An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC (Formerly EC
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.
A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.
An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.
An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.
A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.
A papain-like cysteine protease that has specificity for amino terminal dipeptides. The enzyme plays a role in the activation of several pro-inflammatory serine proteases by removal of their aminoterminal inhibitory dipeptides. Genetic mutations that cause loss of cathepsin C activity in humans are associated with PAPILLON-LEFEVRE DISEASE.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A lysosomal papain-related cysteine proteinase that is expressed in a broad variety of cell types.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine peptidase that exhibits carboxypeptidase activity. It is highly expressed in a variety of immune cell types and may play a role in inflammatory processes and immune responses.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A cysteine endopeptidase found in NATURAL KILLER CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES. It may have a specific function in the mechanism or regulation of cytolytic activity of immune cells.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.
A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC and EC
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.
Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and/or glycolipids in visceral and mesenchymal cells. Abnormal amounts of sphingolipids or glycolipids are present in neural tissue. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and skeletal changes, most notably dysostosis multiplex, occur frequently. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, pp36-7)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
The spontaneous disintegration of tissues or cells by the action of their own autogenous enzymes.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC
An intracellular cystatin subtype that is found in a broad variety of cell types. It is a cytosolic enzyme inhibitor that protects the cell against the proteolytic action of lysosomal enzymes such as CATHEPSINS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
An activating NK cell lectin-like receptor subfamily that regulates immune responses to INFECTION and NEOPLASMS. Members of this subfamily generally occur as homodimers.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.

Low levels of cathepsin D are associated with a poor prognosis in endometrial cancer. (1/912)

Total cytosolic cathepsin D (Cat D) levels were estimated by an immunoradiometric assay in a series of 156 consecutive patients with surgical stages I-III primary endometrial adenocarcinoma. Simultaneously, the tissue content of both oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, and p185HER-2/neu, DNA content (ploidy), and the fraction of S-phase cells (S-phase) were also estimated. Tumoral Cat D content ranged from 0 to 243 pmol mg(-1) protein (median 44 pmol mg(-1) protein) and was not associated with any of the established clinicopathological and biological prognostic variables, with the exception of a weak positive correlation with the tumoral p185HER-2/neu levels. Univariable analysis performed on a subset of 97 patients, followed for a minimum of 2 years or until death, showed that patient age at diagnosis, high histological grade, advanced surgical stage, vascular invasion, positive peritoneal cytology, low levels of Cat D, negative ER and PR status, aneuploidy, and high S-phase were predictive of the presence of persistent or recurrent disease. However, multivariable analysis revealed that only histological grade, surgical stage, Cat D and PR were significantly associated with the patient's outcome. From these findings, we conclude that Cat D is an independent prognostic factor in endometrial adenocarcinoma, its low levels being associated with a worse clinical outcome.  (+info)

HaCaT human keratinocytes express IGF-II, IGFBP-6, and an acid-activated protease with activity against IGFBP-6. (2/912)

The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in skin. HaCaT human keratinocytes proliferate in response to IGFs and synthesize IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). Recently, IGFBP-6 was also identified by NH2-terminal sequencing, but it has not been identified by Western ligand blotting. In the present study, IGFBP-6 was detected in HaCaT-conditioned medium by use of immunoblotting and Western ligand blotting with 125I-labeled IGF-II. Proteolytic activity against IGFBPs, an important mechanism for regulation of their activity, was then studied. An acid-activated, cathepsin D-like protease that cleaved both IGFBP-6 and IGFBP-3 was detected. Although proteolysis did not substantially reduce the size of immunoreactive IGFBP-6, it greatly reduced the ability of IGFBP-6 to bind 125I-IGF-II as determined by Western ligand blotting and solution assay. HaCaT keratinocytes do not express IGF-I mRNA, but IGF-II mRNA and protein expression was detected. These observations suggest the possibility of an autocrine IGF-II loop that is regulated by the relative expression of IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-6, and IGFBP proteases in these keratinocytes, although demonstration of this loop requires further study.  (+info)

Time at surgery during menstrual cycle and menopause affects pS2 but not cathepsin D levels in breast cancer. (3/912)

Many studies have addressed the clinical value of pS2 as a marker of hormone responsiveness and of cathepsin D (Cath D) as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. Because pS2 and Cath D are both oestrogen induced in human breast cancer cell lines, we studied the influence of the menstrual cycle phase and menopausal status at the time of surgery on the levels of these proteins in breast cancer. A population of 1750 patients with breast cancer, including 339 women in menstrual cycle, was analysed. Tumoral Cath D and pS2 were measured by radioimmunoassay. Serum oestradiol (E2), progesterone (Pg), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels at the day of surgery were used to define the hormonal phase in premenopausal women. There was a trend towards a higher mean pS2 level in the follicular phase compared with the luteal phase (17 ng mg(-1) and 11 ng mg(-1) respectively, P = 0.09). Mean pS2 was lower in menopausal patients than in women with cycle (8 ng mg(-1) and 14 ng mg(-1) respectively, P = 0.0001). No differences in mean Cath D level were observed between the different phases of the menstrual cycle, or between pre- and post-menopausal women. In the overall population, pS2 was slightly positively associated with E2 and Pg levels and negatively associated with FSH and LH, probably reflecting the link between pS2 and menopausal status. In premenopausal women, no association was found between pS2 and E2, Pg, FSH or LH levels. There were no correlations between Cath D level and circulating hormone levels in the overall population. However, in the subgroup of premenopausal women with ER-positive (ER+) tumours, E2 was slightly associated with both pS2 and Cath D, consistent with oestrogen induction of these proteins in ER+ breast cancer cell lines. There are changes in pS2 level in breast cancer throughout the menstrual cycle and menopause. This suggests that the choice of the pS2 cut-off level should take the hormonal status at the time of surgery into account. In contrast, the level of Cath D is unrelated to the menstrual cycle and menopausal status.  (+info)

Selective perturbation of early endosome and/or trans-Golgi network pH but not lysosome pH by dose-dependent expression of influenza M2 protein. (4/912)

Many sorting stations along the biosynthetic and endocytic pathways are acidified, suggesting a role for pH regulation in protein traffic. However, the function of acidification in individual compartments has been difficult to examine because global pH perturbants affect all acidified organelles in the cell and also have numerous side effects. To circumvent this problem, we have developed a method to selectively perturb the pH of a subset of acidified compartments. We infected HeLa cells with a recombinant adenovirus encoding influenza virus M2 protein (an acid-activated ion channel that dissipates proton gradients across membranes) and measured the effects on various steps in protein transport. At low multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.), delivery of influenza hemagglutinin from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface was blocked, but there was almost no effect on the rate of recycling of internalized transferrin. At higher m.o.i., transferrin recycling was inhibited, suggesting increased accumulation of M2 in endosomes. Interestingly, even at the higher m.o.i., M2 expression had no effect on lysosome morphology or on EGF degradation, suggesting that lysosomal pH was not compromised by M2 expression. However, delivery of newly synthesized cathepsin D to lysosomes was slowed in cells expressing active M2, suggesting that acidification of the TGN and endosomes is important for efficient delivery of lysosomal hydrolases. Fluorescence labeling using a pH-sensitive dye confirmed the reversible effect of M2 on the pH of a subset of acidified compartments in the cell. The ability to dissect the role of acidification in individual steps of a complex pathway should be useful for numerous other studies on protein processing and transport.  (+info)

Acidic pH as a physiological regulator of human cathepsin L activity. (5/912)

Human cysteine protease cathepsin L was inactivated at acid pH by a first-order process. The inactivation rate decreased with increasing concentrations of a small synthetic substrate, suggesting that substrates stabilize the active conformation. The substrate-independent inactivation rate constant increased with organic solvent content of the buffer, consistent with internal hydrophobic interactions, disrupted by the organic solvent, also stabilizing the enzyme. Circular dichroism showed that the inactivation is accompanied by large structural changes, a decrease in alpha-helix content being especially pronounced. The high activation energy of the reaction at pH 3.0 (200 kJ.mol-1) supported such a major conformational change occurring. The acid inactivation of cathepsin L was irreversible, consistent with the propeptide being needed for proper folding of the enzyme. Aspartic protease cathepsin D was shown to cleave denatured, but not active cathepsin L, suggesting a potential mechanism for in-vivo regulation and turnover of cathepsin L inside lysosomes.  (+info)

Analysis of where and which types of proteinases participate in lysosomal proteinase processing using bafilomycin A1 and Helicobacter pylori Vac A toxin. (6/912)

Lysosomal proteinases are translated as preproforms, transported through the Golgi apparatus as proforms, and localized in lysosomes as mature forms. In this study, we analyzed which subclass of proteinases participates in the processing of lysosomal proteinases using Bafilomycin A1, a vacuolar ATPase inhibitor. Bafilomycin A1 raises lysosomal pH resulting in the degradation of lysosomal proteinases such as cathepsins B, D, and L. Twenty-four hours after the withdrawal of Bafilomycin A1, NIH3T3 cells possess these proteinases in amounts and activities similar to those in cells cultured in DMEM and 5% BCS. In the presence of various proteinase inhibitors, procathepsin processing is disturbed by E-64-d, resulting in abnormal processing of cathepsins D and L, but not by APMSF, Pepstatin A, or CA-074. In the presence of Helicobacter pylori Vac A toxin, which prevents vesicular transport from late endosomes to lysosomes, the processing of procathepsins B and D occurs, while that of procathepsin L does not. Thus, procathepsins B and D are converted to their mature forms in late endosomes, while procathepsin L is processed to the mature form after its arrival in lysosomes by some cysteine proteinase other than cathepsin B.  (+info)

Alternative mechanisms for trafficking of lysosomal enzymes in mannose 6-phosphate receptor-deficient mice are cell type-specific. (7/912)

Viable mice nullizygous in genes encoding the 300 kDa and the 46 kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPR 300 and MPR 46) and the insulin like growth factor II (IGF II) were generated to study the trafficking of lysosomal enzymes in the absence of MPRs. The mice have an I-cell disease-like phenotype, with increase of lysosomal enzymes in serum and normal activities in tissues. Surprisingly, the ability of MPR-deficient cells to transport newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes to lysosomes and the underlying mechanisms were found to depend on the cell type. MPR-deficient thymocytes target newly synthesized cathepsin D to lysosomes via an intracellular route. In contrast, hepatocytes and fibroblasts secrete newly synthesized cathepsin D. In fibroblasts recapture of secreted lysosomal enzymes, including that of cathepsin D, is limited and results in lysosomal storage, both in vivo and in vitro, whereas recapture by hepatocytes is remarkably effective in vivo and can result in lysosomal enzyme levels even above normal.  (+info)

Normal lysosomal morphology and function in LAMP-1-deficient mice. (8/912)

Lysosomal membranes contain two highly glycosylated proteins, designated LAMP-1 and LAMP-2, as major components. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are structurally related. To investigate the physiological role of LAMP-1, we have generated mice deficient for this protein. LAMP-1-deficient mice are viable and fertile. In LAMP-1-deficient brain, a mild regional astrogliosis and altered immunoreactivity against cathepsin-D was observed. Histological and ultrastructural analyses of all other tissues did not reveal abnormalities. Lysosomal properties, such as enzyme activities, lysosomal pH, osmotic stability, density, shape, and subcellular distribution were not changed in comparison with controls. Western blot analyses of LAMP-1-deficient and heterozygote tissues revealed an up-regulation of the LAMP-2 protein pointing to a compensatory effect of LAMP-2 in response to the LAMP-1 deficiency. The increase of LAMP-2 was neither correlated with an increase in the level of lamp-2 mRNAs nor with increased half-life time of LAMP-2. This findings suggest a translational regulation of LAMP-2 expression.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression and Refolding of Recombinant Human Fibroblast Procathepsin D. AU - Conner, Gregory E.. AU - Udey, Jenny A.. PY - 1990/1. Y1 - 1990/1. N2 - Procathepsin D is a precursor of the human lysosomal protease cathepsin D. Due to its short half-life, procathepsin D is difficult to obtain in quantities sufficient to allow structural and enzymatic studies. To obtain large quantities of this precursor, procathepsin D was expressed using the T7 promoter vector pET3a in bacteria that carry a chromosomal copy of the T7 RNA polymerase gene under the control of the lac promoter. At high cell density in rich medium, basal levels of T7 RNA polymerase were sufficient to express recombinant procathepsin D without addition of an exogenous inducer of the lac promoter. The recombinant protein, constituting almost half of the total cell protein, accumulated in intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and was isolated from the insoluble fraction of lysed cells. Antibodies prepared against the purified ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cathepsin D activity in normal and osteoarthritic human cartilage. AU - Sapolsky, A. I.. AU - Altman, R. D.. AU - Howell, D. S.. PY - 1973/12/1. Y1 - 1973/12/1. N2 - A cathepsin D type enzyme was present in 2-3 times greater amount in early osteoarthritic and discolored human articular cartilage than in apparently normal cartilage. This cathepsin D type enzyme was the predominant hemoglobin and proteoglycan digesting protease in the human articular cartilage investigated. This human cathepsin D type enzyme as well as a highly purified cathepsin D preparation from bovine uterus degraded proteoglycan subunit maximally at pH 5. Both enzyme preparations did not digest hemoglobin at pH 6-8, but degraded proteoglycan subunit considerably at neutral pH. The activity of the human cathepsin extract was not affected by reagent that inhibit or activate cathepsin A and B or diisopropylfluorophosphate, but was inhibited by chloroquine at pH 7.0. Although no neutral proteases that digest ...
Buy our Natural human Cathepsin D protein. Ab91123 is an active full length protein produced in Nativesyntheticaly and has been validated in WB, FuncS…
Apoptosis can be mediated by mechanisms other than the traditional caspase-mediated cleavage cascade. There is growing recognition that alternative proteolytic enzymes such as the lysosomal cathepsin proteases may initiate or propagate proapoptotic signals. Cathepsins are lysosomal enzymes that are also used as sensitive markers in various toxicological investigations. The Cathepsin D Activity Assay kit is a fluorescence-based assay that utilizes the preferred cathepsin D substrate sequence GKPILFFRLK(Dnp)-D-R-NH2) labeled with MCA. Cathepsin D will cleave the synthetic substrate to release the quenched fluorescent group MCA, which can then easily be measured using a fluorometer or fluorescence plate reader at Ex/Em = 328/460 nm. The relative efficacy of test inhibitors are compared to the positive control inhibitor, Pepstatin A (IC50 , 0.1 nM). The Cathepsin D assay is simple, straightforward, and can be adapted to 96-well plate assays and is suitable for high throughput screening (HTS). ...
High-quality Cathepsin D proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of Cathepsin D proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of insulin on protein degradation and lysosomal cathepsin D in perfused skeletal muscle. AU - Li, J. B.. AU - Rannels, S. R.. AU - Burkart, M. E.. AU - Jefferson, L. S.. PY - 1975/1/1. Y1 - 1975/1/1. UR - UR - M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0016610685. VL - 34. SP - No.654. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 3. ER - ...
Mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans having about 10% of wild-type activity of the aspartyl protease cathepsin D have been isolated by screening. Mutant homozygotes have normal growth rates and no obvious morphological or developmental abnormalities. The mutant gene (cad-1) has been mapped to the right extremity of linkage group II. Heterozygous animals (cad-1/+) show intermediate enzyme levels and animals heterozygous for chromosomal deficiencies of the right extremity of linkage group II have 50% of wild-type activity. Cathepsin D purified from a mutant strain has a lower activity per unit mass of pure enzyme. These data suggest that cad-1 is a structural gene for cathepsin D. ...
Cathepsin D Substrate I - Calbiochem Useful as a substrate for the determination of cathepsin D activity. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
rat Cathepsin D/CTSD gene cDNA, cloning vector & expression plasmid, mutiple tags. Optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. Save up to 60%.
Mannose 6-phosphate receptors function can be studied in living cells by investigating alterations in processing and secretion of their ligand Cathepsin D. The assay described here is well established in the literature and comprises the metabolic labeling of newly synthesized proteins with [35S] methionine-cysteine in HeLa cells to monitor Cathepsin D processing through secretory pathway and secretion using immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE and fluorography.
Order Cathepsin D ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Chicken, Cow, Dog and more. Compare Cathepsin D ELISA Kits and find the right product on
Conner, G.E. (1989). „Isolation of procathepsin D from mature cathepsin D by pepstatin affinity chromatography. Autocatalytic proteolysis of the zymogen form of the enzyme. Biochem. J. 263: 601-604. PMID 2512908 ...
Cathepsin D小鼠单克隆抗体[CTD-19](ab6313)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被13篇文献引用并得到14个独立的用户反馈。
Cathepsin D (CTSD), a major ubiquitously expressed aspartic protease, is not only involved in muscle protein degradation, but also related to some pathological processes. In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA, genomic DNA sequence, expression profile and polymorphism of the porcine CTSD gene. The full-length cDNA of porcine CTSD gene and the predicted protein sequence shared high identities wih other mammalian orthologous. Northern-blot analysis and Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR results indicated that the CTSD gene has one transcript of approximately 2.0 kb in normal tissues and was expressed ubiquitously in pigs, without significant differences in porcine heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, fat, triceps brachi, biceps femoris, and longissimus muscles. The porcine CTSD gene spans ∼ 9.0 kb including nine exons. All exon/intron boundaries adhere to the GT/AG rule. Altogether 35 nucleotide polymorphisms of CTSD gene were discovered between Duroc, Landrace, Erhualian, and ...
A novel combinatorial mutagenesis strategy (shuffle mutagenesis) was developed to identify sequences in the propiece and amino lobe of cathepsin D which direct oligosaccharide phosphorylation by UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal enzyme N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphotransferase. Propiece restriction fragments and oligonucleotide cassettes corresponding to 13 regions of the cathepsin D and glycopepsinogen amino lobes were randomly shuffled together to generate a large library of chimeric molecules. The library was inserted into an expression vector encoding the carboxyl lobe of cathepsin D with a carboxyl-terminal myc epitope and a CD8 transmembrane extension. Transfected COS1 cells expressing the membrane-anchored forms of the cathepsin D/glycopepsinogen chimeras at the cell surface were selected with solid phase mannose 6-phosphate receptor or an antibody to the myc epitope. Plasmids were rescued in Escherichia coli and sequenced by hybridization to the original oligonucleotide cassettes. Two regions of the cathepsin
This gene encodes a lysosomal aspartyl protease composed of a dimer of disulfide-linked heavy and light chains, both produced from a single protein precursor. This proteinase, which is a member of the peptidase C1 family, has a specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. Transcription of this gene is initiated from several sites, including one which is a start site for an estrogen-regulated transcript. Mutations in this gene are involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including breast cancer and possibly Alzheimer disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
The microenvironment that surrounds tumor cells is characterized by hypoxic conditions and extracellular acidity. These hostile conditions induce crucial changes in cell behavior and can promote the secretion of many soluble factors such as growth factors, cytokines and enzymes. The lysosomal aspartyl-endopeptidase cathepsin D (CD) is a marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer and is associated with a metastatic risk. In this study, the transport of CD was investigated in a model of breast cancer cells line (MCF-7) cultivated under hypoxia and acidification of media. CD secretion was assessed using Western blot analysis and protease activity was measured in conditioned culture media. We demonstrate that cultured MCF-7 cells secrete an active 52 kDa pCD precursor and report that under hypoxia there was an increased amount of pCD secreted. More surprisingly, extracellular acidification (pH 6 and 5.6) induced the secretion of the fully-mature and active (34 kDa + 14 kDa) double chain CD. Our findings
The acid-acting proteinase, cathepsin D (EC, was purified from extracts of homogenized rabbit lung and beef lung by autolysis at acid pH, acetone and ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatography, and isoelectric focusing. Four isoenzymes were obtained from each source. With acid hemoglobin as the substrate, the proteinase from rabbit lung had a pH optimum of 3.0 and that from beef lung had a pH optimum of 3.6. Their activity was not affected by thiol reagents or by Fe2+, Mn2+, or Mg2+. One isoenzyme from rabbit lung was used to immunize a goat, and one from beef lung was used to immunize a rabbit. In immunoelectrophoresis, each resulting antiserum formed a single precipitin line with its homologous enzyme. They cross-reacted with the other three isoenzymes from the same species, but not with any isoenzyme from the other species. At high concentrations, each antiserum completely inhibited the proteolytic activity of its homologous enzyme. The antiserum against rabbit lung ...
ID AEDAE_1024_PE9 STANDARD; PRT; 387 AA. AC AEDAE_1024_PE9; Q03168; Q177E0; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE RecName: Full=Lysosomal aspartic protease; EC=3.4.23 -;Flags: Precursor; DE (AEDAE_1024.PE9). GN ORFNames=AAEL006169; OS AEDES AEGYPTI. OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Arthropoda; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; Neoptera; OC Endopterygota; Diptera; Nematocera; Culicoidea; Culicidae; Culicinae; OC Culicini; Aedes. OX NCBI_TaxID=7159; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS AEDAE_1024.PE9. CC Aedes aegypti supercontig supercont1.192 AaegL1 sequence 1..1864021 CC annotated by Ensembl Genomes CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:ASPP_AEDAE CC -!- FUNCTION: May degrade organelles involved in the biosynthesis and CC secretion of vitellogenin. CC -!- SUBUNIT: Homodimer. CC -!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Lysosome. CC -!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the peptidase A1 family. CC -!- ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
1LYB: Crystal structures of native and inhibited forms of human cathepsin D: implications for lysosomal targeting and drug design.
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a Immunoblotting analysis of proteins in extract of humanized liver tissues that bind to biotinylated LINC01018 or a control using an anti-HuR antibody. b Left, anti-HuR immunoblotting analysis of proteins in immunoprecipitates of humanized liver tissues using an anti-HuR antibody. Right, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and LINC01018 RNA levels in immunoprecipitates of humanized liver tissues using an anti-HuR antibody. c. Expression levels of human HuR and LINC01018 target genes in the livers of control (LacZ sh, n = 5) and HuR KD (HuR sh, n = 6) humanized mice after a 24 h food withdrawal. d Gene expression in livers of humanized mice receiving both control (LacZ shRNA) and HuR KD, or LINC01018 KD and HuR KD adenoviruses (n = 7 for each group). e Gene expression in livers of wild-type mice receiving control (LacZ shRNA) or mouse HuR KD adenoviruses (n = 6 for each group). f Gene expression in livers of wild-type mice receiving control or LINC01018 overexpression (OE) ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin D antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication and 1 independent review…
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab6313 交差種: Hu 適用: WB…Cathepsin D抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
(A) Schematic presentation of CatD promoter region. The TATA and GC sequences are represented by square boxes, five transcription start sites are indicated by a
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
In a preceding study we have described the development of a new hydroxyethylene (HE) core motif displaying P1 aryloxymethyl and P1 methoxy substituents delivering potent BACE-1 inhibitors. In a continuation of this work we have now explored the SAR of the S1 pocket by introducing a set of P1 alkoxy groups and evaluated them as BACE-1 inhibitors. Previously the P1 and P1 positions of the classical HE template have been relatively little explored due to the complexity of the chemical routes involved in modifications at these positions. However, the chemistries developed for the current HE template renders substituents in both the P1 and P1 positions readily available for SAR exploration. The BACE-1 inhibitors prepared displayed IC50 values in the range of 4-45 nM, where the most potent compounds featured small P1 groups. The cathepsin D selectivity which was high for the smallest P1 sustituents (P1=ethoxy, fold selectively ,600) dropped for larger groups (P1=benzyloxy, fold selectivity of ...
MyBiosource snelste leverancier van Elisa kits 544-MBS013458 Human Phospho Tau Protein ELISA KIT 544-MBS018585-5X96 Human Soluble Toll-like receptor 2 544-MBS041690-96 Hamster Cathepsin D ELISA Kit 544-MBS077801-96 Hamster HtrA Serine Peptidase 1 ELISA 544-MBS089535 APLNR Elisa kit, 48T 544-MBS089535-96T APLNR Elisa kit, 96T 544-MBS1058663-0.2 Gurmarin Recombinant protein 544-MBS1127814 Holo-Acyl-carrier-protein synthase (acpS 544-MBS120301 […]. ...
Authors said: For in situ hybridization, antisense probes for cathepsin D, B, and L (Zuzarte-Luis et al.,[2007]), where they said:cCatD fwd: 5′-TTC TGC GCT TCT GCT TTA GGG-3′ and rev: 5′-TGA GTG GGT TTC TAA TCC TGA-3. The sequences presented was excerpted from the full length using these sequences ...
Background. Lysosomal enzymuria is usually considered to be a non-specific marker of renal injury, but little is known about lysosomal enzyme excretion in renal proximal tubular cell disorders such as the renal Fanconi syndrome (FS). We examined excretion of two lysosomal enzymes and the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) in patients with inherited FS.. Methods. The lysosomal enzyme cathepsin D was measured by ELISA and isolated by pepstatin-agarose affinity chromatography; N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) was assayed colorimetrically, as was the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Cathepsin D, procathepsin D and CI-MPR were also detected by western blotting. No patient had a serum creatinine concentration ,170 μmol/L. Soluble CI-MPR, isolated from fetal calf serum and bound to agarose, was used to probe cathepsin D for mannose-6-phosphate (M6P).. Results. Increased excretion of cathepsin D (mean = 44-fold) and NAG (mean = 12-fold) was found in FS patients: ...
Immunohistochemical distributions of cathepsins D and E were determined in normal mucosa, metaplastic, dysplastic, and cancerous lesions of the human stomach. Cathepsins D and E were localised in the foveolar epithelium and parietal cells of the normal gastric mucosa, but their intracytoplasmic distributions were different - cathepsin E distribution was even and diffuse in the cytoplasm while cathepsin D was found in coarse intracytoplasmic granules. Chronic inflammation and ulcer did not influence the distribution of these enzymes. No positive staining was obtained in the incomplete type of intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and well differentiated adenocarcinoma. Tumour cells of signet ring cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells, however, gave strong and diffuse stainings for cathepsins D and E in the cytoplasm. The results suggest that the distribution of cathepsins D and E is related to each specialised function of the foveolar epithelium and the parietal cells, and ...
Apoptosis was inhibited in rat cardiomyocytes pretreated with the aspartic protease inhibitor pepstatin A and subsequently exposed to naphthazarin (5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). Cathepsin D was released from lysosomes to the cytosol upon exposure to naphthazarin, and the enzyme activity decreased simultaneously. Later, cathepsin D reappeared in granules of increased size, and enzyme activity was restored. Activation of caspase-3- like proteases was detected, and the number of cells showing apoptotic morphology increased with time. Pepstatin A pretreatment did not prevent release of cathepsin D from lysosomes but did significantly inhibit subsequent naphthazarin-induced caspase activation and apoptotic morphology. This suggests that cathepsin D exerts its apoptosis-stimulating effect upstream of caspase-3-like activation. (C) 2000 Academic Press.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - New functional aspects of cathepsin D and cathepsin E. AU - Tsukuba, Takayuki. AU - Okamoto, Kuniaki. AU - Yasuda, Yoshiyuki. AU - Morikawa, Wataru. AU - Nakanishi, Hiroshi. AU - Yamamoto, Kenji. PY - 2000/12/31. Y1 - 2000/12/31. N2 - Cathepsin D (CD) and cathepsin E are representative lysosomal and nonlysosomal aspartic proteinases, respectively, and play an important role in the degradation of proteins, the generation of bioactive proteins, antigen processing, etc. Recenty, several lines of evidence have suggested the involvement of these two enzymes in the execution of neuronal death pathways induced by aging, transient forebrain ischemia, and excessive stimulation of glutamate receptors with excitotoxins. CD has also been shown to mediate apoptosis induced by various stimuli and p53-dependent tumor suppression. To gain more insight into in vivo functions of CD, mice deficient in this enzyme were generated. The mutant animals showed a progressive atrophy of the intestinal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lysosomal cathepsins in embryonic programmed cell death. AU - Zuzarte-Luis, Vanessa. AU - Montero, Juan A.. AU - Kawakami, Yasuhiko. AU - Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos. AU - Hurle, Juan M.. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - During limb development, expression of cathepsin D and B genes prefigure the pattern of interdigital apoptosis including the differences between the chick and the webbed digits of the duck. Expression of cathepsin L is associated with advanced stages of degeneration. Analysis of Gremlin-/- and Dkk-/- mouse mutants and local treatments with BMP proteins reveal that the expression of cathepsin B and D genes is regulated by BMP signaling, a pathway responsible for triggering cell death. Further cathepsin D protein is upregulated in the preapoptotic mesenchyme before being released into the cytosol, and overexpression of cathepsin D induces cell death in embryonic tissues by a mechanism including mitochondrial permeabilization and nuclear translocation of AIF. ...
The purification of cathepsin D from pig uterus by two-step affinity chromatography on concanavalin A- and pepstatin-Sepharose was described previously [Afting & Becker (1981) Biochem. J. 197, 519-522]. In this paper, chemical and physical properties of the proteinase are presented. The purified enzyme showed three bands on SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate)/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, one main band corresponding to an Mr of 31 000 and two minor bands with Mr values of 43 000 and 15 000 respectively. Gel filtration on Bio-gel P-150 and sedimentation-diffusion equilibrium studies give an Mr for the main band of about 35 000. The pI of the enzyme was determined to be 7.2. Haemoglobin was the best substrate, with a Km value of 6.4 X 10(-6)M. It was hydrolysed with a pH optimum between 3.0 and 3.3 for a substrate concentration of 100 microM. The proteinase was stable over the pH range of 3.5-6.5. At pH 6 the enzyme showed stability up to a temperature of 50 degrees C; at pH 3 the activity was ...
Calpains regulate activation of Bax and cathepsin D in vivo. (A-C) Representative images of immunofluorescence analysis of retinas after mock intravitreal injection or injection of calpastatin in P11 rd1 (A), P10 P23HTg (B), and P45 Rho−/− (C) mice. Upper parts of figure are stained with an activated Bax-specific antibody (red), and nuclei are stained in blue with DAPI. Lower parts of figure are images of calpain activity assay (blue). Vertical white lines indicate the layer of photoreceptor cells; n = 3. Scale bar for all figure parts is shown at upper left (A) and is 10 μm. (D-F) Western blotting of cathepsin D in total protein extracts from P11 rd1 (D), P10 P23HTg (E), and P45 Rho−/− (F) either mock injected or injected with calpastatin (CS). The antibody recognizes both cathepsin D (46 kDa) and activated cathepsin D (32 kDa). Normalization was performed with anti-actin antibodies (lower). Molecular weights are shown in kDa. (G) Quantification by densitometry of Western blotting ...
In contrast to the studies of breast tumor biospies, proteomic analysis starting from breast cancer cells in culture has already given significant results with the identification of proteins with clinical interest. In 1980, Westley and Rochefort identified a secreted 46-kDa glycoprotein, induced by estrogens in human breast cancer cell lines, that was identified with specific antibodies as being the protease cathepsin D (22). In 1989, a computer-based analysis of 2DE gels reported a total of eight polypeptide differences between cancerous and normal breast epithelial cells in tissue culture (23). More precise characterization of such polypeptide differences was published in the early 90s with the demonstration that normal breast epithelial cells produce keratins K5, K6, K7, and K17, whereas tumor cells produce mainly keratins K8, K18, and K19 (24). This distribution was secondarily confirmed in tumor samples (25), and cytokeratin immunodetection is now eventually used to help discriminate benign ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteolysis regulates exposure of the IIICS-1 adhesive sequence in plasma fibronectin. AU - Ugarova, Tatiana. AU - Ljubimov, Alexander V.. AU - Deng, Lynn. AU - Plow, Edward F.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - The alternatively spliced type III connecting segment (IIICS) of fibronectin (Fn) contains an amino acid sequence, CS-1, which is recognized by the integrin receptor, α4β1. Plasma Fn inhibits α4β1-dependent binding of lymphocytes and monocytes to CS-1 containing Fn derivatives poorly, suggesting limited exposure of the CS-1 sequence in Fn. To test the availability of CS-1 in plasma Fn, an antibody was raised to the synthetic peptide CS-1. The CS-1 sequence was found to be minimally exposed in plasma Fn: and immobilization of Fn, a model of matrix deposition, caused only a modest increase in its exposure. Digestion of Fn with selected proteases, however, induced substantial expression of the CS-1 sequence. The acid protease cathepsin D generated fragments of 31-33.5 kDa from ...
Diabetic (DM) patients have exacerbated atherosclerosis and high CVD burden. Changes in lipid metabolism, lipoprotein structure, and dysfunctional HDL are characteristics of diabetes. Our aim was to investigate whether serum ApoA-I, the main protein in HDL, was biochemically modified in DM patients. By using proteomic technologies, we have identified a 26 kDa ApoA-I form in serum. MS analysis revealed this 26 kDa form as a novel truncated variant lacking amino acids 1-38, ApoA-IΔ(1-38). DM patients show a 2-fold increase in ApoA-IΔ(1-38) over nondiabetic individuals. ApoA-IΔ(1-38) is found in LDL, but not in VLDL or HDL, with an increase in LDL3 and LDL4 subfractions. To identify candidate mechanisms of ApoA-I truncation, we investigated potentially involved enzymes by in silico data mining, and tested the most probable molecule in an established animal model of diabetes. We have found increased hepatic cathepsin D activity as one of the potential proteases involved in ApoA-I truncation. ...
is one of the three main causative agents of human schistosomiasis, a major health problem with a vast socio-economic impact. Recent advances in the proteomic analysis of schistosomes have revealed that peptidases are the main virulence factors involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. In this context, evolutionary studies can be applied to identify peptidase families that have been expanded in genomes over time in response to different selection pressures. Using a phylogenomic approach, we searched for expanded endopeptidase families in the S. mansoni predicted proteome with the aim of contributing to the knowledge of such enzymes as potential therapeutic targets. We found three endopeptidase families that comprise leishmanolysins (metallopeptidase M8 family), cercarial elastases (serine peptidase S1 family) and cathepsin D proteins (aspartic peptidase A1 family). Our results suggest that the Schistosoma members of these families originated from successive gene duplication events in the ...
htr1d gene expression in Bgee. Bgee allows to automatically compare gene expression patterns between species, by referencing expression data on anatomical ontologies, and designing homology relationships between them.
Benes P., Vashishta A., Saraswat-Ohri S., Fusek M., Pospisilova S., Tichy B., Vetvicka V.: Effect of procathepsin D activation peptide on gene expression of breast cancer cells. Cancer Lett., 2005, E-pub Sep 13. IF 2,9382.
The analysis demonstrates that EPI-X4 is generated from your abundant albumin precursor by aspartic proteases, such as for example Cathepsin D and E [1]. These proteases can be purchased in plasma but generally within lysosomes and in specific secretory granules of immune system cells, such as for example neutrophils or cytotoxic T GSK256066 cells. These are turned on under acidic circumstances and acidification of individual plasma was enough to create bioactive concentrations of EPI-X4. The albumin precursor is certainly loaded in the vascular and extravascular space as well as the EPI-X4 launching enzymes are ubiquitously portrayed. GSK256066 Hence, the prerequisites for the era of the endogenous CXCR4 antagonist receive just about everywhere in our body. Acidic pH circumstances are quality for inflammatory and tumor tissue, and regional acidification is rising as essential regulatory system of innate immunity [4]. Hence, EPI-X4 may be particularly generated at sites of irritation and immune ...
View Hps3/Hps3 Myo5a/Myo5a Mreg/Mreg involves: C57BL/10J: phenotypes, images, diseases, and references.
Erby Walls, who responded to the email listed on ErbyGames YouTube account, confirmed that he had uploaded the video, which he said had been viewed more than three million times. He said that hed seen people on Instagram sharing photographs of Quaden in Gucci and flashing money, which is why he made the video.. He uploaded another video on Feb. 22 stating that Quaden is aged nine and apologising. The videos been viewed 31,000 times - nearly hundred times less than the original.. False information about Quaden remains all over YouTube. While searching for Quaden returns mostly videos from traditional news sources, the most-viewed videos (shared through social media channels) skew towards misinformation. Of the top 19 videos on YouTube for Quaden Bayles, nine are about rumours - and most of those are spreading hoaxes.. And its not just limited to social media. Despite the lack of convincing evidence, the New York Post published an article titled Quaden Bayles: Internet debates whether ...
Human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1) is a steroid-converting enzyme that has long been known to play critical roles in estradiol synthesis and more recently in dihydrotestosterone (DHT) inactivation, showing a dual function that promotes breast cancer cell proliferation. Previously, we reported the first observation of the influence of the enzyme on endogenous estrogen-responsive gene expression. Here, we demonstrate the impact of 17β-HSD1 expression on the breast cancer cell proteome and investigate its role in cell migration. 17β-HSD1 was stably transfected in MCF7 cells and the proteome of the generated cells overexpressing 17β-HSD1 (MCF7-17βHSD1 cells) was compared to that of the wild type MCF7 cells. Proteomics study was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry analysis of differentially expressed protein spots. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to investigate the transcription of individual gene.
Zhou X, Sullivan P, Sun L, Hu F The interaction between progranulin and prosaposin is mediated by granulins and the linker region between saposin B and C. Journal of Neurochemistry 2017 June 22.. Zhou X, Sun L, Bracko O, Choi JW, Jia Y, Nana AL, Brady OA, Hernandez JCC, Nishimura N, Seeley WW, & Hu F. Impaired prosaposin lysosomal trafficking in frontotemporal lobar degeneration due to progranulin mutations. Nature Communications 2017 May 25.. Zhou X, Paushter DH, Feng T, Pardon CM, Mendoza CS, Hu F. Regulation of cathepsin D activity by the FTLD protein progranulin. Acta Neuropathologica. Epub ahead of print. 2017 May 10.. Zhou X, Sun L, Brady OA, Murphy KA, Hu F. Elevated TMEM106B levels exaggerate lipofuscin accumulation and lysosomal dysfunction in aged mice with progranulin deficiency. Acta Neuropathologica Communications. 2017 Jan 26;5(9).. Sullivan PM, Zhou X, Robins AM, Paushter DH, Kim D, Smolka MB, Hu F. The ALS/FTLD associated protein C9orf72 associates with SMCR8 and WDR41 to ...
The dipeptide glycyl-l-phenylalanine 2-naphthylamide (GPN) is widely used to perturb lysosomes because its cleavage by the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin C is proposed to rupture lysosomal membranes. We show that GPN evokes a sustained increase in lysosomal pH (pHly), and transient increases in cytosolic pH (pHcyt) and Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c). None of these effects require cathepsin C, nor are they accompanied by rupture of lysosomes, but they are mimicked by structurally unrelated weak bases. GPN-evoked increases in [Ca2+]c require Ca2+ within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but they are not mediated by ER Ca2+ channels amplifying Ca2+ release from lysosomes. GPN increases [Ca2+]c by increasing pHcyt, which then directly stimulates Ca2+ release from the ER. We conclude that physiologically relevant increases in pHcyt stimulate Ca2+ release from the ER in a manner that is independent of IP3 and ryanodine receptors, and that GPN does not selectively target lysosomes. ...
Currently there are no approved biomarkers for the pre-symptomatic diagnosis of Alzheimers disease (AD). Cathepsin-D (Cat-D) is a lysosomal protease that is present at elevated levels in amyloid plaques and neurons in patients with AD and is also elevated in some cancers. We have developed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/fluorescent contrast agent to detect Cat-D enzymatic activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular and tissue uptake of this MRI/fluorescent contrast agent. The agent consists of an MRI probe [DOTA-caged metal ion (Gd3+ or Tm3+)] and a fluorescent probe coupled to a cell-penetrating-peptide sequence by a Cat-D recognition site. The relaxivity of Gd3+-DOTA-CAT(cleaved) was measured in 10% heat-treated bovine serum albumin (BSA) phantoms to assess contrast efficacy at magnetic fields ranging from 0.24 mT to 9.4 T. In vitro, Tm3+-DOTA-CAT was added to neuronal SN56 cells over-expressing Cat-D and live-cell confocal microscropy was performed at 30 min. ...
To investigate the role of newly synthesized proteins during autophagic sequestration and degradation, the effects of protein synthesis inhibition on autophagic vacuole (AV) formation and degradation were analyzed. The inhibition of protein synthesis was found to separate autophagic sequestration from the delivery of lysosomal enzymes to (AVs). Pretreatment with cycloheximide for , or = 3 h caused a drastic inhibition of autophagy-induced degradation. Surprisingly, morphological analyses showed that the inhibition of protein synthesis for up to 12 h did not block the formation of nascent AVs; however, it did prevent their conversion into degradative AVs. Using immunoperoxidase cytochemistry with an antibody against cathepsin D and labeling of lysosomes with endocytosed colloidal gold, we found that the nascent AVs that formed during prolonged cycloheximide pretreatment had not received lysosomal markers. The inhibition of autophagic degradation and lysosomal enzyme delivery were rapidly reversed ...
gp120 is a subunit of the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1. The third variable loop region of gp120 (V3 loop) contains multiple immunodominant epitopes and is also functionally important for deciding cell-tropism of the virus. 447-52D is a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the conserved tip of the V3 loop in a β-turn conformation. This antibody has previously been shown to neutralize diverse strains of the virus. In an attempt to generate an immunogen competent to generate 447-52D-like antibodies, the known epitope of 447-52D was inserted at three different surface loop locations in the small, stable protein Escherichia coli Trx (thioredoxin). At one of the three locations (between residues 74 and 75), the insertion was tolerated, the resulting protein was stable and soluble, and bound 447-52D with an affinity similar to that of intact gp120. Upon immunization, the V3 peptide-inserted Trx scaffold was able to generate anti-V3 antibodies that could compete out 447-52D binding to gp120. Epitope ...
Proteomics and at least one of the other two approaches identified a molecular signature of plaques from symptomatic patients that comprised matrix metalloproteinase 9, chitinase 3-like-1, S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8), S100A9, cathepsin B, fibronectin, and galectin-3-binding protein. Biomarker candidates measured in 685 subjects in the Bruneck study were associated with progression to advanced atherosclerosis and incidence of cardiovascular disease over a 10-year follow-up period. A 4-biomarker signature (matrix metalloproteinase 9, S100A8/S100A9, cathepsin D, and galectin-3-binding protein) improved risk prediction and was successfully replicated in an independent cohort, the SAPHIR study.. ...
Proteomics and at least one of the other two approaches identified a molecular signature of plaques from symptomatic patients that comprised matrix metalloproteinase 9, chitinase 3-like-1, S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8), S100A9, cathepsin B, fibronectin, and galectin-3-binding protein. Biomarker candidates measured in 685 subjects in the Bruneck study were associated with progression to advanced atherosclerosis and incidence of cardiovascular disease over a 10-year follow-up period. A 4-biomarker signature (matrix metalloproteinase 9, S100A8/S100A9, cathepsin D, and galectin-3-binding protein) improved risk prediction and was successfully replicated in an independent cohort, the SAPHIR study.. ...
Hookworm filariform Ac-APR -1 is a cathepsin D aspartic protease from A. caninum which initiates digestive cascade ⇒ If you can block this activity it should
Cat equipment sets the standard for our industry. The Cat product line of more than 300 machines reflects our increased focus on customer success.
Acts as component of the GARP complex that is involved in retrograde transport from early and late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The GARP complex is required for the maintenance of the cycling of mannose 6-phosphate receptors between the TGN and endosomes, this cycling is necessary for proper lysosomal sorting of acid hydrolases such as CTSD (PubMed:18367545). Within the GARP complex, required to tether the complex to the TGN. Not involved in endocytic recycling (PubMed:25799061 ...
Pepstatin is a strong inhibitor for all acid proteases. It does not inhibit other groups of proteases, such as the neutral and alkaline proteases (1). The unusual potency of pepstatin toward acid prot
Well he made it to Cat C and repeated a few times before really nailing it. At that moment I thought I might have made the right decision to go forward with him. Great video and a smile ear to ear made us go back up for a Cat D. The dive went okay better than some, it was landing that went a bit haywire. He flew a nice patern into the wind and at flare time only went to his shoulders and in his words. froze. He did PLF but hit rather hard. He and I knew he injured himself. A week later now he has pins in his pelvis from 4 fractures. Again, he didnt hit all that hard but his age probably was a severe factor. I have seen him several times now and he is still motivated but it looks like a long recovery for him ...
INRA Constellation of Experimental Watersheds: Cyberinfrastructure to Support Publication of Water Resources Data, J. S. Horsburgh, David G. Tarboton, K. Schreuders, D. P. Ames, J. P. McNamara, L. A. Marshall, B. L. McGlynn, D. L. Kane, A. Tidwell, J. Boll, N. W. Hinman, and M. E. Barber; Eos. Trans. AGU. ...
... , Histones & Cathepsin; PMAP The Proteolysis Map-animation [ Recent chromatin publications and news] Protocol for in ...
... collagenases such as cathepsin B1; and hyaluronidase. PSGAG inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which is released upon ...
Cathepsin A Breddam, K. (1986). "Serine carboxypeptidases. A review". Carlsberg Res. Commun. 51: 83-128. doi:10.1007/bf02907561 ... Miller JJ, Changaris DG, Levy RS (December 1992). "Purification, subunit structure and inhibitor profile of cathepsin A". ... Carboxypeptidase C (EC, carboxypeptidase Y, serine carboxypeptidase I, cathepsin A, lysosomal protective protein, ...
Of these hydrolytic enzymes, cathepsin K is of most importance. Cathepsin K and other cathepsins[edit]. Cathepsin K is a ... Several other cathepsins are expressed in osteoclasts including cathepsins B, C, D, E, G, and L. The function of these cysteine ... characterised by a lack of functional cathepsin K expression. Knockout studies of cathepsin K in mice lead to an osteopetrotic ... Studies on cathepsin L knockout mice have been mixed, with a report of reduced trabecular bone in homozygous and heterozygous ...
Cathepsin E. TALE homeodomain transcription factors. Hydrocortisone. Since keratinocyte differentiation inhibits keratinocyte ... "The role of cathepsin E in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes". Biological Chemistry. 392 (6): 571-85. doi:10.1515/BC. ...
Cathepsin D is involved in CLN10. DNA analysis can be used to help confirm the diagnosis of Batten disease. When the mutation ...
Mediation by cathepsin G has been suggested. The treatment of RAS usually involves administering dexamethasone IV, with the ...
... these include cathepsin L, papain, and procaricain. It forms an alpha-helical domain that runs through the substrate-binding ...
"Cathepsins as transcriptional activators? Developmental Cell 2004, 6(5):610-1. Goulet B, and Nepveu A. "Complete and Limited ...
Lushbaugh WB, Hofbauer AF, Pittman FE (June 1985). "Entamoeba histolytica: purification of cathepsin B". Experimental ...
The protein is able to form a dimer stabilized by noncovalent forces, inhibiting papain and cathepsins l, h and b. The protein ... 1994). "Cathepsin B activity in human lung tumor cell lines: ultrastructural localization, pH sensitivity, and inhibitor status ... 1988). "Cathepsin D inactivates cysteine proteinase inhibitors, cystatins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 154 (2): 765-72. doi ... Cystatin B has been shown to interact with Cathepsin B. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000160213 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ...
These cysteine proteases include calpain, caspase, and cathepsin. These three proteins are examples of detectable signs of ...
It is an inhibitor of cathepsin K, an enzyme involved in bone resorption. The drug was developed by Merck & Co. The phase III ... Le Gall, C. L.; Bonnelye, E.; Clézardin, P. (2008). "Cathepsin K inhibitors as treatment of bone metastasis". Current Opinion ... February 2008). "The discovery of odanacatib (MK-0822), a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18 (3 ...
... α: cathepsin L-like protein in sponge biosilica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95(11), pp.6234- ... Silicateins are homologous to the cysteine protease cathepsin. In sponges, the silicatein enzymes reside in the axial filaments ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... 2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... by proteases such as cathepsins. Collagen is a component of epithelial and endothelial basement membranes. Endostatin, as a ...
Cathepsin A is also required for normal elastin biosynthesis. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000170266 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... The elastin receptor complex includes S-Gal, neuraminidase and Cathepsin A. When elastin-derived peptides bind to the S-Gal ... cathepsin) A is required for proper elastic fiber formation and inactivation of endothelin-1". Circulation. 117 (15): 1973-81. ...
Under the direction of Joseph S. Fruton, Jones' dissertation research involved the catalytic properties of cathepsin C, a type ... She pursued these interests by studying androsterone and monopalmitin at Armour, and cathepsin C at Yale. Jones worked as ... Her doctorate was entitled: Transamidation reactions catalyzed by cathepsin C. Jones completed her studies in three years ... Transamidation Reactions Catalyzed by Cathepsin C. Yale University, 1952. Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L. ( ...
McDonald JK, Zeitman BB, Reilly TJ, Ellis S (May 1969). "New observations on the substrate specificity of cathepsin C ( ... Planta RJ, Gorter J, Gruber M (September 1964). "The catalytic properties of cathepsin C". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ... Dipeptidyl peptidase I (EC, cathepsin C, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase I, dipeptidyl transferase, dipeptide arylamidase I ... Metroione RM, Neves AG, Fruton JS (May 1966). "Purification and properties of dipeptidyl transferase (Cathepsin C)". ...
1982). "Action of rat liver cathepsin L on glucagon". Acta Biol. Med. Ger. 40 (9): 1139-43. PMID 7340337. Kaushal GP, Walker PD ...
... cathepsin G and proteinase 3. Phthalimide derivatives were seen to be inactive, while saccharin derivatives were seen to be ... cathepsin G and proteinase 3". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 3 (2): 187-193. doi:10.1016/0968-0896(95)00013-7. PMID 7796053 ...
It is cleavable by cathepsin and safe for therapy. Trastuzumab emtansine is a combination of the microtubule-formation ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ...
1990). "Generation of human endothelin by cathepsin E." FEBS Lett. 273 (1-2): 99-102. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(90)81060-2. PMID ...
... contains cathepsin B, lysozymes, chymotrypsin, neutrophil elastase and cytokines, which aid the immune system. According ... Frohlich E, Schaumburg-Lever G, Klessen C (1993). "Immunelectron microscopic localization of cathepsin B in human exocrine ...
Cathepsin B and L play a crucial role in arthritic cartilage degeneration. The inhibitor of cathepsin isolated from this fungus ... The fungal metabolite, aurantiamide acetate, has been isolated from Aspergillus penicillioides, as a cathepsin inhibitor. ... a Selective Cathepsin Inhibitor, Produced by Aspergillus penicillioides". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 65 (5): ...
... cathepsin G". Blood. 93 (6): 2089-97. doi:10.1182/blood.V93.6.2089.406k10_2089_2097. PMID 10068683. Tan J, Prakash MD, ... antitrypsin to inhibit cathepsin proteases". Biochemistry. 41 (15): 4998-5004. doi:10.1021/bi0159985. PMID 11939796. Schick C, ... "Squamous cell carcinoma antigen 2 is a novel serpin that inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteinases cathepsin G and mast cell ... "DNA accelerates the inhibition of human cathepsin V by serpins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (51): 36980-6. doi: ...
BACE1, BACE2 Cathepsin D Cathepsin E Chymosin (or "rennin") Napsin-A Nepenthesin Pepsin Presenilin Renin BACE1; BACE2; CTSD; ... Eukaryotic aspartic proteases include pepsins, cathepsins, and renins. They have a two-domain structure, arising from ancestral ... Cathepsin D". In Rawlings ND, Salvesen G (eds.). Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes (Third ed.). Academic Press. pp. 54-63. doi: ...
2000). "Cathepsin G activates protease-activated receptor-4 in human platelets". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (10): 6819-23. doi:10.1074/ ...
In humans, the group of cathepsin cysteine proteases or cysteine cathepsins comprises 11 family members, cathepsins B, C, F, H ... Examination of cathepsin activity by using chemical probes and in vivo imaging techniques demonstrated an increase in cathepsin ... Cathepsins also can be secreted by cells, associate with the cell surface, and degrade the ECM. A study of all 11 members of ... Cathepsin L is active at neutral pH by associating with a p41 splice variant of the MHC class II-associated invariant chain ...
Yamashima T (2013). "Reconsider Alzheimer's disease by the 'calpain-cathepsin hypothesis'--a perspective review". Progress in ... which clearly distinguished it from the cathepsin family of proteases. The calcium-dependent activity, intracellular ...
Cathepsin: Cathepsins ( Ancient Greek kata- "down" and hepsein "boil"; abbreviated CTS ) are proteases ( enzymes that degrades ... Cathepsins have a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover, e.g. bone resorption. They degrade polypeptides and are ... There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone ...
Cathepsin A (serine protease) Cathepsin B (cysteine protease) Cathepsin C (cysteine protease) Cathepsin D (aspartyl protease) ... Cathepsin H (cysteine protease) Cathepsin K (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L1 (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L2 (or V) (cysteine ... Cathepsin S (cysteine protease) Cathepsin W (cysteine proteinase) Cathepsin Z (or X) (cysteine protease) Cathepsins have been ... Cathepsin K has also been shown to play a role in arthritis. Mouse cathepsin L is homologous to human cathepsin V. Mouse ...
Cathepsin T (EC is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Interconversion of the three ... Cathepsin Gohda E, Pitot HC (May 1981). "Purification and characterization of a new thiol proteinase from rat kidney". ... Cathepsin+T at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ... Pitot HC, Gohda E (1987). "Cathepsin T". Methods in Enzymology. 142: 279-89. doi:10.1016/s0076-6879(87)42038-7. PMID 2885716. ...
"Human cathepsins W and F form a new subgroup of cathepsins that is evolutionary separated from the cathepsin B- and L-like ... Wex T, Levy B, Wex H, Brömme D (1999). "Human cathepsins F and W: A new subgroup of cathepsins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ... 2003). "Characterization of novel anti-cathepsin W antibodies and cellular distribution of cathepsin W in the gastrointestinal ... Cathepsin W is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSW gene.[5][6][7] ...
"Entrez Gene: CTSD cathepsin D".. *^ Barrett AJ (April 1970). "Cathepsin D. Purification of isoenzymes from human and chicken ... Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes.[7] The main function of cathepsin D is ... The optimum pH for cathepsin D in vitro is 4.5-5.0.[13] Cathepsin-D is an aspartic protease that depends critically on ... Cathepsin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSD gene.[5][6] This gene encodes a lysosomal aspartyl protease ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
cathepsin K. Names. cathepsin O. cathepsin O1. cathepsin O2. cathepsin X. NP_000387.1. *EC ... Metabolic mapping showed that cathepsin B, but not cathepsin K is active in GSC niches. Title: Cysteine cathepsins B, X and K ... cathepsin K in the development of chronic subdural hematoma Title: Role of cathepsin K in the development of chronic subdural ... Cathepsin K degradation of sclerostin is affected by hypoxia. Title: The regulation of sclerostin by cathepsin K in periodontal ...
Cathepsin B. A. 266. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 3 Gene Names: CTSB, CPSB. EC: ... Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique ... Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique ... The chagasin-cathepsin B complex provides a structural framework for modeling and design of inhibitors for cruzipain, the ...
Incubation with the cathepsin L specific inhibitor, Z-FY-DMK, blocked cathepsin L signals, confirming the cathepsin L bands in ... Z-FY-DMK cathepsin L inhibitor does not inhibit all cathepsin activity of murine endometriotic lesions. Incubation with Z-FY- ... DMK, a selective inhibitor of cathepsin L, inhibited many of the cathepsin active bands but did not block all active cathepsin ... E-64 blocks all cathepsin proteolytic activity in murine endometriotic lesions. Incubation with the broad cathepsin inhibitor, ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
V. Zavanik-Bergant, A. Sekirnik, R. Golouh, V. Turk, and J. Kos, "Immunochemical localisation of cathepsin S, cathepsin L and ... Both stimulants caused a significant cathepsin S upregulation. A significantly elevated cathepsin S expression in gingival ... Role of Cathepsin S in Periodontal Inflammation and Infection. S. Memmert,1,2 A. Damanaki,1 A. V. B. Nogueira,3 S. Eick,4 M. ... "Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is both a substrate of cathepsins S and K and a selective inhibitor of cathepsin L," Biochemistry, ...
Cathepsin K degrades both collagen and elastin, and is one of the most powerful proteases. Cathepsin S degrades elastin, and ... "We saw that the cathepsin K was going away much faster when there was cathepsin S present than when it was by itself," said ... "We kept increasing the amount of cathepsin S until the collagen was not affected at all because all of the cathepsin K was ... Barrys modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the ...
The cathepsin S protease is implicated in generation of chronic pain by releasing a cytokine. ... The cathepsin S protease is implicated in generation of chronic pain by releasing a cytokine. ...
Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry. Graham Simmons, Dhaval N. Gosalia, ... Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry. Graham Simmons, Dhaval N. Gosalia, ... Cathepsin-L-specific inhibitor blocks infection. (A) MDL28170 inhibits CTSL activity with an IC50 of 2.5 nM. A 1,000-compound ... Inhibitors of cathepsin L prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ...
A direct immunohistochemical method of high specificity is presented for the demonstration of sites of cathepsin B1. Antisera ... Snellman, O.: Cathepsin B, the lysosomal thiol proteinase of calf liver. Biochem. J. 114, 673-678 (1969)Google Scholar ... Otto, K.: Cathepsins B1 and B2. In: Tissue proteinases, ed. by A. J. Barrett and J. T. Dingle, p. 1-28. North-Holland ... V. Cathepsin B as a potential effector of LNA hydrolysis. Histochemie 12, 240-243 (1968)Google Scholar ...
Cathepsin S is a cysteine protease highly expressed in many type of cancers including colorectal, prostate, breast, and ... This mini-review provides an overview of therapeutic antibody targeting Cathepsin S strategies in the last half decade, ... In recent years, antibody research specifically targeting Cathepsin S to block/inhibit tumorigenic effects were generated some ... focusing on the rationale of cell-surface Cathepsin S targeted and their potential clinical application. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin E antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 3 publication(s ... Anti-Cathepsin E antibody (ab36996) at 1/1000 dilution + Murine reticulocyte lysate at 10 µg. Predicted band size: 42 kDa. ... High Expression of Cathepsin E in Tissues but Not Blood of Patients with Barretts Esophagus and Adenocarcinoma.. Ann Surg ... Cathepsin E is expressed abundantly in the stomach, Clara cells and alveolar macrophages of the lung, brain microglia, spleen, ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin D antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication ... This antibody reacts with human liver cathepsin D, and does not react with cathepsins B, H and L. ... IHC image of Cathepsin D staining in Human Lung formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica Bond™ ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) - Anti-Cathepsin D antibody (ab19555) ...
... administration of rat recombinant cathepsin B and rat recombinant cathepsin L at the same or higher doses than rrCatS had no ... Inhibition of spinal microglial cathepsin S for the reversal of neuropathic pain. Anna K. Clark, Ping K. Yip, John Grist, Clive ... cathepsin S;. rrCatS,. rat recombinant CatS;. LHVS,. morpholinurea-leucine-homophenylalanine-vinyl phenyl sulfone;. PNL,. ... Here, we report that in peripheral nerve-injured rats, the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) is critical for the ...
Protease activity Apolipoprotein A-I Aortic valve stenosis Cathepsin S C. Gebhard and F. Maafi contributed equally to this work ... Hooshdaran B, Kolpakov MA, Guo X, Miller SA, Wang T, Tilley DG, Rafiq K, Sabri A (2017) Dual inhibition of cathepsin G and ... Lindstedt L, Lee M, Oorni K, Bromme D, Kovanen PT (2003) Cathepsins F and S block HDL3-induced cholesterol efflux from ... Targeting circulating cathepsin S may lead to new therapies for human aortic valve disease. ...
Cathepsin B. Cathepsin B, EC (APP secretase, APPS) (Cathepsin B1) [Cleaved into: Cathepsin B light chain; Cathepsin B ... Cathepsin BImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ... tr,E9PL32,E9PL32_HUMAN Cathepsin B (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CTSB PE=1 SV=2 ...
Cathepsin GAdd BLAST. ›26. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of ... sp,P17977,CATG_RAT Cathepsin G (Fragment) OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Ctsg PE=1 SV=1 IIGGREARPNSHPYMAFLLIQSPEGL ...
MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN B KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin B. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ... MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN K KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin K. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ... MAGIC RED® CATHEPSIN L KIT. A fluorogenic test kit for Cathepsin L. (Patent# 6,235,493-May 22, 2001). Ref.: 1. Van Noorden, C.J ...
Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) and Flow Cytometry ... Protein Aliases: Cathepsin K; Cathepsin O; cathepsin O1; Cathepsin O2; Cathepsin X; CTSK; CTSO; CTSO2 ... Cite Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from ...
Although a lysosomal, cathepsin B-dependent (Ctsb-dependent) pathway of apoptosis has been described, the contribution of this ...
C.-S. Hsieh, P. DeRoos, K. Honey, C. Beers, and A. Y. Rudensky, "A role for cathepsin L and cathepsin S in peptide generation ... J. Ärnlv, "Cathepsin S as a biomarker: where are we now and what are the future challenges?" Biomarkers in Medicine, vol. 6, no ... Inhibition of Cathepsin S Produces Neuroprotective Effects after Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice. Jianguo Xu,1 Handong Wang,1 Ke ... D. M. Small, R. E. Burden, and C. J. Scott, "The emerging relevance of the cysteine protease cathepsin S in disease," Clinical ...
Cathepsin D purified from a mutant strain has a lower activity per unit mass of pure enzyme. These data suggest that cad-1 is a ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ... Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans.. L A Jacobson, L Jen-Jacobson, J M ...
CATHEPSIN L-HUMAN LIVER. Cathepsin L is unstable at neutral pH, but is relatively stable in the range 4.5 to 5.5.. ...
Distribution of cathepsin L in human umbilical cord tissues.. [Tomasz Gogiel, Małgorzata Wolańska, Zofia Galewska, Piotr ... The active cathepsin L activity (without activation by pepsin digestion), its percentage in the total activity (after pepsin ... Cathepsin L activity and anti-papain inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors were quantified in extracts of separated ... Cathepsin L is a potent cysteine protease engaged in degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagens. We ...
  • We hypothesize that cysteine cathepsins, a group of powerful extracellular matrix proteases, facilitate endometrial tissue invasion and endometriosis lesion establishment in the peritoneal wall and inhibiting this activity would decrease endometriosis lesion implantation. (
  • Intraperitoneal injection of the broad cysteine cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, significantly reduced the number of attached endometriosis lesions in our murine model compared to vehicle-treated controls demonstrating that cathepsin proteases contribute to endometriosis lesion establishment, and their inhibition may provide a novel, nonhormonal therapy for endometriosis. (
  • Cathepsins are proteases, which are enzymes that are responsible for degrading proteins. (
  • Dubbed "cathepsin cannibalism," the phenomenon may help explain problems with drugs that have been developed to inhibit the effects of these powerful proteases. (
  • Cathepsin K degrades both collagen and elastin, and is one of the most powerful proteases. (
  • There is growing recognition that alternative proteolytic enzymes such as the lysosomal cathepsin proteases may initiate or propagate proapoptotic signals, but it is currently unclear how cathepsins mediate apoptosis. (
  • Lysosomes contain many well-characterized proteases, and cathepsin B has previously been utilized to release chemotherapeutics in the context of targetable antibody-based treatments. (
  • SerpinB1 is a potent inhibitor of neutrophil serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G (CG). (
  • 6 , 7 Interestingly, noncaspase cysteine proteases calpain and cathepsin D were reported to induce PMN apoptosis through activation of caspases. (
  • 8 ⇓ ⇓ - 11 In addition, PMNs carry a unique set of serine proteases (neutrophil serine proteases [NSPs]) including elastase (NE), cathepsin G (CG), and proteinase-3 (PR3) stored active in primary granules. (
  • In this review we discuss recent advances addressing the role of lysosomal proteases in the diverse aspects of the immune response, and also the involvement of cathepsins in the pathogenesis of diseases in which these proteases seem not to be properly under control. (
  • Cathepsin B is an ancient family of eukaryotic cysteine proteases. (
  • Our findings provide evidence for the highly specialized functions of closely related cysteine cathepsin proteases in extra-embryonic development, and reinforce their importance for a successful outcome of pregnancy. (
  • Two of the genes identified from this screen were the cathepsin proteases Cts7 and Cts8 . (
  • Cathepsin cysteine proteases are effectors of invasive growth and angiogenesis during multistage tumorigenesis. (
  • Cathepsins are lysosomal proteases that breakdown peptide bonds linked to specific amino acids. (
  • Cathepsin B is the first described member of the family of lysosomal cysteine proteases. (
  • Here we adopt a novel in silico target fishing method to reveal the target profile of RD. Cathepsin K (Ctsk) is one of the cysteine proteases that is over-expressed in osteoclasts and accounts for the increase in bone resorption in metabolic bone disorders such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. (
  • Though cytokines and phagocyte, as host factors, have been shown to participate in defence against Aspergillus species yet the role of cysteine proteases, that is cathepsins, a lysosomal enzymes of phagocytes, remains unknown in fungal infection. (
  • Cathepsins are cysteine proteases, act as endopeptidases and are mainly involved in intracellular protein degradation and involved in large number of diseases [ 11 , 12 ]. (
  • Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes . (
  • [13] Cathepsin-D is an aspartic protease that depends critically on protonation of its active site Asp residue. (
  • Along with Asp-protonation, lower pH also leads to conformational switch in cathepsin-D : the N-terminal segment of the protease moves out of the active site as pH drops. (
  • Cathepsin D (an aspartyl protease) appears to cleave a variety of substrates such as fibronectin and laminin. (
  • Unlike some of the other cathepsins, cathepsin D has some protease activity at neutral pH. (
  • Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique occluding loop that restricts access to the active site cleft. (
  • The chagasin-cathepsin B complex provides a structural framework for modeling and design of inhibitors for cruzipain, the parasite cysteine protease and a virulence factor in Chagas disease. (
  • Cathepsin Protease Inhibition Reduces Endometriosis Lesion Establishment. (
  • All types of cathepsin are classified into three of these protease families. (
  • Cathepsin S is a cysteine protease and regulator of autophagy with possible involvement in periodontitis. (
  • The cathepsin S protease is implicated in generation of chronic pain by releasing a cytokine. (
  • Here, we report that in peripheral nerve-injured rats, the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) is critical for the maintenance of neuropathic pain and spinal microglia activation. (
  • We have recently found that after peripheral nerve injury, the mRNA for the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) was up-regulated in the DRG because of CatS expression in infiltrating macrophages ( 5 ). (
  • The lysosomal cysteine protease, cathepsin S, is increased in Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome brain: an immunocytochemical study," American Journal of Pathology , vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 848-860, 1995. (
  • Mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans having about 10% of wild-type activity of the aspartyl protease cathepsin D have been isolated by screening. (
  • Cathepsin L is a potent cysteine protease engaged in degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagens. (
  • We evaluated the activity and expression of cathepsin L, and the inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors in the umbilical cord arteries, vein and Wharton's jelly. (
  • Cathepsin L activity and anti-papain inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors were quantified in extracts of separated umbilical cord tissues using fluorogenic substrates. (
  • Cathepsin B kit detects protease activity within whole living cells as a marker of intracellular cathepsin B activity. (
  • Cathepsin B, K, and L protease activities can be detected within whole living cells using substrate-based fluorescent assays, which utilize cathepsin target sequence peptides, derivatives of the cresyl violet fluorophore, conjugated to Magic Red™ (MR) fluorogenic substrate (cresyl violet). (
  • The lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B is thought to play a central role in intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation and the onset of experimental pancreatitis. (
  • Cathepsin G (CatG) is a chymotrypsin-like protease released upon degranulation of neutrophils. (
  • Cathepsin K (CatK) is a lysosomal protease with collagenolytic activity, and its secretion by osteoclasts is responsible for degrading organic bone matrix. (
  • Recent work shows that the cysteine protease cathepsin S (Cat S) is required for the terminal step in CLIP formation in B cells and most dendritic cells (DCs), and in vitro can mediate all steps of digestion of class II-Ii complexes ( 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 ). (
  • Cathepsin-D (Cat-D) is a lysosomal protease that is present at elevated levels in amyloid plaques and neurons in patients with AD and is also elevated in some cancers. (
  • Serine protease inhibitor serpinB1 protects neutrophils by inhibition of their own azurophil granule protease cathepsin G. (
  • Combined deletion of cathepsin protease family members reveals compensatory mechanisms in cancer. (
  • Arampatzidou M, Rehders M, Dauth S, Yu DMT, Tedelind S, Brix K. Imaging of protease functions-current guide to spotting cysteine cathepsins in classical and novel scenes of action in mammalian epithelial cells and tissues. (
  • However, we here report an unexpected finding that cysteine protease genes of the family cathepsin B are massively amplified in the lineage of aphids, and that many of the protease genes exhibit gut-specific over-expression. (
  • Cathepsin F is a cysteine protease that plays a role in invariant chain processing and major histocompatibility complex class II peptide loading by macrophages. (
  • The protease cathepsin D is one such target involved in several diseases such as tumors, degenerative processes, and vital processes of parasites causing schistosomiasis. (
  • Here, we describe how intracellular sigma peptide modulation of RPTPσ induces enhanced protease Cathepsin B activity. (
  • Here, we have found that one important mechanism by which peptide modulation of the receptor enhances axon outgrowth is through secretion of a protease, Cathepsin B, which enables digestion of CSPGs. (
  • Identification of a human neutrophil angiotension II-generating protease as cathepsin G. J Clin Invest. (
  • Cathepsin D is the lysosomal protease in the retinal pigment epithelium which is presumed to be the major enzyme involved in the degradation of shed discs during the photoreceptor renewal process. (
  • This antibody is specific for Cathepsin E. (
  • This antibody reacts with human liver cathepsin D, and does not react with cathepsins B, H and L. (
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-14270, RRID AB_2087668. (
  • This antibody reacts with the zymogen as well as the activated form of cathepsin D. It stains fibroblasts and macrophages strongly but stains the myoepithelial cells of breast weakly. (
  • Cathepsin D Polyclonal antibody specifically detects Cathepsin D in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. (
  • Cathepsin 6 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Cathepsin 6 in Mouse samples. (
  • Over-expression of cathepsin D stimulates tumorigenicity and metastasis as well as initiation of tumor apoptosis. (
  • [21] [22] Knock-out of CTSD gene would cause intestinal necrosis and hemorrhage and increase apoptosis in thymus , indicating that cathepsin D is required in certain epithelial cells for tissue remodeling and renewal. (
  • Almost all cathepsin activity is found in lysosome organelles, which are a type of organelle responsible for breaking down excess or aging parts of cells and in aiding apoptosis (cell death). (
  • Although a lysosomal, cathepsin B-dependent (Ctsb-dependent) pathway of apoptosis has been described, the contribution of this pathway to tissue damage remains unclear. (
  • Cathepsins are apoptosis markers associated with Alzheimer′s disease, numerous types of cancer, autoimmune arthritis, and the breakdown of bone structure seen with osteoporosis. (
  • Schwartz-Roberts, Shajahan, Cook, Wärri, Abu-Asab, Clarke: GX15-070 (obatoclax) induces apoptosis and inhibits cathepsin D- and L-mediated autophagosomal lysis in antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells. (
  • This suggests that cathepsin D exerts its apoptosis-stimulating effect upstream of caspase-3-like activation. (
  • Cathepsin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSD gene . (
  • Cathepsin B may function as a beta-secretase 1, cleaving amyloid precursor protein to produce amyloid beta. (
  • Osteoclasts are the bone resorbing cells of the body, and they secrete cathepsin K in order to break down collagen, the major component of the non-mineral protein matrix of the bone. (
  • To clarify the mode by which natural protein inhibitors manage to overcome this obstacle, we have analyzed the structure and function of cathepsin B in complexes with the Trypanosoma cruzi inhibitor, chagasin. (
  • Incubation with the broad cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, completely abolished cathepsin activity detected by zymography identifying the active bands as cysteine cathepsins (A). Cathepsin protein levels in lesions were compared to eutopic uterine tissue by Western blot (B, n = 6). (
  • Each cathepsin works to degrade a different protein, and they have different structures and work via different mechanisms. (
  • Cathepsin S was upregulated most strongly and thus further studied in vitro at gene and protein levels. (
  • When the researchers combined the two cathepsins and allowed them to attack samples of elastin, they expected to see increased degradation of the protein. (
  • Barry's modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the elastin - a protein essential in arteries and the cardiovascular system. (
  • H. Phipps-Yonas, V. Semik, and K. T. Hastings, "GILT expression in B cells diminishes cathepsin S steady-state protein expression and activity," European Journal of Immunology , vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 65-74, 2013. (
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Cathepsin D Kits (99) und Cathepsin D Proteine (58) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (
  • Additionally we are shipping Cathepsin D Antibodies (347) and Cathepsin D Proteins (55) and many more products for this protein. (
  • Cathepsin H is a disulfide-linked heavy and light chain dimer which belongs to the peptidase C1 protein family, can act both as an aminopeptidase and as an endopeptidase. (
  • cathepsin H Inhibitors offered by Santa Cruz inhibit cathepsin H and, in some cases, other cellular metabolism and protein degradation related proteins. (
  • After 4 days of diabetes, cathepsin B and L activities were decreased by 15-45% when correlated with the levels of glomerular protein or DNA. (
  • Cathepsin D is an estrogen-regulated protein associated with tissue breakdown. (
  • Partially purified Cathepsin B protein was inhibited by a variety of peptide inhibitors but evidence of inhibition by several pathogen-derived inhibitors that are secreted during infection was inconclusive. (
  • Mechanistic studies indicated that the absence of CatL reduced lesion chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 content, macrophage and T-cell in vitro transmigration, and angiogenesis, and altered the expression and activities of matrix metalloproteinases and other cysteinyl cathepsins in inflammatory cells, vascular cells, and AAA lesions. (
  • Active cathepsins, cathepsin inhibitors and cathepsin antibodies are also available. (
  • 75 Cathepsin S (CTSS) Antibodies from 18 manufacturers are available on (
  • On are 88 Cathepsin D (CTSD) ELISA Kits from 20 different suppliers available. (
  • The main physiological functions of cathepsin D consist of metabolic degradation of intracellular proteins, activation and degradation of polypeptide hormones and growth factors , activation of enzymatic precursors, processing of enzyme activators and inhibitors, brain antigen processing and regulation of programmed cell death . (
  • Five cyclic peptides show inhibitory activity towards human cathepsins L, B, H, and K. Zymography is a type of gel electrophoresis that uses a polyacrylamide gel co-polymerized with a substrate in order to detect enzyme activity. (
  • Cathepsin T (EC is an enzyme. (
  • All cathepsins are made up of a signal peptide, a propeptide, and a mature functional enzyme that is catalytically active. (
  • The researchers used a variety of tests to determine the amount of each enzyme, including fluorogenic substrate analysis, Western blotting and multiplex cathepsin zymography - a sensitive technique developed in the Platt laboratory. (
  • Beyond demonstrating for the first time that cathepsins can attack one another, the research also shows the complexity of the body's enzyme system - and may suggest why drugs designed to inhibit cathepsins haven't worked as intended. (
  • Cathepsin D purified from a mutant strain has a lower activity per unit mass of pure enzyme. (
  • The active cathepsin L activity (without activation by pepsin digestion), its percentage in the total activity (after pepsin activation), and the expression of the mature single-chain enzyme were the lowest in the umbilical cord arteries and the highest in Wharton's jelly. (
  • A Novel Dual Fluorochrome Near-Infrared Imaging Probe for Potential Alzheimer's Enzyme Biomarkers-BACE1 and Cathepsin D. Molecules. (
  • As cathepsin D activity is increased by cigarette smoke, the enzyme may contribute to lung tissue damage in smokers. (
  • We offer various assays to detect and quantify cathepsin, calpain and granzyme B activity and screen for respective enzyme inhibitors. (
  • Cathepsin D was released from lysosomes to the cytosol upon exposure to naphthazarin, and the enzyme activity decreased simultaneously. (
  • Later, cathepsin D reappeared in granules of increased size, and enzyme activity was restored. (
  • Lysosomal serine carboxypeptidase Cathepsin A (CTSA) is a multifunctional enzyme with distinct protective and catalytic function. (
  • Herein, we describe the preparation of a fused silica capillary, cathepsin D (CatD)-immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) using in a multidimensional High Performance Liquid Chromatography-based method (2D-HPLC) and zonal affinity chromatography as an alternative in the search for new ligands. (
  • The prodrug demonstrates enzyme-responsive drug release features, and over 95% GEM was released from the carrier with the Cathepsin B within 3 h. (
  • It was catalytically active, as demonstrated by active-site-directed radioiodination, and hydrolysed three cathepsin B substrates, two with Km values similar to those of lysosomal cathepsin B. In addition, the rates of inactivation of the sputum and lysosomal forms of the enzyme by L-3-carboxy-2,3-transepoxypropionyl-leucylamido(4-guanidino) butane (Compound E-64) were very similar. (
  • However, the sputum enzyme differed from lysosomal cathepsin B in the following respects. (
  • Inhibition by chicken cystatin was much weaker for sputum cathepsin B than for the lysosomal enzyme. (
  • There were many hurdles in the drug discovery of cathepsin K inhibitors such as species differences not only in bone metabolism but also in amino acid sequences in the critical site of the target enzyme, discrepancies between PK/PD due to unique tissue distribution of the inhibitor affecting both efficacy and side effects originated from a characteristic intracellular or tissue distribution of some classes of compounds. (
  • The cathepsin K inhibitor drug discovery was initiated based on a strong and osteoclast-specific expression of this enzyme. (
  • The data suggest that the higher levels of cathepsin D activity observed in the freshly isolated RPE from the area centralis result from modulators of enzyme activity which are not present in culture. (
  • Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase whose expression and trafficking are frequently altered in cancer, and plasma membrane and secreted forms are thought to contribute to the invasive and metastatic properties of malignant tumors. (
  • Cathepsin-Z (CTSZ) is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase and member of the peptidase C1 family. (
  • Cathepsin K is a recently identified lysosomal cysteine proteinase. (
  • CTSC / Cathepsin C / JP, a member of the peptidase C1 family, is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase that appears to be a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteinases in immune/inflammatory cells. (
  • This review sought to evaluate recent findings in this field, highlighting how among cathepsins, the inhibition of cathepsin S in particular, could play a significant role in diminishing the effects of CVD, especially for patients with CKD. (
  • Spi2A defects were ameliorated by cathepsin-B/L inhibition, and by genetic co-deletion of lysosomal cathepsin B. Pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin B/L enhanced EPO-induced red cell formation in normal mice. (
  • Osteocytes express genes required in osteoclasts for bone resorption, including cathepsin K (Ctsk), and lactation elevates their expression. (
  • The catalytic sites of cathepsin D include two critical aspartic residues ( amino acid 33 and 231) located on the 14 kDa and 34kDa chains. (
  • Pepstatin A pretreatment did not prevent release of cathepsin D from lysosomes but did significantly inhibit subsequent naphthazarin-induced caspase activation and apoptotic morphology. (
  • Lysosomes and lysosomal cathepsins in cell death. (
  • Cathepsins have a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover, e.g. bone resorption. (
  • Cathepsin K is the most potent mammalian collagenase. (
  • Cysteinyl cathepsin K (CatK) is one of the most potent mammalian collagenases involved in cardiovascular disease. (
  • The collagenolytic activity of cathepsin K is unique among mammalian proteinases. (
  • Human AAA lesions express high levels of cathepsin L (CatL), one of the most potent mammalian elastases. (
  • It is widely held that invasion is facilitated by a membrane or secreted form of cathepsin B that acts outside the cell to degrade ECM components at or adjacent to the surface of the invading cell. (
  • These cells were tested in an in vitro Matrigel invasion assay with membrane-permeant and impermeant inhibitors of cathepsin B. The results, which provided direct proof for the participation of cathepsin B in matrix penetration, also yielded the unexpected finding that an intracellular form of cathepsin B was required for Matrigel invasion. (
  • Sputum cathepsin B had greater stability at pH 7.5 and a higher apparent Mr, even after deglycosylation, than lysosomal cathepsin B. We conclude that the form of cathepsin B found in sputum is probably a truncated form of human procathepsin B, with some differences in properties that could be of physiological importance. (
  • Elevated levels of cathepsin H correlates with malignant progression of prostate tumors. (
  • Levels of cathepsin D have been positively correlated with recurring breast cancers of both node negative and node positive types. (
  • The expression of cathepsin K in cultured endothelial cells is regulated by shear stress. (
  • A significantly elevated cathepsin S expression in gingival biopsies from rats with experimental periodontitis was found in vivo , as compared to that from control. (
  • Gingival biopsies from periodontitis patients showed a significantly higher cathepsin S expression than those from healthy gingiva. (
  • Distribution of the activity and expression of mature cathepsin L within the umbilical cord probably results from distinctions in the proenzyme activation process. (
  • We have manipulated the expression of cathepsin B in several tumor cell lines and measured their capacity to invade through a reconstituted extracellular (Matrigel) matrix. (
  • Transient expression of human cathepsin B in a poorly metastatic B16F1 murine melanoma variant produced a 3-5-fold increase in cathepsin B activity and a comparable increase in invasiveness. (
  • In this study, we selectively manipulated the expression of cathepsin B in three different tumor cell lines. (
  • Arkona C, Wiederanders B. Expression, subcellular distribution and plasma membrane binding of cathepsin B and gelatinases in bone metastatic tissue. (
  • Expression of the elastolytic cathepsins S and K in human atheroma and regulation of their production in smooth muscle cells. (
  • Cathepsins are intracellular proteinases that hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins. (
  • Surprisingly, at a concentration of 10 μ m , CA-074 slowly permeated the cells, causing an 80-95% inhibition of intracellular cathepsin B after 12 h, the duration of the invasion assay. (
  • The membrane-permeant cathepsin B inhibitor, CA-074 methyl ester, and the higher concentration of CA-074 that inhibited intracellular cathepsin B both significantly reduced Matrigel invasion. (
  • Collectively, these results identify an intracellular role for cathepsin B in matrix degradation. (
  • Cathepsin K, among other cathepsins, plays a role in cancer metastasis through the degradation of the extracellular matrix. (
  • Cathepsin K associates with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • Elevated Cathepsin K potentiates metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer. (
  • Cathepsins are involved in disease processes as varied as cancer metastasis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and arthritis. (
  • Involvement of cathepsins in the invasion, metastasis and proliferation of cancer cells. (
  • Cathepsin B is among the candidate proteinases believed to participate in invasion and metastasis. (
  • Besides caspases, cathepsins have recently been shown to be associated with cell death regulation [6-12] and various other physiological and pathological processes, such as maturation of the MHC class II complex, bone remodelling, keratinocyte differentiation, tumour progression and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, as well as atherosclerosis [13, 14] (table 1). (
  • Auf finden Sie aktuell 344 Cathepsin D (CTSD) Antikörper von 36 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (
  • The purpose of the research reported herein was to develop procedures for the purification of the cathepsin from salmon muscle. (
  • It was decided to attempt the purification of the cathepsin optimally active at pH 3.7. (
  • The purification was accomplished by extracting the salmon muscle cathepsin with two parts 0.2 N KC1. (
  • The purification of cathepsin D from pig uterus by two-step affinity chromatography on concanavalin A- and pepstatin-Sepharose was described previously [Afting & Becker (1981) Biochem. (
  • When in the extracellular matrix, cysteine cathepsins, in particular, can degrade the structural components of the ECM, such as collagen or elastin, and contribute to the processing of chemokines, which are molecules that are involved in activating inflammatory immune responses. (
  • These diseases may also involve the degradation of the extracellular matrix by cathepsins. (
  • Cathepsin zymography separates different cathepsins based on their migration through a polyacrylamide gel co-polymerized with a gelatin substrate. (
  • The gel is then put into an activation buffer of a specific pH and left to incubate overnight at 37 °C. This activation step allows the cathepsins to degrade the gelatin substrate. (
  • Hoechst stain can be used to label the cell nuclei after labeling with the MR-Cathepsin B substrate. (
  • BioVision's newly developed Cathepsin Activity Assay kits are fluorescence-based assays that utilize the preferred substrate sequence for each cathepsin, labeled with AFC (amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin). (
  • Cell lysates or other samples that contain cathepsins will cleave the synthetic substrate to release free AFC. (
  • Cathepsin F has the substrate specificity similar to that of cathepsins L and S. (
  • Stroke Traumatic brain injury Alzheimer's disease Arthritis Ebola, Cathepsin B and to a lesser extent cathepsin L have been found to be necessary for the virus to enter host cells. (
  • Additionally cathepsin D has been associated with amyloid formation in Alzheimer's plaques. (
  • [7] The main function of cathepsin D is to degrade proteins and activate precursors of bioactive proteins in pre-lysosomal compartments. (
  • They are classified in these families based on the amino acids present in the proteins that the cathepsins break down. (
  • Cathepsins play a role in the degradation of proteins, energy metabolism, and the body's immune responses, among other functions. (
  • Cathepsins break down proteins by cutting the peptide bonds that link amino acids together. (
  • Cathepsins are important in neurodegenerative diseases as they break down several important proteins. (
  • Researchers for the first time have shown that members of a family of enzymes known as cathepsins - which are implicated in many disease processes - may attack one another instead of the bodily proteins they normally degrade. (
  • Because cathepsins have harmful effects on critical proteins such as collagen and elastin, pharmaceutical companies have been developing drugs to inhibit activity of the enzymes, but so far these compounds have had too many side effects to be useful and have failed clinical trials. (
  • Using mass spectrometry analysis of cells treated with a pan cathepsin inhibitor, we observed an increased abundance of proteins involved in central carbon metabolism. (
  • We further demonstrate that incorporating a cathepsin B-cleavable linker between the BIM BH3 peptide and the hydrophobic tail within individual amphiphiles results in increased binding to recombinant BCL-2 proteins while also allowing for increased cellular uptake and mitochondrial localization leading to faster and more potent dose-dependent cytotoxicity and caspase activation in malignant cells. (
  • [23] Cathepsin D enzymatic activity induces hydrolytic modification of apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins, including LDL, which means it may be involved in atherosclerosis as well. (
  • The cathepsin A activity in lysates of metastatic lesions of malignant melanoma is significantly higher than in primary focus lysates. (
  • oxLDL inhibits differentiation and functional activity of osteoclasts via scavenger receptor-A mediated autophagy and cathepsin K secretion. (
  • Human endometriosis lesions also exhibited greater cathepsin activity than adjacent peritoneum tissue, supporting the mouse results. (
  • Finally, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting cathepsin activity could block endometriosis lesion attachment and implantation in vivo. (
  • Mouse endometriotic lesions exhibit elevated cathepsin proteolytic activity. (
  • E-64 blocks all cathepsin proteolytic activity in murine endometriotic lesions. (
  • Dysregulated cathepsin synthesis and activity have been seen in several diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and inflammatory neurological diseases. (
  • Dysregulated cathepsin activity can result in the overexpression (over-activity) of the cathepsins and cause them to be secreted outside of cells. (
  • The work could affect not only the development of drugs to inhibit cathepsin activity, but could also lead to a better understanding of how the enzymes work together. (
  • By increasing the amount of cathepsin S ten-fold over the amount used in the original experiment, Platt and Barry were able to completely block the activity of cathepsin K, preventing damage to the collagen sample. (
  • Platt's long-term research has focused on cathepsins, including the development of sensitive tools and assays to quantify their activity in cells and tissue, as well as potential diagnostic applications for breast, lung and cervical cancer. (
  • The selective demonstration of cathepsin B activity by means of the naphthylamide reaction. (
  • In the assay (z-Arginine-Arginine) 2 (z-RR) 2 derivative of the cresyl violet fluorophore easily penetrates the cell membrane and the membranes of the internal cellular organelles enabling to detect cathepsin B activity within whole living cells. (
  • Here we report that loss of cathepsin L (Cts L) is associated with a fast proliferation rate and enhanced glycolytic metabolism that depend on lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity. (
  • The availability of a purified preparation of salmon muscle cathepsins should stimulate interest and research in the characterization of these enzymes and lead to better means for the control of catheptic activity in fish muscle. (
  • For measuring cathepsin B activity by fluorometer or fluorescence plate reader. (
  • This project aims to examine the utility of the proteolytic activity signatures of caspase 1 and cathepsin S (CTSS) as readouts of particle-induced inflammation and to elucidate the role and dynamic regulation of CTSS in response to cellular stress. (
  • Dariusz Szajda S, Jankowski M, Zalewska B, Kożuszko B, Gabrylewski W, Skrzydlewski Z. Activity of cancer procoagulant and cathepsin D in breast cancer. (
  • Immunohistochemical investigations on cathepsin D activity in structures of cholesteatoma. (
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of cathepsin D in the structures of cholesteatoma. (
  • Results: Cathepsin D demonstrates high activity in perimatrix cells adjacent to bone tissue, while it occurs in trace amounts in the matrix. (
  • BACKGROUND: Serum cathepsin B activity has been considered a potential marker of tumor progression. (
  • The aim of this study was to assess serum cathepsin activity during tumor progression and regression. (
  • Serum cathepsin B activity was determined, tumor volumes were measured, and. (
  • RESULTS: Of the 45 BRT-treated rats, tumor regression was observed in 31 rats, and serum cathepsin activity was analyzed in these rats. (
  • The activity profiles of four cathepsins in the kidney and liver tissue were analysed and correlated with blood cytokines level in the presence and absence of antifungal compounds (amphotericin B, a standard drug and 2-(3,4-dimethyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-2-yl)-1-methylethyl pentanoate, isolated in our laboratory from natural source) treatment. (
  • Regional comparisons of cathepsin D activity in bovine retinal pigment epithelium. (
  • In this study, the cathepsin D activity in RPE cells from the posterior area centralis was compared to the activity in cells from the equatorial region of the same bovine eyes. (
  • Analysis of freshly isolated RPE cells from 30 eyes indicated that cells from the area centralis have significantly higher cathepsin D activity than cells from the more peripheral retina. (
  • CTSZ, which has been also known as cathepsin X and cathepsin P, exhibits carboxy-monopeptidase and carboxy-dipeptidase activities. (
  • Leukocyte cathepsin S is a potent regulator of both cell and matrix turnover in advanced atherosclerosis," Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology , vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 188-194, 2009. (
  • Novel, Nonpeptidic Cyanamides as Potent and Reversible Inhibitors of Human Cathepsins K and L, J. Med. (
  • In particular, no defects in granulopoiesis or PMN homeostasis have been reported in mice deficient in cathepsin G ( CG −/− ), 15 neutrophil elastase ( NE −/− ), 16 , 17 or dipeptidylpeptidase I ( DPPI −/− ), which lack active NSPs. (
  • Neutrophil cathepsin G increases calcium flux and inositol polyphosphate production in cultured endothelial cells. (
  • Exposure of endothelial cells (ENDO) to human neutrophil cathepsin G (CG) increases albumin flux across the endothelial monolayer. (
  • Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans. (
  • These data suggest that cad-1 is a structural gene for cathepsin D. (
  • These results suggest that the ecdysone response elements are vital for activation of the promoter by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in the larval fat body and further support the crucial role of ecdysone signaling to control cathepsin D gene transcription. (
  • By making use of EST data, sequenced cDNAs, and genomic trace sequences of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, we identified a total of 28 cathepsin B-like gene copies in the genome of A. pisum. (
  • In addition, this work also implicates Cathepsin B genes in senescence, a developmental form of PCD, via regulation of the senescence marker gene Senescence Associated Gene 12 ( SAG12 ). (
  • Fluorometric kit to for fast screening of potential cathepsin B (CTSB) inhibitors. (
  • There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone resorption. (
  • Cathepsin K is involved in osteoporosis, a disease in which a decrease in bone density causes an increased risk for fracture. (
  • Impaired osteoclastic bone resorption leads to osteopetrosis in cathepsin-K-deficient mice. (
  • Conclusions: Cathepsin D places a major role in bone tissue destruction due to cholesteatoma. (
  • A composite docking approach for the identification and characterization of ectosteric inhibitors of cathepsin K. Law S, et al . (
  • Phylogenetic analyses of all the cathepsin B genes in aphids revealed that genic expansion has continuously proceeded with basal, intermediary and recent duplications. (
  • "Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for human cathepsin D" . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America . (
  • Cathepsin B has also been implicated in the progression of various human tumors including ovarian cancer. (
  • Mouse cathepsin L is homologous to human cathepsin V. Mouse cathepsin L has been shown to play a role in adipogenesis and glucose intolerance in mice. (
  • Barrett, A. J.: Human cathepsin B1. (
  • IHC image of Cathepsin D staining in Human Lung formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica Bond™ system using the standard protocol F. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6, epitope retrieval solution 1) for 20 mins. (
  • Targeting circulating cathepsin S may lead to new therapies for human aortic valve disease. (
  • Distribution of cathepsin L in human umbilical cord tissues. (
  • Presence of cathepsin B in the human pancreatic secretory pathway and its role in trypsinogen activation during hereditary pancreatitis. (
  • Cathepsin D has been reported to be involved in malignant tumour progression and with prognosis of various human cancers. (
  • Stable antisense cathepsin B-expressing clones of the highly metastatic human melanoma A375M and prostate carcinoma PC3M cell lines produced 40-50% less cathepsin B than control cells and were proportionately less invasive. (
  • Baici A, Müntener K, Willimann A, Zwicky R. Regulation of human cathepsin B by alternative mRNA splicing: homeostasis, fatal errors and cell death. (
  • Cathepsin F staining of paraffin-embedded human heart tissue sections. (
  • It was immunologically related to lysosomal cathepsin B from human liver and was similar in many, but not all, other aspects. (
  • Cathepsin L-deficient mice were shown to have less adipose tissue, lower serum glucose and insulin levels, more insulin receptor subunits, more glucose transporter (GLUT4) and more fibronectin than wild type controls. (
  • To test this, we used an immunocompetent endometriosis mouse model and found that endometriotic lesions exhibited a greater than 5-fold increase in active cathepsins compared to tissue from peritoneal wall or eutopic endometrium, with cathepsins L and K specifically implicated. (
  • Keilová, H.: On the specificity and inhibition of cathepsins D and B. In: Tissue proteinases, ed. by A. J. Barrett and J. T. Dingle, p. 45-65. (
  • Weight loss reduces adipose tissue cathepsin S and its circulating levels in morbidly obese women," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 1042-1047, 2006. (
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain I, calpain II, cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. (
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain 1, calpain 2 which also inhibits cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. (
  • The cathepsin assays are simple, straightforward, and can be adapted to 96-well plate assays. (
  • For instance, cathepsins have been found to degrade low-density lipoprotein (LDL-P) and reduce the effect of cholesterol leaving macrophages. (
  • Essential role for cathepsin S in MHC class II-associated invariant chain processing and peptide loading," Immunity , vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 357-366, 1996. (
  • A direct immunohistochemical method of high specificity is presented for the demonstration of sites of cathepsin B1. (
  • In this review we cover specific roles of cathepsins in innate and adaptive immunity, as well as their implication in the pathogenesis of several diseases. (
  • It is of note to mention that this review is not meant to comprehensively cover the present literature on viruses encountering cathepsins but rather illustrates, on some representative examples, the possible roles of cathepsins in replication of viruses and in the course of disease. (
  • Cathepsins are proteolytic enzymes with a broad spectrum of substrates. (
  • A synthetic peptide made to the C-terminus of mouse Cathepsin E. (
  • 2017. (
  • Overall, we define an unexpected EPO action mode via an EPOR-Spi2A serpin-cathepsin axis in maturing erythroblasts, with lysosomal cathepsins as novel therapeutic targets. (
  • Cathepsin L degrades fibronectin, insulin receptor (IR), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). (
  • Cathepsin S degrades elastin, and does not strongly attack collagen. (