A lysosomal papain-related cysteine proteinase that is expressed in a broad variety of cell types.
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A cysteine endopeptidase found in NATURAL KILLER CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES. It may have a specific function in the mechanism or regulation of cytolytic activity of immune cells.
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.
A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. It consists of the following species: O. felineus, O. noverca (Amphimerus noverca), and O. viverrini. The intermediate hosts are snails, fish, and AMPHIBIANS.
An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).
A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.
Infection with flukes of the genus Opisthorchis.
A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.
An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A papain-like cysteine protease that has specificity for amino terminal dipeptides. The enzyme plays a role in the activation of several pro-inflammatory serine proteases by removal of their aminoterminal inhibitory dipeptides. Genetic mutations that cause loss of cathepsin C activity in humans are associated with PAPILLON-LEFEVRE DISEASE.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
An activating NK cell lectin-like receptor subfamily that regulates immune responses to INFECTION and NEOPLASMS. Members of this subfamily generally occur as homodimers.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous rodents through chemical, biological, or other means.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.

Molecular cloning and structural and functional characterization of human cathepsin F, a new cysteine proteinase of the papain family with a long propeptide domain. (1/18)

A cDNA encoding a new cysteine proteinase belonging to the papain family and called cathepsin F has been cloned from a human prostate cDNA library. This cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 484 amino acids, with the same domain organization as other cysteine proteinases, including a hydrophobic signal sequence, a prodomain, and a catalytic region. However, this propeptide domain is unusually long and distinguishes cathepsin F from other proteinases of the papain family. Cathepsin F also shows all structural motifs characteristic of these proteinases, including the essential cysteine residue of the active site. Consistent with these structural features, cathepsin F produced in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase degrades the synthetic peptide benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Arg-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin, a substrate commonly used for functional characterization of cysteine proteinases. Furthermore, this proteolytic activity is blocked by trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane, an inhibitor of cysteine proteinases. The gene encoding cathepsin F maps to chromosome 11q13, close to that encoding cathepsin W. Cathepsin F is widely expressed in human tissues, suggesting a role in normal protein catabolism. Northern blot analysis also revealed a significant level of expression in some cancer cell lines opening the possibility that this enzyme could be involved in degradative processes occurring during tumor progression.  (+info)

Role of N-glycosylation in cathepsin E. A comparative study of cathepsin E with distinct N-linked oligosaccharides and its nonglycosylated mutant. (2/18)

Cathepsin E (CE), a nonlysosomal, intracellular aspartic proteinase, exists in several molecular forms that are N-glycosylated with high-mannose and/or complex-type oligosaccharides. To investigate the role of N-glycosylation on the catalytic properties and molecular stability of CE, both natural and recombinant enzymes with distinct oligosaccharides were purified from different sources. An N-glycosylation minus mutant, that was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (by changing asparagine residues to glutamine and aspartic acid residues at positions 73 and 305 in potential N-glycosylation sites of rat CE) and expressed in normal rat kidney cells, was also purified to homogeneity from the cell extracts. The kinetic parameters of the nonglycosylated mutant were found to be essentially equivalent to those of natural enzymes N-glycosylated with either high-mannose or complex-type oligosaccharides. In contrast, the nonglycosylated mutant showed lower pH and thermal stabilities than the glycosylated enzymes. The nonglycosylated mutant exhibited particular sensitivity to conversion to a monomeric form by 2-mercaptoethanol, as compared with those of the glycosylated enzymes. Further, the high-mannose-type enzymes were more sensitive to this agent than the complex-type proteins. A striking difference was found between the high-mannose and complex-type enzymes in terms of activation by ATP at a weakly acidic pH. At pH 5.5, the complex-type enzymes were stabilized by ATP to be restored to the virtual activity, whereas the high-mannose-type enzymes as well as the nonglycosylated mutant were not affected by ATP. These results suggest that N-glycosylation in CE is important for the maintenance of its proper folding upon changes in temperature, pH and redox state, and that the complex-type oligosaccharides contribute to the completion of the tertiary structure to maintain its active conformation in the weakly acidic pH environments.  (+info)

Role for cathepsin F in invariant chain processing and major histocompatibility complex class II peptide loading by macrophages. (3/18)

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-associated invariant chain (Ii) regulates intracellular trafficking and peptide loading of MHC class II molecules. Such loading occurs after endosomal degradation of the invariant chain to a approximately 3-kD peptide termed CLIP (class II-associated invariant chain peptide). Cathepsins L and S have both been implicated in degradation of Ii to CLIP in thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs, respectively. However, macrophages from mice deficient in both cathepsins S and L can process Ii and load peptides onto MHC class II dimers normally. Both processes are blocked by a cysteine protease inhibitor, indicating the involvement of an additional Ii-processing enzyme(s). Comparison of cysteine proteases expressed by macrophages with those found in splenocytes and dendritic cells revealed two enzymes expressed exclusively in macrophages, cathepsins Z and F. Recombinant cathepsin Z did not generate CLIP from Ii-MHC class II complexes, whereas cathepsin F was as efficient as cathepsin S in CLIP generation. Inhibition of cathepsin F activity and MHC class II peptide loading by macrophages exhibited similar specificity and activity profiles. These experiments show that cathepsin F, in a subset of antigen presenting cells (APCs), can efficiently degrade Ii. Different APCs can thus use distinct proteases to mediate MHC class II maturation and peptide loading.  (+info)

Cathepsin L antisense oligonucleotides in a human osteosarcoma cell line: effects on the invasive phenotype. (4/18)

Alterations in cathepsin L expression and trafficking have been associated with the progression and metastasis of several tumor entities. In the present study, we examined the effects of various cathepsin L antisense (as) phosphorothioate oligonucleotides on both the expression of cathepsin L and the invasive potential of the human osteosarcoma cell line MNNG/HOS. Seven oligonucleotides of 20-bp length each and one random control oligonucleotide were chosen to block cathepsin L expression. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in cathepsin L mRNA expression by the six antisense oligonucleotides at a concentration of 10 microM. Cathepsin L protein expression was reduced significantly (50-85%) by the antisense oligonucleotides, as compared with the controls. Adhesion to matrices of collagen I and matrigel was not affected. In in vitro motility and invasion assays performed in uncoated and precoated transwell chambers, the ability of cells to migrate through the filters was inhibited by 35-75% using antisense oligonucleotides. The random control did not show any inhibitory effect. These data demonstrate that in MNNG/HOS cells cathepsin L influences cellular malignancy by promoting migration and basement membrane degradation.  (+info)

Cysteine protease cathepsin F is expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions, is secreted by cultured macrophages, and modifies low density lipoprotein particles in vitro. (5/18)

During atherogenesis, low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in the arterial intima become modified and fuse to form extracellular lipid droplets. Proteolytic modification of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 may be one mechanism of droplet formation from LDL. Here we studied whether the newly described acid protease cathepsin F can generate LDL-derived lipid droplets in vitro. Treatment of LDL particles with human recombinant cathepsin F led to extensive degradation of apoB-100, which, as determined by rate zonal flotation, electron microscopy, and NMR spectroscopy, triggered both aggregation and fusion of the LDL particles. Two other acid cysteine proteases, cathepsins S and K, which have been shown to be present in the arterial intima, were also capable of degrading apoB-100, albeit less efficiently. Cathepsin F treatment resulted also in enhanced retention of LDL to human arterial proteoglycans in vitro. Cultured monocyte-derived macrophages were found to secrete active cathepsin F. In addition, similarly with cathepsins S and K, cathepsin F was found to be localized mainly within the macrophage-rich areas of the human coronary atherosclerotic plaques. These results suggest that proteolytic modification of LDL by cathepsin F may be one mechanism leading to the extracellular accumulation of LDL-derived lipid droplets within the proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix of the arterial intima during atherogenesis.  (+info)

Overexpression of cathepsin F, matrix metalloproteinases 11 and 12 in cervical cancer. (6/18)

BACKGROUND: Cervical carcinoma (CC) is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide and the first cause of death among the Mexican female population. CC progression shows a continuum of neoplastic transitions until invasion. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cathepsins play a central role on the enhancement of tumor-induced angiogenesis, cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis and connective tissue degradation. MMPs -2 and -9 expression has been widely studied in cervical cancer. Nevertheless, no other metalloproteinases or cathepsins have been yet related with the progression and/or invasion of this type of cancer. METHODS: Three HPV18 CC cell lines, two HPV16 CC cell lines and three HPV16 tumor CC tissues were compared with three morphologically normal, HPV negative, cervical specimens by cDNA arrays. Overexpression of selected genes was confirmed by end point semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR with densitometry. In situ hybridization and protein expression of selected genes was further studied by means of two tissue microarrays, one consisting of 10 HSIL and 15 CC and the other one of 15 normal cervical and 10 LSIL tissues. RESULTS: TIMP1, Integrins alpha 1 and 4, cadherin 2 and 11, Cathepsins F, B L2, MMP 9, 10 11 and 12 were upregulated and Cathepsin S, L, H and C, Cadherins 3 and 4, TIMP3, MMP 13, Elastase 2 and Integrin beta 8 were found to be downregulated by cDNA arrays. Endpoint RT-PCR with densitometry gave consistent results with the cDNA array findings for all three genes selected for study (CTSF, MMP11 and MMP12). In situ hybridization of all three genes confirmed overexpression in all the HSIL and CC. Two of the selected proteins were detected in LSIL, HSIL and CC by immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSION: Novel undetected CC promoting genes have been identified. Increased transcription of these genes may result in overexpression of proteins, such as CTSF, MMP11 and MMP12 which could contribute to the pathogenesis of CC.  (+info)

Murine cathepsin F deficiency causes neuronal lipofuscinosis and late-onset neurological disease. (7/18)

Cathepsin F (cat F) is a widely expressed lysosomal cysteine protease whose in vivo role is unknown. To address this issue, mice deficient in cat F were generated via homologous recombination. Although cat F-/- mice appeared healthy and reproduced normally, they developed progressive hind leg weakness and decline in motor coordination at 12 to 16 months of age, followed by significant weight loss and death within 6 months. cat F was found to be expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). cat F-/- neurons accumulated eosinophilic granules that had features typical of lysosomal lipofuscin by electron microscopy. Large amounts of autofluorescent lipofuscin, characteristic of the neurodegenerative disease neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), accumulated throughout the CNS but not in visceral organs, beginning as early as 6 weeks of age. Pronounced gliosis, an indicator of neuronal stress and neurodegeneration, was also apparent in older cat F-/- mice. cat F is the only cysteine cathepsin whose inactivation alone causes a lysosomal storage defect and progressive neurological features in mice. The late onset suggests that this gene may be a candidate for adult-onset NCL.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of the cathepsin F-like cysteine protease gene in Escherichia coli and its characterization. (8/18)

In this study, we have cloned a novel cDNA encoding for a papain-family cysteine protease from the Uni-ZAP XR cDNA library of the polychaete, Periserrula leucophryna. This gene was expressed in Escherichia coli using the T7 promoter system, and the protease was characterized after partial purification. First, the partial DNA fragment (498 bp) was amplified from the total RNA via RT-PCR using degenerated primers derived from the conserved region of cysteine protease. The full-length cDNA of cysteine protease (PLCP) was prepared via the screening of the Uni-ZAP XR cDNA library using the 32P-labeled partial DNA fragment. As a result, the PLCP gene was determined to consist of a 2591 bp nucleotide sequence (CDS: 173-1024 bp) which encodes for a 283-amino acid polypeptide, which is itself composed of an 59-residue signal sequence, a 6-residue propeptide, a 218-residue mature protein, and a long 3'-noncoding region encompassing 1564 bp. The predicted molecular weights of the preproprotein and the mature protein were calculated as 31.8 kDa and 25 kDa, respectively. The results of sequence analysis and alignment revealed a significant degree of sequence similarity with other eukaryotic cysteine proteases, including the conserved catalytic triad of the Cys90, His226, and Asn250 residues which characterize the C1 family of papain-like cysteine protease. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the novel gene were deposited into the GenBank database under the accession numbers, AY390282 and AAR27011, respectively. The results of Northern blot analysis revealed the 2.5 kb size of the transcript and ubiquitous expression throughout the entirety of the body, head, gut, and skin, which suggested that the PLCP may be grouped within the cathepsin F-like proteases. The region encoding for the mature form of the protease was then subcloned into the pT7-7 expression vector following PCR amplification using the designed primers, including the initiation and termination codons. The recombinant cysteine proteases were generated in a range of 6.3% to 12.5% of the total cell proteins in the E. coli BL21(DE3) strain for 8 transformants. The results of SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis indicated that a cysteine protease of approximately 25 kDa (mature form) was generated. The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme were determined to be approximately 9.5 and 35 degrees, respectively, thereby indicating that the cysteine protease is a member of the alkaline protease group. The evaluation of substrate specificity indicated that the purified protease was more active towards Arg-X or Lys-X and did not efficiently cleave the substrates with non-polar amino acids at the P1 site. The PLCP evidenced fibrinolytic activity on the plasminogen-free fibrin plate test.  (+info)

Cathepsin F is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSF gene. Cathepsins are papain family cysteine proteinases that represent a major component of the lysosomal proteolytic system. In general, cathepsins contain a signal sequence, followed by a propeptide and then a catalytically active mature region. The very long (251-amino acid residues) proregion of the cathepsin F precursor contains a C-terminal domain similar to the pro-segment of cathepsin L-like enzymes, a 50-residue flexible linker peptide, and an N-terminal domain predicted to adopt a cystatin-like fold. The cathepsin F proregion is unique within the papain family cysteine proteases in that it contains this additional N-terminal segment predicted to share structural similarities with cysteine protease inhibitors of the cystatin superfamily. This cystatin-like domain contains some of the elements known to be important for inhibitory activity. CTSF encodes a predicted protein of 484 amino acids that contains a 19-residue signal ...
A recessive, adult-onset neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (NCL) occurs in Tibetan terriers. A genome-wide association study restricted this NCL locus to a 1.3 Mb region of canine chromosome 2 which contains canine ATP13A2. NCL-affected dogs were homozygous for a single-base deletion in ATP13A2, predicted to produce a frameshift and premature termination codon. Homozygous truncating mutations in human ATP13A2 have been shown by others to cause Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS), a rare neurodegenerative disease. These findings suggest that KRS is also an NCL, although analysis of KRS brain tissue will be needed to confirm this prediction. Generalized brain atrophy, behavioral changes, and cognitive decline occur in both people and dogs with ATP13A2 mutations: however, other clinical features differ between the species. For example, Tibetan terriers with NCL develop cerebellar ataxia not reported in KRS patients and KRS patients exhibit parkinsonism and pyramidal dysfunction not observed in affected Tibetan ...
Complete information for CTSF gene (Protein Coding), Cathepsin F, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
My lab explores two related themes, those of synapse loss and neurodegeneration. Synapse loss is an early, defining event in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinsons disease. In these prolonged diseases, decreases in synapse density are the best correlates of disease progression.Yet, little is known about the pathways that maintain synapses and their roles in aging and neurodegeneration. We are characterizing a novel presynaptic mechanism for the prevention of synapse loss and neurodegeneration involving the co-chaperone Cysteine String Protein alpha. This gene is also mutated in adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, a neurodegenerative disorder with lysosomal pathology. We are also screening for new synapse maintenance genes using a dissociated neuronal culture system ...
The source of new beta-cells in adult human pancreas remains incompletely elucidated with recent studies in rodents providing evidence for neogenesis from progenitor cells in addition to self-replication. The aim of this study was to investigate expression of pluripotency-associated stem cell markers in proliferative cultures derived from adult human pancreas.Human pancreatic tissue was obtained from deceased donors following ethical approval and relative consent. Islet-enriched fraction was separated from the retrieved organ by digestion and density gradient centrifugation. Dissociated cells were seeded in adherent culture forming proliferative islet survivor cells(ISCs). These were characterized at fifth passage by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, FACS, Western blot and transfection studies with an OCT4 promoter-driven reporter.Nuclear expression of the pluripotency-associated stem cell marker complex OCT4 / SOX2 / NANOG was confirmed in ISCs. The phenotype constituted approximately 8% ...
Recent research has confirmed the presence of Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like progenitors (MPC) in both normal and osteoarthritic cartilage. However, there is only limited information concerning how MPC markers are expressed with osteoarthritis (OA) progression. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of various MPC markers in different OA grades. Human osteoarthritic tibial plateaus were obtained from ten patients undergoing total knee replacement. Each sample had been classified into a mild or severe group according to OARSI scoring. Tissue was taken from each specimen and mRNA expression levels of CD105, CD166, Notch 1, Sox9, Acan and Col II A1 were measured at day 0 and day 14 (2 weeks in vitro). Furthermore, MSC markers: Nucleostemin, CD90, CD73, CD166, CD105 and Notch 1 were studied by immunofluorescence. mRNA levels of MSC markers did not differ between mild and severe OA at day 0. At day 14, protein analysis showed that proliferated cells from both sources expressed all 6 MSC
The propeptide of cruzipain--a potent selective inhibitor of the trypanosomal enzymes cruzipain and brucipain, and of the human enzyme cathepsin F
Researchers have made use of an an innovative and new technology to identify the gene responsible for Kufs disease, a rare and fatal hereditary brain disorder.
International scientific meeting on the Web, with Keynote Addresses, Invited Symposia, Poster Sessions, and an Exhibitors Foyer. Sessions in basic and clinical sciences, education, and public health. Hosted by McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Dec 7-16th, 1998. symposium Presentation
They sequenced DNA from the two related Kufs disease patients and from a first-degree relative who did not have the disease, and then they compared the results.. Using a technique called whole-exome sequencing to analyze only the regions of DNA that make proteins, which make up about 2 percent of a persons genetic material, they began to home in on the genetic changes responsible for Kufs disease.. Its nearly impossible to tell when a single DNA variant causes a problem because there are about 3,000 unique variations in every person, Cruchaga says. But by comparing the DNA from the two related patients to the unaffected relative, we narrowed down the number of variants to 24.. Then, the researchers studied the DNA of more family members and winnowed the number of variants to three. Finally, they looked at DNA from people without the disease and found that two of the variants occurred in some healthy people without Kufs disease. That left only one causal variant.. The researchers also ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
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Adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, also known as Kufs disease, is a neurodegenerative disorder without retinal involvement. There are 2 overlapping phenotypes: type A, characterized by progressive myoclonic epilepsy, and type B, characterized by dementia and a variety of motor-system signs (summary by {1:Arsov et al., 2011}). In general, the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure ({8:Mole et al., 2005}). The ultrastructural pattern of lipopigment in CLN4 comprises a mixed pattern of granular, curvilinear, and fingerprint profiles. ({8:Mole et al., 2005}). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 ({256730 ...
Adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, also known as Kufs disease, is a neurodegenerative disorder without retinal involvement. There are 2 overlapping phenotypes: type A, characterized by progressive myoclonic epilepsy, and type B, characterized by dementia and a variety of motor-system signs (summary by {1:Arsov et al., 2011}). In general, the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure ({8:Mole et al., 2005}). The ultrastructural pattern of lipopigment in CLN4 comprises a mixed pattern of granular, curvilinear, and fingerprint profiles. ({8:Mole et al., 2005}). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 ({256730 ...
The Ustilago maydis lipase UM03410 belongs to the mostly unexplored Candida antarctica lipase (CAL-A) subfamily. The two lipases with […] the highest identity are a lipase from Sporisorium reilianum and the prototypic CAL-A. In contrast to the other CAL-A-type lipases, this hypothetical U. maydis lipase is annotated to possess a prolonged N-terminus of unknown function. Here, we show for the first time the recombinant expression of two versions of lipase UM03410: the full-length form (lipUMf) and an N-terminally truncated form (lipUMs). For comparison to the prototype, the expression of recombinant CAL-A in E. coli was investigated. Although both forms of lipase UM03410 could be expressed functionally in E. coli, the N-terminally truncated form (lipUMs) demonstrated significantly higher activities towards p-nitrophenyl esters. The functional expression of the N-terminally truncated lipase was further optimized by the appropriate choice of the E. coli strain, lowering the cultivation ...
MO-DC generated in vitro serve as a model type of DC to unravel the complex interactions among DC maturation, MHC class II peptide loading, and endocytic transport (3, 33, 34). The emerging picture suggests that endocytic protease activity is regulated by differential activity of the lysosomal ATPase during DC maturation (3). By analyzing lysosomal MBP processing at pH 5.0 in vitro, we have here mimicked the conditions present in the lysosomal compartment of DC in the activated state in vivo.. The MHC class II-associated proteolytic machinery is characterized by a hierarchical proteolytic cascade, where the initial step controls the efficiency of Ag processing, peptide presentation, and T cell activation (14). Different types of APC as well as primary cells and immortalized cell lines contain distinct activity patterns of endocytic proteases (11, 17, 31, 35, 36, 37) which might result in different processing pathways for a given Ag and hence in different selections of peptides presented. We here ...
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a treatment-refractory subtype of human cancer arising from stratified epithelium of the skin, lung, esophagus, oropharynx and other tissues. A unifying feature of SCC is high-level expression of the p53 related protein p63 (TP63) in 80% of cases. The major p63 isoform expressed in SCC is ΔNp63α, an N-terminally truncated form which functions as a key SCC cell survival factor by mechanisms that are unclear. In this study we demonstrate that ΔNp63α associates with HDAC1 and HDAC2 to form an active transcriptional repressor complex that can be targeted to therapeutic advantage. Repression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member genes including PUMA by p63/HDAC is required for survival of SCC cells. Cisplatin chemotherapy, a mainstay of SCC treatment, promotes dissociation of p63 and HDAC from the PUMA promoter, leading to increased histone acetylation, PUMA activation and apoptosis. These effects are recapitulated upon targeting the p63/HDAC complex selectively ...
Firstly, we analyzed hAFC samples for the expression of germ cell markers; in agreement to previous reports [11], we observed a consistently high expression of OCT4 and CD133. However, when we examined additional markers we did not observe expression of genes specific to germ cell differentiation. In this regard, it was reported that hAFCs had the ability to form embryoid bodies (EBs) when cultured under conditions without anti-differentiation factors and without contact to feeder cells. Moreover, the formation of such three-dimensional multicellular aggregates was accompanied by a decrease in stem cell marker expression and by the induction of differentiation into different cell lineages [23]. Hence herein hAFCs kept under a stem cell culture system yielded a high number of clones that when cultured in suspension without anti-differentiation factors, spontaneously formed multicellular EBs and harbored high differentiation potential. Moreover, when we cultured EBs in the presence of germ cell ...
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered as the origin of tumor relapse. Here, we investigated the effects of Fructus Viticis total flavonoids (FVTF) on the characteristics of lung cancer stem-like cells (LCSLCs) derived from human small cell lung cancer NCI-H446 cell line and its potential mechanism. Human small cell lung cancer NCI-H446 cell line was cultured in vitro. The CD133+ cells were sorted from NCI-H446 cell line by magnetic separation. The suspended culture with stem cell-conditioned medium was used to amplify CD133+ sphere-forming cells (SFCs). The stem cell characteristics of CD133+ SFCs were evaluated using cell self-renewal capacity by tumor sphere formation assay, migration and invasion capacity by Transwell assay, tumorigenicity by xenograft model in nude mouse and cancer stem cell markers expression levels by western blot. The effects of FVTF on the properties of LCSLCs were examined by tumorsphere formation assay and transwell chamber assay. The expression level of p-Akt was determined
Purpose: Diabetic corneas have ultrastructural changes that can lead to dry eye, abnormal healing after trauma. The literature is sparse on the topic of Asian diabetics corneas with good Va and automated refractive keratometry readings. At our retina clinic in California, we retrospectively evaluated the keratometry readings of corneas of Diabetic patients in an Asian population. Are there external refractive or superficial keratometry differences in Asian Diabetic vs Asian Control eyes?. Methods: Corneal topography was performed using Topcon KR-8000PA Auto Kerato- Refractometer (Oakland, NJ) on patients as part of the refractive screening prior to dilation for evaluation of diabetic retinopathy ...
Quantification of the 5 noncoding region of the genomic and antigenomic HCV RNA strands was done using a strand-specific real-time RT-PCR, with use of the thermostable enzyme Tth for the synthesis of cDNA at a high temperature. Thus, for the amplification of the genomic HCV RNA strand, cDNA was generated in 20 L of reaction mixture that contained the total RNA extracted from 200 uL of serum or 0.5 ug of total RNA from liver specimens or PBMC samples, 50 pmol/L antisense primer UTRLC2 (5-CAAGCACCCTATCAGGCAGT-3), 1 mmol/L MnCl2, 200 umol/L each deoxynucleotide triphosphate, 1X RT buffer (Applied Biosystems), and 5 U of Tth (Applied Biosystems). After 20 min at 65 C, the RT activity was inactivated by Mn2+ chelation with 8 uL of the 10X chelating buffer (Applied Biosystems), followed by heating at 95 C for 30 min. For amplification of antigenomic HCV RNA, cDNA was synthesized under the same conditions by the addition of 50 pmol/L sense primer UTRLC1 (5-CTTCACGCAGAAAGCGTCTA-3). Real-time PCR was ...
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are inherited neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders caused by the accumulation of ceroid and lipofuscin in various cell types, mainly cells of the cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex, and retina (Dyken et al. 1988; Williams and Mole 2012). Characteristic features at onset include clumsiness; deterioration of vision and psychomotor functions; seizures; and behavioral changes. Progression of clinical features results ultimately in total disability, blindness and premature death. Although NCL affects primarily children, age of onset of symptoms varies from infancy to adulthood. The incidence of NCL is variable and ranges from 1.3 to 7 per 100,000 (Mole and Williams 2013). However, it is more common in northern European populations, particularly Finland where the incidence may reach 1 in 12,500 individuals and a carrier frequency of 1 in 70 (Rider and Rider 1988). NCLs are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. A nomenclature and classification ...
Pyroglutamate amyloid-β peptides (pGlu-Aβ) are particularly pernicious forms of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) present in Alzheimers disease (AD) brains. pGlu-Aβ peptides are N-terminally truncated forms of full-length Aβ peptides (flAβ(1-40/42) ) in which
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I am trying to find if there is anyone in Brisbane, QLD, Australia who has the human osteosarcoma cell line U-2 OS in their lab. Any suggestions on how to get this information would be helpful Thank you Helen ...
Introduction to Brain Tumor Stem Cells -- Isolation and Culture of Glioblastoma Brain Tumor Stem Cells -- Establishment and Culture of Patient-Derived Primary Medulloblastoma Cell Lines -- Bioinformatic Strategies for the Genomic and Epigenomic Characterization of Brain Tumors -- Detecting Stem Cell Marker Expression Using the NanoString nCounter System -- Flow Cytometric Analysis of Brain Tumor Stem Cells -- In Vitro Self-Renewal Assays for Brain Tumor Stem Cells -- Differentiation of Brain Tumor Initiating Cells -- The Study of Brain Tumor Stem Cell Migration -- The Study of Brain Tumor Stem Cell Invasion -- Cell Cycle Dynamics in Glioma Cancer Stem Cells -- Embryonic Stem Cell Models of Human Brain Tumors -- Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Protocols for the Cancer and Developmental Biology Laboratory -- EPH Profiling of BTIC Populations in Glioblastoma Multiforme Using CyTOF -- Pooled Lentiviral CRISPR-Cas9 Screens for Functional Genomics in Mammalian Cells -- In Vitro Assays for ...
We describe a comprehensive and practical protocol for fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments with live cells. Although ...
Ravina berei Drav Huna (499 or 421 CE). Rosh Metivta of Sura. He, together with his teacher, Rav Ashi, collected and commented upon the Gemara of what would henceforth be known as the Talmud Bavli.. Rav Azariah min Haadumim, author of Meor Einayim (1577).. Rav Shlomo Zalman Yosef of Vyelpol (1857).. Rav Dov Ber of Levo, son on Rav Yisrael of Ruzhin (1875).. Rav Yisrael Aryeh of Premishlan (1890).. Rav Dov Ber Livshitz, Rav of Sardnik (1900). Rav Yisrael Taub of Modzhitz, author of Divrei Yisrael (1849-1920). He was the son of Rav Shmuel Eliyahu Taub of Zvolin (1888) and the grandson of Rav Yechezkel Taub of Kuzmir (1856), who was one of the students of the Chozeh of Lublin. He became the first Rebbe of Modzhitz and was succeeded by his son, Shaul Yedidya Elazer. Legend has it that in 1913 Taub composed a 30-minute negun while having his leg amputated without anesthesia.. Rav Yisrael Friedman, the second Tchortkover Rebbe (1934, 1933, or 1932). Rav Yechiel Michel Hager of Horodenka (1941). One ...
Features and specs for the Used 2010 Toyota RAV4, including fuel economy, transmission, warranty, engine type, cylinders, drivetrain and more.
Background: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most predominant bone tumor in individuals between 10-25 yrs of age. Cisplatin is the most widely used chemotherapeutic agent for OS management, it significantly enhances the survival rate. Resistance to the drug, toxicities of high doses and metastasis are the major concerns in the treatment. Objective: Our primary objective is to investigate effects of calcitriol in combination with cisplatin on the osteosarcoma cell apoptosis, invasion and migration. Our hypothesis is pretreatment of OS cells with calcitriol would sensitize them for cisplatin therapy leading to decrease in concentration for IC50. Secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of calcitriol on migration and invasion of OS cell lines, and the role of matrix metalloproteins (MMPs) in migration/invasion. Design: Previous findings in our lab suggests, calcitriol act as differentiation agent in human osteosarcoma cell lines 143B and SaOS-2. The dose response of cisplatin with and without ...
Yamawaki H, Sato K, Hori M, Ozaki H, Nakamura S, Nakayama H, Doi K, Karaki H. Impairment of EDR by a long-term PDGF treatment in organ-cultured rabbit mesenteric artery. Am J Physiol. 1999 07; 277(1):H318-23 ...
Rav Shmuel Auerbach, rosh yeshiva of Yeshiva Maalos Hatorah and son of Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach ztl, was released today from the hospital after undergoing a complex catheterization. The procedure was performed yesterday at Hadassah Ein Kerem Medical Center in southwest Yerushalayim.. Rav Shmuel remained hospitalized for observation for 24 hours after the catheterization, and doctors seem to be pleased with his condition. Rav Shmuel will continue his recovery at home.. It is hoped that Rav Shmuel can resume his regular schedule by the end of this week.. Rav Shmuel was greeted by a crowd of neighbors and onlookers as he arrived to his home on Rechov Ibn Shaprut in the Shaarei Chesed neighborhood of Yerushalayim at about noon.. All are asked to daven for the complete recovery of Rav Shmuel ben Chaya Rivka, besoch shear cholei Yisroel.. {Matzav.com Israel New Bureau}. ...
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of bone cancer in children and adolescents. With the current treatment approaches, the survival rate is 60-70%. Therapies for treating OS have remained the same over the past thirty years. There is a need for developing more effective therapies, which can significantly improve the survival of the patients who do not respond well to current therapeutic strategies. Epidemiological evidence indicates impaired regulation of cell proliferation and survival appears to be a key event in the etiology of the disease. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol or 1,25D) has significant antineoplastic activity by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing differentiation and apoptosis in breast, prostate, colon, skin, and brain cancer. The molecular mechanisms for calcitriol-mediated cancer prevention are still unknown. In particular, the role of calcitriol in modulating OS needs to be investigated. The primary ...
Esophageal cancer is consists of highly heterogeneous populations, which include cancer initiating cells, so-called cancer stem cells. Although histone modification is shown to be an essential factor for normal stem cell maintenance, the involvement of histone demethylase in cancer progression has been poorly understood. We investigated the functional roles of the Histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) demethylase KDM5B, a crucial epigenetic regulator that is required for normal embryonic development and cell growth. KDM5B knockdown resulted in the suppression of esophageal cancer cell growth, sphere formation and invasion ability and was associated with loss of epithelial cell marker expression. These tumor inhibitory effects were reverted subsequent to subcutaneous inoculation of these cells into immune-deficient mice. These results indicated that KDM5B plays an important role in maintaining cancer stem cells and justifies the rationale for studying the effects of continuous inhibition of this epigenetic ...
Mobilise - to prepare, to awaken and to move.. NOIs classic, longest running course, Mobilisation of the Nervous System, has evolved. Based on the latest evidence, the course has been completely updated and re-written.. The immune system via its interaction with the nervous system is a critical player in learning, memory, movement and sensitivity. This new understanding integrates peripheral and central processes and targets therapy towards healthy neuroimmune balance.. This comprehensive lecture and hands-on course integrates the latest research on neurodynamics and neuroimmune science to provide a clinical reasoning framework to identify those patients who will benefit from neuroimmune mobilisation.. The course updates and refines the essential practical skills to examine and manage the physical health of the nervous system - skilled, safe and appropriately timed handling techniques are covered in detail during practical sessions.. A comprehensive course on the diagnosis and management of ...
... collagenases such as cathepsin B1; and hyaluronidase. PSGAG inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which is released upon ...
Cathepsin E. TALE homeodomain transcription factors. Hydrocortisone. Since keratinocyte differentiation inhibits keratinocyte ... "The role of cathepsin E in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes". Biological Chemistry. 392 (6): 571-85. doi:10.1515/BC. ...
Cathepsin D is involved in CLN10. DNA analysis can be used to help confirm the diagnosis of Batten disease. When the mutation ...
Miv-711 Cathepsin K inhibitor for osteoarthritis. Fast track (FDA) MALT1 "Swedish pharma firm Medivir partners GVK Bio for drug ...
Mediation by cathepsin G has been suggested. The treatment of RAS usually involves administering dexamethasone IV, with the ...
"Cathepsins as transcriptional activators? Developmental Cell 2004, 6(5):610-1. Goulet B, and Nepveu A. "Complete and Limited ...
These cysteine proteases include calpain, caspase, and cathepsin. These three proteins are examples of detectable signs of ...
... α: cathepsin L-like protein in sponge biosilica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95(11), pp.6234- ... Silicateins are homologous to the cysteine protease cathepsin. In sponges, the silicatein enzymes reside in the axial filaments ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... 2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... by proteases such as cathepsins. Collagen is a component of epithelial and endothelial basement membranes. Endostatin, as a ...
Under the direction of Joseph S. Fruton, Jones' dissertation research involved the catalytic properties of cathepsin C, a type ... She pursued these interests by studying androsterone and monopalmitin at Armour, and cathepsin C at Yale. Jones worked as ... Her doctorate was entitled: Transamidation reactions catalyzed by cathepsin C. Jones completed her studies in three years ... Transamidation Reactions Catalyzed by Cathepsin C. Yale University, 1952. Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L. ( ...
... cathepsin G and proteinase 3. Phthalimide derivatives were seen to be inactive, while saccharin derivatives were seen to be ... cathepsin G and proteinase 3". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 3 (2): 187-193. doi:10.1016/0968-0896(95)00013-7. PMID 7796053 ...
In humans, the group of cathepsin cysteine proteases or cysteine cathepsins comprises 11 family members, cathepsins B, C, F, H ... Examination of cathepsin activity by using chemical probes and in vivo imaging techniques demonstrated an increase in cathepsin ... Cathepsins also can be secreted by cells, associate with the cell surface, and degrade the ECM. A study of all 11 members of ... Cathepsin L is active at neutral pH by associating with a p41 splice variant of the MHC class II-associated invariant chain ...
They are also members of the cathepsin family and can digest lysosomes. Cry6Aa triggers a magnesium dependent adenylyl cyclase/ ...
Hook G, Yu J, Toneff T, Kindy M, Hook V. "Brain pyroglutamate amyloid-β is produced by cathepsin B and is reduced by the ... Kumar P, Nachagari D, Fields C, Franks J, Albritton LM (October 2007). "Host cell cathepsins potentiate Moloney murine leukemia ... reduces brain amyloid-β and improves memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease animal models by inhibiting cathepsin B, but not ... and Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Epoxysuccinyl-Peptide Derivatives as Cathepsin B Inhibitors". Biological & ...
Of these hydrolytic enzymes, cathepsin K is of most importance. Cathepsin K and other cathepsins[edit]. Cathepsin K is a ... Several other cathepsins are expressed in osteoclasts including cathepsins B, C, D, E, G, and L. The function of these cysteine ... characterised by a lack of functional cathepsin K expression. Knockout studies of cathepsin K in mice lead to an osteopetrotic ... Studies on cathepsin L knockout mice have been mixed, with a report of reduced trabecular bone in homozygous and heterozygous ...
2002). "Evidence that E-box promoter elements and MyoD transcription factors play a role in the induction of cathepsin B gene ... They act by transactivating cathepsin B promotor activity and inducing its mRNA expression. E47 is produced by alternative ...
Cathepsin, Lectin. The Bathini Goud Brothers in Hyderabad, India, promote the swallowing of live murrel fish and herbs as an ... cathepsin L: bioinformatics characterization, gene expression and proteolytic activity". Biologia. 39 (3): 395-406. doi:10.2478 ...
SDF stops the degradation of cysteine cathepsins, which are also responsible for dentine collagen degradation. A systematic ... "The inhibitory effects of silver diamine fluorides on cysteine cathepsins". primary. Journal of Dentistry. 42 (3): 329-35. doi: ...
Cathepsin S which is produced by most of the antigen- presenting cells along with mTECs is absent in cTECs. Cathepsin L not ... MHC II processing and presentation in cTECs took advantage of several proteolytic pathways including cathepsin L, encoded by ... Honey, Karen; Nakagawa, Terry; Peters, Christoph; Rudensky, Alexander (2002-05-20). "Cathepsin L Regulates CD4+ T Cell ... "Cathepsin L: critical role in Ii degradation and CD4 T cell selection in the thymus". Science. 280 (5362): 450-453. doi:10.1126 ...
"Early immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis in ruminants using recombinant Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L-like protease". International ...
"Table 1: The Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in cathepsin B protein mined from literature (PMID: 16492714)". dx.doi.org. doi: ...
These markers include angiotensin-converting enzyme, cathepsin S, chitotriosidase, and CCL18 in the blood plasma; and tumor ...
... and cathepsin D. Cathepsin D has been proposed as the main target for ceramide formed in organelles called lysosomes, making ... 2004). "Cathepsin D links TNF-induced acid sphingomyelinase to Bid-mediated caspase-9 and -3 activation". Cell Death Differ. 11 ...
p-ANCA without nuclear extension occurs with antibodies to BPI, cathepsin G, elastase, lactoferrin and lysozyme. GS-ANA are ...
1997). "Cathepsin G, acid phosphatase, and alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor messenger RNA levels in keratoconus corneas". Invest. ...
Studies showed that adducts form between RAPTA compounds and proteins (especially cathepsin B and thioredoxin reductase(TrxR ... inhibition of thioredoxin reductase and cathepsin B by antitumor ruthenium(II)-arene compounds". J. Med. Chem. 54: 6773-6781. ...
A cysteine peptidase cathepsin B1 of T. regenti (TrCB1) localised in intestines of migrating schistosomula is capable of myelin ... "Multiple cathepsin B isoforms in schistosomula of Trichobilharzia regenti: identification, characterisation and putative role ... Experiments with laboratory prepared recombinant form of the cysteine peptidase cathepsin B2 of T. regenti (TrCB2) confirmed ...
"Molecular cloning and analysis of stage and tissue-specific expression of cathepsin B encoding genes from Fasciola gigantica". ...
"Requirement of the human GARP complex for mannose 6-phosphate-receptor-dependent sorting of cathepsin D to lysosomes". ...
These include lactoferrin, elastase, and cathepsin G. When the condition is a vasculitis, the target is usually MPO. However, ...
Cathepsin: Cathepsins ( Ancient Greek kata- "down" and hepsein "boil"; abbreviated CTS ) are proteases ( enzymes that degrades ... Cathepsins have a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover, e.g. bone resorption. They degrade polypeptides and are ... There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone ...
Cathepsin K detection by zymography Zymographic techniques for detection of cathepsins K, L, S, and V Zymography for detection ... Cathepsin zymography is a technique for quantifying enzymatic activity of the cathepsin family of cysteine proteases. It is ... While the proform of cathepsins are generally stable, once activated, proteases such as cathepsin K are vulnerable to ... After the renaturing period, the gel is then incubated in assay buffer to allow the now active cathepsins to proteolyze the ...
"Human cathepsins W and F form a new subgroup of cathepsins that is evolutionary separated from the cathepsin B- and L-like ... Wex T, Levy B, Wex H, Brömme D (1999). "Human cathepsins F and W: A new subgroup of cathepsins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ... 2003). "Characterization of novel anti-cathepsin W antibodies and cellular distribution of cathepsin W in the gastrointestinal ... Cathepsin W is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSW gene.[5][6][7] ...
"Entrez Gene: CTSD cathepsin D".. *^ Barrett AJ (April 1970). "Cathepsin D. Purification of isoenzymes from human and chicken ... Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes.[7] The main function of cathepsin D is ... The optimum pH for cathepsin D in vitro is 4.5-5.0.[13] Cathepsin-D is an aspartic protease that depends critically on ... Cathepsin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSD gene.[5][6] This gene encodes a lysosomal aspartyl protease ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
cathepsin K. Names. cathepsin O. cathepsin O1. cathepsin O2. cathepsin X. NP_000387.1. *EC 3.4.22.38 ... Metabolic mapping showed that cathepsin B, but not cathepsin K is active in GSC niches. Title: Cysteine cathepsins B, X and K ... cathepsin K in the development of chronic subdural hematoma Title: Role of cathepsin K in the development of chronic subdural ... Cathepsin K degradation of sclerostin is affected by hypoxia. Title: The regulation of sclerostin by cathepsin K in periodontal ...
Cathepsin B. A. 266. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 3 Gene Names: CTSB, CPSB. EC: 3.4.22.1. ... Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique ... Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique ... The chagasin-cathepsin B complex provides a structural framework for modeling and design of inhibitors for cruzipain, the ...
Incubation with the cathepsin L specific inhibitor, Z-FY-DMK, blocked cathepsin L signals, confirming the cathepsin L bands in ... Z-FY-DMK cathepsin L inhibitor does not inhibit all cathepsin activity of murine endometriotic lesions. Incubation with Z-FY- ... DMK, a selective inhibitor of cathepsin L, inhibited many of the cathepsin active bands but did not block all active cathepsin ... E-64 blocks all cathepsin proteolytic activity in murine endometriotic lesions. Incubation with the broad cathepsin inhibitor, ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
V. Zavanik-Bergant, A. Sekirnik, R. Golouh, V. Turk, and J. Kos, "Immunochemical localisation of cathepsin S, cathepsin L and ... Both stimulants caused a significant cathepsin S upregulation. A significantly elevated cathepsin S expression in gingival ... Role of Cathepsin S in Periodontal Inflammation and Infection. S. Memmert,1,2 A. Damanaki,1 A. V. B. Nogueira,3 S. Eick,4 M. ... "Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is both a substrate of cathepsins S and K and a selective inhibitor of cathepsin L," Biochemistry, ...
Cathepsin K degrades both collagen and elastin, and is one of the most powerful proteases. Cathepsin S degrades elastin, and ... "We saw that the cathepsin K was going away much faster when there was cathepsin S present than when it was by itself," said ... "We kept increasing the amount of cathepsin S until the collagen was not affected at all because all of the cathepsin K was ... Barrys modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the ...
The cathepsin S protease is implicated in generation of chronic pain by releasing a cytokine. ... The cathepsin S protease is implicated in generation of chronic pain by releasing a cytokine. ...
Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry. Graham Simmons, Dhaval N. Gosalia, ... Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry. Graham Simmons, Dhaval N. Gosalia, ... Cathepsin-L-specific inhibitor blocks infection. (A) MDL28170 inhibits CTSL activity with an IC50 of 2.5 nM. A 1,000-compound ... Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ...
A direct immunohistochemical method of high specificity is presented for the demonstration of sites of cathepsin B1. Antisera ... Snellman, O.: Cathepsin B, the lysosomal thiol proteinase of calf liver. Biochem. J. 114, 673-678 (1969)Google Scholar ... Otto, K.: Cathepsins B1 and B2. In: Tissue proteinases, ed. by A. J. Barrett and J. T. Dingle, p. 1-28. North-Holland ... V. Cathepsin B as a potential effector of LNA hydrolysis. Histochemie 12, 240-243 (1968)Google Scholar ...
Cathepsin S is a cysteine protease highly expressed in many type of cancers including colorectal, prostate, breast, and ... This mini-review provides an overview of therapeutic antibody targeting Cathepsin S strategies in the last half decade, ... In recent years, antibody research specifically targeting Cathepsin S to block/inhibit tumorigenic effects were generated some ... focusing on the rationale of cell-surface Cathepsin S targeted and their potential clinical application. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin E antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 3 publication(s ... Anti-Cathepsin E antibody (ab36996) at 1/1000 dilution + Murine reticulocyte lysate at 10 µg. Predicted band size: 42 kDa. ... High Expression of Cathepsin E in Tissues but Not Blood of Patients with Barretts Esophagus and Adenocarcinoma.. Ann Surg ... Cathepsin E is expressed abundantly in the stomach, Clara cells and alveolar macrophages of the lung, brain microglia, spleen, ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin D antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication ... This antibody reacts with human liver cathepsin D, and does not react with cathepsins B, H and L. ... IHC image of Cathepsin D staining in Human Lung formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica Bond™ ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) - Anti-Cathepsin D antibody (ab19555) ...
... administration of rat recombinant cathepsin B and rat recombinant cathepsin L at the same or higher doses than rrCatS had no ... Inhibition of spinal microglial cathepsin S for the reversal of neuropathic pain. Anna K. Clark, Ping K. Yip, John Grist, Clive ... cathepsin S;. rrCatS,. rat recombinant CatS;. LHVS,. morpholinurea-leucine-homophenylalanine-vinyl phenyl sulfone;. PNL,. ... Here, we report that in peripheral nerve-injured rats, the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) is critical for the ...
Protease activity Apolipoprotein A-I Aortic valve stenosis Cathepsin S C. Gebhard and F. Maafi contributed equally to this work ... Hooshdaran B, Kolpakov MA, Guo X, Miller SA, Wang T, Tilley DG, Rafiq K, Sabri A (2017) Dual inhibition of cathepsin G and ... Lindstedt L, Lee M, Oorni K, Bromme D, Kovanen PT (2003) Cathepsins F and S block HDL3-induced cholesterol efflux from ... Targeting circulating cathepsin S may lead to new therapies for human aortic valve disease. ...
Cathepsin B. Cathepsin B, EC 3.4.22.1 (APP secretase, APPS) (Cathepsin B1) [Cleaved into: Cathepsin B light chain; Cathepsin B ... Cathepsin BImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ... tr,E9PL32,E9PL32_HUMAN Cathepsin B (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CTSB PE=1 SV=2 ...
Cathepsin GAdd BLAST. ›26. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of ... sp,P17977,CATG_RAT Cathepsin G (Fragment) OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Ctsg PE=1 SV=1 IIGGREARPNSHPYMAFLLIQSPEGL ...
MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN B KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin B. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ... MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN K KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin K. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ... MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN L KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin L. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ...
Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) and Flow Cytometry ... Protein Aliases: Cathepsin K; Cathepsin O; cathepsin O1; Cathepsin O2; Cathepsin X; CTSK; CTSO; CTSO2 ... Cite Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from ...
Although a lysosomal, cathepsin B-dependent (Ctsb-dependent) pathway of apoptosis has been described, the contribution of this ...
C.-S. Hsieh, P. DeRoos, K. Honey, C. Beers, and A. Y. Rudensky, "A role for cathepsin L and cathepsin S in peptide generation ... J. Ärnlv, "Cathepsin S as a biomarker: where are we now and what are the future challenges?" Biomarkers in Medicine, vol. 6, no ... Inhibition of Cathepsin S Produces Neuroprotective Effects after Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice. Jianguo Xu,1 Handong Wang,1 Ke ... D. M. Small, R. E. Burden, and C. J. Scott, "The emerging relevance of the cysteine protease cathepsin S in disease," Clinical ...
Cathepsin D purified from a mutant strain has a lower activity per unit mass of pure enzyme. These data suggest that cad-1 is a ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ...
CATHEPSIN L-HUMAN LIVER. Cathepsin L is unstable at neutral pH, but is relatively stable in the range 4.5 to 5.5.. ...
Distribution of cathepsin L in human umbilical cord tissues.. [Tomasz Gogiel, Małgorzata Wolańska, Zofia Galewska, Piotr ... The active cathepsin L activity (without activation by pepsin digestion), its percentage in the total activity (after pepsin ... Cathepsin L activity and anti-papain inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors were quantified in extracts of separated ... Cathepsin L is a potent cysteine protease engaged in degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagens. We ...
... cathepsin B), Arg-AMC (cathepsin H), and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Arg-AMC (cathepsin L), were determined in rat lung throughout ... cathepsin-B and cathepsin-L activities [26].. *Furthermore, cathepsin L may play an important role in the degradation of the ... cathepsin B and cathepsin D. Thus, Ras utilizes different effectors to mediate transformation and to deregulate cathepsin L ... Cathepsin B-like and cathepsin L-like activities fell below control values initially, but from week 8 of the immunosuppressive ...
  • Cathepsin zymography is a technique for quantifying enzymatic activity of the cathepsin family of cysteine proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the proform of cathepsins are generally stable, once activated, proteases such as cathepsin K are vulnerable to inactivation in neutral pH environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • We hypothesize that cysteine cathepsins, a group of powerful extracellular matrix proteases, facilitate endometrial tissue invasion and endometriosis lesion establishment in the peritoneal wall and inhibiting this activity would decrease endometriosis lesion implantation. (nih.gov)
  • Intraperitoneal injection of the broad cysteine cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, significantly reduced the number of attached endometriosis lesions in our murine model compared to vehicle-treated controls demonstrating that cathepsin proteases contribute to endometriosis lesion establishment, and their inhibition may provide a novel, nonhormonal therapy for endometriosis. (nih.gov)
  • Dubbed "cathepsin cannibalism," the phenomenon may help explain problems with drugs that have been developed to inhibit the effects of these powerful proteases. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsin K degrades both collagen and elastin, and is one of the most powerful proteases. (innovations-report.com)
  • There is growing recognition that alternative proteolytic enzymes such as the lysosomal cathepsin proteases may initiate or propagate proapoptotic signals, but it is currently unclear how cathepsins mediate apoptosis. (biovision.com)
  • Lysosomes contain many well-characterized proteases, and cathepsin B has previously been utilized to release chemotherapeutics in the context of targetable antibody-based treatments. (bloodjournal.org)
  • SerpinB1 is a potent inhibitor of neutrophil serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G (CG). (bloodjournal.org)
  • 6 , 7 Interestingly, noncaspase cysteine proteases calpain and cathepsin D were reported to induce PMN apoptosis through activation of caspases. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 8 ⇓ ⇓ - 11 In addition, PMNs carry a unique set of serine proteases (neutrophil serine proteases [NSPs]) including elastase (NE), cathepsin G (CG), and proteinase-3 (PR3) stored active in primary granules. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In this review we discuss recent advances addressing the role of lysosomal proteases in the diverse aspects of the immune response, and also the involvement of cathepsins in the pathogenesis of diseases in which these proteases seem not to be properly under control. (smw.ch)
  • Cathepsin B is an ancient family of eukaryotic cysteine proteases. (apsnet.org)
  • Our findings provide evidence for the highly specialized functions of closely related cysteine cathepsin proteases in extra-embryonic development, and reinforce their importance for a successful outcome of pregnancy. (biologists.org)
  • Two of the genes identified from this screen were the cathepsin proteases Cts7 and Cts8 . (biologists.org)
  • Cathepsin cysteine proteases are effectors of invasive growth and angiogenesis during multistage tumorigenesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cathepsins are lysosomal proteases that breakdown peptide bonds linked to specific amino acids. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cathepsin B is the first described member of the family of lysosomal cysteine proteases. (neuromics.com)
  • Here we adopt a novel in silico target fishing method to reveal the target profile of RD. Cathepsin K (Ctsk) is one of the cysteine proteases that is over-expressed in osteoclasts and accounts for the increase in bone resorption in metabolic bone disorders such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. (mdpi.com)
  • Though cytokines and phagocyte, as host factors, have been shown to participate in defence against Aspergillus species yet the role of cysteine proteases, that is cathepsins, a lysosomal enzymes of phagocytes, remains unknown in fungal infection. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Cathepsins are cysteine proteases, act as endopeptidases and are mainly involved in intracellular protein degradation and involved in large number of diseases [ 11 , 12 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • To clarify the mode by which natural protein inhibitors manage to overcome this obstacle, we have analyzed the structure and function of cathepsin B in complexes with the Trypanosoma cruzi inhibitor, chagasin. (rcsb.org)
  • Incubation with the broad cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, completely abolished cathepsin activity detected by zymography identifying the active bands as cysteine cathepsins (A). Cathepsin protein levels in lesions were compared to eutopic uterine tissue by Western blot (B, n = 6). (nih.gov)
  • The requirement for cathepsin L proteolysis identifies a previously uncharacterized class of inhibitor for SARS-CoV infection. (pnas.org)
  • Using mass spectrometry analysis of cells treated with a pan cathepsin inhibitor, we observed an increased abundance of proteins involved in central carbon metabolism. (mcponline.org)
  • View detailed cathepsin H Inhibitor specifications, including cathepsin H Inhibitor CAS number, molecular weight, molecular formula and chemical structure, by clicking on the product name. (scbt.com)
  • Serine protease inhibitor serpinB1 protects neutrophils by inhibition of their own azurophil granule protease cathepsin G. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The anionic cathepsin B inhibitor ( l -3- trans -propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-carbony)- l -isoleucyl- l -proline (CA-074), at a concentration of 1 μ m , caused a nearly quantitative inhibition of extracellular cathepsin B but had no effect on Matrigel invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The membrane-permeant cathepsin B inhibitor, CA-074 methyl ester, and the higher concentration of CA-074 that inhibited intracellular cathepsin B both significantly reduced Matrigel invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our data demonstrate that cathepsin-L released from ex vivo rat hearts after ischaemia, and the cathepsin-L inhibitor CAA0225 improves cardiac function during ischaemia-reperfusion ex vivo . (bmj.com)
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain I, calpain II, cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. (promocell.com)
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain 1, calpain 2 which also inhibits cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. (promocell.com)
  • There were many hurdles in the drug discovery of cathepsin K inhibitors such as species differences not only in bone metabolism but also in amino acid sequences in the critical site of the target enzyme, discrepancies between PK/PD due to unique tissue distribution of the inhibitor affecting both efficacy and side effects originated from a characteristic intracellular or tissue distribution of some classes of compounds. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The cathepsin K inhibitor drug discovery was initiated based on a strong and osteoclast-specific expression of this enzyme. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This antibody is specific for Cathepsin E. (abcam.com)
  • This antibody reacts with human liver cathepsin D, and does not react with cathepsins B, H and L. (abcam.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-14270, RRID AB_2087668. (thermofisher.com)
  • This antibody reacts with the zymogen as well as the activated form of cathepsin D. It stains fibroblasts and macrophages strongly but stains the myoepithelial cells of breast weakly. (novusbio.com)
  • Cathepsin D Polyclonal antibody specifically detects Cathepsin D in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Cathepsin 6 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Cathepsin 6 in Mouse samples. (fishersci.com)
  • The main physiological functions of cathepsin D consist of metabolic degradation of intracellular proteins, activation and degradation of polypeptide hormones and growth factors , activation of enzymatic precursors, processing of enzyme activators and inhibitors, brain antigen processing and regulation of programmed cell death . (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a combination of modeling and experiments, researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University have shown that one type of cathepsin preferentially attacks another, reducing the enzyme's degradation of collagen. (innovations-report.com)
  • When the researchers combined the two cathepsins and allowed them to attack samples of elastin, they expected to see increased degradation of the protein. (innovations-report.com)
  • That theoretical result led to additional experiments in which the researchers measured a direct correlation between an increase in the amount of cathepsin S added to the experiment and a reduction in the degradation of collagen. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsin L is a potent cysteine protease engaged in degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • cathepsin H Inhibitors offered by Santa Cruz inhibit cathepsin H and, in some cases, other cellular metabolism and protein degradation related proteins. (scbt.com)
  • Collectively, these results identify an intracellular role for cathepsin B in matrix degradation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The experimental evidence indicates that a cathepsin B-like enzyme may be partly responsible for the autolytic degradation of cartilage matrix at pH5. (biochemj.org)
  • Cathepsin D is the lysosomal protease in the retinal pigment epithelium which is presumed to be the major enzyme involved in the degradation of shed discs during the photoreceptor renewal process. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cathepsin W is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSW gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSD gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin S was upregulated most strongly and thus further studied in vitro at gene and protein levels. (hindawi.com)
  • Barry's modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the elastin - a protein essential in arteries and the cardiovascular system. (innovations-report.com)
  • H. Phipps-Yonas, V. Semik, and K. T. Hastings, "GILT expression in B cells diminishes cathepsin S steady-state protein expression and activity," European Journal of Immunology , vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 65-74, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Cathepsin A Proteine (28) und Cathepsin A Kits (27) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Galactosialidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused by a combined deficiency of GM1 beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) and neuraminidase secondary to a defect of a lysosomal enzyme protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA) and mutation in CTSA gene. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Additionally we are shipping Cathepsin D Antibodies (347) and Cathepsin D Proteins (55) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cathepsin H is a disulfide-linked heavy and light chain dimer which belongs to the peptidase C1 protein family, can act both as an aminopeptidase and as an endopeptidase. (scbt.com)
  • After 4 days of diabetes, cathepsin B and L activities were decreased by 15-45% when correlated with the levels of glomerular protein or DNA. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cathepsin D is an estrogen-regulated protein associated with tissue breakdown. (genetex.com)
  • Partially purified Cathepsin B protein was inhibited by a variety of peptide inhibitors but evidence of inhibition by several pathogen-derived inhibitors that are secreted during infection was inconclusive. (bl.uk)
  • Mechanistic studies indicated that the absence of CatL reduced lesion chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 content, macrophage and T-cell in vitro transmigration, and angiogenesis, and altered the expression and activities of matrix metalloproteinases and other cysteinyl cathepsins in inflammatory cells, vascular cells, and AAA lesions. (harvard.edu)
  • Active cathepsins, cathepsin inhibitors and cathepsin antibodies are also available. (biovision.com)
  • 75 Cathepsin S (CTSS) Antibodies from 18 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 88 Cathepsin D (CTSD) ELISA Kits from 20 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Over-expression of cathepsin D stimulates tumorigenicity and metastasis as well as initiation of tumor apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • [21] [22] Knock-out of CTSD gene would cause intestinal necrosis and hemorrhage and increase apoptosis in thymus , indicating that cathepsin D is required in certain epithelial cells for tissue remodeling and renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although a lysosomal, cathepsin B-dependent (Ctsb-dependent) pathway of apoptosis has been described, the contribution of this pathway to tissue damage remains unclear. (jci.org)
  • Schwartz-Roberts, Shajahan, Cook, Wärri, Abu-Asab, Clarke: GX15-070 (obatoclax) induces apoptosis and inhibits cathepsin D- and L-mediated autophagosomal lysis in antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This suggests that cathepsin D exerts its apoptosis-stimulating effect upstream of caspase-3-like activation. (diva-portal.org)
  • This review sought to evaluate recent findings in this field, highlighting how among cathepsins, the inhibition of cathepsin S in particular, could play a significant role in diminishing the effects of CVD, especially for patients with CKD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Spi2A defects were ameliorated by cathepsin-B/L inhibition, and by genetic co-deletion of lysosomal cathepsin B. Pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin B/L enhanced EPO-induced red cell formation in normal mice. (rupress.org)
  • Osteocytes express genes required in osteoclasts for bone resorption, including cathepsin K (Ctsk), and lactation elevates their expression. (jci.org)
  • A composite docking approach for the identification and characterization of ectosteric inhibitors of cathepsin K. Law S, et al . (nih.gov)
  • The availability of a purified preparation of salmon muscle cathepsins should stimulate interest and research in the characterization of these enzymes and lead to better means for the control of catheptic activity in fish muscle. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The researchers used a variety of tests to determine the amount of each enzyme, including fluorogenic substrate analysis, Western blotting and multiplex cathepsin zymography - a sensitive technique developed in the Platt laboratory. (innovations-report.com)
  • Beyond demonstrating for the first time that cathepsins can attack one another, the research also shows the complexity of the body's enzyme system - and may suggest why drugs designed to inhibit cathepsins haven't worked as intended. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsin D purified from a mutant strain has a lower activity per unit mass of pure enzyme. (genetics.org)
  • The active cathepsin L activity (without activation by pepsin digestion), its percentage in the total activity (after pepsin activation), and the expression of the mature single-chain enzyme were the lowest in the umbilical cord arteries and the highest in Wharton's jelly. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A Novel Dual Fluorochrome Near-Infrared Imaging Probe for Potential Alzheimer's Enzyme Biomarkers-BACE1 and Cathepsin D. Molecules. (harvard.edu)
  • As cathepsin D activity is increased by cigarette smoke, the enzyme may contribute to lung tissue damage in smokers. (genetex.com)
  • We offer various assays to detect and quantify cathepsin, calpain and granzyme B activity and screen for respective enzyme inhibitors. (promocell.com)
  • Cathepsin D was released from lysosomes to the cytosol upon exposure to naphthazarin, and the enzyme activity decreased simultaneously. (diva-portal.org)
  • Later, cathepsin D reappeared in granules of increased size, and enzyme activity was restored. (diva-portal.org)
  • Lysosomal serine carboxypeptidase Cathepsin A (CTSA) is a multifunctional enzyme with distinct protective and catalytic function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Herein, we describe the preparation of a fused silica capillary, cathepsin D (CatD)-immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) using in a multidimensional High Performance Liquid Chromatography-based method (2D-HPLC) and zonal affinity chromatography as an alternative in the search for new ligands. (ovid.com)
  • The prodrug demonstrates enzyme-responsive drug release features, and over 95% GEM was released from the carrier with the Cathepsin B within 3 h. (rsc.org)
  • The presence of a cathepsin B-like enzyme in rabbit ear cartilage was established by the use of the synthetic substrates benzoyl- l -arginine amide and benzoyl- dl -arginine 2-naphthylamide. (biochemj.org)
  • The enzymic properties of cathepsin B in cartilage have been compared with an endogenous enzyme that liberates chondromucopeptide by degrading the cartilage matrix autocatalytically at pH5. (biochemj.org)
  • It was catalytically active, as demonstrated by active-site-directed radioiodination, and hydrolysed three cathepsin B substrates, two with Km values similar to those of lysosomal cathepsin B. In addition, the rates of inactivation of the sputum and lysosomal forms of the enzyme by L-3-carboxy-2,3-transepoxypropionyl-leucylamido(4-guanidino) butane (Compound E-64) were very similar. (portlandpress.com)
  • However, the sputum enzyme differed from lysosomal cathepsin B in the following respects. (portlandpress.com)
  • Inhibition by chicken cystatin was much weaker for sputum cathepsin B than for the lysosomal enzyme. (portlandpress.com)
  • The data suggest that the higher levels of cathepsin D activity observed in the freshly isolated RPE from the area centralis result from modulators of enzyme activity which are not present in culture. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase whose expression and trafficking are frequently altered in cancer, and plasma membrane and secreted forms are thought to contribute to the invasive and metastatic properties of malignant tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cathepsin-Z (CTSZ) is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase and member of the peptidase C1 family. (prospecbio.com)
  • Cathepsin K is a recently identified lysosomal cysteine proteinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CTSC / Cathepsin C / JP, a member of the peptidase C1 family, is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase that appears to be a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteinases in immune/inflammatory cells. (lsbio.com)
  • It is widely held that invasion is facilitated by a membrane or secreted form of cathepsin B that acts outside the cell to degrade ECM components at or adjacent to the surface of the invading cell. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These cells were tested in an in vitro Matrigel invasion assay with membrane-permeant and impermeant inhibitors of cathepsin B. The results, which provided direct proof for the participation of cathepsin B in matrix penetration, also yielded the unexpected finding that an intracellular form of cathepsin B was required for Matrigel invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sputum cathepsin B had greater stability at pH 7.5 and a higher apparent Mr, even after deglycosylation, than lysosomal cathepsin B. We conclude that the form of cathepsin B found in sputum is probably a truncated form of human procathepsin B, with some differences in properties that could be of physiological importance. (portlandpress.com)
  • Elevated levels of cathepsin H correlates with malignant progression of prostate tumors. (scbt.com)
  • Levels of cathepsin D have been positively correlated with recurring breast cancers of both node negative and node positive types. (genetex.com)
  • Human AAA lesions express high levels of cathepsin L (CatL), one of the most potent mammalian elastases. (harvard.edu)
  • Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans. (genetics.org)
  • These data suggest that cad-1 is a structural gene for cathepsin D. (genetics.org)
  • These results suggest that the ecdysone response elements are vital for activation of the promoter by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in the larval fat body and further support the crucial role of ecdysone signaling to control cathepsin D gene transcription. (antibodies-online.com)
  • By making use of EST data, sequenced cDNAs, and genomic trace sequences of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, we identified a total of 28 cathepsin B-like gene copies in the genome of A. pisum. (inria.fr)
  • In addition, this work also implicates Cathepsin B genes in senescence, a developmental form of PCD, via regulation of the senescence marker gene Senescence Associated Gene 12 ( SAG12 ). (bl.uk)
  • There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone resorption. (genenames.org)
  • Cathepsins have a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover, e.g. bone resorption. (genenames.org)
  • Impaired osteoclastic bone resorption leads to osteopetrosis in cathepsin-K-deficient mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To test this, we used an immunocompetent endometriosis mouse model and found that endometriotic lesions exhibited a greater than 5-fold increase in active cathepsins compared to tissue from peritoneal wall or eutopic endometrium, with cathepsins L and K specifically implicated. (nih.gov)
  • Human endometriosis lesions also exhibited greater cathepsin activity than adjacent peritoneum tissue, supporting the mouse results. (nih.gov)
  • Platt's long-term research has focused on cathepsins, including the development of sensitive tools and assays to quantify their activity in cells and tissue, as well as potential diagnostic applications for breast, lung and cervical cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • Keilová, H.: On the specificity and inhibition of cathepsins D and B. In: Tissue proteinases, ed. by A. J. Barrett and J. T. Dingle, p. 45-65. (springer.com)
  • IHC image of Cathepsin D staining in Human Lung formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica Bond™ system using the standard protocol F. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6, epitope retrieval solution 1) for 20 mins. (abcam.com)
  • Weight loss reduces adipose tissue cathepsin S and its circulating levels in morbidly obese women," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 1042-1047, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Arkona C, Wiederanders B. Expression, subcellular distribution and plasma membrane binding of cathepsin B and gelatinases in bone metastatic tissue. (springer.com)
  • Cathepsin F staining of paraffin-embedded human heart tissue sections. (neuromics.com)
  • The activity profiles of four cathepsins in the kidney and liver tissue were analysed and correlated with blood cytokines level in the presence and absence of antifungal compounds (amphotericin B, a standard drug and 2-(3,4-dimethyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-2-yl)-1-methylethyl pentanoate, isolated in our laboratory from natural source) treatment. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 344 Cathepsin D (CTSD) Antikörper von 36 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Cathepsins are intracellular proteinases that hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Surprisingly, at a concentration of 10 μ m , CA-074 slowly permeated the cells, causing an 80-95% inhibition of intracellular cathepsin B after 12 h, the duration of the invasion assay. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we describe how intracellular sigma peptide modulation of RPTPσ induces enhanced protease Cathepsin B activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • [11] The ultimate form of mature cathepsin D is composed of 337 amino acid residues, 196 amino acid residues in the heavy chain and 141 in the light chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distribution of the activity and expression of mature cathepsin L within the umbilical cord probably results from distinctions in the proenzyme activation process. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, we report that in peripheral nerve-injured rats, the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) is critical for the maintenance of neuropathic pain and spinal microglia activation. (pnas.org)
  • We have recently found that after peripheral nerve injury, the mRNA for the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) was up-regulated in the DRG because of CatS expression in infiltrating macrophages ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The lysosomal cysteine protease, cathepsin S, is increased in Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome brain: an immunocytochemical study," American Journal of Pathology , vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 848-860, 1995. (hindawi.com)
  • Mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans having about 10% of wild-type activity of the aspartyl protease cathepsin D have been isolated by screening. (genetics.org)
  • Recent work shows that the cysteine protease cathepsin S (Cat S) is required for the terminal step in CLIP formation in B cells and most dendritic cells (DCs), and in vitro can mediate all steps of digestion of class II-Ii complexes ( 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The protease cathepsin D is one such target involved in several diseases such as tumors, degenerative processes, and vital processes of parasites causing schistosomiasis. (ovid.com)
  • Here, we have found that one important mechanism by which peptide modulation of the receptor enhances axon outgrowth is through secretion of a protease, Cathepsin B, which enables digestion of CSPGs. (jneurosci.org)
  • CTSZ, which has been also known as cathepsin X and cathepsin P, exhibits carboxy-monopeptidase and carboxy-dipeptidase activities. (prospecbio.com)
  • BioVision's newly developed Cathepsin Activity Assay kits are fluorescence-based assays that utilize the preferred substrate sequence for each cathepsin, labeled with AFC (amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin). (biovision.com)
  • Cell lysates or other samples that contain cathepsins will cleave the synthetic substrate to release free AFC. (biovision.com)
  • Cathepsin F has the substrate specificity similar to that of cathepsins L and S. (neuromics.com)
  • The purpose of the research reported herein was to develop procedures for the purification of the cathepsin from salmon muscle. (oregonstate.edu)
  • It was decided to attempt the purification of the cathepsin optimally active at pH 3.7. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The purification was accomplished by extracting the salmon muscle cathepsin with two parts 0.2 N KC1. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The purification of cathepsin D from pig uterus by two-step affinity chromatography on concanavalin A- and pepstatin-Sepharose was described previously [Afting & Becker (1981) Biochem. (biochemj.org)
  • Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • The catalytic sites of cathepsin D include two critical aspartic residues ( amino acid 33 and 231) located on the 14 kDa and 34kDa chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • [13] Cathepsin-D is an aspartic protease that depends critically on protonation of its active site Asp residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, no defects in granulopoiesis or PMN homeostasis have been reported in mice deficient in cathepsin G ( CG −/− ), 15 neutrophil elastase ( NE −/− ), 16 , 17 or dipeptidylpeptidase I ( DPPI −/− ), which lack active NSPs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Neutrophil cathepsin G increases calcium flux and inositol polyphosphate production in cultured endothelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Exposure of endothelial cells (ENDO) to human neutrophil cathepsin G (CG) increases albumin flux across the endothelial monolayer. (jimmunol.org)
  • Identification of a human neutrophil angiotension II-generating protease as cathepsin G. J Clin Invest. (umassmed.edu)
  • Cathepsin K associates with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Elevated Cathepsin K potentiates metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsins are involved in disease processes as varied as cancer metastasis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and arthritis. (innovations-report.com)
  • Involvement of cathepsins in the invasion, metastasis and proliferation of cancer cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Cathepsin B is among the candidate proteinases believed to participate in invasion and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Besides caspases, cathepsins have recently been shown to be associated with cell death regulation [6-12] and various other physiological and pathological processes, such as maturation of the MHC class II complex, bone remodelling, keratinocyte differentiation, tumour progression and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, as well as atherosclerosis [13, 14] (table 1). (smw.ch)
  • We have manipulated the expression of cathepsin B in several tumor cell lines and measured their capacity to invade through a reconstituted extracellular (Matrigel) matrix. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We further describe how cathepsins can reach unexpected locations such as the extracellular space or the cytosol and the nuclear matrix. (springer.com)
  • Pepstatin A pretreatment did not prevent release of cathepsin D from lysosomes but did significantly inhibit subsequent naphthazarin-induced caspase activation and apoptotic morphology. (diva-portal.org)
  • Lysosomes and lysosomal cathepsins in cell death. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cysteinyl cathepsin K (CatK) is one of the most potent mammalian collagenases involved in cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Arampatzidou M, Rehders M, Dauth S, Yu DMT, Tedelind S, Brix K. Imaging of protease functions-current guide to spotting cysteine cathepsins in classical and novel scenes of action in mammalian epithelial cells and tissues. (springer.com)
  • The collagenolytic activity of cathepsin K is unique among mammalian proteinases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Fluorometric kit to for fast screening of potential cathepsin B (CTSB) inhibitors. (promocell.com)
  • E-64 blocks all cathepsin proteolytic activity in murine endometriotic lesions. (nih.gov)
  • Transient expression of human cathepsin B in a poorly metastatic B16F1 murine melanoma variant produced a 3-5-fold increase in cathepsin B activity and a comparable increase in invasiveness. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For measuring cathepsin B activity by fluorometer or fluorescence plate reader. (promocell.com)
  • We further demonstrate that incorporating a cathepsin B-cleavable linker between the BIM BH3 peptide and the hydrophobic tail within individual amphiphiles results in increased binding to recombinant BCL-2 proteins while also allowing for increased cellular uptake and mitochondrial localization leading to faster and more potent dose-dependent cytotoxicity and caspase activation in malignant cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • It is based on SDS-PAGE whereby samples tested for cathepsin activity are loaded into a polyacrylamide gel and then separated by molecular weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Very small amounts of enzymatic activity can be elucidated and is capable of resolving a femtomole of cathepsin K activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • [23] Cathepsin D enzymatic activity induces hydrolytic modification of apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins, including LDL, which means it may be involved in atherosclerosis as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxLDL inhibits differentiation and functional activity of osteoclasts via scavenger receptor-A mediated autophagy and cathepsin K secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique occluding loop that restricts access to the active site cleft. (rcsb.org)
  • Finally, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting cathepsin activity could block endometriosis lesion attachment and implantation in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Mouse endometriotic lesions exhibit elevated cathepsin proteolytic activity. (nih.gov)
  • Because cathepsins have harmful effects on critical proteins such as collagen and elastin, pharmaceutical companies have been developing drugs to inhibit activity of the enzymes, but so far these compounds have had too many side effects to be useful and have failed clinical trials. (innovations-report.com)
  • The work could affect not only the development of drugs to inhibit cathepsin activity, but could also lead to a better understanding of how the enzymes work together. (innovations-report.com)
  • By increasing the amount of cathepsin S ten-fold over the amount used in the original experiment, Platt and Barry were able to completely block the activity of cathepsin K, preventing damage to the collagen sample. (innovations-report.com)
  • The selective demonstration of cathepsin B activity by means of the naphthylamide reaction. (springer.com)
  • We evaluated the activity and expression of cathepsin L, and the inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors in the umbilical cord arteries, vein and Wharton's jelly. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin L activity and anti-papain inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors were quantified in extracts of separated umbilical cord tissues using fluorogenic substrates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin K (CatK) is a lysosomal protease with collagenolytic activity, and its secretion by osteoclasts is responsible for degrading organic bone matrix. (wiley.com)
  • Here we report that loss of cathepsin L (Cts L) is associated with a fast proliferation rate and enhanced glycolytic metabolism that depend on lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity. (mcponline.org)
  • This project aims to examine the utility of the proteolytic activity signatures of caspase 1 and cathepsin S (CTSS) as readouts of particle-induced inflammation and to elucidate the role and dynamic regulation of CTSS in response to cellular stress. (bl.uk)
  • Dariusz Szajda S, Jankowski M, Zalewska B, Kożuszko B, Gabrylewski W, Skrzydlewski Z. Activity of cancer procoagulant and cathepsin D in breast cancer. (termedia.pl)
  • BACKGROUND: Serum cathepsin B activity has been considered a potential marker of tumor progression. (lu.se)
  • The aim of this study was to assess serum cathepsin activity during tumor progression and regression. (lu.se)
  • Serum cathepsin B activity was determined, tumor volumes were measured, and. (lu.se)
  • RESULTS: Of the 45 BRT-treated rats, tumor regression was observed in 31 rats, and serum cathepsin activity was analyzed in these rats. (lu.se)
  • Regional comparisons of cathepsin D activity in bovine retinal pigment epithelium. (arvojournals.org)
  • In this study, the cathepsin D activity in RPE cells from the posterior area centralis was compared to the activity in cells from the equatorial region of the same bovine eyes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Analysis of freshly isolated RPE cells from 30 eyes indicated that cells from the area centralis have significantly higher cathepsin D activity than cells from the more peripheral retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • However, we here report an unexpected finding that cysteine protease genes of the family cathepsin B are massively amplified in the lineage of aphids, and that many of the protease genes exhibit gut-specific over-expression. (inria.fr)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of all the cathepsin B genes in aphids revealed that genic expansion has continuously proceeded with basal, intermediary and recent duplications. (inria.fr)
  • Additionally cathepsin D has been associated with amyloid formation in Alzheimer's plaques. (genetex.com)
  • [7] The main function of cathepsin D is to degrade proteins and activate precursors of bioactive proteins in pre-lysosomal compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers for the first time have shown that members of a family of enzymes known as cathepsins - which are implicated in many disease processes - may attack one another instead of the bodily proteins they normally degrade. (innovations-report.com)
  • Self-proteins can be processed by cathepsins (Cats) within endocytic compartments and loaded to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules for CD4(+) T cell inspection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and expression of human cathepsin W". Biochem Biophys Res Commun . (wikipedia.org)
  • "Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for human cathepsin D" . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America . (wikipedia.org)
  • Barrett, A. J.: Human cathepsin B1. (springer.com)
  • Targeting circulating cathepsin S may lead to new therapies for human aortic valve disease. (springer.com)
  • Distribution of cathepsin L in human umbilical cord tissues. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin D has been reported to be involved in malignant tumour progression and with prognosis of various human cancers. (novusbio.com)
  • Stable antisense cathepsin B-expressing clones of the highly metastatic human melanoma A375M and prostate carcinoma PC3M cell lines produced 40-50% less cathepsin B than control cells and were proportionately less invasive. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Novel, Nonpeptidic Cyanamides as Potent and Reversible Inhibitors of Human Cathepsins K and L, J. Med. (patentgenius.com)
  • Baici A, Müntener K, Willimann A, Zwicky R. Regulation of human cathepsin B by alternative mRNA splicing: homeostasis, fatal errors and cell death. (springer.com)
  • Expression of the elastolytic cathepsins S and K in human atheroma and regulation of their production in smooth muscle cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It was immunologically related to lysosomal cathepsin B from human liver and was similar in many, but not all, other aspects. (portlandpress.com)
  • The area of contact is slightly larger than in chagasin complexes with the endopeptidase, cathepsin L. However, residues important for high affinity to both enzymes are mainly found in the outer loops L4 and L6 of chagasin. (rcsb.org)
  • Cathepsins are lysosomal enzymes that are also used as sensitive markers in various toxicological investigations. (biovision.com)
  • Moreover, cysteine cathepsins are active in pericellular environments as soluble enzymes or bound to cell surface receptors at the plasma membrane, and possibly even within secretory vesicles, the cytosol, mitochondria, and within the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsins are proteolytic enzymes with a broad spectrum of substrates. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, it is also evident that cathepsins such as cathepsin B and L are highly active lysosomal enzymes and play very important role in phagocytosis [ 10 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Leukocyte cathepsin S is a potent regulator of both cell and matrix turnover in advanced atherosclerosis," Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology , vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 188-194, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • A significantly elevated cathepsin S expression in gingival biopsies from rats with experimental periodontitis was found in vivo , as compared to that from control. (hindawi.com)
  • Gingival biopsies from periodontitis patients showed a significantly higher cathepsin S expression than those from healthy gingiva. (hindawi.com)
  • Essential role for cathepsin S in MHC class II-associated invariant chain processing and peptide loading," Immunity , vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 357-366, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • A direct immunohistochemical method of high specificity is presented for the demonstration of sites of cathepsin B1. (springer.com)
  • In this review we cover specific roles of cathepsins in innate and adaptive immunity, as well as their implication in the pathogenesis of several diseases. (smw.ch)
  • It is of note to mention that this review is not meant to comprehensively cover the present literature on viruses encountering cathepsins but rather illustrates, on some representative examples, the possible roles of cathepsins in replication of viruses and in the course of disease. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we selectively manipulated the expression of cathepsin B in three different tumor cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/730869/all/cathepsins. (tabers.com)
  • After the renaturing period, the gel is then incubated in assay buffer to allow the now active cathepsins to proteolyze the gelatin impregnated in the gel. (wikipedia.org)