Cathelicidins: Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Rosacea: A cutaneous disorder primarily of convexities of the central part of the FACE, such as FOREHEAD; CHEEK; NOSE; and CHIN. It is characterized by FLUSHING; ERYTHEMA; EDEMA; RHINOPHYMA; papules; and ocular symptoms. It may occur at any age but typically after age 30. There are various subtypes of rosacea: erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular (National Rosacea Society's Expert Committee on the Classification and Staging of Rosacea, J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 46:584-7).Candidiasis, Cutaneous: Candidiasis of the skin manifested as eczema-like lesions of the interdigital spaces, perleche, or chronic paronychia. (Dorland, 27th ed)Yersinia ruckeri: A species of gram-negative bacteria responsible for red mouth disease in rainbow trout (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS). The bacteria is a natural component of fresh water ecosystems in the United States and Canada.Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Cathepsin L: A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Colitis, Ulcerative: Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Sheep, Domestic: A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Sheep, Bighorn: A species of sheep, Ovis canadensis, characterized by massive brown horns. There are at least four subspecies and they are all endangered or threatened.Brucella ovis: A species of the genus BRUCELLA which are pathogenic to SHEEP.PhenylbutyratesMuscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Urea Cycle Disorders, Inborn: Rare congenital metabolism disorders of the urea cycle. The disorders are due to mutations that result in complete (neonatal onset) or partial (childhood or adult onset) inactivity of an enzyme, involved in the urea cycle. Neonatal onset results in clinical features that include irritability, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, NEONATAL HYPOTONIA; RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS; HYPERAMMONEMIA; coma, and death. Survivors of the neonatal onset and childhood/adult onset disorders share common risks for ENCEPHALOPATHIES, METABOLIC, INBORN; and RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS due to HYPERAMMONEMIA.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Rhamnus: A plant genus of the family RHAMNACEAE. Several species have been reclassified to the FRANGULA genus. It is often called buckthorn but should not be confused with other plants called that.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Cinchona: A genus of rubiaceous South American trees that yields the toxic CINCHONA ALKALOIDS from their bark; QUININE; QUINIDINE; chinconine, cinchonidine and others are used to treat MALARIA and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Histatins: A group of small, histidine-rich, cationic peptides in human SALIVA which are antibacterial and antifungal.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Myofibroblasts: Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Kaposi Varicelliform Eruption: A disseminated vesicular-pustular eruption caused by the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS), the VACCINIA VIRUS, or Varicella zoster (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It is usually superimposed on a preexisting, inactive or active, atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC).beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Eczema: A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).Acyclovir: A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.

Transfer of a cathelicidin peptide antibiotic gene restores bacterial killing in a cystic fibrosis xenograft model. (1/295)

Recent studies suggest that the gene defect in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to a breach in innate immunity. We describe a novel genetic strategy for reversing the CF-specific defect of antimicrobial activity by transferring a gene encoding a secreted cathelicidin peptide antibiotic into the airway epithelium grown in a human bronchial xenograft model. The airway surface fluid (ASF) from CF xenografts failed to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. Partial reconstitution of CF transmembrane conductance regulator expression after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer restored the antimicrobial activity of ASF from CF xenografts to normal levels. Exposure of CF xenografts to an adenovirus expressing the human cathelicidin LL-37/hCAP-18 increased levels of this peptide in the ASF three- to fourfold above the normal concentrations, which were equivalent in ASF from CF and normal xenografts before gene transfer. The increase of LL-37 was sufficient to restore bacterial killing to normal levels. The data presented describe an alternative genetic approach to the treatment of CF based on enhanced expression of an endogenous antimicrobial peptide and provide strong evidence that expression of antimicrobial peptides indeed protects against bacterial infection.  (+info)

The human cationic antimicrobial protein (hCAP18), a peptide antibiotic, is widely expressed in human squamous epithelia and colocalizes with interleukin-6. (2/295)

Peptide antibiotics are widespread in nature and, by providing a rapid first line of defense, may be key players in the innate immune system. Although epithelia are the main barriers shielding the internal environment from microorganisms, the role for peptide antibiotics in epithelial protection is unclear. We recently reported that the human cationic antimicrobial protein hCAP18, the precursor of the antimicrobial peptide called LL-37, is not expressed by normal human keratinocytes but is induced in various inflammatory skin disorders. In the present study we demonstrate that hCAP18 is consistently expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in squamous epithelia of the mouth, tongue, esophagus, cervix, and vagina in humans. The gene for hCAP18 contains promoter elements that are potentially regulated by interleukin-6, and our data further show a colocalization between interleukin-6 and hCAP18 expression in these tissues. Our finding that hCAP18 is widely produced in squamous epithelia suggests a role for this peptide in epithelial antimicrobial defense. Furthermore, colocalization with interleukin-6 indicates a potential local mechanism for the upregulation of hCAP18 at the epithelial surfaces.  (+info)

Structure and organization of the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in phospholipid membranes: relevance to the molecular basis for its non-cell-selective activity. (3/295)

The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 belongs to the cathelicidin family and is the first amphipathic alpha-helical peptide isolated from human. LL-37 is considered to play an important role in the first line of defence against local infection and systemic invasion of pathogens at sites of inflammation and wounds. Understanding its mode of action may assist in the development of antimicrobial agents mimicking those of the human immune system. In vitro studies revealed that LL-37 is cytotoxic to both bacterial and normal eukaryotic cells. To gain insight into the mechanism of its non-cell-selective cytotoxicity, we synthesized and structurally and functionally characterized LL-37, its N-terminal truncated form FF-33, and their fluorescent derivatives (which retained structure and activity). The results showed several differences, between LL-37 and other native antimicrobial peptides, that may shed light on its in vivo activities. Most interestingly, LL-37 exists in equilibrium between monomers and oligomers in solution at very low concentrations. Also, it is significantly resistant to proteolytic degradation in solution, and when bound to both zwitterionic (mimicking mammalian membranes) and negatively charged membranes (mimicking bacterial membranes). The results also showed a role for the N-terminus in proteolytic resistance and haemolytic activity, but not in antimicrobial activity. The LL-37 mode of action with negatively charged membranes suggests a detergent-like effect via a 'carpet-like' mechanism. However, the ability of LL-37 to oligomerize in zwitterionic membranes might suggest the formation of a transmembrane pore in normal eukaryotic cells. To examine this possibility we used polarized attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and found that the peptide is predominantly alpha-helical and oriented nearly parallel with the surface of zwitterionic-lipid membranes. This result does not support the channel-forming hypothesis, but rather it supports the detergent-like effect.  (+info)

The human antibacterial cathelicidin, hCAP-18, is bound to lipoproteins in plasma. (4/295)

Cathelicidins are a family of antibacterial and lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins. hCAP-18, the only human cathelicidin, is a major protein of the specific granules of human neutrophils. The plasma level of hCAP-18 is >20-fold higher than that of other specific granule proteins relative to their levels within circulating neutrophils. The aim of this study was to elucidate the background for this high plasma level of hCAP-18. Plasma was subjected to molecular sieve chromatography, and hCAP-18 was found in distinct high molecular mass fractions that coeluted with apolipoproteins A-I and B, respectively. The association of hCAP-18 with lipoproteins was validated by the cofractionation of hCAP-18 with lipoproteins using two different methods for isolation of lipoproteins from plasma. Furthermore, the level of hCAP-18 in delipidated plasma was <1% of that in normal plasma. Immunoprecipitation of very low, low, and high density lipoprotein particles with anti-apolipoprotein antibodies resulted in coprecipitation of hCAP-18. The binding of hCAP-18 to lipoproteins was mediated by the antibacterial C-terminal part of the protein. The binding of hCAP-18 to lipoproteins suggests that lipoproteins may play an important role as a reservoir of this antimicrobial protein.  (+info)

Novel cathelicidins in horse leukocytes(1). (5/295)

Cathelicidins are precursors of defense peptides of the innate immunity and are widespread in mammals. Their structure comprises a conserved prepropiece and an antimicrobial domain that is structurally varied both intra- and inter-species. We investigated the complexity of the cathelicidin family in horse by a reverse transcription-PCR-based cloning strategy of myeloid mRNA and by Southern and Western analyses. Three novel cathelicidin sequences were deduced from bone marrow mRNA and designated equine cathelicidins eCATH-1, eCATH-2 and eCATH-3. Putative antimicrobial domains of 26, 27 and 40 residues with no significant sequence homology to other peptides were inferred at the C-terminus of the sequences. Southern analysis of genomic DNA using a probe based on the cathelicidin-conserved propiece revealed a polymorphic DNA region with several hybridization-positive fragments and suggested the presence of additional genes. A null eCATH-1 allele was also demonstrated with a frequency of 0.71 in the horse population analyzed and low amounts of eCATH-1-specific mRNA were found in myeloid cells of gene-positive animals. A Western analysis using antibodies to synthetic eCATH peptides revealed the presence of eCATH-2 and eCATH-3 propeptides, but not of eCATH-1-related polypeptides, in horse neutrophil granules and in the secretions of phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated neutrophils. These results thus suggest that eCATH-2 and eCATH-3 are functional genes, whereas eCATH-1 is unable to encode a polypeptide.  (+info)

Augmentation of innate host defense by expression of a cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide. (6/295)

Antimicrobial peptides, such as defensins or cathelicidins, are effector substances of the innate immune system and are thought to have antimicrobial properties that contribute to host defense. The evidence that vertebrate antimicrobial peptides contribute to innate immunity in vivo is based on their expression pattern and in vitro activity against microorganisms. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the overexpression of an antimicrobial peptide results in augmented protection against bacterial infection. C57BL/6 mice were given an adenovirus vector containing the cDNA for LL-37/hCAP-18, a human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide. Mice treated with intratracheal LL-37/hCAP-18 vector had a lower bacterial load and a smaller inflammatory response than did untreated mice following pulmonary challenge with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Systemic expression of LL-37/hCAP-18 after intravenous injection of recombinant adenovirus resulted in improved survival rates following intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide with galactosamine or Escherichia coli CP9. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that expression of an antimicrobial peptide by gene transfer results in augmentation of the innate immune response, providing support for the hypothesis that vertebrate antimicrobial peptides protect against microorganisms in vivo.  (+info)

SMAP-29: a potent antibacterial and antifungal peptide from sheep leukocytes. (7/295)

SMAP-29 is a cathelicidin-derived peptide deduced from sheep myeloid mRNA. The C-terminally amidated form of this peptide was chemically synthesized and shown to exert a potent antimicrobial activity. Antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates highly susceptible to this peptide include MRSA and VREF isolates, that are a major worldwide problem, and mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with chronic respiratory inflammation in CF patients. In addition, SMAP-29 is also active against fungi, including Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from immunocompromised patients. SMAP-29 causes significant morphological alterations of the bacterial surfaces, as shown by scanning electron microscopy, and is also hemolytic against human, but not sheep erythrocytes. Its potent antimicrobial activity suggests that this peptide is an excellent candidate as a lead compound for the development of novel antiinfective agents.  (+info)

Biological activities of lipopolysaccharides of Proteus spp. and their interactions with polymyxin B and an 18-kDa cationic antimicrobial protein (CAP18)-derived peptide. (8/295)

The saccharide constituents of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Proteus spp. vary with the strain and contain unique components about which little is known. The biological activities of LPS and lipid A from S- and R-forms of 10 Proteus strains were examined. LPS from all S-form Proteus strains was lethal to D-(+)-galactosamine (GalN)-loaded, LPS-responsive, C3H/HeN mice, but not to LPS-hypo-responsive C3H/HeJ mice. P. vulgaris 025 LPS evoked strong anaphylactoid reactions in N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP)-primed C3H/HeJ mice. LPS from S- and R-form Proteus strains induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by macrophages isolated from C3H/HeN but not C3H/HeJ mice. Lipid A from Proteus strains also induced NO and TNF production, although lipid A was less potent than LPS. The effects of LPS were mainly dependent on CD14; LPS-induced NO and TNF production in CD14+ J774.1 cells was significantly greater than in CD14-J7.DEF.3 cells. All LPS from Proteus strains, and especially from P. vulgaris 025, exhibited higher anti-complementary activity than LPS from Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Polymyxin B inactivated proteus LPS in a dose-dependent manner, but these LPS preparations were more resistant to polymyxin B than E. coli LPS. CAP18(109-135), a granulocyte-derived peptide, inhibited proteus LPS endotoxicity only when the LPS:CAP18(109-135) ratio was appropriate, which suggests that CAP18(109-135) acts through a different mechanism than polymyxin B. The results indicate that LPS from Proteus spp. are potently endotoxic, but that the toxicity is different from that of LPS from E. coli or Salmonella spp. and even varies among different Proteus strains. The variation in biological activities among proteus LPS may be due to unique components within the respective LPS.  (+info)

The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 belongs to the cathelicidin family and is the first amphipathic α-helical peptide isolated from human. LL-37 is considered to play an important role in the first line of defence against local infection and systemic invasion of pathogens at sites of inflammation and wounds. Understanding its mode of action may assist in the development of antimicrobial agents mimicking those of the human immune system. In vitrostudies revealed that LL-37 is cytotoxic to both bacterial and normal eukaryotic cells. To gain insight into the mechanism of its non-cell-selective cytotoxicity, we synthesized and structurally and functionally characterized LL-37, its N-terminal truncated form FF-33, and their fluorescent derivatives (which retained structure and activity). The results showed several differences, between LL-37 and other native antimicrobial peptides, that may shed light on its in vivoactivities. Most interestingly, LL-37 exists in equilibrium between monomers and oligomers ...
Mechanical ventilation (MV) of patients can cause damage to bronchoalveolar epithelium, leading to a sterile inflammatory response, infection and in severe cases sepsis. Limited knowledge is available on the effects of MV on the innate immune defense system in the human lung. In this study, we demonstrate that cyclic stretch of the human bronchial epithelial cell lines VA10 and BCi NS 1.1 leads to down-regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene expression. We show that treatment of VA10 cells with vitamin D3 and/or 4-phenyl butyric acid counteracted cyclic stretch mediated down-regulation of CAMP mRNA and protein expression (LL-37). Further, we observed an increase in pro-inflammatory responses in the VA10 cell line subjected to cyclic stretch. The mRNA expression of the genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β was increased after cyclic stretching, where as a decrease in gene expression of chemokines IP-10 and RANTES was observed. Cyclic stretch enhanced oxidative
Cathelicidins are pleiotropic antimicrobial peptides largely described for innate antimicrobial defenses and, more recently, immunomodulation. They are shown to modulate a variety of immune or nonimmune host cell responses. However, how cathelicidins are expressed by beta cells and modulate beta-cell functions under steady-state or proinflammatory conditions are unknown. We find that cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) is constitutively expressed by rat insulinoma b-cell clone INS-1 832/13. CRAMP expression is inducible by butyrate or phenylbutyric acid and its secretion triggered upon inflammatory challenges by IL-1 beta or LPS. CRAMP promotes b-cell survival in vitro via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and by modulating expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins: p-Bad, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL. Also via EGFR, CRAMP stimulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion ex vivo by rat islets. A similar effect is observed in diabetes-prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. ...
OmpA Binding Mediates the Effect of Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 on Acinetobacter baumannii. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Cathelicidins are a group of oral antimicrobial peptides that play multiple vital roles in the human body, such as their antimicrobial (broad spectrum) role against oral microbes, wound healing, and angiogenesis, with recent evidences about their role in cancer regulation. Cathelicidins are present in humans and other mammals as well. By complex interactions with the microenvironment, it results in pro-inflammatory effects. Many in vitro and in vivo experiments have been conducted to ultimately conclude that these unique peptides play an essential role in innate immunity. Peptides are released in the precursor form (defensins), which after cleavage results in cathelicidins formation. Living in the era where the major focus is on non-invasive and nanotechnology, this ultimately leads to further advancements in the field of salivaomics. Based on current spotlight innovations, we have highlighted the biochemistry, mode of action, and the importance of cathelicidins in the oral cavity.
Gombart AF , Borregaard N , Koeffler HP . Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA. [email protected] The innate immune system of mammals provides a rapid response to repel assaults from numerous infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. A major component of this system is a diverse combination of cationic antimicrobial peptides that include the alpha- and beta-defensins and cathelicidins. In this study, we show that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and three of its analogs induced expression of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene. This induction was observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), immortalized keratinocyte, and colon cancer cell lines, as well as normal human bone marrow (BM) -derived macrophages and fresh BM cells from two normal individuals and one AML patient. The induction occurred via a consensus vitamin D response ...
Peptides , Antimicrobial and Related Peptides , LL17-32; This peptide is an active segment of LL-37, a peptide derived from the C-terminal domain of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide. It has been reported that the LL17-32 peptide exhibits reversal effect on ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer cell lines.; FKRIVQRIKDFLRNLV; H-Phe-Lys-Arg-Ile-Val-Gln-Arg-Ile-Lys-Asp-Phe-Leu-Arg-Asn-Leu-Val-OH
April Flowers for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online. A research team at the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (OSU) analyzed 446 compounds for their ability to boost the innate immune system in humans. Their findings, published in Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, reveal two compounds that stand out -- the resveratrol found in red grapes and a compound called pterostilbene from blueberries.. These compounds are both called stilbenoids. They work in synergy with vitamin D and both have a significant impact in raising the expression of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene that is involved in immune function.. The scientists stress that their findings were made in laboratory cell cultures and do not prove that similar results would occur as a result of dietary intake. They do believe the findings, supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), add more interest to the potential of some foods to improve the immune response.. "Out of a study of ...
We have synthesized 39 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] analogs having two side chains attached to carbon-20 (Gemini) with various modifications and compared their anticancer activities. Five structure-function rules emerged to identify analogs with enhanced anticancer activity. One of these active analogs, BXL-01-0126, was more potent than 1,25(OH)2D3 in mediating 50% clonal inhibition of cancer cell growth. Murine studies found that BXL-01-0126 and 1,25(OH)2D3 had nearly the same potency to raise serum calcium levels. Taken together, BXL-01-0126 when compared to 1,25(OH)2D3 has greater anticancer potency, but similar toxicity causing hypercalcemia. We focused on the effect of these compounds on the stimulation of expression of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) whose gene has a vitamin D response element in its promoter. Expression of CAMP mRNA and protein increased in a dose-response fashion after exposure of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells to the Gemini analog, ...
Human CAMP ELISA Kit allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of Human Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide concentrations in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids.
Growth factors, comprising diverse protein and peptide families, are involved in a multitude of developmental processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Here we show that peptides derived from HB-EGF, amphiregulin, hepatocyte growth factor, PDGF-A and PDGF-B, as well as various FGFs are antimicrobial, demonstrating a previously unknown activity of growth factor-derived peptides. The peptides killed the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, as well as the fungus Candida albicans. Several peptides were also active against the Gram-positive S. aureus. Electron microscopy analysis of peptide-treated bacteria, paired with analysis of peptide effects on liposomes, showed that the peptides exerted membrane-breaking effects similar to those seen after treatment with the "classical" human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. Furthermore, HB-EGF was antibacterial per se, and its epitope GKRKKKGKGLGKKRDPCLRKYK retained ...
As the key components of innate immunity, human host defense antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) play a critical role in warding off invading microbial pathogens. In addition, AMPs can possess other biological functions such as apoptosis, wound healing, and immune modulation. This article provides an overview on the identification, activity, 3D structure, and mechanism of action of human AMPs selected from the antimicrobial peptide database. Over 100 such peptides have been identified from a variety of tissues and epithelial surfaces, including skin, eyes, ears, mouths, gut, immune, nervous and urinary systems. These peptides vary from 10 to 150 amino acids with a net charge between −3 and +20 and a hydrophobic content below 60%. The sequence diversity enables human AMPs to adopt various 3D structures and to attack pathogens by different mechanisms. While α-defensin HD-6 can self-assemble on the bacterial surface into nanonets to entangle bacteria, both HNP-1 and β-defensin hBD-3 are able to
Cathelicidins are essential in the protection against invading pathogens through both their direct antimicrobial activity and their immunomodulatory functions. Although cathelicidins are known to modulate activation by several TLR ligands, little is known about their influence on DNA-induced macrophage activation. In this study, we explored the effects of cathelicidins on DNA-induced activation of chicken macrophages and elucidated the intracellular processes underlying these effects. Our results show that chicken cathelicidin (CATH)-2 strongly enhances DNA-induced activation of both chicken and mammalian macrophages because of enhanced endocytosis of DNA-CATH-2 complexes. After endocytosis, DNA is liberated from the complex because of proteolytic breakdown of CATH-2, after which TLR21 is activated. This leads to increased cytokine expression and NO production. Through the interaction with DNA, CATH-2 can play an important role in modulating the immune response at sites of infection. These ...
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (AATD) is characterised by excessive neutrophil degranulation and a protease: anti-protease imbalance leading to premature emphysema. Current specialised treatment for AATD consists of once weekly infusion of plasma purified AAT. Neutrophil degranulation is under the control of small GTP-binding proteins, including Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (Rac2). The molecular basis for aberrant neutrophil degranulation in AATD has not been elucidated to date. The aim of this study was to fully characterise neutrophil degranulation in AATD and to determine the effects of AAT augmentation therapy on the AATD neutrophil. In this study, we examined degranulation by AATD neutrophils by Western blotting. This revealed a 3-fold increase in levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), human cathelicidin antimicrobial protein (hCAP-18) and matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9), markers of primary, secondary and tertiary granules, respectively (p=0.023, p=0.036 and p=0.042, respectively).
Rat bladder ubiquitin-like molecule: isolation, purification and N-terminal sequencing However, HGF/c-MET paracrine signaling also may contribute to its invasive ability, especially in recurrent lesions. The contents of both cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were significantly reduced in SCN compared ...
Cathelicidins are CHDP with essential roles in innate host defense but also more recently associated with the pathogenesis of certain chronic diseases. These peptides have microbicidal potential and the capacity to modulate innate immunity and inflammatory processes. PMN are key innate immune effector cells with pivotal roles in defense against infection. The appropriate regulation of PMN function, death, and clearance is critical to innate immunity, and dysregulation is implicated in disease pathogenesis. The efferocytosis of apoptotic PMN, in contrast to necrotic cells, is proposed to promote the resolution of inflammation. We demonstrate that the human cathelicidin LL-37 induced rapid secondary necrosis of apoptotic human PMN and identify an essential minimal region of LL-37 required for this activity. Using these LL-37-induced secondary necrotic PMN, we characterize the consequence for macrophage inflammatory responses. LL-37-induced secondary necrosis did not inhibit PMN ingestion by ...
We participate in the revolution in fluorescence microscopy of biological systems. It is now possible to measure the spatial distribution of proteins and DNA loci with 30-nm precision in live cells and to track their motion in real time. The result is an unprecedented, high resolution view of biological structure and activity. Areas of current interest include: (1) The motion and spatial distribution of GFP-labeled species in live E. coli cells. Species of interest include RNA polymerase, ribosomes, architectural proteins, and specific DNA loci. The transcription/translation machinery (ribosomes, the nucleoid, and RNAP) all exhibit a remarkable level of spatial organization. (2) The time-resolved attack of antimicrobial agents on single bacterial cell membranes. Examples include LL-37, a human antimicrobial peptide, and synthetic random copolymers designed by the Gellman group. Simultaneous two-color imaging of the antimicrobial and cytoplasmic or periplasmic GFP yields unprecedented insight ...
The study describes an elegant tool for what has been a frustrating problem. Of particular interest to us, this study shows that Aβ dimers have striking structural similarities to the dimeric forms of the antimicrobial peptides human NP2, horseshoe crab tachystatin B, and mouse α-defensin. We recently reported on the antimicrobial activity of Aβ, and our newest data suggest dimerization is a key event in turning relatively inactive Aβ monomers into forms that can attack bacteria. This is not a phenomenon restricted to Aβ. It has been known for some time that oligomerization has an important role in the action and targeting of a number of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs), including the archetypal antimicrobial peptide LL-37 which can form oligomers, fibrils, and birefringent amyloid (albeit, LL-37 amyloid has only been observed in vitro to date). Oligomerization is also a key mechanism for antimicrobial protein-mediated agglutination and inactivation of viral particles.. Despite this central ...
Intracellular TLRs have limited ability to discriminate host versus foreign nucleic acids (Haas et al., 2008). Several host factors, including anti-DNA antibodies, antimicrobial peptide LL37, or the nuclear DNA-binding protein HMGB1, alone or in combination, facilitate entry of self-DNA into the endosomes of pDCs, where they trigger TLR9 to induce type 1 IFN responses (Lande et al., 2007; Marshak-Rothstein and Rifkin, 2007; Tian et al., 2007). Similarly, autoantibody-self small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes can activate TLR7 through FcγRII to induce IFN (Vollmer et al., 2005; Savarese et al., 2006). This might lead to the constitutive activation of pDCs, which contributes to the autoimmune pathology of systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis. It will be of further interest to study if the BST2-ILT7-mediated controlling mechanism is breached in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis (Blanco et al., 2001; Lande et al., 2007; Marshak-Rothstein and Rifkin, 2007), which ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sea snake cathelicidin (Hc-cath) exerts a protective effect in mouse models of lung inflammation and infection. AU - Carlile, Simon R.. AU - Shiels, Jenna. AU - Kerrigan, Lauren. AU - Delaney, Rebecca. AU - Megaw, Julianne. AU - Gilmore, Brendan F.. AU - Weldon, Sinead. AU - Dalton, John P.. AU - Taggart, Clifford C.. PY - 2019/4/15. Y1 - 2019/4/15. N2 - We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities of Hc-cath, a cathelicidin peptide derived from the venom of the sea snake, Hydrophis cyanocyntus, using in vivo models of inflammation and infection. Hc-cath function was evaluated in in vitro, in vivo in the wax moth, Galleria mellonella, and in mouse models of intraperitoneal and respiratory Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Hc-Cath downregulated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages and significantly improved the survival of P. aeruginosa infected G. mellonella over a 5-day period. We also demonstrated, for the first time, that Hc-cath can ...
Objectives High-dose vitamin D3increases plasma total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in critically ill, ventilated patients; however, to our knowledge, the effect on plasma levels of free (nonprotein-bound) 25(OH)D has not been investigated in critical illness. Moreover, the relationship of free 25(OH)D and the regulation of endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) remains unknown. The aims of this study were to determine in critically ill adults with respiratory failure the effect of previous high-dose regimens of vitamin D3on free 25(OH)D concentrations, the relationship of free 25(OH)D with circulating cathelicidin (LL-37) and human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2), and the associations between plasma levels of free 25(OH)D and these AMPs to alveolar macrophage phagocytosis function. Methods In a double blind, randomized controlled trial, critically ill ventilator-dependent adults (N = 30) received enteral vitamin D3(250,000 or 500,000 IU total over 5 d) or placebo. Plasma was obtained serially for ...
... is an emerging biopharmaceutical company focused on commercializing a novel class of patented compounds known as ceragenins or CSAs. These compounds have broad-spectrum activity mimicking those of endogenous antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37. CSAs, however, are not peptides; rather synthetic small molecules that can be manufactured at large scale and are not subject […]. Read More. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This chapter provides a classification of relevant immunopathological reactions depending on the underlying mechanisms leading to tissue damage. The release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and heparin from mast cells accounts for the anaphylactic reactions to horse serum or to penicillin but is usually not important in the immunopathology of bacterial infections. CD8+ T cells may contribute to host resistance by at least four mechanisms: (i) release of IFN-γ, (ii) lysis of the target cell, (iii) induction of apoptosis of the target cells, and (iv) mediation of direct antimicrobial activity. This chapter provides a brief outline of the immunoprotective and immunopathological features of these mechanisms, using tuberculosis as an example. Cytokines therefore play an important role in immune defense but also contribute to immunopathology and disease. Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is crucial to the protective immune response, it also plays a part in the immunopathology of tuberculosis.
We are mapping the critical regulatory mechanisms that keep these receptors from responding to self-DNA so that we can know if and how they predispose people to autoimmune disorders when they fail," Leifer said.. Innate immune cells engulf things that look dangerous, tear them open, and release their components, including DNA. When TLR-9 receptors see DNA that identifies microbes, they send a signal to fire up more immune-system activity, including inflammation and the creation of antibodies. But before a receptor can work, enzymes in the cell must prepare it by chopping off part of the receptor molecule and leaving a part that can bind to microbe DNA. From there, Leifer believes its a numbers game. If too many receptors are prepared, they may respond to the small amount of self-DNA that makes its way into immune cells, triggering an autoimmune response. So the immune cell has a regulatory mechanism, an enzyme pathway that cuts prepared receptors in a second place. Working with cells in ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is expressed in periodontal tissue, and variations in LL-37 levels have been associated with periodontal disease. The effects of LL-37 on periodontal ligament cell function have not been described before. Here, we assess anti-inflammatory properties of LL-37 and investigate the effects of LL-37 on cell differentiation, cell proliferation and apoptosis in human periodontal ligament cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Periodontal ligament cells were obtained from teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. Cytokine (interleukin-6) and chemokine (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) expression was determined by quantitative PCR, cell differentiation by alkaline phosphatase activity, cell proliferation by counting cells in a Bürker chamber, DNA synthesis by incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine and apoptosis by cell morphology and activated caspase 3 quantities. RESULTS: Treatment with 0.1 and 1 μm of LL-37 totally reversed ...
National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya, Ukraine Purpose - to determine the activity of antimicrobial peptides, such as cathelicidin LL-37 and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in children with asthma. Materials and methods. We have comprehensively examined 200 children with asthma aged 6 to 17 years. The contents of 25(OH)D3 and cathelicidin LL-37 in serum were determined by ELISA according to the instructions of the manufacturer. Results. The examination revealed that the total content of 25(OH)D3 in the serum of children with asthma differs from the values of healthy children and characterized by a significant decrease of its level (p,0.01). Concentration of cathelicidin LL-37 in patients with asthma was significantly higher (p,0.001), than in the group of healthy children. The positive correlation between the cathelicidin LL-37, interleukin 1 (rxy=0.398 (p=0.02)) and interleukin 6 (rxy=0.178 (p=0.034)) in children with asthma was determined. The concentration of cathelicidin LL-37 in ...
Novel cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides from Equus asinus.: In the present study, EA-CATH1 and EA-CATH2 were identified from a constructed lung cDNA l
The analysis of the maintenance of a metabolite of vitamin D (25-dihydroxyvitamin D) in blood serum and level α-defensin 1-3 in sick childrens blood plasma with recurrent bronchitis was carried out. It is established that children with recurrent bronchitis reliable decrease in blood serum of concentration of a 25-dihydroxyvitamin D and increase of the contents of antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin LL-37. Decrease of the plasma level of metabolites of vitamin D in children with a recurrent bronchitis accompanies by increase of the contents of the α-defensins 1-3 in blood plasma and that could act as a padding factor of a relapsing course of a disease. The finding is a substantiation for inclusion of vitamin D in complex therapy of children with recurrent bronchitis ...
German Research Foundation; SCHA 1693/1-1. Functional specialization of proinflammatory dendritic cells in Psoriasis. Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease in which dendritic cells (DC) are thought to orchestrate the pathogenic Th17/Th1-dominated immune response. Our studies demonstrate the functional specialization of slan (6-sulfo LacNAc+) DC as an important proinflammatory DC subtype in psoriasis. Previously, we identified slanDC and reported on their proinflammatory function. In the meanwhile slanDC have also been described in other chronic inflammatory diseases such as lupus erythematosus, Crohns disease and multiple sclerosis. Skin lesion from psoriasis patients contain increased numbers of activated slanDC expressing the key proinflammatory molecules TNF-a, IL-23 and iNOS. Complexes of autologous nucleic acids and the antimicrobial peptide LL37 (Cathelicidin) triggering Toll-like receptors (TLR) are regarded as important stimuli for cell activation in psoriasis. For ...
Brilacidin (PMX30063) has shown potent bactericidal activity against drug-resistant and -susceptible strains of multiple Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens. In this study, we demonstrate that brilacidin causes membrane depolarization in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, to an extent comparable to that caused by the lipopeptidic drug daptomycin. Transcriptional profiling of Staphylococcus aureus by deep sequencing shows that the global response to brilacidin treatment is well correlated to those of treatment with daptomycin and the cationic antimicrobial peptide LL37 and mostly indicates abrogation of cell wall and membrane functions ...
Salmonella that have an ACSSuT resistance pattern are resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline," Dr. Douglas explained. "Some Salmonella Newport carry genes for resistance on a mobile plasmid that contains the genes for ACSSuT plus resistance to amoxicillin/clauvulanic acid, cephalothin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur (MDR AmpC). This resistance leaves physicians and veterinarians with few options for treatment." However, veterinarians can use the data gathered by NARMS to assist in their empiric treatment of Salmonella infections in animals. Reports are generated yearly that show the antimicrobial resistance trends in both animals and humans.. Dr. Douglas continued to explain that it is extremely difficult to find specific bacteria that develop resistance and track its pathway through the food chain. Fortunately, most veterinarians and public health practitioners accept the principles of judicious use of antibiotics that have been developed for animals and ...
So, this is an attempt to put the 2007 paper, by Gallo & team, on some of the key elements of the cause of rosacea, in ordinary language, so that more people can read it and understand it. I am pretty confident that my interpretation is all correct, but I am not a scientist, nor do I have a science background, so if anyone who is/does finds errors, please point them out so they can be corrected. * Cathelicidins are part of our immune system. They can kill microbes (they are natural
This study conclusively demonstrates that endotoxin-induced inflammatory gene responses and cytokine secretion in monocytes were suppressed by low, physiological concentrations of LL-37, implicating LL-37 in the regulation and control of proinflammatory responses associated with pathogenic assault and, by extension, with homeostatic levels of TLR agonists secreted by commensals. This report further demonstrates that LL-37 can suppress LPS-induced NF-κB translocation and exert an anti-inflammatory effect that is not restricted to endotoxin-induced inflammation. In the human THP-1 monocytic cell line as well as in human PBMC, LL-37 suppressed proinflammatory cytokine production induced by LPS as well as other agonists of TLR2 (LTA, Pam3CSK4) and in part TLR9 (CpG), but selectively enhanced responses to the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. Selective enhancement of responses is consistent with the known complex interaction of LL-37 with cells (20, 38), including the induction of a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cathelicidin attenuates hyperoxia-induced intestinal injury through inhibition of NF-κB activity in newborn rats. AU - Chou, Hsiu Chu. AU - Chen, Chung Ming. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Supplemental oxygen is often used to treat neonates with respiratory disorders. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that neonatal hyperoxia injures the distal small intestine and activates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Cathelicidin inhibits NF-κB activity and ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal barrier disruption in rats. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were reared in either room air (RA) or hyperoxia (85% O2) and were randomly treated with low-dose cathelicidin (4 mg/kg, LDC) and high-dose cathelicidin (HDC, 8 mg/kg) in 0.05 mL of normal saline (NS) administered intraperitoneally on postnatal days 1-6. The following six groups were obtained: RA + NS, RA + LDC, RA + HDC, O2 + NS, O2 + LDC, and O2 + HDC. The animals were sacrificed and the terminal ileum was removed for Western blot ...
A method pioneered by MIT researchers might offer hope in finding a new generation of antibiotics, made of antimicrobial peptides. Antimicrobial peptides a
Most people think of "strep throat" as a relatively benign infection cured by a round of antibiotics and a few days of rest. But the bacterium that causes strep throat-Group A Streptococcus-is also responsible for a number of much more dangerous disorders, including rheumatic heart disease and toxic shock syndrome.. With the specter of increased resistance to antibiotics, the scientific community is feeling pressure to find new ways to treat bacteria like Group A Streptococcus. And it appears that an international group of scientists has gained some insight into this microbial enemy-and hope of a vaccine.. Group A Streptococcus has a thick cell wall that protects it from environmental hazards, including attacks from our own immune system. This bacterium is remarkably resistant to the human antimicrobial protection mechanisms for reasons that are not well understood.. The group of investigators-led by Natalia Korotkova of the University of Kentucky and Nina Van Sorge of Utrecht ...
This chapter presents the stress conditions experienced by bacteria inside host organisms and the specific bacterial stress responses, with focus on the responses on a cellular level, especially for the subset of bacterial pathogens that have developed an intracellular lifestyle within host cells. It focuses on the integrated responses of extracellular bacteria or intracellular bacteria environments within the host. A section presents the specific conditions that are acting on bacteria during colonization of a host organism or the interaction with host cells. Cathelicidins possess an amino-terminal part called cathelin that contains an SRC, homology three-domain, required as signal for the peptide to be cleaved, activated, and secreted. The antibacterial activity resides in the carboxy-terminal part which binds to polyanionic surfaces such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and teichoic acids. Biofilms are multicellular microbial communities that can form in the external environment, on abiotic surfaces, as
Barlow, P. G., Li, Y., Wilkinson, T. S., Bowdish, D. M. E., Lau, Y. E., Cosseau, C., …Davidson, D. J. (2005). The human cationic host defense peptide LL-37 mediates contrasting effects on apoptotic pathways in different primary cells of the innate immune system. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 80, 509-520. doi:10.1189/jlb.1005560. ISSN 0741-5400. ...
Analysis revealed that the olfactory and cathelicidin gene families in pigs are more evolutionarily evolved than those in humans and many other animals. Pigs have a better sense of smell, which makes them experts at finding truffles, for example. Pigs also have twice as many interferon genes as humans, possibly indicating some unique immune mechanisms against viral infection, Sang said ...
1、 江南大学食品学院,江苏无锡 214122 2、 江南大学医学院,江苏无锡 214122 摘要:目的 探讨鼠源Cathelicidin家族抗菌肽CRAMP预处理对肾缺血再灌注损伤的影响及其作用机制。方法 8周C57BL/6雄鼠随机分成假手术组(Sham)、肾缺血再灌注组(IRI)和CRAMP预处理组。双侧肾蒂夹闭法建立肾缺血再灌注模型,再灌注24h后收集小鼠血液及肾组织,CRAMP组小鼠肾缺血前1h腹腔注射CRAMP,Sham组和IRI组注射等体积生理盐水。检测造模前后小鼠血清和肾脏中CRAMP的蛋白水平;检测小鼠肾功能(肌酐、尿素氮),小鼠肾组织HE染色;流式细胞术检测肾脏中性粒细胞比例;Q-pcr法检测肾脏中白介素(IL)-6和肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)-α 的mRNA水平;原位末端标记法(TUNEL)法检测肾脏凋亡细胞,Western blotting检测肾脏中Bax、BCL-2蛋白表达情况。结果 ...
Scientists from Novozymes have now in collaboration with researchers at University of Bonn, Aalborg and others found the mechanism by which plectasin, an anti-microbial peptide, kills bacteria that cause severe infections in humans.
சளிப்படலம் போன்ற ஒரு வண்ணமயமான திரவத்தினை சுரக்கும் தவளையானது (ஹைட்ரோஃபிளாஸ் பேஹுவிஸ்தாரா)( Hudrophylax bahuvistara) கேளராவில் கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டு உள்ளது. தவளையின் தோலிலிருந்து வெளிப்படும் பிசுப்பிசுப்பான திரவத்தினை ஆய்வு செய்ததில் host defence peptides இருப்பது கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டு உள்ளது. இந்த புதிய பெப்டைட்களுக்கு உருமின் என்று கேரளாவின் உறுமி வாளை நினைவுபடுத்தும் வகையில் பெயர்
Antimicrobial peptides are multifunctional in innate immunity and wound repair of multicellular organisms. We were the first to discover that histatins, a family of salivary antimicrobial peptides, enhance epithelial cell migration, suggesting a role in oral wound healing. It is unknown whether histatins display innate-immunity activities, similar to other antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37. Therefore, we compared the effect of Histatin-2 and LL-37 on several activities within the context of wound healing and innate immunity. We found that Histatin-2 enhances fibroblast migration, but only weakly induces proliferation. LL-37 enhances both fibroblast migration and proliferation, but only at a narrow concentration optimum (approximately 1 μm). At higher concentrations LL-37 causes cell death, whereas Histatin-2 is not cytotoxic. Both peptides do not alter fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. Histatin-2 does not alter interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-elevated ...
The production of antimicrobial peptides is essential for protection against a wide variety of microbial pathogens and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. The mechanisms responsible for expression of antimicrobial peptides are incompletely understood, but a role for vitamin D as a transcriptional inducer of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin has been proposed. We show that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) acts together with parathyroid hormone (PTH), or the shared amino-terminal domain of PTH-related peptide (PTHrP), to synergistically increase cathelicidin and immune defense. Administration of PTH to mouse skin decreased susceptibility to skin infection by group A Streptococcus. Mice on dietary vitamin D3 restriction that responded with an elevation in PTH have an increased risk of infection if they lack 1,25-D3. These results identify PTH/PTHrP as a variable that serves to compensate for inadequate vitamin D during activation of antimicrobial peptide ...
Human being mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) possess immunosuppressive and antimicrobial results that are partly mediated by the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). in the treatment of GvHD in transplant individuals, we recommend that individuals planned for MSC therapy should go through comprehensive evaluation for an energetic CMV disease and get CMV-directed antiviral therapy prior to the administration of MSC. 1. Intro Human being multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), known for their multilineage difference potential, have pleiotropic immunosuppressive features that are mediated by phrase of the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine-2 partially,3-dioxygenase (IDO) [1C4]. Upon arousal with inflammatory cytokines, MSC show broad-spectrum antimicrobial effector features aimed against BMS-536924 different relevant pathogens medically, and these results are reliant on IDO and/or the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 [5, 6]. These dual immunosuppressive and ...
Results: Streptococcal infections were more frequent among psoriasis patients, in particular infections by group C streptococci. No difference was observed in the expression of antimicrobial peptide LL-37. However, we observed that LL-37 had a number of immunomodulatory effects and that its expression within the tonsils was restricted to infiltrated leukocytes and GC-DCs. Tonsil T cells from psoriasis tonsils had a higher expression of the skin-homing molecule cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA) and their frequency in tonsil correlated with their levels in blood. Furthermore, these cells expressed various Th1/Th17-associated molecules. These skin-homing T cells responded to the keratin/streptococcal peptides in a Th1/Th17 manner. Finally, a clear histological difference was observed between the tonsils of psoriatic and non-psoriatic individuals. Conclusion: It can be concluded that palatine tonsils are important for the pathogenesis of psoriasis in a subset of patients and that the ...
There has been increasing concern regarding the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens. The resistance develops when pathogens, especially bacteria, are frequently exposed to conventional antibiotics, as they are heavily used in both human and livestock. This is due to the high target specificity of conventional antibiotics, which places pathogens in high selective pressures and eventually results in drug resistant by mutations. To address this issue, global actions and cooperation are needed. At the same time, new technologies and strategies need to be developed. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are widely found in the innate immune system. They show both direct antimicrobial properties and immunomodulatory activities. The multifaceted functions of HPDs make them less likely to promote antimicrobial resistance. Thus, they are promising as new therapeutics to treat multi-drug resistant infections. In fact, several drug candidates derived from HDPs have entered the clinical trial, but none of them got
This application is in response to PA-09-164 (NIH Exploratory Developmental Research Grant Program). Given the high rate of hospital-acquired infection in criti...
Azurocidin, also known as cationic antimicrobial protein 37 kDa (CAP37) or heparin-binding protein (HBP) is an inactive homolog of serine proteinases residing in granulocytes. The ability to cleave peptide bond was lost due to replacement of two of the three residues from the conserved catalytic triad characteristic for serine proteinases. Azurocidin has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, mainly against Gram-negative bacteria. It is also recognized as a multifunctional inflammatory mediator for its contracting effects on endothelial cells causing an increase of vascular permeability, capacity to bind endotoxin and ability to attract monocytes to inflammation sites ...
Wellness care-associated bacterial pneumonias thanks to multiple-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens are an important open public wellness issue and are main causes of morbidity and fatality worldwide. of health-care linked microbial pneumonias (mutants that absence flagella is certainly noticed in chronic air infections as a response not really just to their evasion of measurement, but also to their absence of immunostimulation (22, 246). Microorganisms that are enmeshed in mucin are subject matter to devastation by the multiple antimicrobial peptides constitutively portrayed by air mucosal cells, and additional portrayed as a element of resistant account activation. The combine of antimicrobial peptides contains cathelicidins and lipocalins that compete with bacteria for iron, offering a picky milieu that allows fairly resistant microorganisms to flourish while getting rid of growth of the even more prone types. Elements such as pH and NaCl concentrations influence the efficiency of antimicrobial ...
Host defence peptides (HDPs) are polypeptide sequences found ubiquitously in nature that have garnered significant attention as alternatives to antibiotics. Originally appreciated for their direct antibacterial effect, recent work has revealed that many HDPs possess antibiofilm activity, anticancer activity and/or the ability to modulate the immune response of the host.
Poster (2017, June 20). Allergic asthma is an important Th2 associated immunopathology. Even if the pathology of the disease is well described, its etiology is still largely unknown. Nevertheless, some environmental factors like ... [more ▼]. Allergic asthma is an important Th2 associated immunopathology. Even if the pathology of the disease is well described, its etiology is still largely unknown. Nevertheless, some environmental factors like viral infections and exposition to low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) strongly increase the risk of disease inception. Interestingly, these two particular risk factors both induce a strong recruitment of neutrophils into the lung. Recently, scientists highlighted the ability of neutrophils to form neutrophils extracellular traps (NETs) composed of a network of extracellular DNA associated to anti-microbial peptides. NETs release (or NETosis) is an important component in organism defence against pathogen invasion but has also been identified as ...
Poster (2017, June 20). Allergic asthma is an important Th2 associated immunopathology. Even if the pathology of the disease is well described, its etiology is still largely unknown. Nevertheless, some environmental factors like ... [more ▼]. Allergic asthma is an important Th2 associated immunopathology. Even if the pathology of the disease is well described, its etiology is still largely unknown. Nevertheless, some environmental factors like viral infections and exposition to low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) strongly increase the risk of disease inception. Interestingly, these two particular risk factors both induce a strong recruitment of neutrophils into the lung. Recently, scientists highlighted the ability of neutrophils to form neutrophils extracellular traps (NETs) composed of a network of extracellular DNA associated to anti-microbial peptides. NETs release (or NETosis) is an important component in organism defence against pathogen invasion but has also been identified as ...
引用/出所元. admin. (2013年04月05日). How Microbes Evolve to Dodge the Membrane Disruptive Actions of Antimicrobial Peptides. Retrieved 2020年03月31日, from 京都大学OCW Web site: https://ocw.kyoto-u.ac.jp/ja/international-conference/09/how-microbes-evolve-to-dodge-the-membrane. ...
Avhandlingar om ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES. Sök bland 89654 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet på Avhandlingar.se.
BMAP-28: C-terminal domain of a cathelicidin, a myeloid antimicrobial peptide precursor; BMAP-28 stands for bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide of 28 residues; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank X97609
en] Animals are colonized by coevolved bacterial communities, which contribute to the hosts health. This commensal microbiota is often highly specific to its host-species, inferring strong selective pressures on the associated microbes. Several factors, including diet, mucus composition, and the immune system have been proposed as putative determinants of host-associated bacterial communities. Here we report that species-specific antimicrobial peptides account for different bacterial communities associated with closely related species of the cnidarian Hydra. Gene family extensions for potent antimicrobial peptides, the arminins, were detected in four Hydra species, with each species possessing a unique composition and expression profile of arminins. For functional analysis, we inoculated arminin-deficient and control polyps with bacterial consortia characteristic for different Hydra species and compared their selective preferences by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial microbiota. In contrast ...
This resistance is adaptive in that it depends on the biofilm growth state and although many explanations have been provided to explain it, it is likely that changes in gene and/or protein expression in the biofilm state explain why organisms become resistant.. Intriguingly despite this problem, not a single antibiotic has been developed for treating biofilms. We have started to address this using as templates the cationic host defence (antimicrobial) peptides, which are produced by virtually all organisms as a major part of their innate defences against infection. They are a key component of innate immunity and have multiple mechanisms that enable them to deal with infections and inflammation, including selective modulation of innate immunity, activity against bacterial biofilms (the cause of 65% of all human infections) and direct antimicrobial activity. We made the breakthrough observation that human peptide LL-37 was able to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms at one sixteenth of its MIC ...
INTRODUCTION. Defensins and cathelicidins constitute the two major groups of antimicrobial peptides in most mammalian species. The most abundant group of antimicrobial peptides is comprised by the α-, β- and θ-defensins.[alpha, beta, theta (circle w/horizontal line)] Mammalian defensins are endogenous cysteine-rich peptide antibiotics classically produced either by epithelial cells of the respiratory, urogenital and digestive tracts, or by circulating cells including granulocytes and macrophages. More recently, however, β-defensins have also been identified in the heart of different species. BETA-DEFENSINS. β-defensins are small (3.5-4.5 kDa) highly basic cationic peptides. These peptides are ancient and universal molecules of innate immunity with functions extending far beyond simple antibiotics, including anti-tumor and mitogenic activity, as well as immunomodulation and signal transduction characteristics. The overall effectiveness of an innate immunity based host defense is shown by the ...
Sandrine Ménard, Valentina Förster, Michael Lotz, Dominique Gütle, Claudia U. Duerr, Richard L. Gallo, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Katrin Pütsep, Mats Andersson, Erik O. Glocker, Mathias W. Hornef ...
AMP play an important role in the innate immune response against infections. Two major classes of AMP have been identified: the beta defensins (HBD) (Harder 1997) and cathelicidins (LL-37) (Gallo 2002). AMP have been shown to have antibacterial activities against S. aureus (Ong 2002) and antiviral activity against vaccinia virus (VV) (Howell 2004).. The skin of AD patients is characterized by a deficiency in AMP, which may account for their propensity to skin infections (Ong 2002). This AMP deficiency is believed to be due to an increase in Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, expression (Ong 2002), as well as an increase of IL-10 expression (Howell 2005). Other cytokines known to affect AMP expression are TNF-alpha (TNFa), IL-6, IL-1 and interferon-gamma (IFN-g). These cytokines induce the expression of AMP (Erdag 2002, Liu 2002, Ong 2002, Nomura 2003). However, negligible levels of TNF-a and IFN-g have been shown in AD skin possibly due to their downregulation by Th2 cytokines (Nomura 2003). ...
The antimicrobial compounds are called cathelicidins and have been shown to kill MRSA, Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus, as well as fungi, called Candida.. Scientists believe devils evolved these peptides to help their young grow stronger and allow them to thrive in a relatively dirty environment.. ...
Lets talk a little bit about natural eczema healing. Eczema is something that a lot of people experience, and I see more and more people with it in my practice every year.. There are some parts of the world, especially industrial cities like Liverpool, where the population with eczema is approaching 20% of children. Now what is going on here? Why is there so much eczema?. What causes eczema and how do you heal eczema naturally? Its caused by a number of things. One of those causes is a defective barrier of the skin. That defective barrier can be caused by excessive washing.. GENETICS But it can also be caused by a genetic tendency not to make the right peptides that keep the barrier to be intact. Those peptides are manufactured, and they evolve and have a number of different roles as they move through the skin. The first role is as a barrier, but as they move through the skin, they also become part of the anti-microbial peptides that cause the skin to kill trouble-causing bacteria. People who ...
Protein & Peptide Letters publishes short papers in all important aspects of protein and peptide research, including structural studies, recombinant expression, function, synthesis, enzymology, immunology, molecular modeling, drug design etc. Manuscripts must have a significant element of novelty, timeliness and urgency that merit rapid publication. Reports of crystallisation, and preliminary structure determinations of biologically important proteins are acceptable. Purely theoretical papers are also acceptable provided they provide new insight into the principles of protein/peptide structure and function ...
Creative Peptides offers Antimicrobial protein CAP18 for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
CORNELL (US) - An unchecked signaling mechanism could be the reason the immune system sometimes goes off track to attack the bodys own cells.. The problem lies in what are called innate immune cells, the first responders to infection, says Cynthia Leifer, assistant professor of microbiology and immunology at Cornell University. The findings may open the door for new therapies for diseases like lupus and arthritis.. "Innate immune cells have internal watchdogs called TLR-9 receptors that set off alarms whenever they encounter invaders. They look for general classifying patterns (in DNA) to determine whether something is a virus, bacterium, protozoan, or part of self.". [sources]. But as reported in the European Journal of Immunology, some of these patterns exist both in invading organisms and the bodys own cells, so mistakes can arise.. "We are mapping the critical regulatory mechanisms that keep these receptors from responding to self-DNA so that we can know if and how they predispose people ...
Figure 3: Effects of FPRL1- and P2X7-antagonists on the LL-37-induced suppression of neutrophil apoptosis. Neutrophils (106 cells/mL) were incubated for 18 h at 37°C in RPMI1640-10% FBS in the absence (Control) or presence of LL-37 (1 μg/mL), WRW4 (10 μM), oxidized ATP (Ox-ATP, 100 μM), KN-93 (5 μM) or their combination (+LL-37; 10 μM WRW4 and 1 μg/mL LL-37, 100 μM Ox-ATP and 1 μg/mL LL-37 or 5 μM KN-93 and 1 μg/mL LL-37). Neutrophils were also incubated for 18 h at 4°C in the absence of LL-37, FPRL1-, or P2X7-antagonists (Resting). After incubation, apoptosis of neutrophils was quantitated and expressed as a percentage of apoptotic cells. Data are the mean ± SD of 4 to 12 separate experiments. Values are compared between the incubation at 37°C in the absence (Control) and presence of LL-37, WRW4, oxidized ATP, KN-93 or their combination ...
Creative Peptides offers Antimicrobial peptide C22 precursor for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
I have noticed that my pregnancy cramps are usually occur one side at a time. Sometimes I feel it on the right, sometimes I feel it on the left. But it never feels like both sides cramp at once. Poll, what do your cramps feel like!
Night cramp affects most of us at some point, with many people suffering in silence and unaware of the steps they can take to prevent it. Taking Cramp Seriously, brought to you by Crampex, offers expert advice on the causes and treatments, alongside simple lifestyle tips to help best manage the condition and reduce the risk of night cramp tying you up in knots ...
Want to know how to get rid of menstrual cramps? Here are science-backed tips for relief. Most period cramps are caused by an excess of prostaglandins.
Read about the causes of cramps before period, how to treat the painful stomach cramps, and when you must see a doctor for a checkup.
I am having a bit of a brain cramp on my scripting abilities. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Below is the contents of a .reg file...
When you experience cramps but no period, it is most likely a sign of pregnancy. However, there might be several reasons behind cramping but no period.
Hi everyone.. im 5 weeks and 3 days and I am still feeling cramps in my stomach every now and then. . Is this normal please as im starting to worry
... is the only patented, anti-microbial disposable surgical mat addressing three major operating room issues: surgical comfort, fluid buildup and or safety.
اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّى عَلَى سَيِّدِناَ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلاَةً تُوَسِّعُ بِهاَ عَلَينَا الأَرْزَاقِ وتحَسِّنُ بِهَا لَناَ الأَخْلاَق وَعَلَى ...
The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays a central role in the pathogenesis and the course of inflammatory skin diseases, including psoriasis. Posttranscriptional activation of IL-1β is mediated by inflammasomes; however, the mechanisms triggering IL-1β processing remain unknown. Recently, cytosolic DNA has been identified as a danger signal that activates inflammasomes containing the DNA sensor AIM2. In this study, we detected abundant cytosolic DNA and increased AIM2 expression in keratinocytes in psoriatic lesions but not in healthy skin. In cultured keratinocytes, interferon-γ induced AIM2, and cytosolic DNA triggered the release of IL-1β via the AIM2 inflammasome. Moreover, the antimicrobial cathelicidin peptide LL-37, which can interact with DNA in psoriatic skin, neutralized cytosolic DNA in keratinocytes and blocked AIM2 inflammasome activation. Together, these data suggest that cytosolic DNA is an important disease-associated molecular pattern that can trigger ...
Cathelicidin (LL-37) and human β-defensin 1 (hBD-1) are important components of the innate defense in the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to characterize whether these peptides are important for developing uncomplicated Escherichia coli urinary tract infections (UTIs). This was investigated by comparing urinary peptide levels of UTI patients during and after infection to those of controls, as well as characterizing the fecal flora of participants with respect to susceptibility to LL-37 and in vivo virulence. Forty-seven UTI patients and 50 controls who had never had a UTI were included. Participants were otherwise healthy, premenopausal, adult women. LL-37 MIC levels were compared for fecal E. coli clones from patients and controls and were also compared based on phylotypes (A, B1, B2, and D). In vivo virulence was investigated in the murine UTI model by use of selected fecal isolates from patients and controls. On average, UTI patients had significantly more LL-37 in urine during ...
Inflammation is a vital physiological process that protects our bodies from harmful foreign organisms and inorganic substances, but in excess, it can lead to many pathological complications. One of its main functions is to provide phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, easy access to the site of infection or injury, ultimately disabling the pathogens ability to invade and establish colonies. It does this by stimulating macrophages to secrete proinflammatory cytokines that attract phagocytic cells and initiate their activity. In the article, "Neutrophil-derived alpha defensins control inflammation by inhibiting macrophage mRNA translation" the authors found that HNP1 (Human Neutrophil Peptide 1) released from dying neutrophils actually inhibits translation of proteins within macrophages, in turn reducing the amount of cytokines that they secrete and slowing the process of inflammation. In the study "Defensins and cathelicidins: Neutrophil peptides with roles in inflammation, hyperlipidemia and ...
Shop Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The effectiveness of antimicrobial compounds can be easily screened, however their mechanism of action is much more difficult to determine. Many compounds act by compromising the mechanical integrity of the bacterial cell envelope, and our study introduces an AFM-based creep deformation technique to evaluate Interaction of nano-objects with lipid membranes
forearm cramps - MedHelps forearm cramps Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for forearm cramps. Find forearm cramps information, treatments for forearm cramps and forearm cramps symptoms.
TY - CONF. T1 - Versatile interactions of the antimicrobial peptide novispirin with detergents and lipids. AU - Wimmer, Reinhard. AU - Andersen, Kell. AU - Davidsen, Mads. AU - Mølgaard, Søren. AU - Nesgaard, Lise. AU - Kristensen, Hans Henrik. AU - Vad, Brian. AU - Otzen, Daniel. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Paper without publisher/journal. Y2 - 20 August 2006 through 26 August 2006. ER - ...
Therapies to reduce the mortality of sepsis still need to be developed due to the high morbidity and mortality of the disease. We have strong preliminary data i...
Got bad cramps but no period? In severe pain? Not pregnant but still NO BLOOD only cramps? Stomach or abdominal cramps but your PERIOD IS A WEEK LATE?
The Tier IV-compliant Doosan DX300LL-5 log loader replaces the interim Tier IV (iT4) DX300LL-3 log loader. The DX300LL-5 is powered by a 270-net-hp Scania DC9 diesel engine, providing 27 percent more horsepower than the
The Lens serves nearly all of the patents in the world as open, annotatable digital public goods that are integrated with scholarly and technical literature along with regulatory and business data.
Arms cramps usually happen suddenly and are very painful. Sometimes the cramp is so intense you can actually see the muscle ball up under the skin. Arm...
i been haveing weird brain cramps it dont really hurt it feels like a cramp kinda like presser and i feel dizzy...i dont know what causes it, and it last for 20mins each time and i get it around 8 tim...
United Kingdoms best source to buy Vitanica Cramp Bark Extra - 60 VCapsules at the lowest price. Read Cramp Bark Extra reviews, side effects, coupons and more from eVitamins. Fast, reliable shipping to United Kingdom
WebMD explains menstrual cramps, which can simply be a tightening of the muscles of the uterus or a symptom of a disorder of the reproductive organs.
i am 4 weeks and 5 days.I have had periods like cramps on the right side. I this normal. I get them mostly in the early mornings(4 am ). and why is it always right side ???
New and recycled spare parts, service spares and accessories for the Apple MacBook (Retina,12-inch,2017) A1534 MacBook10,1 MNYF2LL/A MNYK2LL/A MNYM2LL/A MNYH2LL/A.
Does anyone have cramps and bloating but no period? My last was thansgiving but my belly is bloated and I have cramps about the same time of month. Does anyone else?
Anti-microbial coatings and method of forming same on medical devices are provided. The coatings are preferably formed by depositing an anti-microbial, biocompatible metal by vapor deposition techniques to produce atomic disorder in the coating such that a sustained release of metal ions sufficient to produce an anti-microbial effect is achieved. Preferred deposition conditions to achieve atomic disorder include a lower than normal substrate temperature, and one or more of a higher than normal working gas pressure and a lower than normal angle of incidence of coating flux. Anti-microbial powders formed by vapor deposition or altered by mechanical working to produce atomic disorder are also provided. Novel anti-microbial silver materials are defined, characterized by having a positive rest potential, a T.sub.rec /T.sub.m less than 0.33, and a grain size less than 200 nm. Anti-microbial fine grain or nanocrystalline materials are provided, together with methods of preparation, wherein the anti-microbial
If the "infection" returns after a course of antibiotics, its not an infection and the critter is not bacteria. Our bodies are an ecosystem hosting trillions of cells, most of which are not human. Inside and out, were teeming with bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Some of the DNA found in humans cant even be identified. Every breath, you breathe in more. Every meal, you introduce more.. Sooooo, why arent we sick more? Its because Intelligent Design has provided us with mechanisms of critter control. Your skin, your nose hairs, enzymes in your saliva, xylitol in your mucous, cathelicidins from vitamin D3, cell membrane dead bolting from vitamin A, iodine/iodide capturing, hydrochloric acid production in your stomach, good bacteria in your gut (they thrive on hydrochloric acid. Thus, the name "acidophilus". The "Philus" is from the Greek for "love") thyroid hormone controlled body temperature and your immune system all contribute to your "Homeland security system". A compromise in any of these ...
Antimicrobial peptides represent the first-line host defence against microbial pathogens and an essential component of innate immunity. They have received growing interest because of their potential use as therapeutic antibiotics. Due to the fact that most antimicrobial peptides are toxic to prokaryotic host cells, they are currently often produced by chemical synthesis. However, this is too costly for them to be used when large quantities of antimicrobial peptides are required for investigations and clinical trials. Thus, the convenience and cost efficiencies of bacterial production of antimicrobial peptides have become a bottleneck problem.. As an important group of antimicrobial peptides human ß-defensins are cationic peptides with 38-47 amino acid residues showing three strands of anti-parallel β-sheets that provide a compact small structure [1,2]. We describe an optimized strategy for recombinant expression of hBD-1 and its mutants in Escherichia coli, to efficiently produce milligram ...
Cathelicidin family. *Defensin family. Tachykinin peptides[edit]. Main article: Tachykinin peptides. *Substance P ...
CathelicidinsEdit. In 2007, Richard Gallo and colleagues noticed that patients with rosacea had high levels of the ... Metronidazole is thought to act through anti-inflammatory mechanisms, while azelaic acid is thought to decrease cathelicidin ... "Increased serine protease activity and cathelicidin promotes skin inflammation in rosacea". Nature Medicine. 13 (8): 975-80. ... antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin[12] and elevated levels of stratum corneum tryptic enzymes (SCTEs). Antibiotics have been ...
Cathelicidins, antimicrobial polypeptides found in lysosomes. Svendsen A (2000). "Lipase protein engineering". Biochim Biophys ...
Bowdish DM, Davidson DJ, Hancock RE (2006). "Immunomodulatory Properties of Defensins and Cathelicidins". CTMI. 306: 27-66. ...
Patients with rosacea have elevated levels of cathelicidin. Cathelicidin is cleaved into the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 by ... is a gene encoding for the only member of the human cathelicidin family. Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptides are a ... CAMP cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide". Zanetti M (Jan 2004). "Cathelicidins, multifunctional peptides of the innate immunity ... Gombart AF, Bhan I, Borregaard N, Tamez H, Camargo CA, Koeffler HP, Thadhani R (Feb 2009). "Low plasma level of cathelicidin ...
"Kallikrein-mediated proteolysis regulates the antimicrobial effects of cathelicidins in skin". FASEB J. 20 (12): 2068-80. doi: ...
2006). "Kallikrein-mediated proteolysis regulates the antimicrobial effects of cathelicidins in skin". FASEB J. 20 (12): 2068- ...
He discovered that cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides AKA [Cathelicidins] are present during wound repair. Subsequent work ... from his laboratory used molecular techniques to produce a knock out mouse that has shown how cathelicidin antimicrobials ...
Antimicrobial peptides Cathelicidin Molecular Cell Biology 6ed, Lodish et al. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ...
Peroxisome Cathelicidin Antimicrobial peptides Innate immune system Mindell JA (2012). "Lysosomal Acidification Mechanisms". ...
Metronidazole is thought to act through anti-inflammatory mechanisms, while azelaic acid is thought to decrease cathelicidin ... Richard Gallo and colleagues noticed that patients with rosacea had high levels of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and ... "Increased serine protease activity and cathelicidin promotes skin inflammation in rosacea". Nature Medicine. 13 (8): 975-80. ...
Dombrowski (2012). "Cathelicidin LL-37: a defense molecule with a potential role in psoriasis pathogenesis". Experimental ...
Dombrowski Y, Schauber J (May 2012). "Cathelicidin LL-37: a defense molecule with a potential role in psoriasis pathogenesis". ...
These studies have recently been expanded to include additional beta defensins, theta defensins, and the human cathelicidin LL- ... "Structural and functional analysis of the pro-domain of human cathelicidin, LL-37". Biochemistry. 52 (9): 1547-58. doi:10.1021/ ...
The mechanism of action is thought to be through the inhibition of hyperactive protease activity that converts cathelicidin ... Reinholz, M.; Ruzicka, T.; Schauber, J. (2012). "Cathelicidin LL-37: An Antimicrobial Peptide with a Role in Inflammatory Skin ...
2001). "Cathelicidin family of antibacterial peptides CAP18 and CAP11 inhibit the expression of TNF-alpha by blocking the ...
Both PeptideRanker and PeptideLocator allow for the prediction of antimicrobial peptides (see external links). Cathelicidin ... cathelicidins, defensins and protegrins). Research has increased in recent years to develop artificially-engineered mimics of ... the only human member of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides", Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes ...
These free fatty acids spur production of cathelicidin, HBD1, and HBD2, thus leading to further inflammation. This inflammatory ...
... may refer to: HC Ambri-Piotta, a Swiss ice hockey club Healthcare-associated pneumonia human cathelicidin antimicrobial ...
Dürr UHN, Sudheendra US, Ramamoorthy A, LL-37, the only human member of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides, ...
... cathelicidin LL-37 and lysozyme". J. Dermatol. Sci. 40 (3): 157-68. doi:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2005.07.009. PMID 16150577. Cramer ...
Vitamin D promotes the production of cathelicidin, which helps to defend humans' bodies against fungal, bacterial, and viral ...
Subsequent analysis of the genome has led to the discovery of several cathelicidin peptides, which could also be used as ...
The establishment of a link between light therapy, vitamin D and human cathelicidin LL-37 expression provides a completely ...
2005). "The human beta-defensins (-1, -2, -3, -4) and cathelicidin LL-37 induce IL-18 secretion through p38 and ERK MAPK ...
History of eczema herpeticum is associated with the inability to induce human beta-defensin (HBD)-2, HBD-3 and cathelicidin in ... HBD-3 and cathelicidin in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis. British Journal of Dermatology, 163(3), 659 - 661. ...
The importance of cathelicidins in antiviral skin host defense was confirmed by the observation of higher levels of HSV-2 ... Cathelicidin deficiency predisposes to eczema herpeticum. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Apr. 117(4):836-41. [Medline]. [Full ... The cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides is an integral component of the innate immune response that exhibits activity ... 8] Skin from patients with KVE exhibited significantly lower levels of cathelicidin protein expression than skin from patients ...
"Entrez Gene: CAMP cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide".. *^ a b c d e Zanetti M (January 2004). "Cathelicidins, multifunctional ... Cathelicidins range in size from 12 to 80 amino acid residues and have a wide range of structures.[8] Most cathelicidins are ... Cathelicidin peptides have been isolated from many different species of mammals. Cathelicidins were originally found in ... Even larger cathelicidin peptides (39-80 amino acid residues) are also present. These larger cathelicidins display repetitive ...
Cathelicidins PMAP-36, LL-37 and CATH-2 are similar peptides with different modes of action. Sci. Rep. 9, 1-12 (2019). ... Zanetti, M. Cathelicidins, multifunctional peptides of the innate immunity. J. Leukoc. Biol. 75, 39-48 (2004). ... The chicken cathelicidin, CATH-2 was synthesized and purified as described previously22. It is comprised of 26 amino acids - ... Cathelicidins: family of antimicrobial peptides. A review. Mol. Biol. Rep. 39, 10957-70 (2012). ...
A new role for cathelicidin in ulcerative colitis in mice.. Tai EK1, Wu WK, Wong HP, Lam EK, Yu L, Cho CH. ... Cathelicidin, an antimicrobial peptide of the innate immune system, modulates microbial growth, wound healing, and inflammation ... Our objective was to determine whether cathelicidin would exert a modulatory effect on the progression of IBD and, if so, ... The current study demonstrates for the first time that intrarectal administration of cathelicidin may be a novel therapeutic ...
sp,P50415,CTHL3_SHEEP Cathelicidin-3 OS=Ovis aries OX=9940 GN=CATHL3 PE=1 SV=1 ...
Chicken cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2) has multiple immunomodulatory effects in vitro and the D-amino acid analog of this peptide has ... such as cathelicidins are multifunctional effectors of the innate immune system with both antimicrobial and pleiotropic ...
... Sun, Jia Jiangnan Univ, Ctr Food Safety & Nutr, Sch Food Sci ... However, how cathelicidins are expressed by beta cells and modulate beta-cell functions under steady-state or proinflammatory ... We find that cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) is constitutively expressed by rat insulinoma b-cell clone INS- ... Cathelicidins are pleiotropic antimicrobial peptides largely described for innate antimicrobial defenses and, more recently, ...
Cathelicidins are present in humans and other mammals as well. By complex interactions with the microenvironment, it results in ... Peptides are released in the precursor form (defensins), which after cleavage results in cathelicidins formation. Living in the ... and the importance of cathelicidins in the oral cavity. ... Cathelicidins are a group of oral antimicrobial peptides that ... Cathelicidins are a group of oral antimicrobial peptides that play multiple vital roles in the human body, such as their ...
Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Cathelicidin Antikörper. Hier bestellen. ... Monoklonale und polyklonale Cathelicidin Antikörper für viele Methoden. ... Cathelicidin-B1 , cathelicidin 2 , cathelicidin-2 , fowlicidin-2 , myeloid antimicrobial peptide 27 , antimicrobial peptide , ... anti-Cathelicidin (CAMP) Antikörper. Bezeichnung:. anti-Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide Antikörper (CAMP). Auf www. ...
Although most cathelicidins possessed DNA complexing activity, only the alpha-helical BMAP cathelicidins and the cysteine-rich ... Although most cathelicidins possessed DNA complexing activity, only the alpha-helical BMAP cathelicidins and the cysteine-rich ... The present study aimed to investigate the ability of the bovine cathelicidins Indolicidin, Bac1, Bac5, BMAP-27, BMAP-28 and ... Collectively, the present data supports a role for certain bovine cathelicidins in helping the innate immune system to sense ...
Although cathelicidins are known to modulate activation by several TLR ligands, little is known about their influence on DNA- ... Importance of endosomal cathelicidin degradation to enhance DNA-induced chicken macrophage activation. Journal. The journal of ... Cathelicidins are essential in the protection against invading pathogens through both their direct antimicrobial activity and ... In this study, we explored the effects of cathelicidins on DNA-induced activation of chicken macrophages and elucidated the ...
Compare and order Cathelicidin ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended ... Cathelicidin-B1 , cathelicidin 2 , cathelicidin-2 , fowlicidin-2 , myeloid antimicrobial peptide 27 , antimicrobial peptide , ... Bezeichner auf Proteinebene für Cathelicidin 18 kDa cationic antimicrobial protein , cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide , ... Search Cathelicidin ELISA Kits for other reactivities: Rabbit,. Guinea Pig,. Pig (Porcine),. Monkey,. Goat,. Dog (Canine),. Cow ...
Neutrophil-Derived Cathelicidin Protects from Neointimal Hyperplasia Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Neutrophil-Derived Cathelicidin Protects from Neointimal Hyperplasia. By Oliver Soehnlein, Sarawuth Wantha, Sakine Simsekyilmaz ... Neutrophil-Derived Cathelicidin Protects from Neointimal Hyperplasia. By Oliver Soehnlein, Sarawuth Wantha, Sakine Simsekyilmaz ...
The human cathelicidin, LL-37, and the murine cathelicidin, mCRAMP, demonstrated significant anti-viral activity in vivo, ... Cathelicidins have immunomodulatory and anti-viral effects, but their impact on influenza virus infection has not been ... We therefore evaluated the effect of cathelicidin peptides on disease caused by influenza A virus in mice. ... Cationic Host Defense Peptides (CHDP, also known as antimicrobial peptides), which include cathelicidins and defensins, are key ...
To examine the role of cathelicidin in polymicrobial sepsis, cathelicidin wild-(Cnlp+/+) and knockout (Cnlp−/−) mice underwent ... The ileal expression of cathelicidin was increased by three-fold after CLP, peaking at 4 h. Knockout of Cnlp significantly ... We also evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of vitamin D3 (an inducer of endogenous cathelicidin) in the CLP- ... Endogenous cathelicidin promotes intestinal barrier integrity accompanied by modulating the infiltration of neutrophils and ...
Human Cathelicidin Peptide LL-37 Modulates the Effects of IFN-γ on APCs. Anastasia Nijnik, Jelena Pistolic, Aaron Wyatt, Sheena ... Human Cathelicidin Peptide LL-37 Modulates the Effects of IFN-γ on APCs ... Human Cathelicidin Peptide LL-37 Modulates the Effects of IFN-γ on APCs ... Human Cathelicidin Peptide LL-37 Modulates the Effects of IFN-γ on APCs ...
Antimicrobial Activity of a Cathelicidin Derivative Covalently Attached to Fluorous Surfaces A. M. McDermott; C. M. Santos; S. ... Purpose: : To compare the antimicrobial activity of LL-25, a truncated derivative of human cathelicidin LL-37, immobilized to ... A. M. McDermott, C. M. Santos, S. S. Kolar, A. Kumar, C. Cai; Antimicrobial Activity of a Cathelicidin Derivative Covalently ... Antimicrobial Activity of a Cathelicidin Derivative Covalently Attached to Fluorous Surfaces You will receive an email whenever ...
... CAMP. CAMP protein solution (0.5mg/ml) contains 20mM Tris-HCl buffer ( ...
Cathelicidin oligomerization is not required for the growth inhibitory effects of B22.Cathelicidins are proposed to form higher ... Effect of antibacterial cathelicidin peptide CAP18/LL-37 on sepsis in neonatal rats. Pediatr Surg Int 21:20-24. doi:10.1007/ ... Cathelicidin LL-37: a defense molecule with a potential role in psoriasis pathogenesis. Exp Dermatol 21:327-330. doi:10.1111/j. ... suggesting that cathelicidins have activities beyond perforating the membrane. Nanomolar concentrations of cathelicidins, ...
1995) Cathelicidins: a novel protein family with a common proregion and a variable C-terminal antimicrobial domain. FEBS Lett. ... Augmentation of Innate Host Defense by Expression of a Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide. Robert Bals, Daniel J. Weiner, A. ... In humans, a number of defensins and one cathelicidin peptide have been described (1, 2, 4, 14, 17, 19). Members of these ... Cathelicidins are peptide antibiotics that are receiving increased attention. These peptides contain a highly conserved signal ...
5⇓B and data not shown). The cathelicidin expression levels at 1 h were comparable to the levels of cathelicidin mRNA at 3 h of ... 4⇓A). The 1,25D3 increased the transcription of cathelicidin, as previously reported (19); moreover, cathelicidin expression ... Transfection with siRNAs specific to human cathelicidin (siCat) knocked down the 1,25D3-induced mRNA expression of cathelicidin ... Of note, the transcription of the cathelicidin gene seems to be triggered at a very early time (see Fig. 5⇑B), supporting a ...
D-Mediated Human Antimicrobial Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is Dependent on the Induction of Cathelicidin. ... D-Mediated Human Antimicrobial Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is Dependent on the Induction of Cathelicidin ... D-Mediated Human Antimicrobial Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is Dependent on the Induction of Cathelicidin ... D-Mediated Human Antimicrobial Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is Dependent on the Induction of Cathelicidin ...
Cathelicidins are bipartite molecules with an N-terminal cathelin domain and an antimicrobial C-terminal domain. Humans ... PR-39, a proline-rich porcine cathelicidin, has shown efficacy in limiting myocardial damage after experimental ischemia in ... LL-37 stimulates chemotaxis, acting via the formyl peptide-like receptor-1. The structurally diverse cathelicidin-derived ... apparently have only one cathelicidin gene. Its product, hCAP-18, is present in the secondary (specific) granules of ...
  • [ 9 ] An inverse correlation between cathelicidin expression and serum immunoglobulin E levels in patients with AD and patients with KVE has also been found. (medscape.com)
  • The importance of cathelicidins in antiviral skin host defense was confirmed by the observation of higher levels of HSV-2 replication in cathelicidin-deficient mouse skin compared with that seen in skin from their wild-type counterparts. (medscape.com)
  • Cathelicidins are AMPs that preferentially kill Gram-negative bacteria in vitro , purportedly by assembling into higher-order structures that perforate the membrane. (asm.org)
  • We next performed killing kinetics with cathelicidin AMPs. (nih.gov)
  • Since not much is known about the impact of efflux pumps on the susceptibility of Gram-positive bacteria to AMPs, especially to the cathelicidins, the aim of this study was to analyze whether Staphylococcus aureus can use efflux pumps to resist the antimicrobial effects of cathelicidins derived from different animal species (human, mouse, rabbit or cattle). (fu-berlin.de)
  • Cathelicidins are a major family of AMPs in vertebrate animals including chickens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of vitamin D3 (an inducer of endogenous cathelicidin) in the CLP-induced murine polymicrobial sepsis model. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of overexpression of a naturally occurring human antimicrobial cathelicidin peptide (LL-37/hCAP-18) in murine models of infection and sepsis. (asm.org)
  • Compared to their respective S. aureus Newman and MRSA252 WT strains, the blaI mutants were found to be more susceptible to the murine cathelicidin CRAMP and human LL-37 with their CFU concentrations being approximately 0.5 logs lower compared to the respective WT strains after 1-2 hours of co-incubation with the cathelicidins (Fig 2A-2D). (nih.gov)
  • We propose that that the primary effect of cathelicidins is to induce the production of ROS that damage bacterial molecules, leading to slowed growth or cell death. (asm.org)
  • The two hydrophobic domains in the long amphipathic α-helix of human cathelicidin LL-37 lays the basis for binding and disrupting the curved anionic bacterial membrane surfaces by forming pores or via the carpet model. (mdpi.com)
  • The following six groups were obtained: RA + NS, RA + low-dose cathelicidin, RA + high-dose cathelicidin, O 2 + NS, O 2 + low-dose cathelicidin, and O 2 + high-dose cathelicidin. (elsevier.com)
  • Sprague-Dawley rat pups were reared in either room air (RA) or hyperoxia (85% O 2 ) and were randomly treated with low-dose cathelicidin (4 mg/kg, LDC) and high-dose cathelicidin (HDC, 8 mg/kg) in 0.05 mL of normal saline (NS) administered intraperitoneally on postnatal days 1-6. (elsevier.com)
  • The current study demonstrates for the first time that intrarectal administration of cathelicidin may be a novel therapeutic option for IBDs. (nih.gov)
  • Aim 2 will examine the in vivo therapeutic effects of short- and long-term administration of cathelicidin in mouse models of acute and chronic colonic inflammation. (grantome.com)
  • Results from our studies will provide insights of the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease and evaluate the therapeutic potential of cathelicidins in intestinal inflammation. (grantome.com)
  • To examine the role of cathelicidin in polymicrobial sepsis, cathelicidin wild-( Cnlp +/+ ) and knockout ( Cnlp −/− ) mice underwent cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP) followed by the assessment of septic mortality and morbidity as well as histological, biochemical, immunological, and transcriptomic analyses in the ileal tissues. (springer.com)
  • However, very little information is available to support a role of cathelicidin in intestinal inflammation. (grantome.com)
  • Experiments in aim 3 will determine the anti-angiogenic and anti-fibrogenic role of cathelicidin in cultured human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. (grantome.com)
  • The role of Cathelicidin in ameliorates kidney injury of the hyperoxia newborn rats was accompanied by decreased NF-κB expression, which probably through the modulating NF-κB activity in the kidney. (elsevier.com)
  • Our finding suggests that cathelicidins positively regulate beta-cell functions and may be potentially used for intervening b-cell dysfunction-associated diseases. (diva-portal.org)
  • We evaluated the potential for a synthetic cathelicidin, the mouse cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (mCRAMP), to prevent the initiation and promote the healing of lesions from inflammatory colitis that was experimentally induced in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, cathelicidin expression was required for the Mtb-induced release of ROS and the production of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, indicating a positive circuit of inflammation in response to Mtb. (jimmunol.org)
  • A bi-transgenic mouse model (K5-tTA/TetOmS100a7a15) that expresses abundant mS100a7a15 throughout the basal epidermal layer showed an increased infiltration of CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes into the skin that was associated with an increased production of Th1 and Th17 cytokines and cathelicidin/LL-37. (wikipedia.org)
  • We find that cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) is constitutively expressed by rat insulinoma b-cell clone INS-1 832/13. (diva-portal.org)
  • Despite the fact that expression of BlaI in trans on plasmid pBlaI did not fully abolish the increased beta-lactamase activity (see above), the S. aureus Newman blaI mutant expressing pBlaI showed WT levels for both CRAMP and LL-37 resistance indicating functional complementation of blaI in terms of cathelicidin susceptibility (Fig 2A and 2B). (nih.gov)
  • For this purpose the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of S. aureus field isolates for the cathelicidins LL-37, mCRAMP, CAP18, BMAP-27 and BMAP-28 in the presence and absence of different efflux pump inhibitors were determined. (fu-berlin.de)
  • The data demonstrated that after blocking RND-type efflux pumps with 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine, the MICs for CAP18, but not those for the other cathelicidins tested, were significantly decreased. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Additionally cathelicidins may also be small-sized molecules (12-18 residues) with beta-hairpin structures, stabilized by one or two disulphide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. (mdpi.com)
  • Moreover, short-term administration of mouse cathelicidin (mCRAMP) relieves many aspects of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid- induced colitis in mice. (grantome.com)
  • The present study aimed to investigate the ability of the bovine cathelicidins indolicidin, bactenecin (Bac)1, Bac5, bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide (BMAP)-27, BMAP-28, and BMAP-34 to inhibit the growth of bacteria and to enhance the sensing of nucleic acid by the host's immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, how cathelicidins are expressed by beta cells and modulate beta-cell functions under steady-state or proinflammatory conditions are unknown. (diva-portal.org)
  • Although cathelicidins are known to modulate activation by several TLR ligands, little is known about their influence on DNA-induced macrophage activation. (uva.nl)
  • In summary, our proposed experiments will provide important insights into the role of cathelicidins in the pathophysiology of intestinal inflammation and IBD and the mechanisms by which cathelicidins modulate colonic inflammation. (grantome.com)
  • Nanomolar concentrations of cathelicidins, although not bactericidal, reduced the growth rate of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Cathelicidins are thought to interact with each other within the membranes of susceptible bacteria to form assemblages that affect permeability and result in cell death ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Cathelicidin LL-37 exhibits broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. (archivespsy.com)
  • Antimicrobial assays have revealed that marsupial cathelicidins have broad-spectrum activity against a variety of bacteria and fungi, including several multi-drug resistant strains. (frontiersin.org)