An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.
A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.
N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.
A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.
A lysosomal papain-related cysteine proteinase that is expressed in a broad variety of cell types.
An abundant lysosomal-associated membrane protein that has been found to shuttle between LYSOSOMES; ENDOSOMES; and the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Loss of expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 is associated with GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE IIB.
A papain-like cysteine protease that has specificity for amino terminal dipeptides. The enzyme plays a role in the activation of several pro-inflammatory serine proteases by removal of their aminoterminal inhibitory dipeptides. Genetic mutations that cause loss of cathepsin C activity in humans are associated with PAPILLON-LEFEVRE DISEASE.
An abundant lysosomal-associated membrane protein that has been found to shuttle between LYSOSOMES; ENDOSOMES; and the PLASMA MEMBRANE. In PLATELETS and T-LYMPHOCYTES it may play a role in the cellular degranulation process.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine peptidase that exhibits carboxypeptidase activity. It is highly expressed in a variety of immune cell types and may play a role in inflammatory processes and immune responses.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A cysteine endopeptidase found in NATURAL KILLER CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES. It may have a specific function in the mechanism or regulation of cytolytic activity of immune cells.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
An activating NK cell lectin-like receptor subfamily that regulates immune responses to INFECTION and NEOPLASMS. Members of this subfamily generally occur as homodimers.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous rodents through chemical, biological, or other means.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.

Production of angiotensin II by homogeneous cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats. (1/82)

Production of angiotensin II (Ang II) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) has now been investigated. A nonpeptide antagonist (CV-11974) of Ang II type 1 receptors inhibited basal DNA synthesis in VSMC from SHR, but it had no effect on cells from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Ang II-like immunoreactivity, determined by radioimmunoassay after HPLC, was readily detected in conditioned medium and extracts of SHR-derived VSMC, whereas it was virtually undetectable in VSMC from WKY rats. Isoproterenol increased the amount of Ang II-like immunoreactivity in conditioned medium and extracts of SHR-derived VSMC, whereas the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor delapril significantly reduced the amount of Ang II-like immunoreactivity in conditioned medium and extracts of these cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the abundance of mRNAs encoding angiotensinogen, cathepsin D, and angiotensin-converting enzyme was greater in VSMC from SHR than in cells from WKY rats. The abundance of cathepsin D protein by Western blotting was greater in VSMC from SHR than in cells from WKY rats. Ang I-generating and acid protease activities were detected in VSMC from SHR, but not in cells from WKY rats. These results suggest that SHR-derived VSMC generate Ang II with increases in angiotensinogen, cathepsin D, and angiotensin-converting enzyme, which contribute to the basal growth. Production of Ang II by homogeneous cultures of VSMC is considered as a new mechanism of hypertensive vascular disease.  (+info)

Characterization of new fluorogenic substrates for the rapid and sensitive assay of cathepsin E and cathepsin D. (2/82)

Cathepsin E and cathepsin D are two major intracellular aspartic proteinases implicated in the physiological and pathological degradation of intra- and extracellular proteins. In this study, we designed and constructed highly sensitive synthetic decapeptide substrates for assays of cathepsins E and D based on the known sequence specificities of their cleavage sites. These substrates contain a highly fluorescent (7-methoxycoumarin-4-yl)acetyl (MOCAc) moiety and a quenching 2,4-dinitrophenyl (Dnp) group. When the Phe-Phe bond is cleaved, the fluorescence at an excitation wavelength of 328 nm and emission wavelength of 393 increases due to diminished quenching resulting from the separation of the fluorescent and quenching moieties. The first substrate, MOCAc-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe-Phe-Arg-Le u-Lys(Dnp)gamma-NH2, in which the Lys-Pro combination at positions P5 and P4 was designed for specific interaction with cathepsin E, is hydrolyzed equally well by cathepsins E and D (kcat/Km = 10.9 microM(-1) x s(-1) for cathepsin E and 15.6 microM(-1) x s(-1) for cathepsin D). A very acidic pH optimum o was obtained for both enzymes. The second substrate, MOCAc-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ile-Ile-Phe-Phe-Arg-Le u-Lys(Dnp)gamma-NH2, in which the isoleucine residue at position P2 was meant to increase the specificity for cathepsin E, is also hydrolyzed equally by both enzymes (kcat/Km = 12.2 microM(-1) x s(-1) for cathepsin E and 16.3 microM(-1) x s(-1) for cathepsin D). The kcat/Km values for both substrates are greater than those for the best substrates for cathepsins E and D described so far. Unfortunately, each substrate shows little discrimination between cathepsin E and cathepsin D, suggesting that amino acids at positions far from the cleavage site are important for discrimination between the two enzymes. However, in combination with aspartic proteinase inhibitors, such as pepstatin A and Ascaris pepsin inhibitor, these substrates enable a rapid and sensitive determination of the precise levels of cathepsins E and D in crude cell extracts of various tissues and cells. Thus these substrates represent a potentially valuable tool for routine assays and for mechanistic studies on cathepsins E and D.  (+info)

Role of N-glycosylation in cathepsin E. A comparative study of cathepsin E with distinct N-linked oligosaccharides and its nonglycosylated mutant. (3/82)

Cathepsin E (CE), a nonlysosomal, intracellular aspartic proteinase, exists in several molecular forms that are N-glycosylated with high-mannose and/or complex-type oligosaccharides. To investigate the role of N-glycosylation on the catalytic properties and molecular stability of CE, both natural and recombinant enzymes with distinct oligosaccharides were purified from different sources. An N-glycosylation minus mutant, that was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (by changing asparagine residues to glutamine and aspartic acid residues at positions 73 and 305 in potential N-glycosylation sites of rat CE) and expressed in normal rat kidney cells, was also purified to homogeneity from the cell extracts. The kinetic parameters of the nonglycosylated mutant were found to be essentially equivalent to those of natural enzymes N-glycosylated with either high-mannose or complex-type oligosaccharides. In contrast, the nonglycosylated mutant showed lower pH and thermal stabilities than the glycosylated enzymes. The nonglycosylated mutant exhibited particular sensitivity to conversion to a monomeric form by 2-mercaptoethanol, as compared with those of the glycosylated enzymes. Further, the high-mannose-type enzymes were more sensitive to this agent than the complex-type proteins. A striking difference was found between the high-mannose and complex-type enzymes in terms of activation by ATP at a weakly acidic pH. At pH 5.5, the complex-type enzymes were stabilized by ATP to be restored to the virtual activity, whereas the high-mannose-type enzymes as well as the nonglycosylated mutant were not affected by ATP. These results suggest that N-glycosylation in CE is important for the maintenance of its proper folding upon changes in temperature, pH and redox state, and that the complex-type oligosaccharides contribute to the completion of the tertiary structure to maintain its active conformation in the weakly acidic pH environments.  (+info)

New functional aspects of cathepsin D and cathepsin E. (4/82)

Cathepsin D (CD) and cathepsin E are representative lysosomal and nonlysosomal aspartic proteinases, respectively, and play an important role in the degradation of proteins, the generation of bioactive proteins, antigen processing, etc. Recenty, several lines of evidence have suggested the involvement of these two enzymes in the execution of neuronal death pathways induced by aging, transient forebrain ischemia, and excessive stimulation of glutamate receptors with excitotoxins. CD has also been shown to mediate apoptosis induced by various stimuli and p53-dependent tumor suppression. To gain more insight into in vivo functions of CD, mice deficient in this enzyme were generated. The mutant animals showed a progressive atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, a massive destruction of lymphoid organs, and a profound accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin, and developed a phenotype resembling neuronal ceroid lipofucinosis, suggesting that CD is essential for proteolysis of proteins regulating cell growth and tissue homeostasis. It has also been shown that CD molecules secreted from human prostate carcinoma cells are responsible for the generation of angiostatin, a potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, suggesting its contribution to the prevention of tumor growth and angiogenesis-dependent growth of metastases. Interestingly, pro-CD from human breast carcinoma cells showed a significantly lower angiostatin-generating activity than that from prostate carcinoma cells. Since deglycosylated CD molecules from both carcinoma cells showed a low angiostatin-generating activity, this discrepancy appeared to be attributed to the difference in the carbohydrate structures of CD molecules between the two cell types and to contribute to their potency to prevent tumor growth and metastases.  (+info)

Regulation of human and mouse procathepsin E gene expression. (5/82)

Cathepsin E is an intracellular aspartic proteinase that is considered to have a number of physiological roles including antigen processing. Quantitation of procathepsin E mRNA by LightCyclertrade mark technology indicated that the gene was transcribed in lung but not in kidney of both human and mouse origin. In contrast, the transcript was present in mouse spleen and alveolar macrophages but not in the counterpart tissue/cells from humans. Regulation of human and mouse procathepsin E gene expression was shown not to be influenced by the extent of CpG methylation but depended on the recognition of potential binding motifs in each promoter region by transcription factors such as GATA1, PU1 and YY1, as revealed by functional analysis using a series of promoter/luciferase reporter gene fusion constructs. Thus the extent to which the procathepsin E gene is expressed in a particular cell type may depend on the balance between the effects produced by positive-acting, cell-specific transcription factors such as GATA1 and PU1 and the negative influence of the ubiquitous YY1 factor. In this way, the relative abundance and influence of general and cell-specific transcription factors can govern the production of cathepsin E and thereby account for the sporadic cell and tissue distribution of this enzyme in different species.  (+info)

Involvement of cathepsin E in exogenous antigen processing in primary cultured murine microglia. (6/82)

We have attempted to elucidate an involvement of cathepsin E (CE) in major histocompatibility complex class II-mediated antigen presentation by microglia. In primary cultured murine microglia, CE was localized mainly in early endosomes and its expression level was markedly increased upon stimulation with interferon-gamma. Pepstatin A, a specific inhibitor of aspartic proteases, significantly inhibited interleukin-2 production from an OVA-(266-281)-specific T helper cell hybridomas upon stimulation with native OVA presented by interferon-gamma-treated microglia. However, pepstatin A failed to inhibit the presentation of OVA-(266-281) peptide. The possible involvement of CE in the processing of native OVA into antigenic peptide was further substantiated by that digested fragments of native OVA by CE could be recognized by OVA-specific Th cells. Cathepsin D also degraded native OVA into antigenic peptide, whereas microglia prepared from cathepsin D-deficient mice retained an ability for antigen presentation. On the other hand, the requirement for cysteine proteases such as cathepsins S and B in the processing of invariant chain (Ii) was confirmed by immunoblot analyses in the presence of their specific inhibitors. In conclusion, CE is required for the generation of an antigenic epitope from OVA but not for the processing of Ii in microglia.  (+info)

Substrate and inhibitor profile of BACE (beta-secretase) and comparison with other mammalian aspartic proteases. (7/82)

The full-length and ectodomain forms of beta-site APP cleavage enzyme (BACE) have been cloned, expressed in Sf9 cells, and purified to homogeneity. This aspartic protease cleaves the amyloid precursor protein at the beta-secretase site, a critical step in the Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Comparison of BACE to other aspartic proteases such as cathepsin D and E, napsin A, pepsin, and renin revealed little similarity with respect to the substrate preference and inhibitor profile. On the other hand, these parameters are all very similar for the homologous enzyme BACE2. Based on a collection of decameric substrates, it was found that BACE has a loose substrate specificity and that the substrate recognition site in BACE extends over several amino acids. In common with the aspartic proteases mentioned above, BACE prefers a leucine residue at position P1. Unlike cathepsin D etc., BACE accepts polar or acidic residues at positions P2'0 and P1 but prefers bulky hydrophobic residues at position P3. BACE displays poor kinetic constants toward its known substrates (wild-type substrate, SEVKM/DAEFR, K(m) = 7 microm, K(cat) = 0.002 s(-1); Swedish mutant, SEVNL/DAEFR, K(m) = 9 microm, K(cat) = 0.02 s(-1)). A new substrate (VVEVDA/AVTP, K(m) = 1 microm, K(cat) = 0.004) was identified by serendipity.  (+info)

Pronapsin A and B gene expression in normal and malignant human lung and mononuclear blood cells. (8/82)

The two human pronapsin genes which are located immediately adjacent to one another on chromosome 19 were shown, using quantitative RT-PCR, to have distinctly different expression patterns. Transcription of the pronapsin A gene in normal human lung tissue was not appreciably altered in lung carcinomas and comparable pronapsin A mRNA levels were also quantified in lung epithelial cell lines and in tumour cell lines originating from human lung epithelium. Pronapsin A may thus have considerable diagnostic value as a marker for primary lung cancer. In contrast, the pronapsin B gene, which lacks an in-frame stop codon and so may be a transcribed pseudogene, is expressed at comparable levels in normal human spleen, thymus, cytotoxic and helper T-lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells and B-lymphocytes. The mRNA levels quantified in B-cells from adults with chronic lymphoblastic leukaemia were not significantly different from those measured in B-cells from healthy individuals. Similarly, comparable levels of expression were quantified in monocytes from healthy individuals and from a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia, whereas in alveolar macrophages, which are terminally differentiated myeloid cells, transcription of the pronapsin B gene was down-regulated by approximately one order of magnitude. Reciprocally, an approximately 20-fold up-regulation in expression of the procathepsin D gene in the macrophages relative to the circulating monocytes was revealed by quantitative measurements made in parallel throughout all of this study for the respective mRNAs encoding the intracellular aspartic proteinases, procathepsin D and procathepsin E. Thus, while there appears to be little difference in expression of the pronapsin A and B genes between healthy and malignant human cells and tissues, the reciprocal alterations in the levels of transcription of the pronapsin B and procathepsin D genes may have significance in the developmental processes associated with myeloid cell differentiation into macrophages.  (+info)

May have a role in immune function. Probably involved in the processing of antigenic peptides during MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation. May play a role in activation-induced lymphocyte depletion in the thymus, and in neuronal degeneration and glial cell activation in the brain (By similarity).
Autophagy participates in innate immunity by eliminating intracellular pathogens. Consequently, numerous microorganisms have developed strategies to impair the autophagic machinery in phagocytes. In the current study, interactions between Leishmania major (L. m.) and the autophagic machinery of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were analyzed. BMDM were generated from BALB/c mice, and the cells were infected with L. m. promastigotes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography were used to investigate the ultrastructure of BMDM and the intracellular parasites. Affymetrix® chip analyses were conducted to identify autophagy-related messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). The protein expression levels of autophagy related 5 (ATG5), BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), cathepsin E (CTSE), mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR), microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3B), and ubiquitin (UB) were investigated through western blot
Autophagy participates in innate immunity by eliminating intracellular pathogens. Consequently, numerous microorganisms have developed strategies to impair the autophagic machinery in phagocytes. In the current study, interactions between Leishmania major (L. m.) and the autophagic machinery of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were analyzed. BMDM were generated from BALB/c mice, and the cells were infected with L. m. promastigotes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography were used to investigate the ultrastructure of BMDM and the intracellular parasites. Affymetrix® chip analyses were conducted to identify autophagy-related messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). The protein expression levels of autophagy related 5 (ATG5), BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), cathepsin E (CTSE), mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR), microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3B), and ubiquitin (UB) were investigated through western blot
Perform reliable PCR with Bio-Rads CTSE primer pair, for Human. Designed for EvaGreen-based detection with digital PCR (ddPCR).
Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2020 Elsevier B.V. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Log in to Pure. ...
ADAM17,APAF1,CASP1,CASP12,CASP4,CASP7,CELA1,CFD,CNDP1,CPQ,CTSE,CTSS,CTSZ,DPP7,ENPEP,ERAP1,F2R,FAM188A,FGL2,GGH,GZMA,LGMN,LTA4H,MME,MMP1,MMP13,MMP15,MMP2,MMP8,MMP9,OTUB2,PLAT,PLAU,PLG,PSMB10,PSMB8,PSMB9,ST14, ...
The SCOP classification for the Rps17e-like superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
a Immunoblotting analysis of proteins in extract of humanized liver tissues that bind to biotinylated LINC01018 or a control using an anti-HuR antibody. b Left, anti-HuR immunoblotting analysis of proteins in immunoprecipitates of humanized liver tissues using an anti-HuR antibody. Right, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and LINC01018 RNA levels in immunoprecipitates of humanized liver tissues using an anti-HuR antibody. c. Expression levels of human HuR and LINC01018 target genes in the livers of control (LacZ sh, n = 5) and HuR KD (HuR sh, n = 6) humanized mice after a 24 h food withdrawal. d Gene expression in livers of humanized mice receiving both control (LacZ shRNA) and HuR KD, or LINC01018 KD and HuR KD adenoviruses (n = 7 for each group). e Gene expression in livers of wild-type mice receiving control (LacZ shRNA) or mouse HuR KD adenoviruses (n = 6 for each group). f Gene expression in livers of wild-type mice receiving control or LINC01018 overexpression (OE) ...
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
Immunohistochemical distributions of cathepsins D and E were determined in normal mucosa, metaplastic, dysplastic, and cancerous lesions of the human stomach. Cathepsins D and E were localised in the foveolar epithelium and parietal cells of the normal gastric mucosa, but their intracytoplasmic distributions were different - cathepsin E distribution was even and diffuse in the cytoplasm while cathepsin D was found in coarse intracytoplasmic granules. Chronic inflammation and ulcer did not influence the distribution of these enzymes. No positive staining was obtained in the incomplete type of intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and well differentiated adenocarcinoma. Tumour cells of signet ring cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells, however, gave strong and diffuse stainings for cathepsins D and E in the cytoplasm. The results suggest that the distribution of cathepsins D and E is related to each specialised function of the foveolar epithelium and the parietal cells, and ...
The structure of mucor pusillus pepsin (EC 3.4.23.6), the aspartic proteinase from Mucor pusillus, has been refined to a crystallographic R-factor of 16.2% at 2.0 A resolution. The positions of 2638 protein atoms, 221 solvent atoms and a sulphate ion have been determined with an estimated root-mean-square (r.m.s.) error of 0.15 to 0.20 A. In the final model, the r.m.s. deviation from ideality for bond distances is 0.022 A, and for angle distances it is 0.050 A. Comparison of the overall three-dimensional structure with other aspartic proteinases shows that mucor pusillus pepsin is as distant from the other fungal enzymes as it is from those of mammalian origin. Analysis of a rigid body shift of residues 190 to 302 shows that mucor pusillus pepsin displays one of the largest shifts relative to other aspartic proteinases (14.4 degrees relative to endothiapepsin) and that changes have occurred at the interface between the two rigid bodies to accommodate this large shift. A new sequence alignment ...
www.MOLUNA.de Aspartic Proteinases [4193983] - The 5th International Conference on Aspartic Proteinases was held on September 19 through 24, 1993, at Naito Museum of Pharmaceutical Science and Industry, Kawashima cho, Gifu Prefecture, Japan, about 15 miles northwest of Nagoya City. About 100 scientists attended the conference, including 52 from 14 countries outside Japan, and 32
Aspartic proteinases are a group of enzymes functioning by a general base mechanism, the water molecule serving as nucleophile.1The X-ray data (for example references 2-4) clearly show that two...
I just suggest that governments should be spending more money research for health matters like this, instead of wars and guns. There is a still long way to go in terms of research for this illness. A lot has been done, but we still do not have a biomarker, neither an appropriate treatment that works for everybody. The Rnase-L has shown to be effective to distinguish ME/CFS patients from healthy patients, but still more money should be invested to see if this RNASe-L abnormalities are present in other illness. That still has to be done, because otherwise we run the risk to put in the bag of CFS/ME everything that we do not know or cant explain. It takes more than a year to rule out all the other possibilities before diagnosing ME/CFS, and indeed everything else needs to be ruled out ...
I just suggest that governments should be spending more money research for health matters like this, instead of wars and guns. There is a still long way to go in terms of research for this illness. A lot has been done, but we still do not have a biomarker, neither an appropriate treatment that works for everybody. The Rnase-L has shown to be effective to distinguish ME/CFS patients from healthy patients, but still more money should be invested to see if this RNASe-L abnormalities are present in other illness. That still has to be done, because otherwise we run the risk to put in the bag of CFS/ME everything that we do not know or cant explain. It takes more than a year to rule out all the other possibilities before diagnosing ME/CFS, and indeed everything else needs to be ruled out ...
Sarmento AC, Lopes H, Oliveira CS, Vitorino R, Samyn B, Sergeant K, Debyser G, Van Beeumen J, Domingues P, Amado F, Pires E, Domingues MRM, Barros MT. (2009). Multiplicity of aspartic proteinases from Cynara cardunculus L. Planta: 230 (2), 429 ...
Protein expression of CDK1 and p-CDK1 in rat spleens.(A) Western blot determination of CDK1 and p-CDK1 protein expression in control and aniline-treated rats. (
Interventional thought leaders at an American College of Cardiology (ACC) meeting shared their predictions about the cath lab of the future.
I am trying to learn when to use modifer 59 on S&I codes. I am struggling. Here are the codes I have selected: 36247 (SFA Cath) 36248 (Popliteal C
It has been found by immunohistochemical staining that antigens normally found in gastric and/or intestinal epithelial cells are expressed in most differentiated duct cell carcinomas of the pancreas. Among 88 such tumors, 93% and 92%, respectively, expressed M1 and cathepsin E, markers of gastric surface-foveolar epithelial cells, 51% expressed pepsinogen II, a marker of gastroduodenal mucopeptic cells, 48% expressed CAR-5, a marker of colorectal epithelial cells, and 35% expressed M3SI, a marker of small intestinal goblet cells. Most of the tumors also expressed normal pancreatic duct antigens; 97% expressed DU-PAN-2, and 59% expressed N-terminus gastrin-releasing peptide. In agreement with these findings, electron microscopy revealed malignant cells with fine structural features of gastric foveolar cells, gastric mucopeptic cells, intestinal goblet cells, intestinal columnar cells, pancreatic duct epithelial cells, and cells with features of more than one cell type. Normal pancreatic duct epithelium
Baudy, M., Foundling, S., Pavlik, M., Blundell, T. and Kostka, V. (1988). Protein chemical characterization of Mucor pusillus aspartic proteinase. Amino acid sequence homology with the other aspartic proteinases, disulfide bond arrangement and site of carbohydrate attachment. FEBS Lett. 235: 271-274. PMID 3042459. ...
3UQP: Cyanobacterial Peptides as a Prototype for the Design of Potent beta-Secretase Inhibitors and the Development of Selective Chemical Probes for Other Aspartic Proteases
3UQR: Cyanobacterial Peptides as a Prototype for the Design of Potent beta-Secretase Inhibitors and the Development of Selective Chemical Probes for Other Aspartic Proteases
Cathepsin D小鼠单克隆抗体[CTD-19](ab6313)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被13篇文献引用并得到14个独立的用户反馈。
Welcome! For price inquiries, please feel free to contact us through the form below through the form on the left side. We will get back to you as soon as possible.. ...
Browse our extensive catalog of new & used Cath Lab Parts for sale or auction. Find any required new, refurbished or used Cath Lab Parts or device.
I have MS and cannot spread my legs very far apart. Now I have to self cath and need to get them farther apart. How can - Answered by a verified Doctor
Some enzymes in this group hydrolyze alpha-L-arabinosides; some animal enzymes also hydrolyze beta-D-fucosides and beta-D-glucosides (cf. EC 3.2.1.108 ...
Mannose 6-phosphate receptors function can be studied in living cells by investigating alterations in processing and secretion of their ligand Cathepsin D. The assay described here is well established in the literature and comprises the metabolic labeling of newly synthesized proteins with [35S] methionine-cysteine in HeLa cells to monitor Cathepsin D processing through secretory pathway and secretion using immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE and fluorography.
Order Cathepsin D ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Chicken, Cow, Dog and more. Compare Cathepsin D ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com.
rat Cathepsin D/CTSD gene cDNA, cloning vector & expression plasmid, mutiple tags. Optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. Save up to 60%.
Evaluation of cell toxicity. Hemoglobin and LDH release from human red blood cells and human gastric adenocarcinoma cells (panel A and B respectively) after add
The most important allergen associated with IgE responses, Bla g 2, belongs to a subgroup of the aspartic proteinase family of enzymes that is enzymatically inactive (Arruda et al. 2001; Pomes et al. 2002 ...
Cath Kidston fans alert! The 2010 Autumn/Winter Fly to the UK mook will be released on 26 August in Japan. The 64-page mook will retail for 1500yen and it comes with two tote bags in the Candy Flowers print. This is the 6th Cath Kidston mook ...
Gabelli, S.B., Boto, A., Kuhns, V.H., Bianchet, M.A., Farinelli, F., Aripirala, S., Yoder, J., Jakoncic, J., Tomaselli, G.F., Amzel, L.M ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression in gastric adenocarcinoma cells. AU - Wong, Jhen Hong. AU - Wang, Yu Shiuan. AU - Nam, Sean. AU - Ho, Kuo Hao. AU - Chang, Che Mai. AU - Chen, Ku Chung. AU - Chen, Yi Fan. AU - Chang, Wei Chiao. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - The phthalate plasticizer, di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and its derived metabolites are common anthropogenic environmental toxins, which are known to act as endocrine disruptors. Numerous studies have associated DEHP with disruption of sex hormones, abnormal development of reproductive organs, allergies, and inflammation. Its role in promoting inflammation has been reported by both human epidemiological and animal studies. In stomach tissue, chronic inflammation is known to accompany mucosal damage, and pave the way to gastritis, stomach ulcers, and ultimately gastric cancer. Eastern Asian populations possess the highest gastric cancer incidences in the world. ...
Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a potent growth inhibitor for many cell types, including tumor cells. We recently have reported the establishment and characterization of two human gastric scirrhous carcinoma cell lines, HSC-39 and HSC-43. Here we examined the effect of TGF-β1 on the growth of these lines as compared to five other human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Proliferation of HSC-39 and HSC-43 cells was strongly inhibited by TGF-β1, whereas the other gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines were unresponsive to TGF-β1. Both HSC-39 and HSC-43 cells gradually lost viability following exposure to TGF-β1. This response was dose dependent up to 4 ng/ml. When TGF-β1 was removed, the cells failed to exhibit regrowth, indicating an irreversible growth-inhibitory effect of this agent, leading to cell death. DNA fragments were observed consisting of multimers of approximately 180 base pairs 24 h after TGF-β1 treatment. The chromatin condensation of each cell line was confirmed by ...
Conner, G.E. (1989). „Isolation of procathepsin D from mature cathepsin D by pepstatin affinity chromatography. Autocatalytic proteolysis of the zymogen form of the enzyme. Biochem. J. 263: 601-604. PMID 2512908 ...
They should be! Ive never been to the Tatty Marsh store in Tanglin Mall, which is the exclusive retailer of Cath Kidston products in Singapore, so Im not familiar with their prices. The prices in the UK are the lowest as it is a British brand. Their prices in Japan are almost double by comparison so many Japanese ladies buy tons of Cath Kidston when they visit the UK. ...
Apoptosis can be mediated by mechanisms other than the traditional caspase-mediated cleavage cascade. There is growing recognition that alternative proteolytic enzymes such as the lysosomal cathepsin proteases may initiate or propagate proapoptotic signals. Cathepsins are lysosomal enzymes that are also used as sensitive markers in various toxicological investigations. The Cathepsin D Activity Assay kit is a fluorescence-based assay that utilizes the preferred cathepsin D substrate sequence GKPILFFRLK(Dnp)-D-R-NH2) labeled with MCA. Cathepsin D will cleave the synthetic substrate to release the quenched fluorescent group MCA, which can then easily be measured using a fluorometer or fluorescence plate reader at Ex/Em = 328/460 nm. The relative efficacy of test inhibitors are compared to the positive control inhibitor, Pepstatin A (IC50 , 0.1 nM). The Cathepsin D assay is simple, straightforward, and can be adapted to 96-well plate assays and is suitable for high throughput screening (HTS). ...
Cathepsin K, a cysteine protease predominantly expressed in osteoclasts, is a major drug target for the treatment of osteoporosis. Recent findings, however, indicate that cathepsin K is also involved in non-skeletal metabolism. The development of fibrotic phenotypes in lung and skin is a concern for cathepsin K inhibitors presently evaluated in clinical trials. Cathepsin K is expressed in lung tissue and has been implicated in lung fibrosis. However, little is known about the role of cathepsin K in airway development and its effect on TGF-β1 degradation. We investigated the effects of cathepsin K-deficiency on alterations in airway integrity, extracellular matrix composition, and TGF-β1 expression and degradation. Lung homogenates of wild-type and cathepsin K-deficient mice were used to evaluate their contents of collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and TGF-β1. The accessibility of TGF-β1 to cathepsin K-mediated degradation was determined in vitro and lung fibroblast proliferations in wild-type and
Apoptosis was inhibited in rat cardiomyocytes pretreated with the aspartic protease inhibitor pepstatin A and subsequently exposed to naphthazarin (5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). Cathepsin D was released from lysosomes to the cytosol upon exposure to naphthazarin, and the enzyme activity decreased simultaneously. Later, cathepsin D reappeared in granules of increased size, and enzyme activity was restored. Activation of caspase-3- like proteases was detected, and the number of cells showing apoptotic morphology increased with time. Pepstatin A pretreatment did not prevent release of cathepsin D from lysosomes but did significantly inhibit subsequent naphthazarin-induced caspase activation and apoptotic morphology. This suggests that cathepsin D exerts its apoptosis-stimulating effect upstream of caspase-3-like activation. (C) 2000 Academic Press.. ...
Bacillus sp. strain Wp22.A1 produced a cell-associated aspartic proteinase which was purified to homogeneity using phenyl-Sepharose (hydrophobic and affinity chromatography) and Mono Q. The proteinase has a molecular mass of 45 kDa by SDS/PAGE and a pI of 3.8. It is insensitive to pepstatin, but is sensitive to the other aspartic proteinase-specific inhibitors diazoacetyl-DL-norleucine methyl ester (DAN) and 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane. Inactivation by DAN was only partial, suggesting that it had non-specifically modified an aspartate residue at a site other than the active site. The enzyme was not inhibited by any of the serine or cysteine proteinase inhibitors tested. Maximum proteolytic activity was observed at pH 3.5. The proteinase had a higher activity with haemoglobin, but was more specific (Vmax./Km) for cytochrome c. Substrate inhibition was observed with both these substrates. The cleavage of oxidized insulin B chain tended to occur at sites where the P1 amino acid was bulky ...
Buy our Natural human Cathepsin D protein. Ab91123 is an active full length protein produced in Nativesyntheticaly and has been validated in WB, FuncS…
293476355 - EP 1030911 A1 2000-08-30 - HUMAN ASPARTIC PROTEASES - [origin: WO0004137A1] The invention provides human aspartic proteases (NHAP) and polynucleotides which identify and encode NHAP. The invention also provides expression vectors, host cells, antibodies, agonists, and antagonists. The invention also provides methods for diagnosing, treating or preventing disorders associated with expression of NHAP.[origin: WO0004137A1] The invention provides human aspartic proteases (NHAP) and polynucleotides which identify and encode NHAP. The invention also provides expression vectors, host cells, antibodies, agonists, and antagonists. The invention also provides methods for diagnosing, treating or preventing disorders associated with expression of NHAP.
Get to know more about ketogenic diet and Ketogenic Diet Malayalam here on this site. For more about Ketogenic Diet Malayalam, please subscribe to our website newsletter now!
Introduction: The Cathepsins are a group of lysosomal thiol proteinases or endopeptidases found in extracts of various tissues.Cathepsins, with the…
When the researchers combined the two cathepsins and allowed them to attack samples of elastin, they expected to see increased degradation of the protein. What they saw, however, was not much more damage than cathepsin K did by itself. Platt at first believed the experiment was flawed, and asked Barry - an undergraduate student in his lab who specializes in modeling - to examine what possible conditions could account for the experimental result. Barrys modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the elastin - a protein essential in arteries and the cardiovascular system.. That theoretical result led to additional experiments in which the researchers measured a direct correlation between an increase in the amount of cathepsin S added to the experiment and a reduction in the degradation of collagen. By increasing the amount of cathepsin S ten-fold over the amount used in the original experiment, Platt and Barry were able to ...
Low Carb vs a Ketogenic Diet, whats the difference? Ketogenic diets are often confused with other low carb diets. Learn the difference before starting!
A pyridazin-4-one fragment 4 (hCatS IC(50)=170 microM) discovered through Tethering was modeled into cathepsin S and predicted to overlap in S2 with the tetrahydropyridinepyrazole core of a previously disclosed series of CatS inhibitors. This fragment served as a template to design pyridazin-3-one 1 …
J:162893 Baston-Buest DM, Schanz A, Buest S, Fischer JC, Kruessel JS, Hess AP, The embryos cystatin C and F expression functions as a protective mechanism against the maternal proteinase cathepsin S in mice. Reproduction. 2010 Apr;139(4):741-8 ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Assaypro \ Cathepsin G, anti_human \ 11654-05021 for more molecular products just contact us
Dr. Joe Mercola gives his take on the ketogenic diet and cancer and recommends a simple blood test all cancer patients should have.
I tried the ketogenic diet for 30 days. Heres what happened : Everything You Need To Know Before Going Keto Can a heavy-cream and butter-laden diet r...
A guide to the Ketogenic Diet with Dr Jerry Hizon, MD. Weekly tips and advice to help you lose weight and feel healthier through keto.
Get to know more about ketogenic diet and Intermittent Fasting Drinks here on this site. For more about Intermittent Fasting Drinks, please subscribe to our website newsletter now!
Of these hydrolytic enzymes, cathepsin K is of most importance. Cathepsin K and other cathepsins[edit]. Cathepsin K is a ... Several other cathepsins are expressed in osteoclasts including cathepsins B, C, D, E, G, and L. The function of these cysteine ... characterised by a lack of functional cathepsin K expression. Knockout studies of cathepsin K in mice lead to an osteopetrotic ... Studies on cathepsin L knockout mice have been mixed, with a report of reduced trabecular bone in homozygous and heterozygous ...
... , Histones & Cathepsin; PMAP The Proteolysis Map-animation [ Recent chromatin publications and news] Protocol for in ...
... collagenases such as cathepsin B1; and hyaluronidase. PSGAG inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which is released upon ...
Cathepsin A Breddam, K. (1986). "Serine carboxypeptidases. A review". Carlsberg Res. Commun. 51: 83-128. doi:10.1007/bf02907561 ... Miller, J.J.; Changaris, D.G.; Levy, R.S. (1992). "Purification, subunit structure and inhibitor profile of cathepsin-A". J. ... Carboxypeptidase C (EC 3.4.16.5, carboxypeptidase Y, serine carboxypeptidase I, cathepsin A, lysosomal protective protein, ...
Cathepsin E. TALE homeodomain transcription factors. Hydrocortisone. Since keratinocyte differentiation inhibits keratinocyte ... "The role of cathepsin E in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes". Biological Chemistry. 392 (6): 571-85. doi:10.1515/BC. ...
Cathepsin D is involved in CLN10. DNA analysis can be used to help confirm the diagnosis of Batten disease. When the mutation ...
... s were discovered in 1884 by Albrecht Kossel.[17] The word "histone" dates from the late 19th century and is derived from the German word "Histon", a word itself of uncertain origin - perhaps from the Greek histanai or histos. In the early 1960s, before the types of histones were known and before histones were known to be highly conserved across taxonomically diverse organisms, James F. Bonner and his collaborators began a study of these proteins that were known to be tightly associated with the DNA in the nucleus of higher organisms.[18] Bonner and his postdoctoral fellow Ru Chih C. Huang showed that isolated chromatin would not support RNA transcription in the test tube, but if the histones were extracted from the chromatin, RNA could be transcribed from the remaining DNA.[19] Their paper became a citation classic.[20] Paul T'so and James Bonner had called together a World Congress on Histone Chemistry and Biology in 1964, in which it became clear that there was no consensus on the ...
Lushbaugh, W.B.; Hofbauer, A.F.; Pittman, F.E. (1985). "Entamoeba histolytica: purification of cathepsin B". Exp. Parasitol. 59 ...
Mediation by cathepsin G has been suggested. The treatment of RAS usually involves administering dexamethasone IV, with the ...
... these include cathepsin L, papain, and procaricain. It forms an alpha-helical domain that runs through the substrate-binding ...
McDonald, J.K.; Zeitman, B.B.; Reilly, T.J.; Ellis, S. (1969). "New observations on the substrate specificity of cathepsin C ( ... Planta, R.J.; Gorter, J.; Gruber, M. (1964). "The catalytic properties of cathepsin C". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 89: 511-519. ... Metrione, R.M.; Neves, A.G.; Fruton, J.S. (1966). "Purification and properties of dipeptidyl transferase (cathepsin C)". ... Dipeptidyl peptidase I (EC 3.4.14.1, cathepsin C, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase I, dipeptidyl transferase, dipeptide arylamidase I ...
The protein is able to form a dimer stabilized by noncovalent forces, inhibiting papain and cathepsins l, h and b. The protein ... 1994). "Cathepsin B activity in human lung tumor cell lines: ultrastructural localization, pH sensitivity, and inhibitor status ... 1988). "Cathepsin D inactivates cysteine proteinase inhibitors, cystatins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 154 (2): 765-72. doi ... Cystatin B has been shown to interact with Cathepsin B. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000160213 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ...
These cysteine proteases include calpain, caspase, and cathepsin. These three proteins are examples of detectable signs of ...
It is an inhibitor of cathepsin K, an enzyme involved in bone resorption. It is being developed by Merck & Co. The phase III ... Le Gall, C. L.; Bonnelye, E.; Clézardin, P. (2008). "Cathepsin K inhibitors as treatment of bone metastasis". Current Opinion ... February 2008). "The discovery of odanacatib (MK-0822), a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18 (3 ...
A plant aspartic proteinase resembling mammalian cathepsin D". Eur. J. Biochem. 202 (3): 1021-1027. doi:10.1111/j.1432- ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... 2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... by proteases such as cathepsins. Collagen is a component of epithelial and endothelial basement membranes. Endostatin, as a ...
Cathepsin A is also required for normal elastin biosynthesis. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000170266 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... The elastin receptor complex includes S-Gal, neuraminidase and Cathepsin A. When elastin-derived peptides bind to the S-Gal ... cathepsin) A is required for proper elastic fiber formation and inactivation of endothelin-1". Circulation. 117 (15): 1973-81. ...
add NAE ref]. She pursued these interests by studying androsterone and monopalmitin at Armour, and cathepsin C at Yale. Jones ... Under the direction of Joseph S. Fruton, Jones' dissertation research involved the catalytic properties of cathepsin C, a type ... Her doctorate was entitled: Transamidation reactions catalyzed by cathepsin C. Jones completed her studies in three years ... Transamidation Reactions Catalyzed by Cathepsin C. Yale University, 1952. Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L. ( ...
1982). "Action of rat liver cathepsin L on glucagon". Acta Biol. Med. Ger. 40 (9): 1139-43. PMID 7340337. Kaushal GP, Walker PD ...
... cathepsin G and proteinase 3" Bioorg. Med. Chem. 1995, 3, 187-193. ([5]) Schapira, C. B.; Perillo, I. A.; Lamdan, S. "3-Oxo-1,2 ... cathepsin G and proteinase 3. Phthalimide derivatives were seen to be inactive, while saccharin derivatives were seen to be ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ...
Deficiency of Cathepsin K, a cysteine protease in osteoclasts, is known to cause this condition. Cathepsin K became a much ... Motyckova, G; Fisher, DE (2002). "Pycnodysostosis: role and regulation of cathepsin K deficiency in osteoclast function and ... is a lysosomal storage disease of the bone caused by a mutation in the gene that codes the enzyme cathepsin K. Pycnodysostosis ... a lysosomal storage disease caused by cathepsin K deficiency". Science. 273 (5279): 1236-1238. doi:10.1126/science.273.5279. ...
1990). "Generation of human endothelin by cathepsin E". FEBS Lett. 273 (1-2): 99-102. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(90)81060-2. PMID ...
Several other cathepsins are expressed in osteoclasts including cathepsins B, C, D, E, G, and L. The function of these cysteine ... Of these hydrolytic enzymes, cathepsin K is of most importance. Cathepsin K is a collagenolytic, papain-like, cysteine protease ... characterised by a lack of functional cathepsin K expression. Knockout studies of cathepsin K in mice lead to an osteopetrotic ... Cathepsin K has an optimal enzymatic activity in acidic conditions. It is synthesized as a proenzyme with a molecular weight of ...
Cathepsin B and L play a crucial role in arthritic cartilage degeneration. The inhibitor of cathepsin isolated from this fungus ... The fungal metabolite, aurantiamide acetate, has been isolated from Aspergillus penicillioides, as a cathepsin inhibitor. ... a Selective Cathepsin Inhibitor, Produced by Aspergillus penicillioides". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 65 (5): ...
... cathepsin G". Blood. 93 (6): 2089-97. PMID 10068683. Tan J, Prakash MD, Kaiserman D, Bird PI (July 2013). "Absence of SERPINB6A ... antitrypsin to inhibit cathepsin proteases". Biochemistry. 41 (15): 4998-5004. doi:10.1021/bi0159985. PMID 11939796. Schick C, ... "Squamous cell carcinoma antigen 2 is a novel serpin that inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteinases cathepsin G and mast cell ... "DNA accelerates the inhibition of human cathepsin V by serpins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (51): 36980-6. doi: ...
2000). "Cathepsin G activates protease-activated receptor-4 in human platelets". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (10): 6819-23. doi:10.1074/ ...
In humans, the group of cathepsin cysteine proteases or cysteine cathepsins comprises 11 family members, cathepsins B, C, F, H ... Examination of cathepsin activity by using chemical probes and in vivo imaging techniques demonstrated an increase in cathepsin ... Cathepsins also can be secreted by cells, associate with the cell surface, and degrade the ECM. A study of all 11 members of ... Cathepsin L is active at neutral pH by associating with a p41 splice variant of the MHC class II-associated invariant chain ...
Yamashima T (2013). "Reconsider Alzheimer's disease by the 'calpain-cathepsin hypothesis'--a perspective review". PROGRESS IN ... which clearly distinguished it from the cathepsin family of proteases. The calcium-dependent activity, intracellular ...
... also prevents tumor progression, partially by inhibiting cathepsin B activity. In particular, ulinastatin is ... It inactivates many serine proteases, including trypsin, chymotrypsin, kallikrein, plasmin, granulocyte elastase, cathepsin, ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Cathepsin E in the central nervous system. Together they form a unique ...
Cathepsin: Cathepsins ( Ancient Greek kata- "down" and hepsein "boil"; abbreviated CTS ) are proteases ( enzymes that degrades ... Cathepsins have a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover, e.g. bone resorption. They degrade polypeptides and are ... There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone ...
"Human cathepsins W and F form a new subgroup of cathepsins that is evolutionary separated from the cathepsin B- and L-like ... Wex T, Levy B, Wex H, Brömme D (1999). "Human cathepsins F and W: A new subgroup of cathepsins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ... 2003). "Characterization of novel anti-cathepsin W antibodies and cellular distribution of cathepsin W in the gastrointestinal ... Cathepsin W is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSW gene.[5][6][7] ...
"Entrez Gene: CTSD cathepsin D".. *^ Barrett AJ (April 1970). "Cathepsin D. Purification of isoenzymes from human and chicken ... Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes.[7] The main function of cathepsin D is ... The optimum pH for cathepsin D in vitro is 4.5-5.0.[13] Cathepsin-D is an aspartic protease that depends critically on ... Cathepsin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSD gene.[5][6] This gene encodes a lysosomal aspartyl protease ...
Cathepsin A (serine protease) Cathepsin B (cysteine protease) Cathepsin C (cysteine protease) Cathepsin D (aspartyl protease) ... Cathepsin H (cysteine protease) Cathepsin K (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L1 (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L2 (or V) (cysteine ... Cathepsin S (cysteine protease) Cathepsin W (cysteine proteinase) Cathepsin Z (or X) (cysteine protease) Cathepsins have been ... Cathepsin K has also been shown to play a role in arthritis. Mouse cathepsin L is homologous to human cathepsin V. Mouse ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Cathepsin Cathepsin T at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... Cathepsin T (EC 3.4.22.24) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Interconversion of the three ... Pitot, H.C.; Gohda, E. (1987). "Cathepsin T". Methods Enzymol. 142: 279-289. doi:10.1016/s0076-6879(87)42038-7. PMID 2885716. ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
cathepsin K. Names. cathepsin O. cathepsin O1. cathepsin O2. cathepsin X. NP_000387.1. *EC 3.4.22.38 ... Metabolic mapping showed that cathepsin B, but not cathepsin K is active in GSC niches. Title: Cysteine cathepsins B, X and K ... cathepsin K in the development of chronic subdural hematoma Title: Role of cathepsin K in the development of chronic subdural ... Cathepsin K degradation of sclerostin is affected by hypoxia. Title: The regulation of sclerostin by cathepsin K in periodontal ...
Cathepsin B. A. 266. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 3 Gene Names: CTSB, CPSB. EC: 3.4.22.1. ... Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique ... Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique ... The chagasin-cathepsin B complex provides a structural framework for modeling and design of inhibitors for cruzipain, the ...
Incubation with the cathepsin L specific inhibitor, Z-FY-DMK, blocked cathepsin L signals, confirming the cathepsin L bands in ... Z-FY-DMK cathepsin L inhibitor does not inhibit all cathepsin activity of murine endometriotic lesions. Incubation with Z-FY- ... DMK, a selective inhibitor of cathepsin L, inhibited many of the cathepsin active bands but did not block all active cathepsin ... E-64 blocks all cathepsin proteolytic activity in murine endometriotic lesions. Incubation with the broad cathepsin inhibitor, ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
V. Zavanik-Bergant, A. Sekirnik, R. Golouh, V. Turk, and J. Kos, "Immunochemical localisation of cathepsin S, cathepsin L and ... Both stimulants caused a significant cathepsin S upregulation. A significantly elevated cathepsin S expression in gingival ... Role of Cathepsin S in Periodontal Inflammation and Infection. S. Memmert,1,2 A. Damanaki,1 A. V. B. Nogueira,3 S. Eick,4 M. ... "Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is both a substrate of cathepsins S and K and a selective inhibitor of cathepsin L," Biochemistry, ...
Cathepsin K degrades both collagen and elastin, and is one of the most powerful proteases. Cathepsin S degrades elastin, and ... "We saw that the cathepsin K was going away much faster when there was cathepsin S present than when it was by itself," said ... "We kept increasing the amount of cathepsin S until the collagen was not affected at all because all of the cathepsin K was ... Barrys modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the ...
The cathepsin S protease is implicated in generation of chronic pain by releasing a cytokine. ... The cathepsin S protease is implicated in generation of chronic pain by releasing a cytokine. ...
Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry. Graham Simmons, Dhaval N. Gosalia, ... Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry. Graham Simmons, Dhaval N. Gosalia, ... Cathepsin-L-specific inhibitor blocks infection. (A) MDL28170 inhibits CTSL activity with an IC50 of 2.5 nM. A 1,000-compound ... Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ...
A direct immunohistochemical method of high specificity is presented for the demonstration of sites of cathepsin B1. Antisera ... Snellman, O.: Cathepsin B, the lysosomal thiol proteinase of calf liver. Biochem. J. 114, 673-678 (1969)Google Scholar ... Otto, K.: Cathepsins B1 and B2. In: Tissue proteinases, ed. by A. J. Barrett and J. T. Dingle, p. 1-28. North-Holland ... V. Cathepsin B as a potential effector of LNA hydrolysis. Histochemie 12, 240-243 (1968)Google Scholar ...
Cathepsin S is a cysteine protease highly expressed in many type of cancers including colorectal, prostate, breast, and ... This mini-review provides an overview of therapeutic antibody targeting Cathepsin S strategies in the last half decade, ... In recent years, antibody research specifically targeting Cathepsin S to block/inhibit tumorigenic effects were generated some ... focusing on the rationale of cell-surface Cathepsin S targeted and their potential clinical application. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin E antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 3 publication(s ... Anti-Cathepsin E antibody (ab36996) at 1/1000 dilution + Murine reticulocyte lysate at 10 µg. Predicted band size: 42 kDa. ... High Expression of Cathepsin E in Tissues but Not Blood of Patients with Barretts Esophagus and Adenocarcinoma.. Ann Surg ... Cathepsin E is expressed abundantly in the stomach, Clara cells and alveolar macrophages of the lung, brain microglia, spleen, ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin D antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication ... This antibody reacts with human liver cathepsin D, and does not react with cathepsins B, H and L. ... IHC image of Cathepsin D staining in Human Lung formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica Bond™ ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) - Anti-Cathepsin D antibody (ab19555) ...
... administration of rat recombinant cathepsin B and rat recombinant cathepsin L at the same or higher doses than rrCatS had no ... Inhibition of spinal microglial cathepsin S for the reversal of neuropathic pain. Anna K. Clark, Ping K. Yip, John Grist, Clive ... cathepsin S;. rrCatS,. rat recombinant CatS;. LHVS,. morpholinurea-leucine-homophenylalanine-vinyl phenyl sulfone;. PNL,. ... Here, we report that in peripheral nerve-injured rats, the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) is critical for the ...
Protease activity Apolipoprotein A-I Aortic valve stenosis Cathepsin S C. Gebhard and F. Maafi contributed equally to this work ... Hooshdaran B, Kolpakov MA, Guo X, Miller SA, Wang T, Tilley DG, Rafiq K, Sabri A (2017) Dual inhibition of cathepsin G and ... Lindstedt L, Lee M, Oorni K, Bromme D, Kovanen PT (2003) Cathepsins F and S block HDL3-induced cholesterol efflux from ... Targeting circulating cathepsin S may lead to new therapies for human aortic valve disease. ...
Cathepsin B. Cathepsin B, EC 3.4.22.1 (APP secretase, APPS) (Cathepsin B1) [Cleaved into: Cathepsin B light chain; Cathepsin B ... Cathepsin BImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ... tr,E9PL32,E9PL32_HUMAN Cathepsin B (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CTSB PE=1 SV=2 ...
Cathepsin GAdd BLAST. ›26. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of ... sp,P17977,CATG_RAT Cathepsin G (Fragment) OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Ctsg PE=1 SV=1 IIGGREARPNSHPYMAFLLIQSPEGL ...
MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN B KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin B. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ... MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN K KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin K. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ... MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN L KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin L. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ...
Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) and Flow Cytometry ... Protein Aliases: Cathepsin K; Cathepsin O; cathepsin O1; Cathepsin O2; Cathepsin X; CTSK; CTSO; CTSO2 ... Cite Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from ...
Although a lysosomal, cathepsin B-dependent (Ctsb-dependent) pathway of apoptosis has been described, the contribution of this ...
C.-S. Hsieh, P. DeRoos, K. Honey, C. Beers, and A. Y. Rudensky, "A role for cathepsin L and cathepsin S in peptide generation ... J. Ärnlv, "Cathepsin S as a biomarker: where are we now and what are the future challenges?" Biomarkers in Medicine, vol. 6, no ... Inhibition of Cathepsin S Produces Neuroprotective Effects after Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice. Jianguo Xu,1 Handong Wang,1 Ke ... D. M. Small, R. E. Burden, and C. J. Scott, "The emerging relevance of the cysteine protease cathepsin S in disease," Clinical ...
Cathepsin D purified from a mutant strain has a lower activity per unit mass of pure enzyme. These data suggest that cad-1 is a ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ...
CATHEPSIN L-HUMAN LIVER. Cathepsin L is unstable at neutral pH, but is relatively stable in the range 4.5 to 5.5.. ...
Distribution of cathepsin L in human umbilical cord tissues.. [Tomasz Gogiel, Małgorzata Wolańska, Zofia Galewska, Piotr ... The active cathepsin L activity (without activation by pepsin digestion), its percentage in the total activity (after pepsin ... Cathepsin L activity and anti-papain inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors were quantified in extracts of separated ... Cathepsin L is a potent cysteine protease engaged in degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagens. We ...
  • We hypothesize that cysteine cathepsins, a group of powerful extracellular matrix proteases, facilitate endometrial tissue invasion and endometriosis lesion establishment in the peritoneal wall and inhibiting this activity would decrease endometriosis lesion implantation. (nih.gov)
  • Intraperitoneal injection of the broad cysteine cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, significantly reduced the number of attached endometriosis lesions in our murine model compared to vehicle-treated controls demonstrating that cathepsin proteases contribute to endometriosis lesion establishment, and their inhibition may provide a novel, nonhormonal therapy for endometriosis. (nih.gov)
  • Dubbed "cathepsin cannibalism," the phenomenon may help explain problems with drugs that have been developed to inhibit the effects of these powerful proteases. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsin K degrades both collagen and elastin, and is one of the most powerful proteases. (innovations-report.com)
  • There is growing recognition that alternative proteolytic enzymes such as the lysosomal cathepsin proteases may initiate or propagate proapoptotic signals, but it is currently unclear how cathepsins mediate apoptosis. (biovision.com)
  • Lysosomes contain many well-characterized proteases, and cathepsin B has previously been utilized to release chemotherapeutics in the context of targetable antibody-based treatments. (bloodjournal.org)
  • SerpinB1 is a potent inhibitor of neutrophil serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G (CG). (bloodjournal.org)
  • 6 , 7 Interestingly, noncaspase cysteine proteases calpain and cathepsin D were reported to induce PMN apoptosis through activation of caspases. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 8 ⇓ ⇓ - 11 In addition, PMNs carry a unique set of serine proteases (neutrophil serine proteases [NSPs]) including elastase (NE), cathepsin G (CG), and proteinase-3 (PR3) stored active in primary granules. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In this review we discuss recent advances addressing the role of lysosomal proteases in the diverse aspects of the immune response, and also the involvement of cathepsins in the pathogenesis of diseases in which these proteases seem not to be properly under control. (smw.ch)
  • Cathepsin B is an ancient family of eukaryotic cysteine proteases. (apsnet.org)
  • Our findings provide evidence for the highly specialized functions of closely related cysteine cathepsin proteases in extra-embryonic development, and reinforce their importance for a successful outcome of pregnancy. (biologists.org)
  • Two of the genes identified from this screen were the cathepsin proteases Cts7 and Cts8 . (biologists.org)
  • Cathepsin cysteine proteases are effectors of invasive growth and angiogenesis during multistage tumorigenesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cathepsins are lysosomal proteases that breakdown peptide bonds linked to specific amino acids. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cathepsin B is the first described member of the family of lysosomal cysteine proteases. (neuromics.com)
  • Here we adopt a novel in silico target fishing method to reveal the target profile of RD. Cathepsin K (Ctsk) is one of the cysteine proteases that is over-expressed in osteoclasts and accounts for the increase in bone resorption in metabolic bone disorders such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. (mdpi.com)
  • Though cytokines and phagocyte, as host factors, have been shown to participate in defence against Aspergillus species yet the role of cysteine proteases, that is cathepsins, a lysosomal enzymes of phagocytes, remains unknown in fungal infection. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Cathepsins are cysteine proteases, act as endopeptidases and are mainly involved in intracellular protein degradation and involved in large number of diseases [ 11 , 12 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • 11 Aortic tissues from patients with growing AAA and ruptured AAA contained significantly higher cathepsin mRNA and protein levels than did control aortas, 12 suggesting the involvement of cathepsins in AAA pathogenesis, but a direct role of this class of proteases has never been proven. (ahajournals.org)
  • To clarify the mode by which natural protein inhibitors manage to overcome this obstacle, we have analyzed the structure and function of cathepsin B in complexes with the Trypanosoma cruzi inhibitor, chagasin. (rcsb.org)
  • Incubation with the broad cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, completely abolished cathepsin activity detected by zymography identifying the active bands as cysteine cathepsins (A). Cathepsin protein levels in lesions were compared to eutopic uterine tissue by Western blot (B, n = 6). (nih.gov)
  • The requirement for cathepsin L proteolysis identifies a previously uncharacterized class of inhibitor for SARS-CoV infection. (pnas.org)
  • Using mass spectrometry analysis of cells treated with a pan cathepsin inhibitor, we observed an increased abundance of proteins involved in central carbon metabolism. (mcponline.org)
  • View detailed cathepsin H Inhibitor specifications, including cathepsin H Inhibitor CAS number, molecular weight, molecular formula and chemical structure, by clicking on the product name. (scbt.com)
  • Serine protease inhibitor serpinB1 protects neutrophils by inhibition of their own azurophil granule protease cathepsin G. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The anionic cathepsin B inhibitor ( l -3- trans -propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-carbony)- l -isoleucyl- l -proline (CA-074), at a concentration of 1 μ m , caused a nearly quantitative inhibition of extracellular cathepsin B but had no effect on Matrigel invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The membrane-permeant cathepsin B inhibitor, CA-074 methyl ester, and the higher concentration of CA-074 that inhibited intracellular cathepsin B both significantly reduced Matrigel invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our data demonstrate that cathepsin-L released from ex vivo rat hearts after ischaemia, and the cathepsin-L inhibitor CAA0225 improves cardiac function during ischaemia-reperfusion ex vivo . (bmj.com)
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain I, calpain II, cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. (promocell.com)
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain 1, calpain 2 which also inhibits cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. (promocell.com)
  • There were many hurdles in the drug discovery of cathepsin K inhibitors such as species differences not only in bone metabolism but also in amino acid sequences in the critical site of the target enzyme, discrepancies between PK/PD due to unique tissue distribution of the inhibitor affecting both efficacy and side effects originated from a characteristic intracellular or tissue distribution of some classes of compounds. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The cathepsin K inhibitor drug discovery was initiated based on a strong and osteoclast-specific expression of this enzyme. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This antibody is specific for Cathepsin E. (abcam.com)
  • This antibody reacts with human liver cathepsin D, and does not react with cathepsins B, H and L. (abcam.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-14270, RRID AB_2087668. (thermofisher.com)
  • This antibody reacts with the zymogen as well as the activated form of cathepsin D. It stains fibroblasts and macrophages strongly but stains the myoepithelial cells of breast weakly. (novusbio.com)
  • Cathepsin D Polyclonal antibody specifically detects Cathepsin D in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Cathepsin 6 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Cathepsin 6 in Mouse samples. (fishersci.com)
  • The main physiological functions of cathepsin D consist of metabolic degradation of intracellular proteins, activation and degradation of polypeptide hormones and growth factors , activation of enzymatic precursors, processing of enzyme activators and inhibitors, brain antigen processing and regulation of programmed cell death . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsins B and L are involved in matrix degradation and cell invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin K, among other cathepsins, plays a role in cancer metastasis through the degradation of the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a combination of modeling and experiments, researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University have shown that one type of cathepsin preferentially attacks another, reducing the enzyme's degradation of collagen. (innovations-report.com)
  • When the researchers combined the two cathepsins and allowed them to attack samples of elastin, they expected to see increased degradation of the protein. (innovations-report.com)
  • That theoretical result led to additional experiments in which the researchers measured a direct correlation between an increase in the amount of cathepsin S added to the experiment and a reduction in the degradation of collagen. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsin L is a potent cysteine protease engaged in degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • cathepsin H Inhibitors offered by Santa Cruz inhibit cathepsin H and, in some cases, other cellular metabolism and protein degradation related proteins. (scbt.com)
  • Collectively, these results identify an intracellular role for cathepsin B in matrix degradation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The experimental evidence indicates that a cathepsin B-like enzyme may be partly responsible for the autolytic degradation of cartilage matrix at pH5. (biochemj.org)
  • Cathepsin D is the lysosomal protease in the retinal pigment epithelium which is presumed to be the major enzyme involved in the degradation of shed discs during the photoreceptor renewal process. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cathepsin W is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSW gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSD gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin B seems to cause amyloid plaque, the root of Alzheimer's symptoms, when there are wild-type beta-secretase present in the system Overexpression of the encoded protein, which is a member of the peptidase C1 family, has been associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma and other tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoclasts are the bone resorbing cells of the body, and they secrete cathepsin K in order to break down collagen, the major component of the non-mineral protein matrix of the bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin S was upregulated most strongly and thus further studied in vitro at gene and protein levels. (hindawi.com)
  • Barry's modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the elastin - a protein essential in arteries and the cardiovascular system. (innovations-report.com)
  • H. Phipps-Yonas, V. Semik, and K. T. Hastings, "GILT expression in B cells diminishes cathepsin S steady-state protein expression and activity," European Journal of Immunology , vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 65-74, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Cathepsin A Proteine (28) und Cathepsin A Kits (27) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Galactosialidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused by a combined deficiency of GM1 beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) and neuraminidase secondary to a defect of a lysosomal enzyme protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA) and mutation in CTSA gene. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Additionally we are shipping Cathepsin D Antibodies (347) and Cathepsin D Proteins (55) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cathepsin H is a disulfide-linked heavy and light chain dimer which belongs to the peptidase C1 protein family, can act both as an aminopeptidase and as an endopeptidase. (scbt.com)
  • After 4 days of diabetes, cathepsin B and L activities were decreased by 15-45% when correlated with the levels of glomerular protein or DNA. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cathepsin D is an estrogen-regulated protein associated with tissue breakdown. (genetex.com)
  • Partially purified Cathepsin B protein was inhibited by a variety of peptide inhibitors but evidence of inhibition by several pathogen-derived inhibitors that are secreted during infection was inconclusive. (bl.uk)
  • Mechanistic studies indicated that the absence of CatL reduced lesion chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 content, macrophage and T-cell in vitro transmigration, and angiogenesis, and altered the expression and activities of matrix metalloproteinases and other cysteinyl cathepsins in inflammatory cells, vascular cells, and AAA lesions. (harvard.edu)
  • Over-expression of cathepsin D stimulates tumorigenicity and metastasis as well as initiation of tumor apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • [21] [22] Knock-out of CTSD gene would cause intestinal necrosis and hemorrhage and increase apoptosis in thymus , indicating that cathepsin D is required in certain epithelial cells for tissue remodeling and renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although a lysosomal, cathepsin B-dependent (Ctsb-dependent) pathway of apoptosis has been described, the contribution of this pathway to tissue damage remains unclear. (jci.org)
  • Schwartz-Roberts, Shajahan, Cook, Wärri, Abu-Asab, Clarke: GX15-070 (obatoclax) induces apoptosis and inhibits cathepsin D- and L-mediated autophagosomal lysis in antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This suggests that cathepsin D exerts its apoptosis-stimulating effect upstream of caspase-3-like activation. (diva-portal.org)
  • In vitro studies revealed that CatK contributed importantly to CD4 + T-cell proliferation, SMC apoptosis, and other cysteinyl cathepsin and matrix metalloproteinase expression and activities in SMCs and endothelial cells but played negligible roles in microvessel growth and monocyte migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Five cyclic peptides show inhibitory activity towards human cathepsins L, B, H, and K. Zymography is a type of gel electrophoresis that uses a polyacrylamide gel co-polymerized with a substrate in order to detect enzyme activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin T (EC 3.4.22.24) is an enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers used a variety of tests to determine the amount of each enzyme, including fluorogenic substrate analysis, Western blotting and multiplex cathepsin zymography - a sensitive technique developed in the Platt laboratory. (innovations-report.com)
  • Beyond demonstrating for the first time that cathepsins can attack one another, the research also shows the complexity of the body's enzyme system - and may suggest why drugs designed to inhibit cathepsins haven't worked as intended. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsin D purified from a mutant strain has a lower activity per unit mass of pure enzyme. (genetics.org)
  • The active cathepsin L activity (without activation by pepsin digestion), its percentage in the total activity (after pepsin activation), and the expression of the mature single-chain enzyme were the lowest in the umbilical cord arteries and the highest in Wharton's jelly. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • As cathepsin D activity is increased by cigarette smoke, the enzyme may contribute to lung tissue damage in smokers. (genetex.com)
  • We offer various assays to detect and quantify cathepsin, calpain and granzyme B activity and screen for respective enzyme inhibitors. (promocell.com)
  • Cathepsin D was released from lysosomes to the cytosol upon exposure to naphthazarin, and the enzyme activity decreased simultaneously. (diva-portal.org)
  • Later, cathepsin D reappeared in granules of increased size, and enzyme activity was restored. (diva-portal.org)
  • Lysosomal serine carboxypeptidase Cathepsin A (CTSA) is a multifunctional enzyme with distinct protective and catalytic function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Herein, we describe the preparation of a fused silica capillary, cathepsin D (CatD)-immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) using in a multidimensional High Performance Liquid Chromatography-based method (2D-HPLC) and zonal affinity chromatography as an alternative in the search for new ligands. (ovid.com)
  • The prodrug demonstrates enzyme-responsive drug release features, and over 95% GEM was released from the carrier with the Cathepsin B within 3 h. (rsc.org)
  • The presence of a cathepsin B-like enzyme in rabbit ear cartilage was established by the use of the synthetic substrates benzoyl- l -arginine amide and benzoyl- dl -arginine 2-naphthylamide. (biochemj.org)
  • The enzymic properties of cathepsin B in cartilage have been compared with an endogenous enzyme that liberates chondromucopeptide by degrading the cartilage matrix autocatalytically at pH5. (biochemj.org)
  • It was catalytically active, as demonstrated by active-site-directed radioiodination, and hydrolysed three cathepsin B substrates, two with Km values similar to those of lysosomal cathepsin B. In addition, the rates of inactivation of the sputum and lysosomal forms of the enzyme by L-3-carboxy-2,3-transepoxypropionyl-leucylamido(4-guanidino) butane (Compound E-64) were very similar. (portlandpress.com)
  • However, the sputum enzyme differed from lysosomal cathepsin B in the following respects. (portlandpress.com)
  • Inhibition by chicken cystatin was much weaker for sputum cathepsin B than for the lysosomal enzyme. (portlandpress.com)
  • The data suggest that the higher levels of cathepsin D activity observed in the freshly isolated RPE from the area centralis result from modulators of enzyme activity which are not present in culture. (arvojournals.org)
  • This review sought to evaluate recent findings in this field, highlighting how among cathepsins, the inhibition of cathepsin S in particular, could play a significant role in diminishing the effects of CVD, especially for patients with CKD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Spi2A defects were ameliorated by cathepsin-B/L inhibition, and by genetic co-deletion of lysosomal cathepsin B. Pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin B/L enhanced EPO-induced red cell formation in normal mice. (rupress.org)
  • Osteocytes express genes required in osteoclasts for bone resorption, including cathepsin K (Ctsk), and lactation elevates their expression. (jci.org)
  • A composite docking approach for the identification and characterization of ectosteric inhibitors of cathepsin K. Law S, et al . (nih.gov)
  • The availability of a purified preparation of salmon muscle cathepsins should stimulate interest and research in the characterization of these enzymes and lead to better means for the control of catheptic activity in fish muscle. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Cysteine cathepsins belong to the papain-like family C1 of clan CA cysteine peptidases. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, cysteine cathepsins are active in pericellular environments as soluble enzymes or bound to cell surface receptors at the plasma membrane, and possibly even within secretory vesicles, the cytosol, mitochondria, and within the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Proteolytic actions performed by cysteine cathepsins are essential in the maintenance of homeostasis and depend heavily upon their correct sorting and trafficking within cells. (nih.gov)
  • This review focuses upon the transport pathways directing cysteine cathepsins to their points of action and thus emphasizes the broader role and functionality of cysteine cathepsins in a number of specific cellular locales. (nih.gov)
  • Arampatzidou M, Rehders M, Dauth S, Yu DMT, Tedelind S, Brix K. Imaging of protease functions-current guide to spotting cysteine cathepsins in classical and novel scenes of action in mammalian epithelial cells and tissues. (springer.com)
  • It is widely held that invasion is facilitated by a membrane or secreted form of cathepsin B that acts outside the cell to degrade ECM components at or adjacent to the surface of the invading cell. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These cells were tested in an in vitro Matrigel invasion assay with membrane-permeant and impermeant inhibitors of cathepsin B. The results, which provided direct proof for the participation of cathepsin B in matrix penetration, also yielded the unexpected finding that an intracellular form of cathepsin B was required for Matrigel invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sputum cathepsin B had greater stability at pH 7.5 and a higher apparent Mr, even after deglycosylation, than lysosomal cathepsin B. We conclude that the form of cathepsin B found in sputum is probably a truncated form of human procathepsin B, with some differences in properties that could be of physiological importance. (portlandpress.com)
  • Elevated levels of cathepsin H correlates with malignant progression of prostate tumors. (scbt.com)
  • Levels of cathepsin D have been positively correlated with recurring breast cancers of both node negative and node positive types. (genetex.com)
  • Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans. (genetics.org)
  • These data suggest that cad-1 is a structural gene for cathepsin D. (genetics.org)
  • These results suggest that the ecdysone response elements are vital for activation of the promoter by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in the larval fat body and further support the crucial role of ecdysone signaling to control cathepsin D gene transcription. (antibodies-online.com)
  • By making use of EST data, sequenced cDNAs, and genomic trace sequences of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, we identified a total of 28 cathepsin B-like gene copies in the genome of A. pisum. (inria.fr)
  • In addition, this work also implicates Cathepsin B genes in senescence, a developmental form of PCD, via regulation of the senescence marker gene Senescence Associated Gene 12 ( SAG12 ). (bl.uk)
  • There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone resorption. (genenames.org)
  • Impaired osteoclastic bone resorption leads to osteopetrosis in cathepsin-K-deficient mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cathepsin K associates with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Elevated Cathepsin K potentiates metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsins are involved in disease processes as varied as cancer metastasis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and arthritis. (innovations-report.com)
  • Involvement of cathepsins in the invasion, metastasis and proliferation of cancer cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Cathepsin B is among the candidate proteinases believed to participate in invasion and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Besides caspases, cathepsins have recently been shown to be associated with cell death regulation [6-12] and various other physiological and pathological processes, such as maturation of the MHC class II complex, bone remodelling, keratinocyte differentiation, tumour progression and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, as well as atherosclerosis [13, 14] (table 1). (smw.ch)
  • Cathepsins are intracellular proteinases that hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Surprisingly, at a concentration of 10 μ m , CA-074 slowly permeated the cells, causing an 80-95% inhibition of intracellular cathepsin B after 12 h, the duration of the invasion assay. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we describe how intracellular sigma peptide modulation of RPTPσ induces enhanced protease Cathepsin B activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we report that in peripheral nerve-injured rats, the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) is critical for the maintenance of neuropathic pain and spinal microglia activation. (pnas.org)
  • We have recently found that after peripheral nerve injury, the mRNA for the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) was up-regulated in the DRG because of CatS expression in infiltrating macrophages ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The lysosomal cysteine protease, cathepsin S, is increased in Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome brain: an immunocytochemical study," American Journal of Pathology , vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 848-860, 1995. (hindawi.com)
  • Mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans having about 10% of wild-type activity of the aspartyl protease cathepsin D have been isolated by screening. (genetics.org)
  • Recent work shows that the cysteine protease cathepsin S (Cat S) is required for the terminal step in CLIP formation in B cells and most dendritic cells (DCs), and in vitro can mediate all steps of digestion of class II-Ii complexes ( 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The protease cathepsin D is one such target involved in several diseases such as tumors, degenerative processes, and vital processes of parasites causing schistosomiasis. (ovid.com)
  • Here, we have found that one important mechanism by which peptide modulation of the receptor enhances axon outgrowth is through secretion of a protease, Cathepsin B, which enables digestion of CSPGs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cathepsin L-deficient mice were shown to have less adipose tissue, lower serum glucose and insulin levels, more insulin receptor subunits, more glucose transporter (GLUT4) and more fibronectin than wild type controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • To test this, we used an immunocompetent endometriosis mouse model and found that endometriotic lesions exhibited a greater than 5-fold increase in active cathepsins compared to tissue from peritoneal wall or eutopic endometrium, with cathepsins L and K specifically implicated. (nih.gov)
  • Human endometriosis lesions also exhibited greater cathepsin activity than adjacent peritoneum tissue, supporting the mouse results. (nih.gov)
  • Platt's long-term research has focused on cathepsins, including the development of sensitive tools and assays to quantify their activity in cells and tissue, as well as potential diagnostic applications for breast, lung and cervical cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • Keilová, H.: On the specificity and inhibition of cathepsins D and B. In: Tissue proteinases, ed. by A. J. Barrett and J. T. Dingle, p. 45-65. (springer.com)
  • IHC image of Cathepsin D staining in Human Lung formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica Bond™ system using the standard protocol F. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6, epitope retrieval solution 1) for 20 mins. (abcam.com)
  • Weight loss reduces adipose tissue cathepsin S and its circulating levels in morbidly obese women," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 1042-1047, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Arkona C, Wiederanders B. Expression, subcellular distribution and plasma membrane binding of cathepsin B and gelatinases in bone metastatic tissue. (springer.com)
  • Cathepsin F staining of paraffin-embedded human heart tissue sections. (neuromics.com)
  • The activity profiles of four cathepsins in the kidney and liver tissue were analysed and correlated with blood cytokines level in the presence and absence of antifungal compounds (amphotericin B, a standard drug and 2-(3,4-dimethyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-2-yl)-1-methylethyl pentanoate, isolated in our laboratory from natural source) treatment. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Aortic tissue extract cathepsin activities were significantly higher in AAA patients than in those with aortic occlusion diseases, but cystatin C levels were regulated inversely. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cathepsin zymography separates different cathepsins based on their migration through a polyacrylamide gel co-polymerized with a gelatin substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gel is then put into an activation buffer of a specific pH and left to incubate overnight at 37 °C. This activation step allows the cathepsins to degrade the gelatin substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • BioVision's newly developed Cathepsin Activity Assay kits are fluorescence-based assays that utilize the preferred substrate sequence for each cathepsin, labeled with AFC (amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin). (biovision.com)
  • Cell lysates or other samples that contain cathepsins will cleave the synthetic substrate to release free AFC. (biovision.com)
  • Cathepsin F has the substrate specificity similar to that of cathepsins L and S. (neuromics.com)
  • Genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and expression of human cathepsin W". Biochem Biophys Res Commun . (wikipedia.org)
  • Transient expression of human cathepsin B in a poorly metastatic B16F1 murine melanoma variant produced a 3-5-fold increase in cathepsin B activity and a comparable increase in invasiveness. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CTSZ, which has been also known as cathepsin X and cathepsin P, exhibits carboxy-monopeptidase and carboxy-dipeptidase activities. (prospecbio.com)
  • The purpose of the research reported herein was to develop procedures for the purification of the cathepsin from salmon muscle. (oregonstate.edu)
  • It was decided to attempt the purification of the cathepsin optimally active at pH 3.7. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The purification was accomplished by extracting the salmon muscle cathepsin with two parts 0.2 N KC1. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The purification of cathepsin D from pig uterus by two-step affinity chromatography on concanavalin A- and pepstatin-Sepharose was described previously [Afting & Becker (1981) Biochem. (biochemj.org)
  • Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • The catalytic sites of cathepsin D include two critical aspartic residues ( amino acid 33 and 231) located on the 14 kDa and 34kDa chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • [13] Cathepsin-D is an aspartic protease that depends critically on protonation of its active site Asp residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, no defects in granulopoiesis or PMN homeostasis have been reported in mice deficient in cathepsin G ( CG −/− ), 15 neutrophil elastase ( NE −/− ), 16 , 17 or dipeptidylpeptidase I ( DPPI −/− ), which lack active NSPs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Neutrophil cathepsin G increases calcium flux and inositol polyphosphate production in cultured endothelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Exposure of endothelial cells (ENDO) to human neutrophil cathepsin G (CG) increases albumin flux across the endothelial monolayer. (jimmunol.org)
  • Identification of a human neutrophil angiotension II-generating protease as cathepsin G. J Clin Invest. (umassmed.edu)
  • The cathepsin A activity in lysates of metastatic lesions of malignant melanoma is significantly higher than in primary focus lysates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gingival biopsies from periodontitis patients showed a significantly higher cathepsin S expression than those from healthy gingiva. (hindawi.com)
  • Analysis of freshly isolated RPE cells from 30 eyes indicated that cells from the area centralis have significantly higher cathepsin D activity than cells from the more peripheral retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cathepsin D (an aspartyl protease) appears to cleave a variety of substrates such as fibronectin and laminin. (wikipedia.org)
  • E-64 blocks all cathepsin proteolytic activity in murine endometriotic lesions. (nih.gov)
  • We further demonstrate that incorporating a cathepsin B-cleavable linker between the BIM BH3 peptide and the hydrophobic tail within individual amphiphiles results in increased binding to recombinant BCL-2 proteins while also allowing for increased cellular uptake and mitochondrial localization leading to faster and more potent dose-dependent cytotoxicity and caspase activation in malignant cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • However, we here report an unexpected finding that cysteine protease genes of the family cathepsin B are massively amplified in the lineage of aphids, and that many of the protease genes exhibit gut-specific over-expression. (inria.fr)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of all the cathepsin B genes in aphids revealed that genic expansion has continuously proceeded with basal, intermediary and recent duplications. (inria.fr)
  • "Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for human cathepsin D" . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin B has also been implicated in the progression of various human tumors including ovarian cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse cathepsin L is homologous to human cathepsin V. Mouse cathepsin L has been shown to play a role in adipogenesis and glucose intolerance in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barrett, A. J.: Human cathepsin B1. (springer.com)
  • Targeting circulating cathepsin S may lead to new therapies for human aortic valve disease. (springer.com)
  • Distribution of cathepsin L in human umbilical cord tissues. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin D has been reported to be involved in malignant tumour progression and with prognosis of various human cancers. (novusbio.com)
  • Stable antisense cathepsin B-expressing clones of the highly metastatic human melanoma A375M and prostate carcinoma PC3M cell lines produced 40-50% less cathepsin B than control cells and were proportionately less invasive. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Novel, Nonpeptidic Cyanamides as Potent and Reversible Inhibitors of Human Cathepsins K and L, J. Med. (patentgenius.com)
  • Baici A, Müntener K, Willimann A, Zwicky R. Regulation of human cathepsin B by alternative mRNA splicing: homeostasis, fatal errors and cell death. (springer.com)
  • Expression of the elastolytic cathepsins S and K in human atheroma and regulation of their production in smooth muscle cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It was immunologically related to lysosomal cathepsin B from human liver and was similar in many, but not all, other aspects. (portlandpress.com)
  • Since we first showed increased expression of cathepsins S, L, and K in human AAA lesions, 6 other studies have found similar expression patterns. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase whose expression and trafficking are frequently altered in cancer, and plasma membrane and secreted forms are thought to contribute to the invasive and metastatic properties of malignant tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • [23] Cathepsin D enzymatic activity induces hydrolytic modification of apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins, including LDL, which means it may be involved in atherosclerosis as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike some of the other cathepsins, cathepsin D has some protease activity at neutral pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxLDL inhibits differentiation and functional activity of osteoclasts via scavenger receptor-A mediated autophagy and cathepsin K secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique occluding loop that restricts access to the active site cleft. (rcsb.org)
  • Finally, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting cathepsin activity could block endometriosis lesion attachment and implantation in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Mouse endometriotic lesions exhibit elevated cathepsin proteolytic activity. (nih.gov)
  • Because cathepsins have harmful effects on critical proteins such as collagen and elastin, pharmaceutical companies have been developing drugs to inhibit activity of the enzymes, but so far these compounds have had too many side effects to be useful and have failed clinical trials. (innovations-report.com)
  • The work could affect not only the development of drugs to inhibit cathepsin activity, but could also lead to a better understanding of how the enzymes work together. (innovations-report.com)
  • By increasing the amount of cathepsin S ten-fold over the amount used in the original experiment, Platt and Barry were able to completely block the activity of cathepsin K, preventing damage to the collagen sample. (innovations-report.com)
  • The selective demonstration of cathepsin B activity by means of the naphthylamide reaction. (springer.com)
  • We evaluated the activity and expression of cathepsin L, and the inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors in the umbilical cord arteries, vein and Wharton's jelly. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin L activity and anti-papain inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors were quantified in extracts of separated umbilical cord tissues using fluorogenic substrates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Distribution of the activity and expression of mature cathepsin L within the umbilical cord probably results from distinctions in the proenzyme activation process. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin K (CatK) is a lysosomal protease with collagenolytic activity, and its secretion by osteoclasts is responsible for degrading organic bone matrix. (wiley.com)
  • Here we report that loss of cathepsin L (Cts L) is associated with a fast proliferation rate and enhanced glycolytic metabolism that depend on lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity. (mcponline.org)
  • This project aims to examine the utility of the proteolytic activity signatures of caspase 1 and cathepsin S (CTSS) as readouts of particle-induced inflammation and to elucidate the role and dynamic regulation of CTSS in response to cellular stress. (bl.uk)
  • Dariusz Szajda S, Jankowski M, Zalewska B, Kożuszko B, Gabrylewski W, Skrzydlewski Z. Activity of cancer procoagulant and cathepsin D in breast cancer. (termedia.pl)
  • BACKGROUND: Serum cathepsin B activity has been considered a potential marker of tumor progression. (lu.se)
  • The aim of this study was to assess serum cathepsin activity during tumor progression and regression. (lu.se)
  • Serum cathepsin B activity was determined, tumor volumes were measured, and. (lu.se)
  • RESULTS: Of the 45 BRT-treated rats, tumor regression was observed in 31 rats, and serum cathepsin activity was analyzed in these rats. (lu.se)
  • Regional comparisons of cathepsin D activity in bovine retinal pigment epithelium. (arvojournals.org)
  • In this study, the cathepsin D activity in RPE cells from the posterior area centralis was compared to the activity in cells from the equatorial region of the same bovine eyes. (arvojournals.org)
  • AAA lesions from CatK-deficient mice showed reduced elastinolytic cathepsin activities compared with those from wild-type control mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we used cathepsin K (CatK)-deficient mice and aorta elastase perfusion-induced experimental AAA to test whether this elastase contributes directly to AAA formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • CTSC / Cathepsin C / JP, a member of the peptidase C1 family, is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase that appears to be a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteinases in immune/inflammatory cells. (lsbio.com)
  • Cathepsin-Z (CTSZ) is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase and member of the peptidase C1 family. (prospecbio.com)
  • Cathepsin K is a recently identified lysosomal cysteine proteinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Essential role for cathepsin S in MHC class II-associated invariant chain processing and peptide loading," Immunity , vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 357-366, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • A direct immunohistochemical method of high specificity is presented for the demonstration of sites of cathepsin B1. (springer.com)
  • In this review we cover specific roles of cathepsins in innate and adaptive immunity, as well as their implication in the pathogenesis of several diseases. (smw.ch)
  • It is of note to mention that this review is not meant to comprehensively cover the present literature on viruses encountering cathepsins but rather illustrates, on some representative examples, the possible roles of cathepsins in replication of viruses and in the course of disease. (springer.com)
  • Cathepsins are proteolytic enzymes with a broad spectrum of substrates. (springer.com)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/730869/all/cathepsins. (tabers.com)