Cathepsin F: A lysosomal papain-related cysteine proteinase that is expressed in a broad variety of cell types.Cathepsins: A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Cathepsin W: A cysteine endopeptidase found in NATURAL KILLER CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES. It may have a specific function in the mechanism or regulation of cytolytic activity of immune cells.Cathepsin B: A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.Cathepsin L: A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.Opisthorchis: A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. It consists of the following species: O. felineus, O. noverca (Amphimerus noverca), and O. viverrini. The intermediate hosts are snails, fish, and AMPHIBIANS.Cathepsin D: An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).Cathepsin K: A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.Opisthorchiasis: Infection with flukes of the genus Opisthorchis.Cathepsin G: A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.Cathepsin H: An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.Cathepsin E: An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Cathepsin C: A papain-like cysteine protease that has specificity for amino terminal dipeptides. The enzyme plays a role in the activation of several pro-inflammatory serine proteases by removal of their aminoterminal inhibitory dipeptides. Genetic mutations that cause loss of cathepsin C activity in humans are associated with PAPILLON-LEFEVRE DISEASE.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.Cystatins: A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Trichotillomania: Compulsion to pull out one's hair.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Cysteine Proteases: A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Pongo abelii: A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Sumatra.Octodon: A genus of diurnal rats in the family Octodonidae, found in South America. The species Octodon degus is frequently used for research.Ursidae: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.Armadillos: Burrowing, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the family Dasypodidae having bodies and heads encased in small bony plates. They are widely distributed in the warmer parts of the Americas.Whale, Killer: The species Orcinus orca, in the family Delphinidae, characterized by its black and white coloration, and huge triangular dorsal fin. It is the largest member of the DOLPHINS and derives its name from the fact that it is a fearsome predator.Monodelphis: A genus of short-tailed OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae found in South American, chiefly Brazil. They are opossums least well-adapted to arboreal life.Lagomorpha: An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Pinocytosis: The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Genes, src: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Neuronal Ceroid-Lipofuscinoses: A group of severe neurodegenerative diseases characterized by intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent wax-like lipid materials (CEROID; LIPOFUSCIN) in neurons. There are several subtypes based on mutations of the various genes, time of disease onset, and severity of the neurological defects such as progressive DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; and visual failure.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.HSP30 Heat-Shock Proteins: A subfamily of small heat-shock proteins found in a wide variety of organisms.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Thiolester HydrolasesLipidoses: Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.

Molecular cloning and structural and functional characterization of human cathepsin F, a new cysteine proteinase of the papain family with a long propeptide domain. (1/18)

A cDNA encoding a new cysteine proteinase belonging to the papain family and called cathepsin F has been cloned from a human prostate cDNA library. This cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 484 amino acids, with the same domain organization as other cysteine proteinases, including a hydrophobic signal sequence, a prodomain, and a catalytic region. However, this propeptide domain is unusually long and distinguishes cathepsin F from other proteinases of the papain family. Cathepsin F also shows all structural motifs characteristic of these proteinases, including the essential cysteine residue of the active site. Consistent with these structural features, cathepsin F produced in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase degrades the synthetic peptide benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Arg-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin, a substrate commonly used for functional characterization of cysteine proteinases. Furthermore, this proteolytic activity is blocked by trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane, an inhibitor of cysteine proteinases. The gene encoding cathepsin F maps to chromosome 11q13, close to that encoding cathepsin W. Cathepsin F is widely expressed in human tissues, suggesting a role in normal protein catabolism. Northern blot analysis also revealed a significant level of expression in some cancer cell lines opening the possibility that this enzyme could be involved in degradative processes occurring during tumor progression.  (+info)

Role of N-glycosylation in cathepsin E. A comparative study of cathepsin E with distinct N-linked oligosaccharides and its nonglycosylated mutant. (2/18)

Cathepsin E (CE), a nonlysosomal, intracellular aspartic proteinase, exists in several molecular forms that are N-glycosylated with high-mannose and/or complex-type oligosaccharides. To investigate the role of N-glycosylation on the catalytic properties and molecular stability of CE, both natural and recombinant enzymes with distinct oligosaccharides were purified from different sources. An N-glycosylation minus mutant, that was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (by changing asparagine residues to glutamine and aspartic acid residues at positions 73 and 305 in potential N-glycosylation sites of rat CE) and expressed in normal rat kidney cells, was also purified to homogeneity from the cell extracts. The kinetic parameters of the nonglycosylated mutant were found to be essentially equivalent to those of natural enzymes N-glycosylated with either high-mannose or complex-type oligosaccharides. In contrast, the nonglycosylated mutant showed lower pH and thermal stabilities than the glycosylated enzymes. The nonglycosylated mutant exhibited particular sensitivity to conversion to a monomeric form by 2-mercaptoethanol, as compared with those of the glycosylated enzymes. Further, the high-mannose-type enzymes were more sensitive to this agent than the complex-type proteins. A striking difference was found between the high-mannose and complex-type enzymes in terms of activation by ATP at a weakly acidic pH. At pH 5.5, the complex-type enzymes were stabilized by ATP to be restored to the virtual activity, whereas the high-mannose-type enzymes as well as the nonglycosylated mutant were not affected by ATP. These results suggest that N-glycosylation in CE is important for the maintenance of its proper folding upon changes in temperature, pH and redox state, and that the complex-type oligosaccharides contribute to the completion of the tertiary structure to maintain its active conformation in the weakly acidic pH environments.  (+info)

Role for cathepsin F in invariant chain processing and major histocompatibility complex class II peptide loading by macrophages. (3/18)

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-associated invariant chain (Ii) regulates intracellular trafficking and peptide loading of MHC class II molecules. Such loading occurs after endosomal degradation of the invariant chain to a approximately 3-kD peptide termed CLIP (class II-associated invariant chain peptide). Cathepsins L and S have both been implicated in degradation of Ii to CLIP in thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs, respectively. However, macrophages from mice deficient in both cathepsins S and L can process Ii and load peptides onto MHC class II dimers normally. Both processes are blocked by a cysteine protease inhibitor, indicating the involvement of an additional Ii-processing enzyme(s). Comparison of cysteine proteases expressed by macrophages with those found in splenocytes and dendritic cells revealed two enzymes expressed exclusively in macrophages, cathepsins Z and F. Recombinant cathepsin Z did not generate CLIP from Ii-MHC class II complexes, whereas cathepsin F was as efficient as cathepsin S in CLIP generation. Inhibition of cathepsin F activity and MHC class II peptide loading by macrophages exhibited similar specificity and activity profiles. These experiments show that cathepsin F, in a subset of antigen presenting cells (APCs), can efficiently degrade Ii. Different APCs can thus use distinct proteases to mediate MHC class II maturation and peptide loading.  (+info)

Cathepsin L antisense oligonucleotides in a human osteosarcoma cell line: effects on the invasive phenotype. (4/18)

Alterations in cathepsin L expression and trafficking have been associated with the progression and metastasis of several tumor entities. In the present study, we examined the effects of various cathepsin L antisense (as) phosphorothioate oligonucleotides on both the expression of cathepsin L and the invasive potential of the human osteosarcoma cell line MNNG/HOS. Seven oligonucleotides of 20-bp length each and one random control oligonucleotide were chosen to block cathepsin L expression. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in cathepsin L mRNA expression by the six antisense oligonucleotides at a concentration of 10 microM. Cathepsin L protein expression was reduced significantly (50-85%) by the antisense oligonucleotides, as compared with the controls. Adhesion to matrices of collagen I and matrigel was not affected. In in vitro motility and invasion assays performed in uncoated and precoated transwell chambers, the ability of cells to migrate through the filters was inhibited by 35-75% using antisense oligonucleotides. The random control did not show any inhibitory effect. These data demonstrate that in MNNG/HOS cells cathepsin L influences cellular malignancy by promoting migration and basement membrane degradation.  (+info)

Cysteine protease cathepsin F is expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions, is secreted by cultured macrophages, and modifies low density lipoprotein particles in vitro. (5/18)

During atherogenesis, low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in the arterial intima become modified and fuse to form extracellular lipid droplets. Proteolytic modification of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 may be one mechanism of droplet formation from LDL. Here we studied whether the newly described acid protease cathepsin F can generate LDL-derived lipid droplets in vitro. Treatment of LDL particles with human recombinant cathepsin F led to extensive degradation of apoB-100, which, as determined by rate zonal flotation, electron microscopy, and NMR spectroscopy, triggered both aggregation and fusion of the LDL particles. Two other acid cysteine proteases, cathepsins S and K, which have been shown to be present in the arterial intima, were also capable of degrading apoB-100, albeit less efficiently. Cathepsin F treatment resulted also in enhanced retention of LDL to human arterial proteoglycans in vitro. Cultured monocyte-derived macrophages were found to secrete active cathepsin F. In addition, similarly with cathepsins S and K, cathepsin F was found to be localized mainly within the macrophage-rich areas of the human coronary atherosclerotic plaques. These results suggest that proteolytic modification of LDL by cathepsin F may be one mechanism leading to the extracellular accumulation of LDL-derived lipid droplets within the proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix of the arterial intima during atherogenesis.  (+info)

Overexpression of cathepsin F, matrix metalloproteinases 11 and 12 in cervical cancer. (6/18)

BACKGROUND: Cervical carcinoma (CC) is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide and the first cause of death among the Mexican female population. CC progression shows a continuum of neoplastic transitions until invasion. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cathepsins play a central role on the enhancement of tumor-induced angiogenesis, cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis and connective tissue degradation. MMPs -2 and -9 expression has been widely studied in cervical cancer. Nevertheless, no other metalloproteinases or cathepsins have been yet related with the progression and/or invasion of this type of cancer. METHODS: Three HPV18 CC cell lines, two HPV16 CC cell lines and three HPV16 tumor CC tissues were compared with three morphologically normal, HPV negative, cervical specimens by cDNA arrays. Overexpression of selected genes was confirmed by end point semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR with densitometry. In situ hybridization and protein expression of selected genes was further studied by means of two tissue microarrays, one consisting of 10 HSIL and 15 CC and the other one of 15 normal cervical and 10 LSIL tissues. RESULTS: TIMP1, Integrins alpha 1 and 4, cadherin 2 and 11, Cathepsins F, B L2, MMP 9, 10 11 and 12 were upregulated and Cathepsin S, L, H and C, Cadherins 3 and 4, TIMP3, MMP 13, Elastase 2 and Integrin beta 8 were found to be downregulated by cDNA arrays. Endpoint RT-PCR with densitometry gave consistent results with the cDNA array findings for all three genes selected for study (CTSF, MMP11 and MMP12). In situ hybridization of all three genes confirmed overexpression in all the HSIL and CC. Two of the selected proteins were detected in LSIL, HSIL and CC by immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSION: Novel undetected CC promoting genes have been identified. Increased transcription of these genes may result in overexpression of proteins, such as CTSF, MMP11 and MMP12 which could contribute to the pathogenesis of CC.  (+info)

Murine cathepsin F deficiency causes neuronal lipofuscinosis and late-onset neurological disease. (7/18)

Cathepsin F (cat F) is a widely expressed lysosomal cysteine protease whose in vivo role is unknown. To address this issue, mice deficient in cat F were generated via homologous recombination. Although cat F-/- mice appeared healthy and reproduced normally, they developed progressive hind leg weakness and decline in motor coordination at 12 to 16 months of age, followed by significant weight loss and death within 6 months. cat F was found to be expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). cat F-/- neurons accumulated eosinophilic granules that had features typical of lysosomal lipofuscin by electron microscopy. Large amounts of autofluorescent lipofuscin, characteristic of the neurodegenerative disease neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), accumulated throughout the CNS but not in visceral organs, beginning as early as 6 weeks of age. Pronounced gliosis, an indicator of neuronal stress and neurodegeneration, was also apparent in older cat F-/- mice. cat F is the only cysteine cathepsin whose inactivation alone causes a lysosomal storage defect and progressive neurological features in mice. The late onset suggests that this gene may be a candidate for adult-onset NCL.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of the cathepsin F-like cysteine protease gene in Escherichia coli and its characterization. (8/18)

In this study, we have cloned a novel cDNA encoding for a papain-family cysteine protease from the Uni-ZAP XR cDNA library of the polychaete, Periserrula leucophryna. This gene was expressed in Escherichia coli using the T7 promoter system, and the protease was characterized after partial purification. First, the partial DNA fragment (498 bp) was amplified from the total RNA via RT-PCR using degenerated primers derived from the conserved region of cysteine protease. The full-length cDNA of cysteine protease (PLCP) was prepared via the screening of the Uni-ZAP XR cDNA library using the 32P-labeled partial DNA fragment. As a result, the PLCP gene was determined to consist of a 2591 bp nucleotide sequence (CDS: 173-1024 bp) which encodes for a 283-amino acid polypeptide, which is itself composed of an 59-residue signal sequence, a 6-residue propeptide, a 218-residue mature protein, and a long 3'-noncoding region encompassing 1564 bp. The predicted molecular weights of the preproprotein and the mature protein were calculated as 31.8 kDa and 25 kDa, respectively. The results of sequence analysis and alignment revealed a significant degree of sequence similarity with other eukaryotic cysteine proteases, including the conserved catalytic triad of the Cys90, His226, and Asn250 residues which characterize the C1 family of papain-like cysteine protease. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the novel gene were deposited into the GenBank database under the accession numbers, AY390282 and AAR27011, respectively. The results of Northern blot analysis revealed the 2.5 kb size of the transcript and ubiquitous expression throughout the entirety of the body, head, gut, and skin, which suggested that the PLCP may be grouped within the cathepsin F-like proteases. The region encoding for the mature form of the protease was then subcloned into the pT7-7 expression vector following PCR amplification using the designed primers, including the initiation and termination codons. The recombinant cysteine proteases were generated in a range of 6.3% to 12.5% of the total cell proteins in the E. coli BL21(DE3) strain for 8 transformants. The results of SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis indicated that a cysteine protease of approximately 25 kDa (mature form) was generated. The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme were determined to be approximately 9.5 and 35 degrees, respectively, thereby indicating that the cysteine protease is a member of the alkaline protease group. The evaluation of substrate specificity indicated that the purified protease was more active towards Arg-X or Lys-X and did not efficiently cleave the substrates with non-polar amino acids at the P1 site. The PLCP evidenced fibrinolytic activity on the plasminogen-free fibrin plate test.  (+info)

*Osteoclast

Of these hydrolytic enzymes, cathepsin K is of most importance. Cathepsin K and other cathepsins[edit]. Cathepsin K is a ... Several other cathepsins are expressed in osteoclasts including cathepsins B, C, D, E, G, and L. The function of these cysteine ... characterised by a lack of functional cathepsin K expression. Knockout studies of cathepsin K in mice lead to an osteopetrotic ... Studies on cathepsin L knockout mice have been mixed, with a report of reduced trabecular bone in homozygous and heterozygous ...

*Histone

... s were discovered in 1884 by Albrecht Kossel.[17] The word "histone" dates from the late 19th century and is derived from the German word "Histon", a word itself of uncertain origin - perhaps from the Greek histanai or histos. In the early 1960s, before the types of histones were known and before histones were known to be highly conserved across taxonomically diverse organisms, James F. Bonner and his collaborators began a study of these proteins that were known to be tightly associated with the DNA in the nucleus of higher organisms.[18] Bonner and his postdoctoral fellow Ru Chih C. Huang showed that isolated chromatin would not support RNA transcription in the test tube, but if the histones were extracted from the chromatin, RNA could be transcribed from the remaining DNA.[19] Their paper became a citation classic.[20] Paul T'so and James Bonner had called together a World Congress on Histone Chemistry and Biology in 1964, in which it became clear that there was no consensus on the ...

*Batten disease

Cathepsin D is involved in CLN10.[9]. *DNA analysis can be used to help confirm the diagnosis of Batten disease. When the ...

*Osteoclast

Of these hydrolytic enzymes, cathepsin K is of most importance. Cathepsin K and other cathepsinsEdit. Cathepsin K is a ... Several other cathepsins are expressed in osteoclasts including cathepsins B, C, D, E, G, and L. The function of these cysteine ... characterised by a lack of functional cathepsin K expression. Knockout studies of cathepsin K in mice lead to an osteopetrotic ... Studies on cathepsin L knockout mice have been mixed, with a report of reduced trabecular bone in homozygous and heterozygous ...

*Retinoic acid syndrome

Mediation by cathepsin G has been suggested. The treatment of RAS usually involves administering dexamethasone IV, with the ...

*Chromatin

... , Histones & Cathepsin; PMAP The Proteolysis Map-animation [ Recent chromatin publications and news] Protocol for in ...

*Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan

... collagenases such as cathepsin B1; and hyaluronidase. PSGAG inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which is released upon ...

*Carboxypeptidase C

Cathepsin A Breddam, K. (1986). "Serine carboxypeptidases. A review". Carlsberg Res. Commun. 51: 83-128. doi:10.1007/bf02907561 ... Miller, J.J.; Changaris, D.G.; Levy, R.S. (1992). "Purification, subunit structure and inhibitor profile of cathepsin-A". J. ... Carboxypeptidase C (EC 3.4.16.5, carboxypeptidase Y, serine carboxypeptidase I, cathepsin A, lysosomal protective protein, ...

*Amentoflavone

It is also an inhibitor of human cathepsin B. Amentoflavone has a variety of in vitro activities including antimalarial ... "Amentoflavone and its derivatives as novel natural inhibitors of human Cathepsin B". Bioorg. Med. Chem. 13 (20): 5819-5825. doi ...

*Keratinocyte

Cathepsin E. TALE homeodomain transcription factors. Hydrocortisone. Since keratinocyte differentiation inhibits keratinocyte ... "The role of cathepsin E in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes". Biological Chemistry. 392 (6): 571-85. doi:10.1515/BC. ...

*Histolysain

Lushbaugh, W.B.; Hofbauer, A.F.; Pittman, F.E. (1985). "Entamoeba histolytica: purification of cathepsin B". Exp. Parasitol. 59 ...

*Protease inhibitor (biology)

... these include cathepsin L, papain, and procaricain. It forms an alpha-helical domain that runs through the substrate-binding ...

*Dipeptidyl-peptidase I

McDonald, J.K.; Zeitman, B.B.; Reilly, T.J.; Ellis, S. (1969). "New observations on the substrate specificity of cathepsin C ( ... Planta, R.J.; Gorter, J.; Gruber, M. (1964). "The catalytic properties of cathepsin C". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 89: 511-519. ... Metrione, R.M.; Neves, A.G.; Fruton, J.S. (1966). "Purification and properties of dipeptidyl transferase (cathepsin C)". ... Dipeptidyl peptidase I (EC 3.4.14.1, cathepsin C, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase I, dipeptidyl transferase, dipeptide arylamidase I ...

*Katepsin-D - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија

Katepsin-D (EC 3.4.23.5, Cathepsin D) je enzim.[1][2][3][4] Ovaj enzim katalizuje sledeću hemijsku reakciju ... Takahashi, T. & Tang, J. (1981). „Cathepsin D from porcine and bovine spleen". Methods Enzymol. 80: 565-581. PMID 7341918.. ... Barrett, A.J. (1977). „Cathepsin D and other carboxyl proteinases". Ур.: Barrett, A.J. Proteinases in Mammalian Cells and ... Barrett, A.J. (1977). „Cathepsin D and other carboxyl proteinases". Ур.: Barrett, A.J. Proteinases in Mammalian Cells and ...

*Cystatin B

The protein is able to form a dimer stabilized by noncovalent forces, inhibiting papain and cathepsins l, h and b. The protein ... 1994). "Cathepsin B activity in human lung tumor cell lines: ultrastructural localization, pH sensitivity, and inhibitor status ... 1988). "Cathepsin D inactivates cysteine proteinase inhibitors, cystatins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 154 (2): 765-72. doi ... Cystatin B has been shown to interact with Cathepsin B. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000160213 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ...

*Neuroproteomics

These cysteine proteases include calpain, caspase, and cathepsin. These three proteins are examples of detectable signs of ...

*Odanacatib

It is an inhibitor of cathepsin K, an enzyme involved in bone resorption. It is being developed by Merck & Co. The phase III ... Le Gall, C. L.; Bonnelye, E.; Clézardin, P. (2008). "Cathepsin K inhibitors as treatment of bone metastasis". Current Opinion ... February 2008). "The discovery of odanacatib (MK-0822), a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18 (3 ...

*Phytepsin

A plant aspartic proteinase resembling mammalian cathepsin D". Eur. J. Biochem. 202 (3): 1021-1027. doi:10.1111/j.1432- ...

*Endostatin

2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... 2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... by proteases such as cathepsins. Collagen is a component of epithelial and endothelial basement membranes. Endostatin, as a ...

*GLB1

Cathepsin A is also required for normal elastin biosynthesis. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000170266 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... The elastin receptor complex includes S-Gal, neuraminidase and Cathepsin A. When elastin-derived peptides bind to the S-Gal ... cathepsin) A is required for proper elastic fiber formation and inactivation of endothelin-1". Circulation. 117 (15): 1973-81. ...

*Mary Ellen Jones (chemist)

add NAE ref]. She pursued these interests by studying androsterone and monopalmitin at Armour, and cathepsin C at Yale. Jones ... Under the direction of Joseph S. Fruton, Jones' dissertation research involved the catalytic properties of cathepsin C, a type ... Her doctorate was entitled: Transamidation reactions catalyzed by cathepsin C. Jones completed her studies in three years ... Transamidation Reactions Catalyzed by Cathepsin C. Yale University, 1952. Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L. ( ...

*MEP1A

1982). "Action of rat liver cathepsin L on glucagon". Acta Biol. Med. Ger. 40 (9): 1139-43. PMID 7340337. Kaushal GP, Walker PD ...

*Gabriel-Colman rearrangement

... cathepsin G and proteinase 3" Bioorg. Med. Chem. 1995, 3, 187-193. ([5]) Schapira, C. B.; Perillo, I. A.; Lamdan, S. "3-Oxo-1,2 ... cathepsin G and proteinase 3. Phthalimide derivatives were seen to be inactive, while saccharin derivatives were seen to be ...

*Collagen, type XVIII, alpha 1

2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ...

*Pycnodysostosis

Deficiency of Cathepsin K, a cysteine protease in osteoclasts, is known to cause this condition. Cathepsin K became a much ... Motyckova, G; Fisher, DE (2002). "Pycnodysostosis: role and regulation of cathepsin K deficiency in osteoclast function and ... is a lysosomal storage disease of the bone caused by a mutation in the gene that codes the enzyme cathepsin K. Pycnodysostosis ... a lysosomal storage disease caused by cathepsin K deficiency". Science. 273 (5279): 1236-1238. doi:10.1126/science.273.5279. ...

*Endothelin 3

1990). "Generation of human endothelin by cathepsin E". FEBS Lett. 273 (1-2): 99-102. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(90)81060-2. PMID ...
Cathepsin F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSF gene. Cathepsins are papain family cysteine proteinases that represent a major component of the lysosomal proteolytic system. In general, cathepsins contain a signal sequence, followed by a propeptide and then a catalytically active mature region. The very long (251-amino acid residues) proregion of the cathepsin F precursor contains a C-terminal domain similar to the pro-segment of cathepsin L-like enzymes, a 50-residue flexible linker peptide, and an N-terminal domain predicted to adopt a cystatin-like fold. The cathepsin F proregion is unique within the papain family cysteine proteases in that it contains this additional N-terminal segment predicted to share structural similarities with cysteine protease inhibitors of the cystatin superfamily. This cystatin-like domain contains some of the elements known to be important for inhibitory activity. CTSF encodes a predicted protein of 484 amino acids that contains a 19-residue signal ...
A recessive, adult-onset neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (NCL) occurs in Tibetan terriers. A genome-wide association study restricted this NCL locus to a 1.3 Mb region of canine chromosome 2 which contains canine ATP13A2. NCL-affected dogs were homozygous for a single-base deletion in ATP13A2, predicted to produce a frameshift and premature termination codon. Homozygous truncating mutations in human ATP13A2 have been shown by others to cause Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS), a rare neurodegenerative disease. These findings suggest that KRS is also an NCL, although analysis of KRS brain tissue will be needed to confirm this prediction. Generalized brain atrophy, behavioral changes, and cognitive decline occur in both people and dogs with ATP13A2 mutations: however, other clinical features differ between the species. For example, Tibetan terriers with NCL develop cerebellar ataxia not reported in KRS patients and KRS patients exhibit parkinsonism and pyramidal dysfunction not observed in affected Tibetan ...
Complete information for CTSF gene (Protein Coding), Cathepsin F, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
My lab explores two related themes, those of synapse loss and neurodegeneration. Synapse loss is an early, defining event in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinsons disease. In these prolonged diseases, decreases in synapse density are the best correlates of disease progression.Yet, little is known about the pathways that maintain synapses and their roles in aging and neurodegeneration. We are characterizing a novel presynaptic mechanism for the prevention of synapse loss and neurodegeneration involving the co-chaperone Cysteine String Protein alpha. This gene is also mutated in adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, a neurodegenerative disorder with lysosomal pathology. We are also screening for new synapse maintenance genes using a dissociated neuronal culture system ...
The source of new beta-cells in adult human pancreas remains incompletely elucidated with recent studies in rodents providing evidence for neogenesis from progenitor cells in addition to self-replication. The aim of this study was to investigate expression of pluripotency-associated stem cell markers in proliferative cultures derived from adult human pancreas.Human pancreatic tissue was obtained from deceased donors following ethical approval and relative consent. Islet-enriched fraction was separated from the retrieved organ by digestion and density gradient centrifugation. Dissociated cells were seeded in adherent culture forming proliferative islet survivor cells(ISCs). These were characterized at fifth passage by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, FACS, Western blot and transfection studies with an OCT4 promoter-driven reporter.Nuclear expression of the pluripotency-associated stem cell marker complex OCT4 / SOX2 / NANOG was confirmed in ISCs. The phenotype constituted approximately 8% ...
Recent research has confirmed the presence of Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like progenitors (MPC) in both normal and osteoarthritic cartilage. However, there is only limited information concerning how MPC markers are expressed with osteoarthritis (OA) progression. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of various MPC markers in different OA grades. Human osteoarthritic tibial plateaus were obtained from ten patients undergoing total knee replacement. Each sample had been classified into a mild or severe group according to OARSI scoring. Tissue was taken from each specimen and mRNA expression levels of CD105, CD166, Notch 1, Sox9, Acan and Col II A1 were measured at day 0 and day 14 (2 weeks in vitro). Furthermore, MSC markers: Nucleostemin, CD90, CD73, CD166, CD105 and Notch 1 were studied by immunofluorescence. mRNA levels of MSC markers did not differ between mild and severe OA at day 0. At day 14, protein analysis showed that proliferated cells from both sources expressed all 6 MSC
The propeptide of cruzipain--a potent selective inhibitor of the trypanosomal enzymes cruzipain and brucipain, and of the human enzyme cathepsin F
Researchers have made use of an an innovative and new technology to identify the gene responsible for Kufs disease, a rare and fatal hereditary brain disorder.
International scientific meeting on the Web, with Keynote Addresses, Invited Symposia, Poster Sessions, and an Exhibitors Foyer. Sessions in basic and clinical sciences, education, and public health. Hosted by McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Dec 7-16th, 1998. symposium Presentation
They sequenced DNA from the two related Kufs disease patients and from a first-degree relative who did not have the disease, and then they compared the results.. Using a technique called whole-exome sequencing to analyze only the regions of DNA that make proteins, which make up about 2 percent of a persons genetic material, they began to home in on the genetic changes responsible for Kufs disease.. "Its nearly impossible to tell when a single DNA variant causes a problem because there are about 3,000 unique variations in every person," Cruchaga says. "But by comparing the DNA from the two related patients to the unaffected relative, we narrowed down the number of variants to 24.". Then, the researchers studied the DNA of more family members and winnowed the number of variants to three. Finally, they looked at DNA from people without the disease and found that two of the variants occurred in some healthy people without Kufs disease. That left only one causal variant.. The researchers also ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, also known as Kufs disease, is a neurodegenerative disorder without retinal involvement. There are 2 overlapping phenotypes: type A, characterized by progressive myoclonic epilepsy, and type B, characterized by dementia and a variety of motor-system signs (summary by {1:Arsov et al., 2011}). In general, the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure ({8:Mole et al., 2005}). The ultrastructural pattern of lipopigment in CLN4 comprises a mixed pattern of granular, curvilinear, and fingerprint profiles. ({8:Mole et al., 2005}). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 ({256730 ...
Adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, also known as Kufs disease, is a neurodegenerative disorder without retinal involvement. There are 2 overlapping phenotypes: type A, characterized by progressive myoclonic epilepsy, and type B, characterized by dementia and a variety of motor-system signs (summary by {1:Arsov et al., 2011}). In general, the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure ({8:Mole et al., 2005}). The ultrastructural pattern of lipopigment in CLN4 comprises a mixed pattern of granular, curvilinear, and fingerprint profiles. ({8:Mole et al., 2005}). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 ({256730 ...
The Ustilago maydis lipase UM03410 belongs to the mostly unexplored Candida antarctica lipase (CAL-A) subfamily. The two lipases with […] the highest identity are a lipase from Sporisorium reilianum and the prototypic CAL-A. In contrast to the other CAL-A-type lipases, this hypothetical U. maydis lipase is annotated to possess a prolonged N-terminus of unknown function. Here, we show for the first time the recombinant expression of two versions of lipase UM03410: the full-length form (lipUMf) and an N-terminally truncated form (lipUMs). For comparison to the prototype, the expression of recombinant CAL-A in E. coli was investigated. Although both forms of lipase UM03410 could be expressed functionally in E. coli, the N-terminally truncated form (lipUMs) demonstrated significantly higher activities towards p-nitrophenyl esters. The functional expression of the N-terminally truncated lipase was further optimized by the appropriate choice of the E. coli strain, lowering the cultivation ...
MO-DC generated in vitro serve as a model type of DC to unravel the complex interactions among DC maturation, MHC class II peptide loading, and endocytic transport (3, 33, 34). The emerging picture suggests that endocytic protease activity is regulated by differential activity of the lysosomal ATPase during DC maturation (3). By analyzing lysosomal MBP processing at pH 5.0 in vitro, we have here mimicked the conditions present in the lysosomal compartment of DC in the activated state in vivo.. The MHC class II-associated proteolytic machinery is characterized by a hierarchical proteolytic cascade, where the initial step controls the efficiency of Ag processing, peptide presentation, and T cell activation (14). Different types of APC as well as primary cells and immortalized cell lines contain distinct activity patterns of endocytic proteases (11, 17, 31, 35, 36, 37) which might result in different processing pathways for a given Ag and hence in different selections of peptides presented. We here ...
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a treatment-refractory subtype of human cancer arising from stratified epithelium of the skin, lung, esophagus, oropharynx and other tissues. A unifying feature of SCC is high-level expression of the p53 related protein p63 (TP63) in 80% of cases. The major p63 isoform expressed in SCC is ΔNp63α, an N-terminally truncated form which functions as a key SCC cell survival factor by mechanisms that are unclear. In this study we demonstrate that ΔNp63α associates with HDAC1 and HDAC2 to form an active transcriptional repressor complex that can be targeted to therapeutic advantage. Repression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member genes including PUMA by p63/HDAC is required for survival of SCC cells. Cisplatin chemotherapy, a mainstay of SCC treatment, promotes dissociation of p63 and HDAC from the PUMA promoter, leading to increased histone acetylation, PUMA activation and apoptosis. These effects are recapitulated upon targeting the p63/HDAC complex selectively ...
Firstly, we analyzed hAFC samples for the expression of germ cell markers; in agreement to previous reports [11], we observed a consistently high expression of OCT4 and CD133. However, when we examined additional markers we did not observe expression of genes specific to germ cell differentiation. In this regard, it was reported that hAFCs had the ability to form embryoid bodies (EBs) when cultured under conditions without anti-differentiation factors and without contact to feeder cells. Moreover, the formation of such three-dimensional multicellular aggregates was accompanied by a decrease in stem cell marker expression and by the induction of differentiation into different cell lineages [23]. Hence herein hAFCs kept under a stem cell culture system yielded a high number of clones that when cultured in suspension without anti-differentiation factors, spontaneously formed multicellular EBs and harbored high differentiation potential. Moreover, when we cultured EBs in the presence of germ cell ...
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered as the origin of tumor relapse. Here, we investigated the effects of Fructus Viticis total flavonoids (FVTF) on the characteristics of lung cancer stem-like cells (LCSLCs) derived from human small cell lung cancer NCI-H446 cell line and its potential mechanism. Human small cell lung cancer NCI-H446 cell line was cultured in vitro. The CD133+ cells were sorted from NCI-H446 cell line by magnetic separation. The suspended culture with stem cell-conditioned medium was used to amplify CD133+ sphere-forming cells (SFCs). The stem cell characteristics of CD133+ SFCs were evaluated using cell self-renewal capacity by tumor sphere formation assay, migration and invasion capacity by Transwell assay, tumorigenicity by xenograft model in nude mouse and cancer stem cell markers expression levels by western blot. The effects of FVTF on the properties of LCSLCs were examined by tumorsphere formation assay and transwell chamber assay. The expression level of p-Akt was determined
Purpose: Diabetic corneas have ultrastructural changes that can lead to dry eye, abnormal healing after trauma. The literature is sparse on the topic of Asian diabetics corneas with good Va and automated refractive keratometry readings. At our retina clinic in California, we retrospectively evaluated the keratometry readings of corneas of Diabetic patients in an Asian population. Are there external refractive or superficial keratometry differences in Asian Diabetic vs Asian Control eyes?. Methods: Corneal topography was performed using Topcon KR-8000PA Auto Kerato- Refractometer (Oakland, NJ) on patients as part of the refractive screening prior to dilation for evaluation of diabetic retinopathy ...
Quantification of the 5 noncoding region of the genomic and antigenomic HCV RNA strands was done using a strand-specific real-time RT-PCR, with use of the thermostable enzyme Tth for the synthesis of cDNA at a high temperature. Thus, for the amplification of the genomic HCV RNA strand, cDNA was generated in 20 L of reaction mixture that contained the total RNA extracted from 200 uL of serum or 0.5 ug of total RNA from liver specimens or PBMC samples, 50 pmol/L antisense primer UTRLC2 (5-CAAGCACCCTATCAGGCAGT-3), 1 mmol/L MnCl2, 200 umol/L each deoxynucleotide triphosphate, 1X RT buffer (Applied Biosystems), and 5 U of Tth (Applied Biosystems). After 20 min at 65 C, the RT activity was inactivated by Mn2+ chelation with 8 uL of the 10X chelating buffer (Applied Biosystems), followed by heating at 95 C for 30 min. For amplification of antigenomic HCV RNA, cDNA was synthesized under the same conditions by the addition of 50 pmol/L sense primer UTRLC1 (5-CTTCACGCAGAAAGCGTCTA-3). Real-time PCR was ...
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are inherited neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders caused by the accumulation of ceroid and lipofuscin in various cell types, mainly cells of the cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex, and retina (Dyken et al. 1988; Williams and Mole 2012). Characteristic features at onset include clumsiness; deterioration of vision and psychomotor functions; seizures; and behavioral changes. Progression of clinical features results ultimately in total disability, blindness and premature death. Although NCL affects primarily children, age of onset of symptoms varies from infancy to adulthood. The incidence of NCL is variable and ranges from 1.3 to 7 per 100,000 (Mole and Williams 2013). However, it is more common in northern European populations, particularly Finland where the incidence may reach 1 in 12,500 individuals and a carrier frequency of 1 in 70 (Rider and Rider 1988). NCLs are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. A nomenclature and classification ...
VitaDigest offer Tri-O-Plex Bar Whole Grain Protein Bar Chocolate Coconut 12 Bars Tri O Plex Trioplex, Product Review For Chef Jay Formula and Information, Exclusive Reivews for Tri-O-Plex Bar Whole Grain Protein Bar Chocolate Coconut 12 Bars Tri O Plex Trioplex Chef Jay
I am trying to find if there is anyone in Brisbane, QLD, Australia who has the human osteosarcoma cell line U-2 OS in their lab. Any suggestions on how to get this information would be helpful Thank you Helen ...
Ravina berei Drav Huna (499 or 421 CE). Rosh Metivta of Sura. He, together with his teacher, Rav Ashi, collected and commented upon the Gemara of what would henceforth be known as the Talmud Bavli.. Rav Azariah min Haadumim, author of Meor Einayim (1577).. Rav Shlomo Zalman Yosef of Vyelpol (1857).. Rav Dov Ber of Levo, son on Rav Yisrael of Ruzhin (1875).. Rav Yisrael Aryeh of Premishlan (1890).. Rav Dov Ber Livshitz, Rav of Sardnik (1900). Rav Yisrael Taub of Modzhitz, author of Divrei Yisrael (1849-1920). He was the son of Rav Shmuel Eliyahu Taub of Zvolin (1888) and the grandson of Rav Yechezkel Taub of Kuzmir (1856), who was one of the students of the Chozeh of Lublin. He became the first Rebbe of Modzhitz and was succeeded by his son, Shaul Yedidya Elazer. Legend has it that in 1913 Taub composed a 30-minute negun while having his leg amputated without anesthesia.. Rav Yisrael Friedman, the second Tchortkover Rebbe (1934, 1933, or 1932). Rav Yechiel Michel Hager of Horodenka (1941). One ...
Features and specs for the Used 2010 Toyota RAV4, including fuel economy, transmission, warranty, engine type, cylinders, drivetrain and more.
Background: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most predominant bone tumor in individuals between 10-25 yrs of age. Cisplatin is the most widely used chemotherapeutic agent for OS management, it significantly enhances the survival rate. Resistance to the drug, toxicities of high doses and metastasis are the major concerns in the treatment. Objective: Our primary objective is to investigate effects of calcitriol in combination with cisplatin on the osteosarcoma cell apoptosis, invasion and migration. Our hypothesis is pretreatment of OS cells with calcitriol would sensitize them for cisplatin therapy leading to decrease in concentration for IC50. Secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of calcitriol on migration and invasion of OS cell lines, and the role of matrix metalloproteins (MMPs) in migration/invasion. Design: Previous findings in our lab suggests, calcitriol act as differentiation agent in human osteosarcoma cell lines 143B and SaOS-2. The dose response of cisplatin with and without ...
Rav Shmuel Auerbach, rosh yeshiva of Yeshiva Maalos Hatorah and son of Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach zt"l, was released today from the hospital after undergoing a complex catheterization. The procedure was performed yesterday at Hadassah Ein Kerem Medical Center in southwest Yerushalayim.. Rav Shmuel remained hospitalized for observation for 24 hours after the catheterization, and doctors seem to be pleased with his condition. Rav Shmuel will continue his recovery at home.. It is hoped that Rav Shmuel can resume his regular schedule by the end of this week.. Rav Shmuel was greeted by a crowd of neighbors and onlookers as he arrived to his home on Rechov Ibn Shaprut in the Shaarei Chesed neighborhood of Yerushalayim at about noon.. All are asked to daven for the complete recovery of Rav Shmuel ben Chaya Rivka, besoch shear cholei Yisroel.. {Matzav.com Israel New Bureau}. ...
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of bone cancer in children and adolescents. With the current treatment approaches, the survival rate is 60-70%. Therapies for treating OS have remained the same over the past thirty years. There is a need for developing more effective therapies, which can significantly improve the survival of the patients who do not respond well to current therapeutic strategies. Epidemiological evidence indicates impaired regulation of cell proliferation and survival appears to be a key event in the etiology of the disease. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol or 1,25D) has significant antineoplastic activity by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing differentiation and apoptosis in breast, prostate, colon, skin, and brain cancer. The molecular mechanisms for calcitriol-mediated cancer prevention are still unknown. In particular, the role of calcitriol in modulating OS needs to be investigated. The primary ...
Esophageal cancer is consists of highly heterogeneous populations, which include cancer initiating cells, so-called cancer stem cells. Although histone modification is shown to be an essential factor for normal stem cell maintenance, the involvement of histone demethylase in cancer progression has been poorly understood. We investigated the functional roles of the Histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) demethylase KDM5B, a crucial epigenetic regulator that is required for normal embryonic development and cell growth. KDM5B knockdown resulted in the suppression of esophageal cancer cell growth, sphere formation and invasion ability and was associated with loss of epithelial cell marker expression. These tumor inhibitory effects were reverted subsequent to subcutaneous inoculation of these cells into immune-deficient mice. These results indicated that KDM5B plays an important role in maintaining cancer stem cells and justifies the rationale for studying the effects of continuous inhibition of this epigenetic ...
Mobilise - to prepare, to awaken and to move.. NOIs classic, longest running course, Mobilisation of the Nervous System, has evolved. Based on the latest evidence, the course has been completely updated and re-written.. The immune system via its interaction with the nervous system is a critical player in learning, memory, movement and sensitivity. This new understanding integrates peripheral and central processes and targets therapy towards healthy neuroimmune balance.. This comprehensive lecture and hands-on course integrates the latest research on neurodynamics and neuroimmune science to provide a clinical reasoning framework to identify those patients who will benefit from neuroimmune mobilisation.. The course updates and refines the essential practical skills to examine and manage the physical health of the nervous system - skilled, safe and appropriately timed handling techniques are covered in detail during practical sessions.. A comprehensive course on the diagnosis and management of ...

Cathepsins (CTS) Gene Family | HUGO Gene Nomenclature CommitteeCathepsins (CTS) Gene Family | HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee

Cathepsin: Cathepsins ( Ancient Greek kata- "down" and hepsein "boil"; abbreviated CTS ) are proteases ( enzymes that degrades ... Cathepsins have a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover, e.g. bone resorption. They degrade polypeptides and are ... There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone ...
more infohttps://www.genenames.org/cgi-bin/genefamilies/set/470

Cathepsin W - WikipediaCathepsin W - Wikipedia

"Human cathepsins W and F form a new subgroup of cathepsins that is evolutionary separated from the cathepsin B- and L-like ... Wex T, Levy B, Wex H, Brömme D (1999). "Human cathepsins F and W: A new subgroup of cathepsins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ... 2003). "Characterization of novel anti-cathepsin W antibodies and cellular distribution of cathepsin W in the gastrointestinal ... Cathepsin W is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSW gene.[5][6][7] ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathepsin_W

Cathepsin D - WikipediaCathepsin D - Wikipedia

"Entrez Gene: CTSD cathepsin D".. *^ Barrett AJ (April 1970). "Cathepsin D. Purification of isoenzymes from human and chicken ... Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes.[7] The main function of cathepsin D is ... The optimum pH for cathepsin D in vitro is 4.5-5.0.[13] Cathepsin-D is an aspartic protease that depends critically on ... Cathepsin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSD gene.[5][6] This gene encodes a lysosomal aspartyl protease ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathepsin_D

Cathepsin K (O35186) | InterPro | EMBL-EBICathepsin K (O35186) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/O35186

CathePsin L family (O45734) | InterPro | EMBL-EBICathePsin L family (O45734) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/O45734

Cathepsin Protease Inhibition Reduces Endometriosis Lesion Establishment.  - PubMed - NCBICathepsin Protease Inhibition Reduces Endometriosis Lesion Establishment. - PubMed - NCBI

Incubation with the cathepsin L specific inhibitor, Z-FY-DMK, blocked cathepsin L signals, confirming the cathepsin L bands in ... Z-FY-DMK cathepsin L inhibitor does not inhibit all cathepsin activity of murine endometriotic lesions. Incubation with Z-FY- ... DMK, a selective inhibitor of cathepsin L, inhibited many of the cathepsin active bands but did not block all active cathepsin ... E-64 blocks all cathepsin proteolytic activity in murine endometriotic lesions. Incubation with the broad cathepsin inhibitor, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26482207

RCSB PDB - Gene View 









 - CTSK - cathepsin KRCSB PDB - Gene View - CTSK - cathepsin K

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/pdb/gene/CTSK

CTSV cathepsin V [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBICTSV cathepsin V [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI

cathepsin L2. Names. cathepsin L2, preproprotein. cathepsin U. NP_001188504.1. *EC 3.4.22.43 ... using cathepsin V and cathepsin L as model enzymes, a series of chimeras were generated to identify noncatalytic regions that ... functions of cathepsin V are controlled by N-glycosylation Title: Determination of cathepsin V activity and intracellular ... CTSV cathepsin V [Homo sapiens] CTSV cathepsin V [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:1515 ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/1515

Role of Cathepsin S in Periodontal Inflammation and InfectionRole of Cathepsin S in Periodontal Inflammation and Infection

V. Zavanik-Bergant, A. Sekirnik, R. Golouh, V. Turk, and J. Kos, "Immunochemical localisation of cathepsin S, cathepsin L and ... Both stimulants caused a significant cathepsin S upregulation. A significantly elevated cathepsin S expression in gingival ... Role of Cathepsin S in Periodontal Inflammation and Infection. S. Memmert,1,2 A. Damanaki,1 A. V. B. Nogueira,3 S. Eick,4 M. ... "Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is both a substrate of cathepsins S and K and a selective inhibitor of cathepsin L," Biochemistry, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2017/4786170/

Enzymes Attack One Another In Cathepsin CannibalismEnzymes Attack One Another In 'Cathepsin Cannibalism'

Cathepsin K degrades both collagen and elastin, and is one of the most powerful proteases. Cathepsin S degrades elastin, and ... "We saw that the cathepsin K was going away much faster when there was cathepsin S present than when it was by itself," said ... "We kept increasing the amount of cathepsin S until the collagen was not affected at all because all of the cathepsin K was ... Barrys modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/enzymes-attack-quot-cathepsin-cannibalism-quot-200491.html

Cathepsin - WikipediaCathepsin - Wikipedia

Cathepsin A (serine protease) Cathepsin B (cysteine protease) Cathepsin C (cysteine protease) Cathepsin D (aspartyl protease) ... Cathepsin H (cysteine protease) Cathepsin K (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L1 (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L2 (or V) (cysteine ... Cathepsin S (cysteine protease) Cathepsin W (cysteine proteinase) Cathepsin Z (or X) (cysteine protease) Cathepsins have been ... Cathepsin K has also been shown to play a role in arthritis. Mouse cathepsin L is homologous to human cathepsin V. Mouse ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathepsin

Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry | PNASInhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry | PNAS

Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry. Graham Simmons, Dhaval N. Gosalia, ... Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry. Graham Simmons, Dhaval N. Gosalia, ... Cathepsin-L-specific inhibitor blocks infection. (A) MDL28170 inhibits CTSL activity with an IC50 of 2.5 nM. A 1,000-compound ... Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/102/33/11876?ijkey=94636d27050615c233a7b0bef85400e8316ef6d2&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

The immunofluorescent demonstration of cathepsin B1 in tissue sections | SpringerLinkThe immunofluorescent demonstration of cathepsin B1 in tissue sections | SpringerLink

A direct immunohistochemical method of high specificity is presented for the demonstration of sites of cathepsin B1. Antisera ... Snellman, O.: Cathepsin B, the lysosomal thiol proteinase of calf liver. Biochem. J. 114, 673-678 (1969)Google Scholar ... Otto, K.: Cathepsins B1 and B2. In: Tissue proteinases, ed. by A. J. Barrett and J. T. Dingle, p. 1-28. North-Holland ... V. Cathepsin B as a potential effector of LNA hydrolysis. Histochemie 12, 240-243 (1968)Google Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00490218

Anti-Cathepsin E antibody (ab36996) | AbcamAnti-Cathepsin E antibody (ab36996) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin E antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 3 publication(s ... Anti-Cathepsin E antibody (ab36996) at 1/1000 dilution + Murine reticulocyte lysate at 10 µg. Predicted band size: 42 kDa. ... High Expression of Cathepsin E in Tissues but Not Blood of Patients with Barretts Esophagus and Adenocarcinoma.. Ann Surg ... Cathepsin E is expressed abundantly in the stomach, Clara cells and alveolar macrophages of the lung, brain microglia, spleen, ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/cathepsin-e-antibody-ab36996.html?productWallTab=Abreviews

Anti-Cathepsin D antibody (ab19555) | AbcamAnti-Cathepsin D antibody (ab19555) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin D antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication ... This antibody reacts with human liver cathepsin D, and does not react with cathepsins B, H and L. ... IHC image of Cathepsin D staining in Human Lung formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica Bond™ ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) - Anti-Cathepsin D antibody (ab19555) ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cathepsin-d-antibody-ab19555.html

Cathepsin T - WikipediaCathepsin T - Wikipedia

Cathepsin Cathepsin T at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... Cathepsin T (EC 3.4.22.24) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Interconversion of the three ... Pitot, H.C.; Gohda, E. (1987). "Cathepsin T". Methods Enzymol. 142: 279-289. doi:10.1016/s0076-6879(87)42038-7. PMID 2885716. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathepsin_T

Apolipoprotein A-I proteolysis in aortic valve stenosis: role of cathepsin S | SpringerLinkApolipoprotein A-I proteolysis in aortic valve stenosis: role of cathepsin S | SpringerLink

Protease activity Apolipoprotein A-I Aortic valve stenosis Cathepsin S C. Gebhard and F. Maafi contributed equally to this work ... Hooshdaran B, Kolpakov MA, Guo X, Miller SA, Wang T, Tilley DG, Rafiq K, Sabri A (2017) Dual inhibition of cathepsin G and ... Lindstedt L, Lee M, Oorni K, Bromme D, Kovanen PT (2003) Cathepsins F and S block HDL3-induced cholesterol efflux from ... Targeting circulating cathepsin S may lead to new therapies for human aortic valve disease. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00395-018-0689-7

CTSB - Cathepsin B - Homo sapiens (Human) - CTSB gene & proteinCTSB - Cathepsin B - Homo sapiens (Human) - CTSB gene & protein

Cathepsin B. Cathepsin B, EC 3.4.22.1 (APP secretase, APPS) (Cathepsin B1) [Cleaved into: Cathepsin B light chain; Cathepsin B ... Cathepsin BImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ... tr,E9PL32,E9PL32_HUMAN Cathepsin B (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CTSB PE=1 SV=2 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/E9PL32

Ctsg - Cathepsin G - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Ctsg gene & proteinCtsg - Cathepsin G - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Ctsg gene & protein

Cathepsin GAdd BLAST. ›26. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of ... sp,P17977,CATG_RAT Cathepsin G (Fragment) OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Ctsg PE=1 SV=1 IIGGREARPNSHPYMAFLLIQSPEGL ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P17977

Cathepsin Detection Kits - MP BiomedicalsCathepsin Detection Kits - MP Biomedicals

MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN B KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin B. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ... MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN K KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin K. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ... MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN L KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin L. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ...
more infohttp://www.mpbio.com/index.php?cPath=2873_2_1999_2005_2031_2091_2235&country=223

Cathepsin K Antibody
		        
	Cathepsin K Antibody

Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) and Flow Cytometry ... Protein Aliases: Cathepsin K; Cathepsin O; cathepsin O1; Cathepsin O2; Cathepsin X; CTSK; CTSO; CTSO2 ... Cite Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/CTSK-Antibody-Polyclonal/PA5-14270

JCI -
Usage information: Cathepsin B inactivation attenuates hepatic injury and fibrosis during cholestasisJCI - Usage information: Cathepsin B inactivation attenuates hepatic injury and fibrosis during cholestasis

Although a lysosomal, cathepsin B-dependent (Ctsb-dependent) pathway of apoptosis has been described, the contribution of this ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/17740/usage

Inhibition of Cathepsin S Produces Neuroprotective  Effects after Traumatic Brain Injury in MiceInhibition of Cathepsin S Produces Neuroprotective Effects after Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

C.-S. Hsieh, P. DeRoos, K. Honey, C. Beers, and A. Y. Rudensky, "A role for cathepsin L and cathepsin S in peptide generation ... J. Ärnlv, "Cathepsin S as a biomarker: where are we now and what are the future challenges?" Biomarkers in Medicine, vol. 6, no ... Inhibition of Cathepsin S Produces Neuroprotective Effects after Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice. Jianguo Xu,1 Handong Wang,1 Ke ... D. M. Small, R. E. Burden, and C. J. Scott, "The emerging relevance of the cysteine protease cathepsin S in disease," Clinical ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2013/187873/ref/

Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans. | GeneticsIdentification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans. | Genetics

Cathepsin D purified from a mutant strain has a lower activity per unit mass of pure enzyme. These data suggest that cad-1 is a ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ...
more infohttp://www.genetics.org/content/119/2/355

Human Cathepsin Enzyme Products - MP BiomedicalsHuman Cathepsin Enzyme Products - MP Biomedicals

CATHEPSIN L-HUMAN LIVER. Cathepsin L is unstable at neutral pH, but is relatively stable in the range 4.5 to 5.5.. ...
more infohttps://www.mpbio.com/index.php?cPath=2_2009_2882_2923&country=223
  • The availability of a purified preparation of salmon muscle cathepsins should stimulate interest and research in the characterization of these enzymes and lead to better means for the control of catheptic activity in fish muscle. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Characterization of cathepsin S (CatS) knock-out mice has further implicated CatS in the terminal cleavage of Ii to yield CLIP in professional APC ( 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Determination of cathepsin V activity and intracellular trafficking by N-glycosylation. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsins are intracellular proteinases that hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Surprisingly, at a concentration of 10 μ m , CA-074 slowly permeated the cells, causing an 80-95% inhibition of intracellular cathepsin B after 12 h, the duration of the invasion assay. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The membrane-permeant cathepsin B inhibitor, CA-074 methyl ester, and the higher concentration of CA-074 that inhibited intracellular cathepsin B both significantly reduced Matrigel invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Stroke Alzheimer's disease Arthritis Ebola, Cathepsin B and to a lesser extent cathepsin L have been found to be necessary for the virus to enter host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally cathepsin D has been associated with amyloid formation in Alzheimer's plaques. (genetex.com)
  • We hypothesize that cysteine cathepsins, a group of powerful extracellular matrix proteases, facilitate endometrial tissue invasion and endometriosis lesion establishment in the peritoneal wall and inhibiting this activity would decrease endometriosis lesion implantation. (nih.gov)
  • Mouse endometriotic lesions exhibit elevated cathepsin proteolytic activity. (nih.gov)
  • E-64 blocks all cathepsin proteolytic activity in murine endometriotic lesions. (nih.gov)
  • This project aims to examine the utility of the proteolytic activity signatures of caspase 1 and cathepsin S (CTSS) as readouts of particle-induced inflammation and to elucidate the role and dynamic regulation of CTSS in response to cellular stress. (bl.uk)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/730869/all/cathepsins. (tabers.com)
  • Intraperitoneal injection of the broad cysteine cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, significantly reduced the number of attached endometriosis lesions in our murine model compared to vehicle-treated controls demonstrating that cathepsin proteases contribute to endometriosis lesion establishment, and their inhibition may provide a novel, nonhormonal therapy for endometriosis. (nih.gov)
  • However, we here report an unexpected finding that cysteine protease genes of the family cathepsin B are massively amplified in the lineage of aphids, and that many of the protease genes exhibit gut-specific over-expression. (inria.fr)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of all the cathepsin B genes in aphids revealed that genic expansion has continuously proceeded with basal, intermediary and recent duplications. (inria.fr)
  • Two of the genes identified from this screen were the cathepsin proteases Cts7 and Cts8 . (biologists.org)
  • It is widely held that invasion is facilitated by a membrane or secreted form of cathepsin B that acts outside the cell to degrade ECM components at or adjacent to the surface of the invading cell. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Essential role for cathepsin S in MHC class II-associated invariant chain processing and peptide loading," Immunity , vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 357-366, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review we cover specific roles of cathepsins in innate and adaptive immunity, as well as their implication in the pathogenesis of several diseases. (smw.ch)
  • It is of note to mention that this review is not meant to comprehensively cover the present literature on viruses encountering cathepsins but rather illustrates, on some representative examples, the possible roles of cathepsins in replication of viruses and in the course of disease. (springer.com)
  • Cathepsin D enzymatic activity induces hydrolytic modification of apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins, including LDL, which means it may be involved in atherosclerosis as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic knockout for cathepsin S and K in mice with atherosclerosis was shown to reduce the size of atherosclerotic lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocyte cathepsin S is a potent regulator of both cell and matrix turnover in advanced atherosclerosis," Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology , vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 188-194, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • More importantly, cathepsins play a crucial role in various conditions that involve large biological systems such as autoimmune disease, cardiac repair, cardiomyopathy, heart valve disease, and atherosclerosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Serum cathepsin B activity has been considered a potential marker of tumor progression. (lu.se)
  • The aim of this study was to assess serum cathepsin activity during tumor progression and regression. (lu.se)
  • Serum cathepsin B activity was determined, tumor volumes were measured, and. (lu.se)
  • RESULTS: Of the 45 BRT-treated rats, tumor regression was observed in 31 rats, and serum cathepsin activity was analyzed in these rats. (lu.se)
  • Dubbed "cathepsin cannibalism," the phenomenon may help explain problems with drugs that have been developed to inhibit the effects of these powerful proteases. (innovations-report.com)
  • Because cathepsins have harmful effects on critical proteins such as collagen and elastin, pharmaceutical companies have been developing drugs to inhibit activity of the enzymes, but so far these compounds have had too many side effects to be useful and have failed clinical trials. (innovations-report.com)
  • The work could affect not only the development of drugs to inhibit cathepsin activity, but could also lead to a better understanding of how the enzymes work together. (innovations-report.com)