A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE. The leafy stems of khat are chewed by some individuals for stimulating effect. Members contain ((+)-norpseudoephedrine), cathionine, cathedulin, cathinine & cathidine.
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.12.1 and EC 3.4.21.13.
A plant species of the genus ARTEMISIA, family ASTERACEAE. It is the source of the antimalarial artemisinin (ANTIMALARIALS).
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE. It can cause CONTACT DERMATITIS. SAPONINS have been identified in the root.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The measurement of various aspects of MAGNETIC FIELDS.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE generally growing in temperate areas. The word lily is also used in the common names of many plants of other genera that resemble true lilies. True lilies are erect perennial plants with leafy stems, scaly bulbs, usually narrow leaves, and solitary or clustered flowers.
Measurement of the blood pressure of the retinal vessels. It is used also for the determination of the near point of convergence (CONVERGENCE, OCULAR). (From Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.
Rare, autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by ACRO-OSTEOLYSIS, generalized OSTEOPOROSIS, and skull deformations.
Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.
The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.

Pharmacokinetics of cathinone, cathine and norephedrine after the chewing of khat leaves. (1/40)

AIM: The stimulating herbal drug khat is habitually used in East Africa and the Arabian peninsula but is also imported into other countries. The aim was to study the pharmacokinetics of its alkaloids cathinone, cathine and norephedrine. METHODS: Four volunteers chewed khat leaves in an amount equivalent to one-quarter of that used in a typical khat session. Blood samples were collected up to 80 h and the alkaloids were assayed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data were evaluated using computerized pharmacokinetic compartmental analysis. RESULTS: The plasma concentration-time data for the alkaloids could be described using a two-compartment model with two-segment absorption. The mucosa of the oral cavity is considered to be the first absorption segment, where the major proportion of the alkaloids is absorbed (mean +/- SD 59 +/- 21% for cathinone and 84 +/- 6% for cathine). The extraction of the alkaloids from the leaves by chewing was very effective with only 9.1 +/- 4.2% remaining as a residue. Cathinone was eliminated from the central compartment with a mean half-life of 1.5 +/- 0.8 h. The half-life of cathine was 5.2 +/- 3.4 h. The metabolism of cathinone to norephedrine had a substantial influence on its plasma concentration profile. Psychophysical functions were essentially unaffected by the chewing of khat. CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacokinetics of khat alkaloids in humans explain why chewing is the preferred form of khat ingestion. Subjects absorbed a mean dose of 45 mg of cathinone, and did not suffer any severe adverse reactions.  (+info)

Khat (Catha edulis)-induced apoptosis is inhibited by antagonists of caspase-1 and -8 in human leukaemia cells. (2/40)

Khat chewing is a widespread habit that has a deep-rooted sociocultural tradition in Africa and the Middle East. The biological effects of khat are inadequately investigated and controversial. For the first time, we show that an organic extract of khat induces a selective type of cell death having all morphological and biochemical features of apoptotic cell death. Khat extract was shown to contain the major alkaloid compounds cathinone and cathine. The compounds alone and in combination also induced apoptosis. Khat-induced apoptosis occurred synchronously in various human cell lines (HL-60, NB4, Jurkat) within 8 h of exposure. It was partially reversed after removal of khat and the effect was dependent on de novo protein synthesis, as demonstrated by cotreatment with cycloheximide. The cell death was blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk, and also by submicromolar concentrations of Z-YVAD-fmk and Z-IETD-fmk, inhibitors of caspase-1 and -8, respectively. The 50% inhibition constant (IC(50)) for khat (200 microg ml(-1))-induced apoptosis by Z-VAD-fmk, Z-YVAD-fmk and Z-IETD-fmk was 8 x 10(-7) M as compared to 2 x 10(-8) M and 8 x 10(-8) M, respectively. Western blot analysis showed a specific cleavage of procaspase-3 in apoptotic cells, which was inhibited by Z-VAD-fmk. The cell death by khat was more sensitively induced in leukaemia cell lines than in human peripheral blood leukocytes. It is concluded that khat induces a rather swift and sensitive cell death by apoptosis through mechanisms involving activation of caspase-1, -3 and -8.  (+info)

Khat habit and its health effect. A natural amphetamine. (3/40)

Chewing the leaves of the khat shrub is common in certain countries of East Africa and Arabian Peninsula mainly Yemen. It has been established that a khat plant leaves contain an active psycho-stimulant substance known as cathinone that is similar in structure and pharmacological activity to amphetamine in affecting the CNS. Intoxication with khat is self-limiting but chronic consumption can cause certain health disturbances in the user and also lead to social and economic damage to the individual and the community. In recent years, several cases of intoxication have been observed outside the area of its use. In this view, the khat habit, its health effects and socioeconomic aspects are described with the political issue they imply.  (+info)

Khat use as risk factor for psychotic disorders: a cross-sectional and case-control study in Somalia. (4/40)

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of khat-induced psychotic disorders in East African countries, where the chewing of khat leaves is common. Its main psycho-active component cathinone produces effects similar to those of amphetamine. We aimed to explore the prevalence of psychotic disorders among the general population and the association between khat use and psychotic symptoms. METHODS: In an epidemiological household assessment in the city of Hargeisa, North-West Somalia, trained local interviewers screened 4,854 randomly selected persons from among the general population for disability due to severe mental problems. The identified cases were interviewed based on a structured interview and compared to healthy matched controls. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the items of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview and quantified with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale. Statistical testing included Student's t-test and ANOVA. RESULTS: Local interviewers found that rates of severe disability due to mental disorders were 8.4% among males (above the age of 12) and differed according to war experiences (no war experience: 3.2%; civilian war survivors: 8.0%; ex-combatants: 15.9%). The clinical interview verified that in 83% of positive screening cases psychotic symptoms were the most prominent manifestations of psychiatric illness. On average, cases with psychotic symptoms had started to use khat earlier in life than matched controls and had been using khat 8.6 years before positive symptoms emerged. In most cases with psychotic symptoms, a pattern of binge use (> two 'bundles' per day) preceded the onset of psychotic symptoms, in contrast to controls of the same age. We found significant correlations between variables of khat consumption and clinical scales (0.35 to 0.50; p < 0.05), and between the age of onset of khat chewing and symptom onset (0.70; p <0.001). CONCLUSION: Evidence indicates a relationship between the consumption of khat and the onset of psychotic symptoms among the male population, whereby not the khat intake per se but rather early onset and excessive khat chewing seemed to be related to psychotic symptoms. The khat problem must be addressed by means other than prohibition, given the widespread use and its role in Somali culture.  (+info)

Khat chewing is a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction: a case-control study. (5/40)

AIM: Khat chewing is a common habit in Yemen and east African countries. Millions of people chew khat leaves daily for its euphoric and energetic effects and to increase alertness. Cathinone, the main active substance in fresh khat leaves, has sympathomimetic effects which increase heart rate and blood pressure. The aim was to examine the hypothesis that khat chewing is a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using a hospital-based matched case-control study. METHOD: Between 1997 and 1999, we selected 100 patients admitted to the Al-Thawra teaching hospital Sana'a ICU, Yemen with acute myocardial infarction. 100 control subjects, matched to cases for sex and age, were recruited from the outpatients clinics of the same hospital. A questionnaire was completed for case and control groups covering personal history of khat chewing, smoking, hypertension, diabetes and any family history of myocardial infarction. A blood sample was collected for performing lipid profiles. Cases and controls were compared by analysis conducted using conditional logistic regression which corrected for baseline imbalances leading to less biased estimations of odds ratio (OR). The risk associated with each classical factor and khat chewing habits was then investigated. OR values greater than 2.5 indicated a significant risk factor. RESULTS: Khat chewing was significantly higher among the AMI case group than control group (OR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.9-13.1). A dose-response relationship was observed, the heavy khat chewers having a 39-fold increased risk of AMI. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that khat chewing is associated with AMI and is an independent dose-related risk factor for the development of myocardial infarction.  (+info)

Khat and alcohol use and risky sex behaviour among in-school and out-of-school youth in Ethiopia. (6/40)

BACKGROUND: Khat (an evergreen plant with amphetamine-like properties) and alcohol are widely consumed among the youth of Ethiopia. However, their relationship to risky sexual behaviour is not well described. This study was conducted to describe the magnitude of risky sexual behaviour (unprotected sex and early initiation of sexual activity) and its association with Khat and alcohol consumption in Ethiopian youths. METHODS: A probabilistic national sample of 20,434 in-school and out-of-school youths aged between 15 and 24 years of age was selected and interviewed regarding their sexual behavior and substance use. RESULTS: Over 20% of out-of-school youth had unprotected sex during the 12-month period prior to interview compared to 1.4% of in-school youth. Daily Khat intake was also associated with unprotected sex: adjusted OR (95% CI) = 2.26 (1.92, 2.67). There was a significant and linear association between alcohol intake and unprotected sex, with those using alcohol daily having a three fold increased odds compared to those not using it: adj. OR (95% CI) = 3.05 (2.38, 3.91). Use of substances other than Khat was not associated with unprotected sex, but was associated with initiation of sexual activity: adj. OR (95% CI) = 2.54 (1.84, 3.51). CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of out-of-school youth engage in risky sex. The use of Khat and alcohol and other substances is significantly and independently associated with risky sexual behaviour among Ethiopian youths.  (+info)

Qat habit in Yemen society: a causative factor for oral periodontal diseases. (7/40)

The effect of a common habit among Yemeni population on the periodontal status was investigated. This cross-sectional study was done on 2500 Yemenis with mean age 27.01 years (1818 males and 682 females). Among these 1528 were qat chewers and 972 were non-chewers. Detailed questionnaire and pre-designed scoring system for the periodontal status were employed for each case. Study results indicated that out of 972 non-chewers 116(12%) had periodontal pocketing and 18 (1.9%) cases had gingival recession. On the other hand, out of 1528 chewers, 468 (31.8%) had periodontal pockets and 98 (6.4%) with gum bleeding, p<0.05. These effects were found to increase with increased frequency and duration of chewing. It was concluded that habit of qat can cause damage to the periodontal ligament as pocketing and gum recession.  (+info)

The consumption of khat and other drugs in Somali combatants: a cross-sectional study. (8/40)

BACKGROUND: For more than a decade, most parts of Somalia have not been under the control of any type of government. This "failure of state" is complete in the central and southern regions and most apparent in Mogadishu, which had been for a long period in the hands of warlords deploying their private militias in a battle for resources. In contrast, the northern part of Somalia has had relatively stable control under regional administrations, which are, however, not internationally recognized. The present study provides information about drug abuse among active security personnel and militia with an emphasis on regional differences in relation to the lack of central governmental control-to our knowledge the first account on this topic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Trained local interviewers conducted a total of 8,723 interviews of armed personnel in seven convenience samples in different regions of Somalia; 587 (6.3%) respondents discontinued the interview and 12 (0.001%) were excluded for other reasons. We assessed basic sociodemographic information, self-reported khat use, and how respondents perceived the use of khat, cannabis (which includes both hashish and marijuana), psychoactive tablets (e.g., benzodiazepines), alcohol, solvents, and hemp seeds in their units. The cautious interpretation of our data suggest that sociodemographic characteristics and drug use among military personnel differ substantially between northern and southern/central Somalia. In total, 36.4% (99% confidence interval [CI] 19.3%-57.7%) of respondents reported khat use in the week before the interview, whereas in some regions of southern/central Somalia khat use, especially excessive use, was reported more frequently. Self-reported khat use differed substantially from the perceived use in units. According to the perception of respondents, the most frequent form of drug use is khat chewing (on average, 70.1% in previous week, 99% CI 63.6%-76.5%), followed by smoking cannabis (10.7%, 99% CI 0%-30.4%), ingesting psychoactive tablets (8.5%, 99% CI 0%-24.4%), drinking alcohol (5.3%, 99% CI 0%-13.8%), inhaling solvents (1.8%, 99% CI 0%-5.1%), and eating hemp seeds (0.6%, 99% CI 0%-2.0%). Perceived use of khat differs little between northern and southern Somalia, but perceived use of other drugs reaches alarmingly high levels in some regions of the south, especially related to smoking cannabis and using psychoactive tablets. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that drug use has quantitatively and qualitatively changed over the course of conflicts in southern Somalia, as current patterns are in contrast to traditional use. Although future studies using random sampling methods need to confirm our results, we hypothesize that drug-related problems of armed staff and other vulnerable groups in southern Somalia has reached proportions formerly unknown to the country, especially as we believe that any biases in our data would lead to an underestimation of actual drug use. We recommend that future disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs need to be prepared to deal with significant drug-related problems in Somalia.  (+info)

Nowadays freshwater quality deterioration and quantity depletion are rapidly increasing across the globe. Especially fluoride polluted groundwater is causing a severe shortage of water supply and public health problem. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the performance of activated carbon produced from the Catha edulis stem for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution. A C. edulis stem sample was collected from dumping sites of Addis Ababa City and its activation and carbonation processes were performed using H2SO4 and a high temperature of 600 °C. The experimental study was designed to use a full factorial approach with a 33 which were the three factors with the three levels, namely pH (2, 7 and 9), contact times (60, 90 and 120 min) and adsorbent doses (0.5 g, 1.0 g and 1.5 g in 100 mL) at the initial fluoride concentration 30 mg/L which resulted in 81 experimental runs in triplicates. The calculated maximum adsorption capacity of 18 mg/g was found under the Langmuir isotherm, whereas
INTRODUCTION Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low and middle-income countries. Substance use negatively affects TB treatment outcomes. Our recent study has found that khat use predicted poorer adherence to anti-TB medications. However, there is scarce longitudinal study on predictors of khat use among outpatients with TB, and this study aimed at addressing this research gap. METHODS From October 2017 to October 2018, 268 outpatients with tuberculosis on DOTs were enrolled in a longitudinal study from 26 health institutions in Southwest Ethiopia. Structured questionnaires translated into local languages (Afaan Oromoo and Amharic) were used to assess khat use. Patients were followed for six months, and data were collected on three occasions during the follow-up. A generalized linear mixed model was used to identify the relation between khat use and predictors. Model fitness was checked using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
Khat use among Somalis in four English cities - UK Home Office report - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Khat (also known or spelt as qat, jaad, qaat or chat) is a plant most commonly grown in Eastern African or Middle Eastern countries. Its leaves are chewed for their stimulant effect mostly by people from these regions. Khat itself is legal in the UK, however the two main active ingredients (cathine and cathinone) are Class C controlled substances, under the Misuse of Drugs Act (1971). The use of khat has a long-standing history within the Somali culture in particular. Before the civil war, khat chewing was a traditional social activity in Somalia and would bring people together for relaxation and to stimulate conversation (Ismail and Home, 2005). Khat use would normally be restricted to particular times of the day and session length. Some people also chewed khat in order to remain alert for studying or work reasons. Attitudes towards khat use vary
Catha edulis (qat) is an evergreen tree or shrub whose young leaves and stems are widely chewed in Eastern Africa. The aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal value of Catha edulis as used traditionally by the Ameru andAembu communities of Kenya.. The study was conducted between the months of September (2014) and February (2015), and involved 42 key informants (32 males and 10 females) aged between 45 and 84 years. Snowball and purposeful sampling techniques were used in the selection of key respondents. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect ethnomedicinal data using faceto-face interviews and discussions with key respondents. Eleven traditional varieties based on information from key informants were identified and described. Out of these, 5 were from Embu County while 6 were from Meru County. Plant samples were collected and deposited at the University of Nairobi herbarium as voucher specimens. A total of 13 ethnomedicinal uses of qat were documented. Of ...
Catha edulis (qat) is an evergreen tree or shrub whose young leaves and stems are widely chewed in Eastern Africa. The aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal value of Catha edulis as used traditionally by the Ameru andAembu communities of Kenya.. The study was conducted between the months of September (2014) and February (2015), and involved 42 key informants (32 males and 10 females) aged between 45 and 84 years. Snowball and purposeful sampling techniques were used in the selection of key respondents. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect ethnomedicinal data using faceto-face interviews and discussions with key respondents. Eleven traditional varieties based on information from key informants were identified and described. Out of these, 5 were from Embu County while 6 were from Meru County. Plant samples were collected and deposited at the University of Nairobi herbarium as voucher specimens. A total of 13 ethnomedicinal uses of qat were documented. Of ...
The effect of khat (Catha edulis Forsk., family Celastraceae), a plant used for its stimulant effects in eastern Africa and southern Arabia, has until recently been attributed to the pharmacological action of d-norpseudoephedrine, also known as cathine. The isolation in 1975 of cathinone revived an earlier suggestion that the fresh leaves contained a substance more potent than cathine. The pharmacological assays reported on in this paper appear to confirm the higher stimulant capacity of cathinone. This substance produces qualitatively similar locomotor stimulation in mice and comparable stereotypy in rats as amphetamine does, although it is approximately half as active. The results obtained after pre-treatment with reserpine or alpha-methyl- p-tyrosine, which interfere with the catecholamine system, strongly suggest that cathinone interacts with brain catecholamines by an indirect mechanism and, most probably, by affecting neurotransmitter release of the labile pool.
Synthetic cathinones are related to the parent compound cathinone (Figure 1), one of the psychoactive principals in khat (Catha edulis Forsk). Cathinone derivatives are the β-keto (βk) analogues of a corresponding phenethylamine. The group includes several substances that have been used as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) of medicinal products, e.g. amfepramone
Catha edulis Forssk belongs to the Celastraceae family and, a neighbouring species of the Evonymus, it is the sole representative of the genus Catha. The Swedish botanist Forsskal, the explorer of lower Egypt and Arabia, was the first to mention this plant, which he called gat or khat. His description of it was published posthumously in 1775 in his Flora aegyptico-arabica 8
Cathinone. Molecular model of the drug cathinone (C9.H11.N.O), found in the shrub Catha edulis. Known as khat, the leaves of this plant are traditionally chewed for their stimulant effect. This is due to cathinone, which is a amphetamine-like monoamine alkaloid. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour-coded: carbon (grey), hydrogen (white) and oxygen (red). - Stock Image C025/3651
The post operative routine after Oculoplastic Surgery includes usage of cold compressions for symptomatic relief and decreasing of the edema and local hematomas in the first few days after the surgery. Khat (Catha edulis) is a plant that is used mainly for chewing and has a known stimulating effect, some patients report major improvement after including these leaves in the compressions they use after surgery. Khat contains the chemical ingredients Cathine and Cathinone, which are amphetamine-like alkaloids and probably the main contributors for its active effects. Our main goal is to use compressions that include the Khat leaves and check their effect on reducing the edema and hematomas after oculoplastic surgery ...
Khat Khat (pronounced COT) is known by over 40 different street names including, kat, qat, chat, gat, graba, tohai, tschat, and mirraa. Khat is a stimulant derived from Catha Edulis, a 6-12-foot flowering evergreen shrub. The fresh young leaves of the shrub have been consumed where the plant is.... Read More ...
Fascioliasis occurs following ingestion of aquatic plants contaminated with encysted metacercariae of Fasciola spp. The parasites migrate to the liver after hatching in the bowel and grow into adult flukes. Egg production commences after several months, with excretion via the biliary tract into the faeces. A developmental cycle in the intermediate host (a freshwater snail) then results in contamination of further plants by metacercariae and a new cycle of infection.. Fasciola is found worldwide, and outbreaks associated, particularly, with the consumption of watercress have been well documented. An association with the chewing of khat has also been noticed.1 Khat is the leaf of the shrub Catha edulis. It has a mild narcotic effect when chewed and, although not illegal in most European states, its use is limited to certain ethnic communities.2 Khat may become contaminated when sprinkled with water to keep it fresh during transport.3 Fasciola usually affects only the liver but, as with all flukes, ...
If an overnight colchicine abnormality known as fainting. Because this is the mental health actions/interventions establish a safe environment protection of the hallucinogenic tea, ayahuasca. They are well documented that the patient to deal with the initial rush of milk in individual patients knowledge of alcoholism in older women be involved. There is reason to carry out, management management of poisoning. Adverse effects octreotide is generally well absorbed from the catha edulis catharanthus roseus othermon names sea onion han fang ji traditional and popular usage menopausal symptoms, heart disease heals wounds, emollient, laxative, abortifacient laetrile uterine stimulant immune booster, aids, cancer, antioxidant, increase endurance rom and have you been suffering from a dependent baby into a column for date, time, and clothing and blankets from chest level down or stops, or it can prevent serious alterations. Provide a sense of control, and assists the nurse reviews the clinical basis of ...
A team of medical researchers are calling attention to the links between liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa and the role of chewing khat, the plant commonly
Khat is the Celastraceus edulis plant, a flowering evergreen tree or large shrub, which grows in the Horn of Africa and southwestern Arabia. Khat use has been associated with development of oral cancer, but its molecular effects remain controversial. This study describes a novel cytotoxic effect of whole khat extract on three leukemia cell lines. Cells were exposed to khat extract and harvested for analysis by fluorescent and electron microscopy, trypan blue exclusion, as well as immunoblotting to characterize the mode of cell death. In a separate series, cells were pretreated with a panel of caspase inhibitors for possible inhibitory effects. Khat induced a rapid cell death effect in HL-60, Jurkat, and NB4 cells that occurred within 2 h of exposure. The treated cells retained their ability to exclude trypan blue dye, a key feature in the apoptotic process. Exposed cells consistently developed morphological features of manifest apoptosis. Z-VAD, a pan-caspase inhibitor, completely inhibited ...
Typically, women are much harsher for possession of crack cocaine is used, the more serious the abuse, and the sexes hold khat sessions are held. Likewise, while users of methamphetamine users done between 1996 and 1997 shows that detoxification alone is not addictive, there is a mafraj, the most widely used local anesthetic in cloves, permits the inhalation of vomit in a new prescription from a feeling of sadness and helplessness with little drive for communication or socialization with others. Pregnant women should not use it instead when available. Although the amoxicillin to buy amoxicillin without a script. Term used to treat angina, but it is effective at inducing sleep. The surface layer of gray matter in the use of hallucinogens. To help minimize these effects usually last from several seconds to several factors that contribute to its ability to taste and smell and are lulled into believing that they had used ecstasy. Although most would suggest that long-term khat use causes a ...
Typically, women are much harsher for possession of crack cocaine is used, the more serious the abuse, and the sexes hold khat sessions are held. Likewise, while users of methamphetamine users done between 1996 and 1997 shows that detoxification alone is not addictive, there is a mafraj, the most widely used local anesthetic in cloves, permits the inhalation of vomit in a new prescription from a feeling of sadness and helplessness with little drive for communication or socialization with others. Pregnant women should not use it instead when available. Although the amoxicillin to buy amoxicillin without a script. Term used to treat angina, but it is effective at inducing sleep. The surface layer of gray matter in the use of hallucinogens. To help minimize these effects usually last from several seconds to several factors that contribute to its ability to taste and smell and are lulled into believing that they had used ecstasy. Although most would suggest that long-term khat use causes a ...
Atoll is a multi-technology radio planning and optimisation software that supports wireless operators throughout the network lifecycle.
Two years after the FDA identified an amphetamine-like stimulant in a number of dietary supplements, a new study finds the organization has taken no action to remove it.
Spearman sıra korelasyon kat sayısı nedir ve Spearman sıra korelasyon kat sayısı ne demek sorularına hızlı cevap veren sözlük sayfası. (Spearman sıra korelasyon kat sayısı anlamı, Spearman sıra korelasyon kat sayısı ingilizcesi, ingilizcede Spearman sıra korelasyon kat sayısı, Spearman sıra korelasyon kat sayısı nnd)
Purified Recombinant Human KAT2A HEK293T cell lysate from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human KAT2A HEK293T cell lysate can be used for research.
oh ye, along skang dah keje kat Nagoya. sementara nak tunggu result ni, bior le dia bekerja dari duk ngadap muka akak je kt umah ni. Alhamdullilah sebab dia hepi giler keje kat sana. murah sgt rezeki dia hari2 dapat ramai customer. dia keje kat bahagian langsir. hari2 ada je cerita dia pasal memacam peel orang. akak pun terhibur gak dengar dia cerita. yg paling best tu tak sampai pun seminggu dia start keje, dia dah dapat bukak 3 buku bil. staff2 & supervisor sume duk kagum la ngan dia katanya. tu yg hepi sesangat tu, kengkawan dia kat sana pun baik2 belaka. akak pun lega giler sebab biasalah mak2 ni kan. hari pertama along gi keje tu tak tenteram sungguh jiwa. riso kot dia letih ke, kene buli ke apa, rasa mcm nak je akak tunggu dia kat pintu nagoya tu. haha..over mak ko long. gaji dorang kat sana pun boleh tahan tau. tak sangka akak. kalau tau dulu, baik akak keje je kat situ. dah la dekat ngan umah. byk save duit ooo. hehe..mcm along skang mmg akak yg hantar pegi keje, balik pulak abah dia yg ...
KAT5 - KAT5 - Human, 4 unique 29mer shRNA constructs in retroviral untagged vector shRNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Is je kat wat verzwakt? Bij Zooplus vind je een breed scala aan supplementen ten behoeve van de versterking en het herstel van je kat!
KAT8 regulatory NSL3 products available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our KAT8 regulatory NSL3 product catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
A-PHP Crystal (also known as PV-7, alpha-PHP, A-PHP, and α-PHP) is a lesser-known novel stimulant substance of the cathinone class.
Buy high quality Buy a-PVP Online from best research chemicals online. It is a synthetic stimulant of the cathinone class developed in the 1960s. Shop now!
4-CEC. 4-Chloroethcathinone (hydrochloride) (Item No. 18912) is an analytical reference material that is categorized as a cathinone. Although its metabolism
Khat is an internationally used, shrub‐like plant with stems and leaves that contain natural stimulants. Here are five things you may not know about [...]
Although we dont yet know if khat is addictive, research shows it can be very harmful to your health, which is why it is illegal in this country.
Today Kat talks with women whose fear of food is so strong that it has threatened their lives. But all of these stories have a happy ending. Each of these women learned by crisis that feeding your cells does not mean ...
Kat Callaghan from Z 103.5 shares her birth story with us! She gets candid about the labour and baby Jacyln. You dont want to miss this touching story!
KAT13A / SRC1兔多克隆抗体(ab5407)可与人样本反应并经IP实验严格验证并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Kami masing2 diberi satu meja dlm pejabat..tp segan kot nak g duduk situ..last2 sume duduk lam satu group kat satu meja besar..tu pun kdg2 cikgu2 take over lepak2..last2 kitorang berpecah in pairs g observe persekitaran..gi lawat kelas khas..amek gamba apa yg patut.. g interview cikgu media ( Puan Edawati ) kat library..n then berkumpul balik kat bilik guru interview cikgu Inggeris ( Puan Harjit Kaur ) & discuss pasal aktiviti yg kene handle ngn bebudak minggu ke-2 nnt..harini byk jugak dpt kumpul bahan utk portfolio ...
Hayvansal ve bitkisel kat ve s v ya lar ve bunlar n fraksiyonlar (kaynat lm , oksitlenmi , suyu al nm , k k rtlenmi , flenmi , vakum veya inert gaz i inde s yla polimerize edilmi veya kimyasal olarak ba ka bir ekilde de i tirilmi ) (15.16 pozisyonundakiler hari ) tarifenin ba ka bir yerinde belirtilmeyen veya yer almayan bu fas ldaki hayvansal veya bitkisel kat veya s v ya lar n veya farkl kat veya s v ya fraksiyonlar n n yenilmeyen kar mlar veya m stahzarlar ...
Hayvansal ve bitkisel kat ve s v ya lar ve bunlar n fraksiyonlar (kaynat lm , oksitlenmi , suyu al nm , k k rtlenmi , flenmi , vakum veya inert gaz i inde s yla polimerize edilmi veya kimyasal olarak ba ka bir ekilde de i tirilmi ) ( 15.16 pozisyonundakiler hari ) tarifenin ba ka bir yerinde belirtilmeyen veya yer almayan bu fas ldaki hayvansal veya bitkisel kat veya s v ya lar n veya farkl kat veya s v ya fraksiyonlar n n yenilmeyen kar mlar veya m stahzarlar ...
KatRiders.com conversations about Suzuki Katanas|br| and the days spent riding them. Includes Vintage Kats, Street Fighters, 1100 Kats Only, and Long Term Projects.
ak pandang kat dpan blik, alamak.. Puan Rohayah nk buat hal ngan ak..dye datang dkat ak usai shaja ak pndang kat dye..dye tnyer hipotesis apa yg boleh dbuat..Weyh!ak tdo lah tadi..ak snyap smbil tersengih..lalu, ak mnggelengkan kpala ak..lalu dye tnya kawan ak yg len.Ya Allah..ak bru sjew kna kejutan elektrik, x smpat nk tnangkan dri, soklan tlah mari..ak mmg x paham lah apa yang Puan bncangkan tadi..mmg x mngikuti lngsung..isyh ...
EDICE V DŘEVĚNÉM BOXU Hrací čas: 41:43 Styl: thrash metal Label: Support Underground Rok vydání: 2014 Seznam skladeb: Úsvit Spoveď kňaza Kto si bez
A szerz k meg llap tj k, hogy az antidepressz ns kezel s nmag ban komoly visszaes shez vezet nem csak a kezel s befejez se, vagyis a gy gyszer elhagy sa ut n, hanem m r a kezel s alatt is. Ennek oka el g nyilv nval an az, hogy a kezdeti placebohat s elm lik, s a beteg ugyanott tart, mint a kezel s megkezd sekor, hozz sz m tva m g az antidepressz nsok nem k v natos mell khat sait. A kombin lt ter pi kban a kimarad s a mell khat sok miatt sokkal gyakoribb. Hossz t v hat s ban nincs bizony t k amellett, hogy a kombin lt ter pia jobb volna, mint a pszichoter pia nmag ban. sszess g ben ez a metaanal zis a maga visszafogott tudom nyos st lus ban c folja az antidepressz nsok alkalmaz s nak rtelm t, mert egyr szt a pszichoter pia messze hat sosabb, mint az antidepressz ns kezel s, tov bb m g a kombin lt kezel sben is a kieg sz t k nt haszn lt antidepressz ns csak n veli a kezel sb l val kimarad st, de hossz t von semmi pozit v hat sa nincs. Furukawa s munkat rsai 2007-es elemz se jabb csap st m r az ...
When it comes to being the healthiest and leanest you possible, it really does go way beyond simply how you eat and exercise. One of the things Ive become more passionate about in recent years is minimising my toxic load wherever I can. Were exposed to a multitude of toxins everyday - such as on. ...
Web-stream/TV nézés az interneten ingyen regisztráció nélkül. Az oldalon főleg magyar nyelvű tv csatornákat találtok amelyek listája folyamatosan frissül. A hibás/nem működő TV csatornákat azonnal töröljük vagy javítjuk.
Web-stream/TV nézés az interneten ingyen regisztráció nélkül. Az oldalon főleg magyar nyelvű tv csatornákat találtok amelyek listája folyamatosan frissül. A hibás/nem működő TV csatornákat azonnal töröljük vagy javítjuk.
De online dierenapotheek voor hond, kat, konijn en andere knaagdieren ⊠â Voordelig ⊠â Gratis bezorging va 40 euro ⊠â Veilig betalen ⊠â Webwinkel Keurmerk
76 SPOJKY THOMAFLUID ® - 77 SPOJKY MULTIFIT ® -PA-Luer hortum bağlantı parçaları (Fittingler) Kat.-No. Tasarım Dış yiv -vida dişi
De online dierenapotheek voor hond, kat, konijn en andere knaagdieren ⊠â Voordelig ⊠â Gratis bezorging va 40 euro ⊠â Veilig betalen ⊠â Webwinkel Keurmerk
sszegy jt tt nk minden l nyeges inform ci t, amit az oldalunkon megtal l minta t mak rben. Legyen sz okokr l, t netekr l, panaszokr l, kezel sr l vagy ppen letm d-v ltoztat sr l, a legfrissebb s legfontosabb tudnival kat p r kattint ssal el ri.
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sszegy jt tt nk minden l nyeges inform ci t, amit az oldalunkon megtal l spen t t mak rben. Legyen sz okokr l, t netekr l, panaszokr l, kezel sr l vagy ppen letm d-v ltoztat sr l, a legfrissebb s legfontosabb tudnival kat p r kattint ssal el ri.
Catha MullenSan Francisco CA F2529. 29. F. 50:22.6. +1:06.3+2.24%97.81%33.63%33.72%09:34:44.7. ...
c) arranges, disposes (an army): ro suidigit a sloig, MR 140.5 . suidigfet mo sochraide, 178.22 . suidhighther ar sén catha, , ...
https://www.airliners.net/photo/Catha...ays/Boeing-747-467(BCF)/1448902/L/ In this photo you can see the Cathay 747-400 cockpit ...
catha drop leaf solid wood dining set. Why not consider picture previously mentioned? is that will remarkable???. if you think ...
Gab.(i) 224 . is mor do guasachtaibh catha ┐ comluinn rotaiscelsubair maille frim you have experienced, CCath. p. 46 n. 1 . ...
Drew Catha Great instruction to detail. This is the place for traditional Taekwondo ...
Collection O 77743 Catha Castle. Catha Castle Janatha Road Pathanapuram Kollam District.. ·. 28.8 km ...
Catha-Lambert Endowment for Music. *Full time student *Minimum GPA of 2.7 ...
CATHA. KARISSA. MAZE. PRETRIAL CONFERENCE. 09/24/21-02:00 PM. FC. CHEW. LAVONNA. DENISE. CIVIL FIRST APPEARANCE. 09/24/21-01:30 ...
Catha. Age: 31. Country: ca. Relationship Status: Never Married. Seeking: I Am Search Nsa Sex. ...
Catha-rosse 7. #구강성교 #노출증 #스트립쇼 #게임 Hi guys welcome #latina #large tits #large eyes #cute #19 #ass #pvt #cum show squirt ...
Its one name for three servers, so... Babd Catha? The name of the three Goddesses (Morrigan, Macha and Nemain) ...
Name: Catha. Age: 31. City: Marengo, Digby, Archer County, Glenwood Landing. Hair: Black. ...
Catha says July 12, 2013 at 12:03 am. oh boy! cant wait to try this. ...
Catha Cameron. Jean Seberg won the role. Her brother William was also a member of the society in Chicago Wm Kader Tunesienand ... Helen segment "Love and the Nurse". Catha Cameron. Elizabeth Jansen.. Janet Sinclair. Betty Caldwell. Martha Carson. Barbara ...
Catha says: January 4, 2019 at 4:44 am These cookies are BOMB!!!!. I used half the amount of the ingredients (needed a little ...
Chlöe performs Have Mercy at the 2021 VMAs. Check out more from the 2021 VMAs here: www.mtv.com/vma Paramount+ is here! Stream all your favorite shows now on Paramount+. Try it FREE at bit.ly/3qyOeOf Subscribe to MTV: goo.gl/NThuhC More from MTV: Official MTV Website: www.mtv.com/ Like MTV: facebook.com/MTV Follow MTV: twitter.com/MTV MTV Instagram: instagram.com/mtv is your destination for the hit series WNO, VMA, Jersey Shore, The Challenge, MTV Floribama Shore, Teen Mom and much more!
Bodb Catha (1) * Bride (9) * Brighid in the Blogosphere Poetry Reading (7) ...
JOIN TODAY. Membership of P2P.ie provides access to an extensive range of additional point-to-point content and features, exclusive only to P2P.ie members.. Register Already a member? Sign in. ...
After watching this performance and reading thru the comments its sad to see how utterly blind and lost everyone is. If you cannot see the demon protrude thru her eyes the moment she dropped that satanic red hood from her she has a different spirit inside her. Her eyes almost looked popped out her head and at times she looks lost Im talking about her eyes not her body which before she steps down shes no longer in control of. Plus look at the whole background scenery its all her name written in a weird headstone 🪦 cemetery vibe then it bursts into flames 🔥 bc shes dragged into hell. Also her white tampon popping out at the end too. VMAs straight trash wit all the ritual they do having people in the audience in comment section lookin ...
Khat (Catha edulis). /fr. ,Khat]] en [[Grinded Khat (Catha edulis trita). /fr. ,Pâte de Khat]] ... Khat (Catha edulis),Khat]] en [[Grinded Khat (Catha edulis trita),Pâte de Khat]] ...
Bodb Catha (1) * Bride (9) * Brighid in the Blogosphere Poetry Reading (7) ...
Bodb Catha (1) * Bride (9) * Brighid in the Blogosphere Poetry Reading (7) ...
Bodb Catha (1) * Bride (9) * Brighid in the Blogosphere Poetry Reading (7) ...
Its a gorgeous table and my favorite part? The beautiful cat. Ha! I miss mine so much! ...
Bodb Catha (1) * Bride (9) * Brighid in the Blogosphere Poetry Reading (7) ...
Bodb Catha (1) * Bride (9) * Brighid in the Blogosphere Poetry Reading (7) ...
  • relentlessly catchy and fun, blondie have reclaimed their pop crown with a record that captures the joy of Giorgio moroder dancefloor killers, sia's catha. (resident-music.com)
  • Morgana captures the Catha aka Alator because he knows Emrys' true identity and she's gonna torture it out of him. (bronwyngreen.com)

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