Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase: Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.2.Estrogens, Catechol: 2- or 4-Hydroxyestrogens. Substances that are physiologically active in mammals, especially in the control of gonadotropin secretion. Physiological activity can be ascribed to either an estrogenic action or interaction with the catecholaminergic system.Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.1 and EC 1.99.2.2.Catechol O-Methyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Catechol Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Sorbic Acid: Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.Equilenin: An estrogenic steroid produced by HORSES. It has a total of five double bonds in the A- and B-ring. High concentration of equilenin is found in the URINE of pregnant mares.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Pyrogallol: A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Benzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Adipates: Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.ChlorobenzenesCresolsHydroxyestrones: Estrone derivatives substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position. They are important metabolites of estrone and other estrogens.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.HydroquinonesChlorobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.Planococcus Bacteria: A genus of coccoid bacteria in the family PLANOCOCCACEAE. They are widely distributed in various habitats including sea water, freshwater ponds, cyanobacterial mats, and in marine animals.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Monophenol Monooxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 1.14.18.1.Pseudomonas mendocina: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, which is found in SOIL and WATER.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).ToluidinesAdrenochrome: Pigment obtained by the oxidation of epinephrine.Gentisates: Salts and esters of gentisic acid.Salicylates: The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.BenzophenonesNormetanephrine: A methylated metabolite of norepinephrine that is excreted in the urine and found in certain tissues. It is a marker for tumors.Ralstonia: A genus in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, comprised of many species. They are associated with a variety of infections including MENINGITIS; PERITONITIS; and URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.

Action of 3 tyrphostin derivatives on casein kinase II from rat liver. (1/1002)

AIM: To study the action of tyrphostin on casein kinase (CK) II. METHODS: CK II was partially purified from rat livers by sequential DE52 and heparin-Sepharose chromatography. CK II activity was assayed by incubating CK II with dephosphorylated casein and [gamma-32P]ATP. RESULTS: AG34 inhibited the activity of CK II with IC50 33 (27-41) mumol.L-1. Both AG372 (121 mumol.L-1) and AG1112 (150 mumol.L-1) displayed inhibitory effects on the activity of CK II. Kinetic studies of AG34 on CK II showed that it was noncompetitive with casein and ATP. CONCLUSION: AG34, AG372, and AG1112 were potent inhibitors of CK II, and the inhibitory action of AG34 was noncompetitive with casein and ATP.  (+info)

Inhibition of glutathione synthesis with propargylglycine enhances N-acetylmethionine protection and methylation in bromobenzene-treated Syrian hamsters. (2/1002)

The finding that liver necrosis caused by the environmental glutathione (GSH)-depleting chemical, bromobenzene (BB) is associated with marked impairment in O- and S-methylation of BB metabolites in Syrian hamsters raises questions concerning the role of methyl deficiency in BB toxicity. N-Acetylmethionine (NAM) has proven to be an effective antidote against BB toxicity when given after liver GSH has been depleted extensively. The mechanism of protection by NAM may occur via a replacement of methyl donor and/or via an increase of GSH synthesis. If replacement of the methyl donor is an important process, then blocking the resynthesis of GSH in the methyl-repleted hamsters should not decrease NAM protection. This hypothesis was examined in this study. Propargylglycine (PPG), an irreversible inhibitor of cystathionase, was used to inhibit the utilization of NAM for GSH resynthesis. Two groups of hamsters were pretreated with an intraperitoneal (ip) dose of PPG (30 mg/kg) or saline 24 h before BB administration (800 mg/kg, ip). At 5 h after BB treatment, an ip dose of NAM (1200 mg/kg) was given. Light microscopic examinations of liver sections obtained 24 h after BB treatment indicated that NAM provided better protection (P < 0.05) in the PPG + BB + NAM group than in the BB + NAM group. Liver GSH content, however, was lower in the PPG + BB + NAM group than in the BB + NAM group. The Syrian hamster has a limited capability to N-deacetylated NAM. The substitution of NAM with methionine (Met; 450 mg/kg) resulted in a higher level of GSH in the BB + Met group than in the BB + NAM group (P < 0.05). The enhanced protection by PPG in the PPG + BB + NAM group was accompanied by higher (P < 0.05) urinary excretions of specificO- and S-methylated bromothiocatechols than in the BB + NAM group. The results suggest that NAM protection occurs primarily via a replacement of the methyl donor and that methyl deficiency occurring in response to GSH repletion plays a potential role in BB toxicity.  (+info)

Adenosylcobalamin-mediated methyl transfer by toluate cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0. (3/1002)

We identified and characterized a methyl transfer activity of the toluate cis-dihydrodiol (4-methyl-3,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1, 2-diol-1-carboxylic acid) dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0 towards toluene cis-dihydrodiol (3-methyl-4,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1, 2-diol). When the purified enzyme from the recombinant Escherichia coli containing the xylL gene was incubated with toluene cis-dihydrodiol in the presence of NAD+, the end products differed depending on the presence of adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12). The enzyme yielded catechol in the presence of adenosylcobalamin, while it gave 3-methylcatechol in the absence of the cofactor. Adenosylcobalamin was transformed to methylcobalamin as a result of the enzyme reaction, which indicates that the methyl group of the substrate was transferred to adenosylcobalamin. Other derivatives of the cobalamin such as aquo (hydroxy)- and cyanocobalamin did not mediate the methyl transfer reaction. The dehydrogenation and methyl transfer reactions were assumed to occur concomitantly, and the methyl transfer reaction seemed to depend on the dehydrogenation. To our knowledge, the enzyme is the first dehydrogenase that shows a methyl transfer activity as well.  (+info)

Cytochrome P-450 3A and 2D6 catalyze ortho hydroxylation of 4-hydroxytamoxifen and 3-hydroxytamoxifen (droloxifene) yielding tamoxifen catechol: involvement of catechols in covalent binding to hepatic proteins. (4/1002)

Earlier study suggested that 3,4-dihydroxytamoxifen (tam catechol), a tamoxifen metabolite, is proximate to the reactive intermediate that binds covalently to proteins and possibly to DNA (). The current study demonstrates that rat and human hepatic cytochrome P-450s (CYPs) catalyze tam catechol formation from tamoxifen (tam), 3-hydroxy-tam (Droloxifene), and 4-hydroxy-tam (4-OH-tam). Higher levels of catechol were formed from 4-OH-tam and 3-hydroxy-tam than from tam. Evidence that human hepatic CYP3A4 and 2D6 catalyze the formation of tam catechol from 4-OH-tam and supportive data that the catechol is proximate to the reactive intermediate, was obtained: 1) There was a good correlation (r = 0.82; p +info)

Effect of catecholamic acid on detoxication and distribution of NiCl2 in mice and rats. (5/1002)

AIM: To study the effect of catecholamic acid (CBMIDA) on detoxication of NiCl2. METHODS: Mice and rats were injected s.c. or i.m. CBMIDA immediately after i.p. NiCl2. Each mouse was injected i.p. CBMIDA after i.v. 63NiCl2 185 kBq, and radioactivities of various tissues were measured with liquid scintillation counter at 24 h. The localization of 63Ni was shown by the whole-body autoradiography. RESULTS: CBMIDA s.c. 0.5-1.5 g.kg-1 markedly reduced the mortality from acute poisoning of i.p. NiCl2 500 mg.kg-1. After i.p. NiCl2 in mice, the LD50 was 82.7 mg.kg-1. Mice were injected s.c. CBMIDA 1.5 or 2.5 g.kg-1 after Ni poisoning, the LD50 of NiCl2 were raised to 789 or 820 mg.kg-1, respectively. The LD50 of NiCl2 was 39 mg.kg-1 in rat. If CBMIDA was injected i.m. 0.5 g.kg-1 after i.p. NiCl2, the LD50 was 332 mg.kg-1. CBMIDA 1.5 g.kg-1 i.m. after i.v. 63NiCl2, decreased the contents of 63Ni in blood and lung of mice vs control mice at 24 h. The contents of 63Ni in brain, heart, spleen, and kidney were similar to those of the control mice. The content of 63Ni in bone was more than the control. The excretions of 63Ni through urine and feces were not increased by CBMIDA at 24 h. The whole-body autoradiography showed that the radioactivity was highly localized in the kidney, lung, and Harder's gland. There was a moderate level of 63Ni in the liver, bone, skin, and blood. A pronounced accumulation occurred in the bone. There was a marked reduction of 63Ni in the lung, skin, liver, and blood after i.p. CBMIDA. CONCLUSION: The CBMIDA markedly raised the survival rate of nickel-poisoned mice and rats, and decreased 63Ni levels in lung and blood.  (+info)

Cloning of a gene encoding hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase that catalyzes both intradiol and extradiol ring cleavage of catechol. (6/1002)

Two Escherichia coli transformants with catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity were selected from a gene library of the benzamide-assimilating bacterium Arthrobacter species strain BA-5-17, which produces four catechol 1,2-dioxygenase isozymes. A DNA fragment isolated from one transformant contained a complete open reading frame (ORF). The deduced amino acid sequence of the ORF shared high identity with hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase. An enzyme expressed by the ORF was purified to homogeneity and characterized. When hydroxyquinol was used as a substrate, the purified enzyme showed 6.8-fold activity of that for catechol. On the basis of the sequence identity and substrate specificity of the enzyme, we concluded that the ORF encoded hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase. When catechol was used as a substrate, cis,cis-muconic acid and 2-hydroxymuconic 6-semialdehyde, which were products by the intradiol and extradiol ring cleavage activities, respectively, were produced. These results showed that the hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase reported here was a novel dioxygenase that catalyzed both the intradiol and extradiol cleavage of catechol.  (+info)

Interactions of 6-gingerol and ellagic acid with the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. (7/1002)

The inotropic/lusitropic effects of beta-adrenergic agonists on the heart are mediated largely by protein kinase A (PKA)-catalyzed phosphorylation of phospholamban, the natural protein regulator of the Ca2+ pump present in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. Gingerol, a plant derivative, is known to produce similar effects when tested in isolated cardiac muscle. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of gingerol and another plant derivative, ellagic acid, on the kinetics of the SR Ca2+ pump with those of PKA-catalyzed phospholamban phosphorylation to elucidate their mechanisms of Ca2+ pump regulation. As previously demonstrated for PKA, 50 microM gingerol or ellagic acid increased Vmax(Ca) of Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-ATPase activity assayed at millimolar ATP concentrations in light cardiac SR vesicles. Unlike PKA, which decreases Km(Ca), neither compound had a significant effect on Km(Ca) in unphosphorylated vesicles. However, gingerol increased Km(Ca) in phosphorylated vesicles, in which Ca2+ uptake was significantly increased further at saturating Ca2+ and remained unchanged at subsaturating Ca2+. An inhibition of Ca2+ uptake by gingerol at micromolar MgATP concentrations was overcome with increasing MgATP concentrations. The stimulation of Ca2+ uptake attributable to gingerol in unphosphorylated microsomes at saturating Ca2+ was 30% to 40% when assayed at 0.05 to 2 mM MgATP and only about 12% in phosphorylated microsomes as well as in rabbit fast skeletal muscle light SR. The present results support the view that an ATP-dependent increase in Vmax(Ca) of the SR Ca2+ pump plays an important role in mediating cardiac contractile responses to gingerol and phospholamban-dependent beta-adrenergic stimulation.  (+info)

A potential mechanism underlying the increased susceptibility of individuals with a polymorphism in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) to benzene toxicity. (8/1002)

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a two-electron reductase that detoxifies quinones derived from the oxidation of phenolic metabolites of benzene. A polymorphism in NQO1, a C609T substitution, has been identified, and individuals homozygous for this change (T/T) have no detectable NQO1. Exposed workers with a T/T genotype have an increased risk of benzene hematotoxicity. This finding suggests NQO1 is protective against benzene toxicity, which is difficult to reconcile with the lack of detectable NQO1 in human bone marrow. The human promyeloblastic cell line, KG-1a, was used to investigate the ability of the benzene metabolite hydroquinone (HQ) to induce NQO1. A concentration-dependent induction of NQO1 protein and activity was observed in KG-1a cells cultured with HQ. Multiple detoxification systems, including NQO1 and glutathione protect against benzene metabolite-induced toxicity. Indeed, exposure to a noncytotoxic concentration of HQ induced both NQO1 and soluble thiols and protected against HQ-induced apoptosis. NQO1 protein and activity increased in wild-type human bone marrow cells (C/C) exposed to HQ, whereas no NQO1 was induced by HQ in bone marrow cells with the T/T genotype. Intermediate induction of NQO1 by HQ was observed in heterozygous bone marrow cells (C/T). NQO1 also was induced by HQ in wild-type (C/C) human bone marrow CD34(+) progenitor cells. Our data suggest that failure to induce functional NQO1 may contribute to the increased risk of benzene poisoning in individuals homozygous for the NQO1 C609T substitution (T/T).  (+info)

*Catechol dioxygenase

... s are metalloprotein enzymes that carry out the oxidative cleavage of catechols. This class of enzymes ... An example of the reaction carried out by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase is the formation of cis,cis-muconic acid from catechol, ... catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.2), and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.3). The active site of catechol ... The Pseudomonas putida xylE gene, which encodes catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, is often used as a reporter to quantitate gene ...

*Catechol estrogen

A catechol estrogen is a steroidal estrogen that contains catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) within its structure. The catechol ... Similarly to estradiol and estrone, catechol estrogens possess estrogenic activity. 2-Hydroxylated catechol estrogens are weak ... The catechol estrogens are formed from estradiol and estrone by cytochrome P450 enzymes predominantly in the liver but also in ... Under poor conditions of inactivation by phase II enzymes, catechol estrogens can undergo oxidation to reactive quinones and ...

*Catechol oxidase

In plants, catechol oxidase plays a key role in enzymatic browning by catalyzing the oxidation of catechol to o-quinone in the ... As catechol enters the active site, a proton is abstracted from one of the alcohols. The catechol coordinates with a Cu(II) ... The coordinated hydroxide ion abstracts another proton from catechol to form water, and the catechol is oxidized to o-quinone. ... In this state, the enzyme active site is in a ternary catechol oxidase-O22−-catechol complex. Two electrons are transferred ...

*Chloridazon-catechol dioxygenase

... (EC 1.13.11.36) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 5-amino-4-chloro-2-(2,3- ... Chloridazon-catechol dioxygenase from Phenylobacterium immobilis DSM 1986". Eur. J. Biochem. 125 (3): 579-84. doi:10.1111/j. ... Muller R, Haug S, Eberspacher J, Lingens F (1977). "[Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase from pyrazon-degrading bacteria (author's transl ...

*Catechol oxidase (dimerizing)

In enzymology, a catechol oxidase (dimerizing) (EC 1.1.3.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 4 catechol + 3 ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is catechol:oxygen oxidoreductase (dimerizing). Nair PM; Vining LC (1964). "Enzymic ... the two substrates of this enzyme are catechol and O2, whereas its two products are [[dibenzo[1,4]dioxin-2,3-dione]] and H2O. ... oxidation of catechol to diphenylenedioxide-2,3-quinone". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 106: 422-427. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(64)90210- ...

*Catechol-O-methyl transferase

... and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure. In humans, catechol-O-methyltransferase protein is encoded by the ... Any compound having a catechol structure, like catecholestrogens and catechol-containing flavonoids, are substrates of COMT. ... Fan JB, Zhang CS, Gu NF, Li XW, Sun WW, Wang HY, Feng GY, St Clair D, He L (January 2005). "Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene ... Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; EC 2.1.1.6) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (such as dopamine, ...

*Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase

... (EC 1.13.11.2, 2,3-pyrocatechase, catechol 2,3-oxygenase, catechol oxygenase, metapyrocatechase, ... Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... Kojima, Y.; Itada, N.; Hayaishi, O. (1961). "Metapyrocatechase: a new catechol-cleaving enzyme". J. Biol. Chem. 236: 2223-2228 ... pyrocatechol 2,3-dioxygenase) is an enzyme with systematic name catechol:oxygen 2,3-oxidoreductase (decyclizing). This enzyme ...

*Catechol 1,2-dioxygenase

Catechol 1,2- dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.1, 1,2-CTD, catechol-oxygen 1,2-oxidoreductase, 1,2-pyrocatechase, catechase, catechol 1, ... Pascal, R; Huang, O (1986). "Reactions of 3-ethylcatechol and 3-(methylthio)catechol with catechol dioxygenases". Arch. Biochem ... 2-dioxygenase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (2,3-CTD). The two enzymes were identified to be a part of two separate catechol ... a family of catechol dioxygenases that cleaves the bond between the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol using an Fe3+ cofactor ...

*Piperonal

Synthesis from catechol requires an additional step, Williamson ether synthesis using dichloromethane. Piperonal, like all ... Piperonal can be prepared by oxidizing isosafrole or by using a multistep sequence from catechol or 1,2-methylenedioxybenzene. ... doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)88578-0. Bonthrone, W. & Cornforth, J. (1969). "The methylenation of catechols". Journal of the ...

*1,3-Benzodioxole

doi:10.2174/1389200003339270 Bonthrone, W. & Cornforth, J. (1969). "The methylenation of catechols". Journal of the Chemical ... 1,3-Benzodioxole can be synthesized from catechol with disubstituted halomethanes. 1,4-Benzodioxine Methylenedioxy Safrole ...

*Dakin oxidation

Catechol, for example, is synthesized from o-hydroxy and o-alkoxy phenyl aldehydes and ketones, and is used as the starting ... Dakin, H.D. (1923). "Catechol". Organic Syntheses. 3: 28. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.003.0028. Surrey, Alexander R. (1946). " ...

*Salicylaldehyde

Dakin, H. D. (1923). "Catechol" (PDF). Organic Syntheses. 3: 28. ; Collective Volume, 1, p. 149 Burgstahler, A. W.; Worden, L. ... Salicylaldehyde is used to make the following: Oxidation with hydrogen peroxide gives catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) (Dakin ...

*History of catecholamine research

In the case the catecholamines, however, the enzymes of degradation monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyl transferase, like ... In this respect, ″amino-ethanol-catechol″ - noradrenaline - mimicked sympathetic nerves more closely than adrenaline did. The ... Julius Axelrod (1962). "O-Methylation of epinephrine and other catechols". Science. 126 (3270): 400-401. doi:10.1126/science. ... noradrenaline and adrenaline were O-methylated by catechol-O-methyl transferase. To fill the gap completely, however, the role ...

*Methyltransferase

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) degrades a class of molecules known as catcholamines that includes dopamine, epinephrine, ... "COMT catechol-O-methyltransferase". NCBI Genetic Testing Registry. Retrieved 18 February 2014. Ragsdale, S.W. "Catalysis of ... Examples include: Catechol-O-methyl transferase DNA methyltransferase Histone methyltransferase 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate- ...

*Polyphenol oxidase

... catechol oxidases). A mixture of monophenol oxidase and catechol oxidase enzymes is present in nearly all plant tissues, and ... catechol oxidase "Polyphenol Oxidase". Worthington Enzyme Manual. Retrieved 13 September 2011. Mayer, AM (November 2006). " ...

*Siderocalin

... allowing siderocalin to bind to the iron-catechol complex. Catechols can be bound by siderocalin, in the form of free ligands, ... Mammalian siderophores, specifically catechols, can be found in the human gut and in siderophores, such as enterobactin, and ... Catechol resembling molecules can act as iron ligands in the cell and in systematic circulation, ... Rogers HJ (Mar 1973). "Iron-Binding Catechols and Virulence in Escherichia coli". Infection and Immunity. 7 (3): 445-56. PMC ...

*Siderophore

... the catechol-type siderophores, agrobactin; and the mixed ligand catechol-hydroxamate-hydroxy acid siderophores biosynthesized ...

*Methoxy group

Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). A large number of natural products in plants, e.g. lignins, are generated via catalysis ...

*Anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase (deaminating, decarboxylating)

Kobayashi S, Hayaishi O (1970). "Anthranilic acid conversion to catechol (Pseudomonas)". Methods Enzymol. 17A: 505-510. doi: ... catechol + CO2 + NAD(P)+ + NH3 The 5 substrates of this enzyme are anthranilate, NADH, NADPH, H+, and O2, whereas its 5 ... "Enzymatic formation of catechol from anthranilic acid". J. Biol. Chem. 239: 2204-2211. PMID 14209949. Molecular and Cellular ... products are catechol, CO2, NAD+, NADP+, and NH3. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those ...

*Muconate lactonizing enzyme

3. Enzymes of the catechol pathway". J. Biol. Chem. 241: 3795-3799. PMID 5330966. Ornston, L.N. (1970). "Conversion of catechol ... Ornston, L.N. (1966). "The conversion of catechol and protocatechuate to β-ketoadipate by Pseudomonas putida. ... catechol and protocatechuate, to citric acid cycle intermediates as a part of the β-ketoadipate pathway in soil microbes. Some ...

*3-O-Methyldopa

... is a major metabolite of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanin (L-DOPA) and is formed by catechol O-methyltransferase ( ... This process is catalyzed by catechol O-methyltransferase methylates (COMT). The action of the enzyme makes it possible the ... Tai, C. H.; Wu, R. M. (2002). "Catechol-O-methyltransferase and Parkinson's disease". Acta medica Okayama. 56 (1): 1-6. PMID ... L-DOPA Entacapone Tolcapone Catechol-O-methyl transferase Parkinson's disease Parkinson's Disease and movement disorders. ...

*Muconolactone Delta-isomerase

3. Enzymes of the catechol pathway". J. Biol. Chem. 241 (16): 3795-9. PMID 5330966. Ornston LN (1970). "Conversion of catechol ... Ornston LN (1966). "The conversion of catechol and protocatechuate to beta-ketoadipate by Pseudomonas putida. ...

*Cis-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase

I Enzymatic formation of catechol from benzene". Biochemistry. 7 (7): 2653-62. doi:10.1021/bi00847a031. PMID 4298226. Molecular ... catechol + NADH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are cis-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol and NAD+, whereas its 3 ... products are catechol, NADH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH- ...

*Crown ether

... s are much broader than the oligomers of ethylene oxide; an important group are derived from catechol. Crown ethers ...

*Tanning (leather)

... see catechol), and myrobalans from Terminalia spp., such as Terminalia chebula. Hides are stretched on frames and immersed for ...
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The complex interactions of oxidizable organic ligands with soil Mn(III,IV) (hydr)oxide minerals have received little study by in situspectroscopic techniques.We used a combination of an in situ electron paramagnetic resonance stopped-flow (EPR-SF) spectroscopic technique and stirred-batch studies to measure the reductive dissolution kinetics of birnessite (δ-MnO2), a common Mn mineral in soils, by catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene). The reaction was rapid, independent of pH, and essentially complete within seconds under conditions of excess catechol at pH 4 to 6. The overall empirical second-order rate equation describing the reductive dissolution rate was d[Mn(II)]/dt = k[CAT]1.0[SA]1.0 where k = 4 (±0.5) (10-3 L m-2 s-1 and [CAT] and [SA] are the initial concentrations in molarity and meters square per liter. In the process, catechol was oxidized to the two-electron o-quinone product. The energy of activation (Ea) for the reaction was 59 (±7) kJ mol-1 and the activation entropy (S‡) was- -78±22 J
para-Nitrophenol (PNP) is a highly toxic compound with threats to mammalian health. The pnpE-encoded γ-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase catalyzes the reduction of γ-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde to maleylacetate in Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3, playing a key role in the catabolism of PNP to Krebs cycle intermediates. However, the catalyzing mechanism by PnpE has not been well understood. Here we report the crystal structures of the apo and NAD bound PnpE. In the PnpE-NAD complex structure, NAD is situated in a cleft of PnpE. The cofactor binding site is composed of two pockets. The adenosine and the first ribose group of NAD bind in one pocket and the nicotinamide ring in the other. Six amino acids have interactions with the cofactor. They are C281, E247, Q210, W148, I146 and K172. Highly conserved residues C281 and E247 were identified to be critical for its catalytic activity. In addition, flexible docking studies of the enzyme-substrate system were performed to predict the interactions
Spectrophotometric determination of tin in copper-based alloys using Pyrocatechol Violet Spinola Costa, A.; Teixeira, L. S. G.; Ferreira, S. L. C. ...
To address the decontamination of (1) toxic organic compounds such as naphthene and catechol found in the tailings ponds, natural pathways that can break down the toxic chemicals can be utilized. The toxic organic compounds can be broken down into molecules that are metabolizable by all organisms, such as 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde (2-HMS)3. Catechol is a prime candidate to function as a hub for the funneling and subsequent degradation of other toxic compounds found in abundance, such as naphthene, anthracene, and fluorene into 2-HMS (Figure 1)3,4,5. Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (xylE) is found in Pseudomonas putida and hydrolyzes catechol into 2-HMS, which can enter the citric acid cycle6. In 2010, the Lethbridge iGEM team confirmed that xylE when introduce to E. coli hydrolyzes catechol to 2-HMS demonstrating and that this critical step can successfully be performed to convert toxic chemicals to metabolic intermediates7. XylE is inefficient on its own, especially in vitro, due to instability ...
1. The ring-fission of cis- and trans-acenaphthene-1,2-diol by rat liver microsomes was studied. 2. 1,8-Naphthalic acid was detected and isolated after microsomal incubations of the diols. 3. The accompanying reduction of NAD+ was followed spectrophotometrically. 4. The optimum pH for the microsomal reaction was 9·4 for the oxidation of the cis-diol and 9·8 for that of the trans-diol. 5. p-Chloromercuribenzoate and 2,4-dichlorophenol inhibited the reaction. 6. Possible mechanisms for the microsomal ring-fission, involving 1,8-naphthalic aldehyde, are discussed.. ...
In order to determine which enzymes would most benefit from metabolic channeling in the catechol degradation pathway, we used a cellular simulation tool, developed in our lab, called Cell++. It allows us to place enzymes of choice in a compartment within a cellular environment and calculates the effect of localization on metabolite concentrations in a user-defined biochemical pathway (Sanford et al. 2006). We gathered kinetic data of the five enzymes in the degradation pathway and investigated the effects of localizing pairs of sequential enzymes (i.e. catechol 1, 2-dioxygenase and muconate cycloisomeras) on metabolite concentrations. Four co-localization simulations were performed in Cell++ along with a control simulation where no enzymes were co-localized. The initial metabolite in the simulation environment, catechol, was added into the simulation environment and the simulation environment was run for 10,000 iterations to observe the effect on catechol degradation in each simulation. The ...
The gene cluster, coding for the chlorocatechol sp. of hereditary, biochemical, and ecological areas of the connections of several chloroaromatic substances with microorganisms in the biosphere within a broad work to comprehend the fate of the chemicals in the surroundings also to develop book bioremediation strategies (22, 33, 37). Among the principles to emerge out of this body of function is the department of biodegradative routes into higher and lower pathways that are linked with the central intermediate chlorocatechol (38). Hereditary research of chlorocatechol sp. stress P51 and sp. stress PS12: an entire mineralization pathway seems to have advanced through transposon-mediated recruitment of toluene or benzene dioxygenase and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase genes following to a gene cluster coding for an gene cluster, hereafter known as the gene cluster) in the trichlorobenzene-degrading stress sp. stress P51 (41) within a Tnchlorocatechol catabolic genes are organized within an operon and ...
After verifying that we could in fact degrade catechol into 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde using our xylE construct (BBa_J33204), we wondered if we could take this any further. What if we could convert this by-product page into hydrocarbons too? As catechol is the breakdown product of a number of different degradation pathways in bacteria, this could be particularly useful.. As 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde can be further metabolized to pyruvate and acetaldehyde (Harayama S et al., 1987), it seemed possible that these products could be routed into the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and converted to alkanes using the PetroBrick or the OleT enzyme. Given that the Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase reaction is extracellular, it creates a possible scenario in which cells with the xylE construct could be co-cultured with Petrobrick-containing cells to cooperatively metabolise catechol into hydrocarbons. In order to test this, we followed this protocol, where we co-cultured cells expressing our xylE construct ...
Read "In situ surface modification of colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles with catechol, Research on Chemical Intermediates" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Learn about Comtan (Entacapone) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
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Solubility in water: 430g/L (20°C). Other solubilities: soluble in alcohol, benzene, chloroform, ether, and pyridine and aqueous solutions ...
Affiliation:Professor,Shiga University of Medical Science,医学部,教授, Research Field:General medical chemistry, Keywords:カテコ-ル2,3ー二原子酸素添加酵素,酸素添加酵素,日中間学術交流,Oxygenase,Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase,生体代謝調節,2, 3-dioxygenase,3, 5-dichlorocatechol,アミノ酸配列,Charge transfer complex, # of Research Projects:5, # of Research Products:0
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-DOPA biotransformation. T2 - Correlations of dosage, erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and platelet SULT1A3 activities with metabolic pathways in Parkinsonian patients. AU - Dousa, M. K.. AU - Weinshilboum, Richard M. AU - Muenter, M. D.. AU - Offord, K. P.. AU - Decker, P. A.. AU - Tyce, G. M.. PY - 2003/8/1. Y1 - 2003/8/1. N2 - The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the effects of dose and drug absorption on pathways of biotransformation of L-DOPA in Parkinsonian patients treated with Sinemet, and (2) the extent to which genetically-determined variations in the activities of erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and/or platelet phenol sulfotransferase might be reflected in individual differences in L-DOPA metabolism. In the 19 patients studied, there were negative correlations between dosage or absorption and extent of O-methylation and of sulfation of L-DOPA or its metabolites. Levels of activity for erythrocyte COMT were also reflected in individual ...
Catechols are known to coordinate divalent metal ions by virtue of their acidic ortho-hydroxyl groups. A recent HTS screening campaign to develop inhibitors against Pfm18AAP, a potential drug target for the treatment of malaria, identified a number of catechol-containing inhibitory molecules (Schoenen et al., 2010). In fact, the best-in-class probe identified in that screen, ML369 (Supplemental Fig. 5A), features a catechol moiety linked to a piperidine-tetrahydroquinoline ring system. Catechols have also been identified as inhibitors of methionine aminopeptidase, which, like DNPEP, also contains a binuclear zinc center. A structure of E. coli methionine aminopeptidase in complex with a catechol-containing compound revealed the mode of interaction of the catechol ring with the binuclear zinc center (Wang et al., 2008). In this structure, one of the hydroxyl groups of the catechol replaced water as a bridging ligand, whereas the other interacted with one of the zinc ions enforced by the active ...
Looking for online definition of catechol in the Medical Dictionary? catechol explanation free. What is catechol? Meaning of catechol medical term. What does catechol mean?
Natural catechol, quinone and quinone methide diterpenes with abietane (15-deoxyfuerstione, taxodione) and totarane (dispermone, 12,13-dihydroxy-8,11,13-totaratriene-6-one), and podocarpane (nimbidiol, deoxynimbidiol) skeletons were synthesized using ortho-oxidation of phenol with meta-chlorobenzoyl peroxide. Minimum inhibitory activities of these diterpenes and previously synthesized natural diterpenes were measured against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Propionibacterium acnes, which cause serious skin infection associated with acne. Abietaquinone methide and 8,11,13-totaratriene-12,13-diol showed potent activities against S. aureus (MRSA) and P. acnes, and no serious toxicity by oral dose to mice.
Accepted name: catechol 2,3-dioxygenase. Reaction: catechol + O2 = 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde. For diagram of reaction click here.. Glossary: 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde = (2Z,4E)-2-hydroxy-6-oxohexa-2,4-dienoate. Other name(s): 2,3-pyrocatechase; catechol 2,3-oxygenase; catechol oxygenase; metapyrocatechase; pyrocatechol 2,3-dioxygenase; xylE (gene name). Systematic name: catechol:oxygen 2,3-oxidoreductase (decyclizing). Comments: Requires FeII. The enzyme initiates the meta-cleavage pathway of catechol degradation.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9029-46-3. References:. 1. Hayaishi, O. Direct oxygenation by O2, oxygenases. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Eds), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 8, Academic Press, New York, 1963, pp. 353-371.. 2. Kojima, Y., Itada, N. and Hayaishi, O. Metapyrocatechase: a new catechol-cleaving enzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 2223-2228. [PMID: 13757654]. 3. Nozaki, M., Kagamiyama, H. ...
An activated carbon, CarbochemTM-PS230, was modified by chemical and thermal treatment in flow of H2, in order to evaluate the influence of the activated carbon chemical characteristics in the adsorption of the catechol. The catechol adsorption in aqueous solution was studied along with the effect of the pH solution in the adsorption process of modified activated carbons and the variation of immersion enthalpy of activated carbons in the aqueous solutions of catechol. The interaction solid-solution is characterized by adsorption isotherms analysis, at 298 K and pH 7, 9 and 11 in order to evaluate the adsorption value above and below that of the catechol pKa. The adsorption capacity of carbons increases when the solution pH decreases. The retained amount increases slightly in the reduced carbon to maximum adsorption pH and diminishes in the oxidized carbon. Similar conclusions are obtained from the immersion enthalpies, whose values increase with the solute quantity retained. In granular activated carbon
That said, it might. We did a little research…. Ginger Phytochemistry:. The chemical constituents of ginger (and ginger supplements) have been known for some years [2][3]. 6-shogaol is one of the 4 main pungent constituents of ginger [4] (the others are 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol. Shogaols are chemically similar to gingerols - being the dehydrated form thereof. Interestingly, Shogaols are found in only small quantities in the fresh root and are mainly found in the dried and thermally treated roots; with 6-shogaol becoming the most abundant of these constituents when ginger is dried or cooked. [5] There are smaller amounts of other gingerols, shogaols and many further compounds in ginger; these are largely untested but may contribute significantly to the health benefits of the whole root.. Bioavailability Of 6-Shogaol:. As it happens, a 2010 study has investigated the bioavailability of 6-shogaol. [4] Their notes reported first of all that prior to that study, few studies had ...
Abstract. The sinks of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere are usually described by oxidation reactions in the gas and aqueous (cloud) phases. Previous lab studies suggest that in addition to chemical processes, biodegradation by bacteria might also contribute to the loss of organics in clouds; however, due to the lack of comprehensive data sets on such biodegradation processes, they are not commonly included in atmospheric models. In the current study, we measured the biodegradation rates of phenol and catechol, which are known pollutants, by one of the most active strains selected during our previous screening in clouds (Rhodococcus enclensis). For catechol, biodegradation transformation is about ten times faster than for phenol. The experimentally derived biodegradation rates are included in a multiphase box model to compare the chemical loss rates of phenol and catechol in both the gas and aqueous phases to their biodegradation rate in the aqueous phase under atmospheric conditions. Model results ...
ortho-Quinones are produced in vivo through the oxidation of catecholic substrates by enzymes such as tyrosinase or by transition metal ions. Neuromelanin, a dark pigment present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus of the brain, is produced from dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) via an interaction with cysteine, but it also incorporates their alcoholic and acidic metabolites. In this study we examined the metabolic fate of ortho-quinones derived from the catecholamine metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPE), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol (DOPEG), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylmandelic acid (DOMA). The oxidation of catecholic substrates by mushroom tyrosinase was followed by UV-visible spectrophotometry. HPLC analysis after reduction with NaBH4 or ascorbic acid enabled measurement of the half-lives of ortho-quinones and the identification of their reaction products. Spectrophotometric examination showed that the ortho-quinones initially formed
화장품 산업은 인류의 오랜 꿈 가운데 하나인 미(美)에 대한 욕망을 바탕으로 지금까지 꾸준히 발전해 왔다. 특히 21세기에 들어서 고령인구의 증가로 인한 소비자층의 확대와 환경, 화장품 원료의 안전성에 대한 관심 급증으로 인해 현재 노화예방 효능이 우수하면서도 안전한 천연 유래 화장품 원료 개발이 시급한 실정이다.. 6-Shogaol은 생강(Zingiber officinale)의 매운맛을 내게 해주는 주성분 중 하나로 신선한 생강에 가장 많이 들어있는 gingerols의 가수분해산물이다. 최근 6-shogaol이 gingerol보다 항염증, 항산화, 항암 효과가 더 뛰어나다는 연구보고가 잇따르고 있으나 이와 관련한 대부분의 연구는 식품이나 의·약학, 생명과학 분야에 국한되어 있다. 현재 향장 분야에서의 6-shogaol에 대한 연구는 극히 미미하며, 특히 인간진피섬유아세포에서의 6-shogaol에 대한 ...
Patients should be instructed to take entacapone tablets only as prescribed. Patients should be informed that hallucinations can occur. Patients should be advised that they may develop postural (orthostatic) hypotension with or without symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, syncope, and sweating. Hypotension may occur more frequently during initial therapy. Accordingly, patients should be cautioned against rising rapidly after sitting or lying down, especially if they have been doing so for prolonged periods, and especially at the initiation of treatment with entacapone tablets. Patients should be advised that they should neither drive a car nor operate other complex machinery until they have gained sufficient experience on entacapone tablets to gauge whether or not it affects their mental and/or motor performance adversely. Because of the possible additive sedative effects, caution should be used when patients are taking other CNS depressants in combination with entacapone tablets. Patients should ...
Entacapone is a catechol -o methyl trasnferase inhibitor. Entacapone is useful as an adjunct in patient currently on carbidopa and levodopa therapy. Entacapone will synergies the levodopa and carbidopa anti parkinsonian effects.
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and partial least squares (PLS) regression have been applied for the quantification of entacapone isomers ,i,E,/i, and ,i,Z,/i, in solution. Nine mixtures of isomers ,i,Z,/i, and ,i,E,/i, in ethanol ranging from 0% to 100% w/w were analyzed, for a total entacapone concentration of 1 × 10,sup,−3,/sup, mol L,sup,−1,/sup,. Upon deposition onto commercially available Klarite,b,®,/b, gold plates, highly intense and reproducible SERS spectra were obtained from the entacapone isomers. Based on the spectral measurements, a two-component PLS model for correlation of predicted and real content of the isomers mixtures was developed. Root-mean-square error of the predicted composition was found to be 8% of isomer ,i,Z,/i, in the isomers mixture, corresponding to the absolute concentration of 8 × 10,sup,−5,/sup, mol L,sup,−1,/sup, of isomer ,i,Z,/i, in solution.. PDF Article ...
The possible cancer-preventive activity of ginger is receiving a great deal of attention. Information on the metabolism of ginger components such as [6]-shogaol is important for understanding the biological effects of ginger. The mouse and cancer cells are frequently used as experimental models to study the cancer-preventive effects of ginger and its bioactive components. Our results indicate that [6]-shogaol is extensively metabolized in mice and in cancer cells. In the present study, 13 metabolites were identified, with 12 in mice and 4 in cancer cells (Fig. 1).. Reduction of xenobiotic carbonyls is a significant metabolic route to produce more hydrophilic and often less toxic compounds, which can be substrates for phase II conjugation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases or sulfotransferases, leading ultimately to excretion of the products (Oppermann, 2007). In this investigation, reduced metabolites were formed in which M11 is the double-bond-reduced metabolite of [6]-shogaol, and M9 and M6 are ...
Catechol is a toxic compound found in tailings ponds that is a by-product of polyaromatic hydrocarbon metabolism (Vaillancourt et al., 2006, Schweigert et al., 2001)). The chemical properties of catechol allow it to react with biomolecules, causing cellular damage including DNA damage, enzyme inactivation and membrane uncoupling (Schweigert et al., 2001). Catechol is characterized as having a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups at the 2,3 position. It can be converted to 2-hydroxymuconic acid by the enzyme catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, encoded by the xylE gene on the Tol plasmid of Pseudomonas putida (Nakai et al., 1983).. Currently the registry has two BioBricks available of xylE. One contained xylE with its native ribosome-binding site (BBa_J33204), while the other part contained xylE under the glucose-repressible promoter cstA (BBa_K118021). Given that E. coli is grown in the presence of glucose, we designed a new construct to keep xylE repressed by using the TetR promoter (BBa_R0040).. ...
The present invention relates to 4-pyridinone compound as catechol -O- methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors and are useful in the treatment or prevention of COMT enzyme is involved in neurological and psychiatric disorders and diseases. The present invention also relates to the use of these compounds comprises pharmaceutical compositions of these compounds and compositions in the prevention or disease involving COMT treatment.
This work demonstrates the ring-cleavage pathways of catechol on Pseudomonas cepacia ATCC 29351, formed upon its growth on salicylate and benzoate, each as a sole carbon source. When grown on salicyla
A catechol signal recorded with in vivo voltammetry within the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) was taken as an index of the activity of RVLM adrenergic neurons and related to the level of arterial PCO2, under halothane anesthesia. Reversible
The stability of the complex formed by one molecule of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene and one molecule of zinc acetate in solutions with different permittivity and temperature was investigated by means of spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. The Becke hybrid three-parameter nonlocal exchange functional combined with the Lee-Yang-Parr dynamic correlation functional method (B3LYP/6-31G(d)) and the isodensity polarized continuum model (IPCM) were used in the calculations. It was assumed that the formation of the complex takes place by a reaction between ions of opposite charges. It was also proposed an equation to explain the changes of the constant of the complexation equilibrium with the permittivity of the reaction medium. The calculations allowed us to prove that the increase of the hydrogen-bond donor ability of the solvents favours a higher thermodynamic stability of the reactants with respect to the complex and, as a result, a decrease of the corresponding equilibrium constants. The non-planar ...
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Burkholderia sp. RP007 aromatic 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit (phnY),chloroplast-type ferredoxin (phnT2), catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (phnE2), and(phnX) genes, complete cds; and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase(phnG2) gene, partial ...
The inhibition of soluble catechol-O-methyltransferase (S-COMT) in red blood cells (RBCs) by entacapone, and the pharmacokinetics of entacapone after singl
The Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) facilitates the search for and dissemination of mass spectra from biologically active metabolites quantified using GC-MS.
The Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) facilitates the search for and dissemination of mass spectra from biologically active metabolites quantified using GC-MS.
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Catecholamines and their metabolites have been separated isocratically by reverse-phase chromatography with aqueous (no organic solvent admixed) eluents. Unlike ion-exchange or ion-pair chromatography, mixtures of both acidic and basic substances can be separated in a single chromatographic run, because the retention is governed by hydrophobic interactions between the nonpolar moiety of the solute molecules and the octadecyl-silica stationary phase. The relative retention values strongly depend on the pH of the eluent, which governs the degree of dissociation of ionogenic solutes. The reproducibility of the results and the stability and efficiency of the chromatographic systems make this approach particularly attractive for use in clinical analysis.. ...
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Entacapone, sold under the brand name Comtan among others, is a medication commonly used in combination with other medications for the treatment of Parkinsons disease. Entacapone together with levodopa and carbidopa allows levodopa to have a longer effect in the brain and reduces Parkinsons disease signs and symptoms for a greater length of time than levodopa and carbidopa therapy alone. Entacapone is a selective and reversible inhibitor of the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). When taken together with levodopa (L-DOPA) and carbidopa, entacapone stops catechol-O-methyltransferase from breaking down and metabolizing levodopa, resulting in an overall increase of levodopa remaining in the brain and body. Carbidopa/levodopa/entacapone (Stalevo), a medication developed by Orion Pharma and marketed by Novartis, is a single tablet formulation that contains levodopa, carbidopa, and entacapone. Entacapone is used in addition to levodopa and carbidopa for people with Parkinsons disease to ...
1-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-nonadecen-1-one, 1-(4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxydecane, 1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-5-acetoxyheptane, 1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-methoxyheptan-3-one, 1-dehydrogingerdione, 1-hydroxy-[6]-paradol, 3-acetoxy-[4]-gingerdiol, 3-acetoxydihydro-[6]-paradol methyl ether, [4]-gingerdiol, 5-acetoxy-3-deoxy-[6]-gingerol, 5-acetoxy-[6]-gingerdiol, 5-methoxy-[n]-gingerols, 5-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decane, 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-nonyl-2-hydroxytetrahydropyran, 6-dehydro-[6]-gingerol, 6-dehydrogingerdione, 6-gingerdiol, 6-gingerol, 6-gingesulfonic acid, 6-hydroxy-[n]-shogaol, [6]-isoshogaol, 6-paradol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, 8-shogaol, 10-gingerol, 10-shogaol, aadaa (Assamese, Bengali), acetoxy-3-dihydrodemethoxy-[6]-shogaol, adarak (Hindi), adrak (Urdu), adraka (Urdu), adruka (Hindi), aduvaa (Nepalese), African ginger, allaama (Telugu), allaamu (Telugu), ...
... hsd-374 Ginger Extract is extract from Ginger Root (Zingiber officinale). The active ingredient of ginger root extract is Gingerol. Gingerol, or sometimes 6-gingerol, is the active constituent of fresh gi...
When used with carbidopa and levodopa (Atamet, Parcopa, Sinemet), entacapone increases levels of levodopa in the body. Entacapone is used together with carbidopa and levodopa to treat wearing-off symptoms of Parkinsons disease, such as stiffness, tremors, muscle spasms, and poor muscle control. Entacapone may also be...
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a ubiquitous bisubstrate magnesium-dependent enzyme found in plants, animals and microorganisms. COMT catalyses the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to one of the hydroxyl oxygen atoms (preferentially the 3-hydroxyl) in a catechol substrate. Physiological substrates of COMT are catecholamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline and their metabolites. COMT also methylates catecholic steroids such as 2-hydroxyestradiol as well as a range of other catecholic compounds including neuroactive drugs such as L-dopa, α-methyldopa and isoproterenol. COMT inhibition is a means of treating Parkinsons disease, schizophrenia and depression. There are two isoforms of human COMT: soluble cytoplasmic COMT (S-COMT), which is mainly intracellular, and a membrane-bound form (MB-COMT), which has a single-span helix contained within a 50 amino acid extension at the N-terminus.. COMT is an enzyme that plays a major role in ...
Acetone powders prepared from leaf extracts of Tecoma stans L. were found to catalyze the oxidation of catechol to 3,4,3,4-tetrahydroxydiphenyl. Fractionation of the acetone powders obtained from Tecoma leaves with acetone, negative adsorption of the acetone fraction with tricalcium phosphate gel, and chromatography of the gel supernatant on DEAE-Sephadex yielded a 68-fold purified enzyme with 66% recovery. The enzyme had an optimum pH around 7.2. It showed a temperature optimum of 30° and the Km for catechol was determined as 2 x 10-4 m. The purified enzyme moved as a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its activity was found to be partially stimulated by Mg2+. The reaction was not inhibited by o-phenanthroline and agr,agr-dipyridyl. The purified enzyme was highly insensitive to a range of copper-chelating agents. It was not affected appreciably by thiol inhibitors. The reaction was found to be suppressed to a considerable extent by reducing agents like GSH, cysteine, ...
Effect of Gingerol on Cisplatin-Induced Pica Analogous to Emesis Via Modulating Expressions of Dopamine 2 Receptor, Dopamine Transporter and Tyrosine Hydroxylase in the Vomiting Model of ...
The PUREX process for reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been unchallenged for more than half a century even though it has several deficiencies such as flexibility, non-specificity of Tri-Butyl Phosphate (TBP), degradation of the extractant, TBP, and diluent. This project addresses the development of an alternative separation process to either replace and/or complement the PUREX process. Our process is based on the chromatographic separation of fission products from U and Pu. This research focuses on the synthesis of highly stable and selective materials which could be used as a stationary phase in a continuous chromatographic separation for short lived fission products (Cs, Sr); a technique patented by UCLan.. The objectives of this project were to synthesis highly selective adsorbents for fission products (primarily Cs and Sr) capable of extracting these cations from acidic liquor (up to 3 M HNO3). In addition to selectivity (specificity) and acid stability, the materials under investigation ...
Results from a study by Park et al indicate that [6]-Gingerol, from Ginger, decreased the production of reactive oxygen species in Nasal polyp fibroblasts. Myofibroblast differentiation, collagen production, and other key biochemical processes were prevented by the antioxidant activity of [6]-gingerol. These data suggest the potential of [6]-gingerol in inhibiting the production of extracellular matrix…
Combining the redox activity and remarkable adhesion propensity of polyphenols (such as catechol or pyrogallol) with the numerous tunable properties of poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) is an attractive route to design inventive multifunctional macromolecular platforms. In this contribution, we describe the first synthesis of a novel family of structurally well-defined PILs functionalized with catechol/pyrogallol/phenol pendants by organometallic-mediated radical polymerization (OMRP) using an alkyl cobalt(III) complex as initiator and mediating agent. The living character of the chains is also exploited to produce di- and triblock PILs, and the facile counteranion exchange reactions afforded a library of PILs-bearing free phenol/catechol/pyrogallol moieties. Electrochemical investigations of catechol/pyrogallol-derived PILs in aqueous medium demonstrated the characteristic catechol to o-quinone transformations, whereas, quasi reversible doping/undoping with supporting electrolyte cations ...
Demethylzeylasteral is among the extracts of Hook F, which has important assignments in multiple biological procedures such as irritation inhibition, aswell as immunosuppression. thus inhibits its ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Jointly, demethylzeylasteral is normally a appealing anti-tumor substance in melanoma cells. Demethylzeylasteral can be a potential inhibitor of MCL1. Melanoma can be known as malignant melanoma from melanocytes.1 Surgical resection may be the main way for sufferers NSC 105823 struggling early-stage melanoma.1, 2 Unfortunately, melanoma lesions always stay undetectable,3 which leads to the hold off for melanoma therapy.4, 5 Moreover, melanoma may break out NSC 105823 in later levels,6 when melanoma cells disseminate to varied organs, such as for example human brain, lung or liver organ.2 Consequently, surgical procedure is much less favorable for sufferers. Chemotherapeutic therapy has an important function in cases like this. Theoretically, chemotherapeutic agents ...
View images of Carbidopa, entacapone and levodopa and identify pills by imprint code, shape and color with the Drugs.com Pill Identifier.
Estradiol-2/4-hydroxylase (E-2/4-H) activity was determined in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy as well as in ovarian steroid hormone-treated ovariectomized uterus. Under the assay conditions used, E-4-H was the predominant catechol estrogen-f
The ligands 1-H6 and 2-H6 are prepared by condensation of the triangular triamines 5 and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid hydrazide 7. The ligands form container-type tetrahedral coordination compounds Mx [(1 or 2)4M′4] (M = Li, Na, K; M′ = Ti, x = 8; M′ = Ga, x = 12). The complexes are characterized by NMR spectroscopy and ESI mass spectrometry. Despite the relatively labile acyl hydrazone unit, the complexes show high stability in water. Ligand 3-H6 is prepared from the trisacyl hydrazide 8 and 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde 9 but does not form well-defined coordination compounds with gallium(III) or titanium(IV) ions. ...
1MPY: An archetypical extradiol-cleaving catecholic dioxygenase: the crystal structure of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (metapyrocatechase) from Ppseudomonas putida mt-2.
PART I. A deuterium exchange analysis of 2,5-dihydroxyacetanilide (5) in the absence and presence of DHAE II was performed to test the nucleophilicity of the substrate in the absence and presence of catalyst. In addition, inhibition studies using 1,4-dihydroxybenzene were performed to determine the role that the N-acetyl side chain group plays in the formation of a stable substrate-enzyme complex. 1,4-Dihydroxybenzene was found to be a weak inhibitor, indicating that the N-acetyl functionality may play a crucial role in forming stable enzyme-substrate interactions. The synthesis of dihydroquinoline 7 was pursued to investigate the enzyme substrate interactions between DHAE and a substrate where the N-acetyl side chain has been fixed to a particular orientation. Efforts towards formation of the C6-C7 bond as a key step in the synthesis of dihydroquinoline 7 using palladium couplings, organocuprates, Lewis acid catalysts, and aza-Claisen reactions were pursued. To complement the results obtained, ...
Stalevo 100 is a drug containing a combination of carbidopa, entacapone, and levodopa used to treat Parkinsons disease, sometimes called shaking palsy. Parkinsons disease is...
STALEVO 50 (Entacapone,Carbidopa,Levodopa) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between carbidopa / entacapone / levodopa and pramipexole. View detailed information regarding this drug interaction.
Mini preps of XylE 8,10 colonies and 3K3;102 151 260 colonies. Analytical digests were performed using E+S on XylE, E+S AccI and HindIII+E for 3K3 vector respectively. The band patterns correctly identified the vector to be 3k3. Colony 10 of XylE and Colony 260 of the 3k3 vector were set up direct into 100ml LB and so will require til 12pm for midi prepping on weds. Nick performed a second plate reader assay to determine the minimal concentration of Catechol to use for assays. I took 990ul M9 culture containing colony 10 and 10ul catechol was added. This was incubated for 10 mins and then spun down. The supernatant was removed into a cuvette and the cells resuspended in M9 salts. The ODs were then read on the spectrophotometer at 380 and 600nm. It was found that control cuvette of M9 salts had a miniscule reading. M9 + cells ~0.007. Supernatant + cells were ~ 2.5 therefore we could deduce that the coloured catechol breakdown product is exported out of the cells ...
Quercetin and fisetin, known as catechol-containing flavonoids, could positively affect the absorption of catechins due to their strong affinity for catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), which can methylate and cause the excretion of catechins. The current study examined the effect of quercetin and fisetin o
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
1292] Mattay, V. S., Goldberg T. E., Fera F., Hariri A. R., Tessitore A., Egan M. F., et al. (2003). Catechol O-methyltransferase val158-met genotype and individual variation in the brain response to amphetamine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100(10), 6186 - 6191. ...
Ginger Kills 76% of Lung Cancer Cells in Vivo: For the first time ever, researchers have discovered that not only is ginger extract extremely toxic to lung cancer cells, but its metabolites (break-down products) are even more toxic! They observed that 6-Gingerol, a major anti-cancer compound of ginger, was metabolized into 6-gingerdiol inside the cancer cells, and that this metabolite killed up to 76% of the lung cancer cells. Ginger extracts have already shown potent activity against prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer and leukemia in previous lab studies, and this latest research has shed new light on exactly how ginger kills these cancer cells. And this super-herbs health benefits extend beyond cancer. A recent clinical trial showed ginger improved insulin sensitivity and lowered insulin levels in adults with diabetes. And another study on middle aged women showed ginger to significantly improve memory and cognitive performance! ...
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4-Bromo-3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid 16534-12-6 NMR spectrum, 4-Bromo-3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid H-NMR spectral analysis, 4-Bromo-3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid 99-10-5 NMR spectrum, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid H-NMR spectral analysis, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) is a freely available dictionary of molecular entities focused on small chemical compounds.
6-gingerol , a compound found in ginger has gained increased interest from the scientific community as a possible anti-cancer agent. It has been shown to suppresse the proliferation and invasion of cancer cells by preventing angiogenesis in tumors.. The root also induces apoptosis of cancer cells to fight the disease outright. 2 grams a day is enough to reduce pro-inflammatory molecules involved in the development of tumors in your colon (8).. So far, ginger has shown a lot of potential in treating colorectal cancer and continues to be examined as a possible sure to lymphoma, hepatoma, breast cancer, skin cancer, liver cancer, and bladder cancer.. ...
Page contains details about polyzirconoxone-2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid-formaldehyde aerogel . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
The chemical reactions and pathways involving any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.
Physico-chemical characterization of SOA derived from catechol and guaiacol - a model substance for the aromatic fraction of atmospheric HULIS ...
Generic for Comtess (Entacapone) is used for treating Parkinson disease. Buy now with us and save $50.00. InternationalDrugMart.com offers best quality medications at discount.
The Very Best Poison Ivy Remedy - based on my experience, not "theory" or something I read in a book. If the reader has never had a severe case of poison ivy then he cannot comprehend the depths of this suffering. Poison ivy, when it is bad, is not merely itching, but pustules develop and they ooze yellow fluid continually, often as fast as you can wipe it up... and the poison ivy spreads wherever the fluid touches, even to different parts of your body, and the tiniest little spot of poison ivy, even the size of the head of a pin, can feel like a needle sticking into you, as well as the itching. I. I have had poison ivy on nearly half my body and it is torture. The whole plant is toxic but the roots contain even more concentrated poison-in fact, poison ivy and its relatives are some of the most toxic and dangerous poisons on earth! Urushiol, the poison in poison ivy, is so potent, the amount that can fit on the head of a pin is enough to bother 500 people! Extreme care should be undertaken ...
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Fig. 2. Scheme of oxidation and in situ reduction of neolignan to form catechol moiety (Bernini et al. 2009). Okamoto et al. (1996) found that in the presence of a catalyst consisting of a metal-porphrin complex and a reductant, anisole could be converted to phenol by molecular oxygen at room temperature with a total turnover of the catalyst about 70 times in 24 h. Potassium dichromate was used to demethylate lignin and thiolignin in the presence of acetic acid (Nagieb et al. 1985; Olivares et al. 1988). The formation of catechol groups in the resulting lignin was reported. The concentration of methoxyl groups decreased from 11.9% to 2.8%, and the phenolic hydroxyl groups increased from 2.4% to 11.2%. Alternatively, 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) was used as a primary oxidant to demethylate lignin in a dimethyl carborate (DMC)/H2O mixture (Bernini et al. 2009). It mimicked the metabolic activity of the cytochrome p-450 enzyme in the de-O-methylation of guaiacyl lignan. The guaiacyl lignan can be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibacterial potential of extracts of the roots of Zingiber officinale against bacterial strains commonly associated with nosocomial infections. AU - Abuga, Hannaty. AU - Gaobotse, Goabaone. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - Zingiber officinale, commonly known as ginger, has been used as a medicinal plant for decades for medical and culinary purposes. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial potential of ginger root extracts using the Kirby Bayer agar diffusion method to compare the zones of inhibition of the extracts to those of synthetic antibiotics against five clinical bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae). Ginger extracts showed more antimicrobial activity against the five test organisms compared to the synthetic antibiotics. The least resistant bacterium was S. aureus while the remaining four bacterial strains were strongly resistant to most of the antibiotics. Antimicrobial ...
Find and save ideas about Poison ivy contagious on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Poison ivy wash, Poison ivy medicine and Poison oak.
Every part of poison ivy, oak and sumac plants - the leaves, the stems and even the roots - contains urushiol, so you can experience an allergic reaction after any contact with them. Anything with this oil on it can cause an allergic reaction, so you also may experience a rash after touching something else - like a gardening tool, sporting equipment or even a pets fur - that has been in contact with these plants.. Additionally, poison ivy, oak and sumac release urushiol into the air if the plants are burned. If airborne oil particles land on your skin, you can experience an allergic reaction.. The first time you come into contact with urushiol, you may not experience a reaction for up to 21 days. If you have had an allergic skin reaction to urushiol in the past, the rash will likely appear sooner, within 12 to 72 hours.. Poison ivy, oak and sumac rashes are not contagious. It is not possible to get this type of rash by touching someone elses rash.. ...
Objective The principal goal of the study was to check the disease-modifying aftereffect of blocking a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-5 using a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) starting four weeks after destabilization from the medial meniscus (DMM) in the mouse. 4-16 after medical procedures slowed cartilage degeneration and osteophyte growth but did not impact subchondral bone sclerosis. Moreover, ADAMTS-5 blockade resulted in temporary reversal of mechanical allodynia, which correlated with decreased MCP-1 production by cultured DRG cells. Conclusions This study suggests restorative effectiveness of an ADAMTS-5 mAb in the DMM model, when therapy starts early in disease. mice demonstrate long-term safety from cartilage degeneration in experimental OA induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) [6] and in antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) [7]. Mechanical allodynia, defined as pain in response to a normally innocuous stimulus, is definitely ...
The characteristic fragrance and flavor of ginger result from volatile oils that compose 1-3% of the weight of fresh ginger, primarily consisting of zingerone, ls, and gingerols with [6]-gingerol (1-[4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone) as the major pungent compound.[39] Zingerone is produced from gingerols during drying, having lower pungency and a spicy-sweet aroma.[39] Shagoals are more pungent and have higher antioxidant activity but not found in raw ginger, but is formed from gingerols during heating, storage or via acidity.[39][40] Fresh ginger also contains an enzyme zingibain which is a cysteine protease and has similar properties to rennet.[40] ...
Received within 4 weeks of Visit 1 or planning to take during participation in the clinical study: any doses of a controlled-release (CR) LD apart from a single daily bedtime dose or any doses of Rytary, additional CD (eg, Lodosyn) or benserazide (eg, Serazide), or catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors (entacapone or tolcapone) or medications containing these inhibitors (Stalevo). Received within 4 weeks of Visit 1 or planning to take during participation in the clinical study: nonselective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, apomorphine, or dopaminergic blocking agents including antiemetics ...
Ginger has anti-inflammatory properties and thus help relieve muscle soreness and inflammation after exercise.. 3. Helps Digestion. Ginger has a long history of use for relieving digestive problems like stomach upset, indigestion, bloating and acid reflux. Ginger stimulate saliva, bile and gastric juice production to aid in digestion. Drinking ginger tea between meals will stimulate stomach acid production and ensure proper absorption of food.. 4. Control Diabetes. Drinking ginger tea can help control type 2 diabetes. Gingerols, the main active components in ginger, are known to improve diabetes, increase insulin sensitivity, glucose clearance and prevention of other diabetes-related disorders.. How To Use Ginger To Reduce Weight:. Ginger tea is one of the easiest ways to get ginger in your diet without a lot of fuss. Besides the fact that its delicious, drinking a warm ginger tea with lemon can pack a lot of benefits for your health.. Ginger Tea Recipe. Ingredients:. § raw ginger. § 2 cups ...
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Medrol dose pack poison ivy - I started a medrol (methylprednisolone) dose pack for poison ivy yesterday. I took 4 of the 6 pills (I forgot the last 2 at bedtime because I fell asleep).what should I do? Take them now. Take the 2 bedtime pills now and continue with the regular schedule.
This sounds like a very severe case of poison ivy. With the vast majority of cases of poison ivy, a short course of steroids such as prednisone or hy
After exposure to poison ivy, use our soap exclusively when showering. Wash your entire body with Poison Ivy Soap. Rinse well ...
The remarkable underwater adhesion strategy employed by mussels has inspired bioadhesives that have demonstrated promise in connective tissue repair, wound closure, and local delivery of therapeutic cells and drugs. While the pH of oxygenated blood and internal tissues is typically around 7.4, skin and tumor tissues are significantly more acidic. Additionally, blood loss during surgery and ischemia can lead to dysoxia, which lowers pH levels of internal tissues and organs. Using 4-armed PEG end-capped with dopamine (PEG-D) as a model adhesive polymer, the effect of pH on the rate of intermolecular cross-linking and adhesion to biological substrates of catechol-containing adhesives was determined. Adhesive formulated at an acidic pH (pH 5.7-6.7) demonstrated reduced curing rate, mechanical properties and adhesive performance to pericardium tissues. Although a faster curing rate was observed at pH 8, these adhesives also demonstrated reduced mechanical and bioadhesive properties when compared to ...
Chemical components of untreated black liquor from industrial effluents of cellulose pulp from Southern Brazil were extracted using macroreticularJI.mberlite XP..C-4 resin. The followin9 compounds were identified qualitatively and/or quantitatively by capillary 9as chromato9raphy on a SE-30 co1umn: phenol; guaiacol catechol; 3,4-dichlorocatecho1 (288 119!1); 4, 5, 6 5-trichlorocate(hol (5885 11911); pentachlorophenol (21 l-1911) tetrachloro9uaiacol (423 11911); trich1orosyringol(173 11911) and tetra ch 1 o r o cate c h o 1 ( 1 6 4 6 1 lJ g !l) . The retention índices were also determined usin9 linear temperature programmin9 for the following compounds and the values obtained are indicated in parenthesis: pheno1 (935); guaiacol (993); catechol (1192); 4,5,6-trichologuaiacol (1623); 3 , 4- di c h 1 o r o cate cho 1 (1668}; 3,4,5-trichloroguaiacol (1663); pentachlorophenol (1739); 3,4,5-trich1orocatechol (1751) trichlorosyrin9ol (1764); tetrachloroguaiacol (1769) and chlorocatechol (1908). ...
The condition most people mistake as contagious is poison ivy," Robinson says. Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac all contain urushiol, an oil that causes a blistering rash. Despite what you may have learned in summer camp, the rash doesnt spread through scratching. Often one patch will appear first and then a second or third might pop up later on a different part of your body; but it hasnt spread. Its a result of different rates or times of exposure. "Patients think they have spread the rash themselves by itching or scratching and, thus, think they are contagious to others," Robinson says.. It can be spread in three ways: direct contact with any part of the plant (leaves, flowers, roots, or stem); contact with something that has touched the plant (urushiol can stick to a pets fur, a rake or shovel used outdoors, or a ball, for example); or through airborne urushiol particles that are released if the plant is burned. The American Academy of Dermatologists (AAD) stresses that poison ivy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two genomic regions involved in catechol siderophore production by Erwinia carotovora. AU - Bull, Carolee Theresa. AU - Ishimaru, C. A.. AU - Loper, J. E.. PY - 1994/2/8. Y1 - 1994/2/8. N2 - Two regions involved in catechol biosynthesis (cbs) of Erwinia carotovora W3C105 were cloned by functional complementation of Escherichia coli mutants that were deficient in the biosynthesis of the catechol siderophore enterobactin (ent). A 4.3-kb region of genomic DNA of E. carotovora complemented the entB402 mutation of E. coli. A second genomic region of 12.8 kb complemented entD, entC147, entE405, and entA403 mutations of E. coli. Although functions encoded by catechol biosynthesis genes (cbsA, cbsB, cbsC, cbsD, and cbsE) of E. carotovora were interchangeable with those encoded by corresponding enterobactin biosynthesis genes (entA, entB, entC, entD, and entE), only cbsE hybridized to its functional counterpart (entE) in E. coli. The cbsEA region of E. carotovora W3C105 hybridized to ...
0106] Among dihydroxy compounds serving as a raw material of the polycarbonate resin, examples of aromatic dihydroxy compounds serving as a raw material of the aromatic polycarbonate resin include: [0107] dihydroxybenzenes, such as [0108] 1,2-dihydroxybenzene, [0109] 1,3-dihydroxybenzene (or resorcinol), and [0110] 1,4-dihydroxybenzene, [0111] dihydroxybiphenyls, such as [0112] 2,5-dihydroxybiphenyl, [0113] 2,2-dihydroxybiphenyl, and [0114] 4,4-dihydroxybiphenyl, [0115] dihydroxynaphthalenes, such as [0116] 2,2-dihydroxy-1,1-binaphthyl, [0117] 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene, [0118] 1,3-dihydroxynaphthalene, [0119] 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene, [0120] 1,6-dihydroxynaphthalene, [0121] 2,6-dihydroxynaphthalene, [0122] 1,7-dihydroxynaphthalene, and [0123] 2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene, [0124] dihydroxydiaryl ethers, such as [0125] 2,2-dihydroxydiphenyl ether, [0126] 3,3-dihydroxydiphenyl ether, [0127] 4,4-dihydroxydiphenyl ether, [0128] 4,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyldiphenyl ether, [0129] ...
Zingiber officinale (ZO, family Zingiberaceae) has been reported for its antiemetic activity against cancer chemotherapy induced emesis in animal models and in clinics. Current study was designed to investigate ZO for potential usefulness against cisplatin induced vomiting in pigeon and its effects on central and peripheral neurotransmitters involved in the act of vomiting. Zingiber officinale acetone fraction (ZO-ActFr) was investigated for attenuation of emesis induced by cisplatin in healthy pigeons. Neurotransmitters DA, 5HT and their metabolites DOPAC, HVA and 5HIAA were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography system coupled with electrochemical detector in area postrema, brain stem and intestine. Antiemetic effect of ZO-ActFr was correlated with central and intestinal neurotransmitters levels in pigeon. Cisplatin (7 mg/kg i.v.) induced emesis without lethality upto the observation period. ZO-ActFr (25, 50 & 100 mg/kg) attenuated cisplatin induced emesis ~ 44.18%, 58.13% (P | 0.05)
Salah satu penyebab kegagalan perawatan endodontik adalah mikroba yang bertahan di dalam sistem saluran akar, termasuk Enterococcus faecalis. Senyawa yang terdapat pada ekstrak etanol rimpang jahe yang terdiri dari gingerol, paradol, shogaol, zingerone dan minyak atsiri diduga merupakan golongan senyawa bioaktif yang dapat menghambat pertumbuhan mikroba. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui efek antimikroba ekstrak etanol rimpang jahe (EERJ) terhadap Enterococcus faecalis. Penelitian bersifat eksperimental laboratorik. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan kertas cakram steril yang ditetesi ekstrak etanol rimpang jahe (Zingiber offcinale Rosc.) dengan konsentrasi 5%, 10%, 20% dan 40% dan klorheksidin 0,2% sebagai kontrol positif serta kertas cakram steril yang ditetesi akuades steril sebagai kontrol negatif pada medium Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA) yang telah dibiakkan bakteri Enterococcus faecalis. Cakram diinkubasi pada suhu 37o selama 24 jam. Data yang diukur adalah diameter zona hambat ...
The use of ginger may diminish the risk of blood clots forming and increase bleeding time since ginger extracts inhibit the clumping of human platelets. This would be of value for heart patients at high risk of forming dangerous blood clots. The compounds in ginger responsible for this activity are mainly two labdane diterpenoid compounds and to a much lesser degree some six different gingerols. The powerful diterpene inhibitors appear to be as active in inhibiting blood clots as the sulfur compounds in onions. Preliminary data from research with rabbits shows that ginger may also help to lower blood cholesterol levels.. The rhizome of ginger contains over 20 phenolic compounds, known as gingerols and diarylheptanoids. Some of these phenolic constituents are potent antioxidants and possess anti-mutagenic activity and pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. These compounds also inhibit various cancers. The anti-cancer activity of ginger is due in large part to the presence of the antioxidant ...
Tolcapone (brand name Tasmar) is a drug used to treat Parkinsons disease (PD). It is a selective, potent and reversible nitrocatechol-type inhibitor of the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). It has demonstrated significant liver toxicity, which has led to suspension of marketing authorisations in a number of countries. In comparison with entacapone, another nitrocatechol COMT inhibitor, tolcapone has a longer half life (2.9 hours vs. 0.8 hours) and can better penetrate the blood-brain barrier, acting both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. However, entacapone is less toxic for the liver. Tolcapone is used in the treatment of Parkinsons disease as an adjunct to levodopa/carbidopa or levodopa/benserazide medications. Levodopa is a prodrug for dopamine, which reduces Parkinson symptoms; carbidopa and benserazide are aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) inhibitors. Without administration of tolcapone, the beneficial effects of levodopa tend to wear off more quickly, ...

Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition with tolcapone reduces the wearing off phenomenon and levodopa requirements in...Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition with tolcapone reduces the "wearing off" phenomenon and levodopa requirements in...

1980) Catechol-O-methyltransferase activity: a determinant of levodopa response. Clin Pharmacol Ther 28:278-286. ... 1994) Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor tolcapone prolongs levodopa/carbidopa action in parkinsonian patients. Neurology ... Inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase by tolcapone has been shown to increase levodopa bioavailability and plasma ... Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition with tolcapone reduces the "wearing off" phenomenon and levodopa requirements in ...
more infohttp://jnnp.bmj.com/content/63/4/421

Catechol-o-methyltransferase enzyme activity and protein expression in human prefrontal cortex across the postnatal lifespan. -...Catechol-o-methyltransferase enzyme activity and protein expression in human prefrontal cortex across the postnatal lifespan. -...

Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) alters extracellular dopamine levels in PFC, and its gene contains a functional ... Catechol-o-methyltransferase enzyme activity and protein expression in human prefrontal cortex across the postnatal lifespan. ... Catechol-o-methyltransferase enzyme activity and protein expression in human prefrontal cortex across the postnatal lifespan. ... Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) alters extracellular dopamine levels in PFC, and its gene contains a functional ...
more infohttps://www.psych.ox.ac.uk/publications/97951

The catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism: Relations to the tonic-phasic dopamine hypothesis and neuropsychiatric...The catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism: Relations to the tonic-phasic dopamine hypothesis and neuropsychiatric...

Bilder, R. M., Volavka, J., Lachman, H. M., & Grace, A. A. (2004). The catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism: Relations to ... T1 - The catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism. T2 - Relations to the tonic-phasic dopamine hypothesis and neuropsychiatric ... Bilder, RM, Volavka, J, Lachman, HM & Grace, AA 2004, The catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism: Relations to the tonic- ... Bilder, Robert M. ; Volavka, Jan ; Lachman, Herbert M. ; Grace, Anthony A. / The catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism : ...
more infohttps://einstein.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/the-catechol-o-methyltransferase-polymorphism-relations-to-the-to-2

L-DOPA biotransformation: Correlations of dosage, erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and platelet SULT1A3 activities with...L-DOPA biotransformation: Correlations of dosage, erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and platelet SULT1A3 activities with...

Correlations of dosage, erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and platelet SULT1A3 activities with metabolic pathways in ... L-DOPA biotransformation: Correlations of dosage, erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and platelet SULT1A3 activities with ... T2 - Correlations of dosage, erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and platelet SULT1A3 activities with metabolic pathways ... L-DOPA biotransformation : Correlations of dosage, erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and platelet SULT1A3 activities ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/l-dopa-biotransformation-correlations-of-dosage-erythrocyte-catec

COMT Val(158)Met genotype determines the direction of cognitive effects produced by catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition. -...COMT Val(158)Met genotype determines the direction of cognitive effects produced by catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition. -...

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes dopamine. The COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism influences its activity, and ... Adolescent, Adult, Benzophenones, Catechol O-Methyltransferase, Catechol O-Methyltransferase Inhibitors, Cognition, Double- ... COMT Val(158)Met genotype determines the direction of cognitive effects produced by catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition. ... BACKGROUND: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes dopamine. The COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism influences its activity ...
more infohttps://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/publications/316216

A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the fetal catechol-o-methyltransferase gene is associated with spontaneous preterm birth in...A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the fetal catechol-o-methyltransferase gene is associated with spontaneous preterm birth in...

N2 - Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity has been reported to be higher in African Americans (AA) than Caucasians (Cau ... AB - Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity has been reported to be higher in African Americans (AA) than Caucasians (Cau ... Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity has been reported to be higher in African Americans (AA) than Caucasians (Cau). ... abstract = "Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity has been reported to be higher in African Americans (AA) than ...
more infohttps://researchexperts.utmb.edu/en/publications/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-the-fetal-catechol-o-methyltr

1BT2 CATECHOL OXIDASE FROM IPOMOEA BATATAS (SWEET POTATOES) IN THE REDUCED CU(I)-CU(I) STATE | 1BT2 A | P15056 | BRAF | Serine...1BT2 CATECHOL OXIDASE FROM IPOMOEA BATATAS (SWEET POTATOES) IN THE REDUCED CU(I)-CU(I) STATE | 1BT2 A | P15056 | BRAF | Serine...

Fullscreen (supported by IE11, latest versions of Firefox, Chrome, Safari (not including iOS Safari), Edge, Chrome for Android, Samsung Internet) ...
more infohttps://cansarblack.icr.ac.uk/target/P15056/3d/1BT2_A

624d) Mass Balance Based Semi-Quantification of Adipic Acid Producing Enzyme Cascade | AIChE624d) Mass Balance Based Semi-Quantification of Adipic Acid Producing Enzyme Cascade | AIChE

To produce adipic acid in Escherichia coli, we utilize an enzyme cascade of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (CatA) and enoate ... One common pathway for microbial production of adipic acid goes through a catechol intermediate to form muconic acid, which is ... To quantify metabolism of different substituted catechols, we developed a semi-quantification method based on the conserved ... Furthermore, we characterize our enzyme cascade by analyzing its metabolism of different substituted catechols available from ...
more infohttps://www.aiche.org/conferences/aiche-annual-meeting/2019/proceeding/paper/624d-mass-balance-based-semi-quantification-adipic-acid-producing-enzyme-cascade

The regulation of catabolic pathway of aromatic compound degradation in Acinetobacter radioresistens: physiological and...The regulation of catabolic pathway of aromatic compound degradation in Acinetobacter radioresistens: physiological and...

Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase). These results allow us to have a global picture of the complex regulation phenomena involved, both ... Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase). These results allow us to have a global picture of the complex regulation phenomena involved, both ...
more infohttps://iris.unito.it/handle/2318/52420

Unscramble pyrocatechol | Words unscrambled from letters pyrocatechol | Scrabble Word pyrocatechol | Words Made with the...Unscramble pyrocatechol | Words unscrambled from letters pyrocatechol | Scrabble Word pyrocatechol | Words Made with the...

Unscramble pyrocatechol, Unscramble letters pyrocatechol, Point value for pyrocatechol, Word Decoder for pyrocatechol, Word generator using the letters pyrocatechol, Word Solver pyrocatechol, Possible Scrabble words with pyrocatechol, Anagram of pyrocatechol
more infohttp://www.allscrabblewords.com/word-description/pyrocatechol

catechol (CHEBI:18135)catechol (CHEBI:18135)

... has role plant metabolite (CHEBI:76924) catechol (CHEBI:18135) is a catechols (CHEBI:33566) catechol ( ... catechol (CHEBI:18135) has role allelochemical (CHEBI:62215) catechol (CHEBI:18135) has role genotoxin (CHEBI:50902) ... catechol β-D-glucuronide (CHEBI:133689) has functional parent catechol (CHEBI:18135). guaiacol (CHEBI:28591) has functional ... aspalathin (CHEBI:79078) is a catechol (CHEBI:18135). caffeyl alcohol (CHEBI:86071) is a catechol (CHEBI:18135). droxidopa ( ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:18135

Catechol dioxygenase - WikipediaCatechol dioxygenase - Wikipedia

Catechol dioxygenases are metalloprotein enzymes that carry out the oxidative cleavage of catechols. This class of enzymes ... An example of the reaction carried out by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase is the formation of cis,cis-muconic acid from catechol, ... catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.2), and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.3). The active site of catechol ... The Pseudomonas putida xylE gene, which encodes catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, is often used as a reporter to quantitate gene ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catechol_dioxygenase

Catechol estrogen - WikipediaCatechol estrogen - Wikipedia

A catechol estrogen is a steroidal estrogen that contains catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) within its structure. The catechol ... Similarly to estradiol and estrone, catechol estrogens possess estrogenic activity. 2-Hydroxylated catechol estrogens are weak ... The catechol estrogens are formed from estradiol and estrone by cytochrome P450 enzymes predominantly in the liver but also in ... Under poor conditions of inactivation by phase II enzymes, catechol estrogens can undergo oxidation to reactive quinones and ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catechol_estrogen

Catechol, TBDMS derivativeCatechol, TBDMS derivative

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI%3D1S/C12H20O2Si/c1-12

Catechols | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural Medicine | AlternativeCatechols | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural Medicine | Alternative

This topic has 11 study abstracts on Catechols indicating that they may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Brain ... Substances : 5-hydroxytryptamides, Caffeine, Catechols, Chlorogenic Acid, Coffee, N-methylpyridinium, Pyrogallol, Trigonelline ... Catechols have anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia cells, inhibiting neurotoxicity. Jun 24, ... Substances : Acacia catechu, Catechols. Diseases : Brain: Microglial Activation, Brain Inflammation , Lipopolysaccharide- ...
more infohttp://www.greenmedinfo.com/substance/catechols

catechol catabolismcatechol catabolism

... (meta ring cleavage). When cursor points to a box further details will be displayed in a tooltip window. If ... catechol biosynthesis. EC 1.2.1.10 acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (acetylating). EC 1.2.1.85 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde ... EC 1.13.11.2 catechol 2,3-dioxygenase. EC 3.7.1.9 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde hydrolase. EC 4.1.1.77 4-oxalocrotonate ...
more infohttps://www.qmul.ac.uk/sbcs/iubmb/enzyme/reaction/misc/catechol.html

Autoxidation of catechol(amine)s | SpringerLinkAutoxidation of catechol(amine)s | SpringerLink

The reaction rate constants of the distinct charged particles, in which catechol(amine)s can appear, are... ... The autoxidation of nine catecholamines and two catechols as a function of pH was studied. ... The purification and properties of pig-liver catechol-O-methyltransferase. Eur J Biochem 1978;88:439-44.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Flohe L, Schwabe K-P. Kinetics of purified catechol-O-methyltransferase. Biochim Biophys Acta 1970;220:469-76.PubMedGoogle ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01959197

NIOSH Skin Notation Profiles: Catechol (2019-118) | NIOSH | CDCNIOSH Skin Notation Profiles: Catechol (2019-118) | NIOSH | CDC

A literature search was conducted through February 2018 to identify catechol toxicokinetics, acute toxicity, repeated-dose ... of the potential health effects of dermal exposure to catechol and the potential for direct skin injuries from catechol. ... assignment for catechol. The SK assignment is based on the scientific rationale and logic outlined in the Current Intelligence ... or appropriate modeling systems that are relevant to assessing the effects of dermal exposure to catechol. The criteria for the ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2019-118/default.html

Claisen Rearrangement In Catechols - Synthesis of 4-Allylcatechol - [www.rhodium.ws]Claisen Rearrangement In Catechols - Synthesis of 4-Allylcatechol - [www.rhodium.ws]

Catechol monoallyl ether To stirred catechol (44 g.; 0.4 mole), dry acetone (125 ml.) and freshly fused potassium carbonate ( ... In all cases both mono- and diallyl ethers of catechol were formed. The catechol monoallyl ether on rearrangement gave 3- and 4 ... Hence, it was decided to condense acrylic acid with catechol using polyphosphoric acid to get acryloyl catechol and then ... From the residue consisting of unreacted catechol, potassium carbonate and potassium bromide, catechol (9.9 g.) was recovered ...
more infohttps://www.erowid.org/archive/rhodium/chemistry/allylcatechol.html

Patterns of plasma levels of catechols in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.  - PubMed - NCBIPatterns of plasma levels of catechols in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. - PubMed - NCBI

Patterns of plasma levels of catechols in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.. Goldstein DS1, Polinsky RJ, Garty M, Robertson D ... Plasma levels of catechols were normal in most patients with multiple system atrophy, consistent with relatively intact ... The results demonstrate the value of examining patterns of plasma levels of catechols to elucidate mechanisms of neurogenic ... most patients with pure autonomic failure had decreased levels of all four catechols, consistent with degenerative loss of ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2510587?dopt=Abstract

Estrogens, catechol - definition of Estrogens, catechol by The Free DictionaryEstrogens, catechol - definition of Estrogens, catechol by The Free Dictionary

Estrogens, catechol synonyms, Estrogens, catechol pronunciation, Estrogens, catechol translation, English dictionary definition ... of Estrogens, catechol. also oes·tro·gen n. 1. Any of several steroid hormones, such as estradiol and estrone, that are ... redirected from Estrogens, catechol). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. es·tro·gen. also oes·tro·gen (ĕs′trə-jən ... Estrogens, catechol - definition of Estrogens, catechol by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Estrogens%2c+ ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/Estrogens%2C+catechol

Catechol, 99+%, ACROS Organics™
 | Fisher ScientificCatechol, 99+%, ACROS Organics™ | Fisher Scientific

Solubility in water: 430g/L (20°C). Other solubilities: soluble in alcohol, benzene, chloroform, ether, and pyridine and aqueous solutions ...
more infohttps://www.fishersci.ca/shop/products/catechol-99-acros-organics-4/AC158980100

Inhibitors of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase | BenthamScienceInhibitors of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase | BenthamScience

Inhibitors of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase. Author(s): James C. Barrow. Lieber Institute for Brain Development, 336 John G. ... Keywords:Catechol-O-methyltransferase, COMT, dopamine, L-DOPA, Parkinsons disease, nitrocatechol, MB-COMT, SAM Binding, HPLC, ... Keywords: Catechol-O-methyltransferase, COMT, dopamine, L-DOPA, Parkinsons disease, nitrocatechol, MB-COMT, SAM Binding, HPLC ... Since the identification of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) by Axelrod in 1957, many inhibitors of this enzyme have been ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/98421/article
  • The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the effects of dose and drug absorption on pathways of biotransformation of L-DOPA in Parkinsonian patients treated with Sinemet, and (2) the extent to which genetically-determined variations in the activities of erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and/or platelet phenol sulfotransferase might be reflected in individual differences in L-DOPA metabolism. (elsevier.com)
  • Catechol-o-methyltransferase enzyme activity and protein expression in human prefrontal cortex across the postnatal lifespan. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Analysis of the product vibrational energy distribution also reveals that the O-H bond strength of the non hydrogen bonded O-H moiety in catechol , D 0 (H-catechoxyl) ≤ 27 480 ± 50 cm −1 , ∼2500 cm −1 lower than that of the sole O-H bond in bare phenol . (rsc.org)
  • Commonly, the molecular structure of flavonoids of high biological activity like quercetin or naringenin includes a group derived from resorcinol and/or catechol [5, (scielo.org.ar)
  • Adhesive properties of catechol materials rely on the vicinal diol configuration, yet conversely, cohesive properties of catechol materials depend on catechol oxidation that promote subsequent crosslinking reactions. (rsc.org)
  • A linear Hammett correlation for the pH-independent second order rate constants for catechol oxidation by O 2 establishes that catechols functionalized with electron withdrawing groups have slower rates of oxidation by O 2 , whereas catechols with electron donating groups have faster rates of oxidation by O 2 . (rsc.org)
  • However, interestingly, benzoate-grown cells induce the ortho and meta pathways for the biodegradation of catechol, by inducing simultaneously catechol 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase, respectively, in the ratio of 7:1. (springer.com)
  • Photochemical rearrangement of catechol monoallyl ether in isopropanol solution under ultraviolet light for 120 h gives 3- and 4-allylcatechols, each in 25% yield. (erowid.org)
  • This article reports the striking interplay between the molecular structure and the photodissociation dynamics of catechol (a key dihydroxybenzene ), identified using a combination of electronic spectroscopy , hydrogen (Rydberg) atom photofragment translational spectroscopy , density functional theory and second order approximate coupled cluster methods. (rsc.org)
  • Catechols are found as functional groups in Nature as the 3,4-dihydroxy isomer, generally with electron donating substituents and as the 2,3-dihydroxy isomer, with an electron withdrawing substituent. (rsc.org)
  • However, in the case of monoallyl ether of catechol, the allyl group migrates to the para position despite the availability of an unsubstituted ortho position. (erowid.org)
  • It can safely be presumed that a part of the rearrangement proceeds counter-clockwise by the ortho mechanism as for catechol monoallyl ether, thereby yielding the expected 3-allylcatechol ( VIII ). (erowid.org)
  • When grown on salicylate, P. cepacia induces only the catechol ortho pathway by its induction of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. (springer.com)
  • Structural mechanism of S-adenosyl methionine binding to catechol O-methyltransferase. (nih.gov)
  • The results are consistent with a mechanism in which O 2 oxidizes both mono-deprotonated and fully deprotonated catechol anions. (rsc.org)
  • Based on our results, we propose a new explanation for binding synergy between catechols and cations based on the relationship between solution conditions, bond lifetimes, and competitive binding of adhesive moieties to mica surfaces. (aiche.org)
  • The Hammett correlation allows for selection of functionalized catechols with redox properties ideally suited for adhesive or crosslinking applications. (rsc.org)
  • Dorn E, Knackmuss H-J (1978) Chemical structure and biodegradability of halogenated aromatic compounds: two catechol 1,2-dioxygenases from a 3-chlorobenzoate grown pseudomonad. (springer.com)