EMT, and (5) radical scavenging anti-oxidative activities. It is also able to maintain a stimulatory activity of the collagen-degrading enzyme, cathepsin K. These effects display higher potency over melatonin or curcumin alone, their admixture, or of the FDA-approved drug pirfenidone in vitro. Even in vivo results in a PF rat model indicate remarkable intervention activities, attenuating dense fibrosis and honeycomb development in the airspace, impairment of treadmill exercise endurance, and induction of collagen deposition (Figure 1). Finally, the hybrid melatonin-curcumin molecule is ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Info? 41598_2019_57073_MOESM1_ESM. by CTS loading. The suppressive effect of HMW-HA on enhanced cathepsin K manifestation via NF-B inhibition effects the effectiveness of HMW-HA in OA treatment. Our findings provide new evidence supporting the biological performance of intra-articular HMW-HA injections for treatment of OA. strong class=kwd-title Subject terms: Molecular medicine, Osteoimmunology Intro Osteoarthritis (OA) is definitely a prevalent chronic joint disease associated with cartilage degeneration that tends to increase with age in modern society. This condition affects 240 million people globally, with 9.6% of men and 18% of women aged 60 years having symptomatic OA1. In medical practice, OA connected with cartilage degeneration frequently is encountered. OA is normally connected with many risk elements, including age, weight problems, genetic elements, and mechanised stress launching2. Excess mechanised stress loading can be an essential ...
the equilibrium constant for a solubility reaction. A general solubility equation could be written as: MX (s) M+ (aq) + X- (aq) where MX represents an ionic solid, M+ the positive ion, and X- the negative ion. Since pure solids have an activity of 1, they are not included in equilibrium constant expressions. Therefore, the K expression for this reaction is: Since the concentration of either ion, [M+] or [Cl-] is the amount of MX that dissolved, (in other words, MXs solubility) and the result of multiplying two numbers is called a product, this kind of K expression is called a solubility product, and given the symbol Ksp. Therefore the K expression would normally be written ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Deficiency for the cysteine protease cathepsin L promotes tumor progression in mouse epidermis. AU - Dennemärker, J.. AU - Lohmüller, T.. AU - Mayerle, J.. AU - Tacke, M.. AU - Lerch, M. M.. AU - Coussens, L. M.. AU - Peters, C.. AU - Reinheckel, T.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Ulrike Reif and Susanne Dollwet-Mack for excellent technical assistance and Dr Marie Follo for comments on the paper. The work was supported by a grant from the Deutsche Krebshilfe (Re106977) and in part by the Excellence Initiative of the German Federal and State Governments (EXC 294) and the European Union Framework Program (FP7 MICRO-ENVIMET No 201279).. PY - 2010/3. Y1 - 2010/3. N2 - To define a functional role for the endosomal/lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin L (Ctsl) during squamous carcinogenesis, we generated mice harboring a constitutive Ctsl deficiency in addition to epithelial expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 oncogenes (human cytokeratin 14 (K14)-HPV16). We found ...
Complexes of gold( I) have long been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis although the precise biological targets of gold are not well understood. One intriguing therapeutic target of Au( I) is the cathepsin family of lysosomal cysteine proteases. Here, we present the inhibition of cathepsin B by a known Au( I)-based drug and a series of derivatives. The complexes investigated were reversible, competitive inhibitors with IC50 values ranging from 0.3 to 250 mu M, depending on the substituents around the Au( I). ...
The first part of this thesis addresses the design and synthesis of amine building blocks accomplished by applying two different synthetic procedures, both of which were developed using solid-phase chemistry. Chapter 1 presents the first of these methods, entailing a practical solid-phase parallel synthesis route to N-monoalkylated aminopiperidines and aminopyrrolidines achieved by selective reductive alkylation of primary and/or secondary amines. Solid-phase NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the reactions for which a new pulse sequence was developed. The second method, reported in Chapter 2, involves a novel approach to the synthesis of secondary amines starting from reactive alkyl halides and azides. The convenient solid-phase protocol that was devised made use of the Staudinger reaction in order to accomplish highly efficient alkylations of N-alkyl phosphimines or N-aryl phosphimines with reactive alkyl halides.. The second part of the thesis describes the design and synthesis of three ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Aseptic loosening (AL) because of osteolysis may be the primary reason behind joint prosthesis failure. the next factors were noticed: Interleukins 6 and 1 (IL16 and ), Tumor Necrosis Element (TNF), nuclear element kappa-light-chain-enhancer of triggered B cells (NFB), Nuclear element of triggered T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATC1), Cathepsin K (CATK) and Tartrate-resistant acidity phosphatase (Capture). Titanium (Ti) and Polyethylene (PE) had been the most researched contaminants, displaying that Ti up-regulated osteoclastogenesis and swelling related genes, while PE up-regulated osteoclastogenesis related genes mainly. in ZrO2 than Ti[54]0.05, 0.5, 1 mg/mL Ti alloy contaminants (? 0.52 m)SFs from OA pzProtein amounts (IRE1-, CHOP, RANKL, OPG, sRANKL) Gene expression ((at the best concentration)[45]0.1 mg/mL Ti particles (? 3.6 m)Mice BMMOCs number Bone resorption assay Gene expression ( cell viability, ALP, COLL I, OCN, mineralization, CMKBR7 membrane damage viability OBs, BMMs: (at 7 days), (at ...
Aseptic loosening (AL) because of osteolysis may be the primary reason behind joint prosthesis failure. the next factors were noticed: Interleukins 6 and 1 (IL16 and ), Tumor Necrosis Element (TNF), nuclear element kappa-light-chain-enhancer of triggered B cells (NFB), Nuclear element of triggered T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATC1), Cathepsin K (CATK) and Tartrate-resistant acidity phosphatase (Capture). Titanium (Ti) and Polyethylene (PE) had been the most researched contaminants, displaying that Ti up-regulated osteoclastogenesis and swelling related genes, while PE up-regulated osteoclastogenesis related genes mainly. in ZrO2 than Ti[54]0.05, 0.5, 1 mg/mL Ti alloy contaminants (? 0.52 m)SFs from OA pzProtein amounts (IRE1-, CHOP, RANKL, OPG, sRANKL) Gene expression ((at the best concentration)[45]0.1 mg/mL Ti particles (? 3.6 m)Mice BMMOCs number Bone resorption assay Gene expression ( cell viability, ALP, COLL I, OCN, mineralization, CMKBR7 membrane damage viability OBs, BMMs: (at 7 days), (at ...
Our collective results have shown that LEKTI1-12 and LEKTI multidomains had a strong inhibitory effect on trypsin, plasmin, KLK5, KLK6, KLK13, KLK14, cathepsin G, HNE, and subtilisin A. They had no inhibitory effect on KLK1, chymase, chymotrypsin and cysteine proteinases papain or cathepsins K, L, or S (Table 1). To understand whether LEKTI behaves as a slow - or fast-binding inhibitor, we measured the time course of various proteinase activities in the presence of different concentrations of rLEKTI. We have observed that the product formation over the 60 min assay period in the absence and presence of inhibitor was linear with respect to time [19,31,49,54]. The linear shapes of these inhibition curves indicate that rLEKTI is not a time-dependent inhibitor, suggesting that LEKTI binds rapidly to these proteinases and inactivates them. To classify the type of inhibition, the kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) of plasmin, trypsin, subtilisin A, cathepsin G, HNE, KLK5, KLK6, KLK13 and KLK14 were ...
Cathepsin S (catS) and cathepsin L (catL) mediate late stages of invariant chain (Ii) degradation in discrete antigen-presenting cell types. Macrophages (Mϕs) a
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Supplementary Materials1_si_001. results possess essential implications for the look of new ZFNs, as they show that in some cases an excess of fingers may actually decrease the performance of engineered multi-finger proteins. Maximum ZFN activity will require an optimization of both DNA binding affinity and specificity. ZFNs consist of tandem FCGR1A arrays of Odanacatib inhibition engineered zinc finger proteins fused to a monomer of the dimeric nuclease FokI. When two such proteins bind to adjacent target sites, an active FokI dimer is constituted and creates a double-strand break (DSB) in the DNA. In cells, the DSB is rapidly targeted for repair by cellular factors using either non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) pathways. This approach has been used to create targeted gene deletions both in cultured cells, including human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, and in whole organisms such as fruit flies, nematodes, zebrafish, and rats, and to significantly ...
High-quality Cathepsin D proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of Cathepsin D proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
A pyridazin-4-one fragment 4 (hCatS IC(50)=170 microM) discovered through Tethering was modeled into cathepsin S and predicted to overlap in S2 with the tetrahydropyridinepyrazole core of a previously disclosed series of CatS inhibitors. This fragment served as a template to design pyridazin-3-one 1 …
Cathepsin D小鼠单克隆抗体[CTD-19](ab6313)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被13篇文献引用并得到14个独立的用户反馈。
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... , Histones & Cathepsin; PMAP The Proteolysis Map-animation Nature journal: recent chromatin publications and news ...
... collagenases such as cathepsin B1; and hyaluronidase. PSGAG inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which is released upon ...
Cathepsin A Breddam, K. (1986). "Serine carboxypeptidases. A review". Carlsberg Res. Commun. 51: 83-128. doi:10.1007/bf02907561 ... Miller JJ, Changaris DG, Levy RS (December 1992). "Purification, subunit structure and inhibitor profile of cathepsin A". ... Carboxypeptidase C (EC, carboxypeptidase Y, serine carboxypeptidase I, cathepsin A, lysosomal protective protein, ...
Cathepsin E. TALE homeodomain transcription factors. Hydrocortisone. Since keratinocyte differentiation inhibits keratinocyte ... "The role of cathepsin E in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes". Biological Chemistry. 392 (6): 571-85. doi:10.1515/BC. ...
Cathepsin D is involved in CLN10. DNA analysis can be used to help confirm the diagnosis of Batten disease. When the mutation ...
Miv-711 Cathepsin K inhibitor for osteoarthritis. Fast track (FDA) MALT1 "Swedish pharma firm Medivir partners Aragen Life ...
... these include cathepsin L, papain, and procaricain. It forms an alpha-helical domain that runs through the substrate-binding ...
"Cathepsins as transcriptional activators? Developmental Cell 2004, 6(5):610-1. Goulet B, and Nepveu A. "Complete and Limited ...
Lushbaugh WB, Hofbauer AF, Pittman FE (June 1985). "Entamoeba histolytica: purification of cathepsin B". Experimental ...
The protein is able to form a dimer stabilized by noncovalent forces, inhibiting papain and cathepsins L, H and B. The protein ... 1994). "Cathepsin B activity in human lung tumor cell lines: ultrastructural localization, pH sensitivity, and inhibitor status ... 1988). "Cathepsin D inactivates cysteine proteinase inhibitors, cystatins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 154 (2): 765-72. doi ... Cystatin B has been shown to interact with Cathepsin B. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000160213 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ...
These cysteine proteases include calpain, caspase, and cathepsin. These three proteins are examples of detectable signs of ...
It is an inhibitor of cathepsin K, an enzyme involved in bone resorption. The drug was developed by Merck & Co. The phase III ... Le Gall, C. L.; Bonnelye, E.; Clézardin, P. (2008). "Cathepsin K inhibitors as treatment of bone metastasis". Current Opinion ... February 2008). "The discovery of odanacatib (MK-0822), a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18 (3 ...
Shimizu, K.; Cha, J.; Stucky, G. D.; Morse, D. E. (1998). "Silicatein : Cathepsin L-like protein in sponge biosilica". ...
... α: cathepsin L-like protein in sponge biosilica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95(11), pp.6234- ... Silicateins are homologous to the cysteine protease cathepsin. In sponges, the silicatein enzymes reside in the axial filaments ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... 2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... by proteases such as cathepsins. Collagen is a component of epithelial and endothelial basement membranes. Endostatin, as a ...
Mediation by cathepsin G has been suggested. The treatment of RAS usually involves administering dexamethasone IV, with the ...
Cathepsin A is also required for normal elastin biosynthesis. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000170266 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... The elastin receptor complex includes S-Gal, neuraminidase and Cathepsin A. When elastin-derived peptides bind to the S-Gal ... cathepsin) A is required for proper elastic fiber formation and inactivation of endothelin-1". Circulation. 117 (15): 1973-81. ...
Under the direction of Joseph S. Fruton, Jones' dissertation research involved the catalytic properties of cathepsin C, a type ... She pursued these interests by studying androsterone and monopalmitin at Armour, and cathepsin C at Yale. Jones worked as ... Her doctorate was entitled: Transamidation reactions catalyzed by cathepsin C. Jones completed her studies in three years ... Transamidation Reactions Catalyzed by Cathepsin C. Yale University, 1952. Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L. ( ...
McDonald JK, Zeitman BB, Reilly TJ, Ellis S (May 1969). "New observations on the substrate specificity of cathepsin C ( ... Planta RJ, Gorter J, Gruber M (September 1964). "The catalytic properties of cathepsin C". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ... Dipeptidyl peptidase I (EC, cathepsin C, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase I, dipeptidyl transferase, dipeptide arylamidase I ... Metroione RM, Neves AG, Fruton JS (May 1966). "Purification and properties of dipeptidyl transferase (Cathepsin C)". ...
1982). "Action of rat liver cathepsin L on glucagon". Acta Biol. Med. Ger. 40 (9): 1139-43. PMID 7340337. Kaushal GP, Walker PD ...
... cathepsin G and proteinase 3. Phthalimide derivatives were seen to be inactive, while saccharin derivatives were seen to be ... cathepsin G and proteinase 3". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 3 (2): 187-193. doi:10.1016/0968-0896(95)00013-7. PMID 7796053 ...
It is cleavable by cathepsin and safe for therapy. Trastuzumab emtansine is a combination of the microtubule-formation ... "Novel Phosphate Modified Cathepsin B Linkers: Improving Aqueous Solubility and Enhancing Payload Scope of ADCs". Bioconjug Chem ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ...
Defective function of cathepsin K therefore results in failure of normal degradation of the accumulated collagen fibres in the ... Motyckova, G; Fisher, DE (2002). "Pycnodysostosis: role and regulation of cathepsin K deficiency in osteoclast function and ... is a lysosomal storage disease of the bone caused by a mutation in the gene that codes the enzyme cathepsin K. It is also known ... This gene codes for cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease that is highly expressed in osteoclasts and plays a significant ...
1990). "Generation of human endothelin by cathepsin E." FEBS Lett. 273 (1-2): 99-102. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(90)81060-2. PMID ...
... contains cathepsin B, lysozymes, chymotrypsin, neutrophil elastase and cytokines, which aid the immune system. According ... Frohlich E, Schaumburg-Lever G, Klessen C (1993). "Immunelectron microscopic localization of cathepsin B in human exocrine ...
Salahuddin, A.; Siddiqui, F. A.; Salahuddin, P. (1996). "Isolation, purification and properties of cathepsin B from buffalo ... Cathepsin purification, substrate specificity and the critical role of sulfhydryl group that was compatible with in vivo ...
Cathepsin B and L play a crucial role in arthritic cartilage degeneration. The inhibitor of cathepsin isolated from this fungus ... The fungal metabolite, aurantiamide acetate, has been isolated from Aspergillus penicillioides, as a cathepsin inhibitor. ... a Selective Cathepsin Inhibitor, Produced by Aspergillus penicillioides". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 65 (5): ...
December 2007). "DNA accelerates the inhibition of human cathepsin V by serpins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (51 ... June 2003). "Hurpin is a selective inhibitor of lysosomal cathepsin L and protects keratinocytes from ultraviolet-induced ... cathepsin G". Blood. 93 (6): 2089-2097. doi:10.1182/blood.V93.6.2089.406k10_2089_2097. PMID 10068683. Tan J, Prakash MD, ... antitrypsin to inhibit cathepsin proteases". Biochemistry. 41 (15): 4998-5004. doi:10.1021/bi0159985. PMID 11939796. Schick C, ...
BACE1, BACE2 Cathepsin D Cathepsin E Chymosin (or "rennin") Napsin-A Nepenthesin Pepsin Presenilin Renin BACE1; BACE2; CTSD; ... Eukaryotic aspartic proteases include pepsins, cathepsins, and renins. They have a two-domain structure, arising from ancestral ... Cathepsin D". In Rawlings ND, Salvesen G (eds.). Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes (Third ed.). Academic Press. pp. 54-63. doi: ...
Cathepsin A (serine protease) Cathepsin B (cysteine protease) Cathepsin C (cysteine protease) Cathepsin D (aspartyl protease) ... Cathepsin H (cysteine protease) Cathepsin K (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L1 (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L2 (or V) (cysteine ... Cathepsin S (cysteine protease) Cathepsin W (cysteine proteinase) Cathepsin Z (or X) (cysteine protease) Cathepsins are ... Cathepsin K has also been shown to play a role in arthritis. Mouse cathepsin L is homologous to human cathepsin V. Mouse ...
... J Immunol. 2014 Jun 15;192(12):5671-8. doi: 10.4049/ ... Finally, we demonstrate that only through combined inhibition of cathepsins and caspase-8 could a potent induction of ... Using small interfering RNA knockdown, specific cathepsin inhibitors, and cell-free cleavage assays, we demonstrate that ... These data reveal a novel mechanism of regulation of necroptosis by cathepsins within macrophage cells. ...
Rat Cathepsin S (CTSS) ELISA kit from Cusabio. Cat#: CSB-EL006204RA. US, UK & Europe Distribution. Online Order or Request ... Rat Cathepsin S (CTSS) ELISA kit , CSB-EL006204RA Cusabio Elisa Rat Cathepsin S (CTSS) ELISA kit , CSB-EL006204RA. (No reviews ... Recombinant Human Cathepsin S (CTSS) , CSB-EP006204HU , CusabioAlternative Name(s): Cathepsin S; CathepsinS; CATS_HUMAN; ... Human Cathepsin S (CTSS) ELISA Kit , CSB-E13722h , CusabioHuman Cathepsin S (CTSS) ELISA Kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice ...
Immunohistochemical demonstration of cathepsin B (CB), cathepsin L (CL), and cathepsin D (CD) in various tissue cells. A-D, ... A, Proteolytic activity of cathep-sins B (left) and cathepsin L (right) in brain extracts from cathepsin D-deficient (−/−) and ... 1981) Cathepsin B, cathepsin H, cathepsin L. Methods Enzymol 80:535-561. ... Z-Phe-Arg-MCA used for the assay of cathepsin L is also susceptible to cathepsin B. To measure the specific activity of ...
Peripheral Role of Cathepsin S in Th1 Cell-Dependent Transition of Nerve Injury-Induced Acute Pain to a Chronic Pain State. ... Peripheral Role of Cathepsin S in Th1 Cell-Dependent Transition of Nerve Injury-Induced Acute Pain to a Chronic Pain State ... Peripheral Role of Cathepsin S in Th1 Cell-Dependent Transition of Nerve Injury-Induced Acute Pain to a Chronic Pain State ... Peripheral Role of Cathepsin S in Th1 Cell-Dependent Transition of Nerve Injury-Induced Acute Pain to a Chronic Pain State ...
Ruth, Deborah M., McMahon, Gillian and Ó Fágáin, Ciarán (2006) Peptide synthesis by recombinant Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L1. ... fasciola hepatica cathepsin L1; recombinant; enzymatic peptide synthesis; cysteine proteinase;. Subjects:. Biological Sciences ... Synthesis of the tripeptide Z-Phe-Arg-SerNH2 has been accomplished by a recombinant cysteine protease, cathepsin L1 from liver ...
2010) Antibody targeting of cathepsin S inhibits angiogenesis and synergistically enhances anti-VEGF. PLoS One, 5, Article ID ... TITLE: Antibody research targeting Cathepsin S for cancer therapy AUTHORS: Hang Fai Kwok KEYWORDS: Cathepsin S; Tumor; ... ABSTRACT: Cathepsin S is a cysteine protease highly expressed in many type of cancers including colorectal, prostate, breast, ... Immunoexpression of Cathepsin D and S100A4 Protein and Their Molecular Subtyptes in Canine Mammary Carcinomas ...
Investigating the role of cathepsin S in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis-like lung disease. Ryan Brown, Donna Small, ... Elevated levels of the cysteine protease cathepsin S (cat S) are found in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung secretions, however, the ... Investigating the role of cathepsin S in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis-like lung disease ... Investigating the role of cathepsin S in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis-like lung disease ...
Aberrant levels of cathepsin L (Cts L), a ubiquitously expressed endosomal cysteine protease, have been implicated in many ... Aberrant levels of cathepsin L (Cts L), a ubiquitously expressed endosomal cysteine protease, have been implicated in many ... Rational design of thioamide peptides as selective inhibitors of cysteine protease cathepsin L H. A. T. Phan, S. G. ... Rational design of thioamide peptides as selective inhibitors of cysteine protease cathepsin L† ...
a href="https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm.1994.32.6.429",https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm.1994.32.6.429,/a ...
Anti-Cathepsin B Market is driven by rise in incidence rate of cancer across the globe, government funding for research in ... In humans, Cathepsin B is encoded by the CTSB gene. Anti-Cathepsin B antibody is used to treat cancers, traumatic brain ... Anti-Cathepsin B Market: Introduction. Cathepsin B belongs to a family of lysosomal cysteine proteases. It plays an important ... North America to Dominate Global Anti-Cathepsin B Market. *In terms of region, the global anti-Cathepsin B market can be split ...
Cathepsins B and L Differentially Regulate Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing. Donna M. Klein, Kevin M. Felsenstein and ... Cathepsins B and L Differentially Regulate Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing. Donna M. Klein, Kevin M. Felsenstein and ... Cathepsins B and L Differentially Regulate Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing. Donna M. Klein, Kevin M. Felsenstein and ... Cathepsins B and L Differentially Regulate Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Expression and Localization of Cathepsins B, D, and G in Dupuytrens Disease. ...
Cysteine proteinase, Cysteine proteinase inhibitor, Cathepsin, Cystatin, Kinetics. in FEBS Letters. volume. 422. issue. 1. ... Two-step mechanism of inhibition of cathepsin B by cystatin C, due to the inhibitor displacing the occluding loop of the enzyme ... Stopped-flow kinetics showed that the inhibition of the lysosomal cysteine proteinase, cathepsin B, by its endogenous inhibitor ... Stopped-flow kinetics showed that the inhibition of the lysosomal cysteine proteinase, cathepsin B, by its endogenous inhibitor ...
A selective inhibitor of cathepsin S blocked , 80% of this elastolytic activity. The presence of cathepsins K and S at sites of ... Expression of the elastolytic cathepsins S and K in human atheroma and regulation of their production in smooth muscle cells. ... Expression of the elastolytic cathepsins S and K in human atheroma and regulation of their production in smooth muscle cells. ... "Expression of the Elastolytic Cathepsins S and K in Human Atheroma and Regulation of Their Production in Smooth Muscle Cells." ...
Gel Scan of Cathepsin B, Human Liver. This information is representative of the product ART prepares, but is not lot specific. ... Specifically, cathepsin B is believed to be involved in the intracellular digestion of extracellular proteins taken up by ... Cathepsin B, a cysteine proteinase, is located in lysosomes and is involved in tissue degradation and restructuring. ... "Identification and pre-clinical testing of a reversible cathepsin protease inhibitor reveals anti-tumor efficacy in a ...
Cathepsin D. P07339. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. Pharmacological action?. Actions. ... Cathepsin D. Kind. protein. Organism. Humans. Protein. Name. UniProt ID. ...
BACKGROUND-: Cathepsin K (catK), a lysosomal cysteine protease, was identified in a gene-profiling experiment that compared ... abstract = "BACKGROUND-: Cathepsin K (catK), a lysosomal cysteine protease, was identified in a gene-profiling experiment that ... keywords = "Atherosclerosis, Cathepsins, Lipids, Pathology, Proteases",. author = "E. Lutgens and Lutgens, {S. P.M.} and Faber ... N2 - BACKGROUND-: Cathepsin K (catK), a lysosomal cysteine protease, was identified in a gene-profiling experiment that ...
Human - Cathepsin K - Monoclonal Antibody - for Western blotting - Antigene from E. coli - Antibodies. Product filter Cathepsin ... Cathepsin K Club Cell Protein Clusterin Connective Tissue Growth Factor CXCL12 Cystatin C Decorin Endostatin ENPP1 Epidermal ...
Cathepsin E (CtsE) is an important intermediate for antigen presentation and chemotaxis, but its role in the pathogenesis of ... Cathepsin E (CtsE) is an important intermediate for antigen presentation and chemotaxis, but its role in the pathogenesis of ... Cathepsin E (CtsE) is an aspartic protease mainly located at the endosomal compartment but also found in the endoplasmic ... Expression of Cathepsin E is downregulated in injured nerves from V30M animals. We have previously performed a transcriptomic ...
Cathepsin D, but not Cathepsin L, also cleaved directly below the Ab hinge, releasing the F(ab)2. When constrained by the ... The Cathepsin L and Cathepsin D clipping motifs were related to sequences of neutral amino acids and the tertiary structure of ... ENZYMES: Cathepsin L-EC, Cathepsin D-EC show less ... The lysosomal endopeptidases Cathepsin D and L are selective and effective proteases for the middle-down characterization of ...
... treatment of recombinant proMMP-9 with recombinant cathepsin K (CTSK) at pH 5 yielded a fragment that corresponded to the ... Drake FH, Dodds RA, James IE, Connor JR, Debouck C, Richardson S et al (1996) Cathepsin K, but not cathepsins B, L, or S, is ... Lysosomal cysteine cathepsin (LCC) is a subgroup of the family of cathepsin proteases that requires an acidic environment for ... Activators of MMP-9 include MMP-2 [14, 15], MMP-3 [14, 16], MMP-7 [17], MMP-10 [18], MMP-13 [19], cathepsin G [20] and ...
There are about 15 classes of cathepsins in humans (Cathepsin A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, L, O, S, V, W, and Z). All the ... Cathepsins are vital for digestion, coagulation, immune response, adipogenesis, hormone liberation, peptide synthesis, among a ... cathepsins share the same structural scaffold, also called the papain-like fold, which consists of two subdomains, referred to ... Cathepsins are protease that can be serine protease, cysteine protease, or aspartyl protease. ...
Cathepsin B Activity Assay Kit, Fluorogenic - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information. ... Table 2: Cathepsin B activity in cell lysates. Cathepsin B activity in five human cell line lysates as measured with Cathepsin ... Cathepsin B Inhibitor, Reduction Reagent, Cathepsin B Substrate, and Calibration Standard at -20°C. Control Cathepsin B(aliquot ... Cathepsin B Inhibitor, Reduction Reagent, Cathepsin B Substrate, and Calibration Standard at -20°C. Control Cathepsin B(aliquot ...
Cathepsin S (Cat S) expression was analyzed in human colon carcinoma and normal colon tissues. In vivo effects were evaluated ... Cathepsin S (Cat S), unlike the ubiquitous cathepsin B (Cat B) and cathepsin L (Cat L), exhibits a restricted tissue expression ... cathepsins are now recognized that cysteine proteases play pivotal roles in cancer progression[20]. Of the cysteine cathepsins ... Cathepsin S (Cat S) expression was analyzed in human colon carcinoma and normal colon tissues. In vivo effects were evaluated ...
Mittal S, Raghav N, Pal S, Kamboj RC, Singh H. Effect of some pesticides/weedicides on cathepsin B activity and lysosomal ... The in vitro inhibitory effects of various weedicides and pesticides on goat brain cathepsin B and their labilizing potency on ... Effect of some pesticides/weedicides on cathepsin B activity and lysosomal membrane. ...
Cathepsin D as a marker for breast cancer. Present data are insufficient to recommend the use of cathepsin D measurements for ... Cathepsin D as a marker for breast cancer. Present data are insufficient to recommend the use of cathepsin D measurements for ...
CTSA: cathepsin A. *CTSD: cathepsin D. *CUBN: cubilin. *CUL3: cullin 3. *CUL7: cullin 7 ...
... , Cardiovascular Research, December 2008, European Society of ...
... Author: Stoeckle, Christina; Quecke, Paula; ... Cathepsin S dominates autoantigen processing in human thymic dendritic cells. DSpace Repository. Login ...
  • However, there are currently no clinically approved specific inhibitors of Cts L, as it is often challenging to obtain specificity against the many highly homologous cathepsin family cysteine proteases. (rsc.org)
  • Cathepsin B belongs to a family of lysosomal cysteine proteases. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Here, we explore the proteases Cathepsins L and D for forming protein fragments from three IgG1s, one IgG2, and one bispecific, knob-and-hole IgG1. (uu.nl)
  • Lysosomal cysteine cathepsin (LCC) is a subgroup of the family of cathepsin proteases that requires an acidic environment for optimal activation, and is found mainly in the acidic lysosomes where they participate in protein turnover and degradation of internalized ECM [ 25 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cathepsin E is an aspartic protease and a member of the peptidase A1 family of proteases. (medchemexpress.com)
  • CTSS is one of 11 cysteine cathepsin proteases, which is the largest cathepsin subclass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lysosomes are vulnerable organelles to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-induced injuries, with the potential to initiate and or facilitate apoptosis subsequent to release of proteases such as cathepsin D (CD) into the cytosol. (usg.edu)
  • Cathepsins B and B-like proteases are identified in various species [ 3 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Cathepsins B-like and L-like cysteine proteases are found in Caenorhabditis elegans [ 4 , 5 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Moreover, several cathepsins and cathepsin-like proteases are revealed through functional and structural analyses in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and birds in addition to mammals [ 11 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Lysosomal proteases cathepsins participate in all these events during post-MI cardiac repair. (najms.com)
  • One form of CD74, known as p41, disrupts the processing of proteins on the coat of the Ebola virus protein by cellular proteases called Cathepsins. (benaroyaresearch.org)
  • Many viruses, including coronaviruses, use cathepsin proteases to help them infect cells. (benaroyaresearch.org)
  • SLPI is a potent inhibitor of many proteolytic enzymes including the neutrophil proteases, elastase, cathepsin G, chymotrypsin, and trypsin. (rndsystems.com)
  • Calpeptin is a cell-permeable inhibitor of a group of proteases, including calpain I, calpain II, cathepsin L, and cathepsin K. (news-medical.net)
  • The structure suggests a mechanistic relationship to the papain/cathepsin proteases and should facilitate the design of new antiinfective agents. (rcsb.org)
  • Five cyclic peptides show inhibitory activity towards human cathepsins L, B, H, and K. Several inhibitors have reached clinical trials, targeting cathepsins K and S as promising therapeutics for osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and chronic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using small interfering RNA knockdown, specific cathepsin inhibitors, and cell-free cleavage assays, we demonstrate that cysteine cathepsins B and S can directly cleave Rip1. (nih.gov)
  • In July 2014, a clinical stage pharmaceutical company, Virobay, Inc., developed a platform of Cathepsin protease inhibitors for the treatment of neuropathic pain, autoimmune disease and fibrosis. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The Calbiochem ® Cathepsin B Activity Assay Kit, Fluorogenic is designed to measure cathepsin B activity in tissues extracts and cell lysates, and for screening cathepsin B inhibitors. (emdmillipore.com)
  • TY-1 domains are conserved in a number of species, and multiple proteins with TY-1 domains function as cathepsin family protease inhibitors [ 17 ], (Table S 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • By screening a combinatorial pentapeptide amide collection in an inhibition assay, we systematically evaluated the potential of 19 proteinogenic amino acids and seven nonproteinogenic amino acids to serve as building blocks for inhibitors of human cathepsin L. Particularly efficient were aromatic, bulky, hydrophobic amino-acid residues, especially leucine, and positively charged residues, especially arginine. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • This random approach for the design of inhibitors was introduced to compensate for the inaccuracy induced by shifted docking of combinatorial compound collections at the active center of cathepsin L. Thereby, we obtained structurally defined pentapeptide amides which inhibited human cathepsin L at nanomolar concentrations. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Among the most potent novel inhibitors, one peptide, RKLLW-NH2, shares the amphiphilic character of the nonamer fragment VMNGLQNRK of the autoinhibitory, substrate-like, but reverse-binding prosegment of human cathepsin L which blocks the active center of the enzyme. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Highly potent inhibitors of human cathepsin L identified by screening combinatorial pentapeptide amide collections", EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY , vol. 267, 2000, pp. 5085-5092. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • In a search for selective cathepsin L inhibitors as anticancer agents, a series of 2-cyanoprrolidine peptidomimetics, carrying a nitrile group as warhead, were designed. (canada.ca)
  • 100 muM for cathepsin B). This compound could act as a new lead for the further development of improved inhibitors within this inhibitor type. (canada.ca)
  • 2)], and [Kier Chi 4 (path) index (Subs.4)] descriptors for the activity of Cathepsin S inhibitors. (ijpsr.com)
  • This study will be effective in the design of novel and more potent Cathepsin S inhibitors. (ijpsr.com)
  • Active human cathepsin S is useful for the study of enzyme kinetics, screening inhibitors, and selectivity profiling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Active human cathepsin S has also been used in a study to investigate the optimization of selectivity of Azepanone-based inhibitors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Inflammasome activation was confirmed using inhibitors of cathepsin B and Caspase-1. (cdc.gov)
  • Epoxysuccinyl peptide-derived cathepsin B inhibitors: Modulating membrane permeability by conjugation with the C- terminal heptapeptide segment of penetratin. (mpg.de)
  • Exploring the general role of cathepsins and their inhibitors in physiological and pathological conditions and in particular in cancer. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Therapeutic application: use of cathepsins inhibitors or other antagonistic molecules in preventing cell invasion and tumor metastasis. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Cathepsins and their inhibitors as tumor markers in head and neck cancer. (onko-i.si)
  • SAR114137, a Cathepsin S inhibitor, did not progress past phase I for chronic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2022, STI-1558, a Cathepsin L inhibitor, received FDA clearance to begin phase I studies to treat COVID-19. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stopped-flow kinetics showed that the inhibition of the lysosomal cysteine proteinase, cathepsin B, by its endogenous inhibitor, cystatin C, occurs by a two-step mechanism, in which an initial, weak interaction is followed by a conformational change. (lu.se)
  • article{d5c1ff8e-0690-4d5e-85b5-097b38cc0bdd, abstract = {{Stopped-flow kinetics showed that the inhibition of the lysosomal cysteine proteinase, cathepsin B, by its endogenous inhibitor, cystatin C, occurs by a two-step mechanism, in which an initial, weak interaction is followed by a conformational change. (lu.se)
  • A functional role for cathepsin B was confirmed by the ability of CA074, a cell impermeable and highly selective cathepsin B inhibitor, to significantly reduce pericellular proteolysis and invasion by SUM149 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cathepsin B (Ctsb), phospho-inhibitor kappa B (P-IκB), TNF-α protein expressions in liver tissue were assayed with western-blot. (jcimjournal.com)
  • Crystal structures of recombinant rat cathepsin B and a cathepsin B-inhibitor complex. (canada.ca)
  • Using mass spectrometry analysis of cells treated with a pan cathepsin inhibitor, we observed an increased abundance of proteins involved in central carbon metabolism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cathepsin B may function as a beta-secretase 1, cleaving amyloid precursor protein to produce amyloid beta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoclasts are the bone resorbing cells of the body, and they secrete cathepsin K in order to break down collagen, the major component of the non-mineral protein matrix of the bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin E Protein, Human (HEK293, His) is an approximately 46.0 kDa mouse cathepsin Dwith a His tag. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Cathepsin S Protein, Human (HEK293, His) is potent cysteine protease which can promote degradation of damaged or unwanted proteins in the endo-lysosomal pathway. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Cathepsin A Protein, Human (HEK293, His, solution) is a 58-60 kDa human cathepsin A protein with a His-flag. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Cathepsin L1 Protein, Human (HEK293, His) is a major cysteine protease that plays a major role in intracellular protein catabolism. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Cathepsin D Protein, Human (HEK293, His) is an approximately 50.0 kDa cathepsin D protein with a His-flag. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Downregulation of caveolin-1, the structural protein of caveolae, reduces the cell surface association of cathepsin B and decreases degradation of type IV collagen and invasion by the colon cancer cells, consistent with a functional role for caveolae-associated cathepsin B in invasion [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • See the reference protein sequence for cathepsin E precursor (NP_001120469.1). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Cathepsin B (CTSB) also known as APP secretase (APPS) and CPSB, is an enzymatic protein belonging to the peptidase C1 family. (biovisi.com)
  • During differentiation, L6 rat myoblasts demonstrated a fusion-related increase in activity associated with the 25/26-kDa, fully processed, active form of cathepsin B. Immunocytochemical studies demonstrated a redistribution of lysosomal cathepsin B protein toward the membrane of fusing myoblasts, and a colocalization of cathepsin B with caveolin-3, the muscle-specific structural protein of membrane caveolae. (uwindsor.ca)
  • These cathepsins cleave Bcl-2 interacting protein Bid, and degrade the anti-apoptotic members Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, thereby triggering a mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. (najms.com)
  • Cathepsins also regulate fibroblast trans-differentiation and further affect collagen or other matrix protein synthesis during post-MI extracellular matrix remodeling. (najms.com)
  • Finally, we show that the D614G mutation in SARS-2-S increases S protein stability and expression at 37°C, and promotes virus entry via cathepsin B/L activation. (biorxiv.org)
  • Later, they transduced the CRISPR-competent iPSCs en masse with a library of sgRNAs targeting each protein-coding gene in the genome. (alzforum.org)
  • We plan to test the T. solium cathepsin L-like protein fraction for cross reactions with T. asiatica cysticercosis. (ajtmh.org)
  • Western blotting showed increased Cox-2, Cyclin E, KLF4 and c-myc proteins and decreased expression of Cathepsin D. In addition, the KLF4 protein was higher in the chemically-induced cell strains compared to the spontaneously-occurring cell strains while COX-2 was higher in the spontaneously-occurring cell strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Utility of a protein fraction with cathepsin L-like activity purified from cysticercus fluid of Taenia solium in the diagnosis of human cysticercosis. (ajtmh.org)
  • Cathepsins are protease that can be serine protease, cysteine protease, or aspartyl protease. (medchemexpress.com)
  • We examined expression of the cysteine protease cathepsin B and the serine protease urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), its receptor uPAR and caveolin-1 in two IBC cell lines: SUM149 and SUM190. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, the multibasic cleavage site increased entry speed and plasma membrane serine protease usage relative to endosomal entry using cathepsins. (biorxiv.org)
  • ABSTRACT: Cathepsin S is a cysteine protease highly expressed in many type of cancers including colorectal, prostate, breast, and glioblastoma's. (scirp.org)
  • Rat Cathepsin S (CTSS) ELISA kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest delivery. (joplink.net)
  • CusabioHuman Cathepsin S (CTSS) ELISA Kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest delivery.Online Order Payment is possible or send. (joplink.net)
  • Dysregulated expression and activity of cathepsin S (CTSS), a lysosomal protease and a member of the cysteine cathepsin protease family, is linked to the pathogenesis of multiple diseases, including a number of conditions affecting the lungs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we will focus on one cysteine protease in particular, cathepsin S (CTSS), and outline the research supporting its growing importance in pulmonary diseases and the potential of targeting of CTSS as a therapeutic option. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cathepsin S (CTSS), a lysosomal cysteine protease, plays an important role in inflammation, and it has been reported that it is also associated with angiogenesis and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation promoting cell migration and invasion. (esmo.org)
  • Cathepsin S, Ctss, Cats. (angioproteomie.com)
  • Cathepsin S (gene symbol: CTSS), non-glycosylated cysteine proteinases belong to clan C1 (Papain family) 7, 8 . (ijpsr.com)
  • 25-fold specificity against the other cathepsins. (rsc.org)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Cathepsin L (CTSL). (biomatik.com)
  • Unlike some of the other cathepsins, cathepsin D has some protease activity at neutral pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Magic Red Cathepsin K Kit uses a quick and easy method to analyze intracellular cathepsin K protease activity in whole living cells. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Cathepsin Magic Red Kits measure cathepsin K protease activity by detecting active cathepsins in whole, living cells. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • CTS protease activity also measured by zymograph electrophoresis of Cathepsins. (biovisi.com)
  • Viral entry also depends on cathepsin B/L activity and protease activity of TMPRSS2. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • 2010) Antibody targeting of cathepsin S inhibits angiogenesis and synergistically enhances anti-VEGF. (scirp.org)
  • In recent years, antibody research specifically targeting Cathepsin S to block/inhibit tumorigenic effects were generated some positive preclinical data. (scirp.org)
  • This mini-review provides an overview of therapeutic antibody targeting Cathepsin S strategies in the last half decade, focusing on the rationale of cell-surface Cathepsin S targeted and their potential clinical application. (scirp.org)
  • Anti-Cathepsin B antibody is used to treat cancers, traumatic brain injuries, Ebola infection, and fertility issues. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Rabbit anti Cathepsin H antibody recognizes pro-cathepsin H, also known as CTSH and CPSB. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Projected confocal z-stack of mouse cortex from wild-type (left) or an amyloid mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (right) using Cathepsin D (E179) Antibody (green). (cellsignal.com)
  • Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of mouse liver (left) and kidney (right) using Cathepsin D (E179) Antibody (green). (cellsignal.com)
  • Nanoparticle-treated MDMs were incubated with primary rabbit galectin 3 or cathepsin D. These proteins were visualized by incubation with Alexa Fluor®488 goat-anti-rabbit antibody. (unmc.edu)
  • Cathepsin K, among other cathepsins, plays a role in cancer metastasis through the degradation of the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple proteins with TY-1 domains are known to inhibit cathepsin-L (CTSL), a cysteine protease that promotes tumor cell invasion and metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a thiol protease, cathepsin B / CPSB is believed to participate in intracellular degradation and turnover of proteins and has also been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. (biovisi.com)
  • Hispolon suppresses metastasis via autophagic degradation of cathepsin S in cervical cancer cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Prognostic application: Possible clinical application of cathepsins as tumor and/or metastasis markers in diagnosis, prognosis and/or as indicators of therapy (of breast carcinoma, lung cancer, brain tumors). (hu-berlin.de)
  • The presence of this loop, which allows the enzyme to function as an exopeptidase, thus complicates the inhibition mechanism, rendering cathepsin B much less susceptible than other cysteine. (lu.se)
  • Cathepsin A is a multicatalytic enzyme with carboxypeptidase activities. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Severe positive selection was also observed in cathepsin V (L2) of primates, indicating that this enzyme had some special functions. (ijbs.com)
  • Cathepsin L superfamily is a multifunctional cysteine protease enzyme and widely distributed in most animals. (ijbs.com)
  • RNA editing activity was analysed by AluSx + Sanger-sequencing of cathepsin S, an extracellular matrix degradation enzyme involved in antigen presentation. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsin S enzyme has been considered as an evolving target for the development of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of numerous autoimmune disorders and other inflammatory diseases. (ijpsr.com)
  • The structure of the mature enzyme domain within procathepsin K is virtually identical to that of mature cathepsin K. The fold of the propeptide of procathepsin K is similar to that observed in procathepsins B and L despite differences in length and sequence. (rcsb.org)
  • A portion of the propeptide occupies the active site cleft of cathepsin K. Hydrophobic interactions, salt bridges, and hydrogen-bonding interactions are observed in the structure of the propeptide and between the propeptide and the mature enzyme of procathepsin K. These interactions suggest an explanation for the stability of the proenzyme. (rcsb.org)
  • No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Cathepsin L (CTSL) and analogues was observed. (biomatik.com)
  • In murine testes, only Sertoli cells express the cathepsin L (Ctsl) gene, and this expression is restricted to stages V-VIII of the cycle. (elsevier.com)
  • Aberrant levels of cathepsin L (Cts L), a ubiquitously expressed endosomal cysteine protease, have been implicated in many diseases such as cancer and diabetes. (rsc.org)
  • Both cell lines expressed comparable levels of cathepsin B and uPA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rodents contain 10 cysteine cathepsins and carry additional genes that express other cathepsins and cathepsin-like proteins [ 10 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Cathepsins B and L are involved in matrix degradation and cell invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our studies underscore the intriguing possibility that histone proteolysis, brought about by Cathepsin L and potentially other family members, plays a role in development and differentiation that was not previously recognized. (uky.edu)
  • The zymogen of MMP-3 (proMMP-3) was activated to full activity with elastase and cathepsin G by limited proteolysis of the molecule into two active forms of M r ∼ 45000 and M r ∼ 25000. (elsevier.com)
  • There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone resorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin K is a cysteine protease present in human osteoclasts that plays an important role in bone resorption. (rcsb.org)
  • Autoproteolytic processing of the N-terminal 99 amino acid propeptide produces the active, mature form of cathepsin K. It is presumed that the activation of procathepsin K in vivo occurs in the bone resorption pit, which has a low-pH environment. (rcsb.org)
  • Also, treatment of recombinant proMMP-9 with recombinant cathepsin K (CTSK) at pH 5 yielded a fragment that corresponded to the molecular weight of active MMP-9, and showed MMP-9 activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cathepsin K is the most potent mammalian collagenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, we demonstrate that only through combined inhibition of cathepsins and caspase-8 could a potent induction of macrophage necroptosis be achieved. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsin D is a representative lysosomal aspartic proteinases and belongs to the peptidase C1 family. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6-activated NF-κB signaling induces the initialization of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), which is a key transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis and stimulates the expression of various osteoclast-specific genes, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), cathepsin K (Ctsk) and calcitonin receptor ( 2 , 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Two recent studies identified numerous multinucleated osteoclast-like cells expressing osteoclast phenotypic markers such as cathepsin K, CD51, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) within tophi and at the interface between bone and soft tissue [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Positive selection was the specific cause of differentiation of cathepsin L family genes, confirming that gene function variation after expansion events was related to interactions with the environment and adaptability. (ijbs.com)
  • Our in vitro studies support a functional link between the induction of cathepsin B gene expression and the catabolic restructuring associated with myotube formation during myogenesis in vivo. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Visone, T, Charron, M & Wright, WW 2009, ' Activation and repression domains within the promoter of the rat cathepsin L gene orchestrate sertoli cell-specific and stage-specific gene transcription in transgenic mice ', Biology of reproduction , vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 571-579. (elsevier.com)
  • Identification of novel mutation in cathepsin C gene causing Papillon-Lefèvre Syndrome in Mexican patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Cathepsin C gene variants in aggressive periodontitis. (cdc.gov)
  • The expression of cathepsin K in cultured endothelial cells is regulated by shear stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • IBC patient biopsies were examined for expression of cathepsin B and caveolin-1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A statistically significant co-expression of cathepsin B and caveolin-1 was found in IBC patient biopsies, thus validating our in vitro data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2017). Differential expression of Cathepsin E in transthyretin amyloidosis: From neuropathology to the immune system . (up.pt)
  • CusabioRat Cathepsin L1 (CTSL1) ELISA kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest delivery.Online Order Payment is possible or send. (joplink.net)
  • Cathepsin B has also been implicated in the progression of various human tumors including ovarian cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of cathepsin B has been associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma and other tumors. (biovisi.com)
  • Studies of lysosomal enzymes, cathepsins, in human tumors and tumor cells in culture. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Activation of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (stromelysin) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 ('gelatinase') by human neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (elsevier.com)
  • The ability of human neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G to activate matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3 = stromelysin) and MMP-2 ('gelatinase') purified from human rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts in culture was examined. (elsevier.com)
  • These data suggest that neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G may play an important role in the activation of proMMP-3 in vivo in various inflammatory conditions, but proMMP-2 may be activated in different ways. (elsevier.com)
  • Okada, Y & Nakanishi, I 1989, ' Activation of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (stromelysin) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 ('gelatinase') by human neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G ', FEBS Letters , vol. 249, no. 2, pp. 353-356. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we explored a role for active cathepsin B on the cell surface in the invasiveness of IBC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We observed that uPA, uPAR and enzymatically active cathepsin B were colocalized in caveolae fractions isolated from SUM149 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and (2) that active cathepsin B is secreted from fusing myoblasts at physiological pH. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Finally, areal-timea activity assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated that active cathepsin B is secreted from fusing myoblasts at physiological pH. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Collectively, these studies support an association of active cathepsin B with plasma membrane caveolae and the secretion of active cathepsin B from differentiating myoblasts during myoblast fusion. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Anti-Cathepsin B antibodies are available from several suppliers. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • These anti-Cathepsin B antibodies are used for ELISA, western blotting, flow cytometry, and other screening purposes. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rabbit Cathepsin Antibodies in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (iowaodes.com)
  • The cathepsin A activity in lysates of metastatic lesions of malignant melanoma is significantly higher than in primary focus lysates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our study is the first to show that the proteolytic activity of cathepsin B and its co-expression with caveolin-1 contributes to the aggressiveness of IBC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Effect of some pesticides/weedicides on cathepsin B activity and lysosomal membrane. (who.int)
  • Mittal S, Raghav N, Pal S, Kamboj RC, Singh H. Effect of some pesticides/weedicides on cathepsin B activity and lysosomal membrane. (who.int)
  • Upregulation of the expression and/or activity of the RNA editing machinery were associated with a higher expression of edited Alu-enriched genes including cathepsin S and TNF receptor-associated factors 1,2,3 and 5. (nih.gov)
  • The optimal activity of cathepsins requires acidic pH. (ijpsr.com)
  • Here we report that loss of cathepsin L (Cts L) is associated with a fast proliferation rate and enhanced glycolytic metabolism that depend on lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Alter Cathepsin Activity In vitro. (tarleton.edu)
  • CCR2) and the activity of cysteine cathepsins in TAMs to target these cells selectively over other macrophages and immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, T cells, B cells). (ed.ac.uk)
  • Cathepsin H is a lysosomal cysteine protease that is synthesized as an inactive proenzyme composed of prodomain and catalytic domains. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Cathepsins have been found to have important physiological roles. (canada.ca)
  • The genetic knockout for cathepsin S and K in mice with atherosclerosis was shown to reduce the size of atherosclerotic lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse cathepsin L is homologous to human cathepsin V. Mouse cathepsin L has been shown to play a role in adipogenesis and glucose intolerance in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin L-deficient mice were shown to have less adipose tissue, lower serum glucose and insulin levels, more insulin receptor subunits, more glucose transporter (GLUT4) and more fibronectin than wild type controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin D-deficient (CD−/−) mice have been shown to manifest seizures and become blind near the terminal stage [approximately postnatal day (P) 26]. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cathepsin L in zebrafish, cathepsins S and K in xenopus, and cathepsin L in mice and rats underwent evident tandem-repeat events. (ijbs.com)
  • Positive selection was detected in cathepsin L-like members in mice and rats, and amino acid sites under positive selection pressure were calculated. (ijbs.com)
  • Stroke Traumatic brain injury Alzheimer's disease Arthritis Ebola, Cathepsin B and to a lesser extent cathepsin L have been found to be necessary for the virus to enter host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils are recruited to the site of infarction, where they also release lysosomal cathepsins as inflammatory mediators to regulate post-MI inflammatory responses. (najms.com)
  • MSU crystals in the presence of RANKL augmented osteoclast differentiation, with enhanced mRNA expression of NFATc1, cathepsin K, carbonic anhydrase II, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), in comparison to RAW 264.7 macrophages incubated in the presence of RANKL alone. (hindawi.com)
  • a) Fluorescein-conjugated GaNP (Red), b) macrophages and GaNP, c) galectin 3 (A) or cathepsin D (B), d) Nuclei (Blue). (unmc.edu)
  • Cathepsin D (an aspartyl protease) appears to cleave a variety of substrates such as fibronectin and laminin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, we provide novel evidence that cysteine family cathepsins, which are highly abundant in myeloid cells, can also cleave Rip1 kinase. (nih.gov)
  • Fifty Stage heterogeneous urinary bladder carcinomas were immunostained for cathepsin B, a lysosomal endoproteinase putatively associated with tumor invasion. (elsevier.com)
  • The in vitro inhibitory effects of various weedicides and pesticides on goat brain cathepsin B and their labilizing potency on the lysosomal membrane were quantitated. (who.int)
  • Cathepsin B localizes to plasma membrane caveolae of differentiating m" by Derek T. Jane, Les Morvay et al. (uwindsor.ca)
  • The cysteine proteinases, cathepsins LI (SmCLl) and L2 (SmCL2) from the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni were functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (dcu.ie)
  • The enzymes were secreted by the yeast cells in their mature, active form and demonstrated characteristics typical of cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinases. (dcu.ie)
  • ENZYMES: Cathepsin L-EC, Cathepsin D-EC (uu.nl)
  • As multifunctional enzymes, cysteine cathepsins widely exist particularly in lysosomes. (ijbs.com)
  • Metastatic carcinomas often express proteolytic enzymes including the cysteine protease cathepsin B (Demchik, L. L. (justia.com)
  • CD74 p41 also blocked the Cathepsin-dependent entry pathway of coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. (benaroyaresearch.org)
  • Cathepsins also contribute to monocyte and macrophage differentiation and migration. (najms.com)
  • Research from her group has discovered that Cathepsin S transcriptionally regulates CCL2, promoting macrophage recruitment to colorectal tumours, while evaluation of ER+ breast cancers has identified elevated Cathepsin V expression is associated with reduced survival. (qub.ac.uk)