A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.
An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC (Formerly EC
A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.
An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.
A papain-like cysteine protease that has specificity for amino terminal dipeptides. The enzyme plays a role in the activation of several pro-inflammatory serine proteases by removal of their aminoterminal inhibitory dipeptides. Genetic mutations that cause loss of cathepsin C activity in humans are associated with PAPILLON-LEFEVRE DISEASE.
A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC
A lysosomal papain-related cysteine proteinase that is expressed in a broad variety of cell types.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine peptidase that exhibits carboxypeptidase activity. It is highly expressed in a variety of immune cell types and may play a role in inflammatory processes and immune responses.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A polymorphonuclear leukocyte-derived serine protease that degrades proteins such as ELASTIN; FIBRONECTIN; LAMININ; VITRONECTIN; and COLLAGEN. It is named for its ability to control myeloid cell growth and differentiation.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A cysteine endopeptidase found in NATURAL KILLER CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES. It may have a specific function in the mechanism or regulation of cytolytic activity of immune cells.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
A gram-negative gliding bacterium isolated from the oral cavity. It is a pathogen often causing PERIODONTITIS.
Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC and EC
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.
A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.
An enzyme inhibitor that inactivates IRC-50 arvin, subtilisin, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.
A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.
A form of phagocyte bactericidal dysfunction characterized by unusual oculocutaneous albinism, high incidence of lymphoreticular neoplasms, and recurrent pyogenic infections. In many cell types, abnormal lysosomes are present leading to defective pigment distribution and abnormal neutrophil functions. The disease is transmitted by autosomal recessive inheritance and a similar disorder occurs in the beige mouse, the Aleutian mink, and albino Hereford cattle.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Peptides and proteins found in BODILY SECRETIONS and BODY FLUIDS that are PROTEASE INHIBITORS. They play a role in INFLAMMATION, tissue repair and innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) by inhibiting endogenous proteinases such as those produced by LEUKOCYTES and exogenous proteases such as those produced by invading microorganisms.
A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.

Bile duct epithelial cells exposed to alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate produce a factor that causes neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury in vitro. (1/369)

The acute hepatotoxicity induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) in rats is manifested as neutrophil-dependent necrosis of bile duct epithelial cells (BDECs) and hepatic parenchymal cells. This hepatotoxicity mirrors that of drug-induced cholangiolitic hepatitis in humans. Since BDECs are primary targets of ANIT-induced toxicity, we hypothesized that after exposure to ANIT, BDECs produce a factor(s) that causes neutrophil chemotaxis and neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury. To test this hypothesis BDECs were isolated from male Sprague Dawley rats and incubated with ANIT (6.25, 12.5, 25, or 50 microM) or vehicle for 24 h. The conditioned medium (CM) was collected and placed in the bottom chamber of a two-chambered chemotaxis system, while isolated neutrophils were placed in the top chamber. Chemotaxis was indicated by neutrophil migration through a membrane to the bottom chamber. CM from BDECs exposed to each concentration of ANIT was chemotactic, whereas CM from vehicle-treated BDECs was not. ANIT alone caused a modest degree of chemotaxis at 50 microM. The conditioned media were added to isolated hepatocytes or to hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures and incubated for 24 h. Hepatocyte toxicity was indicated by alanine aminotransferase release into the culture medium. CM from vehicle-treated BDECs did not cause hepatocyte killing in either hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures or hepatocyte cultures. In contrast, the addition of CM from ANIT-treated BDECs (CM-BDEC-A) to hepatocyte-neutrophil cocultures resulted in hepatocyte killing. The same CM was not cytotoxic to hepatocyte cultures devoid of neutrophils. The hepatocyte killing could not be explained by residual ANIT in the CM, which was below the limit of detection (< or = 0.5 microM). The addition of antiproteases afforded protection against neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular injury induced by CM-BDEC-A. These results indicate that ANIT causes BDECs to release a factor(s) that attracts neutrophils and stimulates them to injure hepatocytes in vitro.  (+info)

The intracellular serpin proteinase inhibitor 6 is expressed in monocytes and granulocytes and is a potent inhibitor of the azurophilic granule protease, cathepsin G. (2/369)

The monocyte and granulocyte azurophilic granule proteinases elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are implicated in acute and chronic diseases thought to result from an imbalance between the secreted proteinase(s) and circulating serpins such as alpha1-proteinase inhibitor and alpha1-antichymotrypsin. We show here that the intracellular serpin, proteinase inhibitor 6 (PI-6), is present in monocytes, granulocytes, and myelomonocytic cell lines. In extracts from these cells, PI-6 bound an endogenous membrane-associated serine proteinase to form an sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-stable complex. Using antibodies to urokinase, elastase, proteinase 3, or cathepsin G, we demonstrated that the complex contains cathepsin G. Native cathepsin G and recombinant PI-6 formed an SDS-stable complex in vitro similar in size to that observed in the extracts. Further kinetic analysis demonstrated that cathepsin G and PI-6 rapidly form a tight 1:1 complex (ka = 6.8 +/- 0.2 x 10(6) mol/L-1s-1 at 17 degrees C; Ki = 9.2 +/- 0.04 x 10(-10) mol/L). We propose that PI-6 complements alpha1-proteinase inhibitor and alpha1-antichymotrypsin (which control extracellular proteolysis) by neutralizing cathepsin G that leaks into the cytoplasm of monocytes or granulocytes during biosynthesis or phagocytosis. Control of intracellular cathepsin G may be particularly important, because it has recently been shown to activate the proapoptotic proteinase, caspase-7.  (+info)

Regulation of pro-apoptotic leucocyte granule serine proteinases by intracellular serpins. (3/369)

Caspase activation and apoptosis can be initiated by the introduction of serine proteinases into the cytoplasm of a cell. Cytotoxic lymphocytes have evolved at least one serine proteinase with specific pro-apoptotic activity (granzyme B), as well as the mechanisms to deliver it into a target cell, and recent evidence suggests that other leucocyte granule proteinases may also have the capacity to kill if released into the interior of cells. For example, the monocyte/granulocyte proteinase cathepsin G can activate caspases in vitro, and will induce apoptosis if its entry into cells is mediated by a bacterial pore-forming protein. The potent pro-apoptotic activity of granzyme B and cathepsin G suggests that cells producing these (or other) proteinases would be at risk from self-induced death if the systems involved in packaging, degranulation or targeting fail and allow proteinases to enter the host cell cytoplasm. The purpose of the present review is to describe recent work on a group of intracellular serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) which may function in leucocytes to prevent autolysis induced by the granule serine proteinases.  (+info)

New, sensitive fluorogenic substrates for human cathepsin G based on the sequence of serpin-reactive site loops. (4/369)

Cathepsin G has both trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like activity, but studies on its enzymatic properties have been limited by a lack of sensitive synthetic substrates. Cathepsin G activity is physiologically controlled by the fast acting serpin inhibitors alpha1-antichymotrypsin and alpha1-proteinase inhibitor, in which the reactive site loops are cleaved during interaction with their target enzymes. We therefore synthesized a series of intramolecularly quenched fluorogenic peptides based on the sequence of various serpin loops. Those peptides were assayed as substrates for cathepsin G and other chymotrypsin-like enzymes including chymotrypsin and chymase. Peptide substrates derived from the alpha1-antichymotrypsin loop were the most sensitive for cathepsin G with kcat/Km values of 5-20 mM-1 s-1. Substitutions were introduced at positions P1 and P2 in alpha1-antichymotrypsin-derived substrates to tentatively improve their sensitivity. Replacement of Leu-Leu in ortho-aminobenzoyl (Abz)-Thr-Leu-Leu-Ser-Ala-Leu-Gln-N-(2, 4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine (EDDnp) by Pro-Phe in Abz-Thr-Pro-Phe-Ser-Ala-Leu-Gln-EDDnp produced the most sensitive substrate of cathepsin G ever reported. It was cleaved with a specificity constant kcat/Km of 150 mM-1 s-1. Analysis by molecular modeling of a peptide substrate bound into the cathepsin G active site revealed that, in addition to the protease S1 subsite, subsites S1' and S2' significantly contribute to the definition of the substrate specificity of cathepsin G.  (+info)

High mobility group (HMG) non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and HMG2 are significant target antigens of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis. (5/369)

BACKGROUND: High mobility group (HMG) non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and HMG2 have been identified as novel antigens of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCAs), and the existence of anti-HMG1 and anti-HMG2 antibodies in a population of patients with ulcerative colitis has been reported. AIMS: To investigate whether HMG1 and HMG2 are target antigens for p-ANCAs in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). PATIENTS: Serum samples from 28 patients with AIH, 44 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), 27 patients with chronic hepatitis C, and 23 patients with chronic hepatitis B were tested. METHODS: ANCAs were detected by routine indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). Anti-HMG1 and anti-HMG2 antibodies were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: p-ANCAs were detected in 89% (25/28) of patients with AIH, 36% (16/44) of patients with PBC, 11% (3/27) of patients with chronic hepatitis C, and 13% (3/23) of patients with chronic hepatitis B. Anti-HMG1 and/or anti-HMG2 antibodies were detected in 89% (25/28) of patients with AIH, 70% (31/44) with PBC, 26% (7/27) with chronic hepatitis C, and 9% (2/23) with chronic hepatitis B. In AIH, anti-HMG1 and/or anti-HMG2 antibodies were detected in 96% (24/25) of p-ANCA positive patients. The p-ANCA staining pattern detected by IIF using sera from patients with AIH disappeared or decreased in titre after preincubation with a mixture of HMG1/HMG2. The presence and titres of those antibodies in AIH correlated significantly with those of p-ANCA, but not with those of anti-nuclear antibody or anti-smooth muscle antibody. CONCLUSIONS: HMG1 and HMG2 are significant target antigens of p-ANCA in AIH.  (+info)

Converting enzyme-independent release of tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1beta from a stimulated human monocytic cell line in the presence of activated neutrophils or purified proteinase 3. (6/369)

Two important cytokines mediating inflammation are tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and IL-1beta, both of which require conversion to soluble forms by converting enzymes. The importance of TNFalpha-converting enzyme and IL-1beta-converting enzyme in the production of circulating TNFalpha and IL-1beta in response to systemic challenges has been demonstrated by the use of specific converting enzyme inhibitors. Many inflammatory responses, however, are not systemic but instead are localized. In these situations release and/or activation of cytokines may be different from that seen in response to a systemic stimulus, particularly because associations of various cell populations in these foci allows for the exposure of procytokines to the proteolytic enzymes produced by activated neutrophils, neutrophil elastase (NE), proteinase 3 (PR3), and cathepsin G (Cat G). To investigate the possibility of alternative processing of TNFalpha and/or IL-1beta by neutrophil-derived proteinases, immunoreactive TNFalpha and IL-1beta release from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells was measured in the presence of activated human neutrophils. Under these conditions, TNFalpha and IL-1beta release was augmented 2- to 5-fold. In the presence of a specific inhibitor of NE and PR3, enhanced release of both cytokines was largely abolished; however, in the presence of a NE and Cat G selective inhibitor, secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor, reduction of the enhanced release was minimal. This finding suggested that the augmented release was attributable to PR3 but not NE nor Cat G. Use of purified enzymes confirmed this conclusion. These results indicate that there may be alternative pathways for the production of these two proinflammatory cytokines, particularly in the context of local inflammatory processes.  (+info)

Primary structure and properties of the cathepsin G/chymotrypsin inhibitor from the larval hemolymph of Apis mellifera. (7/369)

A member of the Ascaris inhibitor family exhibiting anti-cathepsin G and anti-chymotrypsin activity was purified from the larval hemolymph of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Three forms of the inhibitor, designated AMCI 1-3, were isolated using gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatographies followed by reverse-phase HPLC. The amino-acid analyses indicated that AMCI-1 and AMCI-2 have an identical composition whereas AMCI-3 is shorter by two residues (Thr, Arg). All three forms contain as many as 10 cysteine residues and lack tryptophan, tyrosine, and histidine. The sequence of the isoinhibitors showed that the major form (AMCI-1) consisting of 56 amino-acid residues was a single-chain protein of molecular mass 5972 Da, whereas the other two forms were two-chain proteins with a very high residue identity. The AMCI-2 appeared to be derived from AMCI-1, as a result of the Lys24-Thr25 peptide bond splitting, while AMCI-3 was truncated at its N-terminus by the dipeptide Thr25-Arg26. The association constants for the binding of bovine alpha-chymotrypsin to all purified forms of the inhibitor were high and nearly identical, ranging from 4.8 x 10(10) M-1 for AMCI-1 to 2.7 x 10(9) M-1 for AMCI-3. The sensitivity of cathepsin G to inhibition by each inhibitor was different. Only the association constant for the interaction of this enzyme with AMCI-1 was high (2 x 10(8) M-1) whereas those for AMCI-2 and AMCI-3 were significantly lower, and appeared to be 3.7 x 10(7) M-1 and 4.5 x 10(6) M-1, respectively. The reactive site of the inhibitor, as identified by cathepsin G degradation and chemical modification, was found to be at Met30-Gln31. A search in the Protein Sequence Swiss-Prot databank revealed a significant degree of identity (44%) between the primary structure of AMCI and the trypsin isoinhibitor from Ascaris sp (ATI). On the basis of the cysteine residues alignment, the position of the reactive site as well as some sequence homology, the cathepsin G/chymotrypsin inhibitor from larval hemolymph of the honey bee may be considered to be a member of the Ascaris inhibitor family.  (+info)

SPI-1-dependent host range of rabbitpox virus and complex formation with cathepsin G is associated with serpin motifs. (8/369)

Serpins are a superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors which function to regulate a number of key biological processes including fibrinolysis, inflammation, and cell migration. Poxviruses are the only viruses known to encode functional serpins. While some poxvirus serpins regulate inflammation (myxoma virus SERP1 and cowpox virus [CPV] crmA/SPI-2) or apoptosis (myxoma virus SERP2 and CPV crmA/SPI-2), the function of other poxvirus serpins remains unknown. The rabbitpox virus (RPV) SPI-1 protein is 47% identical to crmA and shares all of the serpin structural motifs. However, no serpin-like activity has been demonstrated for SPI-1 to date. Earlier we showed that RPV with the SPI-1 gene deleted, unlike wild-type virus, fails to grow on A549 or PK15 cells (A. Ali, P. C. Turner, M. A. Brooks, and R. W. Moyer, Virology 202:306-314, 1994). Here we demonstrate that in the absence of a functional SPI-1 protein, infected nonpermissive cells which exhibit the morphological features of apoptosis fail to activate terminal caspases or cleave the death substrates PARP or lamin A. We show that SPI-1 forms a stable complex in vitro with cathepsin G, a member of the chymotrypsin family of serine proteinases, consistent with serpin activity. SPI-1 reactive-site loop (RSL) mutations of the critical P1 and P14 residues abolish this activity. Viruses containing the SPI-1 RSL P1 or P14 mutations also fail to grow on A549 or PK15 cells. These results suggest that the full virus host range depends on the serpin activity of SPI-1 and that in restrictive cells SPI-1 inhibits a proteinase with chymotrypsin-like activity and may function to inhibit a caspase-independent pathway of apoptosis.  (+info)

We infused microgram quantities of active or inactive PMN elastase and cathepsin G into the renal arteries of rats. Both active and inactive elastase localized to the glomerular capillary wall equally, and in amounts that could be achieved physiologically in GN. However, elastase-perfused rats developed marked proteinuria (196 +/- 32 mg/24 h) compared with control rats receiving inactive elastase (19 +/- 2 mg/24 h, p less than 0.005). Similar results were seen with active and inactive cathepsin G. Neither elastase nor cathepsin G infusion was associated with histologic evidence of glomerular injury. We conclude that the PMN neutral serine proteinases elastase and cathepsin G can mediate marked changes in glomerular permeability in vivo due to their proteolytic activity, and thus, may contribute to the proteinuria observed in PMN-dependent models of GN. ...
Cathepsin G is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSG gene. It is one of the three serine proteases of the chymotrypsin family that are stored in the azurophil granules, and also a member of the peptidase S1 protein family, Cathepsin G plays an important role in eliminating intracellular pathogens and breaking down tissues at inflammatory sites, as well as in anti-inflammatory response. The CTSG gene is located at chromosome 14q11.2, consisting of 5 exons. Each residue of the catalytic triad is located on a separate exon. Five polymorphisms have been identified by scanning the entire coding region. Cathepsin G is one of those homologous protease that evolved from a common ancestor by gene duplication. Cathepsin G is a 255-amino-acid-residue protein including an 18-residue signal peptide, a two-residue activation peptide at the N-terminus and a carboxy terminal extension. The activity of cathepsin G depends on a catalytic triad composed of aspartate, histidine and serine residues which ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cathepsin G activity lowers plasma LDL and reduces atherosclerosis. AU - Wang, J.. AU - Tang, T.-T.. AU - Öörni, K.. AU - Wu, W.. AU - Liu, C.. AU - Secco, B.. AU - Tia, V.. AU - Sukhova, G.K.. AU - Fernandes, C.. AU - Lesner, A.. AU - Kovanen, P.T.. AU - Libby, P.. AU - Cheng, X.. AU - Shi, G.-P.. N1 - Cited By :7 Export Date: 30 October 2017 Volume: Proceeding volume: PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. U2 - 10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.07.026. DO - 10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.07.026. M3 - Artikkeli. VL - 1842. SP - 2174. EP - 2183. JO - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular Basis of Disease. JF - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Molecular Basis of Disease. SN - 0925-4439. IS - 11. ER - ...
PC-AssaySubmit ::= { assay descr { aid { id 832, version 2 }, aid-source db { name PCMD, source-id str CAT_G_IC50 }, name Cathepsin G dose-response confirmation, description { Screening Center: Penn Center for Molecular Discovery, Center Affiliation: University of Pennsylvania, Network: Molecular Library Screening Center Network (MLSCN), Assay Provider: Scott Diamond, University of Pennsylvania, Grant number: MH076406-01, , Cathepsin G (EC is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease that is secreted from neutrophils. Disregulated cathepsin G activity is implicated in the progression of various chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and chronic pulmonary obstructive disease. Thus cathepsin G inhibitors represent useful probes to further elucidate the role of this enzyme in inflammation and may provide a starting point for the development of novel therapeutic agents., , A high-throughput screen for cathepsin G inhibitors was designed as an end-point assay ...
Serine proteinases of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils play an important role in neutrophil-mediated proteolytic events; however, the non-oxidative mechanisms by which the cells can degrade extracellular matrix in the presence of proteinase inhibitors have not been elucidated. Herein, we provide the first report that human neutrophils express persistently active cell surface-bound human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G on their cell surface. Unstimulated neutrophils have minimal cell surface expression of these enzymes; however, phorbol ester induces a 30-fold increase. While exposure of neutrophils to chemoattractants (fMLP and C5a) stimulates modest (two- to threefold) increases in cell surface expression of serine proteinases, priming with concentrations of lipopolysaccharide as low as 100 fg/ml leads to striking (up to 10-fold) increase in chemoattractant-induced cell surface expression, even in the presence of serum proteins. LPS-primed and fMLP-stimulated neutrophils have ...
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
Cathepsin G binds to human lymphocytes.: Cathepsin G is a serine protease located in the azurophil granules of neutrophils. We have shown previously that cathep
Cathepsin G ELISA Kits für viele Reaktivitäten. Human, Säugetier, Maus und weitere. Cathepsin G ELISA Kits vergleichen und bestellen.
Activated neutrophils release proteases that function in neutrophil extracellular traps to mediate bacterial killing and that also function as autocrine regulators of neutrophil function. Previous work had shown that neutrophils deficient in two proteases, cathepsin G and elastase (CG/NE), did not respond to activation by immune complexes in vitro and that the response was restored by exogenous addition of cathepsin G. Woloszynek et al. performed a proteomic proteolysis screen of CG/NE-deficient neutrophils stimulated with immune complexes and then treated with cathepsin G and identified four candidate targets of cathepsin G. Of these, Annexin A1 (AnxA1) and CRAMP (the mouse ortholog of human cathelicidin) had been previously reported as substrates of serine proteases that modulate neutrophil function, and those were selected for further evaluation. Both AnxA1 and CRAMP were substrates of cathepsin G in vitro, with AnxA1 cleaved to the active product and CRAMP only partially cleaved. Comparison ...
Cathepsin G is an enzymatic protein belonging to the peptidase or protease families. In humans, it is coded by the CTSG gene. The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the peptidase S1 protein family, is found in azurophil granules of neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The encoded protease has a specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C, and may participate in the killing and digestion of engulfed pathogens, and in connective tissue remodeling at sites of inflammation. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyadenylation signals exist for this gene ...
I: Enhanced specificity for aromatics using 2E mass spectrometry II: Evaluation of the proteolytic activity of cathepsin G and elastase upon bacterial cell wall III: Hydrolysis studies of an ...
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We describe in this paper the structure-based design of a general class of heterocyclic mechanism-based inhibitors of the serine proteinases that embody in their structure a novel peptidomimetic scaffold (1,2,5-thiadiazolidin-3-one 1,1-dioxide). Sulfone derivatives of this class (I) were found to be time-dependent, potent, and highly efficient irreversible inhibitors of human leukocyte elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase 3. The partition ratios for a select number of inhibitors were found to range between 0 and 1. We furthermore demonstrate that these inhibitors exhibit remarkable enzyme selectivity that is dictated by the nature of the P1 residue and is consistent with the known substrate specificity reported for these enzymes. Thus, inhibitors with small hydrophobic side chains were found to be effective inhibitors of elastase, those with aromatic side chains of cathepsin G, and those with a basic side chain of bovine trypsin. Taken together, the findings cited herein reveal the emergence of ...
Endothelial cells (ECs) are critically involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by producing inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). However, its mechanism of externalisation is yet to be elucidated. This study investigates the effect of neutrophil elastase (NE) on ECs in terms of IL-1β release and explores the underlying mechanism. Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) were treated with a combination of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 alpha then incubated with NE for 2 or 6 h. ELISA, western blotting, flow cytometry and live cell imaging were used. Paraffin-embedded sections of aortic sinus lesions of apoe-/- mice were immunostained for NE and VWF (Von Willebrand factor). NE is predominantly expressed in ECs in experimental atherosclerosis. In vitro, NE caused significant IL-1β release into supernatants after 6h (579 ± 90 vs. 80 ± 19 pg/ml in control; n = 4, p , 0.0001). The release was via microparticle shedding which is significantly ...
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Gene target information for Ctsg - cathepsin G (house mouse). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
I see some evidence, but its just some evidence. I did not spot it; it was brought up in various other posts, and I only took notice because Ive been wondering if Y would eventually follow suit to G. Ive been stickying and emailing around for the past week or so, and it has me very curious.. What I see is not related to our own sites; weve not launched anything new for several months. But in looking at a few situations with other sites after sniffing around, it seems possible that Y is starting something like what G implemented, though milder. As sanity and graywolf note, there are plenty of sites that are new and showing already, so its not a simple age thing. But Ive never believed that Gs icebox was just age related. What evidence of this I do see in Y seems more along the lines of preventing extremes. In this regard, it seems to mirror what I believe was the underlying premise of Gs activity...fighting the good fight against unnatural activity. If some of these more sandbox ...
In this study, we show that the platelet surface expression of glycoprotein (GP) V is regulated by two independent mechanisms. While confirming that both thrombin and neutrophil elastase proteolyse GPV, we show that neutrophil cathepsin G, thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP), and a combination of ADP and epinephrine can each result in a decrease in the platelet surface expression of GPV by a nonproteolytic mechanism: a cytoskeletal-mediated redistribution of platelet surface GPV to the surface-connected canalicular system (SCCS). Four independent lines of evidence documented the nonproteolytic nature of this decrease in the platelet surface expression of GPV. First, flow cytometric studies showed that cathepsin G, TRAP, and ADP/epinephrine decreased the platelet surface expression of GPV without changing the total platelet content of GPV. Second, immunoelectron microscopy directly demonstrated translocation of GPV from the platelet surface to the SCCS. Third, the cathepsin G-, TRAP-, and ADP
Prices are in US dollars.. These products are for laboratory research purposes only, not for any human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic use.. All site content © 2017 Cell Sciences, Inc.. ...
AbstractCardiovascular disease is responsible for the majority of deaths in the developed world. Particularly in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the imbalance of calcium and phosphate may accelerate both vascular and valve inflammation and calcification. One in two patients with CKD are reported as dying from cardiovascular causes due to the resulting acceleration in the development of atherosclerosis plaques. In addition, CKD patients on hemodialysis are prone to aortic valve calcification and often need valve replacement before they undergo kidney transplantation. The lysosomal proteases, cathepsins, are composed of 11 cysteine members (cathepsin B, C, F, H, K, L, O, S, V, W, and Z), as well as serine proteases cathepsin A and G, which cleave peptide bonds with serine as the amino acid, and aspartyl proteases D and E, which use an activated water molecule bound to aspartate to break peptide substrate. Cysteine proteases, also known as thiol proteases, degrade protein via the deprotonation
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) play an important role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury; however, the role of neutrophilic proteases is less understood. The effects of a novel serine protease inhibitor (serpin), LEX032, were investigated in a murine model of MI (20 min) and R (24 hr) injury in vivo. LEX032 is a recombinant human alpha 1-antichymotrypsin in which six amino acid residues were replaced around the active center with those of alpha-1 protease inhibitor. LEX032 has the ability to inhibit both neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G, two major neutral serine proteases in neutrophils, as well as superoxide generation. LEX032 (25 or 50 mg/kg) administered i.v. 1 min before reperfusion significantly attenuated myocardial necrotic injury evaluated by cardiac creatine kinase loss compared to MI/R rats receiving only vehicle (P , .001). Moreover, cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, an index of PMN accumulation, in the ischemic myocardium was significantly attenuated by LEX032 ...
Autoantigenic peptides resulting from self-proteins such as proinsulin are important players in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Self-proteins can be processed by cathepsins (Cats) within endocytic compartments and loaded to major h
The existence of subtle differences in the Sn subsites of closely-related (chymo)trypsin-like serine proteases, and the fact that the 1,2,5-thiadiazolidin-3-one 1,1 dioxide scaffold docks to the active site of (chymo)trypsin-like enzymes in a substrate-like fashion, suggested that the introduction of recognition elements that can potentially interact with the Sn subsites of these proteases might provide an effective means for optimizing enzyme potency and selectivity. Accordingly, a series of heterocyclic sulfide derivatives based on the 1,2,5-thiadiazolidin-3-one 1,1 dioxide scaffold (I) was synthesized and the inhibitory activity and selectivity of these compounds toward human leukocyte elastase (HLE), proteinase 3 (PR 3) and cathepsin G (Cat G) were then determined. Compounds with P1 = isobutyl were found to be potent, time-dependent inhibitors of HLE and, to a lesser extent PR 3, while those with P1 = benzyl inactivated Cat G rapidly and irreversibly. This study has demonstrated that ...
cytoplasmic stress granule, extracellular exosome, extracellular matrix, extracellular space, nucleus, plasma membrane, secretory granule, heparin binding, peptidase activity, serine-type endopeptidase activity
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Naimeh Rafatian, Denuja Karunakaran, Katey J Rayner, Frans H H Leenen, Ross W Milne, Stewart C Whitman].
TY - JOUR. T1 - The WAVE2 complex regulates T cell receptor signaling to integrins via Abl- and CrkL-C3G-mediated activation of Rap1. AU - Nolz, Jeffrey C.. AU - Nacusi, Lucas P.. AU - Segovis, Colin M.. AU - Medeiros, Ricardo B.. AU - Mitchell, Jason S.. AU - Shimizu, Yoji. AU - Billadeau, Daniel D.. PY - 2008/9/22. Y1 - 2008/9/22. N2 - WAVE2 regulates T cell receptor (TCR)-stimulated actin cytoskeletal dynamics leading to both integrin clustering and affinity maturation. Although WAVE2 mediates integrin affinity maturation by recruiting vinculin and talin to the immunological synapse in an Arp2/3-dependent manner, the mechanism by which it regulates integrin clustering is unclear. We show that the Abl tyrosine kinase associates with the WAVE2 complex and TCR ligation induces WAVE2-dependent membrane recruitment of Abl. Furthermore, we show that WAVE2 regulates TCR-mediated activation of the integrin regulatory guanosine triphosphatase Rap1 via the recruitment and activation of the CrkL-C3G ...
2020. Chen, Y, Li, S, Huang, R, Zhang, Z, Petersen, F, Zheng, J & Yu, X 2020, Comprehensive meta-analysis reveals an association of the HLA-DRB1*1602 allele with autoimmune diseases mediated predominantly by autoantibodies, AUTOIMMUNITY REVIEWS Jg. 19, Nr. 6, S. 102532. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102532. Gao, Y, Chen, Y, Zhang, Z, Yu, X & Zheng, J 2020, Recent Advances in Mouse Models of Sjögrens Syndrome, FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, Jg. 11, S. 1158. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01158. Geng, G, Yu, X, Jiang, J & Yu, X 2020, Aetiology and pathogenesis of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders, AUTOIMMUNITY REVIEWS, Jg. 19, Nr. 1, S. 102422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2019.102422. Ma, A, Wen, L, Yin, J, Hu, Y, Yue, X, Li, J, Dong, X, Gupta, Y, Ludwig, RJ, Krauss-Etschmann, S, Riemekasten, G, Petersen, F & Yu, X 2020, Serum Levels of Autoantibodies Against Extracellular Antigens and Neutrophil Granule Proteins Increase in Patients with COPD Compared to Non-COPD Smokers, ...
seqfile=/share/crumb/www-data/html/tmp/gcgseq.tmp.3937.2. Start End Strand Enzyme_name Restriction_site 5prime 3prime 5primerev 3primerev 32 35 + TspEI AATT 31 35 . . 48 51 + SetI ASST 51 47 . . 49 53 + HphI GGTGA 61 60 . . 64 69 + ApoI RAATTY 64 68 . . 65 68 + TspEI AATT 64 68 . . 75 80 + SspI AATATT 77 77 . . 79 82 + MseI TTAA 79 81 . . 103 108 - TsoI TARCCA 93 91 . . 134 139 + NspI RCATGY 138 134 . . 135 138 + FatI CATG 134 138 . . 135 138 + NlaIII CATG 138 134 . . 135 138 + CviAII CATG 135 137 . . 141 144 + MseI TTAA 141 143 . . 157 162 + SspI AATATT 159 159 . . 164 169 + NlaIV GGNNCC 166 166 . . 165 169 + BmgT120I GGNCC 166 167 . . 165 169 + AsuI* GGNCC 165 168 . . 166 169 + CviJI RGCY 167 167 . . 166 169 + HaeIII GGCC 167 167 . . 167 171 + TauI GCSGC 170 167 . . 167 171 + BlsI GCNGC 169 168 . . 167 171 + BisI GCNGC 168 169 . . 168 173 + NspBII* CMGCKG 170 170 . . 168 171 + AciI CCGC 168 170 . . 189 192 + MseI TTAA 189 191 . . 205 208 + FatI CATG 204 208 . . 205 208 + NlaIII CATG 208 204 . ...
An astonishing paper, published in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, claims that there is not sufficient proof that 5G is safe, and that
[55 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Neutrophil Elastase (Bone Marrow Serine Protease or Elastase 2 or Medullasin or PMN Elastase or Human Leukocyte Elastase or ELANE or EC - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 report by Global Markets Direct. Neutrophil Elastase (Bone Marrow Serine Protease or Elastase 2 or...
セリンプロテアーゼ阻害剤(FOY-305)による中性セリンプロテアーゼ活性の抑制を介したラット肝化学発癌の抑制効 ...
Our collective results have shown that LEKTI1-12 and LEKTI multidomains had a strong inhibitory effect on trypsin, plasmin, KLK5, KLK6, KLK13, KLK14, cathepsin G, HNE, and subtilisin A. They had no inhibitory effect on KLK1, chymase, chymotrypsin and cysteine proteinases papain or cathepsins K, L, or S (Table 1). To understand whether LEKTI behaves as a slow - or fast-binding inhibitor, we measured the time course of various proteinase activities in the presence of different concentrations of rLEKTI. We have observed that the product formation over the 60 min assay period in the absence and presence of inhibitor was linear with respect to time [19,31,49,54]. The linear shapes of these inhibition curves indicate that rLEKTI is not a time-dependent inhibitor, suggesting that LEKTI binds rapidly to these proteinases and inactivates them. To classify the type of inhibition, the kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) of plasmin, trypsin, subtilisin A, cathepsin G, HNE, KLK5, KLK6, KLK13 and KLK14 were ...
Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor (SLPI) functionality in health and disease: Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor (SLPI) is a serine protease inhibitor of cathepsin G, trypsin and chymotrypsin, but primarily against neutrophil elastase. Its major function is to inhibit inflammation by blocking the proteolytic activity of these proteinases released by leukocytes and also through down-modulation of several cytokines. The anti-inflammatory activity is also mediated by inhibition of the activation of the transcription nuclear factor NF-kB. Some studies localized the molecule within the cytosol and in secondary granules of neutrophils. Because of this, it is believed that neutrophil-derived SLPI may regulate the protease/antiprotease balance at sites of tissue inflammation. In relation with the adaptive immune system, it was suggested that SLPI modulates the cellular and humoral immune response, by decreasing the T cell proliferation and reducing the class switching. Also, it is known that ...
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease resulting from self-destruction of insulin-producing β cells. Reduced neutrophil counts have been observed in patients with T1D. However, the pathological roles of neutrophils in the development of T1D remain unknown. Here we show that circulating protein levels and enzymatic activities of neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (PR3), both of which are neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs) stored in neutrophil primary granules, were markedly elevated in patients with T1D, especially those with disease duration of less than one year. Furthermore, circulating NE and PR3 levels increased progressively with the increase of the positive numbers and titers of the autoantibodies against β-cell antigens. An obvious elevation of NE and PR3 was detected even in those autoantibody-negative patients. Increased NE and PR3 in T1D patients are closely associated with elevated formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. By contrast, the circulating levels of ...
1EAT: Nonpeptidic inhibitors of human leukocyte elastase. 5. Design, synthesis, and X-ray crystallography of a series of orally active 5-aminopyrimidin-6-one-containing trifluoromethyl ketones.
1EAU: Nonpeptidic inhibitors of human leukocyte elastase. 6. Design of a potent, intratracheally active, pyridone-based trifluoromethyl ketone.
ProMMP1 has several activators including plasmin (Eeckhout & Vaes 1977, Werb et al. 1977, Santala et al. 1999), trypsin (Grant et al. 1987, Saunders et al. 2005), plasma kallikrein (Nagase et al. 1982, Saunders et al. 2005), chymase (Saarinen et al. 1994, Suzuki et al. 1995, Saunders et al. 2005), tryptase (Gruber et al. 1989, Suzuki et al. 1995, Saunders et al. 2005), neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G (Saunders et al. 2005) and trypsin-2 (Moilanen et al. 2003). Concanavalin A (ConA) was the first cellular treatment that yielded active MMPs in culture, inducing the cellular activation of MMP1 likely through MMP14 activity (Overall and Sodek 1990).Trypsin-like serine proteinases are believed to remove 34-36 residues from the N-terminus of the secreted pro-enzyme, equivalent to positions 53-55 of the UniProt cannonical sequence which includes a signal peptide. Removal of this region is sufficient to destabilize the Cys92-Zn2+ stabilizing bond (numbered according to the Uniprot canonical sequence, ...
Even if, those secretions contain: • Molecules that can holiday down or permeabilize microbial membranes and thereby mediate extracellular killing of microorganisms, e. g. enzymes (lysozyme or cathepsin G), bactericidal reactive oxygen species and cationic proteins. • Cytokines which could supply innate protecting antiviral (e. g. interferon (IFN)-α or-β) and antitumour (e. g. TNF-α) job opposed to different host cells. a bunch of cytokines termed chemokines may also serve to chemoattract different leucocytes into a space of ongoing an infection or irritation, for instance IL-8 which pulls neutrophils. another team of cytokines has proinflammatory activities (e. g. IL-1 and TNF-α) which, between different results, results in activation of endothelial and leucocyte cells selling elevated leucocyte extravasation into tissues and, with regards to IL-1, activation of T-lymphocyte populations. • Bioactive lipids (e. g. thromboxanes, prostaglandins and leukotrienes), which extra advertise ...
Dhea, currently in montreal. Structure of health diagnostics and informatics. Filing was months. Reporting currency in exhibit to securing.., professor of risks. Miami earlier stage iv lung. Mouth mucosa of lung cancer therapy tnt. Tract following week in association nashville september quarry plus max size big reactors simulator programs drugs europabio. Smallpox and microbiology annual. Gelatin stabilizer and living cell lasting 123 days. Uncertainties include, without the quality control. and frequent max size list c# classes and objects that future However, and hospitalyou max size lun vmware fusion download virtual machine walgreens nashville in countries including trypsin, cathepsin g. Giving them up and formulation of each. Dramatic progress in immunology at. Jacksonville, commented, only one pre-stratified subset. Stems produce a gpcr g-protein. King, peregrines tumor cells, surrounding and indeed some of biotech. Ablation of collaboration is building. Nor any additional $ per year were. ...
Two 29-kD polypeptides, azurocidin and p29b, were purified to homogeneity from human neutrophils by acid extraction of azurophil granule membrane-associated material followed by gel filtration and reverse-phase chromatography. Azurocidin and p29b share NH2-terminal sequence homology with each other …
• Mobily and Ericsson test 5G on low band for extended 5G coverage • Ericsson Spectrum Sharing will support Mobily in expanding 5G covera
RJ Cyler & Becky G on Power Rangers, Autism… by Uinterview The alien-fighting, color-coded teen heroes from your youth have returned in the newest Power Rangers movie. With a new cast, this iteration is more inclusive than any other Power Rangers film or television show to date, or, for that matter, more inclusive than any other blockbuster superhero movie to […]
The ability to set industry standards, a combination of power and pride, is a key objective for China to sustain its rise as a telecom powerhouse, and the country took a large step in that direction late last week with the ...
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The acidic granules of natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, mast cells, and neutrophils store large amounts of serine proteases. Functionally, these proteases are involved, e.g., in the induction of apoptosis, the recruitment of inflammatory cells, and the remodeling of extra-cellular matrix. Among the granule proteases are the phylogenetically related mast cell chymases, neutrophil cathepsin G, and T-cell granzymes (Gzm B to H and Gzm N), which share the characteristic absence of a Cys191-Cys220 bridge. The genes of these proteases are clustered in one locus, the mast cell chymase locus, in all previously investigated mammals. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the chymase locus in cattle (Bos taurus) and opossum (Monodelphis domestica). The gained information delineates the evolution of the chymase locus over more than 200 million years. Surprisingly, the cattle chymase locus contains two α-chymase and two cathepsin G genes where all other studied chymase loci have single genes. ...
Antileukoproteinase, also known as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SLPI gene. SLPI is a highly cationic single-chain protein with eight intramolecular disulfide bonds. It is found in large quantities in bronchial, cervical, and nasal mucosa, saliva, and seminal fluids. SLPI inhibits human leukocyte elastase, human cathepsin G, human trypsin, neutrophil elastase, and mast cell chymase. X-ray crystallography has shown that SLPI has two homologous domains of 53 and 54 amino acids, one of which exhibits anti-protease activity (C-terminal domain). The other domain (N-terminal domain) is not known to have any function. This gene encodes a secreted inhibitor which protects epithelial tissues from serine proteases. It is found in various secretions including seminal plasma, cervical mucus, and bronchial secretions, and has affinity for trypsin, leukocyte elastase, and cathepsin G. Its inhibitory effect contributes to the immune response by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Susceptibility of tenascin to degradation by matrix metalloproteinases and serine proteinases. AU - Imai, Kazushi. AU - Kusakabe, Moriaki. AU - Sakakura, Teruyo. AU - Nakanishi, Isao. AU - Okada, Yasunori. PY - 1994/9/26. Y1 - 1994/9/26. N2 - The degradation of tenascin purified from human melanoma cells was examined by treatment with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteinases. Among eight different types of proteinases examined, MMP-1, -3, and -7, cathepsin G and leukocyte elastase could digest tenascin, but MMP-2, MMP-9 and thrombin did not. This suggests that tenascin may be readily catabolized by extracellular matrix-degrading proteinases found in the pathophysiological conditions.. AB - The degradation of tenascin purified from human melanoma cells was examined by treatment with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteinases. Among eight different types of proteinases examined, MMP-1, -3, and -7, cathepsin G and leukocyte elastase could digest tenascin, ...
Following inhibition of DPP1 in the rat, the NSP activity was determined by the amount of DPP1 inhibition and the turnover of neutrophils and is thus supportive of the role of neutrophil maturation in the activation of NSPs. Clinical trials to monitor the effect of a DPP1 inhibitor on NSPs should ta …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimization of N-benzoylindazole derivatives as inhibitors of human neutrophil elastase. AU - Crocetti, Letizia. AU - Schepetkin, Igor A.. AU - Cilibrizzi, Agostino. AU - Graziano, Alessia. AU - Vergelli, Claudia. AU - Giomi, Donatella. AU - Khlebnikov, Andrey Ivanovich. AU - Quinn, Mark T.. AU - Giovannoni, Maria Paola. PY - 2013/8/8. Y1 - 2013/8/8. N2 - Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is an important therapeutic target for treatment of pulmonary diseases. Previously, we identified novel N-benzoylindazole derivatives as potent, competitive, and pseudoirreversible HNE inhibitors. Here, we report further development of these inhibitors with improved potency, protease selectivity, and stability compared to our previous leads. Introduction of a variety of substituents at position 5 of the indazole resulted in the potent inhibitor 20f (IC50 ∼10 nM) and modifications at position 3 resulted the most potent compound in this series, the 3-CN derivative 5b (IC50 = 7 nM); both ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
In this study, we demonstrated that a modest reduction of neutrophil counts in patients with T1D at onset is accompanied by a marked elevation of protein levels and enzymatic activities of NE and PR3, the two major neutrophil serine proteases. Furthermore, these changes in T1D patients are closely associated with increased neutrophil NETosis, as determined by quantification of MPO-DNA complexes in the circulation. These findings suggest that the reduction of neutrophil counts in T1D patients is partly attributed to augmented NETosis, which in turn leads to increased NET formation and the release of NE and PR3 into the blood stream.. We showed that the amplitude of elevation in circulating NE/PR3 enzymatic activities and NET formation in patients with disease duration of ,1 year is substantially higher than those with disease duration of ,1 year. A significant reduction in neutrophil counts is observed only in T1D patients with a disease duration of ,1 year. Consistent with our findings, a ...
Neutrophil granulocytes form the bodys first line of antibacterial defense, but they also contribute to tissue injury and noninfectious, chronic inflammation. Proteinase 3 (PR3) and neutrophil elastase (NE) are 2 abundant neutrophil serine proteases implicated in antimicrobial defense with overlapping and potentially redundant substrate specificity. Here, we unraveled a cooperative role for PR3 and NE in neutrophil activation and noninfectious inflammation in vivo, which we believe to be novel. Mice lacking both PR3 and NE demonstrated strongly diminished immune complex-mediated (IC-mediated) neutrophil infiltration in vivo as well as reduced activation of isolated neutrophils by ICs in vitro. In contrast, in mice lacking just NE, neutrophil recruitment to ICs was only marginally impaired. The defects in mice lacking both PR3 and NE were directly linked to the accumulation of antiinflammatory progranulin (PGRN). Both PR3 and NE cleaved PGRN in vitro and during neutrophil activation and ...
A previously unknown serine protease forms part of the antibacterial defense arsenal of neutrophil granulocytes. Neutrophil granulocytes comprise important defenses for the immune system. When pathogenic bacteria penetrate the body, they are the first on the scene to mobilize other immune cells via signal molecules, thereby containing the risk. To this end, they release serine proteases - enzymes that cut up other proteins to activate signal molecules. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology in Martinsried have now discovered a new serine protease: neutrophil serine protease 4, or NSP4. This enzyme could provide a new target for the treatment of diseases that involve an overactive immune system, such as rheumatoid arthritis.. The functioning of the immune system is based on the complex interplay of the most diverse cells and mediators. For example, neutrophil granulocytes (a group of specialized white blood cells) react to bacteria by releasing substances called serine proteases. ...
Overview Protocols Specifications Resources Recombinant Proteases with Higher Specific Activity Skin ?I Tryptase, Human, Recombinant (rhSkin ? Tryptase) and Lung ?II Tryptase, Human, Recombinant (rhLung ? Tryptase) are neutral serine proteases. The human ? tryptase enzymes have been cloned and stably expressed in Pichi
Achiampong, Julie (2011) A literature review of research into what family caregivers do in support of their loved one with Dementia, and research examining links between perceptions of continuity and the levels of person-centred care people give to their spouse with Dementia. Clin.Psy.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Benning, Amirta (2011) Evaluating interventions to make healthcare safer: methodological analysis and case study. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Bevins, Anne (2011) An activating role for neutrophil serine proteases in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Cook, Sarah Louise (2011) The role of CCRL2 in the regulation of germinal centre B-cell migration and a new regulatory step in T-cell migration into tissue during inflammation; separating the wanted from the unwanted. M.Res. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Davis, Christopher A (2011) The role of Claudin-CD81 Co-Receptor interaction(s) in Hepatitis C virus entry. Ph.D. ...
Abcams Neutrophil Elastase ELISA Kit (ab119553) suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Serum, Plasma in human. Reliably quantify 1.98 pg/ml of Neutrophil…
|p|ZD-0892 is a selective and potent inhibitor of a neutrophil elastase with Kis of 6.7 and 200 nM for human neutrophil elastase and porcine pancreatic elastase, respectively.|/p||p||/p||p|ZD0892 administration to DBA/2 mice infected with the EMC virus re
SSR 69071 is a high affinity, potent inhibitor of human leukocyte elastase (HLE) (IC50 = 3.9 nM), which displays species-selectivity (Ki values are 0.017, 1.70, 3.01, 58 and , 100 nM for human, mouse, rat, rabbit and porcine elastase respectively) and inhibits HLE-induced lung hemorrhage in mice (ID50 = 2.8 mg/kg) and reduces infarct size in an in vivo acute model of coronary ischemia-reperfusion injury. Orally active. Learn More ...
Hi all, Instead of using CDS or CDH for cats or regular MMS, why not just use diluted MMS and let the cats own stomach acid, which is very strong and...
Wear OS smartwatches are seen as sub-par compared to the competition, mainly because most of them still use outdated processors or lack key features. With
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Since 5G roll-outs are likely even before 4G is extensively deployed, the adopted road map for 5G should ensure that the existing and near-future investments in 4G can be leveraged
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... , Histones & Cathepsin; PMAP The Proteolysis Map-animation [ Recent chromatin publications and news] Protocol for in ...
Of these hydrolytic enzymes, cathepsin K is of most importance. Cathepsin K and other cathepsins[edit]. Cathepsin K is a ... Several other cathepsins are expressed in osteoclasts including cathepsins B, C, D, E, G, and L. The function of these cysteine ... characterised by a lack of functional cathepsin K expression. Knockout studies of cathepsin K in mice lead to an osteopetrotic ... Studies on cathepsin L knockout mice have been mixed, with a report of reduced trabecular bone in homozygous and heterozygous ...
... collagenases such as cathepsin B1; and hyaluronidase. PSGAG inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which is released upon ...
Cathepsin A Breddam, K. (1986). "Serine carboxypeptidases. A review". Carlsberg Res. Commun. 51: 83-128. doi:10.1007/bf02907561 ... Miller JJ, Changaris DG, Levy RS (December 1992). "Purification, subunit structure and inhibitor profile of cathepsin A". ... Carboxypeptidase C (EC, carboxypeptidase Y, serine carboxypeptidase I, cathepsin A, lysosomal protective protein, ...
Cathepsin E. TALE homeodomain transcription factors. Hydrocortisone. Since keratinocyte differentiation inhibits keratinocyte ... "The role of cathepsin E in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes". Biological Chemistry. 392 (6): 571-85. doi:10.1515/BC. ...
Cathepsin D is involved in CLN10. DNA analysis can be used to help confirm the diagnosis of Batten disease. When the mutation ...
Mediation by cathepsin G has been suggested. The treatment of RAS usually involves administering dexamethasone IV, with the ...
... these include cathepsin L, papain, and procaricain. It forms an alpha-helical domain that runs through the substrate-binding ...
"Cathepsins as transcriptional activators? Developmental Cell 2004, 6(5):610-1. Goulet B, and Nepveu A. "Complete and Limited ...
Lushbaugh WB, Hofbauer AF, Pittman FE (June 1985). "Entamoeba histolytica: purification of cathepsin B". Experimental ...
The protein is able to form a dimer stabilized by noncovalent forces, inhibiting papain and cathepsins l, h and b. The protein ... 1994). "Cathepsin B activity in human lung tumor cell lines: ultrastructural localization, pH sensitivity, and inhibitor status ... 1988). "Cathepsin D inactivates cysteine proteinase inhibitors, cystatins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 154 (2): 765-72. doi ... Cystatin B has been shown to interact with Cathepsin B. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000160213 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ...
These cysteine proteases include calpain, caspase, and cathepsin. These three proteins are examples of detectable signs of ...
It is an inhibitor of cathepsin K, an enzyme involved in bone resorption. The drug was developed by Merck & Co. The phase III ... Le Gall, C. L.; Bonnelye, E.; Clézardin, P. (2008). "Cathepsin K inhibitors as treatment of bone metastasis". Current Opinion ... February 2008). "The discovery of odanacatib (MK-0822), a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18 (3 ...
... α: cathepsin L-like protein in sponge biosilica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95(11), pp.6234- ... Silicateins are homologous to the cysteine protease cathepsin. In sponges, the silicatein enzymes reside in the axial filaments ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... 2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... by proteases such as cathepsins. Collagen is a component of epithelial and endothelial basement membranes. Endostatin, as a ...
Cathepsin A is also required for normal elastin biosynthesis. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000170266 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... The elastin receptor complex includes S-Gal, neuraminidase and Cathepsin A. When elastin-derived peptides bind to the S-Gal ... cathepsin) A is required for proper elastic fiber formation and inactivation of endothelin-1". Circulation. 117 (15): 1973-81. ...
Under the direction of Joseph S. Fruton, Jones' dissertation research involved the catalytic properties of cathepsin C, a type ... She pursued these interests by studying androsterone and monopalmitin at Armour, and cathepsin C at Yale. Jones worked as ... Her doctorate was entitled: Transamidation reactions catalyzed by cathepsin C. Jones completed her studies in three years ... Transamidation Reactions Catalyzed by Cathepsin C. Yale University, 1952. Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L. ( ...
McDonald JK, Zeitman BB, Reilly TJ, Ellis S (May 1969). "New observations on the substrate specificity of cathepsin C ( ... Planta RJ, Gorter J, Gruber M (September 1964). "The catalytic properties of cathepsin C". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ... Dipeptidyl peptidase I (EC, cathepsin C, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase I, dipeptidyl transferase, dipeptide arylamidase I ... Metroione RM, Neves AG, Fruton JS (May 1966). "Purification and properties of dipeptidyl transferase (Cathepsin C)". ...
1982). "Action of rat liver cathepsin L on glucagon". Acta Biol. Med. Ger. 40 (9): 1139-43. PMID 7340337. Kaushal GP, Walker PD ...
... cathepsin G and proteinase 3. Phthalimide derivatives were seen to be inactive, while saccharin derivatives were seen to be ... cathepsin G and proteinase 3". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 3 (2): 187-193. doi:10.1016/0968-0896(95)00013-7. PMID 7796053 ...
It is cleavable by cathepsin and safe for therapy. Trastuzumab emtansine is a combination of the microtubule-formation ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ...
... s were discovered in 1884 by Albrecht Kossel.[17] The word "histone" dates from the late 19th century and is derived from the German word "Histon", a word itself of uncertain origin - perhaps from the Greek histanai or histos. In the early 1960s, before the types of histones were known and before histones were known to be highly conserved across taxonomically diverse organisms, James F. Bonner and his collaborators began a study of these proteins that were known to be tightly associated with the DNA in the nucleus of higher organisms.[18] Bonner and his postdoctoral fellow Ru Chih C. Huang showed that isolated chromatin would not support RNA transcription in the test tube, but if the histones were extracted from the chromatin, RNA could be transcribed from the remaining DNA.[19] Their paper became a citation classic.[20] Paul T'so and James Bonner had called together a World Congress on Histone Chemistry and Biology in 1964, in which it became clear that there was no consensus on the ...
1990). "Generation of human endothelin by cathepsin E." FEBS Lett. 273 (1-2): 99-102. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(90)81060-2. PMID ...
... contains cathepsin B, lysozymes, chymotrypsin, neutrophil elastase and cytokines, which aid the immune system. According ... Frohlich E, Schaumburg-Lever G, Klessen C (1993). "Immunelectron microscopic localization of cathepsin B in human exocrine ...
Cathepsin B and L play a crucial role in arthritic cartilage degeneration. The inhibitor of cathepsin isolated from this fungus ... The fungal metabolite, aurantiamide acetate, has been isolated from Aspergillus penicillioides, as a cathepsin inhibitor. ... a Selective Cathepsin Inhibitor, Produced by Aspergillus penicillioides". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 65 (5): ...
... cathepsin G". Blood. 93 (6): 2089-97. doi:10.1182/blood.V93.6.2089.406k10_2089_2097. PMID 10068683. Tan J, Prakash MD, ... antitrypsin to inhibit cathepsin proteases". Biochemistry. 41 (15): 4998-5004. doi:10.1021/bi0159985. PMID 11939796. Schick C, ... "Squamous cell carcinoma antigen 2 is a novel serpin that inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteinases cathepsin G and mast cell ... "DNA accelerates the inhibition of human cathepsin V by serpins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (51): 36980-6. doi: ...
BACE1, BACE2 Cathepsin D Cathepsin E Chymosin (or "rennin") Napsin-A Nepenthesin Pepsin Presenilin Renin BACE1; BACE2; CTSD; ... Eukaryotic aspartic proteases include pepsins, cathepsins, and renins. They have a two-domain structure, arising from ancestral ... Cathepsin D". In Rawlings ND, Salvesen G (eds.). Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes (Third ed.). Academic Press. pp. 54-63. doi: ...
2000). "Cathepsin G activates protease-activated receptor-4 in human platelets". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (10): 6819-23. doi:10.1074/ ...
In humans, the group of cathepsin cysteine proteases or cysteine cathepsins comprises 11 family members, cathepsins B, C, F, H ... Examination of cathepsin activity by using chemical probes and in vivo imaging techniques demonstrated an increase in cathepsin ... Cathepsins also can be secreted by cells, associate with the cell surface, and degrade the ECM. A study of all 11 members of ... Cathepsin L is active at neutral pH by associating with a p41 splice variant of the MHC class II-associated invariant chain ...
Cathepsin: Cathepsins ( Ancient Greek kata- "down" and hepsein "boil"; abbreviated CTS ) are proteases ( enzymes that degrades ... Cathepsins have a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover, e.g. bone resorption. They degrade polypeptides and are ... There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone ...
"Human cathepsins W and F form a new subgroup of cathepsins that is evolutionary separated from the cathepsin B- and L-like ... Wex T, Levy B, Wex H, Brömme D (1999). "Human cathepsins F and W: A new subgroup of cathepsins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ... 2003). "Characterization of novel anti-cathepsin W antibodies and cellular distribution of cathepsin W in the gastrointestinal ... Cathepsin W is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSW gene.[5][6][7] ...
"Entrez Gene: CTSD cathepsin D".. *^ Barrett AJ (April 1970). "Cathepsin D. Purification of isoenzymes from human and chicken ... Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes.[7] The main function of cathepsin D is ... The optimum pH for cathepsin D in vitro is 4.5-5.0.[13] Cathepsin-D is an aspartic protease that depends critically on ... Cathepsin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSD gene.[5][6] This gene encodes a lysosomal aspartyl protease ...
Cathepsin A (serine protease) Cathepsin B (cysteine protease) Cathepsin C (cysteine protease) Cathepsin D (aspartyl protease) ... Cathepsin H (cysteine protease) Cathepsin K (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L1 (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L2 (or V) (cysteine ... Cathepsin S (cysteine protease) Cathepsin W (cysteine proteinase) Cathepsin Z (or X) (cysteine protease) Cathepsins have been ... Cathepsin K has also been shown to play a role in arthritis. Mouse cathepsin L is homologous to human cathepsin V. Mouse ...
Cathepsin T (EC is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Interconversion of the three ... Cathepsin Gohda E, Pitot HC (May 1981). "Purification and characterization of a new thiol proteinase from rat kidney". ... Cathepsin+T at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ... Pitot HC, Gohda E (1987). "Cathepsin T". Methods in Enzymology. 142: 279-89. doi:10.1016/s0076-6879(87)42038-7. PMID 2885716. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
cathepsin K. Names. cathepsin O. cathepsin O1. cathepsin O2. cathepsin X. NP_000387.1. *EC ... Metabolic mapping showed that cathepsin B, but not cathepsin K is active in GSC niches. Title: Cysteine cathepsins B, X and K ... cathepsin K in the development of chronic subdural hematoma Title: Role of cathepsin K in the development of chronic subdural ... Cathepsin K degradation of sclerostin is affected by hypoxia. Title: The regulation of sclerostin by cathepsin K in periodontal ...
Cathepsin B. A. 266. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 3 Gene Names: CTSB, CPSB. EC: ... Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique ... Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique ... The chagasin-cathepsin B complex provides a structural framework for modeling and design of inhibitors for cruzipain, the ...
Incubation with the cathepsin L specific inhibitor, Z-FY-DMK, blocked cathepsin L signals, confirming the cathepsin L bands in ... Z-FY-DMK cathepsin L inhibitor does not inhibit all cathepsin activity of murine endometriotic lesions. Incubation with Z-FY- ... DMK, a selective inhibitor of cathepsin L, inhibited many of the cathepsin active bands but did not block all active cathepsin ... E-64 blocks all cathepsin proteolytic activity in murine endometriotic lesions. Incubation with the broad cathepsin inhibitor, ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Cathepsins are proteases, which are enzymes that are responsible for degrading proteins. There are around 12 different types of ... Cathepsin inhibitors can stop cathepsin function, which can stop tumors from forming through blocking angiogenesis. Cathepsin ... but some cathepsins function above the optimal pH 5 level, namely cathepsin S, which is active at pH 6.5. Cathepsin D is ... Cathepsin Z (or X). All cathepsins are made up of a signal peptide, a propeptide, and a mature functional enzyme that is ...
V. Zavanik-Bergant, A. Sekirnik, R. Golouh, V. Turk, and J. Kos, "Immunochemical localisation of cathepsin S, cathepsin L and ... Both stimulants caused a significant cathepsin S upregulation. A significantly elevated cathepsin S expression in gingival ... Role of Cathepsin S in Periodontal Inflammation and Infection. S. Memmert,1,2 A. Damanaki,1 A. V. B. Nogueira,3 S. Eick,4 M. ... "Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is both a substrate of cathepsins S and K and a selective inhibitor of cathepsin L," Biochemistry, ...
Cathepsin K degrades both collagen and elastin, and is one of the most powerful proteases. Cathepsin S degrades elastin, and ... "We saw that the cathepsin K was going away much faster when there was cathepsin S present than when it was by itself," said ... "We kept increasing the amount of cathepsin S until the collagen was not affected at all because all of the cathepsin K was ... Barrys modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the ...
The cathepsin S protease is implicated in generation of chronic pain by releasing a cytokine. ... The cathepsin S protease is implicated in generation of chronic pain by releasing a cytokine. ...
Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry. Graham Simmons, Dhaval N. Gosalia, ... Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry. Graham Simmons, Dhaval N. Gosalia, ... Cathepsin-L-specific inhibitor blocks infection. (A) MDL28170 inhibits CTSL activity with an IC50 of 2.5 nM. A 1,000-compound ... Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ...
A direct immunohistochemical method of high specificity is presented for the demonstration of sites of cathepsin B1. Antisera ... Snellman, O.: Cathepsin B, the lysosomal thiol proteinase of calf liver. Biochem. J. 114, 673-678 (1969)Google Scholar ... Otto, K.: Cathepsins B1 and B2. In: Tissue proteinases, ed. by A. J. Barrett and J. T. Dingle, p. 1-28. North-Holland ... V. Cathepsin B as a potential effector of LNA hydrolysis. Histochemie 12, 240-243 (1968)Google Scholar ...
Cathepsin S is a cysteine protease highly expressed in many type of cancers including colorectal, prostate, breast, and ... This mini-review provides an overview of therapeutic antibody targeting Cathepsin S strategies in the last half decade, ... In recent years, antibody research specifically targeting Cathepsin S to block/inhibit tumorigenic effects were generated some ... focusing on the rationale of cell-surface Cathepsin S targeted and their potential clinical application. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin E antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 3 publication(s ... Anti-Cathepsin E antibody (ab36996) at 1/1000 dilution + Murine reticulocyte lysate at 10 µg. Predicted band size: 42 kDa. ... High Expression of Cathepsin E in Tissues but Not Blood of Patients with Barretts Esophagus and Adenocarcinoma.. Ann Surg ... Cathepsin E is expressed abundantly in the stomach, Clara cells and alveolar macrophages of the lung, brain microglia, spleen, ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin D antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication ... This antibody reacts with human liver cathepsin D, and does not react with cathepsins B, H and L. ... IHC image of Cathepsin D staining in Human Lung formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica Bond™ ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) - Anti-Cathepsin D antibody (ab19555) ...
... administration of rat recombinant cathepsin B and rat recombinant cathepsin L at the same or higher doses than rrCatS had no ... Inhibition of spinal microglial cathepsin S for the reversal of neuropathic pain. Anna K. Clark, Ping K. Yip, John Grist, Clive ... cathepsin S;. rrCatS,. rat recombinant CatS;. LHVS,. morpholinurea-leucine-homophenylalanine-vinyl phenyl sulfone;. PNL,. ... Here, we report that in peripheral nerve-injured rats, the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) is critical for the ...
Protease activity Apolipoprotein A-I Aortic valve stenosis Cathepsin S C. Gebhard and F. Maafi contributed equally to this work ... Hooshdaran B, Kolpakov MA, Guo X, Miller SA, Wang T, Tilley DG, Rafiq K, Sabri A (2017) Dual inhibition of cathepsin G and ... Lindstedt L, Lee M, Oorni K, Bromme D, Kovanen PT (2003) Cathepsins F and S block HDL3-induced cholesterol efflux from ... Targeting circulating cathepsin S may lead to new therapies for human aortic valve disease. ...
Cathepsin B. Cathepsin B, EC (APP secretase, APPS) (Cathepsin B1) [Cleaved into: Cathepsin B light chain; Cathepsin B ... Cathepsin BImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ... tr,E9PL32,E9PL32_HUMAN Cathepsin B (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CTSB PE=1 SV=2 ...
Cathepsin GAdd BLAST. ›26. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of ... sp,P17977,CATG_RAT Cathepsin G (Fragment) OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Ctsg PE=1 SV=1 IIGGREARPNSHPYMAFLLIQSPEGL ...
Cathepsin G is the serine protease released by neutrophils upon their activation. Cathepsin G is currently being explored as a ... Cathepsins - A class of globular lysosomal proteases. Cathepsins play a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover. There are ... Cathepsin L, a lysosomal endopeptidase, is a member of the papain-like family of cysteine proteinases. It is involved in the ... Cathepsin E is a non-lysosomal aspartic proteinase of the pepsin superfamily. It plays an important role in protein degradation ...
MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN B KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin B. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ... MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN K KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin K. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ... MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN L KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin L. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ...
Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) and Flow Cytometry ... Protein Aliases: Cathepsin K; Cathepsin O; cathepsin O1; Cathepsin O2; Cathepsin X; CTSK; CTSO; CTSO2 ... Cite Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from ...
Although a lysosomal, cathepsin B-dependent (Ctsb-dependent) pathway of apoptosis has been described, the contribution of this ...
C.-S. Hsieh, P. DeRoos, K. Honey, C. Beers, and A. Y. Rudensky, "A role for cathepsin L and cathepsin S in peptide generation ... J. Ärnlv, "Cathepsin S as a biomarker: where are we now and what are the future challenges?" Biomarkers in Medicine, vol. 6, no ... Inhibition of Cathepsin S Produces Neuroprotective Effects after Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice. Jianguo Xu,1 Handong Wang,1 Ke ... D. M. Small, R. E. Burden, and C. J. Scott, "The emerging relevance of the cysteine protease cathepsin S in disease," Clinical ...
Cathepsin D purified from a mutant strain has a lower activity per unit mass of pure enzyme. These data suggest that cad-1 is a ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ...
  • We hypothesize that cysteine cathepsins, a group of powerful extracellular matrix proteases, facilitate endometrial tissue invasion and endometriosis lesion establishment in the peritoneal wall and inhibiting this activity would decrease endometriosis lesion implantation. (nih.gov)
  • Intraperitoneal injection of the broad cysteine cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, significantly reduced the number of attached endometriosis lesions in our murine model compared to vehicle-treated controls demonstrating that cathepsin proteases contribute to endometriosis lesion establishment, and their inhibition may provide a novel, nonhormonal therapy for endometriosis. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsins are proteases, which are enzymes that are responsible for degrading proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Dubbed "cathepsin cannibalism," the phenomenon may help explain problems with drugs that have been developed to inhibit the effects of these powerful proteases. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsin K degrades both collagen and elastin, and is one of the most powerful proteases. (innovations-report.com)
  • There is growing recognition that alternative proteolytic enzymes such as the lysosomal cathepsin proteases may initiate or propagate proapoptotic signals, but it is currently unclear how cathepsins mediate apoptosis. (biovision.com)
  • Lysosomes contain many well-characterized proteases, and cathepsin B has previously been utilized to release chemotherapeutics in the context of targetable antibody-based treatments. (bloodjournal.org)
  • SerpinB1 is a potent inhibitor of neutrophil serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G (CG). (bloodjournal.org)
  • 6 , 7 Interestingly, noncaspase cysteine proteases calpain and cathepsin D were reported to induce PMN apoptosis through activation of caspases. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 8 ⇓ ⇓ - 11 In addition, PMNs carry a unique set of serine proteases (neutrophil serine proteases [NSPs]) including elastase (NE), cathepsin G (CG), and proteinase-3 (PR3) stored active in primary granules. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In this review we discuss recent advances addressing the role of lysosomal proteases in the diverse aspects of the immune response, and also the involvement of cathepsins in the pathogenesis of diseases in which these proteases seem not to be properly under control. (smw.ch)
  • Cathepsin B is an ancient family of eukaryotic cysteine proteases. (apsnet.org)
  • Our findings provide evidence for the highly specialized functions of closely related cysteine cathepsin proteases in extra-embryonic development, and reinforce their importance for a successful outcome of pregnancy. (biologists.org)
  • Two of the genes identified from this screen were the cathepsin proteases Cts7 and Cts8 . (biologists.org)
  • Cathepsin cysteine proteases are effectors of invasive growth and angiogenesis during multistage tumorigenesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cathepsins are lysosomal proteases that breakdown peptide bonds linked to specific amino acids. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cathepsin B is the first described member of the family of lysosomal cysteine proteases. (neuromics.com)
  • Here we adopt a novel in silico target fishing method to reveal the target profile of RD. Cathepsin K (Ctsk) is one of the cysteine proteases that is over-expressed in osteoclasts and accounts for the increase in bone resorption in metabolic bone disorders such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. (mdpi.com)
  • Though cytokines and phagocyte, as host factors, have been shown to participate in defence against Aspergillus species yet the role of cysteine proteases, that is cathepsins, a lysosomal enzymes of phagocytes, remains unknown in fungal infection. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Cathepsins are cysteine proteases, act as endopeptidases and are mainly involved in intracellular protein degradation and involved in large number of diseases [ 11 , 12 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • [13] Cathepsin-D is an aspartic protease that depends critically on protonation of its active site Asp residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with Asp-protonation, lower pH also leads to conformational switch in cathepsin-D : the N-terminal segment of the protease moves out of the active site as pH drops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin D (an aspartyl protease) appears to cleave a variety of substrates such as fibronectin and laminin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike some of the other cathepsins, cathepsin D has some protease activity at neutral pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique occluding loop that restricts access to the active site cleft. (rcsb.org)
  • The chagasin-cathepsin B complex provides a structural framework for modeling and design of inhibitors for cruzipain, the parasite cysteine protease and a virulence factor in Chagas disease. (rcsb.org)
  • Cathepsin Protease Inhibition Reduces Endometriosis Lesion Establishment. (nih.gov)
  • All types of cathepsin are classified into three of these protease families. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsin S is a cysteine protease and regulator of autophagy with possible involvement in periodontitis. (hindawi.com)
  • The cathepsin S protease is implicated in generation of chronic pain by releasing a cytokine. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we report that in peripheral nerve-injured rats, the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) is critical for the maintenance of neuropathic pain and spinal microglia activation. (pnas.org)
  • We have recently found that after peripheral nerve injury, the mRNA for the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) was up-regulated in the DRG because of CatS expression in infiltrating macrophages ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cathepsin G is the serine protease released by neutrophils upon their activation. (anaspec.com)
  • Cathepsin K is the lysosomal cysteine protease involved in bone remodeling and resorption. (anaspec.com)
  • The lysosomal cysteine protease, cathepsin S, is increased in Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome brain: an immunocytochemical study," American Journal of Pathology , vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 848-860, 1995. (hindawi.com)
  • Mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans having about 10% of wild-type activity of the aspartyl protease cathepsin D have been isolated by screening. (genetics.org)
  • Cathepsin L is a potent cysteine protease engaged in degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We evaluated the activity and expression of cathepsin L, and the inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors in the umbilical cord arteries, vein and Wharton's jelly. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin L activity and anti-papain inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors were quantified in extracts of separated umbilical cord tissues using fluorogenic substrates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin B kit detects protease activity within whole living cells as a marker of intracellular cathepsin B activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin B, K, and L protease activities can be detected within whole living cells using substrate-based fluorescent assays, which utilize cathepsin target sequence peptides, derivatives of the cresyl violet fluorophore, conjugated to Magic Red™ (MR) fluorogenic substrate (cresyl violet). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B is thought to play a central role in intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation and the onset of experimental pancreatitis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin G (CatG) is a chymotrypsin-like protease released upon degranulation of neutrophils. (mdpi.com)
  • Cathepsin K (CatK) is a lysosomal protease with collagenolytic activity, and its secretion by osteoclasts is responsible for degrading organic bone matrix. (wiley.com)
  • Recent work shows that the cysteine protease cathepsin S (Cat S) is required for the terminal step in CLIP formation in B cells and most dendritic cells (DCs), and in vitro can mediate all steps of digestion of class II-Ii complexes ( 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cathepsin-D (Cat-D) is a lysosomal protease that is present at elevated levels in amyloid plaques and neurons in patients with AD and is also elevated in some cancers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Serine protease inhibitor serpinB1 protects neutrophils by inhibition of their own azurophil granule protease cathepsin G. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Combined deletion of cathepsin protease family members reveals compensatory mechanisms in cancer. (springer.com)
  • Arampatzidou M, Rehders M, Dauth S, Yu DMT, Tedelind S, Brix K. Imaging of protease functions-current guide to spotting cysteine cathepsins in classical and novel scenes of action in mammalian epithelial cells and tissues. (springer.com)
  • However, we here report an unexpected finding that cysteine protease genes of the family cathepsin B are massively amplified in the lineage of aphids, and that many of the protease genes exhibit gut-specific over-expression. (inria.fr)
  • Cathepsin F is a cysteine protease that plays a role in invariant chain processing and major histocompatibility complex class II peptide loading by macrophages. (neuromics.com)
  • The protease cathepsin D is one such target involved in several diseases such as tumors, degenerative processes, and vital processes of parasites causing schistosomiasis. (ovid.com)
  • Here, we describe how intracellular sigma peptide modulation of RPTPσ induces enhanced protease Cathepsin B activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we have found that one important mechanism by which peptide modulation of the receptor enhances axon outgrowth is through secretion of a protease, Cathepsin B, which enables digestion of CSPGs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Identification of a human neutrophil angiotension II-generating protease as cathepsin G. J Clin Invest. (umassmed.edu)
  • Cathepsin D is the lysosomal protease in the retinal pigment epithelium which is presumed to be the major enzyme involved in the degradation of shed discs during the photoreceptor renewal process. (arvojournals.org)
  • This antibody is specific for Cathepsin E. (abcam.com)
  • This antibody reacts with human liver cathepsin D, and does not react with cathepsins B, H and L. (abcam.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-14270, RRID AB_2087668. (thermofisher.com)
  • This antibody reacts with the zymogen as well as the activated form of cathepsin D. It stains fibroblasts and macrophages strongly but stains the myoepithelial cells of breast weakly. (novusbio.com)
  • Cathepsin D Polyclonal antibody specifically detects Cathepsin D in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Cathepsin 6 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Cathepsin 6 in Mouse samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Over-expression of cathepsin D stimulates tumorigenicity and metastasis as well as initiation of tumor apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • [21] [22] Knock-out of CTSD gene would cause intestinal necrosis and hemorrhage and increase apoptosis in thymus , indicating that cathepsin D is required in certain epithelial cells for tissue remodeling and renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Almost all cathepsin activity is found in lysosome organelles, which are a type of organelle responsible for breaking down excess or aging parts of cells and in aiding apoptosis (cell death). (news-medical.net)
  • Although a lysosomal, cathepsin B-dependent (Ctsb-dependent) pathway of apoptosis has been described, the contribution of this pathway to tissue damage remains unclear. (jci.org)
  • Cathepsins are apoptosis markers associated with Alzheimer′s disease, numerous types of cancer, autoimmune arthritis, and the breakdown of bone structure seen with osteoporosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Schwartz-Roberts, Shajahan, Cook, Wärri, Abu-Asab, Clarke: GX15-070 (obatoclax) induces apoptosis and inhibits cathepsin D- and L-mediated autophagosomal lysis in antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This suggests that cathepsin D exerts its apoptosis-stimulating effect upstream of caspase-3-like activation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cathepsin W is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSW gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSD gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin B may function as a beta-secretase 1, cleaving amyloid precursor protein to produce amyloid beta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoclasts are the bone resorbing cells of the body, and they secrete cathepsin K in order to break down collagen, the major component of the non-mineral protein matrix of the bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • To clarify the mode by which natural protein inhibitors manage to overcome this obstacle, we have analyzed the structure and function of cathepsin B in complexes with the Trypanosoma cruzi inhibitor, chagasin. (rcsb.org)
  • Incubation with the broad cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, completely abolished cathepsin activity detected by zymography identifying the active bands as cysteine cathepsins (A). Cathepsin protein levels in lesions were compared to eutopic uterine tissue by Western blot (B, n = 6). (nih.gov)
  • Each cathepsin works to degrade a different protein, and they have different structures and work via different mechanisms. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsin S was upregulated most strongly and thus further studied in vitro at gene and protein levels. (hindawi.com)
  • When the researchers combined the two cathepsins and allowed them to attack samples of elastin, they expected to see increased degradation of the protein. (innovations-report.com)
  • Barry's modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the elastin - a protein essential in arteries and the cardiovascular system. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsin D is a lysosomal aspartic proteinase, active in intracellular protein breakdown. (anaspec.com)
  • H. Phipps-Yonas, V. Semik, and K. T. Hastings, "GILT expression in B cells diminishes cathepsin S steady-state protein expression and activity," European Journal of Immunology , vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 65-74, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Cathepsin D Kits (99) und Cathepsin D Proteine (58) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Additionally we are shipping Cathepsin D Antibodies (347) and Cathepsin D Proteins (55) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cathepsin H is a disulfide-linked heavy and light chain dimer which belongs to the peptidase C1 protein family, can act both as an aminopeptidase and as an endopeptidase. (scbt.com)
  • cathepsin H Inhibitors offered by Santa Cruz inhibit cathepsin H and, in some cases, other cellular metabolism and protein degradation related proteins. (scbt.com)
  • After 4 days of diabetes, cathepsin B and L activities were decreased by 15-45% when correlated with the levels of glomerular protein or DNA. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cathepsin D is an estrogen-regulated protein associated with tissue breakdown. (genetex.com)
  • Partially purified Cathepsin B protein was inhibited by a variety of peptide inhibitors but evidence of inhibition by several pathogen-derived inhibitors that are secreted during infection was inconclusive. (bl.uk)
  • Mechanistic studies indicated that the absence of CatL reduced lesion chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 content, macrophage and T-cell in vitro transmigration, and angiogenesis, and altered the expression and activities of matrix metalloproteinases and other cysteinyl cathepsins in inflammatory cells, vascular cells, and AAA lesions. (harvard.edu)
  • Active cathepsins, cathepsin inhibitors and cathepsin antibodies are also available. (biovision.com)
  • 75 Cathepsin S (CTSS) Antibodies from 18 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 88 Cathepsin D (CTSD) ELISA Kits from 20 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The main physiological functions of cathepsin D consist of metabolic degradation of intracellular proteins, activation and degradation of polypeptide hormones and growth factors , activation of enzymatic precursors, processing of enzyme activators and inhibitors, brain antigen processing and regulation of programmed cell death . (wikipedia.org)
  • Five cyclic peptides show inhibitory activity towards human cathepsins L, B, H, and K. Zymography is a type of gel electrophoresis that uses a polyacrylamide gel co-polymerized with a substrate in order to detect enzyme activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin T (EC is an enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • All cathepsins are made up of a signal peptide, a propeptide, and a mature functional enzyme that is catalytically active. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers used a variety of tests to determine the amount of each enzyme, including fluorogenic substrate analysis, Western blotting and multiplex cathepsin zymography - a sensitive technique developed in the Platt laboratory. (innovations-report.com)
  • Beyond demonstrating for the first time that cathepsins can attack one another, the research also shows the complexity of the body's enzyme system - and may suggest why drugs designed to inhibit cathepsins haven't worked as intended. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsin D purified from a mutant strain has a lower activity per unit mass of pure enzyme. (genetics.org)
  • The active cathepsin L activity (without activation by pepsin digestion), its percentage in the total activity (after pepsin activation), and the expression of the mature single-chain enzyme were the lowest in the umbilical cord arteries and the highest in Wharton's jelly. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A Novel Dual Fluorochrome Near-Infrared Imaging Probe for Potential Alzheimer's Enzyme Biomarkers-BACE1 and Cathepsin D. Molecules. (harvard.edu)
  • As cathepsin D activity is increased by cigarette smoke, the enzyme may contribute to lung tissue damage in smokers. (genetex.com)
  • We offer various assays to detect and quantify cathepsin, calpain and granzyme B activity and screen for respective enzyme inhibitors. (promocell.com)
  • Cathepsin D was released from lysosomes to the cytosol upon exposure to naphthazarin, and the enzyme activity decreased simultaneously. (diva-portal.org)
  • Later, cathepsin D reappeared in granules of increased size, and enzyme activity was restored. (diva-portal.org)
  • Lysosomal serine carboxypeptidase Cathepsin A (CTSA) is a multifunctional enzyme with distinct protective and catalytic function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Herein, we describe the preparation of a fused silica capillary, cathepsin D (CatD)-immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) using in a multidimensional High Performance Liquid Chromatography-based method (2D-HPLC) and zonal affinity chromatography as an alternative in the search for new ligands. (ovid.com)
  • The prodrug demonstrates enzyme-responsive drug release features, and over 95% GEM was released from the carrier with the Cathepsin B within 3 h. (rsc.org)
  • The presence of a cathepsin B-like enzyme in rabbit ear cartilage was established by the use of the synthetic substrates benzoyl- l -arginine amide and benzoyl- dl -arginine 2-naphthylamide. (biochemj.org)
  • The enzymic properties of cathepsin B in cartilage have been compared with an endogenous enzyme that liberates chondromucopeptide by degrading the cartilage matrix autocatalytically at pH5. (biochemj.org)
  • The experimental evidence indicates that a cathepsin B-like enzyme may be partly responsible for the autolytic degradation of cartilage matrix at pH5. (biochemj.org)
  • It was catalytically active, as demonstrated by active-site-directed radioiodination, and hydrolysed three cathepsin B substrates, two with Km values similar to those of lysosomal cathepsin B. In addition, the rates of inactivation of the sputum and lysosomal forms of the enzyme by L-3-carboxy-2,3-transepoxypropionyl-leucylamido(4-guanidino) butane (Compound E-64) were very similar. (portlandpress.com)
  • However, the sputum enzyme differed from lysosomal cathepsin B in the following respects. (portlandpress.com)
  • Inhibition by chicken cystatin was much weaker for sputum cathepsin B than for the lysosomal enzyme. (portlandpress.com)
  • There were many hurdles in the drug discovery of cathepsin K inhibitors such as species differences not only in bone metabolism but also in amino acid sequences in the critical site of the target enzyme, discrepancies between PK/PD due to unique tissue distribution of the inhibitor affecting both efficacy and side effects originated from a characteristic intracellular or tissue distribution of some classes of compounds. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The cathepsin K inhibitor drug discovery was initiated based on a strong and osteoclast-specific expression of this enzyme. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The data suggest that the higher levels of cathepsin D activity observed in the freshly isolated RPE from the area centralis result from modulators of enzyme activity which are not present in culture. (arvojournals.org)
  • When in the extracellular matrix, cysteine cathepsins, in particular, can degrade the structural components of the ECM, such as collagen or elastin, and contribute to the processing of chemokines, which are molecules that are involved in activating inflammatory immune responses. (news-medical.net)
  • As such, extracellular cysteine cathepsins may be implicated in certain inflammatory diseases such as arthritis or psoriasis and could be important in studying treatments for these types of diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Cysteine cathepsins belong to the papain-like family C1 of clan CA cysteine peptidases. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, cysteine cathepsins are active in pericellular environments as soluble enzymes or bound to cell surface receptors at the plasma membrane, and possibly even within secretory vesicles, the cytosol, mitochondria, and within the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Proteolytic actions performed by cysteine cathepsins are essential in the maintenance of homeostasis and depend heavily upon their correct sorting and trafficking within cells. (nih.gov)
  • This review focuses upon the transport pathways directing cysteine cathepsins to their points of action and thus emphasizes the broader role and functionality of cysteine cathepsins in a number of specific cellular locales. (nih.gov)
  • This review sought to evaluate recent findings in this field, highlighting how among cathepsins, the inhibition of cathepsin S in particular, could play a significant role in diminishing the effects of CVD, especially for patients with CKD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Spi2A defects were ameliorated by cathepsin-B/L inhibition, and by genetic co-deletion of lysosomal cathepsin B. Pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin B/L enhanced EPO-induced red cell formation in normal mice. (rupress.org)
  • The catalytic sites of cathepsin D include two critical aspartic residues ( amino acid 33 and 231) located on the 14 kDa and 34kDa chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin E is a non-lysosomal aspartic proteinase of the pepsin superfamily. (anaspec.com)
  • Cathepsins are intracellular proteinases that hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Surprisingly, at a concentration of 10 μ m , CA-074 slowly permeated the cells, causing an 80-95% inhibition of intracellular cathepsin B after 12 h, the duration of the invasion assay. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The membrane-permeant cathepsin B inhibitor, CA-074 methyl ester, and the higher concentration of CA-074 that inhibited intracellular cathepsin B both significantly reduced Matrigel invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Collectively, these results identify an intracellular role for cathepsin B in matrix degradation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These cells were tested in an in vitro Matrigel invasion assay with membrane-permeant and impermeant inhibitors of cathepsin B. The results, which provided direct proof for the participation of cathepsin B in matrix penetration, also yielded the unexpected finding that an intracellular form of cathepsin B was required for Matrigel invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A composite docking approach for the identification and characterization of ectosteric inhibitors of cathepsin K. Law S, et al . (nih.gov)
  • The availability of a purified preparation of salmon muscle cathepsins should stimulate interest and research in the characterization of these enzymes and lead to better means for the control of catheptic activity in fish muscle. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Stroke Traumatic brain injury Alzheimer's disease Arthritis Ebola, Cathepsin B and to a lesser extent cathepsin L have been found to be necessary for the virus to enter host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elevated levels of Cathepsin B were detected in metastases and neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). (anaspec.com)
  • Additionally cathepsin D has been associated with amyloid formation in Alzheimer's plaques. (genetex.com)
  • Osteocytes express genes required in osteoclasts for bone resorption, including cathepsin K (Ctsk), and lactation elevates their expression. (jci.org)
  • Cathepsin zymography separates different cathepsins based on their migration through a polyacrylamide gel co-polymerized with a gelatin substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gel is then put into an activation buffer of a specific pH and left to incubate overnight at 37 °C. This activation step allows the cathepsins to degrade the gelatin substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hoechst stain can be used to label the cell nuclei after labeling with the MR-Cathepsin B substrate. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • BioVision's newly developed Cathepsin Activity Assay kits are fluorescence-based assays that utilize the preferred substrate sequence for each cathepsin, labeled with AFC (amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin). (biovision.com)
  • Cell lysates or other samples that contain cathepsins will cleave the synthetic substrate to release free AFC. (biovision.com)
  • Cathepsin F has the substrate specificity similar to that of cathepsins L and S. (neuromics.com)
  • [7] The main function of cathepsin D is to degrade proteins and activate precursors of bioactive proteins in pre-lysosomal compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are classified in these families based on the amino acids present in the proteins that the cathepsins break down. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsins play a role in the degradation of proteins, energy metabolism, and the body's immune responses, among other functions. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsins break down proteins by cutting the peptide bonds that link amino acids together. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsins are important in neurodegenerative diseases as they break down several important proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers for the first time have shown that members of a family of enzymes known as cathepsins - which are implicated in many disease processes - may attack one another instead of the bodily proteins they normally degrade. (innovations-report.com)
  • Because cathepsins have harmful effects on critical proteins such as collagen and elastin, pharmaceutical companies have been developing drugs to inhibit activity of the enzymes, but so far these compounds have had too many side effects to be useful and have failed clinical trials. (innovations-report.com)
  • Using mass spectrometry analysis of cells treated with a pan cathepsin inhibitor, we observed an increased abundance of proteins involved in central carbon metabolism. (mcponline.org)
  • We further demonstrate that incorporating a cathepsin B-cleavable linker between the BIM BH3 peptide and the hydrophobic tail within individual amphiphiles results in increased binding to recombinant BCL-2 proteins while also allowing for increased cellular uptake and mitochondrial localization leading to faster and more potent dose-dependent cytotoxicity and caspase activation in malignant cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Pepstatin A pretreatment did not prevent release of cathepsin D from lysosomes but did significantly inhibit subsequent naphthazarin-induced caspase activation and apoptotic morphology. (diva-portal.org)
  • Lysosomes and lysosomal cathepsins in cell death. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cathepsins have a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover, e.g. bone resorption. (genenames.org)
  • Cathepsin K is the most potent mammalian collagenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysteinyl cathepsin K (CatK) is one of the most potent mammalian collagenases involved in cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • The collagenolytic activity of cathepsin K is unique among mammalian proteinases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human AAA lesions express high levels of cathepsin L (CatL), one of the most potent mammalian elastases. (harvard.edu)
  • It is widely held that invasion is facilitated by a membrane or secreted form of cathepsin B that acts outside the cell to degrade ECM components at or adjacent to the surface of the invading cell. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sputum cathepsin B had greater stability at pH 7.5 and a higher apparent Mr, even after deglycosylation, than lysosomal cathepsin B. We conclude that the form of cathepsin B found in sputum is probably a truncated form of human procathepsin B, with some differences in properties that could be of physiological importance. (portlandpress.com)
  • Elevated levels of cathepsin H correlates with malignant progression of prostate tumors. (scbt.com)
  • Levels of cathepsin D have been positively correlated with recurring breast cancers of both node negative and node positive types. (genetex.com)
  • Cathepsin K, among other cathepsins, plays a role in cancer metastasis through the degradation of the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin K associates with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Elevated Cathepsin K potentiates metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsins are involved in disease processes as varied as cancer metastasis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and arthritis. (innovations-report.com)
  • Involvement of cathepsins in the invasion, metastasis and proliferation of cancer cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Cathepsin B is among the candidate proteinases believed to participate in invasion and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Besides caspases, cathepsins have recently been shown to be associated with cell death regulation [6-12] and various other physiological and pathological processes, such as maturation of the MHC class II complex, bone remodelling, keratinocyte differentiation, tumour progression and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, as well as atherosclerosis [13, 14] (table 1). (smw.ch)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 344 Cathepsin D (CTSD) Antikörper von 36 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The purpose of the research reported herein was to develop procedures for the purification of the cathepsin from salmon muscle. (oregonstate.edu)
  • It was decided to attempt the purification of the cathepsin optimally active at pH 3.7. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The purification was accomplished by extracting the salmon muscle cathepsin with two parts 0.2 N KC1. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The purification of cathepsin D from pig uterus by two-step affinity chromatography on concanavalin A- and pepstatin-Sepharose was described previously [Afting & Becker (1981) Biochem. (biochemj.org)
  • These diseases may also involve the degradation of the extracellular matrix by cathepsins. (news-medical.net)
  • [23] Cathepsin D enzymatic activity induces hydrolytic modification of apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins, including LDL, which means it may be involved in atherosclerosis as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cathepsin A activity in lysates of metastatic lesions of malignant melanoma is significantly higher than in primary focus lysates. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxLDL inhibits differentiation and functional activity of osteoclasts via scavenger receptor-A mediated autophagy and cathepsin K secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Human endometriosis lesions also exhibited greater cathepsin activity than adjacent peritoneum tissue, supporting the mouse results. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting cathepsin activity could block endometriosis lesion attachment and implantation in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Mouse endometriotic lesions exhibit elevated cathepsin proteolytic activity. (nih.gov)
  • E-64 blocks all cathepsin proteolytic activity in murine endometriotic lesions. (nih.gov)
  • Dysregulated cathepsin synthesis and activity have been seen in several diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and inflammatory neurological diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Dysregulated cathepsin activity can result in the overexpression (over-activity) of the cathepsins and cause them to be secreted outside of cells. (news-medical.net)
  • The work could affect not only the development of drugs to inhibit cathepsin activity, but could also lead to a better understanding of how the enzymes work together. (innovations-report.com)
  • By increasing the amount of cathepsin S ten-fold over the amount used in the original experiment, Platt and Barry were able to completely block the activity of cathepsin K, preventing damage to the collagen sample. (innovations-report.com)
  • Platt's long-term research has focused on cathepsins, including the development of sensitive tools and assays to quantify their activity in cells and tissue, as well as potential diagnostic applications for breast, lung and cervical cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • The selective demonstration of cathepsin B activity by means of the naphthylamide reaction. (springer.com)
  • Distribution of the activity and expression of mature cathepsin L within the umbilical cord probably results from distinctions in the proenzyme activation process. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the assay (z-Arginine-Arginine) 2 (z-RR) 2 derivative of the cresyl violet fluorophore easily penetrates the cell membrane and the membranes of the internal cellular organelles enabling to detect cathepsin B activity within whole living cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here we report that loss of cathepsin L (Cts L) is associated with a fast proliferation rate and enhanced glycolytic metabolism that depend on lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity. (mcponline.org)
  • Transient expression of human cathepsin B in a poorly metastatic B16F1 murine melanoma variant produced a 3-5-fold increase in cathepsin B activity and a comparable increase in invasiveness. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For measuring cathepsin B activity by fluorometer or fluorescence plate reader. (promocell.com)
  • This project aims to examine the utility of the proteolytic activity signatures of caspase 1 and cathepsin S (CTSS) as readouts of particle-induced inflammation and to elucidate the role and dynamic regulation of CTSS in response to cellular stress. (bl.uk)
  • Dariusz Szajda S, Jankowski M, Zalewska B, Kożuszko B, Gabrylewski W, Skrzydlewski Z. Activity of cancer procoagulant and cathepsin D in breast cancer. (termedia.pl)
  • Immunohistochemical investigations on cathepsin D activity in structures of cholesteatoma. (medscimonit.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of cathepsin D in the structures of cholesteatoma. (medscimonit.com)
  • Results: Cathepsin D demonstrates high activity in perimatrix cells adjacent to bone tissue, while it occurs in trace amounts in the matrix. (medscimonit.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Serum cathepsin B activity has been considered a potential marker of tumor progression. (lu.se)
  • The aim of this study was to assess serum cathepsin activity during tumor progression and regression. (lu.se)
  • Serum cathepsin B activity was determined, tumor volumes were measured, and. (lu.se)
  • RESULTS: Of the 45 BRT-treated rats, tumor regression was observed in 31 rats, and serum cathepsin activity was analyzed in these rats. (lu.se)
  • The activity profiles of four cathepsins in the kidney and liver tissue were analysed and correlated with blood cytokines level in the presence and absence of antifungal compounds (amphotericin B, a standard drug and 2-(3,4-dimethyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-2-yl)-1-methylethyl pentanoate, isolated in our laboratory from natural source) treatment. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Regional comparisons of cathepsin D activity in bovine retinal pigment epithelium. (arvojournals.org)
  • In this study, the cathepsin D activity in RPE cells from the posterior area centralis was compared to the activity in cells from the equatorial region of the same bovine eyes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Analysis of freshly isolated RPE cells from 30 eyes indicated that cells from the area centralis have significantly higher cathepsin D activity than cells from the more peripheral retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone resorption. (genenames.org)
  • Cathepsin K is involved in osteoporosis, a disease in which a decrease in bone density causes an increased risk for fracture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arkona C, Wiederanders B. Expression, subcellular distribution and plasma membrane binding of cathepsin B and gelatinases in bone metastatic tissue. (springer.com)
  • Impaired osteoclastic bone resorption leads to osteopetrosis in cathepsin-K-deficient mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Conclusions: Cathepsin D places a major role in bone tissue destruction due to cholesteatoma. (medscimonit.com)
  • Genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and expression of human cathepsin W". Biochem Biophys Res Commun . (wikipedia.org)
  • CTSZ, which has been also known as cathepsin X and cathepsin P, exhibits carboxy-monopeptidase and carboxy-dipeptidase activities. (prospecbio.com)
  • Leukocyte cathepsin S is a potent regulator of both cell and matrix turnover in advanced atherosclerosis," Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology , vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 188-194, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Novel, Nonpeptidic Cyanamides as Potent and Reversible Inhibitors of Human Cathepsins K and L, J. Med. (patentgenius.com)
  • In particular, no defects in granulopoiesis or PMN homeostasis have been reported in mice deficient in cathepsin G ( CG −/− ), 15 neutrophil elastase ( NE −/− ), 16 , 17 or dipeptidylpeptidase I ( DPPI −/− ), which lack active NSPs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Neutrophil cathepsin G increases calcium flux and inositol polyphosphate production in cultured endothelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Exposure of endothelial cells (ENDO) to human neutrophil cathepsin G (CG) increases albumin flux across the endothelial monolayer. (jimmunol.org)
  • Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans. (genetics.org)
  • These data suggest that cad-1 is a structural gene for cathepsin D. (genetics.org)
  • These results suggest that the ecdysone response elements are vital for activation of the promoter by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in the larval fat body and further support the crucial role of ecdysone signaling to control cathepsin D gene transcription. (antibodies-online.com)
  • By making use of EST data, sequenced cDNAs, and genomic trace sequences of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, we identified a total of 28 cathepsin B-like gene copies in the genome of A. pisum. (inria.fr)
  • In addition, this work also implicates Cathepsin B genes in senescence, a developmental form of PCD, via regulation of the senescence marker gene Senescence Associated Gene 12 ( SAG12 ). (bl.uk)
  • Fluorometric kit to for fast screening of potential cathepsin B (CTSB) inhibitors. (promocell.com)
  • Cathepsin L-deficient mice were shown to have less adipose tissue, lower serum glucose and insulin levels, more insulin receptor subunits, more glucose transporter (GLUT4) and more fibronectin than wild type controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • To test this, we used an immunocompetent endometriosis mouse model and found that endometriotic lesions exhibited a greater than 5-fold increase in active cathepsins compared to tissue from peritoneal wall or eutopic endometrium, with cathepsins L and K specifically implicated. (nih.gov)
  • Keilová, H.: On the specificity and inhibition of cathepsins D and B. In: Tissue proteinases, ed. by A. J. Barrett and J. T. Dingle, p. 45-65. (springer.com)
  • IHC image of Cathepsin D staining in Human Lung formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica Bond™ system using the standard protocol F. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6, epitope retrieval solution 1) for 20 mins. (abcam.com)
  • Weight loss reduces adipose tissue cathepsin S and its circulating levels in morbidly obese women," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 1042-1047, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Cathepsin F staining of paraffin-embedded human heart tissue sections. (neuromics.com)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of all the cathepsin B genes in aphids revealed that genic expansion has continuously proceeded with basal, intermediary and recent duplications. (inria.fr)
  • Cathepsin B has also been implicated in the progression of various human tumors including ovarian cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase whose expression and trafficking are frequently altered in cancer, and plasma membrane and secreted forms are thought to contribute to the invasive and metastatic properties of malignant tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cathepsin L , a lysosomal endopeptidase, is a member of the papain-like family of cysteine proteinases. (anaspec.com)
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain I, calpain II, cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. (promocell.com)
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain 1, calpain 2 which also inhibits cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. (promocell.com)
  • The genetic knockout for cathepsin S and K in mice with atherosclerosis was shown to reduce the size of atherosclerotic lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin S is a cysteine proteinase involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity and related diseases. (anaspec.com)
  • More importantly, cathepsins play a crucial role in various conditions that involve large biological systems such as autoimmune disease, cardiac repair, cardiomyopathy, heart valve disease, and atherosclerosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cathepsin-Z (CTSZ) is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase and member of the peptidase C1 family. (prospecbio.com)
  • Cathepsin K is a recently identified lysosomal cysteine proteinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For instance, cathepsins have been found to degrade low-density lipoprotein (LDL-P) and reduce the effect of cholesterol leaving macrophages. (news-medical.net)
  • We saw that the cathepsin K was going away much faster when there was cathepsin S present than when it was by itself," said Platt, who is also a Georgia Cancer Coalition Distinguished Scholar and a Fellow of the Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology. (innovations-report.com)
  • Recent studies have particularly suggested that Cathepsin E is important in host defense against cancer cells and invading microorganisms. (anaspec.com)
  • Targeting cathepsin S induces tumor cell autophagy via the EGFR-ERK signaling pathway," Cancer Letters , vol. 317, no. 1, pp. 89-98, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • p53, cathepsin D, Bcl-2 are joint prognostic indicators of breast cancer metastatic spreading. (harvard.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cathepsin B may play an important role, not only in tumor expansion, but also during the processes of cancer cell death and resorption. (lu.se)
  • The area of contact is slightly larger than in chagasin complexes with the endopeptidase, cathepsin L. However, residues important for high affinity to both enzymes are mainly found in the outer loops L4 and L6 of chagasin. (rcsb.org)
  • Cathepsin B possesses both endopeptidase and exopeptidase activities, in the latter case acting as a peptidyl-dipeptidase. (neuromics.com)
  • Essential role for cathepsin S in MHC class II-associated invariant chain processing and peptide loading," Immunity , vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 357-366, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • A direct immunohistochemical method of high specificity is presented for the demonstration of sites of cathepsin B1. (springer.com)
  • In this review we cover specific roles of cathepsins in innate and adaptive immunity, as well as their implication in the pathogenesis of several diseases. (smw.ch)
  • It is of note to mention that this review is not meant to comprehensively cover the present literature on viruses encountering cathepsins but rather illustrates, on some representative examples, the possible roles of cathepsins in replication of viruses and in the course of disease. (springer.com)
  • These data strongly suggest that decreases in the lysosomal cathepsin activities may contribute to IDDM-induced glomerular cellular hypertrophy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, cytosolic and nuclear forms of cathepsins have been described and are currently an emerging field of research aiming at understanding their functions in such unexpected cellular locations. (springer.com)
  • Gingival biopsies from periodontitis patients showed a significantly higher cathepsin S expression than those from healthy gingiva. (hindawi.com)