A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.
An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).
A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.
A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.
An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.
A papain-like cysteine protease that has specificity for amino terminal dipeptides. The enzyme plays a role in the activation of several pro-inflammatory serine proteases by removal of their aminoterminal inhibitory dipeptides. Genetic mutations that cause loss of cathepsin C activity in humans are associated with PAPILLON-LEFEVRE DISEASE.
A lysosomal papain-related cysteine proteinase that is expressed in a broad variety of cell types.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine peptidase that exhibits carboxypeptidase activity. It is highly expressed in a variety of immune cell types and may play a role in inflammatory processes and immune responses.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A cysteine endopeptidase found in NATURAL KILLER CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES. It may have a specific function in the mechanism or regulation of cytolytic activity of immune cells.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.12.1 and EC 3.4.21.13.
N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.
A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Diazomethane is an extremely hazardous and unstable organic compound, (CH2)N=N=O, with a methane substituted diazo group, that is highly explosive when heated, shocked or contaminated, and used as a powerful methylating agent in chemical syntheses, but its production and handling require special expertise and equipment due to the high risks involved.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.
An intracellular cystatin subtype that is found in a broad variety of cell types. It is a cytosolic enzyme inhibitor that protects the cell against the proteolytic action of lysosomal enzymes such as CATHEPSINS.
A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
A cytastin subtype found at high levels in the SKIN and in BLOOD CELLS. Cystatin A incorporates into the cornified cell envelope of stratified squamous epithelial cells and may play a role in bacteriostatic properties of skin.
A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 3.4.21.37.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Rare, autosomal recessive disorder occurring between the first and fifth years of life. It is characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma with periodontitis followed by the premature shedding of both deciduous and permanent teeth. Mutations in the gene for CATHEPSIN C have been associated with this disease.
An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An enzyme substrate which permits the measurement of peptide hydrolase activity, e.g. trypsin and thrombin. The enzymes liberate 2-naphthylamine, which is measured by colorimetric procedures.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A subclass of exopeptidases that includes enzymes which cleave either two or three AMINO ACIDS from the end of a peptide chain.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.

Re-entering the translocon from the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum. Studies on mutated carboxypeptidase yscY species. (1/315)

Misfolded or unassembled secretory proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequently degraded by the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system. This requires their retrograde transport from the ER lumen into the cytosol, which is mediated by the Sec61 translocon. It had remained a mystery whether ER-localised soluble proteins are at all capable of re-entering the Sec61 channel de novo or whether a permanent contact of the imported protein with the translocon is a prerequisite for retrograde transport. In this study we analysed two new variants of the mutated yeast carboxypeptidase yscY, CPY*: a carboxy-terminal fusion protein of CPY* and pig liver esterase and a CPY* species carrying an additional glycosylation site at its carboxy-terminus. With these constructs it can be demonstrated that the newly synthesised CPY* chain is not retained in the translocation channel but reaches its ER lumenal side completely. Our data indicate that the Sec61 channel provides the essential pore for protein transport through the ER membrane in either direction; persistent contact with the translocon after import seems not to be required for retrograde transport.  (+info)

The protein disulphide-isomerase family: unravelling a string of folds. (2/315)

The mammalian protein disulphide-isomerase (PDI) family encompasses several highly divergent proteins that are involved in the processing and maturation of secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. These proteins are characterized by the presence of one or more domains of roughly 95-110 amino acids related to the cytoplasmic protein thioredoxin. All but the PDI-D subfamily are composed entirely of repeats of such domains, with at least one domain containing and one domain lacking a redox-active -Cys-Xaa-Xaa-Cys- tetrapeptide. In addition to their known roles as redox catalysts and isomerases, the last few years have revealed additional functions of the PDI proteins, including peptide binding, cell adhesion and perhaps chaperone activities. Attention is now turning to the non-redox-active domains of the PDIs, which may play an important role in all of the known activities of these proteins. Thus the presence of both redox-active and -inactive domains within these proteins portends a complexity of functions differentially accommodated by the various family members.  (+info)

Ligand recognition and domain structure of Vps10p, a vacuolar protein sorting receptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (3/315)

Vp10p is a receptor that sorts several different vacuolar proteins by cycling between a late Golgi compartment and the endosome. The cytoplasmic tail of Vps10p is necessary for the recycling, whereas the lumenal domain is predicted to interact with the soluble ligands. We have studied ligand binding to Vps10p by introducing deletions in the lumenal region. This region contains two domains with homology to each other. Domain 2 binds carboxypeptidase Y (CPY), proteinase A (PrA) and hybrids of these proteases with invertase. Moreover, we show that aminopeptidase Y (APY) is a ligand of Vps10p. The native proteases compete for binding to domain 2. Binding of CPY(156)-invertase or PrA(137)-invertase, on the other hand, do not interfere with binding of CPY to Vps10p. Furthermore, the Q24RPL27 sequence known to be important for vacuolar sorting of CPY, is of little importance in the Vps10p-dependent sorting of CPY-invertase. Apparently, domain 2 contains two different binding sites; one for APY, CPY and PrA, and one for CPY-invertase and PrA-invertase. The latter interaction seems not to be sequence specific, and we suggest that an unfolded structure in these ligands is recognized by Vps10p.  (+info)

Effect of prolonged administration of a urinary kinase inhibitor, ebelactone B on the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension in rats. (4/315)

The effect of prolonged administration of a carboxypeptidase Y-like kininase inhibitor, ebelactone B (EB) (2-ethyl-3, 11-dihydroxy-4, 6, 8, 10, 12-pentamethyl-9-oxo-6-tetradecenoic 1, 3-lactone), on the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension was tested. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) of non-treated 6-week-old Sprague-Dawley strain rats was gradually increased by DOCA-salt treatment from 137+/-2 mmHg (n=11) to 195+/-7 mmHg at 10 weeks of age. With daily oral administration of lisinopril (5 mg kg(-1), twice a day), which is an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme, a major kininase in plasma, the development of hypertension was not suppressed. By contrast, administration of EB (5 mg kg(-1), twice a day), completely inhibited the development of hypertension (SBP: 146+/-1 mmHg, n=5, 10 weeks old). The reduced SBP at 10 weeks of age was equal to the SBP before any treatment (142+/-1 mmHg, n=5). Direct determination of mean blood pressure (MBP) in conscious, unrestrained rats confirmed that MBP elevation was completely inhibited by EB. Continuous subcutaneous infusion (5 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) of HOE140, a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, restored the elevation of SBP, which was suppressed by EB. The weights of left ventricle of DOCA-salt treated rats 10-weeks-old (0.36+/-0.02 g 100 g body weight(-1), n=11) was significantly reduced by EB (0.27+/-0.01, n=5), as were the sodium levels in serum, cerebrospinal fluid and erythrocyte. These findings suggested that EB is effective in preventing salt-related hypertension presumably by eliminating sodium retention.  (+info)

Stable expression of protective protein/cathepsin A-green fluorescent protein fusion genes in a fibroblastic cell line from a galactosialidosis patient. Model system for revealing the intracellular transport of normal and mutated lysosomal enzymes. (5/315)

Fibroblastic cell lines derived from a galactosialidosis patient, stably expressing the chimaeric green fluorescent protein variant (EGFP) gene fused to the wild-type and mutant human lysosomal protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA) cDNA, were first established as a model system for revealing the sorting and processing of lysosomal enzymes and for investigating the molecular bases of their deficiencies. In the cell line expressing the wild-type PPCA-EGFP chimaera gene (EGFP-PPwild), an 81 kDa form (27 kDa EGFP fused to the C-terminus of the 54 kDa PPCA precursor) was produced, then processed into the mature 32/20 kDa two-chain form free of the EGFP domain. The intracellular cathepsin A, alpha-N-acetylneuraminidase and beta-galactosidase activities, which are deficient in the parent fibroblastic cells, could also be significantly restored in the cells. In contrast with the uniform and strong fluorescence throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus in the mock-cell line expressing only EGFP cDNA, weak reticular and punctate fluorescence was distributed throughout the EGFP-PPwild cell line. Bafilomycin A1, a potent inhibitor of vacuolar ATPase and intracellular acidification, induced the distribution of Golgi-like perinuclear fluorescence throughout the living and fixed cells, in which only the 81 kDa product was detected. After removal of the agent, time-dependent transport of the chimaeric protein from the Golgi apparatus to the prelysosomal structure in living cells was monitored with a confocal laser scanning microscope system. Leupeptin caused the distribution of lysosome-like granular fluorescence throughout the cytoplasm in the fixed cells, although it was hardly observed in living cells. The latter agent also dose-dependently induced an increase in the intracellular amount of the 81 kDa product containing the EGFP domain and inhibited the restoration of cathepsin A activity in the EGFP-PPwild cells after the removal of bafilomycin A1. In parallel, both the mature two-chain form and PPCA function disappeared. These results suggested that the chimaera gene product was transported to acidic compartments (endosomes/lysosomes), where proteolytic processing of the PPCA precursor/zymogen, quenching of the fluorescence, and random degradation of the EGFP portion occurred. A cell line stably expressing a chimaeric gene with a mutant PPCA cDNA containing an A1184-->G (Y395C) mutation, commonly detected in Japanese severe early-infantile type of galactosialidosis patients, showed an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like reticular fluorescence pattern. The PPCA-immunoreactive gene product was hardly detected in this cell line. The mutant chimaeric product was suggested to be degraded rapidly in the ER before transport to post-ER compartments. A cell line expressing the chimaeric gene with a T746-->A (Y249N) PPCA mutation exhibited both ER-like reticular and granular fluorescence on the reticular structure that was stronger than that in the EGFP-PPwild cells. Some of them contained large fluorescent inclusion-body-like structures. The ineffectiveness of transport inhibitors in the distribution changes in the two mutant chimaeric proteins suggested that they were not delivered to acidic compartments. Therefore this expression system can possibly be applied to the direct analysis of the sorting defects of mutant gene products in living cells and will be useful for the molecular investigation of lysosomal diseases, including galactosialidosis.  (+info)

Contribution of the carbohydrate moiety to conformational stability of the carboxypeptidase Y high pressure study. (6/315)

The process of pressure-induced denaturation of carboxypeptidase Y and the role of the carbohydrate moiety in its response to pressure and low temperature were investigated by measuring in situ the catalytic activity and, the intrinsic and 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid binding fluorescences. Pressure-induced denaturation of carboxypeptidase Y is a process involving at least three transitions. Low pressures (below 150 MPa) induced slight conformational changes characterized by a slight decrease in the center of the spectral mass of intrinsic fluorescence, whereas no changes in 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid binding fluorescence were observed and 80% of the catalytic activity remained. Higher pressure (150-500 MPa) induced further conformational changes, characterized by a large decrease in the center of the spectral mass of intrinsic fluorescence, a large increase in the 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid binding fluorescence and the loss of all catalytic activity. Thus, this intermediate exhibited characteristics of molten globule-like state. A further increase, in pressure (above 550 MPa) induced transition from this first molten globule-like state to a second molten globule-like state. This two-stage denaturation process can be explained by assuming the existence of two independent structural domains in the carboxypeptidase molecule. A similar three-transition process was found for unglycosylated carboxypeptidase Y, but, the first two transitions clearly occurred at lower pressures than those for glycosylated carboxypeptidase Y. These findings indicate that the carbohydrate moiety protects carboxypeptidase Y against pressure-induced denaturation. The origin of the protective effects is discussed based on the known crystallographic structure of CPY.  (+info)

Crystal structure of human gastric lipase and model of lysosomal acid lipase, two lipolytic enzymes of medical interest. (7/315)

Fat digestion in humans requires not only the classical pancreatic lipase but also gastric lipase, which is stable and active despite the highly acidic stomach environment. We report here the structure of recombinant human gastric lipase at 3.0-A resolution, the first structure to be described within the mammalian acid lipase family. This globular enzyme (379 residues) consists of a core domain belonging to the alpha/beta hydrolase-fold family and a "cap" domain, which is analogous to that present in serine carboxypeptidases. It possesses a classical catalytic triad (Ser-153, His-353, Asp-324) and an oxyanion hole (NH groups of Gln-154 and Leu-67). Four N-glycosylation sites were identified on the electron density maps. The catalytic serine is deeply buried under a segment consisting of 30 residues, which can be defined as a lid and belonging to the cap domain. The displacement of the lid is necessary for the substrates to have access to Ser-153. A phosphonate inhibitor was positioned in the active site that clearly suggests the location of the hydrophobic substrate binding site. The lysosomal acid lipase was modeled by homology, and possible explanations for some previously reported mutations leading to the cholesterol ester storage disease are given based on the present model.  (+info)

The phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding protein Vac1p interacts with a Rab GTPase and a Sec1p homologue to facilitate vesicle-mediated vacuolar protein sorting. (8/315)

Activated GTP-bound Rab proteins are thought to interact with effectors to elicit vesicle targeting and fusion events. Vesicle-associated v-SNARE and target membrane t-SNARE proteins are also involved in vesicular transport. Little is known about the functional relationship between Rabs and SNARE protein complexes. We have constructed an activated allele of VPS21, a yeast Rab protein involved in vacuolar protein sorting, and demonstrated an allele-specific interaction between Vps21p and Vac1p. Vac1p was found to bind the Sec1p homologue Vps45p. Although no association between Vps21p and Vps45p was seen, a genetic interaction between VPS21 and VPS45 was observed. Vac1p contains a zinc-binding FYVE finger that may bind phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P]. In other FYVE domain proteins, this motif and PtdIns(3)P are necessary for membrane association. Vac1 proteins with mutant FYVE fingers still associated with membranes but showed vacuolar protein sorting defects and reduced interactions with Vps45p and activated Vps21p. Vac1p membrane association was not dependent on PtdIns(3)P, Pep12p, Vps21p, Vps45p, or the PtdIns 3-kinase, Vps34p. Vac1p FYVE finger mutant missorting phenotypes were suppressed by a defective allele of VPS34. These data indicate that PtdIns(3)P may perform a regulatory role, possibly involved in mediating Vac1p protein-protein interactions. We propose that activated-Vps21p interacts with its effector, Vac1p, which interacts with Vps45p to regulate the Golgi to endosome SNARE complex.  (+info)

Cathepsins are a type of proteolytic enzymes, which are found in lysosomes and are responsible for breaking down proteins inside the cell. They are classified as papain-like cysteine proteases and play important roles in various physiological processes, including tissue remodeling, antigen presentation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). There are several different types of cathepsins, including cathepsin B, C, D, F, H, K, L, S, V, and X/Z, each with distinct substrate specificities and functions.

Dysregulation of cathepsins has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders. For example, overexpression or hyperactivation of certain cathepsins has been shown to contribute to tumor invasion and metastasis, while their inhibition has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy in cancer treatment. Similarly, abnormal levels of cathepsins have been linked to the progression of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, making them attractive targets for drug development.

Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine protease that plays a role in various physiological processes, including intracellular protein degradation, antigen presentation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. It is produced as an inactive precursor (procathepsin B) and activated upon cleavage of the propeptide by other proteases or autocatalytically. Cathepsin B has a wide range of substrates, including collagen, elastin, and various intracellular proteins. Its dysregulation has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders.

Cathepsin L is a lysosomal cysteine protease that plays a role in various physiological processes, including protein degradation, antigen presentation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. It is produced as an inactive precursor and activated by cleavage of its propeptide domain. Cathepsin L has a broad specificity for peptide bonds and can cleave both intracellular and extracellular proteins, making it an important player in various pathological conditions such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and infectious diseases. Inhibition of cathepsin L has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy for these conditions.

Cathepsin D is a lysosomal aspartic protease that plays a role in intracellular protein degradation and turnover. It is produced as an inactive precursor and is activated by cleavage into two subunits within the acidic environment of the lysosome. Cathepsin D is also known to be secreted by certain cells, where it can contribute to extracellular matrix remodeling and tissue degradation. In addition, abnormal levels or activity of cathepsin D have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.

Cathepsin K is a proteolytic enzyme, which belongs to the family of papain-like cysteine proteases. It is primarily produced by osteoclasts, which are specialized cells responsible for bone resorption. Cathepsin K plays a crucial role in the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix, particularly in bone tissue.

This enzyme is capable of breaking down various proteins, including collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans, which are major components of the bone matrix. By doing so, cathepsin K helps osteoclasts to dissolve and remove mineralized and non-mineralized bone matrix during the process of bone resorption.

Apart from its function in bone metabolism, cathepsin K has also been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and tumor metastasis to bones. Inhibitors of cathepsin K are being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these disorders.

Cathepsin G is a serine protease, which is a type of enzyme that breaks down other proteins. It is produced and released by neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that plays an important role in the body's immune response to infection. Cathepsin G helps to digest and kill microorganisms that have invaded the body. It can also contribute to tissue damage and inflammation in certain diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and cystic fibrosis.

Cathepsin H is a lysosomal cysteine protease that plays a role in intracellular protein degradation and turnover. It is expressed in various tissues, including the spleen, thymus, lungs, and immune cells. Cathepsin H has been implicated in several physiological processes, such as antigen presentation, bone resorption, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Additionally, its dysregulation has been associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.

The enzyme's active site contains a catalytic triad composed of cysteine, histidine, and aspartic acid residues, which facilitates the proteolytic activity. Cathepsin H exhibits specificity for peptide bonds containing hydrophobic or aromatic amino acids, making it an important player in processing and degrading various cellular proteins.

In summary, Cathepsin H is a lysosomal cysteine protease involved in protein turnover and degradation with potential implications in several pathological conditions when dysregulated.

Cathepsin E is a type of proteolytic enzyme, which belongs to the family of papain-like cysteine proteases. It is primarily located in the lysosomes of cells and plays a role in intracellular protein degradation. Cathepsin E is unique among the cathepsins because it is predominantly expressed in immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, where it functions as a protease involved in antigen presentation.

The enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 42 kDa and is synthesized as an inactive precursor that undergoes proteolytic processing to generate the mature, active enzyme. Cathepsin E can cleave various substrates, including peptides and proteins, and has been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes, such as inflammation, immune response, and cancer.

In summary, Cathepsin E is a lysosomal cysteine protease that plays a crucial role in antigen presentation and protein degradation, primarily expressed in immune cells.

Cathepsin C is a lysosomal cysteine protease that plays a role in intracellular protein degradation and activation of other proteases. It is also known as dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPP I) because of its ability to remove dipeptides from the N-terminus of polypeptides. Cathepsin C is widely expressed in many tissues, including immune cells, and has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes such as antigen presentation, bone resorption, and tumor cell invasion. Defects in the gene encoding cathepsin C have been associated with several genetic disorders, including Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome and Haim-Munk syndrome, which are characterized by severe periodontal disease and skin abnormalities.

Cathepsin F is a lysosomal cysteine protease that belongs to the papain family. It is primarily expressed in hematopoietic cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Cathepsin F plays a role in various physiological processes, such as antigen presentation, bone remodeling, and extracellular matrix degradation. It is also implicated in several pathological conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.

Cathepsin F has a broad substrate specificity and can cleave various proteins, including collagen, elastin, and casein. Its activity is tightly regulated by endogenous inhibitors, such as cystatins and stefins, to prevent excessive protein degradation and tissue damage.

In summary, Cathepsin F is a lysosomal enzyme involved in various physiological and pathological processes, with a broad substrate specificity and regulatory mechanisms.

Cathepsin Z is a lysosomal protease, also known as cathepsin X or peptidyl-dipeptidase I. It is a cysteine proteinase that plays a role in intracellular protein degradation and turnover. Cathepsin Z is expressed in various tissues, including the spleen, thymus, liver, and lungs. It has been found to be involved in several physiological processes, such as antigen presentation, bone resorption, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Additionally, cathepsin Z may contribute to some pathological conditions, like cancer, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative disorders.

The enzyme's primary function is to cleave peptide bonds, particularly after hydrophobic residues, in the process of protein degradation. Cathepsin Z has an optimal pH range between 5.0 and 6.5, which is typical for lysosomal enzymes. Its activity can be regulated by endogenous inhibitors, such as cystatins, to maintain a balance in proteolytic processes within the cell.

In summary, Cathepsin Z is a lysosomal cysteine protease involved in intracellular protein degradation and turnover, with potential roles in various physiological and pathological conditions.

Cysteine endopeptidases are a type of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds within proteins. They are also known as cysteine proteases or cysteine proteinases. These enzymes contain a catalytic triad consisting of three amino acids: cysteine, histidine, and aspartate. The thiol group (-SH) of the cysteine residue acts as a nucleophile and attacks the carbonyl carbon of the peptide bond, leading to its cleavage.

Cysteine endopeptidases play important roles in various biological processes, including protein degradation, cell signaling, and inflammation. They are involved in many physiological and pathological conditions, such as apoptosis, immune response, and cancer. Some examples of cysteine endopeptidases include cathepsins, caspases, and calpains.

It is important to note that these enzymes require a reducing environment to maintain the reduced state of their active site cysteine residue. Therefore, they are sensitive to oxidizing agents and inhibitors that target the thiol group. Understanding the structure and function of cysteine endopeptidases is crucial for developing therapeutic strategies that target these enzymes in various diseases.

Cathepsin W is a lysosomal cysteine protease that is primarily expressed in cells of the immune system, such as natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). It is also known as lysosomal thiol protease or NK-lysin.

Cathepsin W plays a role in the immune response by contributing to the destruction of target cells during the process of cell-mediated cytotoxicity. It is stored in the lysosomes of NK cells and CTLs, and upon activation, it is released into the immunological synapse between the effector and target cells.

Once released, cathepsin W can cleave various proteins, including cytoskeletal components, adhesion molecules, and signaling proteins, leading to the disruption of the target cell's membrane and ultimately its death. Dysregulation of cathepsin W has been implicated in several diseases, including autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer.

Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for breaking down and recycling various materials, such as waste products, foreign substances, and damaged cellular components, through a process called autophagy or phagocytosis. Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down biomolecules like proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates into their basic building blocks, which can then be reused by the cell. They play a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and are often referred to as the "garbage disposal system" of the cell.

Cathepsin A is a lysosomal protein that belongs to the peptidase family. It plays a role in various biological processes, including protein degradation and activation, cell signaling, and inflammation. Cathepsin A has both endopeptidase and exopeptidase activities, which allow it to cleave and process a wide range of substrates.

In addition to its enzymatic functions, cathepsin A also plays a structural role in the formation and stability of the protective protein complex called the "serglycin-cathepsin A proteoglycan complex." This complex protects certain proteases from degradation and helps regulate their activity within the lysosome.

Deficiencies or mutations in cathepsin A have been linked to several diseases, including a rare genetic disorder called galactosialidosis, which is characterized by developmental delays, coarse facial features, and progressive neurological deterioration.

Pepstatins are a group of naturally occurring cyclic peptides that inhibit aspartic proteases, a type of enzyme that breaks down proteins. They are isolated from various actinomycete species of Streptomyces and Actinosynnema. Pepstatins are often used in laboratory research to study the function of aspartic proteases and as tools to probe the mechanism of action of these enzymes. In addition, pepstatins have been explored for their potential therapeutic use in various diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and cardiovascular disease. However, they have not yet been approved for clinical use.

Cystatins are a group of proteins that inhibit cysteine proteases, which are enzymes that break down other proteins. Cystatins are found in various biological fluids and tissues, including tears, saliva, seminal plasma, and urine. They play an important role in regulating protein catabolism and protecting cells from excessive protease activity. There are three main types of cystatins: type 1 (cystatin C), type 2 (cystatin M, cystatin N, and fetuin), and type 3 (kininogens). Abnormal levels of cystatins have been associated with various pathological conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders.

Endopeptidases are a type of enzyme that breaks down proteins by cleaving peptide bonds inside the polypeptide chain. They are also known as proteinases or endoproteinases. These enzymes work within the interior of the protein molecule, cutting it at specific points along its length, as opposed to exopeptidases, which remove individual amino acids from the ends of the protein chain.

Endopeptidases play a crucial role in various biological processes, such as digestion, blood coagulation, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). They are classified based on their catalytic mechanism and the structure of their active site. Some examples of endopeptidase families include serine proteases, cysteine proteases, aspartic proteases, and metalloproteases.

It is important to note that while endopeptidases are essential for normal physiological functions, they can also contribute to disease processes when their activity is unregulated or misdirected. For instance, excessive endopeptidase activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and inflammatory conditions.

Cysteine proteinase inhibitors are a type of molecule that bind to and inhibit the activity of cysteine proteases, which are enzymes that cleave proteins at specific sites containing the amino acid cysteine. These inhibitors play important roles in regulating various biological processes, including inflammation, immune response, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). They can also have potential therapeutic applications in diseases where excessive protease activity contributes to pathology, such as cancer, arthritis, and neurodegenerative disorders. Examples of cysteine proteinase inhibitors include cystatins, kininogens, and serpins.

Diazomethane is a highly reactive, explosive organic compound with the chemical formula CH2N2. It is a colorless gas or pale yellow liquid that is used as a methylating agent in organic synthesis. Diazomethane is prepared by the reaction of nitrosomethane with a base such as potassium hydroxide.

It is important to handle diazomethane with care, as it can be explosive and toxic. It should only be used in well-ventilated areas, and protective equipment such as gloves and safety glasses should be worn. Diazomethane should not be stored for long periods of time, as it can decompose spontaneously and release nitrogen gas.

Diazomethane is used to introduce methyl groups into organic molecules in a process called methylation. It reacts with carboxylic acids to form methyl esters, and with phenols to form methyl ethers. Diazomethane is also used to synthesize other organic compounds such as pyrazoles and triazoles.

It is important to note that the use of diazomethane in the laboratory has declined due to its hazardous nature, and safer alternatives are now available for many of its applications.

A dipeptide is a type of molecule that is formed by the condensation of two amino acids. In this process, the carboxyl group (-COOH) of one amino acid combines with the amino group (-NH2) of another amino acid, releasing a water molecule and forming a peptide bond.

The resulting molecule contains two amino acids joined together by a single peptide bond, which is a type of covalent bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another. Dipeptides are relatively simple molecules compared to larger polypeptides or proteins, which can contain hundreds or even thousands of amino acids linked together by multiple peptide bonds.

Dipeptides have a variety of biological functions in the body, including serving as building blocks for larger proteins and playing important roles in various physiological processes. Some dipeptides also have potential therapeutic uses, such as in the treatment of hypertension or muscle wasting disorders.

Serine endopeptidases are a type of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds within proteins (endopeptidases) and utilize serine as the nucleophilic amino acid in their active site for catalysis. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including digestion, blood coagulation, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). Examples of serine endopeptidases include trypsin, chymotrypsin, thrombin, and elastase.

Protease inhibitors are a class of antiviral drugs that are used to treat infections caused by retroviruses, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is responsible for causing AIDS. These drugs work by blocking the activity of protease enzymes, which are necessary for the replication and multiplication of the virus within infected cells.

Protease enzymes play a crucial role in the life cycle of retroviruses by cleaving viral polyproteins into functional units that are required for the assembly of new viral particles. By inhibiting the activity of these enzymes, protease inhibitors prevent the virus from replicating and spreading to other cells, thereby slowing down the progression of the infection.

Protease inhibitors are often used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Common examples of protease inhibitors include saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, and atazanavir. While these drugs have been successful in improving the outcomes of people living with HIV/AIDS, they can also cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, headaches, and lipodystrophy (changes in body fat distribution).

Papain is defined as a proteolytic enzyme that is derived from the latex of the papaya tree (Carica papaya). It has the ability to break down other proteins into smaller peptides or individual amino acids. Papain is widely used in various industries, including the food industry for tenderizing meat and brewing beer, as well as in the medical field for its digestive and anti-inflammatory properties.

In medicine, papain is sometimes used topically to help heal burns, wounds, and skin ulcers. It can also be taken orally to treat indigestion, parasitic infections, and other gastrointestinal disorders. However, its use as a medical treatment is not widely accepted and more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy.

Cystatin B is a type of protease inhibitor that belongs to the cystatin superfamily. It is primarily produced in the central nervous system and is found in various body fluids, including cerebrospinal fluid and urine. Cystatin B plays a crucial role in regulating protein catabolism by inhibiting lysosomal cysteine proteases, which are enzymes that break down proteins.

Defects or mutations in the gene that encodes for cystatin B have been associated with a rare inherited neurodegenerative disorder known as Uner Tan Syndrome (UTS). UTS is characterized by language impairment, mental retardation, and distinctive facial features. The exact mechanism by which cystatin B deficiency leads to this disorder is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve the dysregulation of protein catabolism in neurons, leading to neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration.

Cysteine proteases are a type of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins, and they require a cysteine residue in their active site to do so. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including protein degradation, cell signaling, and inflammation. They can be found in various tissues and organisms, including humans, where they are involved in many physiological and pathological conditions.

Cysteine proteases are characterized by a conserved catalytic mechanism that involves a nucleophilic attack on the peptide bond carbonyl carbon by the thiolate anion of the cysteine residue, resulting in the formation of an acyl-enzyme intermediate. This intermediate is then hydrolyzed to release the cleaved protein fragments.

Some examples of cysteine proteases include cathepsins, caspases, and calpains, which are involved in various cellular processes such as apoptosis, autophagy, and signal transduction. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. Therefore, cysteine proteases have emerged as important therapeutic targets for the development of new drugs to treat these conditions.

Enzyme precursors are typically referred to as zymogens or proenzymes. These are inactive forms of enzymes that can be activated under specific conditions. When the need for the enzyme's function arises, the proenzyme is converted into its active form through a process called proteolysis, where it is cleaved by another enzyme. This mechanism helps control and regulate the activation of certain enzymes in the body, preventing unwanted or premature reactions. A well-known example of an enzyme precursor is trypsinogen, which is converted into its active form, trypsin, in the digestive system.

Cystatin A is a type of cysteine protease inhibitor that is primarily produced by cells of the immune system. It is a small protein consisting of 120 amino acids and is encoded by the CSTA gene in humans. Cystatin A functions to regulate the activity of cathepsins, which are enzymes that break down proteins in the body.

Cystatin A is mainly found inside cells, where it helps to maintain the balance of cathepsins and prevent excessive protein degradation. However, it can also be released into extracellular spaces under certain conditions, such as inflammation or cell damage. In the extracellular space, cystatin A may help to regulate the activity of cathepsins in the surrounding tissue and contribute to the regulation of immune responses.

Abnormal levels of cystatin A have been associated with various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of cystatin A in these conditions and its potential as a therapeutic target.

Pancreatic elastase is a type of elastase that is specifically produced by the pancreas. It is an enzyme that helps in digesting proteins found in the food we eat. Pancreatic elastase breaks down elastin, a protein that provides elasticity to tissues and organs in the body.

In clinical practice, pancreatic elastase is often measured in stool samples as a diagnostic tool to assess exocrine pancreatic function. Low levels of pancreatic elastase in stool may indicate malabsorption or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, which can be caused by various conditions such as chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, or pancreatic cancer.

Leukocyte elastase is a type of enzyme that is released by white blood cells (leukocytes), specifically neutrophils, during inflammation. Its primary function is to help fight infection by breaking down the proteins in bacteria and viruses. However, if not properly regulated, leukocyte elastase can also damage surrounding tissues, contributing to the progression of various diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and cystic fibrosis.

Leukocyte elastase is often measured in clinical settings as a marker of inflammation and neutrophil activation, particularly in patients with lung diseases. Inhibitors of leukocyte elastase have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for these conditions.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Papillon-Lefèvre disease is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder that affects the skin and teeth. It is characterized by the early onset of severe periodontitis (inflammation of the tissues surrounding the teeth) leading to premature loss of primary and permanent teeth, and palmoplantar keratosis (thickening and hardening of the palms and soles).

The disease is caused by mutations in the gene for the protein cathepsin C (CTSC), which plays a role in the immune system's response to bacterial infections. The mutation leads to an impaired ability to fight off bacteria that cause periodontal disease, resulting in severe destruction of the periodontal tissues and premature loss of teeth.

The palmoplantar keratosis typically appears during early childhood as rough, scaly patches on the palms and soles, which may be prone to infection and painful fissures. Other skin manifestations may include hyperkeratotic lesions on the knees and elbows.

There is no cure for Papillon-Lefèvre disease, but treatment can help manage its symptoms. Good oral hygiene, regular dental checkups, and periodontal treatments are essential to prevent or slow down the progression of periodontitis. Topical keratolytic agents or systemic retinoids may be used to treat the palmoplantar keratosis.

Cystatin C is a protein produced by many cells in the body, including all types of nucleated cells. It is a member of the cysteine protease inhibitor family and functions as an endogenous inhibitor of cathepsins, which are proteases involved in various physiological and pathological processes such as extracellular matrix degradation, antigen presentation, and cell death.

Cystatin C is freely filtered by the glomeruli in the kidneys and almost completely reabsorbed and catabolized by the proximal tubules. Therefore, its serum concentration is a reliable marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and can be used to estimate kidney function.

Increased levels of cystatin C in the blood may indicate impaired kidney function or kidney disease, while decreased levels are less common and may be associated with hyperfiltration or overproduction of cystatin C. Measuring cystatin C levels can complement or supplement traditional methods for assessing kidney function, such as estimating GFR based on serum creatinine levels.

'Fasciola hepatica' is a medical term that refers to a type of flatworm, specifically a liver fluke, which is a parasitic flatworm that infects the livers of various animals, including sheep, cattle, and humans. The parasite has a complex life cycle involving aquatic snails as an intermediate host and can cause significant damage to the liver and bile ducts in its definitive host. Infection with Fasciola hepatica is known as fascioliasis, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, and jaundice.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Benzoylarginine-2-Naphthylamide is a synthetic substance that is used in laboratory settings as a reagent for the detection and measurement of certain enzymes, specifically proteases such as trypsin. It is a colorless to pale yellow crystalline powder that is soluble in water and alcohol. When treated with an enzyme that can cleave it, such as trypsin, it produces a colored product that can be measured and used to quantify the enzyme's activity. This compound is not used for medical purposes in humans or animals.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Peptide hydrolases, also known as proteases or peptidases, are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in proteins and peptides. They play a crucial role in various biological processes such as protein degradation, digestion, cell signaling, and regulation of various physiological functions. Based on their catalytic mechanism and the specificity for the peptide bond, they are classified into several types, including serine proteases, cysteine proteases, aspartic proteases, and metalloproteases. These enzymes have important clinical applications in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases, such as cancer, viral infections, and inflammatory disorders.

Hydrolysis is a chemical process, not a medical one. However, it is relevant to medicine and biology.

Hydrolysis is the breakdown of a chemical compound due to its reaction with water, often resulting in the formation of two or more simpler compounds. In the context of physiology and medicine, hydrolysis is a crucial process in various biological reactions, such as the digestion of food molecules like proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Enzymes called hydrolases catalyze these hydrolysis reactions to speed up the breakdown process in the body.

Dipeptidyl-peptidases (DPPs) and tripeptidyl-peptidases (TPPs) are two types of enzymes that belong to the class of peptidases, which are proteins that help break down other proteins into smaller peptides or individual amino acids.

Dipeptidyl-peptidases cleave dipeptides (two-amino acid units) from the N-terminus (the end with a free amino group) of polypeptides and proteins, while tripeptidyl-peptidases cleave tripeptides (three-amino acid units) from the same location.

There are several different isoforms of DPPs and TPPs that have been identified in various organisms, including humans. These enzymes play important roles in regulating various physiological processes, such as digestion, immune function, and blood glucose homeostasis.

Inhibitors of DPP-4, one specific isoform of DPPs, have been developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, as they help increase the levels of incretin hormones that stimulate insulin secretion and suppress glucagon production.

Leucine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. It is one of the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), along with isoleucine and valine. Leucine is critical for protein synthesis and muscle growth, and it helps to regulate blood sugar levels, promote wound healing, and produce growth hormones.

Leucine is found in various food sources such as meat, dairy products, eggs, and certain plant-based proteins like soy and beans. It is also available as a dietary supplement for those looking to increase their intake for athletic performance or muscle recovery purposes. However, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mannosephosphates" is not a widely recognized or established term in medicine or biochemistry. It seems that this term may be a combination of "mannose," which is a type of sugar (monosaccharide), and "phosphates," which are compounds containing phosphorus. However, without more context, it's difficult to provide an accurate medical definition for this term.

In biochemistry, mannose can be linked to phosphate groups in various ways, such as in the context of mannose-1-phosphate or mannose-6-phosphate, which are involved in different metabolic pathways. If you could provide more information about where you encountered this term, I might be able to give a more precise definition or explanation.

Oligopeptides are defined in medicine and biochemistry as short chains of amino acids, typically containing fewer than 20 amino acid residues. These small peptides are important components in various biological processes, such as serving as signaling molecules, enzyme inhibitors, or structural elements in some proteins. They can be found naturally in foods and may also be synthesized for use in medical research and therapeutic applications.

The Amyloid Beta-Protein Precursor (AβPP) is a type of transmembrane protein that is widely expressed in various tissues and organs, including the brain. It plays a crucial role in normal physiological processes, such as neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, and repair.

AβPP undergoes proteolytic processing by enzymes called secretases, resulting in the production of several protein fragments, including the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide. Aβ is a small peptide that can aggregate and form insoluble fibrils, which are the main component of amyloid plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD).

The accumulation of Aβ plaques is believed to contribute to the neurodegeneration and cognitive decline observed in AD. Therefore, AβPP and its proteolytic processing have been the focus of extensive research aimed at understanding the pathogenesis of AD and developing potential therapies.

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder that causes brain cells to waste away (degenerate) and die. It's the most common cause of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that disrupts a person's ability to function independently.

The early signs of the disease include forgetting recent events or conversations. As the disease progresses, a person with Alzheimer's disease will develop severe memory impairment and lose the ability to carry out everyday tasks.

Currently, there's no cure for Alzheimer's disease. However, treatments can temporarily slow the worsening of dementia symptoms and improve quality of life.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

... A (serine protease) Cathepsin B (cysteine protease) Cathepsin C (cysteine protease) Cathepsin D (aspartyl protease) ... Cathepsin H (cysteine protease) Cathepsin K (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L1 (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L2 (or V) (cysteine ... Cathepsin S (cysteine protease) Cathepsin W (cysteine proteinase) Cathepsin Z (or X) (cysteine protease) Cathepsins are ... Cathepsin K has also been shown to play a role in arthritis. Mouse cathepsin L is homologous to human cathepsin V. Mouse ...
Cathepsin+T at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC 3.4.22). ... Cathepsin T (EC 3.4.22.24) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction: Interconversion of the three ... Cathepsin Gohda E, Pitot HC (May 1981). "Purification and characterization of a new thiol proteinase from rat kidney". ... Pitot HC, Gohda E (1987). Cathepsin T. Methods in Enzymology. Vol. 142. pp. 279-89. doi:10.1016/s0076-6879(87)42038-7. PMID ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSF gene. Cysteine cathepsins are a family of cysteine proteases ... The cathepsin F gene is ubiquitously expressed, and it maps to chromosome 11q13, close to the gene encoding cathepsin W. ... Wex T, Levy B, Wex H, Brömme D (1999). "Human cathepsins F and W: A new subgroup of cathepsins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ... Wex T, Wex H, Brömme D (2000). "The human cathepsin F gene--a fusion product between an ancestral cathepsin and cystatin gene ...
... may refer to: Cathepsin L1, a human protease enzyme encoded by the CTSL gene and known for its role in viral entry ... Cathepsin L2, a human protease enzyme encoded by the CTSV gene and also known as cathepsin V This disambiguation page lists ... articles associated with the title Cathepsin L. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point ...
"Human cathepsins W and F form a new subgroup of cathepsins that is evolutionary separated from the cathepsin B- and L-like ... Wex T, Levy B, Wex H, Brömme D (1999). "Human cathepsins F and W: A new subgroup of cathepsins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ... The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the peptidase C1 family of cysteine cathepsins, is a cysteine protease cathepsin ... 2003). "Characterization of novel anti-cathepsin W antibodies and cellular distribution of cathepsin W in the gastrointestinal ...
... cathepsin S can be replaced by cathepsin F. Secreted cathepsin S cleaves some extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Cathepsin S ... In vitro, cathepsin S retains some enzyme activity in the presence of 3M urea. Cathepsin S is produced as a zymogen and is ... Cathepsin S can function as an elastase over a broad pH range in alveolar macrophages. Cathepsin S is a lysosomal enzyme that ... Cathepsin S is a member of the peptidase C1 family of cysteine cathepsins, a lysosomal cysteine protease that may participate ...
... (EC 3.4.18.1, cathepsin B2, cysteine-type carboxypeptidase, cathepsin IV, cathepsin Z, acid carboxypeptidase, ... Shows weak endopeptidase activity Cathepsin X is a cysteine cathepsin, a lysosomal cysteine peptidase of family C1 (papain ... Otto K, Riesenkönig H (February 1975). "Improved purification of cathepsin B1 and cathepsin B2". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta ... "On the substrate specificity of cathepsins B1 and B2 including a new fluorogenic substrate for cathepsin B1". Life Sciences. 17 ...
... can also be found in the extracellular space and it is one of the few cathepsins, that shows some activity at ... Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes. The main function of cathepsin D is to ... "Entrez Gene: CTSD cathepsin D". Barrett AJ (April 1970). "Cathepsin D. Purification of isoenzymes from human and chicken liver ... The optimum pH for cathepsin D in vitro is 4.5-5.0. Cathepsin-D is an aspartic protease that depends critically on protonation ...
... is degraded by Cathepsin S, in a process referred to as Controlled Cathepsin Cannibalism. Cathepsin K expression is ... Cathepsin K has also been found to be over-expressed in glioblastoma. That the expression of cathepsin K is characteristic for ... Cathepsin K antibodies are marketed for research into expression of this enzyme by various cells. Merck had a cathepsin K ... Other cathepsin K inhibitors are in various stages of development. Medivir has a cathepsin K inhibitor, MIV-711 (L-006235), in ...
... cathepsin C, cathepsin F, cathepsin H, cathepsin K, cathepsin L, cathepsin L2 or V, cathepsin O, cathepsin S, cathepsin Z, and ... Cathepsin Z, also called cathepsin X or cathepsin P, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSZ gene. It is a member of ... As one of the 11 cathepsins, cathepsin Z contains distinctive features from others. Cathepsin Z has been reported involved in ... Cathepsin Z has an exposed integrin-binding Arg-Gly-Asp motif within the propeptide of the enzyme, through which cathepsin Z ...
"Entrez Gene: CTSL1 cathepsin L1". Barrett AJ, Kirschke H (1981). Cathepsin B, Cathepsin H, and cathepsin L. Methods in ... or by cathepsins (primarily cathepsin L) in endolysosomes. Hydroxychloroquine inhibits the action of cathepsin L in ... Cathepsin L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSL1 gene. The protein is a cysteine cathepsin, a lysosomal ... Cathepsin L1 is a member of the Peptidase C1 (cathepsin) MEROPS family, which plays an important role in diverse processes ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSH gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a cysteine cathepsin, ... "Entrez Gene: CTSH cathepsin H". Sawicki G, Warwas M (1990). "Cathepsin H from human placenta". Acta Biochim. Pol. 36 (3-4): 343 ... 2003). "Expression of cathepsins B, H, K, L, and S during human fetal lung development". Dev. Dyn. 225 (1): 14-21. doi:10.1002/ ... 2001). "Expression of cathepsins B, H, K, L, and S and matrix metalloproteinases 9 and 13 during chondrocyte hypertrophy and ...
... is one of those homologous protease that evolved from a common ancestor by gene duplication. Cathepsin G is a 255- ... An upregulation of cathepsin G was reported in studies of keratoconus. Cathepsin G has been found to interact with: SERPINB1 ... "Entrez Gene: CTSG cathepsin G". Shafer WM, Pohl J, Onunka VC, Bangalore N, Travis J (January 1991). "Human lysosomal cathepsin ... "Generation of the neutrophil-activating peptide-2 by cathepsin G and cathepsin G-treated human platelets". The American Journal ...
... prepro-cathepsin C) comprising signal peptides of 24 residues, pro-regions of 205 (rat cathepsin C) or 206 (human cathepsin C) ... Cathepsin C appears to be a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteases in immune/inflammatory cells. Cathepsin ... identical to the mature amino acid sequences of papain and a number of other cathepsins including cathepsins, B, H, K, L, and S ... "Entrez Gene: CTSC cathepsin C". Paris A, Strukelj B, Pungercar J, Renko M, Dolenc I, Turk V (Aug 1995). "Molecular cloning and ...
Cathepsin K detection by zymography Zymographic techniques for detection of cathepsins K, L, S, and V Zymography for detection ... Cathepsin zymography is a technique for quantifying enzymatic activity of the cathepsin family of cysteine proteases. It is ... While the proform of cathepsins are generally stable, once activated, proteases such as cathepsin K are vulnerable to ... After the renaturing period, the gel is then incubated in assay buffer to allow the now active cathepsins to proteolyze the ...
... (EC 3.4.22.43, also known as cathepsin V or cathepsin U) is a protein encoded in humans by the CTSV gene. The ... "Entrez Gene: CTSL2 cathepsin L2". Brömme D, Li Z, Barnes M, Mehler E (February 1999). "Human cathepsin V functional expression ... 2006). "Cystatin M/E is a high affinity inhibitor of cathepsin V and cathepsin L by a reactive site that is distinct from the ... 2007). "Inhibition of cathepsin L-like proteases by cathepsin V propeptide". Biol. Chem. 388 (5): 541-5. doi:10.1515/BC. ...
... is an enzyme that is classified both as a cathepsin and a carboxypeptidase. In humans, it is encoded by the CTSA ... Cathepsin+A at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology v t e (Genes on human ... "Entrez Gene: CTSA cathepsin A". Mitchell, Richard Sheppard; Kumar, Vinay; Robbins, Stanley L.; Abbas, Abul K.; Fausto, Nelson ( ... Cathepsin A has been shown to interact with NEU1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000064601 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ...
... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CTSO gene. Cathepsin O is a cysteine cathepsin, a cysteine protease ... "Entrez Gene: cathepsin O". Shi GP, Chapman HA, Bhairi SM, et al. (1995). "Molecular cloning of human cathepsin O, a novel ... 1994). "Human cathepsin O. Molecular cloning from a breast carcinoma, production of the active enzyme in Escherichia coli, and ... "Genomic structure and chromosomal localization of the human cathepsin O gene (CTSO)". Genomics. 53 (2): 231-4. doi:10.1006/geno ...
... cathepsin D-like acid proteinase, cathepsin E-like acid proteinase, cathepsin D-type proteinase) is an enzyme. Cathepsin E is a ... The structure of Cathepsin E is very similar to those of Cathepsin D and BACE1, and all 3 have almost identical active site ... Along with renin and Cathepsin D, Cathepsin E is one of the only few aspartic proteases known to be made in human tissues other ... A distinguishing factor of Cathepsin E in comparison with the structure of Cathepsin D and BACE1 can be seen at the formation ...
In humans, cathepsin B is encoded by the CTSB gene. Cathepsin B is upregulated in certain cancers, in pre-malignant lesions, ... Cathepsin B belongs to a family of lysosomal cysteine proteases known as the cysteine cathepsins and plays an important role in ... Cathepsin B has been shown to interact with: CTSD CSTA, CSTB, and S100A10. Cathepsin B is inhibited by: Nitroxoline CA-074 ... Cathepsin B has been proposed as a potentially effective biomarker for a variety of cancers. Overexpression of cathepsin B is ...
... , Histones & Cathepsin; PMAP The Proteolysis Map-animation Nature journal: recent chromatin publications and news ...
... collagenases such as cathepsin B1; and hyaluronidase. PSGAG inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which is released upon ...
Cathepsin A Breddam, K. (1986). "Serine carboxypeptidases. A review". Carlsberg Res. Commun. 51: 83-128. doi:10.1007/bf02907561 ... Miller JJ, Changaris DG, Levy RS (December 1992). "Purification, subunit structure and inhibitor profile of cathepsin A". ... Carboxypeptidase C (EC 3.4.16.5, carboxypeptidase Y, serine carboxypeptidase I, cathepsin A, lysosomal protective protein, ...
Cathepsin E. TALE homeodomain transcription factors. Hydrocortisone. Since keratinocyte differentiation inhibits keratinocyte ... "The role of cathepsin E in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes". Biological Chemistry. 392 (6): 571-85. doi:10.1515/BC. ...
Cathepsin D is involved in CLN10. DNA analysis can be used to help confirm the diagnosis of Batten disease. When the mutation ...
Miv-711 Cathepsin K inhibitor for osteoarthritis. Fast track (FDA) MALT1 "Swedish pharma firm Medivir partners Aragen Life ...
Her research has examined cathepsins and proteases associated with cancer. She has also used imaging with fluorescent probes to ... Sloane, Bonnie F.; Dunn, John R.; Honn, Kenneth V. (1981-06-05). "Lysosomal Cathepsin B: Correlation with Metastatic Potential ... Sloane, Bonnie F.; Dunn, John R.; Honn, Kenneth V. (1981-06-05). "Lysosomal Cathepsin B: Correlation with Metastatic Potential ... Mohamed, Mona Mostafa; Sloane, Bonnie F. (2006). "Cysteine cathepsins: multifunctional enzymes in cancer". Nature Reviews ...
... these include cathepsin L, papain, and procaricain. It forms an alpha-helical domain that runs through the substrate-binding ...
"Cathepsins as transcriptional activators? Developmental Cell 2004, 6(5):610-1. Goulet B, and Nepveu A. "Complete and Limited ...
Lushbaugh WB, Hofbauer AF, Pittman FE (June 1985). "Entamoeba histolytica: purification of cathepsin B". Experimental ...
Cathepsin A (serine protease) Cathepsin B (cysteine protease) Cathepsin C (cysteine protease) Cathepsin D (aspartyl protease) ... Cathepsin H (cysteine protease) Cathepsin K (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L1 (cysteine protease) Cathepsin L2 (or V) (cysteine ... Cathepsin S (cysteine protease) Cathepsin W (cysteine proteinase) Cathepsin Z (or X) (cysteine protease) Cathepsins are ... Cathepsin K has also been shown to play a role in arthritis. Mouse cathepsin L is homologous to human cathepsin V. Mouse ...
Directed screening of nitrile compounds revealed 3 as a highly potent cathepsin K inhibitor but with cathepsin S activity and ... Directed screening of nitrile compounds revealed 3 as a highly potent cathepsin K inhibitor but with cathepsin S activity and ... a potent and highly selective cathepsin K inhibitor for the treatment of osteoarthritis.. Dossetter, A.G., Beeley, H., Bowyer, ...
This procedure applies to all products that have a specification for Cathepsin B activity determined by the liberation of 7- ... Cathepsin B Enzyme Solution (Enzyme). Immediately before use, prepare a solution containing 5-10 units/mL of Cathepsin B in ... Lysosomal Cathepsin B has also been shown to degrade soluble monomeric collagen and insoluble polymeric collagen in vitro. ... Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase that will hydrolyze proteins with a broad specificity for peptide bonds, but ...
CATHEPSIN D (human). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay ...
Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Cathepsin G Antikörper. Hier bestellen. ... Monoklonale und polyklonale Cathepsin G Antikörper für viele Methoden. ... Aliase für Cathepsin G Antikörper. cathepsin G (CTSG) Antikörper. cathepsin G (Ctsg) Antikörper. cathepsin G (LOC505658) ... cathepsin G (LOC509956) Antikörper. cathepsin G (ctsg) Antikörper. cathepsin G (LOC100053921) Antikörper. cathepsin G ( ...
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
Cathepsin E mRNA was detected in enalapril-treated aorta and kidney, and cathepsin D mRNA was detected in all tissues examined ... Cathepsin E and cathepsin S, endosomal/lysosomal proteases, have been shown to play important roles in the major ... While significant amounts of cathepsin D were found in both the hippocampus and the neostriatum of normal rats, cathepsin E was ... Cathepsin E in follicle associated epithelium of intestine and tonsils: localization to M cells and possible role in antigen ...
"If cathepsin Bs activity is to chew back at the C-terminus of Aβ, particularly Aβ42, then a mouse with increased Aβ42 ... The enzyme, cathepsin B (CatB), caught the attention of Li Gan at the Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease in San ... Cystatin Cs Naughty Side-Slowing Aβ Degradation by Cathepsin B. Quick Links. *Article ... production (the APP-J20 mouse) will show the greatest effects when cathepsin B activity is increased," he said. "I think that ...
One of the less explored is the milk enzyme cathepsin D, proteolytic enzyme located in the lysosomes, which are an integral ... Detection of cathepsin D in ewes milk by Western Blotting method. Iva Dolenčić Špehar orcid.org/0000-0002-8036-583X ; ... 2013). Detection of cathepsin D in ewes milk by Western Blotting method, Mljekarstvo, 63(1), str. 36-41. Preuzeto s: https ... Dolenčić Špehar I, Martinković F, Havranek J, Marinculić A, Tudor Kalit M, Kalit S. Detection of cathepsin D in ewes milk by ...
The cysteinal lysosomal proteases, cathepsin L (CL) and cathepsin S (CS), have been shown to process invariant chain, thereby ... A role for cathepsin L and cathepsin S in peptide generation for MHC class II presentation J Immunol. 2002 Mar 15;168(6):2618- ... The cysteinal lysosomal proteases, cathepsin L (CL) and cathepsin S (CS), have been shown to process invariant chain, thereby ...
Cathepsin B, also known as CTSB, is a lysosomal cysteine protease. ... Cathepsin B Activity Protocol: 1. Dilute the recombinant mouse Cathepsin B to 10 μg/ml in activation buffer (25 mM MES, 1 mM ... Cathepsin B, also known as CTSB, is a lysosomal cysteine protease. While most cathepsins are exclusively endopeptidases, CTSB ... CTSB, CPSB, APP secretase, APPS, Cathepsin B1, CB Ave. Rating Submit a Review Product Citations publications Mouse CTSB enzyme ...
Cathepsin B activity was selectively elevated early in the course of illness. Luepeptin, a cathepsin B inhibitor, and ... Inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis or cathepsin B prevent muscle wasting due to sepsis in the rat.. ... Inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis or cathepsin B prevent muscle wasting due to sepsis in the rat.. ... Muscle wasting and impaired contractility associated with sepsis may involve selective prostaglandin stimulation of cathepsin B ...
Pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin activity with CA074-Me resulted in a substantial reduction of both mature IL-1β ... Pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin activity with CA074-Me resulted in a substantial reduction of both mature IL-1β ... Moreover, cathepsin inhibition abolished the interaction between NLRP3 and ASC, measured by co-immunoprecipitation and by ... Moreover, cathepsin inhibition abolished the interaction between NLRP3 and ASC, measured by immunofluorescence imaging in H37Rv ...
Cathepsins are a class of globular lysosomal proteases, playing a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover. They degrade ... The cathepsin family consists of 12 cysteine proteases with broad exo- and endopeptidase activity, of which Cathepsin B is a ... Cathepsin B enzyme, human liver: 5 µL Component D: Assay Buffer: 20 mL Component E: Cathepsin B inhibitor Ac-LVK-CHO: 100 µM, ... Component A: Cathepsin B substrate, Ex/Em=354 nm/442 nm upon cleavage: 1 mM, 50 µL Component B: AMC, Fluorescence Reference ...
Verschiedene Studien weisen auf eine Beteiligung von Cathepsin D an Apoptose hin. In manchen Systemen ist die durch Cathepsin D ... Proteinolyse-unabhaengige proapoptotische Wirkung von Cathepsin D und Procathepsin D ... Übergangszustandsmimetika zur selektiven Inhibition der HIV-1 Protease und Cathepsin D by: Specker, Edgar Published: (2004) ... mediierte Apoptose durch seinen Inhibitor Pepstatin A hemmbar, in anderen ist die enzymatische Aktivität des Cathepsin D für ...
Western blot analysis of PARP-1 cleavage patterns in mutant lysates suggests that increases in pH dependent cathepsin activity ... Consistently, treatment with ALLM and Bafilomycin A1 (cathepsin/calpain and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase inhibitors, respectively), ... Taken together, these data suggest that vps11 promotes normal melanophore morphology and survival by inhibiting cathepsin ...
Tatò, Maia Lucia (2019): Untersuchungen zur Rolle von Cathepsin S beim experimentellen und humanen Systemischen Lupus ... Untersuchungen zur Rolle von Cathepsin S beim experimentellen und humanen Systemischen Lupus Erythematodes ... Untersuchungen zur Rolle von Cathepsin S beim experimentellen und humanen Systemischen Lupus Erythematodes ...
Cathepsin D was assayed with a Dako set. Keratin was measured by the Kreyberg method. Normal skin from behind the ear was taken ... There were trace amounts of cathepsin D within the dermis. In the control group (the skin samples), there were trace amounts of ... The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of cathepsin D in the structures of cholesteatoma.Material/Methods: ... cathepsin D within the corneous layer of the epithelium.Conclusions: Cathepsin D places a major role in bone tissue destruction ...
Serum cathepsin B activity was significantly higher in both the BRT-treated group (27.8±4.1 U/I,p<0.01) and the tumor- ... Serum cathepsin B activity was determined, tumor volumes were measured, and histological examinations of the tumor tissues were ... The aim of this study was to assess serum cathepsin activity during tumor progression and regression.Material/Methods: Of 60 ... bearing group (19.9±2.5 U/l, p<0.05), as compared to the controls (13.3±3.4U/l).Conclusions:Cathepsin B may play an ...
Recombinant Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus Viral cathepsin (VCATH) from Cusabio. Cat Number: CSB-EP340730ARA ... Recombinant Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus Viral cathepsin (VCATH) , CSB-EP340730ARA. (No reviews yet) Write ... Recombinant Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus Viral cathepsin (VCATH) , CSB-EP340730ARA Cusabio Other Organism ... Recombinant Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus Viral cathepsin (VCATH) , CSB-EP340730ARA. Rating Required Select ...
Mutations of the cathepsin C gene are responsible for Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome ... Mutations of the cathepsin C gene are responsible for Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome ...
Cathepsin L might be an efficient way to reduce the spread & severity of COVID-19 - Learn how. ... In addition, a broad range of other Cathepsin Assays, Cathepsin Inhibitors as well as recombinant Cathepsins, Cathepsin ... Furin Inhibitor Screening Kit as well as Cathepsin L Activity Assay Kit & Cathepsin L Inhibitor Screening Kit as tools to ... Cathepsin Inhibitors. Product Info Related Resources Cell Analysis Brochure. For cutting-edge research, you need the best cell- ...
Haim-Munk syndrome and Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome are allelic mutations in cathepsin C ... Haim-Munk syndrome and Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome are allelic mutations in cathepsin C ...
Submit a product review for Human Cathepsin L Biotinylated Antibody BAF952 ...
Aspartic proteinase, Cathepsin D, Endopeptidase, Hordeum (proteinase). in Planta. volume. 186. issue. 3. pages. 7 pages. ... Aspartic proteinase from barley grains is related to mammalian lysosomal cathepsin D. *Mark ... Cathepsin D; Endopeptidase; Hordeum (proteinase)}}, language = {{eng}}, number = {{3}}, pages = {{317--323}}, publisher = {{ ... sequence alignment and inhibition studies showed that the barley aspartic proteinase resembles mammalian lysosomal cathepsin D ...
Synthetic peptide surrounding aa 140 of mouse cathepsins D.. Activity cross reaction. Reacts with mouse CTSD / Cathepsin D. ... CTSD / Cathepsin D antibody CTSD, CPSD, CLN10, Lysosomal aspartyl peptidase, Lysosomal aspartyl protease, ProCathepsin D, CatD ...
cathepsin L - C1: Papain. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of ... Cathepsins B, H and L have become important therapeutic targets as their proteolytic activity has been implicated in several ... cathepsin L1 , fs , furless , MEP , nackt , nkt , Cat L , p39 cysteine proteinase ... 2010) Identification and pre-clinical testing of a reversible cathepsin protease inhibitor reveals anti-tumor efficacy in a ...
Assessment of cathepsin D and L-like proteinases of poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), as potential vaccine ... Assessment of cathepsin D and L-like proteinases of poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), as potential vaccine ... Printed from /publications/assessment-cathepsin-d-and-l-proteinases-poultry-red-mite-dermanyssus-gallinae-de-geer on 07/12/23 ... assessment-cathepsin-d-and-l-proteinases-poultry-red-mite-dermanyssus-gallinae-de-geer ...
The encoded protein is also known as cathepsin X and cathepsin P. This gene is ubiquitously expressed in cancer cell lines and ... Ortholog to human CTSZ (cathepsin Z); INTERACTS WITH 1-naphthyl isothiocyanate; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin; 3,3,5,5- ...
The Role of Cathepsin B in Pathophysiologies of Non-tumor and Tumor tissues: A Systematic Review. J Cancer. 14(12):2344-2358. ... The Role of Cathepsin B in Pathophysiologies of Non-tumor and Tumor tissues: A Systematic Review Jiangping Wang1#, Minying ... Wang J, Zheng M, Yang X, Zhou X, Zhang S. The Role of Cathepsin B in Pathophysiologies of Non-tumor and Tumor tissues: A ... Wang J, Zheng M, Yang X, Zhou X, Zhang S. The Role of Cathepsin B in Pathophysiologies of Non-tumor and Tumor tissues: A ...
  • SAR114137, a Cathepsin S inhibitor, did not progress past phase I for chronic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2022, STI-1558, a Cathepsin L inhibitor, received FDA clearance to begin phase I studies to treat COVID-19. (wikipedia.org)
  • Directed screening of nitrile compounds revealed 3 as a highly potent cathepsin K inhibitor but with cathepsin S activity and very poor stability to microsomes. (rcsb.org)
  • In manchen Systemen ist die durch Cathepsin D mediierte Apoptose durch seinen Inhibitor Pepstatin A hemmbar, in anderen ist die enzymatische Aktivität des Cathepsin D für seine apoptotische Involvierung entbehrlich. (uni-marburg.de)
  • In addition to our assays for studying binding of SARS-CoV-2 to the ACE2 receptor and screening for respective inhibitors/drugs (see below), we offer the Furin Activity Assay Kit & Furin Inhibitor Screening Kit as well as Cathepsin L Activity Assay Kit & Cathepsin L Inhibitor Screening Kit as tools to develop new targeted therapeutics for Covid-19. (promocell.com)
  • 2010) Identification and pre-clinical testing of a reversible cathepsin protease inhibitor reveals anti-tumor efficacy in a pancreatic cancer model. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 4. Méthot N, Rubin J, Guay D, Beaulieu C, Ethier D, Reddy TJ, Riendeau D, Percival MD. (2007) Inhibition of the activation of multiple serine proteases with a cathepsin C inhibitor requires sustained exposure to prevent pro-enzyme processing. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 5. Takahashi K, Ueno T, Tanida I, Minematsu-Ikeguchi N, Murata M, Kominami E. (2009) Characterization of CAA0225, a novel inhibitor specific for cathepsin L, as a probe for autophagic proteolysis. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Roche's cathepsin S inhibitor petesicatib (RO5459072 or RG7625) completed Phase 2 clinical evaluation in Sjögren's syndrome ( NCT02701985 ) and Phase 1 in celiac disease ( NCT02679014 ), but there are no active clinical trials registered with ClinicalTrials.gov . (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • 2008) The discovery of odanacatib (MK-0822), a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K. Bioorg Med Chem Lett , 18 (3): 923-8. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin activity with CA074-Me resulted in a substantial reduction of both mature IL-1β production and caspase-1 activation in infected macrophages. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, cathepsin inhibition abolished the interaction between NLRP3 and ASC, measured by immunofluorescence imaging in H37Rv-infected macrophages, demonstrating a critical role of the enzyme in NLRP3-inflammasome activation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Inhibition of the Furin protease and Cathepsin L might therefore be an efficient way to attenuate the infection process and reduce the spread and severity of COVID-19. (promocell.com)
  • Amino-acid sequence alignment and inhibition studies showed that the barley aspartic proteinase resembles mammalian lysosomal cathepsin D (EC 3.4.23.5). (lu.se)
  • SerpinB1 is critical for neutrophil survival through cell-autonomous inhibition of cathepsin G." Blood 121, no. 19 (2013): 3900-3907 van den Berg, Carmen W., et al. (athensresearch.com)
  • By screening a combinatorial pentapeptide amide collection in an inhibition assay, we systematically evaluated the potential of 19 proteinogenic amino acids and seven nonproteinogenic amino acids to serve as building blocks for inhibitors of human cathepsin L. Particularly efficient were aromatic, bulky, hydrophobic amino-acid residues, especially leucine, and positively charged residues, especially arginine. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • RNAi mediated depletion of CD44 and MT1-MMP expression and pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin K attenuated CD44 promoted invasion through a collagen I matrix. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2017) Cathepsin S inhibition combines control of systemic and peripheral pathomechanisms of autoimmune tissue injury. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • 2010) Functionalized benzophenone, thiophene, pyridine, and fluorene thiosemicarbazone derivatives as inhibitors of cathepsin L. Bioorg Med Chem Lett , 20 (22): 6610-5. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Cathepsin B may function as a beta-secretase 1, cleaving amyloid precursor protein to produce amyloid beta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoclasts are the bone resorbing cells of the body, and they secrete cathepsin K in order to break down collagen, the major component of the non-mineral protein matrix of the bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme, cathepsin B (CatB), caught the attention of Li Gan at the Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease in San Francisco several years ago when it appeared to prevent buildup of amyloid plaques in the brains of AD mice overexpressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP). (alzforum.org)
  • 1. Dilute the recombinant mouse Cathepsin B to 10 μg/ml in activation buffer (25 mM MES, 1 mM DTT, pH 5.0) and incubate the protein at 25°C for 3 min. (biolegend.com)
  • This protein mediates either fusion of the virus membrane with the host cell membrane (TMPRSS2 activated mediation) or endocytosis of the virus particle (Cathepsin-activated mediation) and its entry into the cell. (promocell.com)
  • A further host protease required for activation of the S Protein is Cathepsin L which also facilitates SARS-CoV-2 entry into target cells through an alternative route. (promocell.com)
  • The S Protein is then processed/activated by the lysosomal Cathepsin L in the late endosomes (endo-lysosomes) following endocytosis of the virus. (promocell.com)
  • Specific Furin and Cathepsin L inhibitors which block proteolytic activation of the S Protein , and thus SARS-CoV-2 virus entry and replication, are potential antiviral agents to counteract SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis. (promocell.com)
  • Reacts with mouse CTSD / Cathepsin D. Cross reacts with human and rat protein. (covalab.com)
  • The encoded protein is also known as cathepsin X and cathepsin P. This gene is ubiquitously expressed in cancer cell lines and primary tumors and, like other members of this family, may be involved in tumorigenesis. (enigmadiagnostics.com)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence between the primers was identical to that reported for neutrophil cathepsin G, indicating that the protein of cutaneous mast cells previously shown to be immunologically cross-reactive with neutrophil cathepsin G has a comparable amino acid sequence. (duke.edu)
  • Quantitative real-time PCR, immuno-blotting and ELISA-based experiments have demonstrated that the transcript and protein expression of cathepsin K and MT1MMP increase in response to CD44/HA signalling in a panel of CD44-expressing breast cancer cell lines (MDA231, MDA157 and MCF7F). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, CD44/HA signalling was shown to increase cathepsin K and MT1MMP mRNA and protein expression in the MDAMB231BO cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cathepsin E Protein, Human (HEK293, His) is an approximately 46.0 kDa mouse cathepsin Dwith a His tag. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Human Cathepsin E is synthesized as a precursor protein, consisting of a signal peptide (residues 1 17), a propeptide (residues 18 53), and a mature chain (residues 54 396) [3] . (medchemexpress.com)
  • Furthermore, the discovery of Cathepsin B secretion and function as an extracellular matrix protein has broadened our appreciation for the impact of Cathepsin B on cancer progression. (edu.rs)
  • Cathepsin S is expressed in the lysosome of antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells, B-cells and macrophages) where it processes the invariant chain-MHC-II complex (a chaperone protein that prevents premature peptide loading) inside antigen presenting cells and in this way controls antigen presentation. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • This invention relates to a compound of formula I and their use as inhibitors of Cathepsin C, pharmaceutical compositions containing the same, and methods of using the same as agents for treatment and/or prevention of diseases connected with dipeptidyl peptidase I activity, e.g. respiratory diseases. (justia.com)
  • Thus, inhibitors of Cathepsin C could potentially be useful therapeutics for the treatment of neutrophil-dominated inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary emphysema, asthma, multiple sclerosis, and cystic fibrosis (Guay et al. (justia.com)
  • The cysteinal lysosomal proteases, cathepsin L (CL) and cathepsin S (CS), have been shown to process invariant chain, thereby facilitating MHC class II maturation. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsins are a class of globular lysosomal proteases playing a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover. (eurogentec.com)
  • The cathepsin family consists of 12 cysteine proteases with broad exo- and endopeptidase activity, of which Cathepsin B is a member. (eurogentec.com)
  • Neutrophils are recruited to the site of joint inflammation and release Cathepsin G, elastase and proteinase 3, proteases which are believed to be responsible for cartilage destruction associated with rheumatoid arthritis. (justia.com)
  • Cathepsin E is an aspartic protease and a member of the peptidase A1 family of proteases. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Cathepsins represent a group of such proteases aimed at maintenance of cellular homeostasis. (edu.rs)
  • Cathepsin K is the most potent mammalian collagenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been surprisingly found that the bicyclic compounds of the present invention possess potent Cathepsin C activity, high selectivity against other Cathepsins, e.g. (justia.com)
  • Among the most potent novel inhibitors, one peptide, RKLLW-NH2, shares the amphiphilic character of the nonamer fragment VMNGLQNRK of the autoinhibitory, substrate-like, but reverse-binding prosegment of human cathepsin L which blocks the active center of the enzyme. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Highly potent inhibitors of human cathepsin L identified by screening combinatorial pentapeptide amide collections", EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY , vol. 267, 2000, pp. 5085-5092. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Cathepsins have a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, we discuss how insights from yeast cathepsin D and its role in regulated cell death can unveil novel functions of mammalian cathepsin D in apoptosis and cancer . (bvsalud.org)
  • Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase that will hydrolyze proteins with a broad specificity for peptide bonds, but will preferentially cleave at the carboxyl side of Arg-Arg bonds in small molecule substrates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The activity of Cathepsin B is determined by its ability to cleave the fluorogenic peptide substrate, Z-Leu-Arg-AMC (Z=Benzyloxycarbonyl, and AMC=7-amino-4-methylcoumarin) after activation. (biolegend.com)
  • The SensoLyte® 440 Cathepsin B Assay Kit provides a fluorogenic peptide for measurement of enzyme activity. (eurogentec.com)
  • This peptide releases the AMC (7-amino-4-methylcoumarin) fluorophore upon cathepsin B cleavage and can be detected with excitation at 354 nm and emission at 442 nm. (eurogentec.com)
  • Synthetic peptide surrounding aa 140 of mouse cathepsins D. (covalab.com)
  • Cathepsin E functions by breaking down proteins through the hydrolysis of peptide bonds at a specific peptide sequence site. (medchemexpress.com)
  • One of the less explored is the milk enzyme cathepsin D, proteolytic enzyme located in the lysosomes, which are an integral part of the somatic cells whose number varies depending on the animal's health. (srce.hr)
  • Cathepsins B, H and L have become important therapeutic targets as their proteolytic activity has been implicated in several pathological inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis and periodontitis. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 2. Frizler M, Schmitz J, Schulz-Fincke AC, Gütschow M. (2012) Selective nitrile inhibitors to modulate the proteolytic synergism of cathepsins S and F. J Med Chem , 55 (12): 5982-6. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • However, cathepsin D can have both anti- and pro- survival functions depending on its proteolytic activity, cellular context and stress stimulus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cathepsin zymography separates different cathepsins based on their migration through a polyacrylamide gel co-polymerized with a gelatin substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The substrate Nα-CBZ-Arg-Arg-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin is used for the fluorometric detection of Cathepsin B activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Add 50 μl of the diluted, activated Cathepsin B (0.0025 µg/well) to a black well and start the reaction by adding 50 μl of 40 μM substrate. (biolegend.com)
  • Sensitive fluorogenic substrate for the quantitative determination of cathepsin B activity. (emdmillipore.com)
  • There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone resorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objectives: To investigate serum biomarkers, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAcP5b) and cathepsin K, indicative of osteoclastic bone resorption, and their relationship to pain and pain change in knee osteoarthritis (OA). (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Unlike some of the other cathepsins, cathepsin D has some protease activity at neutral pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • CTS protease activity also measured by zymograph electrophoresis of Cathepsins. (histoready.com)
  • Cathepsin B, also known as CTSB, is a lysosomal cysteine protease. (biolegend.com)
  • While most cathepsins are exclusively endopeptidases, CTSB exhibits both carboxypeptidase and endopeptidase activities. (biolegend.com)
  • Lysosomal cathepsin B (CTSB) has been proposed to play a role in the induction of acute inflammation. (frontiersin.org)
  • These observations suggest that during Mtb infection, lysosomal release of activated CTSB and possibly other cathepsins inhibitable by CA07-Me is critical for the induction of inflammasome-mediated IL-1β processing by regulating NLRP3-inflammasome assembly in the cytosol. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cathepsin B (CTSB), a lysosomal cysteine protease, plays an important role in human physiology and pathology. (jcancer.org)
  • This study establishes the primary structure of human skin chymase and provides further evidence for the presence of a cathepsin G-like proteinase within human mast cells. (duke.edu)
  • 2. Dilute the recombinant mouse Cathepsin B to 0.05 μg/ml in assay buffer (25 mM MES, pH 5.0). (biolegend.com)
  • In addition, a broad range of other Cathepsin Assays , Cathepsin Inhibitors as well as recombinant Cathepsins , Cathepsin antibodies & ELISAs also useful to study SARS-CoV infections (e.g. (promocell.com)
  • Cathepsin D (an aspartyl protease) appears to cleave a variety of substrates such as fibronectin and laminin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin K, among other cathepsins, plays a role in cancer metastasis through the degradation of the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background:Serum cathepsin B activity has been considered a potential marker of tumor progression. (medscimonit.com)
  • The aim of this study was to assess serum cathepsin activity during tumor progression and regression.Material/Methods: Of 60 female rats inoculated with Morris hepatoma cells, 45 were treated with BRT, and the remaining 15 were left without treatment. (medscimonit.com)
  • Serum cathepsin B activity was determined, tumor volumes were measured, and histological examinations of the tumor tissues were performed.Results: Of the 45 BRT-treated rats, tumor regression was observed in 31 rats, and serum cathepsin activity was analyzed in these rats. (medscimonit.com)
  • Conclusions: Cathepsin B may play an important role, not only in tumor expansion, but also during the processes of cancer cell death and resorption. (medscimonit.com)
  • Wang J, Zheng M, Yang X, Zhou X, Zhang S. The Role of Cathepsin B in Pathophysiologies of Non-tumor and Tumor tissues: A Systematic Review. (jcancer.org)
  • Nevertheless, recent reports suggest that Cathepsin B executes other cellular programs such as controlling tumor growth, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastases development. (edu.rs)
  • Underneath a façade of an intracellular protease with limited therapeutic potential hides a central role of cathepsins in extracellular functions. (edu.rs)
  • Here we discuss the role of Cathepsin B in the oncogenic process and perspective the use of Cathepsin B for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. (edu.rs)
  • In particular, cathepsin D is often overexpressed and hypersecreted in cancer cells , implying it may constitute a therapeutic target. (bvsalud.org)
  • The cathepsin A activity in lysates of metastatic lesions of malignant melanoma is significantly higher than in primary focus lysates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Five cyclic peptides show inhibitory activity towards human cathepsins L, B, H, and K. Several inhibitors have reached clinical trials, targeting cathepsins K and S as promising therapeutics for osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and chronic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This procedure applies to all products that have a specification for Cathepsin B activity, such as product numbers C0150 and C8571 , determined by the liberation of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin from Z-Arg-Arg 7-amido-4-methylcoumarin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin B activity was selectively elevated early in the course of illness. (jci.org)
  • Muscle wasting and impaired contractility associated with sepsis may involve selective prostaglandin stimulation of cathepsin B activity. (jci.org)
  • Immunohistochemical investigations on cathepsin D activity in structures of cholesteatoma. (medscimonit.com)
  • Results: Serum TRAcP5b activity, but not cathepsin K-immunoreactivity, was associated with density of TRAcP-positive osteoclasts in the subchondral bone of medial tibia plateaux. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Cathepsin G Protease Assay for compound screening and profiling via fluorescence-based quantification of enzyme activity. (reactionbiology.com)
  • Cathepsins B and L are involved in matrix degradation and cell invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • And Cathepsin E plays an important role in the degradation of proteins, the generation of bioactive proteins, and antigen processing [2] . (medchemexpress.com)
  • Cathepsin L-deficient mice were shown to have less adipose tissue, lower serum glucose and insulin levels, more insulin receptor subunits, more glucose transporter (GLUT4) and more fibronectin than wild type controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • To compare the levels of Dynamin and Cathepsin L in serum and urine of participants with proteinuric kidney disease to those of normal controls. (wits.ac.za)
  • Methods A prospective study of 37 patients with proteinuric kidney disease versus a healthy control group of 40 individuals, where the serum and urine levels of Cathepsin L and Dynamin were determined using an Enzyme Linked immunosorbent assay and the levels compared between the two groups. (wits.ac.za)
  • An independent sample t-test was used to assess whether the mean serum Dynamin, urine Dynamin, serum Cathepsin L and urine Cathepsin L differed for the control group compared with kidney disease group. (wits.ac.za)
  • There was no difference in the levels of serum Cathepsin L between the renal disease and the control groups (p= 0.23). (wits.ac.za)
  • Intracellular electrolyte changes may involve prostaglandin synthesis but do not require cathepsin B activation. (jci.org)
  • As an intracellular, hydrolytic aspartic protease, Cathepsin E is mainly expressed in cells of the immune and gastrointestinal systems, lymphoid tissues, erythrocytes, and cancer cells [1] . (medchemexpress.com)
  • UP-cDNA demonstrating amplification products for cathepsin G did not demonstrate amplification products for human neutrophil elastase, suggesting that the cathepsin G PCR amplification product was not derived from neutrophils or monocytes possibly contaminating the lesion. (duke.edu)
  • Cathepsin B has also been implicated in the progression of various human tumors including ovarian cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse cathepsin L is homologous to human cathepsin V. Mouse cathepsin L has been shown to play a role in adipogenesis and glucose intolerance in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hier sind Cathepsin G Antikörper für eine Vielzahl von Species wie anti-Human Cathepsin G, anti-Rat Cathepsin G, anti-Mouse Cathepsin G zu finden. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Buy Purified Native Human Cathepsin G (CatG), Human Neutrophil. (athensresearch.com)
  • This random approach for the design of inhibitors was introduced to compensate for the inaccuracy induced by shifted docking of combinatorial compound collections at the active center of cathepsin L. Thereby, we obtained structurally defined pentapeptide amides which inhibited human cathepsin L at nanomolar concentrations. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Determination of the primary structures of human skin chymase and cathepsin G from cutaneous mast cells of urticaria pigmentosa lesions. (duke.edu)
  • Amplification of the same UP-cDNA with primers coding for the NH2- and COOH-terminal sequences of human neutrophil cathepsin G also produced a specific amplification product which was sequenced. (duke.edu)
  • Cathepsin D has garnered increased attention in recent years, mainly since it has been associated with several human pathologies . (bvsalud.org)
  • Cathepsin L levels were elevated in the urine of the renal disease group, in keeping with the notion that Cathepsin L proteolysis plays a critical role in the various forms of proteinuria. (wits.ac.za)
  • In this review , we provide an overview of the role of cathepsin D in physiological and pathological scenarios. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mouse Cathepsin B, amino acids (His18-Phe339) (Accession# P10605), with C-terminal 10x His tag, was expressed in CHO cells. (biolegend.com)
  • Cathepsin K has also been shown to play a role in arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emphasis is given to the role of the yeast protease Pep4p, the vacuolar counterpart of cathepsin D , in life and death . (bvsalud.org)
  • Role of engineered metal oxide nanoparticle agglomeration in reactive oxygen species generation and cathepsin B release in NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pulmonary toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, specific particle parameters, i.e. preexposure dispersion status and particle surface area, of two ENM (NiO and CeO2) were used to evaluate the role of ROS generation and cathepsin B release during ENM-induced toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • The cysteine cathepsins have attracted significant research effort as drug targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hier sind Cathepsin G Antikörper zu finden, welche für eine bestimmte Anwendung wie WB, FACS, ELISA, IHC validiert wurde. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • In fact, elevated levels of Cathepsins are found under different pathological conditions including inflammation, infection, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. (edu.rs)
  • Therefore, a more detailed understanding of cathepsin D regulation and how to modulate its apoptotic functions is clearly needed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Elevated levels of cathepsin B were detected in metastases and neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). (eurogentec.com)
  • Stroke Traumatic brain injury Alzheimer's disease Arthritis Ebola, Cathepsin B and to a lesser extent cathepsin L have been found to be necessary for the virus to enter host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) You stated that there is a lack of information on other SNPs of cathepsin, after a few minutes in Clarivate's Web of Science a paper was found (10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.08.063) describing an extra cathepsin mutation (Q334P) possibly involved in pancreatitis, though not tropical calcific pancreatitis. (peerj.com)
  • A New Analytical Method for Determination of Cathepsin L Based on the Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Biosensor. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The expression of cathepsin K in cultured endothelial cells is regulated by shear stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further experiments conducted using a parental and bone-homing subclone of the MDAMB231 cell line (MDAMB213BO) have shown that the expression of CD44, cathepsin K and MT1MMP is elevated in the MDAMB231BO cells relative to their parental counterparts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CpG DNA inhibits the proliferation of pro-B, but not pre-B, cells by inducing caspase-independent cell death through a pathway that requires the expression of cathepsin B. This pathway is operative in Rag-deficient mice carrying an SP6 transgene, in which B lymphopoiesis is compromised, to reduce the size of the B lymphocyte precursor compartments in the bone marrow. (pasteur.fr)
  • The genetic knockout for cathepsin S and K in mice with atherosclerosis was shown to reduce the size of atherosclerotic lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tatò, Maia Lucia (2019): Untersuchungen zur Rolle von Cathepsin S beim experimentellen und humanen Systemischen Lupus Erythematodes. (uni-muenchen.de)