Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
A cutaneous disorder primarily of convexities of the central part of the FACE, such as FOREHEAD; CHEEK; NOSE; and CHIN. It is characterized by FLUSHING; ERYTHEMA; EDEMA; RHINOPHYMA; papules; and ocular symptoms. It may occur at any age but typically after age 30. There are various subtypes of rosacea: erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular (National Rosacea Society's Expert Committee on the Classification and Staging of Rosacea, J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 46:584-7).
Candidiasis of the skin manifested as eczema-like lesions of the interdigital spaces, perleche, or chronic paronychia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A species of gram-negative bacteria responsible for red mouth disease in rainbow trout (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS). The bacteria is a natural component of fresh water ecosystems in the United States and Canada.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
A species of sheep, Ovis canadensis, characterized by massive brown horns. There are at least four subspecies and they are all endangered or threatened.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA which are pathogenic to SHEEP.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Rare congenital metabolism disorders of the urea cycle. The disorders are due to mutations that result in complete (neonatal onset) or partial (childhood or adult onset) inactivity of an enzyme, involved in the urea cycle. Neonatal onset results in clinical features that include irritability, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, NEONATAL HYPOTONIA; RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS; HYPERAMMONEMIA; coma, and death. Survivors of the neonatal onset and childhood/adult onset disorders share common risks for ENCEPHALOPATHIES, METABOLIC, INBORN; and RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS due to HYPERAMMONEMIA.
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A plant genus of the family RHAMNACEAE. Several species have been reclassified to the FRANGULA genus. It is often called buckthorn but should not be confused with other plants called that.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
A genus of rubiaceous South American trees that yields the toxic CINCHONA ALKALOIDS from their bark; QUININE; QUINIDINE; chinconine, cinchonidine and others are used to treat MALARIA and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.
A group of small, histidine-rich, cationic peptides in human SALIVA which are antibacterial and antifungal.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
A disseminated vesicular-pustular eruption caused by the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS), the VACCINIA VIRUS, or Varicella zoster (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It is usually superimposed on a preexisting, inactive or active, atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC).
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.

Transfer of a cathelicidin peptide antibiotic gene restores bacterial killing in a cystic fibrosis xenograft model. (1/295)

Recent studies suggest that the gene defect in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to a breach in innate immunity. We describe a novel genetic strategy for reversing the CF-specific defect of antimicrobial activity by transferring a gene encoding a secreted cathelicidin peptide antibiotic into the airway epithelium grown in a human bronchial xenograft model. The airway surface fluid (ASF) from CF xenografts failed to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. Partial reconstitution of CF transmembrane conductance regulator expression after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer restored the antimicrobial activity of ASF from CF xenografts to normal levels. Exposure of CF xenografts to an adenovirus expressing the human cathelicidin LL-37/hCAP-18 increased levels of this peptide in the ASF three- to fourfold above the normal concentrations, which were equivalent in ASF from CF and normal xenografts before gene transfer. The increase of LL-37 was sufficient to restore bacterial killing to normal levels. The data presented describe an alternative genetic approach to the treatment of CF based on enhanced expression of an endogenous antimicrobial peptide and provide strong evidence that expression of antimicrobial peptides indeed protects against bacterial infection.  (+info)

The human cationic antimicrobial protein (hCAP18), a peptide antibiotic, is widely expressed in human squamous epithelia and colocalizes with interleukin-6. (2/295)

Peptide antibiotics are widespread in nature and, by providing a rapid first line of defense, may be key players in the innate immune system. Although epithelia are the main barriers shielding the internal environment from microorganisms, the role for peptide antibiotics in epithelial protection is unclear. We recently reported that the human cationic antimicrobial protein hCAP18, the precursor of the antimicrobial peptide called LL-37, is not expressed by normal human keratinocytes but is induced in various inflammatory skin disorders. In the present study we demonstrate that hCAP18 is consistently expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in squamous epithelia of the mouth, tongue, esophagus, cervix, and vagina in humans. The gene for hCAP18 contains promoter elements that are potentially regulated by interleukin-6, and our data further show a colocalization between interleukin-6 and hCAP18 expression in these tissues. Our finding that hCAP18 is widely produced in squamous epithelia suggests a role for this peptide in epithelial antimicrobial defense. Furthermore, colocalization with interleukin-6 indicates a potential local mechanism for the upregulation of hCAP18 at the epithelial surfaces.  (+info)

Structure and organization of the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in phospholipid membranes: relevance to the molecular basis for its non-cell-selective activity. (3/295)

The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 belongs to the cathelicidin family and is the first amphipathic alpha-helical peptide isolated from human. LL-37 is considered to play an important role in the first line of defence against local infection and systemic invasion of pathogens at sites of inflammation and wounds. Understanding its mode of action may assist in the development of antimicrobial agents mimicking those of the human immune system. In vitro studies revealed that LL-37 is cytotoxic to both bacterial and normal eukaryotic cells. To gain insight into the mechanism of its non-cell-selective cytotoxicity, we synthesized and structurally and functionally characterized LL-37, its N-terminal truncated form FF-33, and their fluorescent derivatives (which retained structure and activity). The results showed several differences, between LL-37 and other native antimicrobial peptides, that may shed light on its in vivo activities. Most interestingly, LL-37 exists in equilibrium between monomers and oligomers in solution at very low concentrations. Also, it is significantly resistant to proteolytic degradation in solution, and when bound to both zwitterionic (mimicking mammalian membranes) and negatively charged membranes (mimicking bacterial membranes). The results also showed a role for the N-terminus in proteolytic resistance and haemolytic activity, but not in antimicrobial activity. The LL-37 mode of action with negatively charged membranes suggests a detergent-like effect via a 'carpet-like' mechanism. However, the ability of LL-37 to oligomerize in zwitterionic membranes might suggest the formation of a transmembrane pore in normal eukaryotic cells. To examine this possibility we used polarized attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and found that the peptide is predominantly alpha-helical and oriented nearly parallel with the surface of zwitterionic-lipid membranes. This result does not support the channel-forming hypothesis, but rather it supports the detergent-like effect.  (+info)

The human antibacterial cathelicidin, hCAP-18, is bound to lipoproteins in plasma. (4/295)

Cathelicidins are a family of antibacterial and lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins. hCAP-18, the only human cathelicidin, is a major protein of the specific granules of human neutrophils. The plasma level of hCAP-18 is >20-fold higher than that of other specific granule proteins relative to their levels within circulating neutrophils. The aim of this study was to elucidate the background for this high plasma level of hCAP-18. Plasma was subjected to molecular sieve chromatography, and hCAP-18 was found in distinct high molecular mass fractions that coeluted with apolipoproteins A-I and B, respectively. The association of hCAP-18 with lipoproteins was validated by the cofractionation of hCAP-18 with lipoproteins using two different methods for isolation of lipoproteins from plasma. Furthermore, the level of hCAP-18 in delipidated plasma was <1% of that in normal plasma. Immunoprecipitation of very low, low, and high density lipoprotein particles with anti-apolipoprotein antibodies resulted in coprecipitation of hCAP-18. The binding of hCAP-18 to lipoproteins was mediated by the antibacterial C-terminal part of the protein. The binding of hCAP-18 to lipoproteins suggests that lipoproteins may play an important role as a reservoir of this antimicrobial protein.  (+info)

Novel cathelicidins in horse leukocytes(1). (5/295)

Cathelicidins are precursors of defense peptides of the innate immunity and are widespread in mammals. Their structure comprises a conserved prepropiece and an antimicrobial domain that is structurally varied both intra- and inter-species. We investigated the complexity of the cathelicidin family in horse by a reverse transcription-PCR-based cloning strategy of myeloid mRNA and by Southern and Western analyses. Three novel cathelicidin sequences were deduced from bone marrow mRNA and designated equine cathelicidins eCATH-1, eCATH-2 and eCATH-3. Putative antimicrobial domains of 26, 27 and 40 residues with no significant sequence homology to other peptides were inferred at the C-terminus of the sequences. Southern analysis of genomic DNA using a probe based on the cathelicidin-conserved propiece revealed a polymorphic DNA region with several hybridization-positive fragments and suggested the presence of additional genes. A null eCATH-1 allele was also demonstrated with a frequency of 0.71 in the horse population analyzed and low amounts of eCATH-1-specific mRNA were found in myeloid cells of gene-positive animals. A Western analysis using antibodies to synthetic eCATH peptides revealed the presence of eCATH-2 and eCATH-3 propeptides, but not of eCATH-1-related polypeptides, in horse neutrophil granules and in the secretions of phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated neutrophils. These results thus suggest that eCATH-2 and eCATH-3 are functional genes, whereas eCATH-1 is unable to encode a polypeptide.  (+info)

Augmentation of innate host defense by expression of a cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide. (6/295)

Antimicrobial peptides, such as defensins or cathelicidins, are effector substances of the innate immune system and are thought to have antimicrobial properties that contribute to host defense. The evidence that vertebrate antimicrobial peptides contribute to innate immunity in vivo is based on their expression pattern and in vitro activity against microorganisms. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the overexpression of an antimicrobial peptide results in augmented protection against bacterial infection. C57BL/6 mice were given an adenovirus vector containing the cDNA for LL-37/hCAP-18, a human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide. Mice treated with intratracheal LL-37/hCAP-18 vector had a lower bacterial load and a smaller inflammatory response than did untreated mice following pulmonary challenge with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Systemic expression of LL-37/hCAP-18 after intravenous injection of recombinant adenovirus resulted in improved survival rates following intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide with galactosamine or Escherichia coli CP9. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that expression of an antimicrobial peptide by gene transfer results in augmentation of the innate immune response, providing support for the hypothesis that vertebrate antimicrobial peptides protect against microorganisms in vivo.  (+info)

SMAP-29: a potent antibacterial and antifungal peptide from sheep leukocytes. (7/295)

SMAP-29 is a cathelicidin-derived peptide deduced from sheep myeloid mRNA. The C-terminally amidated form of this peptide was chemically synthesized and shown to exert a potent antimicrobial activity. Antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates highly susceptible to this peptide include MRSA and VREF isolates, that are a major worldwide problem, and mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with chronic respiratory inflammation in CF patients. In addition, SMAP-29 is also active against fungi, including Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from immunocompromised patients. SMAP-29 causes significant morphological alterations of the bacterial surfaces, as shown by scanning electron microscopy, and is also hemolytic against human, but not sheep erythrocytes. Its potent antimicrobial activity suggests that this peptide is an excellent candidate as a lead compound for the development of novel antiinfective agents.  (+info)

Biological activities of lipopolysaccharides of Proteus spp. and their interactions with polymyxin B and an 18-kDa cationic antimicrobial protein (CAP18)-derived peptide. (8/295)

The saccharide constituents of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Proteus spp. vary with the strain and contain unique components about which little is known. The biological activities of LPS and lipid A from S- and R-forms of 10 Proteus strains were examined. LPS from all S-form Proteus strains was lethal to D-(+)-galactosamine (GalN)-loaded, LPS-responsive, C3H/HeN mice, but not to LPS-hypo-responsive C3H/HeJ mice. P. vulgaris 025 LPS evoked strong anaphylactoid reactions in N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP)-primed C3H/HeJ mice. LPS from S- and R-form Proteus strains induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by macrophages isolated from C3H/HeN but not C3H/HeJ mice. Lipid A from Proteus strains also induced NO and TNF production, although lipid A was less potent than LPS. The effects of LPS were mainly dependent on CD14; LPS-induced NO and TNF production in CD14+ J774.1 cells was significantly greater than in CD14-J7.DEF.3 cells. All LPS from Proteus strains, and especially from P. vulgaris 025, exhibited higher anti-complementary activity than LPS from Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Polymyxin B inactivated proteus LPS in a dose-dependent manner, but these LPS preparations were more resistant to polymyxin B than E. coli LPS. CAP18(109-135), a granulocyte-derived peptide, inhibited proteus LPS endotoxicity only when the LPS:CAP18(109-135) ratio was appropriate, which suggests that CAP18(109-135) acts through a different mechanism than polymyxin B. The results indicate that LPS from Proteus spp. are potently endotoxic, but that the toxicity is different from that of LPS from E. coli or Salmonella spp. and even varies among different Proteus strains. The variation in biological activities among proteus LPS may be due to unique components within the respective LPS.  (+info)

The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 belongs to the cathelicidin family and is the first amphipathic α-helical peptide isolated from human. LL-37 is considered to play an important role in the first line of defence against local infection and systemic invasion of pathogens at sites of inflammation and wounds. Understanding its mode of action may assist in the development of antimicrobial agents mimicking those of the human immune system. In vitrostudies revealed that LL-37 is cytotoxic to both bacterial and normal eukaryotic cells. To gain insight into the mechanism of its non-cell-selective cytotoxicity, we synthesized and structurally and functionally characterized LL-37, its N-terminal truncated form FF-33, and their fluorescent derivatives (which retained structure and activity). The results showed several differences, between LL-37 and other native antimicrobial peptides, that may shed light on its in vivoactivities. Most interestingly, LL-37 exists in equilibrium between monomers and oligomers ...
Mechanical ventilation (MV) of patients can cause damage to bronchoalveolar epithelium, leading to a sterile inflammatory response, infection and in severe cases sepsis. Limited knowledge is available on the effects of MV on the innate immune defense system in the human lung. In this study, we demonstrate that cyclic stretch of the human bronchial epithelial cell lines VA10 and BCi NS 1.1 leads to down-regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene expression. We show that treatment of VA10 cells with vitamin D3 and/or 4-phenyl butyric acid counteracted cyclic stretch mediated down-regulation of CAMP mRNA and protein expression (LL-37). Further, we observed an increase in pro-inflammatory responses in the VA10 cell line subjected to cyclic stretch. The mRNA expression of the genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β was increased after cyclic stretching, where as a decrease in gene expression of chemokines IP-10 and RANTES was observed. Cyclic stretch enhanced oxidative
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Biomatik CorporationHuman Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide (CAMP) ELISA Kit, 96 tests.
Cathelicidins are pleiotropic antimicrobial peptides largely described for innate antimicrobial defenses and, more recently, immunomodulation. They are shown to modulate a variety of immune or nonimmune host cell responses. However, how cathelicidins are expressed by beta cells and modulate beta-cell functions under steady-state or proinflammatory conditions are unknown. We find that cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) is constitutively expressed by rat insulinoma b-cell clone INS-1 832/13. CRAMP expression is inducible by butyrate or phenylbutyric acid and its secretion triggered upon inflammatory challenges by IL-1 beta or LPS. CRAMP promotes b-cell survival in vitro via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and by modulating expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins: p-Bad, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL. Also via EGFR, CRAMP stimulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion ex vivo by rat islets. A similar effect is observed in diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. ...
OmpA Binding Mediates the Effect of Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 on Acinetobacter baumannii. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Cathelicidins are a group of oral antimicrobial peptides that play multiple vital roles in the human body, such as their antimicrobial (broad spectrum) role against oral microbes, wound healing, and angiogenesis, with recent evidences about their role in cancer regulation. Cathelicidins are present in humans and other mammals as well. By complex interactions with the microenvironment, it results in pro-inflammatory effects. Many in vitro and in vivo experiments have been conducted to ultimately conclude that these unique peptides play an essential role in innate immunity. Peptides are released in the precursor form (defensins), which after cleavage results in cathelicidins formation. Living in the era where the major focus is on non-invasive and nanotechnology, this ultimately leads to further advancements in the field of salivaomics. Based on current spotlight innovations, we have highlighted the biochemistry, mode of action, and the importance of cathelicidins in the oral cavity.
Gombart AF , Borregaard N , Koeffler HP . Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA. [email protected] The innate immune system of mammals provides a rapid response to repel assaults from numerous infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. A major component of this system is a diverse combination of cationic antimicrobial peptides that include the alpha- and beta-defensins and cathelicidins. In this study, we show that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and three of its analogs induced expression of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene. This induction was observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), immortalized keratinocyte, and colon cancer cell lines, as well as normal human bone marrow (BM) -derived macrophages and fresh BM cells from two normal individuals and one AML patient. The induction occurred via a consensus vitamin D response ...
Peptides , Antimicrobial and Related Peptides , LL17-32; This peptide is an active segment of LL-37, a peptide derived from the C-terminal domain of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide. It has been reported that the LL17-32 peptide exhibits reversal effect on ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer cell lines.; FKRIVQRIKDFLRNLV; H-Phe-Lys-Arg-Ile-Val-Gln-Arg-Ile-Lys-Asp-Phe-Leu-Arg-Asn-Leu-Val-OH
April Flowers for - Your Universe Online. A research team at the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (OSU) analyzed 446 compounds for their ability to boost the innate immune system in humans. Their findings, published in Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, reveal two compounds that stand out -- the resveratrol found in red grapes and a compound called pterostilbene from blueberries.. These compounds are both called stilbenoids. They work in synergy with vitamin D and both have a significant impact in raising the expression of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene that is involved in immune function.. The scientists stress that their findings were made in laboratory cell cultures and do not prove that similar results would occur as a result of dietary intake. They do believe the findings, supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), add more interest to the potential of some foods to improve the immune response.. Out of a study of ...
We have synthesized 39 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] analogs having two side chains attached to carbon-20 (Gemini) with various modifications and compared their anticancer activities. Five structure-function rules emerged to identify analogs with enhanced anticancer activity. One of these active analogs, BXL-01-0126, was more potent than 1,25(OH)2D3 in mediating 50% clonal inhibition of cancer cell growth. Murine studies found that BXL-01-0126 and 1,25(OH)2D3 had nearly the same potency to raise serum calcium levels. Taken together, BXL-01-0126 when compared to 1,25(OH)2D3 has greater anticancer potency, but similar toxicity causing hypercalcemia. We focused on the effect of these compounds on the stimulation of expression of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) whose gene has a vitamin D response element in its promoter. Expression of CAMP mRNA and protein increased in a dose-response fashion after exposure of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells to the Gemini analog, ...
Human CAMP ELISA Kit allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of Human Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide concentrations in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids.
Growth factors, comprising diverse protein and peptide families, are involved in a multitude of developmental processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Here we show that peptides derived from HB-EGF, amphiregulin, hepatocyte growth factor, PDGF-A and PDGF-B, as well as various FGFs are antimicrobial, demonstrating a previously unknown activity of growth factor-derived peptides. The peptides killed the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, as well as the fungus Candida albicans. Several peptides were also active against the Gram-positive S. aureus. Electron microscopy analysis of peptide-treated bacteria, paired with analysis of peptide effects on liposomes, showed that the peptides exerted membrane-breaking effects similar to those seen after treatment with the classical human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. Furthermore, HB-EGF was antibacterial per se, and its epitope GKRKKKGKGLGKKRDPCLRKYK retained ...
As the key components of innate immunity, human host defense antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) play a critical role in warding off invading microbial pathogens. In addition, AMPs can possess other biological functions such as apoptosis, wound healing, and immune modulation. This article provides an overview on the identification, activity, 3D structure, and mechanism of action of human AMPs selected from the antimicrobial peptide database. Over 100 such peptides have been identified from a variety of tissues and epithelial surfaces, including skin, eyes, ears, mouths, gut, immune, nervous and urinary systems. These peptides vary from 10 to 150 amino acids with a net charge between −3 and +20 and a hydrophobic content below 60%. The sequence diversity enables human AMPs to adopt various 3D structures and to attack pathogens by different mechanisms. While α-defensin HD-6 can self-assemble on the bacterial surface into nanonets to entangle bacteria, both HNP-1 and β-defensin hBD-3 are able to
Principal Investigator:KOMATSUZAWA Hitoshi, Project Period (FY):2007 - 2008, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Morphological basic dentistry
Cathelicidins are essential in the protection against invading pathogens through both their direct antimicrobial activity and their immunomodulatory functions. Although cathelicidins are known to modulate activation by several TLR ligands, little is known about their influence on DNA-induced macrophage activation. In this study, we explored the effects of cathelicidins on DNA-induced activation of chicken macrophages and elucidated the intracellular processes underlying these effects. Our results show that chicken cathelicidin (CATH)-2 strongly enhances DNA-induced activation of both chicken and mammalian macrophages because of enhanced endocytosis of DNA-CATH-2 complexes. After endocytosis, DNA is liberated from the complex because of proteolytic breakdown of CATH-2, after which TLR21 is activated. This leads to increased cytokine expression and NO production. Through the interaction with DNA, CATH-2 can play an important role in modulating the immune response at sites of infection. These ...
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (AATD) is characterised by excessive neutrophil degranulation and a protease: anti-protease imbalance leading to premature emphysema. Current specialised treatment for AATD consists of once weekly infusion of plasma purified AAT. Neutrophil degranulation is under the control of small GTP-binding proteins, including Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (Rac2). The molecular basis for aberrant neutrophil degranulation in AATD has not been elucidated to date. The aim of this study was to fully characterise neutrophil degranulation in AATD and to determine the effects of AAT augmentation therapy on the AATD neutrophil. In this study, we examined degranulation by AATD neutrophils by Western blotting. This revealed a 3-fold increase in levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), human cathelicidin antimicrobial protein (hCAP-18) and matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9), markers of primary, secondary and tertiary granules, respectively (p=0.023, p=0.036 and p=0.042, respectively).
Rat bladder ubiquitin-like molecule: isolation, purification and N-terminal sequencing However, HGF/c-MET paracrine signaling also may contribute to its invasive ability, especially in recurrent lesions. The contents of both cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were significantly reduced in SCN compared ...
Cathelicidins are CHDP with essential roles in innate host defense but also more recently associated with the pathogenesis of certain chronic diseases. These peptides have microbicidal potential and the capacity to modulate innate immunity and inflammatory processes. PMN are key innate immune effector cells with pivotal roles in defense against infection. The appropriate regulation of PMN function, death, and clearance is critical to innate immunity, and dysregulation is implicated in disease pathogenesis. The efferocytosis of apoptotic PMN, in contrast to necrotic cells, is proposed to promote the resolution of inflammation. We demonstrate that the human cathelicidin LL-37 induced rapid secondary necrosis of apoptotic human PMN and identify an essential minimal region of LL-37 required for this activity. Using these LL-37-induced secondary necrotic PMN, we characterize the consequence for macrophage inflammatory responses. LL-37-induced secondary necrosis did not inhibit PMN ingestion by ...
Multicellular organisms fight bacterial and fungal infections by producing peptide-derived broad-spectrum antibiotics. These host-defense peptides compromise the integrity of microbial cell membranes and thus evade pathways by which bacteria develop rapid antibiotic resistance. Although more than 1,700 host-defense peptides have been identified, the structural and mechanistic basis of their action remains speculative. This impedes the desired rational development of these agents into next-generation antibiotics. We present the X-ray crystal structure as well as solid-state NMR spectroscopy, electrophysiology, and MD simulations of human dermcidin in membranes that reveal the antibiotic mechanism of this major human antimicrobial, found to suppress Staphylococcus aureus growth on the epidermal surface. Dermcidin forms an architecture of high-conductance transmembrane channels, composed of zinc-connected trimers of antiparallel helix pairs. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the unusual ...
We participate in the revolution in fluorescence microscopy of biological systems. It is now possible to measure the spatial distribution of proteins and DNA loci with 30-nm precision in live cells and to track their motion in real time. The result is an unprecedented, high resolution view of biological structure and activity. Areas of current interest include: (1) The motion and spatial distribution of GFP-labeled species in live E. coli cells. Species of interest include RNA polymerase, ribosomes, architectural proteins, and specific DNA loci. The transcription/translation machinery (ribosomes, the nucleoid, and RNAP) all exhibit a remarkable level of spatial organization. (2) The time-resolved attack of antimicrobial agents on single bacterial cell membranes. Examples include LL-37, a human antimicrobial peptide, and synthetic random copolymers designed by the Gellman group. Simultaneous two-color imaging of the antimicrobial and cytoplasmic or periplasmic GFP yields unprecedented insight ...
The study describes an elegant tool for what has been a frustrating problem. Of particular interest to us, this study shows that Aβ dimers have striking structural similarities to the dimeric forms of the antimicrobial peptides human NP2, horseshoe crab tachystatin B, and mouse α-defensin. We recently reported on the antimicrobial activity of Aβ, and our newest data suggest dimerization is a key event in turning relatively inactive Aβ monomers into forms that can attack bacteria. This is not a phenomenon restricted to Aβ. It has been known for some time that oligomerization has an important role in the action and targeting of a number of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs), including the archetypal antimicrobial peptide LL-37 which can form oligomers, fibrils, and birefringent amyloid (albeit, LL-37 amyloid has only been observed in vitro to date). Oligomerization is also a key mechanism for antimicrobial protein-mediated agglutination and inactivation of viral particles.. Despite this central ...
Intracellular TLRs have limited ability to discriminate host versus foreign nucleic acids (Haas et al., 2008). Several host factors, including anti-DNA antibodies, antimicrobial peptide LL37, or the nuclear DNA-binding protein HMGB1, alone or in combination, facilitate entry of self-DNA into the endosomes of pDCs, where they trigger TLR9 to induce type 1 IFN responses (Lande et al., 2007; Marshak-Rothstein and Rifkin, 2007; Tian et al., 2007). Similarly, autoantibody-self small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes can activate TLR7 through FcγRII to induce IFN (Vollmer et al., 2005; Savarese et al., 2006). This might lead to the constitutive activation of pDCs, which contributes to the autoimmune pathology of systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis. It will be of further interest to study if the BST2-ILT7-mediated controlling mechanism is breached in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis (Blanco et al., 2001; Lande et al., 2007; Marshak-Rothstein and Rifkin, 2007), which ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sea snake cathelicidin (Hc-cath) exerts a protective effect in mouse models of lung inflammation and infection. AU - Carlile, Simon R.. AU - Shiels, Jenna. AU - Kerrigan, Lauren. AU - Delaney, Rebecca. AU - Megaw, Julianne. AU - Gilmore, Brendan F.. AU - Weldon, Sinead. AU - Dalton, John P.. AU - Taggart, Clifford C.. PY - 2019/4/15. Y1 - 2019/4/15. N2 - We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities of Hc-cath, a cathelicidin peptide derived from the venom of the sea snake, Hydrophis cyanocyntus, using in vivo models of inflammation and infection. Hc-cath function was evaluated in in vitro, in vivo in the wax moth, Galleria mellonella, and in mouse models of intraperitoneal and respiratory Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Hc-Cath downregulated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages and significantly improved the survival of P. aeruginosa infected G. mellonella over a 5-day period. We also demonstrated, for the first time, that Hc-cath can ...
Objectives High-dose vitamin D3increases plasma total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in critically ill, ventilated patients; however, to our knowledge, the effect on plasma levels of free (nonprotein-bound) 25(OH)D has not been investigated in critical illness. Moreover, the relationship of free 25(OH)D and the regulation of endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) remains unknown. The aims of this study were to determine in critically ill adults with respiratory failure the effect of previous high-dose regimens of vitamin D3on free 25(OH)D concentrations, the relationship of free 25(OH)D with circulating cathelicidin (LL-37) and human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2), and the associations between plasma levels of free 25(OH)D and these AMPs to alveolar macrophage phagocytosis function. Methods In a double blind, randomized controlled trial, critically ill ventilator-dependent adults (N = 30) received enteral vitamin D3(250,000 or 500,000 IU total over 5 d) or placebo. Plasma was obtained serially for ...
CSA BioTech is an emerging biopharmaceutical company focused on commercializing a novel class of patented compounds known as ceragenins or CSAs. These compounds have broad-spectrum activity mimicking those of endogenous antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37. CSAs, however, are not peptides; rather synthetic small molecules that can be manufactured at large scale and are not subject […]. Read More. ...
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An experimental study was designed to investigate the efficacy of BMAP-27, a compound of the cathelicidin family, in neutralizing… Expand ...
This chapter provides a classification of relevant immunopathological reactions depending on the underlying mechanisms leading to tissue damage. The release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and heparin from mast cells accounts for the anaphylactic reactions to horse serum or to penicillin but is usually not important in the immunopathology of bacterial infections. CD8+ T cells may contribute to host resistance by at least four mechanisms: (i) release of IFN-γ, (ii) lysis of the target cell, (iii) induction of apoptosis of the target cells, and (iv) mediation of direct antimicrobial activity. This chapter provides a brief outline of the immunoprotective and immunopathological features of these mechanisms, using tuberculosis as an example. Cytokines therefore play an important role in immune defense but also contribute to immunopathology and disease. Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is crucial to the protective immune response, it also plays a part in the immunopathology of tuberculosis.
We are mapping the critical regulatory mechanisms that keep these receptors from responding to self-DNA so that we can know if and how they predispose people to autoimmune disorders when they fail, Leifer said.. Innate immune cells engulf things that look dangerous, tear them open, and release their components, including DNA. When TLR-9 receptors see DNA that identifies microbes, they send a signal to fire up more immune-system activity, including inflammation and the creation of antibodies. But before a receptor can work, enzymes in the cell must prepare it by chopping off part of the receptor molecule and leaving a part that can bind to microbe DNA. From there, Leifer believes its a numbers game. If too many receptors are prepared, they may respond to the small amount of self-DNA that makes its way into immune cells, triggering an autoimmune response. So the immune cell has a regulatory mechanism, an enzyme pathway that cuts prepared receptors in a second place. Working with cells in ...
The latest work of Vanja Sisirak together with Boris Reizis identifying how plasmacytoid dendritic cells and type I Interferons promote extra follicular B cell responses to extracellular self-DNA in Dnase1L3 deficient mice and consequently exacerbate lupus pathogenesis.. ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is expressed in periodontal tissue, and variations in LL-37 levels have been associated with periodontal disease. The effects of LL-37 on periodontal ligament cell function have not been described before. Here, we assess anti-inflammatory properties of LL-37 and investigate the effects of LL-37 on cell differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis in human periodontal ligament cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Periodontal ligament cells were obtained from teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. Cytokine (interleukin-6) and chemokine (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) expression was determined by quantitative PCR, cell differentiation by alkaline phosphatase activity, cell proliferation by counting cells in a Bürker chamber, DNA synthesis by incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine and apoptosis by cell morphology and activated caspase 3 quantities. RESULTS: Treatment with 0.1 and 1 μm of LL-37 totally reversed ...
The National Rosacea Society (NRS) is funding three new studies in addition to continuing support for two ongoing studies as part of its research grants program.. In this round, Luis Garza, MD, an associate professor of dermatology at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, and colleagues were awarded $25,000 to study epigenetic lesions in rosacea. In addition, Wenqing Li, MD, an assistant professor of dermatology at Brown University in Providence, RI, was awarded $25,000 to clarify how hormone use and hormone levels associated with menopause and during pregnancy may affect the risk of developing rosacea. The study will use data from the Nurses Health Study including more than 6,000 women diagnosed with rosacea. The third $25,000 grant went to Anna Di Nardo, MD, associate professor of dermatology at the University of California-San Diego, and colleagues to determine whether the release of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides is central to the connection between the nervous system and skin ...
National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya, Ukraine Purpose - to determine the activity of antimicrobial peptides, such as cathelicidin LL-37 and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in children with asthma. Materials and methods. We have comprehensively examined 200 children with asthma aged 6 to 17 years. The contents of 25(OH)D3 and cathelicidin LL-37 in serum were determined by ELISA according to the instructions of the manufacturer. Results. The examination revealed that the total content of 25(OH)D3 in the serum of children with asthma differs from the values of healthy children and characterized by a significant decrease of its level (p,0.01). Concentration of cathelicidin LL-37 in patients with asthma was significantly higher (p,0.001), than in the group of healthy children. The positive correlation between the cathelicidin LL-37, interleukin 1 (rxy=0.398 (p=0.02)) and interleukin 6 (rxy=0.178 (p=0.034)) in children with asthma was determined. The concentration of cathelicidin LL-37 in ...
Novel cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides from Equus asinus.: In the present study, EA-CATH1 and EA-CATH2 were identified from a constructed lung cDNA l
Rosacea is a chronic skin disease characterized by photosensitivity, abnormal dermal vascular behavior, inflammation, and enhanced expression of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. We observed that dermal endothelial cells in rosacea had an increased expression of VCAM1 and hypothesized that LL-37 could be responsible for this response. The digestion of double-stranded RNA from keratinocytes exposed to UVB blocked the capacity of these cells to induce adhesion molecules on dermal microvascular endothelial cells. However, a synthetic noncoding snoU1RNA was only capable of increasing adhesion molecules on endothelial cells in the presence of LL-37, suggesting that the capacity of UVB exposure to promote both double-stranded RNA and LL-37 was responsible for the endothelial response to keratinocytes. Sequencing of RNA from the endothelial cells uncovered the activation of Gene Ontology (GO) pathways relevant to the human disease, such as type I and II interferon signaling, cell-cell adhesion, ...
Host defense (antimicrobial) peptides (HDPs) are produced by virtually all organisms and have an important role in protection against microbial infections. Some naturally occurring peptides such as the human cathelicidin LL-37 and the bovine peptide indolicidin have been shown to inhibit bacterial b …
The analysis of the maintenance of a metabolite of vitamin D (25-dihydroxyvitamin D) in blood serum and level α-defensin 1-3 in sick childrens blood plasma with recurrent bronchitis was carried out. It is established that children with recurrent bronchitis reliable decrease in blood serum of concentration of a 25-dihydroxyvitamin D and increase of the contents of antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin LL-37. Decrease of the plasma level of metabolites of vitamin D in children with a recurrent bronchitis accompanies by increase of the contents of the α-defensins 1-3 in blood plasma and that could act as a padding factor of a relapsing course of a disease. The finding is a substantiation for inclusion of vitamin D in complex therapy of children with recurrent bronchitis ...
German Research Foundation; SCHA 1693/1-1. Functional specialization of proinflammatory dendritic cells in Psoriasis. Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease in which dendritic cells (DC) are thought to orchestrate the pathogenic Th17/Th1-dominated immune response. Our studies demonstrate the functional specialization of slan (6-sulfo LacNAc+) DC as an important proinflammatory DC subtype in psoriasis. Previously, we identified slanDC and reported on their proinflammatory function. In the meanwhile slanDC have also been described in other chronic inflammatory diseases such as lupus erythematosus, Crohns disease and multiple sclerosis. Skin lesion from psoriasis patients contain increased numbers of activated slanDC expressing the key proinflammatory molecules TNF-a, IL-23 and iNOS. Complexes of autologous nucleic acids and the antimicrobial peptide LL37 (Cathelicidin) triggering Toll-like receptors (TLR) are regarded as important stimuli for cell activation in psoriasis. For ...
Brilacidin (PMX30063) has shown potent bactericidal activity against drug-resistant and -susceptible strains of multiple Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens. In this study, we demonstrate that brilacidin causes membrane depolarization in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, to an extent comparable to that caused by the lipopeptidic drug daptomycin. Transcriptional profiling of Staphylococcus aureus by deep sequencing shows that the global response to brilacidin treatment is well correlated to those of treatment with daptomycin and the cationic antimicrobial peptide LL37 and mostly indicates abrogation of cell wall and membrane functions ...
Salmonella that have an ACSSuT resistance pattern are resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline, Dr. Douglas explained. Some Salmonella Newport carry genes for resistance on a mobile plasmid that contains the genes for ACSSuT plus resistance to amoxicillin/clauvulanic acid, cephalothin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur (MDR AmpC). This resistance leaves physicians and veterinarians with few options for treatment. However, veterinarians can use the data gathered by NARMS to assist in their empiric treatment of Salmonella infections in animals. Reports are generated yearly that show the antimicrobial resistance trends in both animals and humans.. Dr. Douglas continued to explain that it is extremely difficult to find specific bacteria that develop resistance and track its pathway through the food chain. Fortunately, most veterinarians and public health practitioners accept the principles of judicious use of antibiotics that have been developed for animals and ...
Antimicrobial peptides, Cationic antimicrobial peptides, Cathelicidins, Defensins, Host defence peptides, Microbicidal cationic proteins. Authoritative facts from DermNet New Zealand.
So, this is an attempt to put the 2007 paper, by Gallo & team, on some of the key elements of the cause of rosacea, in ordinary language, so that more people can read it and understand it. I am pretty confident that my interpretation is all correct, but I am not a scientist, nor do I have a science background, so if anyone who is/does finds errors, please point them out so they can be corrected. * Cathelicidins are part of our immune system. They can kill microbes (they are natural
This study conclusively demonstrates that endotoxin-induced inflammatory gene responses and cytokine secretion in monocytes were suppressed by low, physiological concentrations of LL-37, implicating LL-37 in the regulation and control of proinflammatory responses associated with pathogenic assault and, by extension, with homeostatic levels of TLR agonists secreted by commensals. This report further demonstrates that LL-37 can suppress LPS-induced NF-κB translocation and exert an anti-inflammatory effect that is not restricted to endotoxin-induced inflammation. In the human THP-1 monocytic cell line as well as in human PBMC, LL-37 suppressed proinflammatory cytokine production induced by LPS as well as other agonists of TLR2 (LTA, Pam3CSK4) and in part TLR9 (CpG), but selectively enhanced responses to the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. Selective enhancement of responses is consistent with the known complex interaction of LL-37 with cells (20, 38), including the induction of a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cathelicidin attenuates hyperoxia-induced intestinal injury through inhibition of NF-κB activity in newborn rats. AU - Chou, Hsiu Chu. AU - Chen, Chung Ming. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Supplemental oxygen is often used to treat neonates with respiratory disorders. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that neonatal hyperoxia injures the distal small intestine and activates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Cathelicidin inhibits NF-κB activity and ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal barrier disruption in rats. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were reared in either room air (RA) or hyperoxia (85% O2) and were randomly treated with low-dose cathelicidin (4 mg/kg, LDC) and high-dose cathelicidin (HDC, 8 mg/kg) in 0.05 mL of normal saline (NS) administered intraperitoneally on postnatal days 1-6. The following six groups were obtained: RA + NS, RA + LDC, RA + HDC, O2 + NS, O2 + LDC, and O2 + HDC. The animals were sacrificed and the terminal ileum was removed for Western blot ...
Zhu SY,Gao B. Positive Selection in Cathelicidin Host Defense Peptides: Adaptation to Exogenous Pathogens or Endogenous Receptors?[J]. Heredity,2017,118(5):453-465 ...
A method pioneered by MIT researchers might offer hope in finding a new generation of antibiotics, made of antimicrobial peptides. Antimicrobial peptides a
Antimicrobials (which include antibiotics) are a precious public resource and an essential tool for fighting infections in both humans and animals. Their importance to human medical, nutritional and economic security cannot be understated. Yet globally, antimicrobials are losing their effectiveness more quickly than new such drugs, treatments and therapies are being identified and introduced to market.1 Over time, this dynamic has eroded the human antimicrobial arsenal, placing the lives and futures of an unacceptable number of people at risk. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs when microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites come into contact with antimicrobial drugs, such as antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, antimalarials and anthelmintics, and undergo changes. The drugs are rendered ineffective and cannot eradicate infections from the body. AMR is an international challenge that threatens to reverse over a century of progress in public health, health care and human ...
Most people think of strep throat as a relatively benign infection cured by a round of antibiotics and a few days of rest. But the bacterium that causes strep throat-Group A Streptococcus-is also responsible for a number of much more dangerous disorders, including rheumatic heart disease and toxic shock syndrome.. With the specter of increased resistance to antibiotics, the scientific community is feeling pressure to find new ways to treat bacteria like Group A Streptococcus. And it appears that an international group of scientists has gained some insight into this microbial enemy-and hope of a vaccine.. Group A Streptococcus has a thick cell wall that protects it from environmental hazards, including attacks from our own immune system. This bacterium is remarkably resistant to the human antimicrobial protection mechanisms for reasons that are not well understood.. The group of investigators-led by Natalia Korotkova of the University of Kentucky and Nina Van Sorge of Utrecht ...
Indolicidin Targets Duplex DNA: Structural and Mechanistic Insight through a Combination of Spectroscopy and Microscopy.. Ghosh A, Kar RK, Jana J, Saha A, Jana B, Krishnamoorthy J, Kumar D, Ghosh S, Chatterjee S, Bhunia A, ChemMedChem, 2014, 9, 2052-8.. Indolicidin (IR13), a 13-residue antimicrobial peptide from the cathelicidin family, is known to exhibit a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. This peptide inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis resulting in cell filamentation. However, the precise mechanism remains unclear and requires further investigation. The central PWWP motif of IR13 provides a unique structural element that can wrap around, and thus stabilize, duplex B-type DNA structures. Replacements of the central Trp-Trp pair with Ala-Ala, His-His, or Phe-Phe residues in the PxxP motif significantly affects the ability of the peptide to stabilize duplex DNA. Results of microscopy studies in conjunction with spectroscopic data confirm that the DNA duplex ...
This chapter presents the stress conditions experienced by bacteria inside host organisms and the specific bacterial stress responses, with focus on the responses on a cellular level, especially for the subset of bacterial pathogens that have developed an intracellular lifestyle within host cells. It focuses on the integrated responses of extracellular bacteria or intracellular bacteria environments within the host. A section presents the specific conditions that are acting on bacteria during colonization of a host organism or the interaction with host cells. Cathelicidins possess an amino-terminal part called cathelin that contains an SRC, homology three-domain, required as signal for the peptide to be cleaved, activated, and secreted. The antibacterial activity resides in the carboxy-terminal part which binds to polyanionic surfaces such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and teichoic acids. Biofilms are multicellular microbial communities that can form in the external environment, on abiotic surfaces, as
Barlow, P. G., Li, Y., Wilkinson, T. S., Bowdish, D. M. E., Lau, Y. E., Cosseau, C., …Davidson, D. J. (2005). The human cationic host defense peptide LL-37 mediates contrasting effects on apoptotic pathways in different primary cells of the innate immune system. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 80, 509-520. doi:10.1189/jlb.1005560. ISSN 0741-5400. ...
Analysis revealed that the olfactory and cathelicidin gene families in pigs are more evolutionarily evolved than those in humans and many other animals. Pigs have a better sense of smell, which makes them experts at finding truffles, for example. Pigs also have twice as many interferon genes as humans, possibly indicating some unique immune mechanisms against viral infection, Sang said ...
1、 江南大学食品学院,江苏无锡 214122 2、 江南大学医学院,江苏无锡 214122 摘要:目的 探讨鼠源Cathelicidin家族抗菌肽CRAMP预处理对肾缺血再灌注损伤的影响及其作用机制。方法 8周C57BL/6雄鼠随机分成假手术组(Sham)、肾缺血再灌注组(IRI)和CRAMP预处理组。双侧肾蒂夹闭法建立肾缺血再灌注模型,再灌注24h后收集小鼠血液及肾组织,CRAMP组小鼠肾缺血前1h腹腔注射CRAMP,Sham组和IRI组注射等体积生理盐水。检测造模前后小鼠血清和肾脏中CRAMP的蛋白水平;检测小鼠肾功能(肌酐、尿素氮),小鼠肾组织HE染色;流式细胞术检测肾脏中性粒细胞比例;Q-pcr法检测肾脏中白介素(IL)-6和肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)-α 的mRNA水平;原位末端标记法(TUNEL)法检测肾脏凋亡细胞,Western blotting检测肾脏中Bax、BCL-2蛋白表达情况。结果 ...
Scientists from Novozymes have now in collaboration with researchers at University of Bonn, Aalborg and others found the mechanism by which plectasin, an anti-microbial peptide, kills bacteria that cause severe infections in humans.
சளிப்படலம் போன்ற ஒரு வண்ணமயமான திரவத்தினை சுரக்கும் தவளையானது (ஹைட்ரோஃபிளாஸ் பேஹுவிஸ்தாரா)( Hudrophylax bahuvistara) கேளராவில் கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டு உள்ளது. தவளையின் தோலிலிருந்து வெளிப்படும் பிசுப்பிசுப்பான திரவத்தினை ஆய்வு செய்ததில் host defence peptides இருப்பது கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டு உள்ளது. இந்த புதிய பெப்டைட்களுக்கு உருமின் என்று கேரளாவின் உறுமி வாளை நினைவுபடுத்தும் வகையில் பெயர்
Cathelicidin family. *Defensin family. Tachykinin peptides[edit]. Main article: Tachykinin peptides. *Substance P ...
CathelicidinsEdit. In 2007, Richard Gallo and colleagues noticed that patients with rosacea had high levels of the ... Metronidazole is thought to act through anti-inflammatory mechanisms, while azelaic acid is thought to decrease cathelicidin ... "Increased serine protease activity and cathelicidin promotes skin inflammation in rosacea". Nature Medicine. 13 (8): 975-80. ... antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin[12] and elevated levels of stratum corneum tryptic enzymes (SCTEs). Antibiotics have been ...
Cathelicidins, antimicrobial polypeptides found in lysosomes. Svendsen A (2000). "Lipase protein engineering". Biochim Biophys ...
Bowdish DM, Davidson DJ, Hancock RE (2006). "Immunomodulatory Properties of Defensins and Cathelicidins". CTMI. Current Topics ...
Peel, E.; Cheng, Y.; Djordjevic, J. T.; Fox, S.; Sorrell, T. C.; Belov, K. (11 October 2016). "Cathelicidins in the Tasmanian ... Firstly, new research that proved antimicrobial peptides (called cathelicidins) in Tasmanian devil's milk can kill the ...
The skin creates antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidins that control the proliferation of skin microbes. Cathelicidins ... A major factor controlling cathelicidin is vitamin D3.[29] Acidity[edit]. The superficial layers of the skin are naturally ... Conditions such as atopic dermatitis have been linked to the suppression in cathelicidin production.[28] In rosacea abnormal ... processing of cathelicidin cause inflammation. Psoriasis has been linked to self-DNA created from cathelicidin peptides that ...
"Kallikrein-mediated proteolysis regulates the antimicrobial effects of cathelicidins in skin". FASEB J. 20 (12): 2068-80. doi: ...
2006). "Kallikrein-mediated proteolysis regulates the antimicrobial effects of cathelicidins in skin". FASEB J. 20 (12): 2068- ...
He discovered that cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides(Cathelicidins) are present during wound repair. Subsequent work from his ... laboratory used molecular techniques to produce a knock out mouse that has shown how cathelicidin antimicrobials protect ...
Metronidazole is thought to act through anti-inflammatory mechanisms, while azelaic acid is thought to decrease cathelicidin ... Richard Gallo and colleagues noticed that patients with rosacea had high levels of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and ... "Increased serine protease activity and cathelicidin promotes skin inflammation in rosacea". Nature Medicine. 13 (8): 975-80. ...
Proteases -Glycosidases Antimicrobial peptides Cathelicidin Hydrolase Molecular Cell Biology 6ed, Lodish et al. Biology portal ...
Cathelicidin Diptericin Aurein Copsin Peripheral membrane proteins Virtual colony count Ageitos JM, Sánchez-Pérez A, Calo-Mata ... Dürr UH, Sudheendra US, Ramamoorthy A (September 2006). "LL-37, the only human member of the cathelicidin family of ... cathelicidins, alpha- and beta-defensins, regIII peptides) Research has increased in recent years to develop artificially- ...
Subcutaneous fat also produces cathelicidin, which is a peptide that fights bacterial infections. DNA damage theory of ageing: ...
Dombrowski Y, Schauber J (May 2012). "Cathelicidin LL-37: a defense molecule with a potential role in psoriasis pathogenesis". ...
These studies have been expanded to include additional beta defensins, theta defensins, and the human cathelicidin LL-37 and ... "Structural and functional analysis of the pro-domain of human cathelicidin, LL-37". Biochemistry. 52 (9): 1547-58. doi:10.1021/ ...
Subcutaneous fat also produces cathelicidin, which is a peptide that fights bacterial infections. The term "skin" may also ...
Subcutaneous fat also produces cathelicidin, which is a peptide that fights bacterial infections. Anita Roberts, a molecular ...
The mechanism of action is thought to be through the inhibition of hyperactive protease activity that converts cathelicidin ... Reinholz, M.; Ruzicka, T.; Schauber, J. (2012). "Cathelicidin LL-37: An Antimicrobial Peptide with a Role in Inflammatory Skin ...
Dombrowski (2012). "Cathelicidin LL-37: a defense molecule with a potential role in psoriasis pathogenesis". Experimental ...
... beta-defensins and cathelicidins) and immunoglobulins. Terminally differentiated, superficial keratinocytes extrude the ...
MSCs produce several antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) including human cathelicidin LL-37, β-defensins, lipocalin 2 and hepcidin. ...
These free fatty acids spur increased production of cathelicidin, HBD1, and HBD2, thus leading to further inflammation. This ...
Weiner, Daniel J.; Bucki, Robert; Janmey, Paul A. (June 2003). "The Antimicrobial Activity of the Cathelicidin LL37 Is ...
2001). "Cathelicidin family of antibacterial peptides CAP18 and CAP11 inhibit the expression of TNF-alpha by blocking the ...
Dürr UHN, Sudheendra US, Ramamoorthy A, LL-37, the only human member of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides, ...
... cathelicidin LL-37 and lysozyme". J. Dermatol. Sci. 40 (3): 157-68. doi:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2005.07.009. PMID 16150577. Cramer ...
Vitamin D promotes the production of cathelicidin, which helps to defend humans' bodies against fungal, bacterial, and viral ...
Subsequent analysis of the genome has led to the discovery of several cathelicidin peptides, which could also be used as ...
Peroxisome Cathelicidin Antimicrobial peptides Innate immune system By convention similar cells in plants are called vacuoles, ...
... cathelicidin-AL (found in Amolops loloensis) Chickens: Four cathelicidins, fowlicidins 1,2,3 and cathelicidin Beta-1 Tasmanian ... Cathelicidins range in size from 12 to 80 amino acid residues and have a wide range of structures. Most cathelicidins are ... Cathelicidin peptides have been isolated from many different species of mammals. Cathelicidins are mostly found in neutrophils ... Cathelicidins serve a critical role in mammalian innate immune defence against invasive bacterial infection. The cathelicidin ...
Cathelicidins, antimicrobial polypeptides found in lysosomes. Svendsen A (2000). "Lipase protein engineering". Biochim Biophys ...

No data available that match "cathelicidins"

  • Cathelicidin -related antimicrobial peptides are a family of polypeptides primarily stored in the lysosomes of macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). (
  • [6] The cathelicidin family of peptides are classified as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). (
  • Whilst the defensins share common structural features, cathelicidin-related peptides are highly heterogeneous. (
  • Cathelicidin peptides have been isolated from many different species of mammals . (
  • [8] Most cathelicidins are linear peptides with 23-37 amino acid residues, and fold into amphipathic α-helices . (
  • Even larger cathelicidin peptides (39-80 amino acid residues) are also present. (
  • The general rule of the mechanism triggering cathelicidin action, like that of other antimicrobial peptides, involves the disintegration (damaging and puncturing) of cell membranes of organisms toward which the peptide is active. (
  • Cathelicidins are pleiotropic antimicrobial peptides largely described for innate antimicrobial defenses and, more recently, immunomodulation. (
  • Cathelicidins are a group of oral antimicrobial peptides that play multiple vital roles in the human body, such as their antimicrobial (broad spectrum) role against oral microbes, wound healing, and angiogenesis, with recent evidences about their role in cancer regulation. (
  • Peptides are released in the precursor form (defensins), which after cleavage results in cathelicidins formation. (
  • Cathelicidins encompass a family of cationic peptides characterized by antimicrobial activity and other functions, such as the ability to enhance the sensing of nucleic acids by the innate immune system. (
  • Cathelicidins comprise of a heterogeneous class of host defense peptides (HDP) also termed as antimicrobial peptides. (
  • A total of seven cathelicidin peptides were detected in granules of bovine granulocytes including the cysteine-rich bactenecin (Bac)1, also known as dodecapeptide ( 5 ), the proline-rich peptides Bac5 and Bac7 ( 6 ), the tryptophan-rich indolicidin ( 7 ), and the α-helical bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptides (BMAP)-27, BMAP-28 ( 8 ), and BMAP-34 ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • Cathelicidin represents one of the most important classes of antimicrobial peptides in mammals. (
  • Endogenous antimicrobial peptides of the cathelicidin family contribute to innate immunity. (
  • Solid-phase synthesis was employed to prepare linear antimicrobial peptides found in cathelicidins of five mammals: human (FALL39/LL37), rabbit (CAP18), mouse (mCRAMP), rat (rCRAMP), and sheep (SMAP29 and SMAP34). (
  • Two broad classes of mammalian antibacterial peptides have been especially well studied: the cysteine-rich α- and β-defensins and various cathelicidins ( 6 , 13 , 22 , 26 , 27 , 41 , 42 ). (
  • These cathelicidin-derived peptides kill bacteria by disrupting the bacterial membrane ( 28 ). (
  • Our primary goal in this study was to identify peptides of the cathelicidin family having intrinsically high bactericidal activity toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus . (
  • We monitored peptide action in live bacterial cells over short time frames with single-cell resolution and found that the primary effect of cathelicidin peptides is to increase the production of oxidative molecules that cause cellular damage in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • The cathelicidin family is a large and diverse collection of peptides that are released from mammalian cells by proteolysis of cathelin molecules in response to microbial infections ( 3 ). (
  • Antimicrobial peptides, such as defensins or cathelicidins, are effector substances of the innate immune system and are thought to have antimicrobial properties that contribute to host defense. (
  • Cathelicidins: a family of endogenous antimicrobial peptides. (
  • Human cathelicidin LL-37 is best studied, and there has been a growing interest in designing new peptides based on LL-37. (
  • Cathelicidins form a family of small host defense peptides distinct from another class of cationic antimicrobial peptides, the defensins. (
  • Offering one of the world's largest collections of catalog peptides, AnaSpec is pleased to introduce a wide range of structurally diverse cathelicidin peptides, some of which have not been commercially available until now. (
  • Cathelicidins (CATHLs) are small, cationic antimicrobial peptides that establish an early innate immune defense against infections in mammals. (
  • Novel cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides from Equus a. (
  • Novel cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides from Equus asinus. (
  • In the present study, EA-CATH1 and EA-CATH2 were identified from a constructed lung cDNA library of donkey (Equus asinus) as members of cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides, using a nested PCR-based cloning strategy. (
  • We investigate the biological function of small cationic host defense peptides (cathelicidins and defensins) secreted by white blood cells and the epithelial cells in mammals. (
  • We found that F2 exhibited synergistic antimicrobial activity with cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides and antibiotics that target the cell well and/or cell membrane, such as penicillin and daptomycin, in B. anthracis and drug-resistant strains of S. aureus. (
  • Cathelicidin LL-37 is one important group of human antimicrobial peptides which exhibits antioxidant activity and its overexpression resists hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress. (
  • Cathelicidin peptides, which facilitate immune recognition of released nucleic acids by promoting their access to intracellular TLR compartments, were rapidly induced in skin wounds and were sufficient but not necessary to stimulate pDC activation and type I IFN production. (
  • Cathelicidin gene expression closely paralleled pDC activation and cathelicidin peptides were found to be sufficient to induce IFN-α/β production by pDC in the skin. (
  • Antiviral Activity of the Human Cathelicidin, LL-37, and Derived Peptides on Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza A Viruses. (
  • and Hartshorn, Kevan L., "Antiviral Activity of the Human Cathelicidin, LL-37, and Derived Peptides on Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza A Viruses. (
  • Cathelicidins are a major family of antimicrobial peptides present in vertebrate animals with potent microbicidal and immunomodulatory activities. (
  • In mammals, besides the mucosal epithelial cells lining the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts, cathelicidins are most abundantly expressed in myeloid progenitor cells and stored in neutrophil granules as pro-peptides, which are converted into active forms by proteolytic cleavage upon degranulation. (
  • Cathelicidins are antimicrobial peptides synthesized by humans and animals in response to various stimuli. (
  • Staphylococcus aureus exploits cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides produced during early pneumonia to promote staphylokinase-dependent fibrinolysis. (
  • The cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides is an integral component of the innate immune response that exhibits activity against bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. (
  • The cathelicidin LL-37 is usually broken down into small peptides with more antimicrobial and less inflammatory effects. (
  • An investigation of human beta-defensins and cathelicidin expression i" by Remzi Karadag, Nurettin Bayram et al. (
  • An investigation of human beta-defensins and cathelicidin expression in patients with pterygium. (
  • PURPOSE: To investigate human beta-defensins (HBDs) and cathelicidin LL-37 (LL-37) expressions in patients with pterygium. (
  • Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. (
  • Like their mammalian counterparts, avian cathelicidins and defensins are derived from either myeloid or epithelial origin expressed in a majority of tissues with broad-spectrum antibacterial and immune regulatory activities. (
  • The main focus is to discover the underlying mechanisms of cathelicidins and defensins which show to have an important beneficial role in tissue homeostasis, including regulation of harmful inflammation and control of microbial pathogens. (
  • The goal is to advance cathelicidins and defensins (either synthetic derivatives or induction of endogenous production) as natural, efficacious and cost-effective alternatives to current treatments that could reduce the use of conventional antibiotics. (
  • This abstract tells us that the inflammation and extra blood vessels associated with exposure to the sun (specifically the UVB band of radiation) are enhanced in the presence of cathelicidin LL-37. (
  • However, following injury or inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis and rosacea, expression of the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL37 breaks tolerance to self-nucleic acids and triggers inflammation. (
  • We found LL37, a host defense human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, to be a potent binder of G-quadruplex structures. (
  • Cathelicidin LL37, an endogenous antimicrobial peptide, has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. (
  • The serum levels of cathelicidin LL37 and IFN-α were both measured by ELISA, and the clinical and serological parameters were assessed according to routine procedures. (
  • Patients with rosacea have elevated levels of cathelicidin and elevated levels of stratum corneum tryptic enzymes (SCTEs). (
  • Bac5, Bac7 Frogs: cathelicidin-AL (found in Amolops loloensis) Chickens: Four cathelicidins, fowlicidins 1,2,3 and cathelicidin Beta-1 Tasmanian Devil: Saha-CATH5 Salmonids: CATH1 and CATH2 Patients with rosacea have elevated levels of cathelicidin and elevated levels of stratum corneum tryptic enzymes (SCTEs). (
  • Cathelicidin has been in the rosacea news since around 2002, gaining publicity because of the discoveries like the fact that rosacea sufferers have abnormally high levels of cathelicidin in their facial skin. (
  • AMPs including cathelicidins have been detected in the meconium and feces of human infants [ 15 ], and elevated levels of cathelicidin have been noticed in the infants associated with respiratory infections [ 16 ], suggestive of the role of cathelicidins and other AMPs in early host defense of humans. (
  • [ 8 ] Skin from patients with KVE exhibited significantly lower levels of cathelicidin protein expression than skin from patients with AD. (
  • Cathelicidins are AMPs that preferentially kill Gram-negative bacteria in vitro , purportedly by assembling into higher-order structures that perforate the membrane. (
  • We next performed killing kinetics with cathelicidin AMPs. (
  • Since not much is known about the impact of efflux pumps on the susceptibility of Gram-positive bacteria to AMPs, especially to the cathelicidins, the aim of this study was to analyze whether Staphylococcus aureus can use efflux pumps to resist the antimicrobial effects of cathelicidins derived from different animal species (human, mouse, rabbit or cattle). (
  • Cathelicidins are a major family of AMPs in vertebrate animals including chickens. (
  • Zaiou, Gallo: Cathelicidins, essential gene-encoded mammalian antibiotics. (
  • By contrast, 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 strongly up-regulated the cathelicidin hCAP-18 gene, and some hCAP-18 polypeptide colocalized with CD14 in 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 stimulated PBMC, although no detectable LL-37 peptide was found in supernatants from similar 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 -stimulated PBMC cultures. (
  • Humans apparently have only one cathelicidin gene. (
  • Additionally, no differences in cathelicidin killing as compared to the MRSA252 WT strain were observed for a blaZ mutant in this strain background (data not shown) further ensuring that the cathelicidin susceptibility phenotype of the blaI mutant was specific to the blaI gene. (
  • Bals R, Weiner DJ, Meegalla RL, Wilson JM (1999) Transfer of a cathelicidin peptide antibiotic gene restores bacterial killing in a cystic fibrosis xenograft model. (
  • AzA directly inhibited KLK5 in cultured keratinocytes and gene expression of KLK5, Toll-like receptor-2, and cathelicidin in mouse skin. (
  • In this study, we demonstrate that cyclic stretch of the human bronchial epithelial cell lines VA10 and BCi NS 1.1 leads to down-regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide ( CAMP ) gene expression. (
  • mCRAMP was first isolated from bone marrow and has been the focus of investigation due to the homology in gene sequence, structure, and protein processing that it shares with the human cathelicidin, LL-37/hCAP-18 [ 11 ]. (
  • The aim of the study was to analyze acute phase protein and cathelicidin gene responses to small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection in goats. (
  • We evaluated the potential for a synthetic cathelicidin, the mouse cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (mCRAMP), to prevent the initiation and promote the healing of lesions from inflammatory colitis that was experimentally induced in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). (
  • The human cathelicidin LL-37, and mouse cathelicidin mCRAMP, killed C. albicans, but this fungicidal activity was dependent on culture conditions. (
  • C. albicans also induced an increase in the expression of cathelicidin in mouse skin, but this induction did not confer systemic or subcutaneous resistance as mCRAMP-deficient mice were not more susceptible to C. albicans in blood-killing assays or in an intradermal infection model. (
  • Recent evidence suggests that cathelicidins (LL-37 in humans and mCRAMP in mice) may modulate responses in inflammation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. (
  • Moreover, short-term administration of mouse cathelicidin (mCRAMP) relieves many aspects of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid- induced colitis in mice. (
  • For this purpose the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of S. aureus field isolates for the cathelicidins LL-37, mCRAMP, CAP18, BMAP-27 and BMAP-28 in the presence and absence of different efflux pump inhibitors were determined. (
  • Cathelicidins are a class of antimicrobial peptide, and the murine cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (mCRAMP) has been demonstrated in vitro to impair Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium proliferation. (
  • C57BL/6 mice were given an adenovirus vector containing the cDNA for LL-37/hCAP-18, a human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide. (
  • The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of overexpression of a naturally occurring human antimicrobial cathelicidin peptide (LL-37/hCAP-18) in murine models of infection and sepsis. (
  • Based on current spotlight innovations, we have highlighted the biochemistry, mode of action, and the importance of cathelicidins in the oral cavity. (
  • These observations underline the importance of cathelicidins in sensing bacterial products and regulating immune responses. (
  • The importance of cathelicidins in antiviral skin host defense was confirmed by the observation of higher levels of HSV-2 replication in cathelicidin-deficient mouse skin compared with that seen in skin from their wild-type counterparts. (
  • The first cathelicidin precursor to be described was rabbit CAP18 ( 20 ), and its mature peptide was shown to have broad-spectrum bactericidal activity ( 19 ). (
  • This chapter describes the alternative processing of the human cathelicidin precursor, protease digestion, and lab cutting of LL-37. (
  • We assayed the in vitro antibacterial activities of hCLD, LL-37 and the precursor form, pro-cathelicidin (also known as hCAP18), and we found that the unprocessed protein inhibited the growth of Gramnegative bacteria with efficiencies comparable to the mature peptide, LL-37. (
  • The only one known member of the cathelicidin family expressed in humans is LL-37. (
  • [18] [19] Cathelicidin rapidly destroys the lipoprotein membranes of microbes enveloped in phagosomes after fusion with lysosomes in macrophages . (
  • Cathelicidins are mostly found in neutrophils, monocytes, mast cells, dendritic cells and macrophages after activation by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites or the hormone 1,25-D, which is the hormonally active form of vitamin D. They have been found in some other cells, including epithelial cells and human keratinocytes. (
  • Cathelicidin rapidly destroys the lipoprotein membranes of microbes enveloped in phagosomes after fusion with lysosomes in macrophages. (
  • In this study, we explored the effects of cathelicidins on DNA-induced activation of chicken macrophages and elucidated the intracellular processes underlying these effects. (
  • Our results show that chicken cathelicidin (CATH)-2 strongly enhances DNA-induced activation of both chicken and mammalian macrophages because of enhanced endocytosis of DNA-CATH-2 complexes. (
  • Endogenous cathelicidin promotes intestinal barrier integrity accompanied by modulating the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in polymicrobial sepsis. (
  • We concluded that cathelicidin LL-37 enhances MAP clearance into macrophages and suppressed production of tissue-damaging inflammatory cytokines. (
  • LL-37 is an antimicrobial peptide that belongs to the cathelicidin family and is expressed in various epithelial- (e.g. keratinocytes) and immune cells (e.g. neutrophils and macrophages) 7 . (
  • [5] Cathelicidins serve a critical role in mammalian innate immune defense against invasive bacterial infection. (
  • Cathelicidins have broad anti-microbial capacity and are important for host defense against skin infections by some bacterial and viral pathogens. (
  • We propose that that the primary effect of cathelicidins is to induce the production of ROS that damage bacterial molecules, leading to slowed growth or cell death. (
  • Cathelicidins mitigate Staphylococcus aureus mastitis and reduce bacterial invasion in murine mammary epithelium. (
  • The cationic peptide cathelicidin, LL-37, is an important part of the early innate immune response to bacterial infection. (
  • The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin protects the urinary tract against invasive bacterial infection. (
  • The human cathelicidin LL-37 is a host defense peptide (HDP) with broad immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities that has direct antiviral effects against HRV. (
  • As a first step to understand their role in early innate host defense of chickens, we examined the tissue and developmental expression patterns of all four cathelicidins. (
  • Collectively, the presence of cathelicidins in a broad range of tissues and their largely enhanced expression during development are suggestive of their potential important role in early host defense and disease resistance of chickens. (
  • Cathelicidin (LL-37) and human β-defensin 1 (hBD-1) are important components of the innate defense in the urinary tract. (
  • Cathelicidin LL-37 plays an important role in antimicrobial defense, exerts proinflammatory effect and strongly affects the immune system functioning. (
  • Cathelicidins are present in humans and other mammals as well. (
  • Interestingly, cattle possess all classes of cathelicidins recognized in higher vertebrates, whereas in humans only LL-37 was described. (
  • Although most cathelicidins possessed DNA complexing activity, only the alpha-helical BMAP cathelicidins and the cysteine-rich disulfide-bridged Bac1 were able to enhance the sensing of nucleic acids by primary epithelial cells. (
  • Therefore, we hypothesize that the inflamed colon releases molecules that stimulate cathelicidin expression from epithelial cells and/or immune cells but these moderately increased cathelicidin levels in the intestine may not be sufficient to counteract severe inflammation. (
  • Cathelicidin-mediated lipopolysaccharide signaling via intracellular TLR4 in colonic epithelial cells evokes CXCL8 production. (
  • We earlier showed that 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) can induce cathelicidin LL-37 expression synergistically with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 in a lung epithelial cell line. (
  • In a search for effective therapeutics, our objective was to determine whether human cathelicidin LL-37, a small peptide secreted by leuckocytes and epithelial cells, enhances the macrophage ability to clear MAP infection. (
  • We also evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of vitamin D3 (an inducer of endogenous cathelicidin) in the CLP-induced murine polymicrobial sepsis model. (
  • Compared to their respective S. aureus Newman and MRSA252 WT strains, the blaI mutants were found to be more susceptible to the murine cathelicidin CRAMP and human LL-37 with their CFU concentrations being approximately 0.5 logs lower compared to the respective WT strains after 1-2 hours of co-incubation with the cathelicidins (Fig 2A-2D). (
  • Higher plasma levels of human cathelicidin antimicrobial protein ( hCAP18 ), which are up-regulated by vitamin D , appear to significantly reduce the risk of death from infection in dialysis patients. (
  • Therefore, cathelicidins appear active against C. albicans, but may be most effective as a superficial barrier to infection. (
  • We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities of Hc-cath, a cathelicidin peptide derived from the venom of the sea snake, Hydrophis cyanocyntus, using in vivo models of inflammation and infection. (
  • This cathelicidin peptide could represent a foundational molecule to develop therapeutics for controlling MAP infection. (
  • Beta-Lactamase Repressor BlaI Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance and Virulence. (
  • Activation of neutrophils with phorbol myristate acetate resulted in degranulation and release of cathelicidins as well as bactericidal activity in the supernatants. (
  • The relationship between the bactericidal activity and several physiochemical properties of the cathelicidins was examined. (
  • A mutation anticipated to destabilize interactions between cathelicidin subunits had no effect on bactericidal activity, suggesting that cathelicidins have activities beyond perforating the membrane. (
  • The following six groups were obtained: RA + NS, RA + low-dose cathelicidin, RA + high-dose cathelicidin, O 2 + NS, O 2 + low-dose cathelicidin, and O 2 + high-dose cathelicidin. (
  • Sprague-Dawley rat pups were reared in either room air (RA) or hyperoxia (85% O 2 ) and were randomly treated with low-dose cathelicidin (4 mg/kg, LDC) and high-dose cathelicidin (HDC, 8 mg/kg) in 0.05 mL of normal saline (NS) administered intraperitoneally on postnatal days 1-6. (
  • Chou, HC & Chen, CM 2019, ' Cathelicidin attenuates hyperoxia-induced kidney injury in newborn rats ', Renal Failure , vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 733-741. (
  • Chou, HC & Chen, CM 2019, ' Cathelicidin attenuates hyperoxia-induced intestinal injury through inhibition of NF-κB activity in newborn rats ', Experimental and Molecular Pathology . (
  • This study investigated the activity of cathelicidins against Candida albicans. (
  • In summary, our proposed experiments will provide important insights into the role of cathelicidins in the pathophysiology of intestinal inflammation and IBD and the mechanisms by which cathelicidins modulate colonic inflammation. (
  • Our research proposal will examine an important and pathophysiologically relevant research topic, namely the role of cathelicidins in intestinal inflammation. (
  • We show that cathelicidin is released by neutrophils in mouse lymph nodes and that cathelicidin-deficient mice display suppressed Th17 responses during inflammation, but not at steady state. (
  • These results show that cathelicidin and KLK5 decrease in association with AZA exposure. (
  • Our finding suggests that cathelicidins positively regulate beta-cell functions and may be potentially used for intervening b-cell dysfunction-associated diseases. (
  • The current study demonstrates for the first time that intrarectal administration of cathelicidin may be a novel therapeutic option for IBDs. (
  • Aim 2 will examine the in vivo therapeutic effects of short- and long-term administration of cathelicidin in mouse models of acute and chronic colonic inflammation. (
  • The data demonstrated that after blocking RND-type efflux pumps with 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine, the MICs for CAP18, but not those for the other cathelicidins tested, were significantly decreased. (
  • Experiments in aim 3 will determine the anti-angiogenic and anti-fibrogenic role of cathelicidin in cultured human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. (
  • 1] "Chicken cathelicidin-B1, an antimicrobial guardian at the mucosal M cell gateway. (
  • Collectively, the present data support a role for certain bovine cathelicidins in helping the innate immune system to sense nucleic acids. (
  • The present study aimed to investigate the ability of the bovine cathelicidins indolicidin, bactenecin (Bac)1, Bac5, bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide (BMAP)-27, BMAP-28, and BMAP-34 to inhibit the growth of bacteria and to enhance the sensing of nucleic acid by the host's immune system. (
  • We propose that the neutrophil cathelicidin is required for maximal Th17 differentiation, and that this is one method by which early neutrophilia directs subsequent adaptive immune responses. (
  • An altered innate immune detection and response system, modulated to a large extent by the aberrant production and processing of human cathelicidin LL-37, is thought to play a central role in disease pathogenesis. (
  • Real-time PCR revealed an abundant expression of four cathelicidins throughout the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts as well as in all primary and secondary immune organs of chickens. (
  • Moreover, besides its antimicrobial functions, increasing evidence points out that cathelicidin LL-37 influences function of cells involved in adaptive and innate immune response and takes part in the regulation of physiological and pathological processes. (
  • Vitamin D up-regulates genetic expression of cathelicidin, which exhibits broad-spectrum microbicidal activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. (
  • In the event of vitamin D deficiency, the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin is low. (
  • A 2008 study in the 'Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology' supplemented 14 subjects with 4,000 international units of vitamin D daily over three weeks and found that the white blood cells produced more cathelicidin. (
  • Individuals with CKD are deficient in the active form of vitamin D and thus may be deficient in human cathelicidin (hCAP18), a vitamin-D regulated protein with potentent antibacterial properties. (
  • Vitamin upregulates Cathelicidin, an antimicrobial substance normally produced by neutrophils. (
  • Human Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is known to have antiviral activity against many viruses. (
  • Antiviral Activity of the Human Cathelicidin, LL-37, and Derived Pepti" by Shweta Tripathi, Guangshun Wang et al. (
  • Conclusions: Cathelicidin treatment attenuated kidney injury as evidenced by lower kidney injury scores, 8-OHdG-positive cells, collagen deposition, and reversion of hyperoxia-induced M1/M2 macrophage polarization. (
  • Cathelicidin treatment attenuated intestinal injury as evidenced by lower intestinal injury scores and intestinal permeability and higher intestinal barrier protein expression. (
  • In 2007, Richard Gallo and colleagues noticed that patients with rosacea had high levels of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin [12] and elevated levels of stratum corneum tryptic enzymes ( SCTEs ). (
  • MUC2 Mucin and Butyrate Contribute to the Synthesis of the Antimicrobial Peptide Cathelicidin in Response to Entamoeba histolytica- and Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis. (
  • In vitro assays showed that the presence of a functional petL and petK, and therefore the presence of PEtn on lipid A and Kdo 1 , was essential for resistance to the cationic, antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin-2. (
  • In aim 1, we will characterize the cellular cathelicidin expression profile in colons of IBD patients and several mouse models of acute and chronic colitis and we will examine the possibility to administer sodium butyrate to increase endogenous cathelicidin levels to reduce colitis in vivo. (
  • A new role for cathelicidin in ulcerative colitis in mice. (
  • To examine the role of cathelicidin in polymicrobial sepsis, cathelicidin wild-( Cnlp +/+ ) and knockout ( Cnlp −/− ) mice underwent cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP) followed by the assessment of septic mortality and morbidity as well as histological, biochemical, immunological, and transcriptomic analyses in the ileal tissues. (
  • We find that cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) is constitutively expressed by rat insulinoma b-cell clone INS-1 832/13. (
  • Despite the fact that expression of BlaI in trans on plasmid pBlaI did not fully abolish the increased beta-lactamase activity (see above), the S. aureus Newman blaI mutant expressing pBlaI showed WT levels for both CRAMP and LL-37 resistance indicating functional complementation of blaI in terms of cathelicidin susceptibility (Fig 2A and 2B). (
  • However, cathelicidins were not required to induce IFN-α/β expression, suggesting a redundancy of this pathway for pDC activation in injured skin. (
  • The Human Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide (CAMP) ELISA Kit allows for quantitative determination in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids. (
  • [ 9 ] An inverse correlation between cathelicidin expression and serum immunoglobulin E levels in patients with AD and patients with KVE has also been found. (
  • However, very little information is available to support a role of cathelicidin in intestinal inflammation. (
  • Results from our preliminary studies indicate that cathelicidins and expression of their receptors are increased in the colon of IBD patients and mouse models of colitis, but the particular cells secreting cathelicidin during intestinal inflammation are not known yet. (
  • Thus exogenous cathelicidin administration may be necessary to counteract colonic inflammation. (
  • Results from our studies will provide insights of the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease and evaluate the therapeutic potential of cathelicidins in intestinal inflammation. (
  • Human cathelicidin host defence peptide (HDP) LL-37 selectively suppresses pathogen-induced inflammation, without compromising resistance to infections. (
  • Members of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial polypeptides are characterized by a highly conserved region (cathelin domain) and a highly variable cathelicidin peptide domain. (
  • Cathelicidins, antimicrobial polypeptides found in lysosomes. (
  • LL-37, the only human cathelicidin, is a cationic antimicrobial peptide with antibacterial and antifungal activity. (
  • For example Histatin 5 derivatives found in human saliva, Defensin and Cathelicidins etc. (
  • In this study, characterization of Defensin beta 103a, hepcidin and cathelicidin is reported for the first time in bats. (
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Cathelicidin Kits (39) und Cathelicidin Proteine (6) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (
  • The ileal expression of cathelicidin was increased by three-fold after CLP, peaking at 4 h. (
  • Here we report that cathelicidin is a powerful Th17 potentiator which enhances aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and RORγt expression, in a TGF-β1-dependent manner. (
  • The role of Cathelicidin in ameliorates kidney injury of the hyperoxia newborn rats was accompanied by decreased NF-κB expression, which probably through the modulating NF-κB activity in the kidney. (
  • Fowlicidins 1 to 3 exhibited a similar tissue expression pattern with the highest expression in the bone marrow and lung, while cathelicidin B1 was synthesized most abundantly in the bursa of Fabricius. (
  • The expression of fowlicidins 1 to 3 showed an age-dependent increase both in the cecal tonsil and lung, whereas all four cathelicidins were peaked in the bursa on day 4 after hatching, with a gradual decline by day 28. (
  • An abrupt augmentation in the expression of fowlicidins 1 to 3 was also observed in the cecum on day 28, while the highest expression of cathelicidin B1 was seen in both the lung and cecal tonsil on day 14. (
  • In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. (
  • Cathelicidin inhibits NF-κB activity and ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal barrier disruption in rats. (
  • Nanomolar concentrations of cathelicidins, although not bactericidal, reduced the growth rate of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. (
  • Cathelicidins are thought to interact with each other within the membranes of susceptible bacteria to form assemblages that affect permeability and result in cell death ( 4 ). (
  • Cathelicidin LL-37 exhibits broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. (
  • Four cathelicidins, namely fowlicidins 1 to 3 and cathelicidin B1, have been identified in chickens. (