Cathepsin E: An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.Cathepsins: A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Cathepsin B: A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.Cathepsin D: An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).Cathepsin L: A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.Cathepsin K: A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.Pepstatins: N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.Cathepsin G: A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.Cathepsin H: An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.Cathepsin F: A lysosomal papain-related cysteine proteinase that is expressed in a broad variety of cell types.Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 2: An abundant lysosomal-associated membrane protein that has been found to shuttle between LYSOSOMES; ENDOSOMES; and the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Loss of expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 is associated with GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE IIB.Cathepsin C: A papain-like cysteine protease that has specificity for amino terminal dipeptides. The enzyme plays a role in the activation of several pro-inflammatory serine proteases by removal of their aminoterminal inhibitory dipeptides. Genetic mutations that cause loss of cathepsin C activity in humans are associated with PAPILLON-LEFEVRE DISEASE.Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1: An abundant lysosomal-associated membrane protein that has been found to shuttle between LYSOSOMES; ENDOSOMES; and the PLASMA MEMBRANE. In PLATELETS and T-LYMPHOCYTES it may play a role in the cellular degranulation process.Cathepsin Z: A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine peptidase that exhibits carboxypeptidase activity. It is highly expressed in a variety of immune cell types and may play a role in inflammatory processes and immune responses.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Mice, Inbred C57BLCarcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Skin DiseasesRadiodermatitis: A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Cathepsin W: A cysteine endopeptidase found in NATURAL KILLER CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES. It may have a specific function in the mechanism or regulation of cytolytic activity of immune cells.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.

Production of angiotensin II by homogeneous cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats. (1/82)

Production of angiotensin II (Ang II) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) has now been investigated. A nonpeptide antagonist (CV-11974) of Ang II type 1 receptors inhibited basal DNA synthesis in VSMC from SHR, but it had no effect on cells from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Ang II-like immunoreactivity, determined by radioimmunoassay after HPLC, was readily detected in conditioned medium and extracts of SHR-derived VSMC, whereas it was virtually undetectable in VSMC from WKY rats. Isoproterenol increased the amount of Ang II-like immunoreactivity in conditioned medium and extracts of SHR-derived VSMC, whereas the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor delapril significantly reduced the amount of Ang II-like immunoreactivity in conditioned medium and extracts of these cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the abundance of mRNAs encoding angiotensinogen, cathepsin D, and angiotensin-converting enzyme was greater in VSMC from SHR than in cells from WKY rats. The abundance of cathepsin D protein by Western blotting was greater in VSMC from SHR than in cells from WKY rats. Ang I-generating and acid protease activities were detected in VSMC from SHR, but not in cells from WKY rats. These results suggest that SHR-derived VSMC generate Ang II with increases in angiotensinogen, cathepsin D, and angiotensin-converting enzyme, which contribute to the basal growth. Production of Ang II by homogeneous cultures of VSMC is considered as a new mechanism of hypertensive vascular disease.  (+info)

Characterization of new fluorogenic substrates for the rapid and sensitive assay of cathepsin E and cathepsin D. (2/82)

Cathepsin E and cathepsin D are two major intracellular aspartic proteinases implicated in the physiological and pathological degradation of intra- and extracellular proteins. In this study, we designed and constructed highly sensitive synthetic decapeptide substrates for assays of cathepsins E and D based on the known sequence specificities of their cleavage sites. These substrates contain a highly fluorescent (7-methoxycoumarin-4-yl)acetyl (MOCAc) moiety and a quenching 2,4-dinitrophenyl (Dnp) group. When the Phe-Phe bond is cleaved, the fluorescence at an excitation wavelength of 328 nm and emission wavelength of 393 increases due to diminished quenching resulting from the separation of the fluorescent and quenching moieties. The first substrate, MOCAc-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe-Phe-Arg-Le u-Lys(Dnp)gamma-NH2, in which the Lys-Pro combination at positions P5 and P4 was designed for specific interaction with cathepsin E, is hydrolyzed equally well by cathepsins E and D (kcat/Km = 10.9 microM(-1) x s(-1) for cathepsin E and 15.6 microM(-1) x s(-1) for cathepsin D). A very acidic pH optimum o was obtained for both enzymes. The second substrate, MOCAc-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ile-Ile-Phe-Phe-Arg-Le u-Lys(Dnp)gamma-NH2, in which the isoleucine residue at position P2 was meant to increase the specificity for cathepsin E, is also hydrolyzed equally by both enzymes (kcat/Km = 12.2 microM(-1) x s(-1) for cathepsin E and 16.3 microM(-1) x s(-1) for cathepsin D). The kcat/Km values for both substrates are greater than those for the best substrates for cathepsins E and D described so far. Unfortunately, each substrate shows little discrimination between cathepsin E and cathepsin D, suggesting that amino acids at positions far from the cleavage site are important for discrimination between the two enzymes. However, in combination with aspartic proteinase inhibitors, such as pepstatin A and Ascaris pepsin inhibitor, these substrates enable a rapid and sensitive determination of the precise levels of cathepsins E and D in crude cell extracts of various tissues and cells. Thus these substrates represent a potentially valuable tool for routine assays and for mechanistic studies on cathepsins E and D.  (+info)

Role of N-glycosylation in cathepsin E. A comparative study of cathepsin E with distinct N-linked oligosaccharides and its nonglycosylated mutant. (3/82)

Cathepsin E (CE), a nonlysosomal, intracellular aspartic proteinase, exists in several molecular forms that are N-glycosylated with high-mannose and/or complex-type oligosaccharides. To investigate the role of N-glycosylation on the catalytic properties and molecular stability of CE, both natural and recombinant enzymes with distinct oligosaccharides were purified from different sources. An N-glycosylation minus mutant, that was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (by changing asparagine residues to glutamine and aspartic acid residues at positions 73 and 305 in potential N-glycosylation sites of rat CE) and expressed in normal rat kidney cells, was also purified to homogeneity from the cell extracts. The kinetic parameters of the nonglycosylated mutant were found to be essentially equivalent to those of natural enzymes N-glycosylated with either high-mannose or complex-type oligosaccharides. In contrast, the nonglycosylated mutant showed lower pH and thermal stabilities than the glycosylated enzymes. The nonglycosylated mutant exhibited particular sensitivity to conversion to a monomeric form by 2-mercaptoethanol, as compared with those of the glycosylated enzymes. Further, the high-mannose-type enzymes were more sensitive to this agent than the complex-type proteins. A striking difference was found between the high-mannose and complex-type enzymes in terms of activation by ATP at a weakly acidic pH. At pH 5.5, the complex-type enzymes were stabilized by ATP to be restored to the virtual activity, whereas the high-mannose-type enzymes as well as the nonglycosylated mutant were not affected by ATP. These results suggest that N-glycosylation in CE is important for the maintenance of its proper folding upon changes in temperature, pH and redox state, and that the complex-type oligosaccharides contribute to the completion of the tertiary structure to maintain its active conformation in the weakly acidic pH environments.  (+info)

New functional aspects of cathepsin D and cathepsin E. (4/82)

Cathepsin D (CD) and cathepsin E are representative lysosomal and nonlysosomal aspartic proteinases, respectively, and play an important role in the degradation of proteins, the generation of bioactive proteins, antigen processing, etc. Recenty, several lines of evidence have suggested the involvement of these two enzymes in the execution of neuronal death pathways induced by aging, transient forebrain ischemia, and excessive stimulation of glutamate receptors with excitotoxins. CD has also been shown to mediate apoptosis induced by various stimuli and p53-dependent tumor suppression. To gain more insight into in vivo functions of CD, mice deficient in this enzyme were generated. The mutant animals showed a progressive atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, a massive destruction of lymphoid organs, and a profound accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin, and developed a phenotype resembling neuronal ceroid lipofucinosis, suggesting that CD is essential for proteolysis of proteins regulating cell growth and tissue homeostasis. It has also been shown that CD molecules secreted from human prostate carcinoma cells are responsible for the generation of angiostatin, a potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, suggesting its contribution to the prevention of tumor growth and angiogenesis-dependent growth of metastases. Interestingly, pro-CD from human breast carcinoma cells showed a significantly lower angiostatin-generating activity than that from prostate carcinoma cells. Since deglycosylated CD molecules from both carcinoma cells showed a low angiostatin-generating activity, this discrepancy appeared to be attributed to the difference in the carbohydrate structures of CD molecules between the two cell types and to contribute to their potency to prevent tumor growth and metastases.  (+info)

Regulation of human and mouse procathepsin E gene expression. (5/82)

Cathepsin E is an intracellular aspartic proteinase that is considered to have a number of physiological roles including antigen processing. Quantitation of procathepsin E mRNA by LightCyclertrade mark technology indicated that the gene was transcribed in lung but not in kidney of both human and mouse origin. In contrast, the transcript was present in mouse spleen and alveolar macrophages but not in the counterpart tissue/cells from humans. Regulation of human and mouse procathepsin E gene expression was shown not to be influenced by the extent of CpG methylation but depended on the recognition of potential binding motifs in each promoter region by transcription factors such as GATA1, PU1 and YY1, as revealed by functional analysis using a series of promoter/luciferase reporter gene fusion constructs. Thus the extent to which the procathepsin E gene is expressed in a particular cell type may depend on the balance between the effects produced by positive-acting, cell-specific transcription factors such as GATA1 and PU1 and the negative influence of the ubiquitous YY1 factor. In this way, the relative abundance and influence of general and cell-specific transcription factors can govern the production of cathepsin E and thereby account for the sporadic cell and tissue distribution of this enzyme in different species.  (+info)

Involvement of cathepsin E in exogenous antigen processing in primary cultured murine microglia. (6/82)

We have attempted to elucidate an involvement of cathepsin E (CE) in major histocompatibility complex class II-mediated antigen presentation by microglia. In primary cultured murine microglia, CE was localized mainly in early endosomes and its expression level was markedly increased upon stimulation with interferon-gamma. Pepstatin A, a specific inhibitor of aspartic proteases, significantly inhibited interleukin-2 production from an OVA-(266-281)-specific T helper cell hybridomas upon stimulation with native OVA presented by interferon-gamma-treated microglia. However, pepstatin A failed to inhibit the presentation of OVA-(266-281) peptide. The possible involvement of CE in the processing of native OVA into antigenic peptide was further substantiated by that digested fragments of native OVA by CE could be recognized by OVA-specific Th cells. Cathepsin D also degraded native OVA into antigenic peptide, whereas microglia prepared from cathepsin D-deficient mice retained an ability for antigen presentation. On the other hand, the requirement for cysteine proteases such as cathepsins S and B in the processing of invariant chain (Ii) was confirmed by immunoblot analyses in the presence of their specific inhibitors. In conclusion, CE is required for the generation of an antigenic epitope from OVA but not for the processing of Ii in microglia.  (+info)

Substrate and inhibitor profile of BACE (beta-secretase) and comparison with other mammalian aspartic proteases. (7/82)

The full-length and ectodomain forms of beta-site APP cleavage enzyme (BACE) have been cloned, expressed in Sf9 cells, and purified to homogeneity. This aspartic protease cleaves the amyloid precursor protein at the beta-secretase site, a critical step in the Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Comparison of BACE to other aspartic proteases such as cathepsin D and E, napsin A, pepsin, and renin revealed little similarity with respect to the substrate preference and inhibitor profile. On the other hand, these parameters are all very similar for the homologous enzyme BACE2. Based on a collection of decameric substrates, it was found that BACE has a loose substrate specificity and that the substrate recognition site in BACE extends over several amino acids. In common with the aspartic proteases mentioned above, BACE prefers a leucine residue at position P1. Unlike cathepsin D etc., BACE accepts polar or acidic residues at positions P2'0 and P1 but prefers bulky hydrophobic residues at position P3. BACE displays poor kinetic constants toward its known substrates (wild-type substrate, SEVKM/DAEFR, K(m) = 7 microm, K(cat) = 0.002 s(-1); Swedish mutant, SEVNL/DAEFR, K(m) = 9 microm, K(cat) = 0.02 s(-1)). A new substrate (VVEVDA/AVTP, K(m) = 1 microm, K(cat) = 0.004) was identified by serendipity.  (+info)

Pronapsin A and B gene expression in normal and malignant human lung and mononuclear blood cells. (8/82)

The two human pronapsin genes which are located immediately adjacent to one another on chromosome 19 were shown, using quantitative RT-PCR, to have distinctly different expression patterns. Transcription of the pronapsin A gene in normal human lung tissue was not appreciably altered in lung carcinomas and comparable pronapsin A mRNA levels were also quantified in lung epithelial cell lines and in tumour cell lines originating from human lung epithelium. Pronapsin A may thus have considerable diagnostic value as a marker for primary lung cancer. In contrast, the pronapsin B gene, which lacks an in-frame stop codon and so may be a transcribed pseudogene, is expressed at comparable levels in normal human spleen, thymus, cytotoxic and helper T-lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells and B-lymphocytes. The mRNA levels quantified in B-cells from adults with chronic lymphoblastic leukaemia were not significantly different from those measured in B-cells from healthy individuals. Similarly, comparable levels of expression were quantified in monocytes from healthy individuals and from a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia, whereas in alveolar macrophages, which are terminally differentiated myeloid cells, transcription of the pronapsin B gene was down-regulated by approximately one order of magnitude. Reciprocally, an approximately 20-fold up-regulation in expression of the procathepsin D gene in the macrophages relative to the circulating monocytes was revealed by quantitative measurements made in parallel throughout all of this study for the respective mRNAs encoding the intracellular aspartic proteinases, procathepsin D and procathepsin E. Thus, while there appears to be little difference in expression of the pronapsin A and B genes between healthy and malignant human cells and tissues, the reciprocal alterations in the levels of transcription of the pronapsin B and procathepsin D genes may have significance in the developmental processes associated with myeloid cell differentiation into macrophages.  (+info)

*Osteoclast

Of these hydrolytic enzymes, cathepsin K is of most importance. Cathepsin K and other cathepsins[edit]. Cathepsin K is a ... Several other cathepsins are expressed in osteoclasts including cathepsins B, C, D, E, G, and L. The function of these cysteine ... characterised by a lack of functional cathepsin K expression. Knockout studies of cathepsin K in mice lead to an osteopetrotic ... Studies on cathepsin L knockout mice have been mixed, with a report of reduced trabecular bone in homozygous and heterozygous ...

*Histone

... s were discovered in 1884 by Albrecht Kossel.[17] The word "histone" dates from the late 19th century and is derived from the German word "Histon", a word itself of uncertain origin - perhaps from the Greek histanai or histos. In the early 1960s, before the types of histones were known and before histones were known to be highly conserved across taxonomically diverse organisms, James F. Bonner and his collaborators began a study of these proteins that were known to be tightly associated with the DNA in the nucleus of higher organisms.[18] Bonner and his postdoctoral fellow Ru Chih C. Huang showed that isolated chromatin would not support RNA transcription in the test tube, but if the histones were extracted from the chromatin, RNA could be transcribed from the remaining DNA.[19] Their paper became a citation classic.[20] Paul T'so and James Bonner had called together a World Congress on Histone Chemistry and Biology in 1964, in which it became clear that there was no consensus on the ...

*Batten disease

Cathepsin D is involved in CLN10.[9]. *DNA analysis can be used to help confirm the diagnosis of Batten disease. When the ...

*Retinoic acid syndrome

Mediation by cathepsin G has been suggested. The treatment of RAS usually involves administering dexamethasone IV, with the ...

*Chromatin

... , Histones & Cathepsin; PMAP The Proteolysis Map-animation [ Recent chromatin publications and news] Protocol for in ...

*Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan

... collagenases such as cathepsin B1; and hyaluronidase. PSGAG inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which is released upon ...

*Carboxypeptidase C

Cathepsin A Breddam, K. (1986). "Serine carboxypeptidases. A review". Carlsberg Res. Commun. 51: 83-128. doi:10.1007/bf02907561 ... Miller, J.J.; Changaris, D.G.; Levy, R.S. (1992). "Purification, subunit structure and inhibitor profile of cathepsin-A". J. ... Carboxypeptidase C (EC 3.4.16.5, carboxypeptidase Y, serine carboxypeptidase I, cathepsin A, lysosomal protective protein, ...

*Amentoflavone

It is also an inhibitor of human cathepsin B. Amentoflavone has a variety of in vitro activities including antimalarial ... "Amentoflavone and its derivatives as novel natural inhibitors of human Cathepsin B". Bioorg. Med. Chem. 13 (20): 5819-5825. doi ...

*Keratinocyte

Cathepsin E. TALE homeodomain transcription factors. Hydrocortisone. Since keratinocyte differentiation inhibits keratinocyte ... "The role of cathepsin E in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes". Biological Chemistry. 392 (6): 571-85. doi:10.1515/BC. ...

*Histolysain

Lushbaugh, W.B.; Hofbauer, A.F.; Pittman, F.E. (1985). "Entamoeba histolytica: purification of cathepsin B". Exp. Parasitol. 59 ...

*Protease inhibitor (biology)

... these include cathepsin L, papain, and procaricain. It forms an alpha-helical domain that runs through the substrate-binding ...

*Dipeptidyl-peptidase I

McDonald, J.K.; Zeitman, B.B.; Reilly, T.J.; Ellis, S. (1969). "New observations on the substrate specificity of cathepsin C ( ... Planta, R.J.; Gorter, J.; Gruber, M. (1964). "The catalytic properties of cathepsin C". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 89: 511-519. ... Metrione, R.M.; Neves, A.G.; Fruton, J.S. (1966). "Purification and properties of dipeptidyl transferase (cathepsin C)". ... Dipeptidyl peptidase I (EC 3.4.14.1, cathepsin C, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase I, dipeptidyl transferase, dipeptide arylamidase I ...

*Katepsin-D - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија

Katepsin-D (EC 3.4.23.5, Cathepsin D) je enzim.[1][2][3][4] Ovaj enzim katalizuje sledeću hemijsku reakciju ... Takahashi, T. & Tang, J. (1981). „Cathepsin D from porcine and bovine spleen". Methods Enzymol. 80: 565-581. PMID 7341918.. ... Barrett, A.J. (1977). „Cathepsin D and other carboxyl proteinases". Ур.: Barrett, A.J. Proteinases in Mammalian Cells and ... Barrett, A.J. (1977). „Cathepsin D and other carboxyl proteinases". Ур.: Barrett, A.J. Proteinases in Mammalian Cells and ...

*Cystatin B

The protein is able to form a dimer stabilized by noncovalent forces, inhibiting papain and cathepsins l, h and b. The protein ... 1994). "Cathepsin B activity in human lung tumor cell lines: ultrastructural localization, pH sensitivity, and inhibitor status ... 1988). "Cathepsin D inactivates cysteine proteinase inhibitors, cystatins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 154 (2): 765-72. doi ... Cystatin B has been shown to interact with Cathepsin B. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000160213 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ...

*Neuroproteomics

These cysteine proteases include calpain, caspase, and cathepsin. These three proteins are examples of detectable signs of ...

*Odanacatib

It is an inhibitor of cathepsin K, an enzyme involved in bone resorption. It is being developed by Merck & Co. The phase III ... Le Gall, C. L.; Bonnelye, E.; Clézardin, P. (2008). "Cathepsin K inhibitors as treatment of bone metastasis". Current Opinion ... February 2008). "The discovery of odanacatib (MK-0822), a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18 (3 ...

*Phytepsin

A plant aspartic proteinase resembling mammalian cathepsin D". Eur. J. Biochem. 202 (3): 1021-1027. doi:10.1111/j.1432- ...

*Endostatin

2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... 2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... by proteases such as cathepsins. Collagen is a component of epithelial and endothelial basement membranes. Endostatin, as a ...

*GLB1

Cathepsin A is also required for normal elastin biosynthesis. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000170266 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... The elastin receptor complex includes S-Gal, neuraminidase and Cathepsin A. When elastin-derived peptides bind to the S-Gal ... cathepsin) A is required for proper elastic fiber formation and inactivation of endothelin-1". Circulation. 117 (15): 1973-81. ...

*Mary Ellen Jones (chemist)

add NAE ref]. She pursued these interests by studying androsterone and monopalmitin at Armour, and cathepsin C at Yale. Jones ... Under the direction of Joseph S. Fruton, Jones' dissertation research involved the catalytic properties of cathepsin C, a type ... Her doctorate was entitled: Transamidation reactions catalyzed by cathepsin C. Jones completed her studies in three years ... Transamidation Reactions Catalyzed by Cathepsin C. Yale University, 1952. Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L. ( ...

*MEP1A

1982). "Action of rat liver cathepsin L on glucagon". Acta Biol. Med. Ger. 40 (9): 1139-43. PMID 7340337. Kaushal GP, Walker PD ...

*Gabriel-Colman rearrangement

... cathepsin G and proteinase 3" Bioorg. Med. Chem. 1995, 3, 187-193. ([5]) Schapira, C. B.; Perillo, I. A.; Lamdan, S. "3-Oxo-1,2 ... cathepsin G and proteinase 3. Phthalimide derivatives were seen to be inactive, while saccharin derivatives were seen to be ...

*Collagen, type XVIII, alpha 1

2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ...

*Pycnodysostosis

Deficiency of Cathepsin K, a cysteine protease in osteoclasts, is known to cause this condition. Cathepsin K became a much ... Motyckova, G; Fisher, DE (2002). "Pycnodysostosis: role and regulation of cathepsin K deficiency in osteoclast function and ... is a lysosomal storage disease of the bone caused by a mutation in the gene that codes the enzyme cathepsin K. Pycnodysostosis ... a lysosomal storage disease caused by cathepsin K deficiency". Science. 273 (5279): 1236-1238. doi:10.1126/science.273.5279. ...

*Endothelin 3

1990). "Generation of human endothelin by cathepsin E". FEBS Lett. 273 (1-2): 99-102. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(90)81060-2. PMID ...
May have a role in immune function. Probably involved in the processing of antigenic peptides during MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation. May play a role in activation-induced lymphocyte depletion in the thymus, and in neuronal degeneration and glial cell activation in the brain (By similarity).
Autophagy participates in innate immunity by eliminating intracellular pathogens. Consequently, numerous microorganisms have developed strategies to impair the autophagic machinery in phagocytes. In the current study, interactions between Leishmania major (L. m.) and the autophagic machinery of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were analyzed. BMDM were generated from BALB/c mice, and the cells were infected with L. m. promastigotes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography were used to investigate the ultrastructure of BMDM and the intracellular parasites. Affymetrix® chip analyses were conducted to identify autophagy-related messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). The protein expression levels of autophagy related 5 (ATG5), BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), cathepsin E (CTSE), mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR), microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3B), and ubiquitin (UB) were investigated through western blot
ADAM17,APAF1,CASP1,CASP12,CASP4,CASP7,CELA1,CFD,CNDP1,CPQ,CTSE,CTSS,CTSZ,DPP7,ENPEP,ERAP1,F2R,FAM188A,FGL2,GGH,GZMA,LGMN,LTA4H,MME,MMP1,MMP13,MMP15,MMP2,MMP8,MMP9,OTUB2,PLAT,PLAU,PLG,PSMB10,PSMB8,PSMB9,ST14, ...
The SCOP classification for the Rps17e-like superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
a Immunoblotting analysis of proteins in extract of humanized liver tissues that bind to biotinylated LINC01018 or a control using an anti-HuR antibody. b Left, anti-HuR immunoblotting analysis of proteins in immunoprecipitates of humanized liver tissues using an anti-HuR antibody. Right, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and LINC01018 RNA levels in immunoprecipitates of humanized liver tissues using an anti-HuR antibody. c. Expression levels of human HuR and LINC01018 target genes in the livers of control (LacZ sh, n = 5) and HuR KD (HuR sh, n = 6) humanized mice after a 24 h food withdrawal. d Gene expression in livers of humanized mice receiving both control (LacZ shRNA) and HuR KD, or LINC01018 KD and HuR KD adenoviruses (n = 7 for each group). e Gene expression in livers of wild-type mice receiving control (LacZ shRNA) or mouse HuR KD adenoviruses (n = 6 for each group). f Gene expression in livers of wild-type mice receiving control or LINC01018 overexpression (OE) ...
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
Immunohistochemical distributions of cathepsins D and E were determined in normal mucosa, metaplastic, dysplastic, and cancerous lesions of the human stomach. Cathepsins D and E were localised in the foveolar epithelium and parietal cells of the normal gastric mucosa, but their intracytoplasmic distributions were different - cathepsin E distribution was even and diffuse in the cytoplasm while cathepsin D was found in coarse intracytoplasmic granules. Chronic inflammation and ulcer did not influence the distribution of these enzymes. No positive staining was obtained in the incomplete type of intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and well differentiated adenocarcinoma. Tumour cells of signet ring cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells, however, gave strong and diffuse stainings for cathepsins D and E in the cytoplasm. The results suggest that the distribution of cathepsins D and E is related to each specialised function of the foveolar epithelium and the parietal cells, and ...
www.MOLUNA.de Aspartic Proteinases [4193983] - The 5th International Conference on Aspartic Proteinases was held on September 19 through 24, 1993, at Naito Museum of Pharmaceutical Science and Industry, Kawashima cho, Gifu Prefecture, Japan, about 15 miles northwest of Nagoya City. About 100 scientists attended the conference, including 52 from 14 countries outside Japan, and 32
Aspartic proteinases are a group of enzymes functioning by a general base mechanism, the water molecule serving as nucleophile.1The X-ray data (for example references 2-4) clearly show that two...
I just suggest that governments should be spending more money research for health matters like this, instead of wars and guns. There is a still long way to go in terms of research for this illness. A lot has been done, but we still do not have a biomarker, neither an appropriate treatment that works for everybody. The Rnase-L has shown to be effective to distinguish ME/CFS patients from healthy patients, but still more money should be invested to see if this RNASe-L abnormalities are present in other illness. That still has to be done, because otherwise we run the risk to put in the bag of CFS/ME everything that we do not know or cant explain. It takes more than a year to rule out all the other possibilities before diagnosing ME/CFS, and indeed everything else needs to be ruled out ...
I just suggest that governments should be spending more money research for health matters like this, instead of wars and guns. There is a still long way to go in terms of research for this illness. A lot has been done, but we still do not have a biomarker, neither an appropriate treatment that works for everybody. The Rnase-L has shown to be effective to distinguish ME/CFS patients from healthy patients, but still more money should be invested to see if this RNASe-L abnormalities are present in other illness. That still has to be done, because otherwise we run the risk to put in the bag of CFS/ME everything that we do not know or cant explain. It takes more than a year to rule out all the other possibilities before diagnosing ME/CFS, and indeed everything else needs to be ruled out ...
Sarmento AC, Lopes H, Oliveira CS, Vitorino R, Samyn B, Sergeant K, Debyser G, Van Beeumen J, Domingues P, Amado F, Pires E, Domingues MRM, Barros MT. (2009). Multiplicity of aspartic proteinases from Cynara cardunculus L. Planta: 230 (2), 429 ...
Protein expression of CDK1 and p-CDK1 in rat spleens.(A) Western blot determination of CDK1 and p-CDK1 protein expression in control and aniline-treated rats. (
Interventional thought leaders at an American College of Cardiology (ACC) meeting shared their predictions about the cath lab of the future.
I am trying to learn when to use modifer 59 on S&I codes. I am struggling. Here are the codes I have selected: 36247 (SFA Cath) 36248 (Popliteal C
It has been found by immunohistochemical staining that antigens normally found in gastric and/or intestinal epithelial cells are expressed in most differentiated duct cell carcinomas of the pancreas. Among 88 such tumors, 93% and 92%, respectively, expressed M1 and cathepsin E, markers of gastric surface-foveolar epithelial cells, 51% expressed pepsinogen II, a marker of gastroduodenal mucopeptic cells, 48% expressed CAR-5, a marker of colorectal epithelial cells, and 35% expressed M3SI, a marker of small intestinal goblet cells. Most of the tumors also expressed normal pancreatic duct antigens; 97% expressed DU-PAN-2, and 59% expressed N-terminus gastrin-releasing peptide. In agreement with these findings, electron microscopy revealed malignant cells with fine structural features of gastric foveolar cells, gastric mucopeptic cells, intestinal goblet cells, intestinal columnar cells, pancreatic duct epithelial cells, and cells with features of more than one cell type. Normal pancreatic duct epithelium
Baudy, M., Foundling, S., Pavlik, M., Blundell, T. and Kostka, V. (1988). "Protein chemical characterization of Mucor pusillus aspartic proteinase. Amino acid sequence homology with the other aspartic proteinases, disulfide bond arrangement and site of carbohydrate attachment". FEBS Lett. 235: 271-274. PMID 3042459. ...
3UQP: Cyanobacterial Peptides as a Prototype for the Design of Potent beta-Secretase Inhibitors and the Development of Selective Chemical Probes for Other Aspartic Proteases
3UQR: Cyanobacterial Peptides as a Prototype for the Design of Potent beta-Secretase Inhibitors and the Development of Selective Chemical Probes for Other Aspartic Proteases
Cathepsin D小鼠单克隆抗体[CTD-19](ab6313)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被13篇文献引用并得到14个独立的用户反馈。
Welcome! For price inquiries, please feel free to contact us through the form below through the form on the left side. We will get back to you as soon as possible.. ...
Browse our extensive catalog of new & used Cath Lab Parts for sale or auction. Find any required new, refurbished or used Cath Lab Parts or device.
Order Cathepsin D ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Chicken, Cow, Dog and more. Compare Cathepsin D ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com.
rat Cathepsin D/CTSD gene cDNA, cloning vector & expression plasmid, mutiple tags. Optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. Save up to 60%.
Evaluation of cell toxicity. Hemoglobin and LDH release from human red blood cells and human gastric adenocarcinoma cells (panel A and B respectively) after add
Cath Kidston fans alert! The 2010 Autumn/Winter "Fly to the UK" mook will be released on 26 August in Japan. The 64-page mook will retail for 1500yen and it comes with two tote bags in the "Candy Flowers" print. This is the 6th Cath Kidston mook ...
Gabelli, S.B., Boto, A., Kuhns, V.H., Bianchet, M.A., Farinelli, F., Aripirala, S., Yoder, J., Jakoncic, J., Tomaselli, G.F., Amzel, L.M ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression in gastric adenocarcinoma cells. AU - Wong, Jhen Hong. AU - Wang, Yu Shiuan. AU - Nam, Sean. AU - Ho, Kuo Hao. AU - Chang, Che Mai. AU - Chen, Ku Chung. AU - Chen, Yi Fan. AU - Chang, Wei Chiao. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - The phthalate plasticizer, di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and its derived metabolites are common anthropogenic environmental toxins, which are known to act as endocrine disruptors. Numerous studies have associated DEHP with disruption of sex hormones, abnormal development of reproductive organs, allergies, and inflammation. Its role in promoting inflammation has been reported by both human epidemiological and animal studies. In stomach tissue, chronic inflammation is known to accompany mucosal damage, and pave the way to gastritis, stomach ulcers, and ultimately gastric cancer. Eastern Asian populations possess the highest gastric cancer incidences in the world. ...
Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a potent growth inhibitor for many cell types, including tumor cells. We recently have reported the establishment and characterization of two human gastric scirrhous carcinoma cell lines, HSC-39 and HSC-43. Here we examined the effect of TGF-β1 on the growth of these lines as compared to five other human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Proliferation of HSC-39 and HSC-43 cells was strongly inhibited by TGF-β1, whereas the other gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines were unresponsive to TGF-β1. Both HSC-39 and HSC-43 cells gradually lost viability following exposure to TGF-β1. This response was dose dependent up to 4 ng/ml. When TGF-β1 was removed, the cells failed to exhibit regrowth, indicating an irreversible growth-inhibitory effect of this agent, leading to cell death. DNA fragments were observed consisting of multimers of approximately 180 base pairs 24 h after TGF-β1 treatment. The chromatin condensation of each cell line was confirmed by ...
Conner, G.E. (1989). „Isolation of procathepsin D from mature cathepsin D by pepstatin affinity chromatography. Autocatalytic proteolysis of the zymogen form of the enzyme". Biochem. J. 263: 601-604. PMID 2512908 ...
They should be! Ive never been to the Tatty Marsh store in Tanglin Mall, which is the exclusive retailer of Cath Kidston products in Singapore, so Im not familiar with their prices. The prices in the UK are the lowest as it is a British brand. Their prices in Japan are almost double by comparison so many Japanese ladies buy tons of Cath Kidston when they visit the UK. ...
Apoptosis was inhibited in rat cardiomyocytes pretreated with the aspartic protease inhibitor pepstatin A and subsequently exposed to naphthazarin (5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). Cathepsin D was released from lysosomes to the cytosol upon exposure to naphthazarin, and the enzyme activity decreased simultaneously. Later, cathepsin D reappeared in granules of increased size, and enzyme activity was restored. Activation of caspase-3- like proteases was detected, and the number of cells showing apoptotic morphology increased with time. Pepstatin A pretreatment did not prevent release of cathepsin D from lysosomes but did significantly inhibit subsequent naphthazarin-induced caspase activation and apoptotic morphology. This suggests that cathepsin D exerts its apoptosis-stimulating effect upstream of caspase-3-like activation. (C) 2000 Academic Press.. ...
Bacillus sp. strain Wp22.A1 produced a cell-associated aspartic proteinase which was purified to homogeneity using phenyl-Sepharose (hydrophobic and affinity chromatography) and Mono Q. The proteinase has a molecular mass of 45 kDa by SDS/PAGE and a pI of 3.8. It is insensitive to pepstatin, but is sensitive to the other aspartic proteinase-specific inhibitors diazoacetyl-DL-norleucine methyl ester (DAN) and 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane. Inactivation by DAN was only partial, suggesting that it had non-specifically modified an aspartate residue at a site other than the active site. The enzyme was not inhibited by any of the serine or cysteine proteinase inhibitors tested. Maximum proteolytic activity was observed at pH 3.5. The proteinase had a higher activity with haemoglobin, but was more specific (Vmax./Km) for cytochrome c. Substrate inhibition was observed with both these substrates. The cleavage of oxidized insulin B chain tended to occur at sites where the P1 amino acid was bulky ...
Buy our Natural human Cathepsin D protein. Ab91123 is an active full length protein produced in Nativesyntheticaly and has been validated in WB, FuncS…
293476355 - EP 1030911 A1 2000-08-30 - HUMAN ASPARTIC PROTEASES - [origin: WO0004137A1] The invention provides human aspartic proteases (NHAP) and polynucleotides which identify and encode NHAP. The invention also provides expression vectors, host cells, antibodies, agonists, and antagonists. The invention also provides methods for diagnosing, treating or preventing disorders associated with expression of NHAP.[origin: WO0004137A1] The invention provides human aspartic proteases (NHAP) and polynucleotides which identify and encode NHAP. The invention also provides expression vectors, host cells, antibodies, agonists, and antagonists. The invention also provides methods for diagnosing, treating or preventing disorders associated with expression of NHAP.
Introduction: The Cathepsins are a group of lysosomal thiol proteinases or endopeptidases found in extracts of various tissues.Cathepsins, with the…
When the researchers combined the two cathepsins and allowed them to attack samples of elastin, they expected to see increased degradation of the protein. What they saw, however, was not much more damage than cathepsin K did by itself. Platt at first believed the experiment was flawed, and asked Barry - an undergraduate student in his lab who specializes in modeling - to examine what possible conditions could account for the experimental result. Barrys modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the elastin - a protein essential in arteries and the cardiovascular system.. That theoretical result led to additional experiments in which the researchers measured a direct correlation between an increase in the amount of cathepsin S added to the experiment and a reduction in the degradation of collagen. By increasing the amount of cathepsin S ten-fold over the amount used in the original experiment, Platt and Barry were able to ...
Low Carb vs a Ketogenic Diet, whats the difference? Ketogenic diets are often confused with other low carb diets. Learn the difference before starting!
J:162893 Baston-Buest DM, Schanz A, Buest S, Fischer JC, Kruessel JS, Hess AP, The embryos cystatin C and F expression functions as a protective mechanism against the maternal proteinase cathepsin S in mice. Reproduction. 2010 Apr;139(4):741-8 ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Assaypro \ Cathepsin G, anti_human \ 11654-05021 for more molecular products just contact us
Dr. Joe Mercola gives his take on the ketogenic diet and cancer and recommends a simple blood test all cancer patients should have.
I tried the ketogenic diet for 30 days. Heres what happened : Everything You Need To Know Before Going Keto Can a heavy-cream and butter-laden diet r...
Ketogenic diet shedules have always been focused on a lot of debate relaing to not only efficiency of a ketogenic diet but more seriously ketogenic diet security.. Ketogenic diet shedules performs absolutely well for weight loss when made carefully. In fact ketogenic diet shedules are probably more effective at weight loss than any other diet pattern.. So if ketogenic diet shedules are so incredible why so many doctors and other health care professionals make critical comments about a ketogenic diet and attempt to recommend people against trying a ketogenic diet for weight loss?. Ketogenic diet shedules are quite secure for most people. After all people who live in the arctic areas keep at a time on a ketogenic diet with no negative health ramifications at all for weeks and sometimes months.. They take only meats and fats because carbohydrates are not accessible to them for most of the year.. Ketogenic diet shedules however are not secure for people who do not go in for even the slightest ...
Looking for online definition of Cathepsin S in the Medical Dictionary? Cathepsin S explanation free. What is Cathepsin S? Meaning of Cathepsin S medical term. What does Cathepsin S mean?
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant human Cathepsin L protein (ab81780). Please download our general protocols booklet
The first part of this thesis addresses the design and synthesis of amine building blocks accomplished by applying two different synthetic procedures, both of which were developed using solid-phase chemistry. Chapter 1 presents the first of these methods, entailing a practical solid-phase parallel synthesis route to N-monoalkylated aminopiperidines and aminopyrrolidines achieved by selective reductive alkylation of primary and/or secondary amines. Solid-phase NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the reactions for which a new pulse sequence was developed. The second method, reported in Chapter 2, involves a novel approach to the synthesis of secondary amines starting from reactive alkyl halides and azides. The convenient solid-phase protocol that was devised made use of the Staudinger reaction in order to accomplish highly efficient alkylations of N-alkyl phosphimines or N-aryl phosphimines with reactive alkyl halides.. The second part of the thesis describes the design and synthesis of three ...
Mouse monoclonal Cathepsin K antibody (Clone 3F9) validated for WB, IHC and ELISA, specific for Human Cathepsin K, produced in vitro, azide-free.
Get to know more about ketogenic diet and desired Ketone Level For Ketogenic Diet here on this site. For more about desired Ketone Level For Ketogenic Diet, please subscribe to our website newsletter now!
Get to know more about ketogenic diet and relion Ketone Test Strips For Ketogenic Diet here on this site. For more about relion Ketone Test Strips For Ketogenic Diet, please subscribe to our website newsletter now!
19 products from 13 suppliers. Compare and order Cathepsin L2 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products for the most popular species. Our scientists will help you find the right ELISA kit for your needs.
|p||strong|CA-074|/strong|, a specific cathepsin B inhibitor, also abolished the neurotoxic effects caused by Abeta42-activated BV2 cell [1]. Co-treatment of cultures with the cathepsin B inhibitors CA-074 or Z-FA-FMK suppressed the cytostatic effects of
Your one stop reference for everything about the Vegan Ketogenic Diet! From social to recipes, come explore the wonderful world of the Vegan Ketogenic Diet!
Pepstatin is a strong inhibitor for all acid proteases. It does not inhibit other groups of proteases, such as the neutral and alkaline proteases (1). The unusual potency of pepstatin toward acid prot
Discover the benefits of the ketogenic diet. Read the stories of 43 keto experts that share how the keto diet helped them improve their health and lose weight.
The ketogenic diet is exploding in popularity. This ultimate keto guide explains everything: the benefits, dangers, side effects, latest research and more.
An examination of the ketogenic diet, various protocols, and why its a healthy and nutritious way of eating for health and longevity.
The ketogenic diet is exploding in popularity. This ultimate keto guide explains everything: the benefits, dangers, side effects, latest research and more.
Browse our extensive catalog of new & used Cath Lab Equipment for sale or auction. Find any required new, refurbished or used Cath Lab Equipment or device.
Morning Ketone Levels (mmol/L) 12.04.2013 - 1.3 12.05.2013 - 1.1 12.06.2013 - 1.3 12.07.2013 - 1.2 12.08.2013 - 1.3 12.09.2013 - 1.2 12.10.2013 - 1.1 12.11.2013 - 1.6 12.12.2013 - 1.5 12.13.2013 - 1.7 12.14.2013 - 1.9 12.15.2013 - 0.7 12.16.2013 - 1.2 12.17.2013 - 1.2 12.18.2013 - 1.8 12.19.

Cathepsin W - WikipediaCathepsin W - Wikipedia

"Human cathepsins W and F form a new subgroup of cathepsins that is evolutionary separated from the cathepsin B- and L-like ... Wex T, Levy B, Wex H, Brömme D (1999). "Human cathepsins F and W: A new subgroup of cathepsins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ... 2003). "Characterization of novel anti-cathepsin W antibodies and cellular distribution of cathepsin W in the gastrointestinal ... Cathepsin W is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSW gene.[5][6][7] ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathepsin_W

Mutation analysis of the cathepsin C gene in Indian families with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome ePrints@IIScMutation analysis of the cathepsin C gene in Indian families with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome [email protected]

PLS is caused by mutations in the cathepsin C (CTSC) gene. Dipeptidyl-peptidase I encoded by the CTSC gene removes dipeptides ... Mutation analysis of the cathepsin C gene in Indian families with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome ... Mutation analysis of the cathepsin C gene in Indian families with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. In: BMC Medical Genetics, 4 (5). ...
more infohttp://eprints.iisc.ac.in/2358/

Inhibition of cathepsin B activity attenuates extracellular matrix deg by Bernadette C. Victor, Arulselvi Anbalagan et al."Inhibition of cathepsin B activity attenuates extracellular matrix deg" by Bernadette C. Victor, Arulselvi Anbalagan et al.

A functional role for cathepsin B was confirmed by the ability of CA074, a cell impermeable and highly selective cathepsin B ... Here we explored a role for active cathepsin B on the cell surface in the invasiveness of IBC. We examined expression of the ... Our study is the first to show that the proteolytic activity of cathepsin B and its co-expression with caveolin-1 contributes ... A statistically significant co-expression of cathepsin B and caveolin-1 was found in IBC patient biopsies, thus validating our ...
more infohttps://scholar.uwindsor.ca/biologypub/18/

中国科学院水生生物研究所机构知识库(IHB OpenIR): Identification and characterization of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from Taenia中国科学院水生生物研究所机构知识库(IHB OpenIR): Identification and characterization of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from Taenia

Identification and characterization of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from Taenia solium metacestode.pdf(1186KB). --. -- ... In this study, we identified a cDNA encoding for a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from the T solium metacestode (TsCL-1) ... In this study, we identified a cDNA encoding for a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from the T solium metacestode (TsCL-1) ... Identification and characterization of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from Taenia solium metacestode.pdf ...
more infohttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/152342/8802

Human CTSZ ELISA Kit | biobool.comHuman CTSZ ELISA Kit | biobool.com

Human cathepsin B2 ELISA Kit;Human cathepsin IV ELISA Kit;Human cathepsin Y ELISA Kit;Human cathepsin Z1 ELISA Kit;Human ... Human cathepsin P ELISA Kit;Human cathepsin X ELISA Kit;Human CTSX ELISA Kit;Human cathepsin Z ELISA Kit;Human carboxypeptidase ... The concentration of Cathepsin Z (CTSZ) in the samples is then determined by comparing the O.D. of the samples to the standard ... The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Cathepsin Z (CTSZ). Standards or ...
more infohttps://www.biobool.com/elisa_kit/7091.html

Cathepsins (CTS) Gene Family | HUGO Gene Nomenclature CommitteeCathepsins (CTS) Gene Family | HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee

Cathepsin: Cathepsins ( Ancient Greek kata- "down" and hepsein "boil"; abbreviated CTS ) are proteases ( enzymes that degrades ... Cathepsins have a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover, e.g. bone resorption. They degrade polypeptides and are ... There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone ...
more infohttps://www.genenames.org/cgi-bin/genefamilies/set/470

Cathepsin D - WikipediaCathepsin D - Wikipedia

"Entrez Gene: CTSD cathepsin D".. *^ Barrett AJ (April 1970). "Cathepsin D. Purification of isoenzymes from human and chicken ... Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes.[7] The main function of cathepsin D is ... The optimum pH for cathepsin D in vitro is 4.5-5.0.[13] Cathepsin-D is an aspartic protease that depends critically on ... Cathepsin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSD gene.[5][6] This gene encodes a lysosomal aspartyl protease ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathepsin_D

Cathepsin K (O35186) | InterPro | EMBL-EBICathepsin K (O35186) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/O35186

CathePsin L family (O45734) | InterPro | EMBL-EBICathePsin L family (O45734) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/O45734

RCSB PDB - Gene View 









 - CTSK - cathepsin KRCSB PDB - Gene View - CTSK - cathepsin K

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/pdb/gene/CTSK

Cathepsin Protease Inhibition Reduces Endometriosis Lesion Establishment.  - PubMed - NCBICathepsin Protease Inhibition Reduces Endometriosis Lesion Establishment. - PubMed - NCBI

Incubation with the cathepsin L specific inhibitor, Z-FY-DMK, blocked cathepsin L signals, confirming the cathepsin L bands in ... Z-FY-DMK cathepsin L inhibitor does not inhibit all cathepsin activity of murine endometriotic lesions. Incubation with Z-FY- ... DMK, a selective inhibitor of cathepsin L, inhibited many of the cathepsin active bands but did not block all active cathepsin ... E-64 blocks all cathepsin proteolytic activity in murine endometriotic lesions. Incubation with the broad cathepsin inhibitor, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26482207

CTSV cathepsin V [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBICTSV cathepsin V [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI

cathepsin L2. Names. cathepsin L2, preproprotein. cathepsin U. NP_001188504.1. *EC 3.4.22.43 ... using cathepsin V and cathepsin L as model enzymes, a series of chimeras were generated to identify noncatalytic regions that ... functions of cathepsin V are controlled by N-glycosylation Title: Determination of cathepsin V activity and intracellular ... CTSV cathepsin V [Homo sapiens] CTSV cathepsin V [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:1515 ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/1515

Enzymes Attack One Another In Cathepsin CannibalismEnzymes Attack One Another In 'Cathepsin Cannibalism'

Cathepsin K degrades both collagen and elastin, and is one of the most powerful proteases. Cathepsin S degrades elastin, and ... "We saw that the cathepsin K was going away much faster when there was cathepsin S present than when it was by itself," said ... "We kept increasing the amount of cathepsin S until the collagen was not affected at all because all of the cathepsin K was ... Barrys modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/enzymes-attack-quot-cathepsin-cannibalism-quot-200491.html

Cathepsin K Antibody
		        
	Cathepsin K Antibody

Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) and Flow Cytometry ... Protein Aliases: Cathepsin K; Cathepsin O; cathepsin O1; Cathepsin O2; Cathepsin X; CTSK; CTSO; CTSO2 ... Cite Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/CTSK-Antibody-Polyclonal/PA5-14270

Anti-Cathepsin G antibody (ab231149) | AbcamAnti-Cathepsin G antibody (ab231149) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin G antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Rat, Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant ... Anti-Cathepsin G antibody (ab231149) at 3 µg/ml + Recombinant rat Cathepsin G protein. Secondary. HRP-Linked Guinea pig anti- ... This product Rabbit Anti-Cathepsin G antibody (ab231149) WB, IHC-P Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205718) IHC-P, WB, ELISA, ... All lanes : Anti-Cathepsin G antibody (ab231149) at 3 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Rat serum. Lane 2 : Rat heart lysate. Lane 3 : MCF7 ( ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/cathepsin-g-antibody-ab231149.html

Anti-Cathepsin D antibody (ab19555) | AbcamAnti-Cathepsin D antibody (ab19555) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin D antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication ... This antibody reacts with human liver cathepsin D, and does not react with cathepsins B, H and L. ... IHC image of Cathepsin D staining in Human Lung formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica Bond™ ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) - Anti-Cathepsin D antibody (ab19555) ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cathepsin-d-antibody-ab19555.html

Cathepsin A (CTSA) AntikörperCathepsin A (CTSA) Antikörper

Am meisten referenzierte anti-Cathepsin A Antikörper. Show all anti-Cathepsin A (CTSA) Antikörper with Pubmed References. * ... Weitere Antikörper gegen Cathepsin A Interaktionspartner. Arabidopsis thaliana Cathepsin A (CTSA) Interaktionspartner ... Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Cathepsin A Proteine (28) und Cathepsin A Kits (27) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem ... The Cathepsin C releases the glycosidases from complexes formed with cathepsin A, and reinstates their activity. ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/Cathepsin+A+

Cathepsin Detection Kits - MP BiomedicalsCathepsin Detection Kits - MP Biomedicals

MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN B KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin B. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ... MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN K KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin K. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ... MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN L KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin L. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ...
more infohttp://www.mpbio.com/index.php?cPath=2873_2_1999_2005_2031_2091_2235&country=223

WikiGenes - Ctsl - cathepsin LWikiGenes - Ctsl - cathepsin L

... cathepsin B), Arg-AMC (cathepsin H), and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Arg-AMC (cathepsin L), were determined in rat lung throughout ... cathepsin-B and cathepsin-L activities [26].. *Furthermore, cathepsin L may play an important role in the degradation of the ... cathepsin B and cathepsin D. Thus, Ras utilizes different effectors to mediate transformation and to deregulate cathepsin L ... Cathepsin B-like and cathepsin L-like activities fell below control values initially, but from week 8 of the immunosuppressive ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/25697.html

WikiGenes - CTSC - cathepsin CWikiGenes - CTSC - cathepsin C

Human recombinant pro-dipeptidyl peptidase I (cathepsin C) can be activated by cathepsins L and S but not by autocatalytic ... The results suggest that cathepsin L could be an important activator of DPPI in vivo and that cathepsin D and possibly the ... The enzymes, except cathepsin C, are endopeptidases (reviewed in Kirschke et al., 1995), although cathepsin B was found also to ... Mutations of the cathepsin C gene are responsible for Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. Hart, T.C., Hart, P.S., Bowden, D.W., Michalec ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/1075.html

Role of Cathepsin S in Periodontal Inflammation and InfectionRole of Cathepsin S in Periodontal Inflammation and Infection

V. Zavanik-Bergant, A. Sekirnik, R. Golouh, V. Turk, and J. Kos, "Immunochemical localisation of cathepsin S, cathepsin L and ... Both stimulants caused a significant cathepsin S upregulation. A significantly elevated cathepsin S expression in gingival ... Role of Cathepsin S in Periodontal Inflammation and Infection. S. Memmert,1,2 A. Damanaki,1 A. V. B. Nogueira,3 S. Eick,4 M. ... "Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is both a substrate of cathepsins S and K and a selective inhibitor of cathepsin L," Biochemistry, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2017/4786170/

Cathepsin Assay KitsCathepsin Assay Kits

BioVision develops and offers a wide variety of products including assay kits, antibodies, recombinant proteins & enzymes, and other innovative research tools for studying Apoptosis, Metabolism, Cell Proliferation, Cellular Stress, Cell Damage and Repair, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, Stem Cell Biology, Gene Regulation, Signal Transduction, etc. BioVisions products are currently being sold in more than 60 countries worldwide.
more infohttps://www.biovision.com/products/cancer-research/apoptosis-related-products/non-caspase-proteases/cathepsin/cathepsin-assay-kits.html

CTSB - Cathepsin B - Homo sapiens (Human) - CTSB gene & proteinCTSB - Cathepsin B - Homo sapiens (Human) - CTSB gene & protein

Cathepsin B. Cathepsin B, EC 3.4.22.1 (APP secretase, APPS) (Cathepsin B1) [Cleaved into: Cathepsin B light chain; Cathepsin B ... Cathepsin BImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ... tr,E9PL32,E9PL32_HUMAN Cathepsin B (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CTSB PE=1 SV=2 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/E9PL32

Ctsg - Cathepsin G - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Ctsg gene & proteinCtsg - Cathepsin G - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Ctsg gene & protein

Cathepsin GAdd BLAST. ›26. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of ... sp,P17977,CATG_RAT Cathepsin G (Fragment) OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Ctsg PE=1 SV=1 IIGGREARPNSHPYMAFLLIQSPEGL ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P17977

anti-Cathepsin D Primary Antibodiesanti-Cathepsin D Primary Antibodies

Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Cathepsin D Antikörper. Hier bestellen. ... Monoklonale und polyklonale Cathepsin D Antikörper für viele Methoden. ... Bezeichner auf Proteinebene für anti-Cathepsin D (CTSD) Antikörper etID16901.18 , cathepsin D , aspartic protease , cathepsin d ... cathepsin D (lysosomal aspartyl peptidase) , cathepsin D (lysosomal aspartyl protease) , prepro-cathepsin D, prepro-CD ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/peptide-hormone-metabolism-pathway-41/cathepsin-d-antibody-2858/
  • A functional role for cathepsin B was confirmed by the ability of CA074, a cell impermeable and highly selective cathepsin B inhibitor, to significantly reduce pericellular proteolysis and invasion by SUM149 cells. (uwindsor.ca)
  • The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Cathepsin Z (CTSZ). (biobool.com)
  • Standards or samples are then added to the appropriate microtiter plate wells with a biotin-conjugated antibody specific to Cathepsin Z (CTSZ). (biobool.com)
  • We observed that uPA, uPAR and enzymatically active cathepsin B were colocalized in caveolae fractions isolated from SUM149 cells. (uwindsor.ca)
more