An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.
A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.
An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.
An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.
A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.
A papain-like cysteine protease that has specificity for amino terminal dipeptides. The enzyme plays a role in the activation of several pro-inflammatory serine proteases by removal of their aminoterminal inhibitory dipeptides. Genetic mutations that cause loss of cathepsin C activity in humans are associated with PAPILLON-LEFEVRE DISEASE.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A lysosomal papain-related cysteine proteinase that is expressed in a broad variety of cell types.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine peptidase that exhibits carboxypeptidase activity. It is highly expressed in a variety of immune cell types and may play a role in inflammatory processes and immune responses.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A cysteine endopeptidase found in NATURAL KILLER CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES. It may have a specific function in the mechanism or regulation of cytolytic activity of immune cells.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.
A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.12.1 and EC 3.4.21.13.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.
Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and/or glycolipids in visceral and mesenchymal cells. Abnormal amounts of sphingolipids or glycolipids are present in neural tissue. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and skeletal changes, most notably dysostosis multiplex, occur frequently. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, pp36-7)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
The spontaneous disintegration of tissues or cells by the action of their own autogenous enzymes.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.
An intracellular cystatin subtype that is found in a broad variety of cell types. It is a cytosolic enzyme inhibitor that protects the cell against the proteolytic action of lysosomal enzymes such as CATHEPSINS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Low levels of cathepsin D are associated with a poor prognosis in endometrial cancer. (1/912)

Total cytosolic cathepsin D (Cat D) levels were estimated by an immunoradiometric assay in a series of 156 consecutive patients with surgical stages I-III primary endometrial adenocarcinoma. Simultaneously, the tissue content of both oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, and p185HER-2/neu, DNA content (ploidy), and the fraction of S-phase cells (S-phase) were also estimated. Tumoral Cat D content ranged from 0 to 243 pmol mg(-1) protein (median 44 pmol mg(-1) protein) and was not associated with any of the established clinicopathological and biological prognostic variables, with the exception of a weak positive correlation with the tumoral p185HER-2/neu levels. Univariable analysis performed on a subset of 97 patients, followed for a minimum of 2 years or until death, showed that patient age at diagnosis, high histological grade, advanced surgical stage, vascular invasion, positive peritoneal cytology, low levels of Cat D, negative ER and PR status, aneuploidy, and high S-phase were predictive of the presence of persistent or recurrent disease. However, multivariable analysis revealed that only histological grade, surgical stage, Cat D and PR were significantly associated with the patient's outcome. From these findings, we conclude that Cat D is an independent prognostic factor in endometrial adenocarcinoma, its low levels being associated with a worse clinical outcome.  (+info)

HaCaT human keratinocytes express IGF-II, IGFBP-6, and an acid-activated protease with activity against IGFBP-6. (2/912)

The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in skin. HaCaT human keratinocytes proliferate in response to IGFs and synthesize IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). Recently, IGFBP-6 was also identified by NH2-terminal sequencing, but it has not been identified by Western ligand blotting. In the present study, IGFBP-6 was detected in HaCaT-conditioned medium by use of immunoblotting and Western ligand blotting with 125I-labeled IGF-II. Proteolytic activity against IGFBPs, an important mechanism for regulation of their activity, was then studied. An acid-activated, cathepsin D-like protease that cleaved both IGFBP-6 and IGFBP-3 was detected. Although proteolysis did not substantially reduce the size of immunoreactive IGFBP-6, it greatly reduced the ability of IGFBP-6 to bind 125I-IGF-II as determined by Western ligand blotting and solution assay. HaCaT keratinocytes do not express IGF-I mRNA, but IGF-II mRNA and protein expression was detected. These observations suggest the possibility of an autocrine IGF-II loop that is regulated by the relative expression of IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-6, and IGFBP proteases in these keratinocytes, although demonstration of this loop requires further study.  (+info)

Time at surgery during menstrual cycle and menopause affects pS2 but not cathepsin D levels in breast cancer. (3/912)

Many studies have addressed the clinical value of pS2 as a marker of hormone responsiveness and of cathepsin D (Cath D) as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. Because pS2 and Cath D are both oestrogen induced in human breast cancer cell lines, we studied the influence of the menstrual cycle phase and menopausal status at the time of surgery on the levels of these proteins in breast cancer. A population of 1750 patients with breast cancer, including 339 women in menstrual cycle, was analysed. Tumoral Cath D and pS2 were measured by radioimmunoassay. Serum oestradiol (E2), progesterone (Pg), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels at the day of surgery were used to define the hormonal phase in premenopausal women. There was a trend towards a higher mean pS2 level in the follicular phase compared with the luteal phase (17 ng mg(-1) and 11 ng mg(-1) respectively, P = 0.09). Mean pS2 was lower in menopausal patients than in women with cycle (8 ng mg(-1) and 14 ng mg(-1) respectively, P = 0.0001). No differences in mean Cath D level were observed between the different phases of the menstrual cycle, or between pre- and post-menopausal women. In the overall population, pS2 was slightly positively associated with E2 and Pg levels and negatively associated with FSH and LH, probably reflecting the link between pS2 and menopausal status. In premenopausal women, no association was found between pS2 and E2, Pg, FSH or LH levels. There were no correlations between Cath D level and circulating hormone levels in the overall population. However, in the subgroup of premenopausal women with ER-positive (ER+) tumours, E2 was slightly associated with both pS2 and Cath D, consistent with oestrogen induction of these proteins in ER+ breast cancer cell lines. There are changes in pS2 level in breast cancer throughout the menstrual cycle and menopause. This suggests that the choice of the pS2 cut-off level should take the hormonal status at the time of surgery into account. In contrast, the level of Cath D is unrelated to the menstrual cycle and menopausal status.  (+info)

Selective perturbation of early endosome and/or trans-Golgi network pH but not lysosome pH by dose-dependent expression of influenza M2 protein. (4/912)

Many sorting stations along the biosynthetic and endocytic pathways are acidified, suggesting a role for pH regulation in protein traffic. However, the function of acidification in individual compartments has been difficult to examine because global pH perturbants affect all acidified organelles in the cell and also have numerous side effects. To circumvent this problem, we have developed a method to selectively perturb the pH of a subset of acidified compartments. We infected HeLa cells with a recombinant adenovirus encoding influenza virus M2 protein (an acid-activated ion channel that dissipates proton gradients across membranes) and measured the effects on various steps in protein transport. At low multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.), delivery of influenza hemagglutinin from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface was blocked, but there was almost no effect on the rate of recycling of internalized transferrin. At higher m.o.i., transferrin recycling was inhibited, suggesting increased accumulation of M2 in endosomes. Interestingly, even at the higher m.o.i., M2 expression had no effect on lysosome morphology or on EGF degradation, suggesting that lysosomal pH was not compromised by M2 expression. However, delivery of newly synthesized cathepsin D to lysosomes was slowed in cells expressing active M2, suggesting that acidification of the TGN and endosomes is important for efficient delivery of lysosomal hydrolases. Fluorescence labeling using a pH-sensitive dye confirmed the reversible effect of M2 on the pH of a subset of acidified compartments in the cell. The ability to dissect the role of acidification in individual steps of a complex pathway should be useful for numerous other studies on protein processing and transport.  (+info)

Acidic pH as a physiological regulator of human cathepsin L activity. (5/912)

Human cysteine protease cathepsin L was inactivated at acid pH by a first-order process. The inactivation rate decreased with increasing concentrations of a small synthetic substrate, suggesting that substrates stabilize the active conformation. The substrate-independent inactivation rate constant increased with organic solvent content of the buffer, consistent with internal hydrophobic interactions, disrupted by the organic solvent, also stabilizing the enzyme. Circular dichroism showed that the inactivation is accompanied by large structural changes, a decrease in alpha-helix content being especially pronounced. The high activation energy of the reaction at pH 3.0 (200 kJ.mol-1) supported such a major conformational change occurring. The acid inactivation of cathepsin L was irreversible, consistent with the propeptide being needed for proper folding of the enzyme. Aspartic protease cathepsin D was shown to cleave denatured, but not active cathepsin L, suggesting a potential mechanism for in-vivo regulation and turnover of cathepsin L inside lysosomes.  (+info)

Analysis of where and which types of proteinases participate in lysosomal proteinase processing using bafilomycin A1 and Helicobacter pylori Vac A toxin. (6/912)

Lysosomal proteinases are translated as preproforms, transported through the Golgi apparatus as proforms, and localized in lysosomes as mature forms. In this study, we analyzed which subclass of proteinases participates in the processing of lysosomal proteinases using Bafilomycin A1, a vacuolar ATPase inhibitor. Bafilomycin A1 raises lysosomal pH resulting in the degradation of lysosomal proteinases such as cathepsins B, D, and L. Twenty-four hours after the withdrawal of Bafilomycin A1, NIH3T3 cells possess these proteinases in amounts and activities similar to those in cells cultured in DMEM and 5% BCS. In the presence of various proteinase inhibitors, procathepsin processing is disturbed by E-64-d, resulting in abnormal processing of cathepsins D and L, but not by APMSF, Pepstatin A, or CA-074. In the presence of Helicobacter pylori Vac A toxin, which prevents vesicular transport from late endosomes to lysosomes, the processing of procathepsins B and D occurs, while that of procathepsin L does not. Thus, procathepsins B and D are converted to their mature forms in late endosomes, while procathepsin L is processed to the mature form after its arrival in lysosomes by some cysteine proteinase other than cathepsin B.  (+info)

Alternative mechanisms for trafficking of lysosomal enzymes in mannose 6-phosphate receptor-deficient mice are cell type-specific. (7/912)

Viable mice nullizygous in genes encoding the 300 kDa and the 46 kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPR 300 and MPR 46) and the insulin like growth factor II (IGF II) were generated to study the trafficking of lysosomal enzymes in the absence of MPRs. The mice have an I-cell disease-like phenotype, with increase of lysosomal enzymes in serum and normal activities in tissues. Surprisingly, the ability of MPR-deficient cells to transport newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes to lysosomes and the underlying mechanisms were found to depend on the cell type. MPR-deficient thymocytes target newly synthesized cathepsin D to lysosomes via an intracellular route. In contrast, hepatocytes and fibroblasts secrete newly synthesized cathepsin D. In fibroblasts recapture of secreted lysosomal enzymes, including that of cathepsin D, is limited and results in lysosomal storage, both in vivo and in vitro, whereas recapture by hepatocytes is remarkably effective in vivo and can result in lysosomal enzyme levels even above normal.  (+info)

Normal lysosomal morphology and function in LAMP-1-deficient mice. (8/912)

Lysosomal membranes contain two highly glycosylated proteins, designated LAMP-1 and LAMP-2, as major components. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are structurally related. To investigate the physiological role of LAMP-1, we have generated mice deficient for this protein. LAMP-1-deficient mice are viable and fertile. In LAMP-1-deficient brain, a mild regional astrogliosis and altered immunoreactivity against cathepsin-D was observed. Histological and ultrastructural analyses of all other tissues did not reveal abnormalities. Lysosomal properties, such as enzyme activities, lysosomal pH, osmotic stability, density, shape, and subcellular distribution were not changed in comparison with controls. Western blot analyses of LAMP-1-deficient and heterozygote tissues revealed an up-regulation of the LAMP-2 protein pointing to a compensatory effect of LAMP-2 in response to the LAMP-1 deficiency. The increase of LAMP-2 was neither correlated with an increase in the level of lamp-2 mRNAs nor with increased half-life time of LAMP-2. This findings suggest a translational regulation of LAMP-2 expression.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression and Refolding of Recombinant Human Fibroblast Procathepsin D. AU - Conner, Gregory E.. AU - Udey, Jenny A.. PY - 1990/1. Y1 - 1990/1. N2 - Procathepsin D is a precursor of the human lysosomal protease cathepsin D. Due to its short half-life, procathepsin D is difficult to obtain in quantities sufficient to allow structural and enzymatic studies. To obtain large quantities of this precursor, procathepsin D was expressed using the T7 promoter vector pET3a in bacteria that carry a chromosomal copy of the T7 RNA polymerase gene under the control of the lac promoter. At high cell density in rich medium, basal levels of T7 RNA polymerase were sufficient to express recombinant procathepsin D without addition of an exogenous inducer of the lac promoter. The recombinant protein, constituting almost half of the total cell protein, accumulated in intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and was isolated from the insoluble fraction of lysed cells. Antibodies prepared against the purified ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cathepsin D activity in normal and osteoarthritic human cartilage. AU - Sapolsky, A. I.. AU - Altman, R. D.. AU - Howell, D. S.. PY - 1973/12/1. Y1 - 1973/12/1. N2 - A cathepsin D type enzyme was present in 2-3 times greater amount in early osteoarthritic and discolored human articular cartilage than in apparently normal cartilage. This cathepsin D type enzyme was the predominant hemoglobin and proteoglycan digesting protease in the human articular cartilage investigated. This human cathepsin D type enzyme as well as a highly purified cathepsin D preparation from bovine uterus degraded proteoglycan subunit maximally at pH 5. Both enzyme preparations did not digest hemoglobin at pH 6-8, but degraded proteoglycan subunit considerably at neutral pH. The activity of the human cathepsin extract was not affected by reagent that inhibit or activate cathepsin A and B or diisopropylfluorophosphate, but was inhibited by chloroquine at pH 7.0. Although no neutral proteases that digest ...
Buy our Natural human Cathepsin D protein. Ab91123 is an active full length protein produced in Nativesyntheticaly and has been validated in WB, FuncS…
Apoptosis can be mediated by mechanisms other than the traditional caspase-mediated cleavage cascade. There is growing recognition that alternative proteolytic enzymes such as the lysosomal cathepsin proteases may initiate or propagate proapoptotic signals. Cathepsins are lysosomal enzymes that are also used as sensitive markers in various toxicological investigations. The Cathepsin D Activity Assay kit is a fluorescence-based assay that utilizes the preferred cathepsin D substrate sequence GKPILFFRLK(Dnp)-D-R-NH2) labeled with MCA. Cathepsin D will cleave the synthetic substrate to release the quenched fluorescent group MCA, which can then easily be measured using a fluorometer or fluorescence plate reader at Ex/Em = 328/460 nm. The relative efficacy of test inhibitors are compared to the positive control inhibitor, Pepstatin A (IC50 , 0.1 nM). The Cathepsin D assay is simple, straightforward, and can be adapted to 96-well plate assays and is suitable for high throughput screening (HTS). ...
High-quality Cathepsin D proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of Cathepsin D proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of insulin on protein degradation and lysosomal cathepsin D in perfused skeletal muscle. AU - Li, J. B.. AU - Rannels, S. R.. AU - Burkart, M. E.. AU - Jefferson, L. S.. PY - 1975/1/1. Y1 - 1975/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0016610685&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0016610685&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0016610685. VL - 34. SP - No.654. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 3. ER - ...
Mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans having about 10% of wild-type activity of the aspartyl protease cathepsin D have been isolated by screening. Mutant homozygotes have normal growth rates and no obvious morphological or developmental abnormalities. The mutant gene (cad-1) has been mapped to the right extremity of linkage group II. Heterozygous animals (cad-1/+) show intermediate enzyme levels and animals heterozygous for chromosomal deficiencies of the right extremity of linkage group II have 50% of wild-type activity. Cathepsin D purified from a mutant strain has a lower activity per unit mass of pure enzyme. These data suggest that cad-1 is a structural gene for cathepsin D. ...
Cathepsin D Substrate I - Calbiochem Useful as a substrate for the determination of cathepsin D activity. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
rat Cathepsin D/CTSD gene cDNA, cloning vector & expression plasmid, mutiple tags. Optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. Save up to 60%.
Mannose 6-phosphate receptors function can be studied in living cells by investigating alterations in processing and secretion of their ligand Cathepsin D. The assay described here is well established in the literature and comprises the metabolic labeling of newly synthesized proteins with [35S] methionine-cysteine in HeLa cells to monitor Cathepsin D processing through secretory pathway and secretion using immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE and fluorography.
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Conner, G.E. (1989). „Isolation of procathepsin D from mature cathepsin D by pepstatin affinity chromatography. Autocatalytic proteolysis of the zymogen form of the enzyme. Biochem. J. 263: 601-604. PMID 2512908 ...
Cathepsin D小鼠单克隆抗体[CTD-19](ab6313)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被13篇文献引用并得到14个独立的用户反馈。
Cathepsin D (CTSD), a major ubiquitously expressed aspartic protease, is not only involved in muscle protein degradation, but also related to some pathological processes. In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA, genomic DNA sequence, expression profile and polymorphism of the porcine CTSD gene. The full-length cDNA of porcine CTSD gene and the predicted protein sequence shared high identities wih other mammalian orthologous. Northern-blot analysis and Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR results indicated that the CTSD gene has one transcript of approximately 2.0 kb in normal tissues and was expressed ubiquitously in pigs, without significant differences in porcine heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, fat, triceps brachi, biceps femoris, and longissimus muscles. The porcine CTSD gene spans ∼ 9.0 kb including nine exons. All exon/intron boundaries adhere to the GT/AG rule. Altogether 35 nucleotide polymorphisms of CTSD gene were discovered between Duroc, Landrace, Erhualian, and ...
A novel combinatorial mutagenesis strategy (shuffle mutagenesis) was developed to identify sequences in the propiece and amino lobe of cathepsin D which direct oligosaccharide phosphorylation by UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal enzyme N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphotransferase. Propiece restriction fragments and oligonucleotide cassettes corresponding to 13 regions of the cathepsin D and glycopepsinogen amino lobes were randomly shuffled together to generate a large library of chimeric molecules. The library was inserted into an expression vector encoding the carboxyl lobe of cathepsin D with a carboxyl-terminal myc epitope and a CD8 transmembrane extension. Transfected COS1 cells expressing the membrane-anchored forms of the cathepsin D/glycopepsinogen chimeras at the cell surface were selected with solid phase mannose 6-phosphate receptor or an antibody to the myc epitope. Plasmids were rescued in Escherichia coli and sequenced by hybridization to the original oligonucleotide cassettes. Two regions of the cathepsin
This gene encodes a lysosomal aspartyl protease composed of a dimer of disulfide-linked heavy and light chains, both produced from a single protein precursor. This proteinase, which is a member of the peptidase C1 family, has a specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. Transcription of this gene is initiated from several sites, including one which is a start site for an estrogen-regulated transcript. Mutations in this gene are involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including breast cancer and possibly Alzheimer disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
The microenvironment that surrounds tumor cells is characterized by hypoxic conditions and extracellular acidity. These hostile conditions induce crucial changes in cell behavior and can promote the secretion of many soluble factors such as growth factors, cytokines and enzymes. The lysosomal aspartyl-endopeptidase cathepsin D (CD) is a marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer and is associated with a metastatic risk. In this study, the transport of CD was investigated in a model of breast cancer cells line (MCF-7) cultivated under hypoxia and acidification of media. CD secretion was assessed using Western blot analysis and protease activity was measured in conditioned culture media. We demonstrate that cultured MCF-7 cells secrete an active 52 kDa pCD precursor and report that under hypoxia there was an increased amount of pCD secreted. More surprisingly, extracellular acidification (pH 6 and 5.6) induced the secretion of the fully-mature and active (34 kDa + 14 kDa) double chain CD. Our findings
The acid-acting proteinase, cathepsin D (EC 3.4.4.23), was purified from extracts of homogenized rabbit lung and beef lung by autolysis at acid pH, acetone and ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatography, and isoelectric focusing. Four isoenzymes were obtained from each source. With acid hemoglobin as the substrate, the proteinase from rabbit lung had a pH optimum of 3.0 and that from beef lung had a pH optimum of 3.6. Their activity was not affected by thiol reagents or by Fe2+, Mn2+, or Mg2+. One isoenzyme from rabbit lung was used to immunize a goat, and one from beef lung was used to immunize a rabbit. In immunoelectrophoresis, each resulting antiserum formed a single precipitin line with its homologous enzyme. They cross-reacted with the other three isoenzymes from the same species, but not with any isoenzyme from the other species. At high concentrations, each antiserum completely inhibited the proteolytic activity of its homologous enzyme. The antiserum against rabbit lung ...
ID AEDAE_1024_PE9 STANDARD; PRT; 387 AA. AC AEDAE_1024_PE9; Q03168; Q177E0; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE RecName: Full=Lysosomal aspartic protease; EC=3.4.23 -;Flags: Precursor; DE (AEDAE_1024.PE9). GN ORFNames=AAEL006169; OS AEDES AEGYPTI. OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Arthropoda; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; Neoptera; OC Endopterygota; Diptera; Nematocera; Culicoidea; Culicidae; Culicinae; OC Culicini; Aedes. OX NCBI_TaxID=7159; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS AEDAE_1024.PE9. CC Aedes aegypti supercontig supercont1.192 AaegL1 sequence 1..1864021 CC annotated by Ensembl Genomes CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:ASPP_AEDAE CC -!- FUNCTION: May degrade organelles involved in the biosynthesis and CC secretion of vitellogenin. CC -!- SUBUNIT: Homodimer. CC -!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Lysosome. CC -!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the peptidase A1 family. CC -!- ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
1LYB: Crystal structures of native and inhibited forms of human cathepsin D: implications for lysosomal targeting and drug design.
This sequence change replaces valine with phenylalanine at codon 22 of the CTSD protein (p.Val22Phe). The valine residue is moderately conserved and there is a small physicochemical difference between valine and phenylalanine. While this variant is not present in population databases, the frequency information is unreliable, as metrics indicate poor data quality at this position in the ExAC database. This variant has not been reported in the literature in individuals with CTSD-related disease. ClinVar contains an entry for this variant (Variation ID: 409625). Algorithms developed to predict the effect of missense changes on protein structure and function do not agree on the potential impact of this missense change (SIFT: Tolerated; PolyPhen-2: Possibly Damaging; Align-GVGD: Class C0). In summary, the available evidence is currently insufficient to determine the role of this variant in disease. Therefore, it has been classified as a Variant of Uncertain Significance ...
This sequence change replaces arginine with cysteine at codon 205 of the CTSD protein (p.Arg205Cys). The arginine residue is moderately conserved and there is a large physicochemical difference between arginine and cysteine. This variant is present in population databases (rs769825646, ExAC 0.002%). This variant has not been reported in the literature in individuals with CTSD-related disease. Algorithms developed to predict the effect of missense changes on protein structure and function are either unavailable or do not agree on the potential impact of this missense change (SIFT: Deleterious; PolyPhen-2: Possibly Damaging; Align-GVGD: Class C0). In summary, the available evidence is currently insufficient to determine the role of this variant in disease. Therefore, it has been classified as a Variant of Uncertain Significance ...
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a Immunoblotting analysis of proteins in extract of humanized liver tissues that bind to biotinylated LINC01018 or a control using an anti-HuR antibody. b Left, anti-HuR immunoblotting analysis of proteins in immunoprecipitates of humanized liver tissues using an anti-HuR antibody. Right, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and LINC01018 RNA levels in immunoprecipitates of humanized liver tissues using an anti-HuR antibody. c. Expression levels of human HuR and LINC01018 target genes in the livers of control (LacZ sh, n = 5) and HuR KD (HuR sh, n = 6) humanized mice after a 24 h food withdrawal. d Gene expression in livers of humanized mice receiving both control (LacZ shRNA) and HuR KD, or LINC01018 KD and HuR KD adenoviruses (n = 7 for each group). e Gene expression in livers of wild-type mice receiving control (LacZ shRNA) or mouse HuR KD adenoviruses (n = 6 for each group). f Gene expression in livers of wild-type mice receiving control or LINC01018 overexpression (OE) ...
Rabbit polyclonal Cathepsin D antibody validated for WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication and 1 independent review…
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab6313 交差種: Hu 適用: WB…Cathepsin D抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
(A) Schematic presentation of CatD promoter region. The TATA and GC sequences are represented by square boxes, five transcription start sites are indicated by a
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
In a preceding study we have described the development of a new hydroxyethylene (HE) core motif displaying P1 aryloxymethyl and P1 methoxy substituents delivering potent BACE-1 inhibitors. In a continuation of this work we have now explored the SAR of the S1 pocket by introducing a set of P1 alkoxy groups and evaluated them as BACE-1 inhibitors. Previously the P1 and P1 positions of the classical HE template have been relatively little explored due to the complexity of the chemical routes involved in modifications at these positions. However, the chemistries developed for the current HE template renders substituents in both the P1 and P1 positions readily available for SAR exploration. The BACE-1 inhibitors prepared displayed IC50 values in the range of 4-45 nM, where the most potent compounds featured small P1 groups. The cathepsin D selectivity which was high for the smallest P1 sustituents (P1=ethoxy, fold selectively ,600) dropped for larger groups (P1=benzyloxy, fold selectivity of ...
MyBiosource snelste leverancier van Elisa kits 544-MBS013458 Human Phospho Tau Protein ELISA KIT 544-MBS018585-5X96 Human Soluble Toll-like receptor 2 544-MBS041690-96 Hamster Cathepsin D ELISA Kit 544-MBS077801-96 Hamster HtrA Serine Peptidase 1 ELISA 544-MBS089535 APLNR Elisa kit, 48T 544-MBS089535-96T APLNR Elisa kit, 96T 544-MBS1058663-0.2 Gurmarin Recombinant protein 544-MBS1127814 Holo-Acyl-carrier-protein synthase (acpS 544-MBS120301 […]. ...
Authors said: For in situ hybridization, antisense probes for cathepsin D, B, and L (Zuzarte-Luis et al.,[2007]), where they said:cCatD fwd: 5′-TTC TGC GCT TCT GCT TTA GGG-3′ and rev: 5′-TGA GTG GGT TTC TAA TCC TGA-3. The sequences presented was excerpted from the full length using these sequences ...
Background. Lysosomal enzymuria is usually considered to be a non-specific marker of renal injury, but little is known about lysosomal enzyme excretion in renal proximal tubular cell disorders such as the renal Fanconi syndrome (FS). We examined excretion of two lysosomal enzymes and the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) in patients with inherited FS.. Methods. The lysosomal enzyme cathepsin D was measured by ELISA and isolated by pepstatin-agarose affinity chromatography; N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) was assayed colorimetrically, as was the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Cathepsin D, procathepsin D and CI-MPR were also detected by western blotting. No patient had a serum creatinine concentration ,170 μmol/L. Soluble CI-MPR, isolated from fetal calf serum and bound to agarose, was used to probe cathepsin D for mannose-6-phosphate (M6P).. Results. Increased excretion of cathepsin D (mean = 44-fold) and NAG (mean = 12-fold) was found in FS patients: ...
Immunohistochemical distributions of cathepsins D and E were determined in normal mucosa, metaplastic, dysplastic, and cancerous lesions of the human stomach. Cathepsins D and E were localised in the foveolar epithelium and parietal cells of the normal gastric mucosa, but their intracytoplasmic distributions were different - cathepsin E distribution was even and diffuse in the cytoplasm while cathepsin D was found in coarse intracytoplasmic granules. Chronic inflammation and ulcer did not influence the distribution of these enzymes. No positive staining was obtained in the incomplete type of intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and well differentiated adenocarcinoma. Tumour cells of signet ring cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells, however, gave strong and diffuse stainings for cathepsins D and E in the cytoplasm. The results suggest that the distribution of cathepsins D and E is related to each specialised function of the foveolar epithelium and the parietal cells, and ...
Apoptosis was inhibited in rat cardiomyocytes pretreated with the aspartic protease inhibitor pepstatin A and subsequently exposed to naphthazarin (5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). Cathepsin D was released from lysosomes to the cytosol upon exposure to naphthazarin, and the enzyme activity decreased simultaneously. Later, cathepsin D reappeared in granules of increased size, and enzyme activity was restored. Activation of caspase-3- like proteases was detected, and the number of cells showing apoptotic morphology increased with time. Pepstatin A pretreatment did not prevent release of cathepsin D from lysosomes but did significantly inhibit subsequent naphthazarin-induced caspase activation and apoptotic morphology. This suggests that cathepsin D exerts its apoptosis-stimulating effect upstream of caspase-3-like activation. (C) 2000 Academic Press.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - New functional aspects of cathepsin D and cathepsin E. AU - Tsukuba, Takayuki. AU - Okamoto, Kuniaki. AU - Yasuda, Yoshiyuki. AU - Morikawa, Wataru. AU - Nakanishi, Hiroshi. AU - Yamamoto, Kenji. PY - 2000/12/31. Y1 - 2000/12/31. N2 - Cathepsin D (CD) and cathepsin E are representative lysosomal and nonlysosomal aspartic proteinases, respectively, and play an important role in the degradation of proteins, the generation of bioactive proteins, antigen processing, etc. Recenty, several lines of evidence have suggested the involvement of these two enzymes in the execution of neuronal death pathways induced by aging, transient forebrain ischemia, and excessive stimulation of glutamate receptors with excitotoxins. CD has also been shown to mediate apoptosis induced by various stimuli and p53-dependent tumor suppression. To gain more insight into in vivo functions of CD, mice deficient in this enzyme were generated. The mutant animals showed a progressive atrophy of the intestinal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lysosomal cathepsins in embryonic programmed cell death. AU - Zuzarte-Luis, Vanessa. AU - Montero, Juan A.. AU - Kawakami, Yasuhiko. AU - Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos. AU - Hurle, Juan M.. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - During limb development, expression of cathepsin D and B genes prefigure the pattern of interdigital apoptosis including the differences between the chick and the webbed digits of the duck. Expression of cathepsin L is associated with advanced stages of degeneration. Analysis of Gremlin-/- and Dkk-/- mouse mutants and local treatments with BMP proteins reveal that the expression of cathepsin B and D genes is regulated by BMP signaling, a pathway responsible for triggering cell death. Further cathepsin D protein is upregulated in the preapoptotic mesenchyme before being released into the cytosol, and overexpression of cathepsin D induces cell death in embryonic tissues by a mechanism including mitochondrial permeabilization and nuclear translocation of AIF. ...
The purification of cathepsin D from pig uterus by two-step affinity chromatography on concanavalin A- and pepstatin-Sepharose was described previously [Afting & Becker (1981) Biochem. J. 197, 519-522]. In this paper, chemical and physical properties of the proteinase are presented. The purified enzyme showed three bands on SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate)/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, one main band corresponding to an Mr of 31 000 and two minor bands with Mr values of 43 000 and 15 000 respectively. Gel filtration on Bio-gel P-150 and sedimentation-diffusion equilibrium studies give an Mr for the main band of about 35 000. The pI of the enzyme was determined to be 7.2. Haemoglobin was the best substrate, with a Km value of 6.4 X 10(-6)M. It was hydrolysed with a pH optimum between 3.0 and 3.3 for a substrate concentration of 100 microM. The proteinase was stable over the pH range of 3.5-6.5. At pH 6 the enzyme showed stability up to a temperature of 50 degrees C; at pH 3 the activity was ...
Calpains regulate activation of Bax and cathepsin D in vivo. (A-C) Representative images of immunofluorescence analysis of retinas after mock intravitreal injection or injection of calpastatin in P11 rd1 (A), P10 P23HTg (B), and P45 Rho−/− (C) mice. Upper parts of figure are stained with an activated Bax-specific antibody (red), and nuclei are stained in blue with DAPI. Lower parts of figure are images of calpain activity assay (blue). Vertical white lines indicate the layer of photoreceptor cells; n = 3. Scale bar for all figure parts is shown at upper left (A) and is 10 μm. (D-F) Western blotting of cathepsin D in total protein extracts from P11 rd1 (D), P10 P23HTg (E), and P45 Rho−/− (F) either mock injected or injected with calpastatin (CS). The antibody recognizes both cathepsin D (46 kDa) and activated cathepsin D (32 kDa). Normalization was performed with anti-actin antibodies (lower). Molecular weights are shown in kDa. (G) Quantification by densitometry of Western blotting ...
In contrast to the studies of breast tumor biospies, proteomic analysis starting from breast cancer cells in culture has already given significant results with the identification of proteins with clinical interest. In 1980, Westley and Rochefort identified a secreted 46-kDa glycoprotein, induced by estrogens in human breast cancer cell lines, that was identified with specific antibodies as being the protease cathepsin D (22). In 1989, a computer-based analysis of 2DE gels reported a total of eight polypeptide differences between cancerous and normal breast epithelial cells in tissue culture (23). More precise characterization of such polypeptide differences was published in the early 90s with the demonstration that normal breast epithelial cells produce keratins K5, K6, K7, and K17, whereas tumor cells produce mainly keratins K8, K18, and K19 (24). This distribution was secondarily confirmed in tumor samples (25), and cytokeratin immunodetection is now eventually used to help discriminate benign ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteolysis regulates exposure of the IIICS-1 adhesive sequence in plasma fibronectin. AU - Ugarova, Tatiana. AU - Ljubimov, Alexander V.. AU - Deng, Lynn. AU - Plow, Edward F.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - The alternatively spliced type III connecting segment (IIICS) of fibronectin (Fn) contains an amino acid sequence, CS-1, which is recognized by the integrin receptor, α4β1. Plasma Fn inhibits α4β1-dependent binding of lymphocytes and monocytes to CS-1 containing Fn derivatives poorly, suggesting limited exposure of the CS-1 sequence in Fn. To test the availability of CS-1 in plasma Fn, an antibody was raised to the synthetic peptide CS-1. The CS-1 sequence was found to be minimally exposed in plasma Fn: and immobilization of Fn, a model of matrix deposition, caused only a modest increase in its exposure. Digestion of Fn with selected proteases, however, induced substantial expression of the CS-1 sequence. The acid protease cathepsin D generated fragments of 31-33.5 kDa from ...
Diabetic (DM) patients have exacerbated atherosclerosis and high CVD burden. Changes in lipid metabolism, lipoprotein structure, and dysfunctional HDL are characteristics of diabetes. Our aim was to investigate whether serum ApoA-I, the main protein in HDL, was biochemically modified in DM patients. By using proteomic technologies, we have identified a 26 kDa ApoA-I form in serum. MS analysis revealed this 26 kDa form as a novel truncated variant lacking amino acids 1-38, ApoA-IΔ(1-38). DM patients show a 2-fold increase in ApoA-IΔ(1-38) over nondiabetic individuals. ApoA-IΔ(1-38) is found in LDL, but not in VLDL or HDL, with an increase in LDL3 and LDL4 subfractions. To identify candidate mechanisms of ApoA-I truncation, we investigated potentially involved enzymes by in silico data mining, and tested the most probable molecule in an established animal model of diabetes. We have found increased hepatic cathepsin D activity as one of the potential proteases involved in ApoA-I truncation. ...
is one of the three main causative agents of human schistosomiasis, a major health problem with a vast socio-economic impact. Recent advances in the proteomic analysis of schistosomes have revealed that peptidases are the main virulence factors involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. In this context, evolutionary studies can be applied to identify peptidase families that have been expanded in genomes over time in response to different selection pressures. Using a phylogenomic approach, we searched for expanded endopeptidase families in the S. mansoni predicted proteome with the aim of contributing to the knowledge of such enzymes as potential therapeutic targets. We found three endopeptidase families that comprise leishmanolysins (metallopeptidase M8 family), cercarial elastases (serine peptidase S1 family) and cathepsin D proteins (aspartic peptidase A1 family). Our results suggest that the Schistosoma members of these families originated from successive gene duplication events in the ...
htr1d gene expression in Bgee. Bgee allows to automatically compare gene expression patterns between species, by referencing expression data on anatomical ontologies, and designing homology relationships between them.
Benes P., Vashishta A., Saraswat-Ohri S., Fusek M., Pospisilova S., Tichy B., Vetvicka V.: Effect of procathepsin D activation peptide on gene expression of breast cancer cells. Cancer Lett., 2005, E-pub Sep 13. IF 2,9382.
The analysis demonstrates that EPI-X4 is generated from your abundant albumin precursor by aspartic proteases, such as for example Cathepsin D and E [1]. These proteases can be purchased in plasma but generally within lysosomes and in specific secretory granules of immune system cells, such as for example neutrophils or cytotoxic T GSK256066 cells. These are turned on under acidic circumstances and acidification of individual plasma was enough to create bioactive concentrations of EPI-X4. The albumin precursor is certainly loaded in the vascular and extravascular space as well as the EPI-X4 launching enzymes are ubiquitously portrayed. GSK256066 Hence, the prerequisites for the era of the endogenous CXCR4 antagonist receive just about everywhere in our body. Acidic pH circumstances are quality for inflammatory and tumor tissue, and regional acidification is rising as essential regulatory system of innate immunity [4]. Hence, EPI-X4 may be particularly generated at sites of irritation and immune ...
The Stag Arms AR10S .308 M-LOK Rifle was specifically designed for those moments where you need that extra power in close quarters, now with a light-weight ergonomic 13.5 Stag 10 or Stag 10 SL Handguard. The Stag .308 line features a Stag slant cut design and includes uniquely designed parts for the lower to guarantee the best fit between the upper and lower.
[email protected] The calendar has flipped to 2021 and the Municipal District of Taber has put forward funds to replace their old D7 dozer.. After their 1998 CAT D7 had a catastrophic engine failure resulting in a rod puncturing the side of the engine block last June, the search to find a unit commenced fairly quickly. While council had approved $750,000 in funding in mid-2020, administration was unable to find a suitable unit at the right price to replace their retired unit.. During councils regular meeting on Jan. 12, administration brought forward an RFD for a Caterpillar D6XE unit, which carried a quote of $611,000.. The M.D.s D7R removed itself from service and was sold in the 2020 season. Due to sourcing issues that replacement was not able to be found in 2020. The unit was pushed into the 2021 Capital Budget. The D6XE is a suitable replacement for the D7R. The unit must be ordered early in 2021 in order to make delivery in time for the 2021 construction season, reads ...
View Hps3/Hps3 Myo5a/Myo5a Mreg/Mreg involves: C57BL/10J: phenotypes, images, diseases, and references.
Erby Walls, who responded to the email listed on ErbyGames YouTube account, confirmed that he had uploaded the video, which he said had been viewed more than three million times. He said that hed seen people on Instagram sharing photographs of Quaden in Gucci and flashing money, which is why he made the video.. He uploaded another video on Feb. 22 stating that Quaden is aged nine and apologising. The videos been viewed 31,000 times - nearly hundred times less than the original.. False information about Quaden remains all over YouTube. While searching for Quaden returns mostly videos from traditional news sources, the most-viewed videos (shared through social media channels) skew towards misinformation. Of the top 19 videos on YouTube for Quaden Bayles, nine are about rumours - and most of those are spreading hoaxes.. And its not just limited to social media. Despite the lack of convincing evidence, the New York Post published an article titled Quaden Bayles: Internet debates whether ...
... , Histones & Cathepsin; PMAP The Proteolysis Map-animation Nature journal: recent chromatin publications and news ...
... collagenases such as cathepsin B1; and hyaluronidase. PSGAG inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which is released upon ...
Cathepsin A Breddam, K. (1986). "Serine carboxypeptidases. A review". Carlsberg Res. Commun. 51: 83-128. doi:10.1007/bf02907561 ... Miller JJ, Changaris DG, Levy RS (December 1992). "Purification, subunit structure and inhibitor profile of cathepsin A". ... Carboxypeptidase C (EC 3.4.16.5, carboxypeptidase Y, serine carboxypeptidase I, cathepsin A, lysosomal protective protein, ...
Cathepsin E. TALE homeodomain transcription factors. Hydrocortisone. Since keratinocyte differentiation inhibits keratinocyte ... "The role of cathepsin E in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes". Biological Chemistry. 392 (6): 571-85. doi:10.1515/BC. ...
Cathepsin D is involved in CLN10. DNA analysis can be used to help confirm the diagnosis of Batten disease. When the mutation ...
Miv-711 Cathepsin K inhibitor for osteoarthritis. Fast track (FDA) MALT1 "Swedish pharma firm Medivir partners Aragen Life ...
... these include cathepsin L, papain, and procaricain. It forms an alpha-helical domain that runs through the substrate-binding ...
"Cathepsins as transcriptional activators? Developmental Cell 2004, 6(5):610-1. Goulet B, and Nepveu A. "Complete and Limited ...
Lushbaugh WB, Hofbauer AF, Pittman FE (June 1985). "Entamoeba histolytica: purification of cathepsin B". Experimental ...
The protein is able to form a dimer stabilized by noncovalent forces, inhibiting papain and cathepsins L, H and B. The protein ... 1994). "Cathepsin B activity in human lung tumor cell lines: ultrastructural localization, pH sensitivity, and inhibitor status ... 1988). "Cathepsin D inactivates cysteine proteinase inhibitors, cystatins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 154 (2): 765-72. doi ... Cystatin B has been shown to interact with Cathepsin B. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000160213 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ...
These cysteine proteases include calpain, caspase, and cathepsin. These three proteins are examples of detectable signs of ...
It is an inhibitor of cathepsin K, an enzyme involved in bone resorption. The drug was developed by Merck & Co. The phase III ... Le Gall, C. L.; Bonnelye, E.; Clézardin, P. (2008). "Cathepsin K inhibitors as treatment of bone metastasis". Current Opinion ... February 2008). "The discovery of odanacatib (MK-0822), a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18 (3 ...
Shimizu, K.; Cha, J.; Stucky, G. D.; Morse, D. E. (1998). "Silicatein : Cathepsin L-like protein in sponge biosilica". ...
... α: cathepsin L-like protein in sponge biosilica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95(11), pp.6234- ... Silicateins are homologous to the cysteine protease cathepsin. In sponges, the silicatein enzymes reside in the axial filaments ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... 2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... by proteases such as cathepsins. Collagen is a component of epithelial and endothelial basement membranes. Endostatin, as a ...
Mediation by cathepsin G has been suggested. The treatment of RAS usually involves administering dexamethasone IV, with the ...
Cathepsin A is also required for normal elastin biosynthesis. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000170266 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... The elastin receptor complex includes S-Gal, neuraminidase and Cathepsin A. When elastin-derived peptides bind to the S-Gal ... cathepsin) A is required for proper elastic fiber formation and inactivation of endothelin-1". Circulation. 117 (15): 1973-81. ...
Under the direction of Joseph S. Fruton, Jones' dissertation research involved the catalytic properties of cathepsin C, a type ... She pursued these interests by studying androsterone and monopalmitin at Armour, and cathepsin C at Yale. Jones worked as ... Her doctorate was entitled: Transamidation reactions catalyzed by cathepsin C. Jones completed her studies in three years ... Transamidation Reactions Catalyzed by Cathepsin C. Yale University, 1952. Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L. ( ...
McDonald JK, Zeitman BB, Reilly TJ, Ellis S (May 1969). "New observations on the substrate specificity of cathepsin C ( ... Planta RJ, Gorter J, Gruber M (September 1964). "The catalytic properties of cathepsin C". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ... Dipeptidyl peptidase I (EC 3.4.14.1, cathepsin C, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase I, dipeptidyl transferase, dipeptide arylamidase I ... Metroione RM, Neves AG, Fruton JS (May 1966). "Purification and properties of dipeptidyl transferase (Cathepsin C)". ...
1982). "Action of rat liver cathepsin L on glucagon". Acta Biol. Med. Ger. 40 (9): 1139-43. PMID 7340337. Kaushal GP, Walker PD ...
... cathepsin G and proteinase 3. Phthalimide derivatives were seen to be inactive, while saccharin derivatives were seen to be ... cathepsin G and proteinase 3". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 3 (2): 187-193. doi:10.1016/0968-0896(95)00013-7. PMID 7796053 ...
It is cleavable by cathepsin and safe for therapy. Trastuzumab emtansine is a combination of the microtubule-formation ... "Novel Phosphate Modified Cathepsin B Linkers: Improving Aqueous Solubility and Enhancing Payload Scope of ADCs". Bioconjug Chem ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ...
Defective function of cathepsin K therefore results in failure of normal degradation of the accumulated collagen fibres in the ... Motyckova, G; Fisher, DE (2002). "Pycnodysostosis: role and regulation of cathepsin K deficiency in osteoclast function and ... is a lysosomal storage disease of the bone caused by a mutation in the gene that codes the enzyme cathepsin K. It is also known ... This gene codes for cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease that is highly expressed in osteoclasts and plays a significant ...
1990). "Generation of human endothelin by cathepsin E." FEBS Lett. 273 (1-2): 99-102. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(90)81060-2. PMID ...
... contains cathepsin B, lysozymes, chymotrypsin, neutrophil elastase and cytokines, which aid the immune system. According ... Frohlich E, Schaumburg-Lever G, Klessen C (1993). "Immunelectron microscopic localization of cathepsin B in human exocrine ...
Salahuddin, A.; Siddiqui, F. A.; Salahuddin, P. (1996). "Isolation, purification and properties of cathepsin B from buffalo ... Cathepsin purification, substrate specificity and the critical role of sulfhydryl group that was compatible with in vivo ...
Cathepsin B and L play a crucial role in arthritic cartilage degeneration. The inhibitor of cathepsin isolated from this fungus ... The fungal metabolite, aurantiamide acetate, has been isolated from Aspergillus penicillioides, as a cathepsin inhibitor. ... a Selective Cathepsin Inhibitor, Produced by Aspergillus penicillioides". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 65 (5): ...
December 2007). "DNA accelerates the inhibition of human cathepsin V by serpins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (51 ... June 2003). "Hurpin is a selective inhibitor of lysosomal cathepsin L and protects keratinocytes from ultraviolet-induced ... cathepsin G". Blood. 93 (6): 2089-2097. doi:10.1182/blood.V93.6.2089.406k10_2089_2097. PMID 10068683. Tan J, Prakash MD, ... antitrypsin to inhibit cathepsin proteases". Biochemistry. 41 (15): 4998-5004. doi:10.1021/bi0159985. PMID 11939796. Schick C, ...
BACE1, BACE2 Cathepsin D Cathepsin E Chymosin (or "rennin") Napsin-A Nepenthesin Pepsin Presenilin Renin BACE1; BACE2; CTSD; ... Eukaryotic aspartic proteases include pepsins, cathepsins, and renins. They have a two-domain structure, arising from ancestral ... Cathepsin D". In Rawlings ND, Salvesen G (eds.). Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes (Third ed.). Academic Press. pp. 54-63. doi: ...
Cathepsin A (serine protease) Cathepsin B (cysteine protease) Cathepsin C (cysteine protease) Cathepsin D (aspartyl protease) ... Cathepsin H (cysteine protease) Cathepsin K (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L1 (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L2 (or V) (cysteine ... Cathepsin S (cysteine protease) Cathepsin W (cysteine proteinase) Cathepsin Z (or X) (cysteine protease) Cathepsins are ... Cathepsin K has also been shown to play a role in arthritis. Mouse cathepsin L is homologous to human cathepsin V. Mouse ...
Rat Cathepsin S (CTSS) ELISA kit from Cusabio. Cat#: CSB-EL006204RA. US, UK & Europe Distribution. Online Order or Request ... Rat Cathepsin S (CTSS) ELISA kit , CSB-EL006204RA Cusabio Elisa Rat Cathepsin S (CTSS) ELISA kit , CSB-EL006204RA. (No reviews ... Recombinant Human Cathepsin S (CTSS) , CSB-EP006204HU , CusabioAlternative Name(s): Cathepsin S; CathepsinS; CATS_HUMAN; ... Human Cathepsin S (CTSS) ELISA Kit , CSB-E13722h , CusabioHuman Cathepsin S (CTSS) ELISA Kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice ...
Peripheral Role of Cathepsin S in Th1 Cell-Dependent Transition of Nerve Injury-Induced Acute Pain to a Chronic Pain State. ... Peripheral Role of Cathepsin S in Th1 Cell-Dependent Transition of Nerve Injury-Induced Acute Pain to a Chronic Pain State ... Peripheral Role of Cathepsin S in Th1 Cell-Dependent Transition of Nerve Injury-Induced Acute Pain to a Chronic Pain State ... Peripheral Role of Cathepsin S in Th1 Cell-Dependent Transition of Nerve Injury-Induced Acute Pain to a Chronic Pain State ...
... J Immunol. 2014 Jun 15;192(12):5671-8. doi: 10.4049/ ... Finally, we demonstrate that only through combined inhibition of cathepsins and caspase-8 could a potent induction of ... Using small interfering RNA knockdown, specific cathepsin inhibitors, and cell-free cleavage assays, we demonstrate that ... These data reveal a novel mechanism of regulation of necroptosis by cathepsins within macrophage cells. ...
Ruth, Deborah M., McMahon, Gillian and Ó Fágáin, Ciarán (2006) Peptide synthesis by recombinant Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L1. ... fasciola hepatica cathepsin L1; recombinant; enzymatic peptide synthesis; cysteine proteinase;. Subjects:. Biological Sciences ... Synthesis of the tripeptide Z-Phe-Arg-SerNH2 has been accomplished by a recombinant cysteine protease, cathepsin L1 from liver ...
2010) Antibody targeting of cathepsin S inhibits angiogenesis and synergistically enhances anti-VEGF. PLoS One, 5, Article ID ... TITLE: Antibody research targeting Cathepsin S for cancer therapy AUTHORS: Hang Fai Kwok KEYWORDS: Cathepsin S; Tumor; ... ABSTRACT: Cathepsin S is a cysteine protease highly expressed in many type of cancers including colorectal, prostate, breast, ... Immunoexpression of Cathepsin D and S100A4 Protein and Their Molecular Subtyptes in Canine Mammary Carcinomas ...
Immunohistochemical demonstration of cathepsin B (CB), cathepsin L (CL), and cathepsin D (CD) in various tissue cells. A-D, ... A, Proteolytic activity of cathep-sins B (left) and cathepsin L (right) in brain extracts from cathepsin D-deficient (−/−) and ... 1981) Cathepsin B, cathepsin H, cathepsin L. Methods Enzymol 80:535-561. ... Z-Phe-Arg-MCA used for the assay of cathepsin L is also susceptible to cathepsin B. To measure the specific activity of ...
Investigating the role of cathepsin S in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis-like lung disease. Ryan Brown, Donna Small, ... Elevated levels of the cysteine protease cathepsin S (cat S) are found in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung secretions, however, the ... Investigating the role of cathepsin S in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis-like lung disease ... Investigating the role of cathepsin S in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis-like lung disease ...
Aberrant levels of cathepsin L (Cts L), a ubiquitously expressed endosomal cysteine protease, have been implicated in many ... Aberrant levels of cathepsin L (Cts L), a ubiquitously expressed endosomal cysteine protease, have been implicated in many ... Rational design of thioamide peptides as selective inhibitors of cysteine protease cathepsin L H. A. T. Phan, S. G. ... Rational design of thioamide peptides as selective inhibitors of cysteine protease cathepsin L† ...
a href="https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm.1994.32.6.429",https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm.1994.32.6.429,/a ...
Anti-Cathepsin B Market is driven by rise in incidence rate of cancer across the globe, government funding for research in ... In humans, Cathepsin B is encoded by the CTSB gene. Anti-Cathepsin B antibody is used to treat cancers, traumatic brain ... Anti-Cathepsin B Market: Introduction. Cathepsin B belongs to a family of lysosomal cysteine proteases. It plays an important ... North America to Dominate Global Anti-Cathepsin B Market. *In terms of region, the global anti-Cathepsin B market can be split ...
Cysteine proteinase, Cysteine proteinase inhibitor, Cathepsin, Cystatin, Kinetics. in FEBS Letters. volume. 422. issue. 1. ... Two-step mechanism of inhibition of cathepsin B by cystatin C, due to the inhibitor displacing the occluding loop of the enzyme ... Stopped-flow kinetics showed that the inhibition of the lysosomal cysteine proteinase, cathepsin B, by its endogenous inhibitor ... Stopped-flow kinetics showed that the inhibition of the lysosomal cysteine proteinase, cathepsin B, by its endogenous inhibitor ...
Cathepsins B and L Differentially Regulate Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing. Donna M. Klein, Kevin M. Felsenstein and ... Cathepsins B and L Differentially Regulate Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing. Donna M. Klein, Kevin M. Felsenstein and ... Cathepsins B and L Differentially Regulate Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing. Donna M. Klein, Kevin M. Felsenstein and ... Cathepsins B and L Differentially Regulate Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Expression and Localization of Cathepsins B, D, and G in Dupuytrens Disease. ...
Cathepsin D. P07339. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. Pharmacological action?. Actions. ... Cathepsin D. Kind. protein. Organism. Humans. Protein. Name. UniProt ID. ...
Cathepsin D, but not Cathepsin L, also cleaved directly below the Ab hinge, releasing the F(ab)2. When constrained by the ... The Cathepsin L and Cathepsin D clipping motifs were related to sequences of neutral amino acids and the tertiary structure of ... ENZYMES: Cathepsin L-EC 3.4.22.15, Cathepsin D-EC 3.4.23.5. show less ... The lysosomal endopeptidases Cathepsin D and L are selective and effective proteases for the middle-down characterization of ...
... treatment of recombinant proMMP-9 with recombinant cathepsin K (CTSK) at pH 5 yielded a fragment that corresponded to the ... Drake FH, Dodds RA, James IE, Connor JR, Debouck C, Richardson S et al (1996) Cathepsin K, but not cathepsins B, L, or S, is ... Lysosomal cysteine cathepsin (LCC) is a subgroup of the family of cathepsin proteases that requires an acidic environment for ... Activators of MMP-9 include MMP-2 [14, 15], MMP-3 [14, 16], MMP-7 [17], MMP-10 [18], MMP-13 [19], cathepsin G [20] and ...
Human - Cathepsin K - Monoclonal Antibody - for Western blotting - Antigene from E. coli - Antibodies. Product filter Cathepsin ... Cathepsin K Club Cell Protein Clusterin Connective Tissue Growth Factor CXCL12 Cystatin C Decorin Endostatin ENPP1 Epidermal ...
Conformational studies of cathepsin B: interaction with specific antibodies. Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics. 1981 ...
Cathepsin B Activity Assay Kit, Fluorogenic - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information. ... Table 2: Cathepsin B activity in cell lysates. Cathepsin B activity in five human cell line lysates as measured with Cathepsin ... Cathepsin B Inhibitor, Reduction Reagent, Cathepsin B Substrate, and Calibration Standard at -20°C. Control Cathepsin B(aliquot ... Cathepsin B Inhibitor, Reduction Reagent, Cathepsin B Substrate, and Calibration Standard at -20°C. Control Cathepsin B(aliquot ...
Cathepsin S (Cat S) expression was analyzed in human colon carcinoma and normal colon tissues. In vivo effects were evaluated ... Cathepsin S (Cat S), unlike the ubiquitous cathepsin B (Cat B) and cathepsin L (Cat L), exhibits a restricted tissue expression ... cathepsins are now recognized that cysteine proteases play pivotal roles in cancer progression[20]. Of the cysteine cathepsins ... Cathepsin S (Cat S) expression was analyzed in human colon carcinoma and normal colon tissues. In vivo effects were evaluated ...
... , Cardiovascular Research, December 2008, European Society of ...
... Author: Stoeckle, Christina; Quecke, Paula; ... Cathepsin S dominates autoantigen processing in human thymic dendritic cells. DSpace Repository. Login ...
There are about 15 classes of cathepsins in humans (Cathepsin A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, L, O, S, V, W, and Z). ... Cathepsins are vital for digestion, coagulation, immune response, adipogenesis, hormone liberation, peptide synthesis, among a ... Cathepsins are proteases with serine, cysteine, or aspartic acid residues as the nucleophiles. ... Cathepsin X-IN-1 Inhibitor 98.81% Cathepsin X-IN-1 (compound 25) 是一种有效的 组织蛋白酶 X 抑制剂,IC50 为 7.13 µM。Cathepsin X-IN-1 降低 PC-3 细胞迁 ...
There are about 15 classes of cathepsins in humans (Cathepsin A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, L, O, S, V, W, and Z). All the ... Cathepsins are vital for digestion, coagulation, immune response, adipogenesis, hormone liberation, peptide synthesis, among a ... cathepsins share the same structural scaffold, also called the papain-like fold, which consists of two subdomains, referred to ... Cathepsins are protease that can be serine protease, cysteine protease, or aspartyl protease. ...
Cathepsin D as a marker for breast cancer. Present data are insufficient to recommend the use of cathepsin D measurements for ... Cathepsin D as a marker for breast cancer. Present data are insufficient to recommend the use of cathepsin D measurements for ...
CTSA: cathepsin A. *CTSD: cathepsin D. *CUBN: cubilin. *CUL3: cullin 3. *CUL7: cullin 7 ...
... a lysosomal protease and a member of the cysteine cathepsin protease family, is linked to the pathogenesis of multiple diseases ... Dysregulated expression and activity of cathepsin S (CTSS), ... Plasma Cathepsin S and Cathepsin S/cystatin C ratios are ... CTSS is one of 11 cysteine cathepsin proteases, which is the largest cathepsin subclass. Cathepsins B, C, F, H, L, O, and X are ... Cathepsins in human obesity: changes in energy balance predominantly affect cathepsin s in adipose tissue and in circulation. J ...
SKU: 3113-v Category: Cathepsin and Thiol Protease Substrates Tags: Cathepsin H, substrate ...
A functional role for cathepsin B was confirmed by the ability of CA074, a cell impermeable and highly selective cathepsin B ... Here we explored a role for active cathepsin B on the cell surface in the invasiveness of IBC. We examined expression of the ... Our study is the first to show that the proteolytic activity of cathepsin B and its co-expression with caveolin-1 contributes ... A statistically significant co-expression of cathepsin B and caveolin-1 was found in IBC patient biopsies, thus validating our ...
  • Five cyclic peptides show inhibitory activity towards human cathepsins L, B, H, and K. Several inhibitors have reached clinical trials, targeting cathepsins K and S as promising therapeutics for osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and chronic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using small interfering RNA knockdown, specific cathepsin inhibitors, and cell-free cleavage assays, we demonstrate that cysteine cathepsins B and S can directly cleave Rip1. (nih.gov)
  • However, there are currently no clinically approved specific inhibitors of Cts L, as it is often challenging to obtain specificity against the many highly homologous cathepsin family cysteine proteases. (rsc.org)
  • In July 2014, a clinical stage pharmaceutical company, Virobay, Inc., developed a platform of Cathepsin protease inhibitors for the treatment of neuropathic pain, autoimmune disease and fibrosis. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The Calbiochem ® Cathepsin B Activity Assay Kit, Fluorogenic is designed to measure cathepsin B activity in tissues extracts and cell lysates, and for screening cathepsin B inhibitors. (emdmillipore.com)
  • TY-1 domains are conserved in a number of species, and multiple proteins with TY-1 domains function as cathepsin family protease inhibitors [ 17 ], (Table S 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • By screening a combinatorial pentapeptide amide collection in an inhibition assay, we systematically evaluated the potential of 19 proteinogenic amino acids and seven nonproteinogenic amino acids to serve as building blocks for inhibitors of human cathepsin L. Particularly efficient were aromatic, bulky, hydrophobic amino-acid residues, especially leucine, and positively charged residues, especially arginine. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • This random approach for the design of inhibitors was introduced to compensate for the inaccuracy induced by shifted docking of combinatorial compound collections at the active center of cathepsin L. Thereby, we obtained structurally defined pentapeptide amides which inhibited human cathepsin L at nanomolar concentrations. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Among the most potent novel inhibitors, one peptide, RKLLW-NH2, shares the amphiphilic character of the nonamer fragment VMNGLQNRK of the autoinhibitory, substrate-like, but reverse-binding prosegment of human cathepsin L which blocks the active center of the enzyme. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Highly potent inhibitors of human cathepsin L identified by screening combinatorial pentapeptide amide collections", EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY , vol. 267, 2000, pp. 5085-5092. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • In a search for selective cathepsin L inhibitors as anticancer agents, a series of 2-cyanoprrolidine peptidomimetics, carrying a nitrile group as warhead, were designed. (canada.ca)
  • 100 muM for cathepsin B). This compound could act as a new lead for the further development of improved inhibitors within this inhibitor type. (canada.ca)
  • 2)], and [Kier Chi 4 (path) index (Subs.4)] descriptors for the activity of Cathepsin S inhibitors. (ijpsr.com)
  • This study will be effective in the design of novel and more potent Cathepsin S inhibitors. (ijpsr.com)
  • Active human cathepsin S is useful for the study of enzyme kinetics, screening inhibitors, and selectivity profiling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Active human cathepsin S has also been used in a study to investigate the optimization of selectivity of Azepanone-based inhibitors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Inflammasome activation was confirmed using inhibitors of cathepsin B and Caspase-1. (cdc.gov)
  • Exploring the general role of cathepsins and their inhibitors in physiological and pathological conditions and in particular in cancer. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Therapeutic application: use of cathepsins inhibitors or other antagonistic molecules in preventing cell invasion and tumor metastasis. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Cathepsins and their inhibitors as tumor markers in head and neck cancer. (onko-i.si)
  • Identification and pre-clinical testing of a reversible cathepsin protease inhibitor reveals anti-tumor efficacy in a pancreatic cancer model. (athensresearch.com)
  • Multiple proteins with TY-1 domains are known to inhibit cathepsin-L (CTSL), a cysteine protease that promotes tumor cell invasion and metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a thiol protease, cathepsin B / CPSB is believed to participate in intracellular degradation and turnover of proteins and has also been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. (biovisi.com)
  • Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6-activated NF-κB signaling induces the initialization of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), which is a key transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis and stimulates the expression of various osteoclast-specific genes, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), cathepsin K (Ctsk) and calcitonin receptor ( 2 , 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that cathepsin-activatable chemokines are compatible with both fluorescent and therapeutic cargos, opening new avenues in the design of targeted theranostic probes for immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Expression array and real time PCR analysis demonstrated increased expression of the cell cycle inhibitory factor p16 and the apoptotic factor Cathepsin D in all of the tumor cell strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies of lysosomal enzymes, cathepsins, in human tumors and tumor cells in culture. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Prognostic application: Possible clinical application of cathepsins as tumor and/or metastasis markers in diagnosis, prognosis and/or as indicators of therapy (of breast carcinoma, lung cancer, brain tumors). (hu-berlin.de)
  • Cathepsin B may function as a beta-secretase 1, cleaving amyloid precursor protein to produce amyloid beta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoclasts are the bone resorbing cells of the body, and they secrete cathepsin K in order to break down collagen, the major component of the non-mineral protein matrix of the bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we explore the proteases Cathepsins L and D for forming protein fragments from three IgG1s, one IgG2, and one bispecific, knob-and-hole IgG1. (uu.nl)
  • Lysosomal cysteine cathepsin (LCC) is a subgroup of the family of cathepsin proteases that requires an acidic environment for optimal activation, and is found mainly in the acidic lysosomes where they participate in protein turnover and degradation of internalized ECM [ 25 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cathepsin E Protein, Human (HEK293, His) is an approximately 46.0 kDa mouse cathepsin Dwith a His tag. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Cathepsin S Protein, Human (HEK293, His) is potent cysteine protease which can promote degradation of damaged or unwanted proteins in the endo-lysosomal pathway. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Cathepsin A Protein, Human (HEK293, His, solution) is a 58-60 kDa human cathepsin A protein with a His-flag. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Cathepsin L1 Protein, Human (HEK293, His) is a major cysteine protease that plays a major role in intracellular protein catabolism. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Cathepsin D Protein, Human (HEK293, His) is an approximately 50.0 kDa cathepsin D protein with a His-flag. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Cathepsin B (Ctsb), phospho-inhibitor kappa B (P-IκB), TNF-α protein expressions in liver tissue were assayed with western-blot. (jcimjournal.com)
  • Downregulation of caveolin-1, the structural protein of caveolae, reduces the cell surface association of cathepsin B and decreases degradation of type IV collagen and invasion by the colon cancer cells, consistent with a functional role for caveolae-associated cathepsin B in invasion [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A comparative structure model of splice variant 2 was computed based on its alignment to the known structure of cathepsin E intermediate (Protein Data Bank code 1TZS) and used to rationalize its conformational properties and loss of activity. (cusabio.com)
  • See the reference protein sequence for cathepsin E precursor (NP_001120469.1). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Cathepsin B (CTSB) also known as APP secretase (APPS) and CPSB, is an enzymatic protein belonging to the peptidase C1 family. (biovisi.com)
  • During differentiation, L6 rat myoblasts demonstrated a fusion-related increase in activity associated with the 25/26-kDa, fully processed, active form of cathepsin B. Immunocytochemical studies demonstrated a redistribution of lysosomal cathepsin B protein toward the membrane of fusing myoblasts, and a colocalization of cathepsin B with caveolin-3, the muscle-specific structural protein of membrane caveolae. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Global analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicated that treatment with pycnogenol induces upregulation of four proteins, whose identities were revealed by mass spectrometry as cathepsin D, keratinocyte lipid-binding protein, proteasome subunit alpha type 1, and annexin IV. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • The cysteine protease cathepsin B is a potential medication target for reducing mind amyloid- peptides (A) and improving memory in Alzheimers disease (AD), because reduced amount of cathepsin B in transgenic mice expressing human being wild-type amyloid- protein precursor (APP) leads to significantly decreased mind A. both which communicate the human being wild-type -secretase site series. (globaltechbiz.com)
  • These cathepsins cleave Bcl-2 interacting protein Bid, and degrade the anti-apoptotic members Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, thereby triggering a mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. (najms.com)
  • Cathepsins also regulate fibroblast trans-differentiation and further affect collagen or other matrix protein synthesis during post-MI extracellular matrix remodeling. (najms.com)
  • Finally, we show that the D614G mutation in SARS-2-S increases S protein stability and expression at 37°C, and promotes virus entry via cathepsin B/L activation. (biorxiv.org)
  • Western blotting showed increased Cox-2, Cyclin E, KLF4 and c-myc proteins and decreased expression of Cathepsin D. In addition, the KLF4 protein was higher in the chemically-induced cell strains compared to the spontaneously-occurring cell strains while COX-2 was higher in the spontaneously-occurring cell strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Utility of a protein fraction with cathepsin L-like activity purified from cysticercus fluid of Taenia solium in the diagnosis of human cysticercosis. (ajtmh.org)
  • ABSTRACT: Cathepsin S is a cysteine protease highly expressed in many type of cancers including colorectal, prostate, breast, and glioblastoma's. (scirp.org)
  • article{d5c1ff8e-0690-4d5e-85b5-097b38cc0bdd, abstract = {{Stopped-flow kinetics showed that the inhibition of the lysosomal cysteine proteinase, cathepsin B, by its endogenous inhibitor, cystatin C, occurs by a two-step mechanism, in which an initial, weak interaction is followed by a conformational change. (lu.se)
  • abstract = "The ability of human neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G to activate matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3 = stromelysin) and MMP-2 ('gelatinase') purified from human rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts in culture was examined. (elsevier.com)
  • Cathepsins are protease that can be serine protease, cysteine protease, or aspartyl protease. (medchemexpress.com)
  • We examined expression of the cysteine protease cathepsin B and the serine protease urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), its receptor uPAR and caveolin-1 in two IBC cell lines: SUM149 and SUM190. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, the multibasic cleavage site increased entry speed and plasma membrane serine protease usage relative to endosomal entry using cathepsins. (biorxiv.org)
  • Cathepsin K, among other cathepsins, plays a role in cancer metastasis through the degradation of the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings support the concept that cathepsin L, in concert with other proteolytic enzymes involved in bone remodelling processes, may contribute to facilitate bone metastasis formation. (unipa.it)
  • Hispolon suppresses metastasis via autophagic degradation of cathepsin S in cervical cancer cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • 25-fold specificity against the other cathepsins. (rsc.org)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Cathepsin L (CTSL). (biomatik.com)
  • Cathepsins B and L are involved in matrix degradation and cell invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin B, a cysteine proteinase, is located in lysosomes and is involved in tissue degradation and restructuring. (athensresearch.com)
  • Cathepsin S (CTSS), a lysosomal cysteine protease, plays an important role in inflammation, and it has been reported that it is also associated with angiogenesis and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation promoting cell migration and invasion. (esmo.org)
  • Unlike some of the other cathepsins, cathepsin D has some protease activity at neutral pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Magic Red Cathepsin K Kit uses a quick and easy method to analyze intracellular cathepsin K protease activity in whole living cells. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Cathepsin Magic Red Kits measure cathepsin K protease activity by detecting active cathepsins in whole, living cells. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • CTS protease activity also measured by zymograph electrophoresis of Cathepsins. (biovisi.com)
  • Viral entry also depends on cathepsin B/L activity and protease activity of TMPRSS2. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • 2010) Antibody targeting of cathepsin S inhibits angiogenesis and synergistically enhances anti-VEGF. (scirp.org)
  • In recent years, antibody research specifically targeting Cathepsin S to block/inhibit tumorigenic effects were generated some positive preclinical data. (scirp.org)
  • This mini-review provides an overview of therapeutic antibody targeting Cathepsin S strategies in the last half decade, focusing on the rationale of cell-surface Cathepsin S targeted and their potential clinical application. (scirp.org)
  • Anti-Cathepsin B antibody is used to treat cancers, traumatic brain injuries, Ebola infection, and fertility issues. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Rabbit anti Cathepsin H antibody recognizes pro-cathepsin H, also known as CTSH and CPSB. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Projected confocal z-stack of mouse cortex from wild-type (left) or an amyloid mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (right) using Cathepsin D (E179) Antibody (green). (cellsignal.com)
  • Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of mouse liver (left) and kidney (right) using Cathepsin D (E179) Antibody (green). (cellsignal.com)
  • Synthesis of the tripeptide Z-Phe-Arg-SerNH2 has been accomplished by a recombinant cysteine protease, cathepsin L1 from liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica), using Z-Phe-Arg-OMe as acyl acceptor and SerNH2 as nucleophile in 0.1 M ammonium acetate pH 9.0-12.5% v/v acetonitrile at 37 °C. LC-MS detection indicated tripeptide formation after 10 min, continuing up to 5.5 h. (dcu.ie)
  • Also, treatment of recombinant proMMP-9 with recombinant cathepsin K (CTSK) at pH 5 yielded a fragment that corresponded to the molecular weight of active MMP-9, and showed MMP-9 activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Crystal structures of recombinant rat cathepsin B and a cathepsin B-inhibitor complex. (canada.ca)
  • No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Cathepsin L (CTSL) and analogues was observed. (biomatik.com)
  • In murine testes, only Sertoli cells express the cathepsin L (Ctsl) gene, and this expression is restricted to stages V-VIII of the cycle. (elsevier.com)
  • Aberrant levels of cathepsin L (Cts L), a ubiquitously expressed endosomal cysteine protease, have been implicated in many diseases such as cancer and diabetes. (rsc.org)
  • Both cell lines expressed comparable levels of cathepsin B and uPA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The presence of this loop, which allows the enzyme to function as an exopeptidase, thus complicates the inhibition mechanism, rendering cathepsin B much less susceptible than other cysteine. (lu.se)
  • Cathepsin A is a multicatalytic enzyme with carboxypeptidase activities. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Severe positive selection was also observed in cathepsin V (L2) of primates, indicating that this enzyme had some special functions. (ijbs.com)
  • Cathepsin L superfamily is a multifunctional cysteine protease enzyme and widely distributed in most animals. (ijbs.com)
  • Cathepsin S enzyme has been considered as an evolving target for the development of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of numerous autoimmune disorders and other inflammatory diseases. (ijpsr.com)
  • The structure of the mature enzyme domain within procathepsin K is virtually identical to that of mature cathepsin K. The fold of the propeptide of procathepsin K is similar to that observed in procathepsins B and L despite differences in length and sequence. (rcsb.org)
  • A portion of the propeptide occupies the active site cleft of cathepsin K. Hydrophobic interactions, salt bridges, and hydrogen-bonding interactions are observed in the structure of the propeptide and between the propeptide and the mature enzyme of procathepsin K. These interactions suggest an explanation for the stability of the proenzyme. (rcsb.org)
  • Specifically, cathepsin B is believed to be involved in the intracellular digestion of extracellular proteins taken up by endocytosis. (athensresearch.com)
  • Rodents contain 10 cysteine cathepsins and carry additional genes that express other cathepsins and cathepsin-like proteins [ 10 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Cathepsin L is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase primarily devoted to the metabolic turnover of intracellular proteins. (unipa.it)
  • Using mass spectrometry analysis of cells treated with a pan cathepsin inhibitor, we observed an increased abundance of proteins involved in central carbon metabolism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Rat Cathepsin S (CTSS) ELISA kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest delivery. (joplink.net)
  • CusabioHuman Cathepsin S (CTSS) ELISA Kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest delivery.Online Order Payment is possible or send. (joplink.net)
  • Dysregulated expression and activity of cathepsin S (CTSS), a lysosomal protease and a member of the cysteine cathepsin protease family, is linked to the pathogenesis of multiple diseases, including a number of conditions affecting the lungs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we will focus on one cysteine protease in particular, cathepsin S (CTSS), and outline the research supporting its growing importance in pulmonary diseases and the potential of targeting of CTSS as a therapeutic option. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CTSS is one of 11 cysteine cathepsin proteases, which is the largest cathepsin subclass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cathepsin S, Ctss, Cats. (angioproteomie.com)
  • Cathepsin S (gene symbol: CTSS), non-glycosylated cysteine proteinases belong to clan C1 (Papain family) 7, 8 . (ijpsr.com)
  • CusabioRat Cathepsin L1 (CTSL1) ELISA kit is Available at Gentaur Genprice with the fastest delivery.Online Order Payment is possible or send. (joplink.net)
  • A functional role for cathepsin B was confirmed by the ability of CA074, a cell impermeable and highly selective cathepsin B inhibitor, to significantly reduce pericellular proteolysis and invasion by SUM149 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our studies underscore the intriguing possibility that histone proteolysis, brought about by Cathepsin L and potentially other family members, plays a role in development and differentiation that was not previously recognized. (uky.edu)
  • The zymogen of MMP-3 (proMMP-3) was activated to full activity with elastase and cathepsin G by limited proteolysis of the molecule into two active forms of M r ∼ 45000 and M r ∼ 25000. (elsevier.com)
  • SMC stimulated with the atheroma-associated cytokines IL-1beta or IFN-gamma secreted active cathepsin S and degraded substantial insoluble elastin (15-20 microg/10(6) cells/24 h). (harvard.edu)
  • Here we explored a role for active cathepsin B on the cell surface in the invasiveness of IBC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We observed that uPA, uPAR and enzymatically active cathepsin B were colocalized in caveolae fractions isolated from SUM149 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and (2) that active cathepsin B is secreted from fusing myoblasts at physiological pH. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Finally, areal-timea activity assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated that active cathepsin B is secreted from fusing myoblasts at physiological pH. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Collectively, these studies support an association of active cathepsin B with plasma membrane caveolae and the secretion of active cathepsin B from differentiating myoblasts during myoblast fusion. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Cathepsin K is the most potent mammalian collagenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, we demonstrate that only through combined inhibition of cathepsins and caspase-8 could a potent induction of macrophage necroptosis be achieved. (nih.gov)
  • This study examined the expression of the potent elastases cathepsins S and K in human atheroma. (harvard.edu)
  • BACKGROUND-: Cathepsin K (catK), a lysosomal cysteine protease, was identified in a gene-profiling experiment that compared human early plaques, advanced stable plaques, and advanced atherosclerotic plaques containing a thrombus, where it was highly upregulated in advanced stable plaques. (elsevier.com)
  • Positive selection was the specific cause of differentiation of cathepsin L family genes, confirming that gene function variation after expansion events was related to interactions with the environment and adaptability. (ijbs.com)
  • Our in vitro studies support a functional link between the induction of cathepsin B gene expression and the catabolic restructuring associated with myotube formation during myogenesis in vivo. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Visone, T, Charron, M & Wright, WW 2009, ' Activation and repression domains within the promoter of the rat cathepsin L gene orchestrate sertoli cell-specific and stage-specific gene transcription in transgenic mice ', Biology of reproduction , vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 571-579. (elsevier.com)
  • Identification of novel mutation in cathepsin C gene causing Papillon-Lefèvre Syndrome in Mexican patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Cathepsin C gene variants in aggressive periodontitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Activation of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (stromelysin) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 ('gelatinase') by human neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (elsevier.com)
  • Cathepsin D is a representative lysosomal aspartic proteinases and belongs to the peptidase C1 family. (medchemexpress.com)
  • The presence of cathepsins K and S at sites of vascular matrix remodeling and the ability of SMC and macrophages to use these enzymes to degrade elastin supports a role for elastolytic cathepsins in vessel wall remodeling and identifies novel therapeutic targets in regulating plaque stability. (harvard.edu)
  • Instead, their methodology is based on a cell-permeable and non-cytotoxic reagent which is cleaved in the presence of cathepsins to produce a fluorescent product. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Cathepsin E (CtsE) is an important intermediate for antigen presentation and chemotaxis, but its role in the pathogenesis of FAP disease remains unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two recent studies identified numerous multinucleated osteoclast-like cells expressing osteoclast phenotypic markers such as cathepsin K, CD51, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) within tophi and at the interface between bone and soft tissue [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The expression of cathepsin K in cultured endothelial cells is regulated by shear stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • IBC patient biopsies were examined for expression of cathepsin B and caveolin-1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A statistically significant co-expression of cathepsin B and caveolin-1 was found in IBC patient biopsies, thus validating our in vitro data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • High Expression of Cathepsin E is associated with Tissues but Not Blood of Patients with Barrett's Esophagus and Adenocarcinoma. (cusabio.com)
  • Normal arteries contained little or no cathepsin K or S. In contrast, macrophages in atheroma contained abundant immunoreactive cathepsins K and S. Intimal smooth muscle cells (SMC), especially cells appearing to traverse the internal elastic laminae, also contained these enzymes. (harvard.edu)
  • ENZYMES: Cathepsin L-EC 3.4.22.15, Cathepsin D-EC 3.4.23.5. (uu.nl)
  • Cathepsins are protease enzymes, categorized into multiple families. (medchemexpress.cn)
  • As multifunctional enzymes, cysteine cathepsins widely exist particularly in lysosomes. (ijbs.com)
  • Metastatic carcinomas often express proteolytic enzymes including the cysteine protease cathepsin B (Demchik, L. L. (justia.com)
  • Cathepsin B has also been implicated in the progression of various human tumors including ovarian cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of cathepsin B has been associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma and other tumors. (biovisi.com)
  • Decreased activity of cathepsin E produced by decidual macrophages might be responsible for the induction of miscarriages in some recurrent miscarriage patients. (cusabio.com)
  • Monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils are recruited to the site of infarction, where they also release lysosomal cathepsins as inflammatory mediators to regulate post-MI inflammatory responses. (najms.com)
  • MSU crystals in the presence of RANKL augmented osteoclast differentiation, with enhanced mRNA expression of NFATc1, cathepsin K, carbonic anhydrase II, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), in comparison to RAW 264.7 macrophages incubated in the presence of RANKL alone. (hindawi.com)
  • CCR2) and the activity of cysteine cathepsins in TAMs to target these cells selectively over other macrophages and immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, T cells, B cells). (ed.ac.uk)
  • Stopped-flow kinetics showed that the inhibition of the lysosomal cysteine proteinase, cathepsin B, by its endogenous inhibitor, cystatin C, occurs by a two-step mechanism, in which an initial, weak interaction is followed by a conformational change. (lu.se)
  • Lysosomes are vulnerable organelles to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-induced injuries, with the potential to initiate and or facilitate apoptosis subsequent to release of proteases such as cathepsin D (CD) into the cytosol. (usg.edu)
  • Cathepsin E, mitochondrial fission, and caspase activation/apoptosis are linked in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. (cusabio.com)
  • The cathepsin A activity in lysates of metastatic lesions of malignant melanoma is significantly higher than in primary focus lysates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cultured human SMC displayed no immunoreactive cathepsins K and S and exhibited little or no elastolytic activity when incubated with insoluble elastin. (harvard.edu)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Effect of some pesticides/weedicides on cathepsin B activity and lysosomal membrane. (who.int)
  • Mittal S, Raghav N, Pal S, Kamboj RC, Singh H. Effect of some pesticides/weedicides on cathepsin B activity and lysosomal membrane. (who.int)
  • Our study is the first to show that the proteolytic activity of cathepsin B and its co-expression with caveolin-1 contributes to the aggressiveness of IBC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The optimal activity of cathepsins requires acidic pH. (ijpsr.com)
  • Here we report that loss of cathepsin L (Cts L) is associated with a fast proliferation rate and enhanced glycolytic metabolism that depend on lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In transgenic Advertisement mice, dental E64d administration improved storage deficits and decreased human brain A(40) and A(42), amyloid plaque, human brain CTF, and human brain cathepsin B activity but elevated human brain BACE1 activity. (globaltechbiz.com)
  • We conclude that E64d most likely reduces human 1432660-47-3 IC50 brain A by inhibiting cathepsin B rather than BACE1 -secretase activity which E64d as a result may have prospect of treating AD sufferers. (globaltechbiz.com)
  • Mouth E64d administration to either model triggered a big dose-dependent decrease in human brain A, CTF and cathepsin B activity, but elevated sAPP and BACE1 activity in accordance with controls. (globaltechbiz.com)
  • Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Alter Cathepsin Activity In vitro. (tarleton.edu)
  • Anti-Cathepsin B antibodies are available from several suppliers. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • These anti-Cathepsin B antibodies are used for ELISA, western blotting, flow cytometry, and other screening purposes. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Rabbit Cathepsin Antibodies in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (iowaodes.com)
  • The genetic knockout for cathepsin S and K in mice with atherosclerosis was shown to reduce the size of atherosclerotic lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse cathepsin L is homologous to human cathepsin V. Mouse cathepsin L has been shown to play a role in adipogenesis and glucose intolerance in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin L-deficient mice were shown to have less adipose tissue, lower serum glucose and insulin levels, more insulin receptor subunits, more glucose transporter (GLUT4) and more fibronectin than wild type controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin D-deficient (CD−/−) mice have been shown to manifest seizures and become blind near the terminal stage [approximately postnatal day (P) 26]. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cathepsin L in zebrafish, cathepsins S and K in xenopus, and cathepsin L in mice and rats underwent evident tandem-repeat events. (ijbs.com)
  • Positive selection was detected in cathepsin L-like members in mice and rats, and amino acid sites under positive selection pressure were calculated. (ijbs.com)
  • These data reveal a novel mechanism of regulation of necroptosis by cathepsins within macrophage cells. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsins also contribute to monocyte and macrophage differentiation and migration. (najms.com)
  • Research from her group has discovered that Cathepsin S transcriptionally regulates CCL2, promoting macrophage recruitment to colorectal tumours, while evaluation of ER+ breast cancers has identified elevated Cathepsin V expression is associated with reduced survival. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Stroke Traumatic brain injury Alzheimer's disease Arthritis Ebola, Cathepsin B and to a lesser extent cathepsin L have been found to be necessary for the virus to enter host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Irreversible, non-toxic, cell-permeable inhibitor of cysteine proteases calpain, cathepsins B and L, and Trypanosome trypanopain . (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Calpeptin is a cell-permeable inhibitor of a group of proteases, including calpain I, calpain II, cathepsin L, and cathepsin K. (news-medical.net)
  • There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone resorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin K is involved in osteoporosis, a disease in which a decrease in bone density causes an increased risk for fracture. (wikipedia.org)
  • In support of this hypothesis, recent studies indicate that cathepsin L may foster this process by triggering multiple mechanisms which, in part, differ from those of the major cysteine proteinase of osteoclast, namely cathepsin K. Therefore, cathepsin L may be regarded as an additional target in the treatment of patients with metastatic bone disease. (unipa.it)
  • Cathepsin K is a cysteine protease present in human osteoclasts that plays an important role in bone resorption. (rcsb.org)
  • Autoproteolytic processing of the N-terminal 99 amino acid propeptide produces the active, mature form of cathepsin K. It is presumed that the activation of procathepsin K in vivo occurs in the bone resorption pit, which has a low-pH environment. (rcsb.org)
  • The structure suggests a mechanistic relationship to the papain/cathepsin proteases and should facilitate the design of new antiinfective agents. (rcsb.org)
  • Cathepsins have been found to have important physiological roles. (canada.ca)
  • of human brain BACE1 and cathepsin B -secretase inhibition in reducing human brain A with a cathepsin B inhibitor. (globaltechbiz.com)
  • Active human cathepsin S has been used in a study to assess the pathogenesis of Alzheimer′s disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The Magic Red reagent contains a cathepsin K target sequence peptide (LR) 2 linked to a red (Cresyl Violet) fluorescent probe. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Human cathepsin S (GenBank Accession No. NM_004079.3), CD33 signal peptide(amino acids 1-16) + cathepsin S (amino acids 17-331), with C-terminal HIS tag, MW = 37 kDa, expressed in FreeStyle 293-F cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)