A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.
An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC (Formerly EC
A cysteine protease that is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS and plays an essential role in BONE RESORPTION as a potent EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX-degrading enzyme.
A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.
An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.
A papain-like cysteine protease that has specificity for amino terminal dipeptides. The enzyme plays a role in the activation of several pro-inflammatory serine proteases by removal of their aminoterminal inhibitory dipeptides. Genetic mutations that cause loss of cathepsin C activity in humans are associated with PAPILLON-LEFEVRE DISEASE.
A lysosomal papain-related cysteine proteinase that is expressed in a broad variety of cell types.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine peptidase that exhibits carboxypeptidase activity. It is highly expressed in a variety of immune cell types and may play a role in inflammatory processes and immune responses.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A cysteine endopeptidase found in NATURAL KILLER CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES. It may have a specific function in the mechanism or regulation of cytolytic activity of immune cells.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC and EC
N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.
A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC
An intracellular cystatin subtype that is found in a broad variety of cell types. It is a cytosolic enzyme inhibitor that protects the cell against the proteolytic action of lysosomal enzymes such as CATHEPSINS.
A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
A cytastin subtype found at high levels in the SKIN and in BLOOD CELLS. Cystatin A incorporates into the cornified cell envelope of stratified squamous epithelial cells and may play a role in bacteriostatic properties of skin.
A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Rare, autosomal recessive disorder occurring between the first and fifth years of life. It is characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma with periodontitis followed by the premature shedding of both deciduous and permanent teeth. Mutations in the gene for CATHEPSIN C have been associated with this disease.
An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An enzyme substrate which permits the measurement of peptide hydrolase activity, e.g. trypsin and thrombin. The enzymes liberate 2-naphthylamine, which is measured by colorimetric procedures.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A subclass of exopeptidases that includes enzymes which cleave either two or three AMINO ACIDS from the end of a peptide chain.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
An activating NK cell lectin-like receptor subfamily that regulates immune responses to INFECTION and NEOPLASMS. Members of this subfamily generally occur as homodimers.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.

Re-entering the translocon from the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum. Studies on mutated carboxypeptidase yscY species. (1/315)

Misfolded or unassembled secretory proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequently degraded by the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system. This requires their retrograde transport from the ER lumen into the cytosol, which is mediated by the Sec61 translocon. It had remained a mystery whether ER-localised soluble proteins are at all capable of re-entering the Sec61 channel de novo or whether a permanent contact of the imported protein with the translocon is a prerequisite for retrograde transport. In this study we analysed two new variants of the mutated yeast carboxypeptidase yscY, CPY*: a carboxy-terminal fusion protein of CPY* and pig liver esterase and a CPY* species carrying an additional glycosylation site at its carboxy-terminus. With these constructs it can be demonstrated that the newly synthesised CPY* chain is not retained in the translocation channel but reaches its ER lumenal side completely. Our data indicate that the Sec61 channel provides the essential pore for protein transport through the ER membrane in either direction; persistent contact with the translocon after import seems not to be required for retrograde transport.  (+info)

The protein disulphide-isomerase family: unravelling a string of folds. (2/315)

The mammalian protein disulphide-isomerase (PDI) family encompasses several highly divergent proteins that are involved in the processing and maturation of secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. These proteins are characterized by the presence of one or more domains of roughly 95-110 amino acids related to the cytoplasmic protein thioredoxin. All but the PDI-D subfamily are composed entirely of repeats of such domains, with at least one domain containing and one domain lacking a redox-active -Cys-Xaa-Xaa-Cys- tetrapeptide. In addition to their known roles as redox catalysts and isomerases, the last few years have revealed additional functions of the PDI proteins, including peptide binding, cell adhesion and perhaps chaperone activities. Attention is now turning to the non-redox-active domains of the PDIs, which may play an important role in all of the known activities of these proteins. Thus the presence of both redox-active and -inactive domains within these proteins portends a complexity of functions differentially accommodated by the various family members.  (+info)

Ligand recognition and domain structure of Vps10p, a vacuolar protein sorting receptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (3/315)

Vp10p is a receptor that sorts several different vacuolar proteins by cycling between a late Golgi compartment and the endosome. The cytoplasmic tail of Vps10p is necessary for the recycling, whereas the lumenal domain is predicted to interact with the soluble ligands. We have studied ligand binding to Vps10p by introducing deletions in the lumenal region. This region contains two domains with homology to each other. Domain 2 binds carboxypeptidase Y (CPY), proteinase A (PrA) and hybrids of these proteases with invertase. Moreover, we show that aminopeptidase Y (APY) is a ligand of Vps10p. The native proteases compete for binding to domain 2. Binding of CPY(156)-invertase or PrA(137)-invertase, on the other hand, do not interfere with binding of CPY to Vps10p. Furthermore, the Q24RPL27 sequence known to be important for vacuolar sorting of CPY, is of little importance in the Vps10p-dependent sorting of CPY-invertase. Apparently, domain 2 contains two different binding sites; one for APY, CPY and PrA, and one for CPY-invertase and PrA-invertase. The latter interaction seems not to be sequence specific, and we suggest that an unfolded structure in these ligands is recognized by Vps10p.  (+info)

Effect of prolonged administration of a urinary kinase inhibitor, ebelactone B on the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension in rats. (4/315)

The effect of prolonged administration of a carboxypeptidase Y-like kininase inhibitor, ebelactone B (EB) (2-ethyl-3, 11-dihydroxy-4, 6, 8, 10, 12-pentamethyl-9-oxo-6-tetradecenoic 1, 3-lactone), on the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension was tested. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) of non-treated 6-week-old Sprague-Dawley strain rats was gradually increased by DOCA-salt treatment from 137+/-2 mmHg (n=11) to 195+/-7 mmHg at 10 weeks of age. With daily oral administration of lisinopril (5 mg kg(-1), twice a day), which is an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme, a major kininase in plasma, the development of hypertension was not suppressed. By contrast, administration of EB (5 mg kg(-1), twice a day), completely inhibited the development of hypertension (SBP: 146+/-1 mmHg, n=5, 10 weeks old). The reduced SBP at 10 weeks of age was equal to the SBP before any treatment (142+/-1 mmHg, n=5). Direct determination of mean blood pressure (MBP) in conscious, unrestrained rats confirmed that MBP elevation was completely inhibited by EB. Continuous subcutaneous infusion (5 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) of HOE140, a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, restored the elevation of SBP, which was suppressed by EB. The weights of left ventricle of DOCA-salt treated rats 10-weeks-old (0.36+/-0.02 g 100 g body weight(-1), n=11) was significantly reduced by EB (0.27+/-0.01, n=5), as were the sodium levels in serum, cerebrospinal fluid and erythrocyte. These findings suggested that EB is effective in preventing salt-related hypertension presumably by eliminating sodium retention.  (+info)

Stable expression of protective protein/cathepsin A-green fluorescent protein fusion genes in a fibroblastic cell line from a galactosialidosis patient. Model system for revealing the intracellular transport of normal and mutated lysosomal enzymes. (5/315)

Fibroblastic cell lines derived from a galactosialidosis patient, stably expressing the chimaeric green fluorescent protein variant (EGFP) gene fused to the wild-type and mutant human lysosomal protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA) cDNA, were first established as a model system for revealing the sorting and processing of lysosomal enzymes and for investigating the molecular bases of their deficiencies. In the cell line expressing the wild-type PPCA-EGFP chimaera gene (EGFP-PPwild), an 81 kDa form (27 kDa EGFP fused to the C-terminus of the 54 kDa PPCA precursor) was produced, then processed into the mature 32/20 kDa two-chain form free of the EGFP domain. The intracellular cathepsin A, alpha-N-acetylneuraminidase and beta-galactosidase activities, which are deficient in the parent fibroblastic cells, could also be significantly restored in the cells. In contrast with the uniform and strong fluorescence throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus in the mock-cell line expressing only EGFP cDNA, weak reticular and punctate fluorescence was distributed throughout the EGFP-PPwild cell line. Bafilomycin A1, a potent inhibitor of vacuolar ATPase and intracellular acidification, induced the distribution of Golgi-like perinuclear fluorescence throughout the living and fixed cells, in which only the 81 kDa product was detected. After removal of the agent, time-dependent transport of the chimaeric protein from the Golgi apparatus to the prelysosomal structure in living cells was monitored with a confocal laser scanning microscope system. Leupeptin caused the distribution of lysosome-like granular fluorescence throughout the cytoplasm in the fixed cells, although it was hardly observed in living cells. The latter agent also dose-dependently induced an increase in the intracellular amount of the 81 kDa product containing the EGFP domain and inhibited the restoration of cathepsin A activity in the EGFP-PPwild cells after the removal of bafilomycin A1. In parallel, both the mature two-chain form and PPCA function disappeared. These results suggested that the chimaera gene product was transported to acidic compartments (endosomes/lysosomes), where proteolytic processing of the PPCA precursor/zymogen, quenching of the fluorescence, and random degradation of the EGFP portion occurred. A cell line stably expressing a chimaeric gene with a mutant PPCA cDNA containing an A1184-->G (Y395C) mutation, commonly detected in Japanese severe early-infantile type of galactosialidosis patients, showed an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like reticular fluorescence pattern. The PPCA-immunoreactive gene product was hardly detected in this cell line. The mutant chimaeric product was suggested to be degraded rapidly in the ER before transport to post-ER compartments. A cell line expressing the chimaeric gene with a T746-->A (Y249N) PPCA mutation exhibited both ER-like reticular and granular fluorescence on the reticular structure that was stronger than that in the EGFP-PPwild cells. Some of them contained large fluorescent inclusion-body-like structures. The ineffectiveness of transport inhibitors in the distribution changes in the two mutant chimaeric proteins suggested that they were not delivered to acidic compartments. Therefore this expression system can possibly be applied to the direct analysis of the sorting defects of mutant gene products in living cells and will be useful for the molecular investigation of lysosomal diseases, including galactosialidosis.  (+info)

Contribution of the carbohydrate moiety to conformational stability of the carboxypeptidase Y high pressure study. (6/315)

The process of pressure-induced denaturation of carboxypeptidase Y and the role of the carbohydrate moiety in its response to pressure and low temperature were investigated by measuring in situ the catalytic activity and, the intrinsic and 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid binding fluorescences. Pressure-induced denaturation of carboxypeptidase Y is a process involving at least three transitions. Low pressures (below 150 MPa) induced slight conformational changes characterized by a slight decrease in the center of the spectral mass of intrinsic fluorescence, whereas no changes in 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid binding fluorescence were observed and 80% of the catalytic activity remained. Higher pressure (150-500 MPa) induced further conformational changes, characterized by a large decrease in the center of the spectral mass of intrinsic fluorescence, a large increase in the 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid binding fluorescence and the loss of all catalytic activity. Thus, this intermediate exhibited characteristics of molten globule-like state. A further increase, in pressure (above 550 MPa) induced transition from this first molten globule-like state to a second molten globule-like state. This two-stage denaturation process can be explained by assuming the existence of two independent structural domains in the carboxypeptidase molecule. A similar three-transition process was found for unglycosylated carboxypeptidase Y, but, the first two transitions clearly occurred at lower pressures than those for glycosylated carboxypeptidase Y. These findings indicate that the carbohydrate moiety protects carboxypeptidase Y against pressure-induced denaturation. The origin of the protective effects is discussed based on the known crystallographic structure of CPY.  (+info)

Crystal structure of human gastric lipase and model of lysosomal acid lipase, two lipolytic enzymes of medical interest. (7/315)

Fat digestion in humans requires not only the classical pancreatic lipase but also gastric lipase, which is stable and active despite the highly acidic stomach environment. We report here the structure of recombinant human gastric lipase at 3.0-A resolution, the first structure to be described within the mammalian acid lipase family. This globular enzyme (379 residues) consists of a core domain belonging to the alpha/beta hydrolase-fold family and a "cap" domain, which is analogous to that present in serine carboxypeptidases. It possesses a classical catalytic triad (Ser-153, His-353, Asp-324) and an oxyanion hole (NH groups of Gln-154 and Leu-67). Four N-glycosylation sites were identified on the electron density maps. The catalytic serine is deeply buried under a segment consisting of 30 residues, which can be defined as a lid and belonging to the cap domain. The displacement of the lid is necessary for the substrates to have access to Ser-153. A phosphonate inhibitor was positioned in the active site that clearly suggests the location of the hydrophobic substrate binding site. The lysosomal acid lipase was modeled by homology, and possible explanations for some previously reported mutations leading to the cholesterol ester storage disease are given based on the present model.  (+info)

The phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding protein Vac1p interacts with a Rab GTPase and a Sec1p homologue to facilitate vesicle-mediated vacuolar protein sorting. (8/315)

Activated GTP-bound Rab proteins are thought to interact with effectors to elicit vesicle targeting and fusion events. Vesicle-associated v-SNARE and target membrane t-SNARE proteins are also involved in vesicular transport. Little is known about the functional relationship between Rabs and SNARE protein complexes. We have constructed an activated allele of VPS21, a yeast Rab protein involved in vacuolar protein sorting, and demonstrated an allele-specific interaction between Vps21p and Vac1p. Vac1p was found to bind the Sec1p homologue Vps45p. Although no association between Vps21p and Vps45p was seen, a genetic interaction between VPS21 and VPS45 was observed. Vac1p contains a zinc-binding FYVE finger that may bind phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P]. In other FYVE domain proteins, this motif and PtdIns(3)P are necessary for membrane association. Vac1 proteins with mutant FYVE fingers still associated with membranes but showed vacuolar protein sorting defects and reduced interactions with Vps45p and activated Vps21p. Vac1p membrane association was not dependent on PtdIns(3)P, Pep12p, Vps21p, Vps45p, or the PtdIns 3-kinase, Vps34p. Vac1p FYVE finger mutant missorting phenotypes were suppressed by a defective allele of VPS34. These data indicate that PtdIns(3)P may perform a regulatory role, possibly involved in mediating Vac1p protein-protein interactions. We propose that activated-Vps21p interacts with its effector, Vac1p, which interacts with Vps45p to regulate the Golgi to endosome SNARE complex.  (+info)

PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Lysosomal Storage Disorders are a class of inherited metabolic conditions that result from alterations in the function of lysosomal enzymes. One example is GM1 Gangliosidosis (GM1), a disorder in which the activity of β-galactosidase is deficient resulting in neurodegeneration and early death. The enzyme, β-gal, is a member of the Lysosomal Multienzyme Complex (LMC), which transports proteins to the lysosome and enables various functions. LMC members include β-gal, α-neuraminidase and the Protective Protein Cathepsin A (PPCA). In a unique ovine model of GM1, there is a primary deficiency in the activity of β- galactosidase and a secondary deficiency in α-neuraminidase activity. The cause of the secondary deficiency in α-neuraminidase activity, which is not seen in any other animal model of GM1, is currently unknown. The α-neuraminidase protein is coded for by the NEU1 gene and is, a glycohydrolitic enzyme that is active in the lysosome. The secondary deficiency of α- neuraminidase seen in our
Cathepsin A is a ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional lysosomal protein. In the lysosome, it binds to neuraminidase and β-galactosidase to activate the former and stabilize the latter, functions that led to the term lysosomal protective protein. It also possesses serine carboxypeptidase activity at acidic pH as well as deamidase and esterase activities at neutral pH. Mutations that disrupt its protective functions are known to cause the lysosomal storage disease, galactosialidosis, in humans (summarized by Hiraiwa [1]). However, its enzymatic activity has garnered the most attention in recent years. Although localized to lysosomes intracellularly, cathepsin A can also be secreted. Extracellularly, it is capable of degrading many bioactive peptides that function in the cardiovascular system, including endothelin-1, bradykinin, and angiotensin I. Because the enzymatic activity of cathepsin A can be targeted separately from its protective functions (2), there has been interest for at ...
Lysosomal serine carboxypeptidase Cathepsin A (CTSA) is a multifunctional enzyme with distinct protective and catalytic function. CTSA that is present in the lysosomal multienzyme complex facilitates correct lysosomal routing, stability and activation of betagalactosidase and alpha-neuraminidase. In addition, CTSA plays a role in the inactivation of bioactive peptides including bradykinin, substances P, oxytocin, angiotensin I and endothelin-I by cleavage of one or two amino acid(s) from the C-terminal ends. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the regulatory role of CTSA on bioactive peptides in a knock-in mouse model of CTSAS190A. We evaluated the levels of bradykinin, substances P, oxytocin, angiotensin I and endothelin-I in the kidney, liver, lung, brain and serum of the CTSAS190A mouse model at three- and six-months of age. Our results suggest that CTSA selectively contributes to the processing of bioactive peptides in different tissues of CTSAS190A mice compared to those of age-matched wild
Galactosialidosis (MIM 256540) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a defect of the protective protein/cathepsin A. Increased amounts of urinary sialic acid-rich oligosaccharides are considered to be an essential diagnostic marker of the disease. We here report a patient with atypical clinical features who consistently has excreted normal amounts of sialyloligosaccharides in the urine. The boy started to have attacks of neuropathic pain associated with hyperesthesia around 1(1/2) years of age. From 4 years of age when his vision was first tested, the patient developed progressive visual loss and at the age of 10 years, macular cherry-red spots were found. At this age, he also had a mild learning disability and clinical examination showed mild facial coarsening, increased lumbar lordosis and pyramidal signs in the legs. In conclusion, the clinical and laboratory features of this patient show that galactosialidosis may be considered in patients even in the absence of ...
VPS10 (Vacuolar Protein Sorting) encodes a large type I transmembrane protein (Vps10p), involved in the sorting of the soluble vacuolar hydrolase carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae lysosome-like vacuole. Cells lacking Vps10p missorted greater than 90% CPY and 50% of another vacuolar hydrolase, PrA, to the cell surface. In vitro equilibrium binding studies established that the 1,380-amino acid lumenal domain of Vps10p binds CPY precursor in a 1:1 stoichiometry, further supporting the assignment of Vps10p as the CPY sorting receptor. Vps10p has been immunolocalized to the late-Golgi compartment where CPY is sorted away from the secretory pathway. Vps10p is synthesized at a rate 20-fold lower that that of its ligand CPY, which in light of the 1:1 binding stoichiometry, requires that Vps10p must recycle and perform multiple rounds of CPY sorting. The 164-amino acid Vps10p cytosolic domain is involved in receptor trafficking, as deletion of this domain resulted in delivery of ...
Research from the University of Southampton, in collaboration with colleagues at A*STAR in Singapore, has provided new understanding of a protein which plays an important role in protecting bacterial cells associated with harmful infections.
(Medical Xpress) -- A protein produced by the central nervous system’s support cells seems to play two opposing roles in protecting nerve cells from damage, an animal study by Johns Hopkins researchers suggests: Decreasing ...
To gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying miRNA-induced protection, we probed several target protective proteins that are implicated in IPC, including eNOS, iNOS, HSP70, and the HSP70 transcription factor HSF-1. As shown in Figure 3A, induction of eNOS mRNA (61±6.7%) was detected in the IPC-miRNA group 2 hours following treatment. However, no changes in iNOS mRNA were observed. Western blot analysis confirmed a significant upregulation in eNOS protein (62.0±6.7%) and HSF-1 (42.7±3.0%) 4 hours after IPC-miRNA treatment. HSP70 was also significantly increased (102.3±8.9%) 48 hours after IPC-miRNA treatment. Again, similar to mRNA, iNOS protein was not significantly changed (Figure 3C and 3D).. Despite potential species differences in cardioprotection,7 it is widely known that the protective effects of IPC occur in an early phase that develops rapidly after the initial stimulus but dissipates within 2 to 3 hours and a late phase that becomes apparent 12 to 24 hours later and ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Molecular Innovations \ HUMAN PLASMA PROTEINS Cathepsin H, Human Liver \ HCH for more molecular products just contact us
May be involved in the digestion of phagocytosed particles in the lysosome, participation in an inflammatory protease cascade, and trimming of peptides for antigen presentation.
A first-time capable integration in a PCB inner layer a high-voltage human protective component up to 200.000 Volt by polymer thick film technology was produced by German PCB manufacturer Wuerth Elektronik.
Organelle inheritance is one of several processes that occur during cell division. Recent studies on yeast vacuole inheritance have indicated rules that probably apply to most organelle-inheritance pathways. They have uncovered a molecular mechanism for membrane-cargo transport that is partially con …
Sorting nexin required to maintain late-Golgi resident enzymes in their proper location by recycling molecules from the prevacuolar ...
Page contains details about [email protected] . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
18 Des 2017 - Sewa Apartemen di Santa Eugènia, Spanyol mulai dari Rp271950/malam. Temukan tempat menginap unik dengan tuan rumah setempat di 191 negara. Serasa di rumah di mana saja bersama Airbnb.
did you cpy and paste it to the ticker writing then copied it all together into the signiture ????? I am not to clever in that department ...
Galactosialidosis is a condition that affects many areas of the body. The three forms of galactosialidosis are distinguished by the age at which symptoms develop and the pattern of features.. The early infantile form of galactosialidosis is associated with extensive swelling caused by fluid accumulation before birth (hydrops fetalis), a soft out-pouching in the lower abdomen (an inguinal hernia), and an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly). Additional features of this form include abnormal bone development (dysostosis multiplex) and distinctive facial features that are often described as coarse. Some infants have an enlarged heart (cardiomegaly); an eye abnormality called a cherry-red spot, which can be identified with an eye examination; and kidney disease that can progress to kidney failure. Infants with this form usually are diagnosed between birth and 3 months; they typically live into late infancy.. The late infantile form of galactosialidosis shares some features with the early ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transforming growth factor-beta protection of cancer cells against tumor necrosis factor cytotoxicity is counteracted by hyaluronidase (review).. AU - Chang, N. S.. PY - 1998/12. Y1 - 1998/12. N2 - Numerous cancer cells, when exposed to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), become resistant to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) cytotoxicity. Pretreatment of L929 fibroblasts, for example, with TGF-beta isoforms (beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3) for at least 0.5-1 h results in resistance to TNF killing. TGF-beta 1 mediates the following sequential events in L929 cells: i) rapid induction of protein tyrosine-phosphorylation (, 30 min), ii) stimulation of protective protein synthesis and acquisition of TNF resistance (approximately 0.5-1 h), and iii) suppression of I kappa B-alpha expression (1-2 h). Two protective proteins induced by TGF-beta 1 are a 46 kDa extracellular matrix TNF-resistance triggering (TRT) protein and a putative transmembrane anti-apoptotic adhesion protein TIF2 ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nascent carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is directed into the endoplasmic reticulum by an NH2-terminal signal peptide that is removed befor
BPC-157 2mg/5mg Healing Peptides BPC-157 is a long peptide have 15 amino acids, it is derived from a protective protein found in the stomach. It is a signalling peptide; it signals for certain processes to take place in the body. BPC-157 protects...
View mouse Vps37d Chr5:135072900-135078266 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Worth mentioning because the same themes kept coming up. Specifically, there was quite a bit about everyone developing their own list of false positive variants/genes and how to filter SNPs adequately. Generally, its agreed that (1) there is a subset of variants and genes that show up in nearly every sequencing experiment and therefore are more likely false positives than anything else (they dont tend to validate, either) and (2) that dbSNP is too inclusive of disease samples and lacking adequate phenomic info to be used as a blind filter. Ive personally always told people to use dbSNP as a guide. Never dismiss a variant just because its in dbSNP. You can look at the non-dbSNP variants first if you want, since those might be the jackpot spots, but if you find nothing there, try looking in those in dbSNP ...
The reactions between yeast carboxypeptidase C and the group-specific reagents, phenylglyoxal and iodoacetamide, have been studied in detail and the reactions of residue at the active site with N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone and diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate have been confirmed. Modification of the enzyme by either phenylglyoxal or iodoacetamide results in the loss of peptidase activity, while esterase activity remains unchanged. Inactivation by phenylglyoxal appears to be the result of the modification of a single arginine residue, whereas inhibition by iodoacetamide can be correlated with the modification of a single methionine residue. Inactivation of the enzyme by either N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone or diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate is the result of the modification of a single histidine and a single serine residue, respectively. The pattern of inhibition indicates certain analogies in the mechanism of yeast carboxypeptidase C to pancreatic chymotrypsin, on the ...
Functions as a sorting receptor in the Golgi compartment required for the intracellular sorting and delivery of soluble vacuolar proteins, like carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) and proteinase A.
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Introduction This article includes discussion of sialidosis, cherry-red spot myoclonus syndrome, glycoprotein neuraminidase deficiency,…
Cited for: VARIANTS SIALIDOSIS VAL-68; GLY-182; ARG-227; ARG-240; TYR-260; PHE-270; VAL-298; SER-328 AND PRO-363; CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANTS SIALIDOSIS VAL-68; GLY-182; ARG-227; TYR-260; PHE-270; VAL-298; SER-328 AND PRO-363; Novel missense mutations in the human lysosomal sialidase gene in sialidosis patients and prediction of structural alterations of mutant enzymes. ...
Several sRNA on the same phagemid : Although our silencing small RNAs were assembled in phagemids with Gibson assembly, the Biobricks cutting sites included in our BBG adapter method provide full modularity. In our case a direct application is the assembly of multiple silencing modules (promotor+sRNA+terminator) on a single phagemid vector. As the main clinical problem with bacteria is multi or even pan-resistance this modularity provide an interesting strategy to explore as it allows simultaneous downregulation of multiple target genes. Building a library of sRNA : As our silencing strategy rely on base pair complementarity, a main concern from the clinical point of view would be the fast emergence of resistances to silencing through single point mutations. Indeed even if the majority of mutations that would decrease the efficiency of the silencing would also lead to an impaired or non functionnal protective protein, some neutral mutations will still be made possible by the redundancy of the ...
Mathematicians and scientists from two UK universities have collaborated to shed new light on the process of viral replication during an infection.. Experimentalists from the University of Leeds and mathematicians from the University of York devised a mathematical model that gives new insights into the molecular mechanisms behind virus assembly, helping to explain the efficiency of their operation.. Researchers from the Departments of Mathematics and Biology at the University of York have developed a theoretical basis for the speed and efficiency with which viruses assemble the protective proteins for their genetic information - in this case an RNA molecule - during an infection.. The team incorporated multiple specific contacts between the genomic RNA and the proteins in the containers, along with other details of real virus infections, into a mathematical model that demonstrates how these contacts act collectively to reduce the complexity of virus formation.. They thus solved a longstanding ...
abnormal absence according achieved acid actively addition already alteration altered analyzed anatomic anatomy animal anti antibody appeared appears artery assessed assessment basic birth body brain capsule carotid cauterization cells child chronic coil color comprehensive compromised concentrations consequence consistent contaminations contra corpus corrected correlated cortex cortical days death decrease decreases detect development diffusion drift efficient encoded evidence explain external feasible female females field fond formation foundation frequency function gestation gives glutamate gradient gradients growth highly hypoxia immature impairment in vivo individually infant inflammatory injected injured injury investigation kept lesion loss magnet male males maps materials matrix measure metabolic metabolism metabolite minutes model models national neuronal observe obvious outer persisting pixel positive preparation presence protective protein pups rats recovery related reported residual ...
Mitch Leslie http://sageke.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sageke;2003/42/nw144 Key Words: cardiac fibrosis cardiomyocytes apoptosis. Abstract: Like a flame slowly burning through a piece of wood, inflammation gnaws at the heart, sapping its pumping power. A new study suggests that a protective protein fashioned by the heart works by quashing an inflammation-sparking molecule. The finding could guide researchers to treatments that prevent heart failure, the number one cardiac killer among the elderly.. Citation: M. Leslie, Quench a Burning Heart. Sci. SAGE KE 2003 (42), nw144 (2003). ...
Artist: Eugène Atget (French, Libourne 1857-1927 Paris) Date: 1910 Medium: Albumen silver print from glass negative Accession: 1990.1026.1 On view in:Not on view ...
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It has been suggested that the Golgi localization of GRIP-golgin in mammalian cells is dependent on the homo-dimerization of the GRIP domain, the interaction of the GRIP domain with activated Arl1, and the interaction of the GRIP domain with membrane phospholipids (Lu et al., 2006; Panic et al., 2003; Setty et al., 2003; Wu et al., 2004). In the current study, we found that the C-terminal region of Imh1p (Imh1-C177) is sufficient to maintain Arl1p at the trans-Golgi (Fig. 1E). To investigate whether the dimerization of Imh1p is required for its Golgi targeting as well as stabilizing of Arl1p on the Golgi, we generated Imh1p mutants with increasing large truncations of the coiled-coil region. The GRIP domain comprises the C-terminal 62 residues of Imh1p (Kjer-Nielsen et al., 1999). We therefore constructed Imh1-GRIP, Imh1-C89, Imh1-C177, and Imh1-C213, each of which possess an intact GRIP domain without or with part of the coiled-coil region (Fig. 5A). First, we performed two different yeast ...
Experiments show that the tardigrades resilience can be transferred to cultures of human cells.. […]. Now, a paper1 published on 20 September in Nature Communications pinpoints the source of yet another tardigrade superpower: a protective protein that provides resistance to damaging X-rays. And researchers were able to transfer that resistance to human cells.. Tolerance against X-ray is thought to be a side-product of [the] animals adaption to severe dehydration, says lead study author Takekazu Kunieda, a molecular biologist at the University of Tokyo. According to Kunieda, severe dehydration wreaks havoc on the molecules in living things. It can even tear apart DNA, much like X-rays can.. The researchers wanted to know how tardigrades protected themselves against such harsh conditions. So Kunieda and his colleagues began by sequencing the genome of Ramazzottius varieornatus, a species that is particularly stress tolerant. Its easier to study processes within the tardigrades cells when ...
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Individuals with deficiencies of these factors or platelets exhibit to bleed; they do not bleed more very likely than people without these conditions, but it is justifiable more difficult allowing for regarding the clot to form, and bleeding cannot be stopped easily. J Biol Chem 282:12377В-12387 Schurigt U, Schad C, Glowa C, Baum U, Thomale K, Schnitzer JK, Schultheis M, Schaschke N, Schirmeister T, Moll H (2010) Aziridine-2,3-dicarboxylate-based cysteine cathepsin inhibitors bring about apartment death in Leishmania crucial associated with accumulation of debris in autophagy- kindred lysosome-like vacuoles. What if benzol levels are really uttermost greater discount pilex 60 caps with mastercard prostate cancer oncologist. In physiological terms, interactions between natural networks result in changes chief to another form of equilibrium that okay better coping with the unfamiliar condition. Morbidity statistics are revised less frequently because of the formidableness in defining or obtaining ...
carboxypeptidase L: Cathepsin A (also named protective protein and carboxypeptidase L) stabilizes beta-galactosidase and activates neuraminidase by forming with them a high-molecular-weight lysosomal complex
Vacuolar Membrane Protein; Transits Through The Biosynthetic Vacuolar Protein Sorting Pathway, Involved In Sphingolipid Metabolism; Cells Lacking Ncr1p Exhibit High Levels Of Long Chain Bases (LCB), Similar To The Accumulation Of High Amounts Of Lipids Observed In Patients With Neimann-Pick C, A Disease Caused By Loss-of-function Mutations In NPC1, The Functional Ortholog Of Ncr1p
During the process of sporulation, a/α diploids degrade about 50% of their vegetative proteins. This degradation is not sporulation specific, for asporogenous diploids of a/a mating type degrade their vegetative proteins in a fashion similar to that of their a/α counterparts. Diploids lacking carboxypeptidase Y activity, prc1/prc1, show about 80% of wild-type levels of protein degradation, but are unimpaired in the production of normal asci. Diploids lacking proteinase B activity, prb1/prb1, show about 50% of wild-type levels of protein degradation. The effect on degradation of the proteinase B deficiency is epistatic to the degradation deficit attributable to the carboxypeptidase Y deficiency. The prb1 homozygotes undergo meiosis and produce spores, but the asci and, possibly, the spores are abnormal. Diploids homozygous for the pleiotropic pep4-3 mutation show only 30% of the wild-type levels of degradation when exposed to a sporulation regimen, and do not undergo meiosis or sporulation. ...
Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | The authors report a 5-year follow-up examination of two sisters diagnosed as having a juvenile form of type II sialidosis. Diagnosis occurred during a routine ophthalmic examination when the girls were 5 and 3 years old after bilateral macular cherry-red spots were revealed. Main clinical findings were hypotonia, hepatosplenomegaly, hearing loss, dysostosis, and respiratory distress. Ophthalmic
BGA : Aiding in the diagnosis of GM1 gangliosidosis, Morquio B disease, and galactosialidosis   This test is not suitable for carrier detection.
Introduction. Are Viruses Alive? What is a Virus? Viruses are very small microorganisms, much smaller than bacteria. They are among the smallest organisms known and consist of a fragment of genetic material inside a protective protein coat. Viruses can only reproduce inside host cells and as a result, they damage the cell when they do this. Once a virus has invaded a cell, it then takes over and makes copies of itself. Eventually the copies of the virus fill the whole host cell, causing it to burst open. The viruses are then passed out in the bloodstream, the airways, or by other routes. ...read more. Middle. They are arranged in a precise and highly repetitive pattern around the nucleic acid. A single type of capsomere or several chemically distinct types may make up the capsid. 3. Some viruses contain an envelope. An envelope is a membrane-like structure that encloses the nucleocapsid and is obtained from a host cell during the replication process. The envelope contains viral-specified ...
When reoviruses infect a cell, they induce that cell to secrete chemicals that both cause its own death and initiate the bodys immune response against that cell. Normal cells can protect themselves from this onslaught by secreting their own protective protein called PKR. However, many types of cancer cells inactivate PKR, leaving them vulnerable to reovirus attack.. In this study, the researchers took the growth media from dying reovirus-infected human melanoma cells and administered that extract to new tumor cells. Even in the absence of live virus, immune cells were recruited to attack the cancer cells.. Although this line of attack is only in the preliminary stages, I wonder if eventually doctors will be able to brew up great vats of cancer-fighting reovirus media. ...
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Artist: Eugène Atget (French, Libourne 1857-1927 Paris) Date: ca. 1910 Medium: Albumen silver print from glass negative Accession: 1990.1026.2 On view in:Not on view ...
thats a common mechanism in enzymes, not only in carboxypeptidase. However, the point is, there are several of these weak bonds and their sum is strong enough to stretch the peptide causing to be better to hydrolyse ...
1HYT: Redetermination and refinement of the complex of benzylsuccinic acid with thermolysin and its relation to the complex with carboxypeptidase A.
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Naša spletna stran uporablja piškotke. Brez njih vam ne moremo zagotoviti pravilnega delovanja in prikaza vsebine. Več o naših piškotkih ...
Of these hydrolytic enzymes, cathepsin K is of most importance. Cathepsin K and other cathepsins[edit]. Cathepsin K is a ... Several other cathepsins are expressed in osteoclasts including cathepsins B, C, D, E, G, and L. The function of these cysteine ... characterised by a lack of functional cathepsin K expression. Knockout studies of cathepsin K in mice lead to an osteopetrotic ... Studies on cathepsin L knockout mice have been mixed, with a report of reduced trabecular bone in homozygous and heterozygous ...
... , Histones & Cathepsin; PMAP The Proteolysis Map-animation [ Recent chromatin publications and news] Protocol for in ...
... s were discovered in 1884 by Albrecht Kossel.[17] The word "histone" dates from the late 19th century and is derived from the German word "Histon", a word itself of uncertain origin - perhaps from the Greek histanai or histos. In the early 1960s, before the types of histones were known and before histones were known to be highly conserved across taxonomically diverse organisms, James F. Bonner and his collaborators began a study of these proteins that were known to be tightly associated with the DNA in the nucleus of higher organisms.[18] Bonner and his postdoctoral fellow Ru Chih C. Huang showed that isolated chromatin would not support RNA transcription in the test tube, but if the histones were extracted from the chromatin, RNA could be transcribed from the remaining DNA.[19] Their paper became a citation classic.[20] Paul T'so and James Bonner had called together a World Congress on Histone Chemistry and Biology in 1964, in which it became clear that there was no consensus on the ...
... collagenases such as cathepsin B1; and hyaluronidase. PSGAG inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2, which is released upon ...
Cathepsin A Breddam, K. (1986). "Serine carboxypeptidases. A review". Carlsberg Res. Commun. 51: 83-128. doi:10.1007/bf02907561 ... Miller JJ, Changaris DG, Levy RS (December 1992). "Purification, subunit structure and inhibitor profile of cathepsin A". ... Carboxypeptidase C (EC, carboxypeptidase Y, serine carboxypeptidase I, cathepsin A, lysosomal protective protein, ...
Cathepsin E. TALE homeodomain transcription factors. Hydrocortisone. Since keratinocyte differentiation inhibits keratinocyte ... "The role of cathepsin E in terminal differentiation of keratinocytes". Biological Chemistry. 392 (6): 571-85. doi:10.1515/BC. ...
Cathepsin D is involved in CLN10. DNA analysis can be used to help confirm the diagnosis of Batten disease. When the mutation ...
Mediation by cathepsin G has been suggested. The treatment of RAS usually involves administering dexamethasone IV, with the ...
... these include cathepsin L, papain, and procaricain. It forms an alpha-helical domain that runs through the substrate-binding ...
"Cathepsins as transcriptional activators? Developmental Cell 2004, 6(5):610-1. Goulet B, and Nepveu A. "Complete and Limited ...
Lushbaugh WB, Hofbauer AF, Pittman FE (June 1985). "Entamoeba histolytica: purification of cathepsin B". Experimental ...
The protein is able to form a dimer stabilized by noncovalent forces, inhibiting papain and cathepsins l, h and b. The protein ... 1994). "Cathepsin B activity in human lung tumor cell lines: ultrastructural localization, pH sensitivity, and inhibitor status ... 1988). "Cathepsin D inactivates cysteine proteinase inhibitors, cystatins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 154 (2): 765-72. doi ... Cystatin B has been shown to interact with Cathepsin B. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000160213 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ...
These cysteine proteases include calpain, caspase, and cathepsin. These three proteins are examples of detectable signs of ...
It is an inhibitor of cathepsin K, an enzyme involved in bone resorption. The drug was developed by Merck & Co. The phase III ... Le Gall, C. L.; Bonnelye, E.; Clézardin, P. (2008). "Cathepsin K inhibitors as treatment of bone metastasis". Current Opinion ... February 2008). "The discovery of odanacatib (MK-0822), a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18 (3 ...
... α: cathepsin L-like protein in sponge biosilica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95(11), pp.6234- ... Silicateins are homologous to the cysteine protease cathepsin. In sponges, the silicatein enzymes reside in the axial filaments ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... 2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ... by proteases such as cathepsins. Collagen is a component of epithelial and endothelial basement membranes. Endostatin, as a ...
Cathepsin A is also required for normal elastin biosynthesis. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000170266 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... The elastin receptor complex includes S-Gal, neuraminidase and Cathepsin A. When elastin-derived peptides bind to the S-Gal ... cathepsin) A is required for proper elastic fiber formation and inactivation of endothelin-1". Circulation. 117 (15): 1973-81. ...
Under the direction of Joseph S. Fruton, Jones' dissertation research involved the catalytic properties of cathepsin C, a type ... She pursued these interests by studying androsterone and monopalmitin at Armour, and cathepsin C at Yale. Jones worked as ... Her doctorate was entitled: Transamidation reactions catalyzed by cathepsin C. Jones completed her studies in three years ... Transamidation Reactions Catalyzed by Cathepsin C. Yale University, 1952. Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L. ( ...
McDonald JK, Zeitman BB, Reilly TJ, Ellis S (May 1969). "New observations on the substrate specificity of cathepsin C ( ... Planta RJ, Gorter J, Gruber M (September 1964). "The catalytic properties of cathepsin C". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ... Dipeptidyl peptidase I (EC, cathepsin C, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase I, dipeptidyl transferase, dipeptide arylamidase I ... Metroione RM, Neves AG, Fruton JS (May 1966). "Purification and properties of dipeptidyl transferase (Cathepsin C)". ...
1982). "Action of rat liver cathepsin L on glucagon". Acta Biol. Med. Ger. 40 (9): 1139-43. PMID 7340337. Kaushal GP, Walker PD ...
... cathepsin G and proteinase 3. Phthalimide derivatives were seen to be inactive, while saccharin derivatives were seen to be ... cathepsin G and proteinase 3". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 3 (2): 187-193. doi:10.1016/0968-0896(95)00013-7. PMID 7796053 ...
It is cleavable by cathepsin and safe for therapy. Trastuzumab emtansine is a combination of the microtubule-formation ...
2000). "Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII". EMBO J. 19 (6): 1187-94. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.6.1187. ...
1990). "Generation of human endothelin by cathepsin E." FEBS Lett. 273 (1-2): 99-102. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(90)81060-2. PMID ...
... contains cathepsin B, lysozymes, chymotrypsin, neutrophil elastase and cytokines, which aid the immune system. According ... Frohlich E, Schaumburg-Lever G, Klessen C (1993). "Immunelectron microscopic localization of cathepsin B in human exocrine ...
Cathepsin B and L play a crucial role in arthritic cartilage degeneration. The inhibitor of cathepsin isolated from this fungus ... The fungal metabolite, aurantiamide acetate, has been isolated from Aspergillus penicillioides, as a cathepsin inhibitor. ... a Selective Cathepsin Inhibitor, Produced by Aspergillus penicillioides". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 65 (5): ...
... cathepsin G". Blood. 93 (6): 2089-97. doi:10.1182/blood.V93.6.2089.406k10_2089_2097. PMID 10068683. Tan J, Prakash MD, ... antitrypsin to inhibit cathepsin proteases". Biochemistry. 41 (15): 4998-5004. doi:10.1021/bi0159985. PMID 11939796. Schick C, ... "Squamous cell carcinoma antigen 2 is a novel serpin that inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteinases cathepsin G and mast cell ... "DNA accelerates the inhibition of human cathepsin V by serpins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (51): 36980-6. doi: ...
BACE1, BACE2 Cathepsin D Cathepsin E Chymosin (or "rennin") Napsin-A Nepenthesin Pepsin Presenilin Renin BACE1; BACE2; CTSD; ... Eukaryotic aspartic proteases include pepsins, cathepsins, and renins. They have a two-domain structure, arising from ancestral ... Cathepsin D". In Rawlings ND, Salvesen G (eds.). Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes (Third ed.). Academic Press. pp. 54-63. doi: ...
2000). "Cathepsin G activates protease-activated receptor-4 in human platelets". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (10): 6819-23. doi:10.1074/ ...
In humans, the group of cathepsin cysteine proteases or cysteine cathepsins comprises 11 family members, cathepsins B, C, F, H ... Examination of cathepsin activity by using chemical probes and in vivo imaging techniques demonstrated an increase in cathepsin ... Cathepsins also can be secreted by cells, associate with the cell surface, and degrade the ECM. A study of all 11 members of ... Cathepsin L is active at neutral pH by associating with a p41 splice variant of the MHC class II-associated invariant chain ...
50 ug Blocing Peptide for Active Cathepsin L Polyclonal Antibody (3741-100). ... Cathepsin L (Cleaved). Formulation. In phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 30% glycerol, 0.5% BSA, 5 mM EDTA and 0.03% ... The peptide is used for blocking the antibody activity of active Cathepsin L-cleaved (Cat # 3741). It usually blocks the ... 50 ug Blocing Peptide for Active Cathepsin L Polyclonal Antibody (3741-100). ...
Hen the other was PubMed ID:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21331946 essentially looking at the object.This implies that only when the others relation for the object as well as the distinction to participants personal relation have been highlighted by way of joint interest did they quit their egocentric reference frame to adopt an allocentric reference frame.We suggest that taking an allocentric perspective implies a change inside the processes that people use to mentally manipulate objects.In single attention, exactly where an egocentric perspective was held, the mental transformation job was likely solved through motor imagery, whereby participants imagined moving their very own hand to match the position on the rotated hand (de Lange et al.; Kosslyn et al.; Parsons a, b, , Parsons et al.; Wexler et al).In contrast, in joint attention, the allocentric reference frame enabled participants to map a rotated hand onto the others body axis (Amorim et al.; Lakoff and Johnson ; Tversky).The ...
Pression and pAkt Thr308 (nc) is actually a constructive and independent predictor of TTP and OSt. Positive predictive value of Akt2 expression for the outcome of targeted antitumour therapy has been previously described. On a sample of 402 ER constructive breast cancer individuals, Kirkergaard et al showed substantially longer survival inside a group with tumours presenting robust cytoplasmic expression of Akt2 (HR 1.eight, CI 95 1.142.97, P=0.0115) (23). Youll find two attributes Metribuzin Autophagy frequent to our and Kirgergaard et al patient samples. First, all patients were treated with targeted therapy, i.e., a therapy that impacts Akt signalling pathway (35). We utilised antiHER2 therapy with trastuzumab, Kirgergaard et al applied antiER endocrine therapy with tamoxifen. Second, Akt expression was determined on major, i.e., treatment na e tumours. Consequently, we may hypothesize that the reduction of Akt signalling pathway activity by targeted remedy may Laurdan Epigenetics possibly ...
three DNA binding domaincontaining protein (RAP2.eight), AP2 domaincontaining protein (ERF002), and anthree DNA binding ...
Shing procedures is denying PLWHIV of PubMed ID:http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/156/3/591 their fundamental reproductive rights. This study ...
Phorylates sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is converted back again to sphingosine by S1P-phosphatase ...
T adjuvants, the exception being chitosan. IN-immunisation with gp140 provided a more balanced Th1/Th2 ...
Alias: CTSK(Cathepsin K)/CTSO/CTS02/Cathepsin X/Cathepsin O/Cathepsin O2 ... Pig CTSK(Cathepsin K) ELISA Kit. Pig CTSK(Cathepsin K) ELISA Kit ... Rat CTSD(Cathepsin D) ELISA Kit. *Rat CTSG(Cathepsin G) ELISA ... Should the Rat Cathepsin K (CTSK) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement. ... Should the Rat Cathepsin K (CTSK) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement. ...
All primate lentiviruses recognized to date contain one or two open reading frames with homology to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene. divergent. The gene from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes a 96-amino-acid protein with multiple functions in the viral life cycle. The first reported role for was a moderate transactivation influence on the viral promoter, the lengthy terminal do it Cyclosporine again (LTR) (13). HIV-1 mutants with deletions in replicate with slower kinetics than wild-type infections perform (5, 14). Vpr can be encapsidated into virions in significant quantities (1, 12, 57). The current presence of in the viral particle facilitates effective disease of macrophages and additional non-dividing cells (14, 17, 23) by mediating energetic nuclear transfer of preintegration complexes (16, 44). Furthermore, the current presence of enhances the transcriptional Cyclosporine activity of the viral LTR in T and macrophages cells, allowing the creation of ...
We compared and analyzed 16S rRNA and gene sequences for 97 clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) by use of the GenBank, MicroSeq, EzTaxon, and BIBI databases. with >0.8% separation between species. Analysis of the gene proved to be AG14361 more discriminative for certain CNS species; further, this method exhibited better variation in the identification of CNS BTF2 clinical isolates. INTRODUCTION Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are normal inhabitants of human skin and mucous membranes and have been considered previously as culture contaminants (31). However, CNS have emerged as significant pathogens (26), especially in immunocompromised patients (3), in premature neonates in intensive-care models (8, 16), and in patients who have undergone complex medical procedures involving the implantation of prosthetic or cardiac devices or indwelling catheters (25, 26). One of the frequently isolated CNS species, gene, which encodes the elongation factor Tu, is an essential ...
MUC13 is a newly identified transmembrane mucin. MUC13 at proteins and RNA amounts. These research demonstrate a substantial upsurge in MUC13 appearance in metastatic cancer of the colon and recommend a relationship between aberrant MUC13 SIGLEC5 localization (cytoplasmic and nuclear appearance) and metastatic cancer of the colon. Keywords: mucin, MUC13, cancer of the colon metastasis, immunohistochemistry Worldwide, colorectal cancers is increasing in lots of areas with around 1.2 million new colorectal cancer cases and 609,000 fatalities this year 2010 (Jemal et al. 2010). In america, colorectal cancers remains the 3rd most common and third most lethal cancers in men and women (Siegel 895519-91-2 IC50 et al. 2011). Cancer of the colon patients have got a 5-calendar year survival rate as high as 90% if diagnosed at an early on stage; nevertheless, the 5-calendar year survival price declines to significantly less than 10% when cancers is identified as having metastasis to faraway organs (Siegel ...
Provided the complexity of individual pathophysiology and responsiveness to antiplatelet agents, although a great number of of clinical evidence continues to be accumulated plus some of these are changing our practice, we are definately not mastering the golden major to take care of individual patient specifically. Many large-scale, randomized studies didnt demonstrate the scientific benefit of workers customized antiplatelet therapy, indicating that each risk may not be well approximated.[8,9] To resolve this problem, weve quite a distance to go. Initial, more extensive predictor model ought to be built to understand the global threat of thrombosis and blood loss for an individual individual. Taking into consideration the diversity from the buy Arctiin real-world practice, plenty of top quality data is required to deduce a perfect model. Fortunately, fast advancement on big data evaluation and artificial cleverness (AI) technique provides great help this work. In the foreseeable future, it ...
Supplementary Materials Supplementary Data supp_40_10_4615__index. the manifestation of both miR-26 and CTDSP family members, enhanced the ppRb level and advertised the G1/S-phase transition. Our findings focus on the practical association of miR-26a/b and their sponsor genes and provide new insight into the regulatory network of the G1/S-phase transition. Intro MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a class of endogenously indicated, small non-coding RNAs that cause translational repression and/or mRNA destabilization by binding to the 3-untranslated areas (3-UTRs) of the prospective mRNAs (1). Approximately 40% of most miRNAs can be found within intronic parts of protein-coding transcriptional systems (TUs) (2). Evaluation of 175 individual miRNAs across 24 different individual organs reveals which the appearance of intronic miRNAs generally coincides using the transcription of their web host TUs (3), indicating that the intronic miRNAs and their web host genes could be co-regulated and so are generated ...
This study tested the hypothesis that ABT-888 (velparib), a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, can modulate temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in recurrent TMZ refractory glioblastoma patients. 28 time TMZ (150-200 mg/m2) timetable was known from 12772-57-5 supplier prior studies (arm 2). Two cohorts had been examined: bevacizumab (BEV) na?ve (n=151), and BEV refractory (n=74). Overall ten sufferers had been ineligible. The occurrence price of quality 3/4 myelosuppression over-all was 20.0%. For the BEV refractory cohort, the PFS 6 was 4.4%; for the BEV na?ve cohort, PFS6 was 17%. General survival was very similar for both hands in both BEV na?ve (median success period (MST) 10.3M; 95% CI, 8.4-12) and BEV refractory cohort (MST 4.7 M; 95%CI, 3.5-5.6). The median PFS was fundamentally the same for both hands and both cohorts at ~2.0M (95% CI, 1.9-2.1). [14]. For the choice hypothesis, the PFS6 price was place at 30%. The analysis was made to offer 90% power for the recognition of the 15% ...
A portion of HIV-infected sufferers under therapy with protease inhibitors (HIV PIs) concomitantly consume or abuse alcohol resulting in hepatic injury. and buy 1038395-65-1 lopinavir or alcoholic beverages alone treatment elevated mRNA of spliced Xbp1 and reduced SERCA, that have been accompanied by decreased degrees of intracellular calcium mineral. Alcohol combined with HIV drugs considerably reduced intracellular calcium mineral amounts and potentiated cell loss of life, which was much like the cell loss of life due to the SERCA inhibitor-thapsigargin. Our results suggest the chance that HIV PIs potentiate alcohol-induced ER tension and damage through modulation of SERCA and preserving calcium homeostasis ought to be a healing aim for an improved care of HIV individuals. Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption continues to be a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide1, 2. Chronic alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) includes a spectrum of liver diseases, from fatty liver or simple ...
Background In contrast to the prominent function of the blood vasculature in promoting tissue inflammation, the part of lymphatic vessels in inflammation has been scarcely analyzed em in vivo /em . provide a novel strategy for the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. strong class="kwd-title" Keywords: Lymphangiogenesis, VEGFR-3, colitis Intro The major functions of the lymphatic vasculature are the drainage of interstitial cells fluid and its return to the blood circulation as well as the mediation of the transport of immune cells and antigens to the lymph nodes (1). Lymphatic vessels facilitate the spread of malignancy metastases to lymph nodes (2) and so are involved with chronic irritation (3) and transplant rejection (4). Vascular endothelial development aspect receptor 3 (VEGFR-3, FLT4) buy Shikonin is really a tyrosine kinase receptor portrayed on developing embryonic arteries (5), some angiogenic arteries (6) and adult lymphatic vessels. Binding of its ...
What does cath mean? Catholic. (abbreviation)
Evidence That Inhibition of Cathepsin-B Contributes to the Neuroprotective Properties of Caspase Inhibitor Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp- ... Evidence That Inhibition of Cathepsin-B Contributes to the Neuroprotective Properties of Caspase Inhibitor Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp- ...
High levels of cathepsin D and cystatin B are associated with increased risk of coronary events. Author ... High levels of cathepsin D and cystatin B are associated with increased risk of coronary events. ... Matrix metalloproteinases have been shown to be markers for cardiovascular disease whereas the members of the cathepsin ...
Hematopoietic ramifications of interferon- (IFN-) could be responsible for specific areas of the pathology observed in bone marrow failure syndromes, including aplastic anemia (AA), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and some forms of myelodysplasia (MDS). individuals reveals the presence of many similarities that may reflect molecular signature of in vivo IFN- exposure. Introduction Bone marrow failure syndromes, including some forms of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and aplastic anemia (AA) are characterized by a serious defect in the stem- and progenitor-cell compartments.1 Clinically, this defect is reflected by cytopenias and has been quantitated AR-C69931 small molecule kinase inhibitor using circulation cytometry,2,3 hematopoietic colony ethnicities,3,4 and long-term culture-initiating cells (LTCICs).5-9 Many clinical associations exist between bone marrow failure syndromes. For example, MDS (especially including monosomy 7 and trisomy ...
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. study indicated that FWGE exhibited potential to suppress HepG2, Hep3B, and HepJ5 cells, with the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of FWGE were 0.494, 0.371 and 1.524?mg/mL, respectively. FWGE also induced Poly (Adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) associated cell death in Hep3B cells. Moreover, the FWGE treatment further enhanced the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in all tested HCC cells, and cytotoxicity of 5-Fu in a synergistic manner in HepJ5 cells. Collectively, the results identified the anti-tumor efficacy of FWGE in HCC cells and suggested that FWGE can be used as a supplement to effectively improve the tumor suppression efficiency of cisplatin and 5-Fu in HCC cells. 1. Introduction Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and stands in the second place of malignancy death [1], particularly in eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa [2]. The ...
Resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to have a renoprotective effect against diabetic nephropathy, however the underlying mechanisms of the never have been elucidated fully. activation and TGF-1 manifestation (P 0.05). In diabetic rats, RSV reduced blood sugar considerably, serum creatinine and urinary albumin amounts, aswell as the kidney pounds and percentage of kidney pounds/body weight weighed against the control group (P 0.05). Furthermore, RSV ameliorated renal histological adjustments and downregulated the manifestation of p-p38, Fibronectin and TGF-1 in the kidneys of diabetic rats. These data recommended that RSV shielded renal cells from diabetes-induced damage and that activity could be via inhibition from the p38 MAPK/TGF-1 signaling pathway. and and diabetes-induced adjustments in renal function and histological adjustments access to regular water and food and had been acclimated for a week prior to the beginning of the study. Diabetes was induced using a single dose (55 mg/kg) of ...
PDB Description: human cathepsin g. PDB Compounds: (A:) cathepsin G. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d1au8a_:. Sequence; same for ... Protein Cathepsin G [50548] (1 species) *Species Human (Homo sapiens) [TaxId:9606] [50549] (4 PDB entries) *Domain d1au8a_: ... d1au8a_ b.47.1.2 (A:) Cathepsin G {Human (Homo sapiens) [TaxId: 9606]} ...
High cathepsin B activity, but not cathepsin H activity, was also observed in the patients with GBS, CIDP, and MS. CONCLUSION: ... Cystatin C and cathepsin B in CSF from patients with inflammatory neurologic diseases. Nagai, A., Murakawa, Y., Terashima, M., ... Decreased levels of cystatin C may be related to the high levels of cathepsin B activity seen in the CSF of patients with GBS, ... METHODS: Cystatin C concentration and cathepsin B and H activities were measured in CSF samples taken from patients during the ...
Role of cathepsin B-mediated apoptosis in fulminant hepatic failure in mice ...
cathepsin C, transcript variant 1. Gene Symbol Aliases. CTSC. CPPI, DPP-I, DPP1, DPPI, HMS, JP, JPD, PALS, PDON1, PLS. ...
Cathepsin D in tissue and serum of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.. Aspartic proteinase cathepsin D ... Cathepsin D in tissue and serum of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Strojan, P., Budihna, M., Smid, ... To estimate a potential prognostic value of cathepsin D in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, its total ...
Cathepsin G Catalog No: 186-10 Form: Liquid 186-10. Human Neutrophils. > 90% (SDS-PAGE). Liquid. More Info. ...
Inflammatory Monocytes Promote Perineural Invasion Via CCL2-Mediated Recruitment and Cathepsin B Expression Cancer Research. 11 ...
  • We hypothesize that cysteine cathepsins, a group of powerful extracellular matrix proteases, facilitate endometrial tissue invasion and endometriosis lesion establishment in the peritoneal wall and inhibiting this activity would decrease endometriosis lesion implantation. (nih.gov)
  • Intraperitoneal injection of the broad cysteine cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, significantly reduced the number of attached endometriosis lesions in our murine model compared to vehicle-treated controls demonstrating that cathepsin proteases contribute to endometriosis lesion establishment, and their inhibition may provide a novel, nonhormonal therapy for endometriosis. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsins are proteases, which are enzymes that are responsible for degrading proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Dubbed "cathepsin cannibalism," the phenomenon may help explain problems with drugs that have been developed to inhibit the effects of these powerful proteases. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsin K degrades both collagen and elastin, and is one of the most powerful proteases. (innovations-report.com)
  • There is growing recognition that alternative proteolytic enzymes such as the lysosomal cathepsin proteases may initiate or propagate proapoptotic signals, but it is currently unclear how cathepsins mediate apoptosis. (biovision.com)
  • Lysosomes contain many well-characterized proteases, and cathepsin B has previously been utilized to release chemotherapeutics in the context of targetable antibody-based treatments. (bloodjournal.org)
  • SerpinB1 is a potent inhibitor of neutrophil serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G (CG). (bloodjournal.org)
  • 6 , 7 Interestingly, noncaspase cysteine proteases calpain and cathepsin D were reported to induce PMN apoptosis through activation of caspases. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 8 ⇓ ⇓ - 11 In addition, PMNs carry a unique set of serine proteases (neutrophil serine proteases [NSPs]) including elastase (NE), cathepsin G (CG), and proteinase-3 (PR3) stored active in primary granules. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In this review we discuss recent advances addressing the role of lysosomal proteases in the diverse aspects of the immune response, and also the involvement of cathepsins in the pathogenesis of diseases in which these proteases seem not to be properly under control. (smw.ch)
  • Cathepsin B is an ancient family of eukaryotic cysteine proteases. (apsnet.org)
  • Our findings provide evidence for the highly specialized functions of closely related cysteine cathepsin proteases in extra-embryonic development, and reinforce their importance for a successful outcome of pregnancy. (biologists.org)
  • Two of the genes identified from this screen were the cathepsin proteases Cts7 and Cts8 . (biologists.org)
  • Cathepsin cysteine proteases are effectors of invasive growth and angiogenesis during multistage tumorigenesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cathepsins are lysosomal proteases that breakdown peptide bonds linked to specific amino acids. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cathepsin B is the first described member of the family of lysosomal cysteine proteases. (neuromics.com)
  • Here we adopt a novel in silico target fishing method to reveal the target profile of RD. Cathepsin K (Ctsk) is one of the cysteine proteases that is over-expressed in osteoclasts and accounts for the increase in bone resorption in metabolic bone disorders such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. (mdpi.com)
  • Though cytokines and phagocyte, as host factors, have been shown to participate in defence against Aspergillus species yet the role of cysteine proteases, that is cathepsins, a lysosomal enzymes of phagocytes, remains unknown in fungal infection. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Cathepsins are cysteine proteases, act as endopeptidases and are mainly involved in intracellular protein degradation and involved in large number of diseases [ 11 , 12 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Cathepsin D is an aspartic endo-protease that is ubiquitously distributed in lysosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • [13] Cathepsin-D is an aspartic protease that depends critically on protonation of its active site Asp residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with Asp-protonation, lower pH also leads to conformational switch in cathepsin-D : the N-terminal segment of the protease moves out of the active site as pH drops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin D (an aspartyl protease) appears to cleave a variety of substrates such as fibronectin and laminin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike some of the other cathepsins, cathepsin D has some protease activity at neutral pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin B is a papain-like cysteine protease showing both endo- and exopeptidase activity, the latter due to a unique occluding loop that restricts access to the active site cleft. (rcsb.org)
  • The chagasin-cathepsin B complex provides a structural framework for modeling and design of inhibitors for cruzipain, the parasite cysteine protease and a virulence factor in Chagas disease. (rcsb.org)
  • Cathepsin Protease Inhibition Reduces Endometriosis Lesion Establishment. (nih.gov)
  • All types of cathepsin are classified into three of these protease families. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsin S is a cysteine protease and regulator of autophagy with possible involvement in periodontitis. (hindawi.com)
  • The cathepsin S protease is implicated in generation of chronic pain by releasing a cytokine. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we report that in peripheral nerve-injured rats, the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) is critical for the maintenance of neuropathic pain and spinal microglia activation. (pnas.org)
  • We have recently found that after peripheral nerve injury, the mRNA for the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) was up-regulated in the DRG because of CatS expression in infiltrating macrophages ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The lysosomal cysteine protease, cathepsin S, is increased in Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome brain: an immunocytochemical study," American Journal of Pathology , vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 848-860, 1995. (hindawi.com)
  • Mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans having about 10% of wild-type activity of the aspartyl protease cathepsin D have been isolated by screening. (genetics.org)
  • Cathepsin L is a potent cysteine protease engaged in degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We evaluated the activity and expression of cathepsin L, and the inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors in the umbilical cord arteries, vein and Wharton's jelly. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin L activity and anti-papain inhibitory effect of cysteine protease inhibitors were quantified in extracts of separated umbilical cord tissues using fluorogenic substrates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin B kit detects protease activity within whole living cells as a marker of intracellular cathepsin B activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin B, K, and L protease activities can be detected within whole living cells using substrate-based fluorescent assays, which utilize cathepsin target sequence peptides, derivatives of the cresyl violet fluorophore, conjugated to Magic Red™ (MR) fluorogenic substrate (cresyl violet). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B is thought to play a central role in intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation and the onset of experimental pancreatitis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cathepsin G (CatG) is a chymotrypsin-like protease released upon degranulation of neutrophils. (mdpi.com)
  • Cathepsin K (CatK) is a lysosomal protease with collagenolytic activity, and its secretion by osteoclasts is responsible for degrading organic bone matrix. (wiley.com)
  • Recent work shows that the cysteine protease cathepsin S (Cat S) is required for the terminal step in CLIP formation in B cells and most dendritic cells (DCs), and in vitro can mediate all steps of digestion of class II-Ii complexes ( 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cathepsin-D (Cat-D) is a lysosomal protease that is present at elevated levels in amyloid plaques and neurons in patients with AD and is also elevated in some cancers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Serine protease inhibitor serpinB1 protects neutrophils by inhibition of their own azurophil granule protease cathepsin G. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Combined deletion of cathepsin protease family members reveals compensatory mechanisms in cancer. (springer.com)
  • Arampatzidou M, Rehders M, Dauth S, Yu DMT, Tedelind S, Brix K. Imaging of protease functions-current guide to spotting cysteine cathepsins in classical and novel scenes of action in mammalian epithelial cells and tissues. (springer.com)
  • However, we here report an unexpected finding that cysteine protease genes of the family cathepsin B are massively amplified in the lineage of aphids, and that many of the protease genes exhibit gut-specific over-expression. (inria.fr)
  • Cathepsin F is a cysteine protease that plays a role in invariant chain processing and major histocompatibility complex class II peptide loading by macrophages. (neuromics.com)
  • The protease cathepsin D is one such target involved in several diseases such as tumors, degenerative processes, and vital processes of parasites causing schistosomiasis. (ovid.com)
  • Here, we describe how intracellular sigma peptide modulation of RPTPσ induces enhanced protease Cathepsin B activity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we have found that one important mechanism by which peptide modulation of the receptor enhances axon outgrowth is through secretion of a protease, Cathepsin B, which enables digestion of CSPGs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Identification of a human neutrophil angiotension II-generating protease as cathepsin G. J Clin Invest. (umassmed.edu)
  • Cathepsin D is the lysosomal protease in the retinal pigment epithelium which is presumed to be the major enzyme involved in the degradation of shed discs during the photoreceptor renewal process. (arvojournals.org)
  • This antibody is specific for Cathepsin E. (abcam.com)
  • This antibody reacts with human liver cathepsin D, and does not react with cathepsins B, H and L. (abcam.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Cathepsin K Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-14270, RRID AB_2087668. (thermofisher.com)
  • This antibody reacts with the zymogen as well as the activated form of cathepsin D. It stains fibroblasts and macrophages strongly but stains the myoepithelial cells of breast weakly. (novusbio.com)
  • Cathepsin D Polyclonal antibody specifically detects Cathepsin D in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Cathepsin 6 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Cathepsin 6 in Mouse samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Over-expression of cathepsin D stimulates tumorigenicity and metastasis as well as initiation of tumor apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • [21] [22] Knock-out of CTSD gene would cause intestinal necrosis and hemorrhage and increase apoptosis in thymus , indicating that cathepsin D is required in certain epithelial cells for tissue remodeling and renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Almost all cathepsin activity is found in lysosome organelles, which are a type of organelle responsible for breaking down excess or aging parts of cells and in aiding apoptosis (cell death). (news-medical.net)
  • Although a lysosomal, cathepsin B-dependent (Ctsb-dependent) pathway of apoptosis has been described, the contribution of this pathway to tissue damage remains unclear. (jci.org)
  • Cathepsins are apoptosis markers associated with Alzheimer′s disease, numerous types of cancer, autoimmune arthritis, and the breakdown of bone structure seen with osteoporosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Schwartz-Roberts, Shajahan, Cook, Wärri, Abu-Asab, Clarke: GX15-070 (obatoclax) induces apoptosis and inhibits cathepsin D- and L-mediated autophagosomal lysis in antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This suggests that cathepsin D exerts its apoptosis-stimulating effect upstream of caspase-3-like activation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cathepsin W is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSW gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSD gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin B may function as a beta-secretase 1, cleaving amyloid precursor protein to produce amyloid beta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteoclasts are the bone resorbing cells of the body, and they secrete cathepsin K in order to break down collagen, the major component of the non-mineral protein matrix of the bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • To clarify the mode by which natural protein inhibitors manage to overcome this obstacle, we have analyzed the structure and function of cathepsin B in complexes with the Trypanosoma cruzi inhibitor, chagasin. (rcsb.org)
  • Incubation with the broad cathepsin inhibitor, E-64, completely abolished cathepsin activity detected by zymography identifying the active bands as cysteine cathepsins (A). Cathepsin protein levels in lesions were compared to eutopic uterine tissue by Western blot (B, n = 6). (nih.gov)
  • Each cathepsin works to degrade a different protein, and they have different structures and work via different mechanisms. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsin S was upregulated most strongly and thus further studied in vitro at gene and protein levels. (hindawi.com)
  • When the researchers combined the two cathepsins and allowed them to attack samples of elastin, they expected to see increased degradation of the protein. (innovations-report.com)
  • Barry's modeling suggested that effects observed could occur if cathepsin S were degrading cathepsin K instead of attacking the elastin - a protein essential in arteries and the cardiovascular system. (innovations-report.com)
  • H. Phipps-Yonas, V. Semik, and K. T. Hastings, "GILT expression in B cells diminishes cathepsin S steady-state protein expression and activity," European Journal of Immunology , vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 65-74, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Cathepsin D Kits (99) und Cathepsin D Proteine (58) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Additionally we are shipping Cathepsin D Antibodies (347) and Cathepsin D Proteins (55) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cathepsin H is a disulfide-linked heavy and light chain dimer which belongs to the peptidase C1 protein family, can act both as an aminopeptidase and as an endopeptidase. (scbt.com)
  • cathepsin H Inhibitors offered by Santa Cruz inhibit cathepsin H and, in some cases, other cellular metabolism and protein degradation related proteins. (scbt.com)
  • After 4 days of diabetes, cathepsin B and L activities were decreased by 15-45% when correlated with the levels of glomerular protein or DNA. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cathepsin D is an estrogen-regulated protein associated with tissue breakdown. (genetex.com)
  • Partially purified Cathepsin B protein was inhibited by a variety of peptide inhibitors but evidence of inhibition by several pathogen-derived inhibitors that are secreted during infection was inconclusive. (bl.uk)
  • Mechanistic studies indicated that the absence of CatL reduced lesion chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 content, macrophage and T-cell in vitro transmigration, and angiogenesis, and altered the expression and activities of matrix metalloproteinases and other cysteinyl cathepsins in inflammatory cells, vascular cells, and AAA lesions. (harvard.edu)
  • Active cathepsins, cathepsin inhibitors and cathepsin antibodies are also available. (biovision.com)
  • 75 Cathepsin S (CTSS) Antibodies from 18 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 88 Cathepsin D (CTSD) ELISA Kits from 20 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The main physiological functions of cathepsin D consist of metabolic degradation of intracellular proteins, activation and degradation of polypeptide hormones and growth factors , activation of enzymatic precursors, processing of enzyme activators and inhibitors, brain antigen processing and regulation of programmed cell death . (wikipedia.org)
  • Five cyclic peptides show inhibitory activity towards human cathepsins L, B, H, and K. Zymography is a type of gel electrophoresis that uses a polyacrylamide gel co-polymerized with a substrate in order to detect enzyme activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin T (EC is an enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • All cathepsins are made up of a signal peptide, a propeptide, and a mature functional enzyme that is catalytically active. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers used a variety of tests to determine the amount of each enzyme, including fluorogenic substrate analysis, Western blotting and multiplex cathepsin zymography - a sensitive technique developed in the Platt laboratory. (innovations-report.com)
  • Beyond demonstrating for the first time that cathepsins can attack one another, the research also shows the complexity of the body's enzyme system - and may suggest why drugs designed to inhibit cathepsins haven't worked as intended. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cathepsin D purified from a mutant strain has a lower activity per unit mass of pure enzyme. (genetics.org)
  • The active cathepsin L activity (without activation by pepsin digestion), its percentage in the total activity (after pepsin activation), and the expression of the mature single-chain enzyme were the lowest in the umbilical cord arteries and the highest in Wharton's jelly. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A Novel Dual Fluorochrome Near-Infrared Imaging Probe for Potential Alzheimer's Enzyme Biomarkers-BACE1 and Cathepsin D. Molecules. (harvard.edu)
  • As cathepsin D activity is increased by cigarette smoke, the enzyme may contribute to lung tissue damage in smokers. (genetex.com)
  • We offer various assays to detect and quantify cathepsin, calpain and granzyme B activity and screen for respective enzyme inhibitors. (promocell.com)
  • Cathepsin D was released from lysosomes to the cytosol upon exposure to naphthazarin, and the enzyme activity decreased simultaneously. (diva-portal.org)
  • Later, cathepsin D reappeared in granules of increased size, and enzyme activity was restored. (diva-portal.org)
  • Lysosomal serine carboxypeptidase Cathepsin A (CTSA) is a multifunctional enzyme with distinct protective and catalytic function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Herein, we describe the preparation of a fused silica capillary, cathepsin D (CatD)-immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) using in a multidimensional High Performance Liquid Chromatography-based method (2D-HPLC) and zonal affinity chromatography as an alternative in the search for new ligands. (ovid.com)
  • The prodrug demonstrates enzyme-responsive drug release features, and over 95% GEM was released from the carrier with the Cathepsin B within 3 h. (rsc.org)
  • The presence of a cathepsin B-like enzyme in rabbit ear cartilage was established by the use of the synthetic substrates benzoyl- l -arginine amide and benzoyl- dl -arginine 2-naphthylamide. (biochemj.org)
  • The enzymic properties of cathepsin B in cartilage have been compared with an endogenous enzyme that liberates chondromucopeptide by degrading the cartilage matrix autocatalytically at pH5. (biochemj.org)
  • The experimental evidence indicates that a cathepsin B-like enzyme may be partly responsible for the autolytic degradation of cartilage matrix at pH5. (biochemj.org)
  • It was catalytically active, as demonstrated by active-site-directed radioiodination, and hydrolysed three cathepsin B substrates, two with Km values similar to those of lysosomal cathepsin B. In addition, the rates of inactivation of the sputum and lysosomal forms of the enzyme by L-3-carboxy-2,3-transepoxypropionyl-leucylamido(4-guanidino) butane (Compound E-64) were very similar. (portlandpress.com)
  • However, the sputum enzyme differed from lysosomal cathepsin B in the following respects. (portlandpress.com)
  • Inhibition by chicken cystatin was much weaker for sputum cathepsin B than for the lysosomal enzyme. (portlandpress.com)
  • There were many hurdles in the drug discovery of cathepsin K inhibitors such as species differences not only in bone metabolism but also in amino acid sequences in the critical site of the target enzyme, discrepancies between PK/PD due to unique tissue distribution of the inhibitor affecting both efficacy and side effects originated from a characteristic intracellular or tissue distribution of some classes of compounds. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The cathepsin K inhibitor drug discovery was initiated based on a strong and osteoclast-specific expression of this enzyme. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The data suggest that the higher levels of cathepsin D activity observed in the freshly isolated RPE from the area centralis result from modulators of enzyme activity which are not present in culture. (arvojournals.org)
  • When in the extracellular matrix, cysteine cathepsins, in particular, can degrade the structural components of the ECM, such as collagen or elastin, and contribute to the processing of chemokines, which are molecules that are involved in activating inflammatory immune responses. (news-medical.net)
  • As such, extracellular cysteine cathepsins may be implicated in certain inflammatory diseases such as arthritis or psoriasis and could be important in studying treatments for these types of diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Cysteine cathepsins belong to the papain-like family C1 of clan CA cysteine peptidases. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, cysteine cathepsins are active in pericellular environments as soluble enzymes or bound to cell surface receptors at the plasma membrane, and possibly even within secretory vesicles, the cytosol, mitochondria, and within the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Proteolytic actions performed by cysteine cathepsins are essential in the maintenance of homeostasis and depend heavily upon their correct sorting and trafficking within cells. (nih.gov)
  • This review focuses upon the transport pathways directing cysteine cathepsins to their points of action and thus emphasizes the broader role and functionality of cysteine cathepsins in a number of specific cellular locales. (nih.gov)
  • This review sought to evaluate recent findings in this field, highlighting how among cathepsins, the inhibition of cathepsin S in particular, could play a significant role in diminishing the effects of CVD, especially for patients with CKD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Spi2A defects were ameliorated by cathepsin-B/L inhibition, and by genetic co-deletion of lysosomal cathepsin B. Pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin B/L enhanced EPO-induced red cell formation in normal mice. (rupress.org)
  • A composite docking approach for the identification and characterization of ectosteric inhibitors of cathepsin K. Law S, et al . (nih.gov)
  • The availability of a purified preparation of salmon muscle cathepsins should stimulate interest and research in the characterization of these enzymes and lead to better means for the control of catheptic activity in fish muscle. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Osteocytes express genes required in osteoclasts for bone resorption, including cathepsin K (Ctsk), and lactation elevates their expression. (jci.org)
  • Cathepsin zymography separates different cathepsins based on their migration through a polyacrylamide gel co-polymerized with a gelatin substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gel is then put into an activation buffer of a specific pH and left to incubate overnight at 37 °C. This activation step allows the cathepsins to degrade the gelatin substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hoechst stain can be used to label the cell nuclei after labeling with the MR-Cathepsin B substrate. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • BioVision's newly developed Cathepsin Activity Assay kits are fluorescence-based assays that utilize the preferred substrate sequence for each cathepsin, labeled with AFC (amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin). (biovision.com)
  • Cell lysates or other samples that contain cathepsins will cleave the synthetic substrate to release free AFC. (biovision.com)
  • Cathepsin F has the substrate specificity similar to that of cathepsins L and S. (neuromics.com)
  • The catalytic sites of cathepsin D include two critical aspartic residues ( amino acid 33 and 231) located on the 14 kDa and 34kDa chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pepstatin A pretreatment did not prevent release of cathepsin D from lysosomes but did significantly inhibit subsequent naphthazarin-induced caspase activation and apoptotic morphology. (diva-portal.org)
  • Lysosomes and lysosomal cathepsins in cell death. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cathepsins have a vital role in mammalian cellular turnover, e.g. bone resorption. (genenames.org)
  • Cathepsin K is the most potent mammalian collagenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysteinyl cathepsin K (CatK) is one of the most potent mammalian collagenases involved in cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • The collagenolytic activity of cathepsin K is unique among mammalian proteinases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human AAA lesions express high levels of cathepsin L (CatL), one of the most potent mammalian elastases. (harvard.edu)
  • It is widely held that invasion is facilitated by a membrane or secreted form of cathepsin B that acts outside the cell to degrade ECM components at or adjacent to the surface of the invading cell. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These cells were tested in an in vitro Matrigel invasion assay with membrane-permeant and impermeant inhibitors of cathepsin B. The results, which provided direct proof for the participation of cathepsin B in matrix penetration, also yielded the unexpected finding that an intracellular form of cathepsin B was required for Matrigel invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sputum cathepsin B had greater stability at pH 7.5 and a higher apparent Mr, even after deglycosylation, than lysosomal cathepsin B. We conclude that the form of cathepsin B found in sputum is probably a truncated form of human procathepsin B, with some differences in properties that could be of physiological importance. (portlandpress.com)
  • Elevated levels of cathepsin H correlates with malignant progression of prostate tumors. (scbt.com)
  • Levels of cathepsin D have been positively correlated with recurring breast cancers of both node negative and node positive types. (genetex.com)
  • Cathepsins are intracellular proteinases that hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Surprisingly, at a concentration of 10 μ m , CA-074 slowly permeated the cells, causing an 80-95% inhibition of intracellular cathepsin B after 12 h, the duration of the invasion assay. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The membrane-permeant cathepsin B inhibitor, CA-074 methyl ester, and the higher concentration of CA-074 that inhibited intracellular cathepsin B both significantly reduced Matrigel invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Collectively, these results identify an intracellular role for cathepsin B in matrix degradation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cathepsin K, among other cathepsins, plays a role in cancer metastasis through the degradation of the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin K associates with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Elevated Cathepsin K potentiates metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Cathepsins are involved in disease processes as varied as cancer metastasis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and arthritis. (innovations-report.com)
  • Involvement of cathepsins in the invasion, metastasis and proliferation of cancer cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Cathepsin B is among the candidate proteinases believed to participate in invasion and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Besides caspases, cathepsins have recently been shown to be associated with cell death regulation [6-12] and various other physiological and pathological processes, such as maturation of the MHC class II complex, bone remodelling, keratinocyte differentiation, tumour progression and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, as well as atherosclerosis [13, 14] (table 1). (smw.ch)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 344 Cathepsin D (CTSD) Antikörper von 36 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The purpose of the research reported herein was to develop procedures for the purification of the cathepsin from salmon muscle. (oregonstate.edu)
  • It was decided to attempt the purification of the cathepsin optimally active at pH 3.7. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The purification was accomplished by extracting the salmon muscle cathepsin with two parts 0.2 N KC1. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The purification of cathepsin D from pig uterus by two-step affinity chromatography on concanavalin A- and pepstatin-Sepharose was described previously [Afting & Becker (1981) Biochem. (biochemj.org)
  • Identification of a putative structural gene for cathepsin D in Caenorhabditis elegans. (genetics.org)
  • These data suggest that cad-1 is a structural gene for cathepsin D. (genetics.org)
  • These results suggest that the ecdysone response elements are vital for activation of the promoter by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in the larval fat body and further support the crucial role of ecdysone signaling to control cathepsin D gene transcription. (antibodies-online.com)
  • By making use of EST data, sequenced cDNAs, and genomic trace sequences of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, we identified a total of 28 cathepsin B-like gene copies in the genome of A. pisum. (inria.fr)
  • In addition, this work also implicates Cathepsin B genes in senescence, a developmental form of PCD, via regulation of the senescence marker gene Senescence Associated Gene 12 ( SAG12 ). (bl.uk)
  • These diseases may also involve the degradation of the extracellular matrix by cathepsins. (news-medical.net)
  • Stroke Traumatic brain injury Alzheimer's disease Arthritis Ebola, Cathepsin B and to a lesser extent cathepsin L have been found to be necessary for the virus to enter host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally cathepsin D has been associated with amyloid formation in Alzheimer's plaques. (genetex.com)
  • [7] The main function of cathepsin D is to degrade proteins and activate precursors of bioactive proteins in pre-lysosomal compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are classified in these families based on the amino acids present in the proteins that the cathepsins break down. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsins play a role in the degradation of proteins, energy metabolism, and the body's immune responses, among other functions. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsins break down proteins by cutting the peptide bonds that link amino acids together. (news-medical.net)
  • Cathepsins are important in neurodegenerative diseases as they break down several important proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers for the first time have shown that members of a family of enzymes known as cathepsins - which are implicated in many disease processes - may attack one another instead of the bodily proteins they normally degrade. (innovations-report.com)
  • Because cathepsins have harmful effects on critical proteins such as collagen and elastin, pharmaceutical companies have been developing drugs to inhibit activity of the enzymes, but so far these compounds have had too many side effects to be useful and have failed clinical trials. (innovations-report.com)
  • Using mass spectrometry analysis of cells treated with a pan cathepsin inhibitor, we observed an increased abundance of proteins involved in central carbon metabolism. (mcponline.org)
  • We further demonstrate that incorporating a cathepsin B-cleavable linker between the BIM BH3 peptide and the hydrophobic tail within individual amphiphiles results in increased binding to recombinant BCL-2 proteins while also allowing for increased cellular uptake and mitochondrial localization leading to faster and more potent dose-dependent cytotoxicity and caspase activation in malignant cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • [23] Cathepsin D enzymatic activity induces hydrolytic modification of apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins, including LDL, which means it may be involved in atherosclerosis as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cathepsin A activity in lysates of metastatic lesions of malignant melanoma is significantly higher than in primary focus lysates. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxLDL inhibits differentiation and functional activity of osteoclasts via scavenger receptor-A mediated autophagy and cathepsin K secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Human endometriosis lesions also exhibited greater cathepsin activity than adjacent peritoneum tissue, supporting the mouse results. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting cathepsin activity could block endometriosis lesion attachment and implantation in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Mouse endometriotic lesions exhibit elevated cathepsin proteolytic activity. (nih.gov)
  • E-64 blocks all cathepsin proteolytic activity in murine endometriotic lesions. (nih.gov)
  • Dysregulated cathepsin synthesis and activity have been seen in several diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and inflammatory neurological diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Dysregulated cathepsin activity can result in the overexpression (over-activity) of the cathepsins and cause them to be secreted outside of cells. (news-medical.net)
  • The work could affect not only the development of drugs to inhibit cathepsin activity, but could also lead to a better understanding of how the enzymes work together. (innovations-report.com)
  • By increasing the amount of cathepsin S ten-fold over the amount used in the original experiment, Platt and Barry were able to completely block the activity of cathepsin K, preventing damage to the collagen sample. (innovations-report.com)
  • Platt's long-term research has focused on cathepsins, including the development of sensitive tools and assays to quantify their activity in cells and tissue, as well as potential diagnostic applications for breast, lung and cervical cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • The selective demonstration of cathepsin B activity by means of the naphthylamide reaction. (springer.com)
  • Distribution of the activity and expression of mature cathepsin L within the umbilical cord probably results from distinctions in the proenzyme activation process. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the assay (z-Arginine-Arginine) 2 (z-RR) 2 derivative of the cresyl violet fluorophore easily penetrates the cell membrane and the membranes of the internal cellular organelles enabling to detect cathepsin B activity within whole living cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here we report that loss of cathepsin L (Cts L) is associated with a fast proliferation rate and enhanced glycolytic metabolism that depend on lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity. (mcponline.org)
  • Transient expression of human cathepsin B in a poorly metastatic B16F1 murine melanoma variant produced a 3-5-fold increase in cathepsin B activity and a comparable increase in invasiveness. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For measuring cathepsin B activity by fluorometer or fluorescence plate reader. (promocell.com)
  • This project aims to examine the utility of the proteolytic activity signatures of caspase 1 and cathepsin S (CTSS) as readouts of particle-induced inflammation and to elucidate the role and dynamic regulation of CTSS in response to cellular stress. (bl.uk)
  • Dariusz Szajda S, Jankowski M, Zalewska B, Kożuszko B, Gabrylewski W, Skrzydlewski Z. Activity of cancer procoagulant and cathepsin D in breast cancer. (termedia.pl)
  • Immunohistochemical investigations on cathepsin D activity in structures of cholesteatoma. (medscimonit.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of cathepsin D in the structures of cholesteatoma. (medscimonit.com)
  • Results: Cathepsin D demonstrates high activity in perimatrix cells adjacent to bone tissue, while it occurs in trace amounts in the matrix. (medscimonit.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Serum cathepsin B activity has been considered a potential marker of tumor progression. (lu.se)
  • The aim of this study was to assess serum cathepsin activity during tumor progression and regression. (lu.se)
  • Serum cathepsin B activity was determined, tumor volumes were measured, and. (lu.se)
  • RESULTS: Of the 45 BRT-treated rats, tumor regression was observed in 31 rats, and serum cathepsin activity was analyzed in these rats. (lu.se)
  • The activity profiles of four cathepsins in the kidney and liver tissue were analysed and correlated with blood cytokines level in the presence and absence of antifungal compounds (amphotericin B, a standard drug and 2-(3,4-dimethyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-2-yl)-1-methylethyl pentanoate, isolated in our laboratory from natural source) treatment. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Regional comparisons of cathepsin D activity in bovine retinal pigment epithelium. (arvojournals.org)
  • In this study, the cathepsin D activity in RPE cells from the posterior area centralis was compared to the activity in cells from the equatorial region of the same bovine eyes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Analysis of freshly isolated RPE cells from 30 eyes indicated that cells from the area centralis have significantly higher cathepsin D activity than cells from the more peripheral retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • Genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and expression of human cathepsin W". Biochem Biophys Res Commun . (wikipedia.org)
  • CTSZ, which has been also known as cathepsin X and cathepsin P, exhibits carboxy-monopeptidase and carboxy-dipeptidase activities. (prospecbio.com)
  • Leukocyte cathepsin S is a potent regulator of both cell and matrix turnover in advanced atherosclerosis," Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology , vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 188-194, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Novel, Nonpeptidic Cyanamides as Potent and Reversible Inhibitors of Human Cathepsins K and L, J. Med. (patentgenius.com)
  • In particular, no defects in granulopoiesis or PMN homeostasis have been reported in mice deficient in cathepsin G ( CG −/− ), 15 neutrophil elastase ( NE −/− ), 16 , 17 or dipeptidylpeptidase I ( DPPI −/− ), which lack active NSPs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Neutrophil cathepsin G increases calcium flux and inositol polyphosphate production in cultured endothelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Exposure of endothelial cells (ENDO) to human neutrophil cathepsin G (CG) increases albumin flux across the endothelial monolayer. (jimmunol.org)
  • Fluorometric kit to for fast screening of potential cathepsin B (CTSB) inhibitors. (promocell.com)
  • There are, however, exceptions such as cathepsin K, which works extracellularly after secretion by osteoclasts in bone resorption. (genenames.org)
  • Cathepsin K is involved in osteoporosis, a disease in which a decrease in bone density causes an increased risk for fracture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arkona C, Wiederanders B. Expression, subcellular distribution and plasma membrane binding of cathepsin B and gelatinases in bone metastatic tissue. (springer.com)
  • Impaired osteoclastic bone resorption leads to osteopetrosis in cathepsin-K-deficient mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Conclusions: Cathepsin D places a major role in bone tissue destruction due to cholesteatoma. (medscimonit.com)
  • Cathepsin L-deficient mice were shown to have less adipose tissue, lower serum glucose and insulin levels, more insulin receptor subunits, more glucose transporter (GLUT4) and more fibronectin than wild type controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • To test this, we used an immunocompetent endometriosis mouse model and found that endometriotic lesions exhibited a greater than 5-fold increase in active cathepsins compared to tissue from peritoneal wall or eutopic endometrium, with cathepsins L and K specifically implicated. (nih.gov)
  • Keilová, H.: On the specificity and inhibition of cathepsins D and B. In: Tissue proteinases, ed. by A. J. Barrett and J. T. Dingle, p. 45-65. (springer.com)
  • IHC image of Cathepsin D staining in Human Lung formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue section, performed on a Leica Bond™ system using the standard protocol F. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6, epitope retrieval solution 1) for 20 mins. (abcam.com)
  • Weight loss reduces adipose tissue cathepsin S and its circulating levels in morbidly obese women," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 1042-1047, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Cathepsin F staining of paraffin-embedded human heart tissue sections. (neuromics.com)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of all the cathepsin B genes in aphids revealed that genic expansion has continuously proceeded with basal, intermediary and recent duplications. (inria.fr)
  • Cathepsin B has also been implicated in the progression of various human tumors including ovarian cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin B is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase whose expression and trafficking are frequently altered in cancer, and plasma membrane and secreted forms are thought to contribute to the invasive and metastatic properties of malignant tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain I, calpain II, cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. (promocell.com)
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain 1, calpain 2 which also inhibits cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. (promocell.com)
  • Cathepsin-Z (CTSZ) is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase and member of the peptidase C1 family. (prospecbio.com)
  • Cathepsin K is a recently identified lysosomal cysteine proteinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CTSC / Cathepsin C / JP, a member of the peptidase C1 family, is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase that appears to be a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteinases in immune/inflammatory cells. (lsbio.com)
  • The cathepsin assays are simple, straightforward, and can be adapted to 96-well plate assays. (biovision.com)
  • For instance, cathepsins have been found to degrade low-density lipoprotein (LDL-P) and reduce the effect of cholesterol leaving macrophages. (news-medical.net)
  • Essential role for cathepsin S in MHC class II-associated invariant chain processing and peptide loading," Immunity , vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 357-366, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • A direct immunohistochemical method of high specificity is presented for the demonstration of sites of cathepsin B1. (springer.com)
  • In this review we cover specific roles of cathepsins in innate and adaptive immunity, as well as their implication in the pathogenesis of several diseases. (smw.ch)
  • It is of note to mention that this review is not meant to comprehensively cover the present literature on viruses encountering cathepsins but rather illustrates, on some representative examples, the possible roles of cathepsins in replication of viruses and in the course of disease. (springer.com)
  • We saw that the cathepsin K was going away much faster when there was cathepsin S present than when it was by itself," said Platt, who is also a Georgia Cancer Coalition Distinguished Scholar and a Fellow of the Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology. (innovations-report.com)
  • These data strongly suggest that decreases in the lysosomal cathepsin activities may contribute to IDDM-induced glomerular cellular hypertrophy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, cytosolic and nuclear forms of cathepsins have been described and are currently an emerging field of research aiming at understanding their functions in such unexpected cellular locations. (springer.com)
  • Gingival biopsies from periodontitis patients showed a significantly higher cathepsin S expression than those from healthy gingiva. (hindawi.com)
  • Cathepsins are proteolytic enzymes with a broad spectrum of substrates. (springer.com)
  • A synthetic peptide made to the C-terminus of mouse Cathepsin E. (abcam.com)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/730869/all/cathepsins. (tabers.com)