A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cell surface proteins that bind catecholamines with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The catecholamine messengers epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are synthesized from tyrosine by a common biosynthetic pathway.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
A methylated metabolite of norepinephrine that is excreted in the urine and found in certain tissues. It is a marker for tumors.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Product of epinephrine O-methylation. It is a commonly occurring, pharmacologically and physiologically inactive metabolite of epinephrine.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.
A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.
An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the CAROTID BODY; GLOMUS JUGULARE; GLOMUS TYMPANICUM; AORTIC BODIES; and the female genital tract. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. (From Stedman, 27th ed)
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.
Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.
Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.
Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of DOPA to DOPAMINE. It is of clinical importance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.
Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
A transient left ventricular apical dysfunction or ballooning accompanied by electrocardiographic (ECG) T wave inversions. This abnormality is associated with high levels of CATECHOLAMINES, either administered or endogenously secreted from a tumor or during extreme stress.
A sympathomimetic agent that acts predominantly at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It has been used primarily as a vasoconstrictor in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Pigment obtained by the oxidation of epinephrine.
A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with a long half-life, used in cardiovascular disease to treat arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension. Nadolol is also used for MIGRAINE DISORDERS and for tremor.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
An enzyme group with broad specificity. The enzymes decarboxylate a range of aromatic amino acids including dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA DECARBOXYLASE); TRYPTOPHAN; and HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
One of the ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS used as an antihypertensive, anti-anginal, and anti-arrhythmic agent.
Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.
Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic agonist with actions like PHENYLEPHRINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor in circulatory failure, asthma, nasal congestion, and glaucoma.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.

Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats. (1/3332)

The effects of garlic supplementation on triglyceride metabolism were investigated by measurements of the degree of thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats fed two types of dietary fat. In Experiment 1, rats were given isoenergetic high-fat diets containing either shortening or lard with or without garlic powder supplementation (8 g/kg of diet). After 28 d feeding, body weight, plasma triglyceride levels and the weights of perirenal adipose tissue and epididymal fat pad were significantly lower in rats fed diets supplemented with garlic powder than in those fed diets without garlic powder. The content of mitochondrial protein and uncoupling protein (UCP) in IBAT, and urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion were significantly greater in rats fed a lard diet with garlic powder than in those fed the same diet without garlic. Other than adrenaline secretion, differences due to garlic were significant in rats fed shortening, also. In Experiment 2, the effects of various allyl-containing sulfides present in garlic on noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion were evaluated. Administration of diallyldisulfide, diallyltrisulfide and alliin, organosulfur compounds present in garlic, significantly increased plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, whereas the administration of disulfides without allyl residues, diallylmonosulfide and S-allyl-L-cysteine did not increase adrenaline secretion. These results suggest that in rats, allyl-containing sulfides in garlic enhance thermogenesis by increasing UCP content in IBAT, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion.  (+info)

Viral gene delivery selectively restores feeding and prevents lethality of dopamine-deficient mice. (2/3332)

Dopamine-deficient mice (DA-/- ), lacking tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic neurons, become hypoactive and aphagic and die by 4 weeks of age. They are rescued by daily treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); each dose restores dopamine (DA) and feeding for less than 24 hr. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses expressing human TH or GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) were injected into the striatum of DA-/- mice. Bilateral coinjection of both viruses restored feeding behavior for several months. However, locomotor activity and coordination were partially improved. A virus expressing only TH was less effective, and one expressing GTPCH1 alone was ineffective. TH immunoreactivity and DA were detected in the ventral striatum and adjacent posterior regions of rescued mice, suggesting that these regions mediate a critical DA-dependent aspect of feeding behavior.  (+info)

Adrenoreceptors of the guinea-pig urinary bladder. (3/3332)

1 Adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline (5 mug/ml) did not affect the resting tone of the isolated urinary bladder of the guinea-pig. 2 The catecholamines (1-2 mug/ml) inhibited neuronally evoked contractions at various stimulation frequencies; the inhibition was maximum at 2 Hz and minimum at 50 Hz. Isoprenaline produced maximum inhibition. 3 Propranolol (0.5 mug/ml) completely blocked the catecholamine-induced inhibition at all the frequencies employed. The concentration-response curves of isoprenaline at 2, 10 and 50 Hz were characteristically shifted by propranolol (50 ng/ml). Phenoxybenzamine (0.2 mug/ml) was totally ineffective. 4 In some experiments adrenaline significantly raised the tone of the bladder exposed to propranolol; this effect could be blocked by phenoxybenzamine. 5 Acetylcholine-induced bladder contractions were inhibited by adrenaline (2 mug/ml); the inhibition was completely blocked by propranolol (0.5 mug/ml). 6 The results indicate the presence of an inhibitory beta-adrenoceptor and suggest the possibility of an excitatory alpha-adrenoceptor in guinea-pig urinary bladder.  (+info)

In vivo demonstration of H3-histaminergic inhibition of cardiac sympathetic stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine and its prodrug BP 2.94 in the dog. (4/3332)

1. The aim of this study was to investigate whether histamine H3-receptor agonists could inhibit the effects of cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation in the dog. 2. Catecholamine release by the heart and the associated variation of haemodynamic parameters were measured after electrical stimulation of the right cardiac sympathetic nerves (1-4 Hz, 10 V, 10 ms) in the anaesthetized dog treated with R-alpha-methyl-histamine (R-HA) and its prodrug BP 2.94 (BP). 3. Cardiac sympathetic stimulation induced a noradrenaline release into the coronary sinus along with a tachycardia and an increase in left ventricular pressure and contractility without changes in mean arterial pressure. Intravenous administration of H3-receptor agonists significantly decreased noradrenaline release by the heart (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +77 +/- 25 vs +405 +/- 82; BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +12 +/- 11 vs +330 +/- 100 pg ml(-1) in control conditions, P < or = 0.05), and increases in heart rate (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +26 +/- 8 vs +65 +/- 10 and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +30 +/- 8 vs 75 +/- 6 beats min(-1), in control conditions P < or = 0.05), left ventricular pressure, and contractility. Treatment with SC 359 (1 mg kg(-1)) a selective H3-antagonist, reversed the effects of H3-receptor agonists. Treatment with R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1) and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1) tended to decrease, while that with SC 359 significantly increased basal heart rate (from 111 +/- 3 to 130 +/- 5 beats min(-1), P < or = 0.001). 4. Functional H3-receptors are present on sympathetic nerve endings in the dog heart. Their stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine or BP 2.94 can inhibit noradrenaline release by the heart and its associated haemodynamic effects.  (+info)

Evaluation of a new method for the analysis of free catecholamines in plasma using automated sample trace enrichment with dialysis and HPLC. (5/3332)

BACKGROUND: Analysis of urinary free catecholamines was automated recently, but analysis of plasma samples posed special difficulties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate a new method for the automated analysis of plasma catecholamines. METHODS: The procedure is based on an improved sample handling system that includes dialysis and sample clean-up on a strong cation trace-enrichment cartridge. The catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine are then separated by reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography and quantified by electrochemical detection. RESULTS: Use of a 740- microL sample is required to give the catecholamine detection limit of 0.05 nmol/L and analytical imprecision (CV) between 1.1% and 9.3%. The assay can be run unattended, although >12 h of analysis time is not recommended without cooling of the autosampler rack. Comparison (n = 68) of the automated cation-exchange clean-up with the well-established manual alumina procedure gave excellent agreement (mean, 3.78 +/- 2.76 and 3.8 +/- 2.89 nmol/L for norepinephrine and 0.99 +/- 1.72 and 1.08 +/- 1.78 nmol/L for epinephrine). Hemodialysis had no clear effect on plasma norepinephrine. Epinephrine concentrations were similar (0.05 < P < 0.1) in chronic renal failure patients (0.24 +/- 0.3 nmol/L; n = 15) and healthy controls (0.5 +/- 0.24 nmol/L; n = 31). Dopamine was not quantified, being usually <0.2 nmol/L. CONCLUSION: The availability of such a fully automated procedure should encourage the more widespread use of plasma catecholamine estimation, e.g., after dialysis, exercise, or trauma/surgery and in the investigation of catecholamine-secreting tumors, particularly in the anuric patient.  (+info)

Expression of the cell adhesion molecules on leukocytes that demarginate during acute maximal exercise. (6/3332)

The pulmonary vascular bed is an important reservoir for the marginated pool of leukocytes that can be mobilized by exercise or catecholamines. This study was designed to determine the phenotypic characteristics of leukocytes that are mobilized into the circulation during exercise. Twenty healthy volunteers performed incremental exercise to exhaustion [maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max)] on a cycle ergometer. Blood was collected at baseline, at 3-min intervals during exercise, at VO2 max, and 30 min after exercise. Total white cell, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN), and lymphocyte counts increased with exercise to VO2 max (P < 0.05). Flow cytometric analysis showed that the mean fluorescence intensity of L-selectin on PMN (from 14.9 +/- 1 at baseline to 9.5 +/- 1.6 at VO2 max, P < 0.05) and lymphocytes (from 11.7 +/- 1.2 at baseline to 8 +/- 0.8 at VO2 max, P < 0.05) decreased with exercise. Mean fluorescence intensity of CD11b on PMN increased with exercise (from 10.2 +/- 0.6 at baseline to 25 +/- 2.5 at VO2 max, P < 0.002) but remained unchanged on lymphocytes. Myeloperoxidase levels in PMN did not change with exercise. In vitro studies showed that neither catecholamines nor plasma collected at VO2 max during exercise changed leukocyte L-selectin or CD11b levels. We conclude that PMN released from the marginated pool during exercise express low levels of L-selectin and high levels of CD11b.  (+info)

NADPH oxidase inhibition does not interfere with low PO2 transduction in rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells. (7/3332)

The aim of the present work was to elucidate the role of NADPH oxidase in hypoxia sensing and transduction in the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor cells. We have studied the effects of several inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on the normoxic and hypoxia-induced release of [3H]catecholamines (CA) in an in vitro preparation of intact CB of the rat and rabbit whose CA deposits have been labeled by prior incubation with the natural precursor [3H]tyrosine. It was found that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI; 0.2-25 microM), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, caused a dose-dependent release of [3H]CA from normoxic CB chemoreceptor cells. Contrary to hypoxia, DPI-evoked release was only partially Ca2+ dependent. Concentrations of DPI reported to produce full inhibition of NADPH oxidase in the rat CB did not prevent the hypoxic release response in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells, as stimulation with hypoxia in the presence of DPI elicited a response equaling the sum of that produced by DPI and hypoxia applied separately. Neopterin (3-300 microM) and phenylarsine oxide (0.5-2 microM), other inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, did not promote release of [3H]CA in normoxic conditions or affect the response elicited by hypoxia. On the basis of effects of neopterin and phenylarsine oxide, it is concluded that NADPH oxidase does not appear to play a role in oxygen sensing or transduction in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells in vitro and, in the context of the present study, that DPI effects are not related to NADPH oxidase inhibition.  (+info)

Mediation of humoral catecholamine secretion by the renin-angiotensin system in hypotensive rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (8/3332)

The individual contributions of, and potential interactions between, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the humoral adrenergic stress response to blood pressure regulation were examined in rainbow trout. Intravenous injection of the smooth muscle relaxant, papaverine (10 mg/kg), elicited a transient decrease in dorsal aortic blood pressure (PDA) and systemic vascular resistance (RS), and significant increases in plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and catecholamine concentrations. Blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors before papaverine treatment prevented PDA and RS recovery, had no effect on the increase in plasma catecholamines, and resulted in greater plasma Ang II concentrations. Administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril (10(-4) mol/kg), before papaverine treatment attenuated the increases in the plasma concentrations of Ang II, adrenaline, and noradrenaline by 90, 79, and 40%, respectively and also prevented PDA and RS recovery. By itself, lisinopril treatment caused a gradual and sustained decrease in PDA and RS, and reductions in basal plasma Ang II and adrenaline concentrations. Bolus injection of a catecholamine cocktail (4 nmol/kg noradrenaline plus 40 nmol/kg adrenaline) in the lisinopril+papaverine-treated trout, to supplement their circulating catecholamine concentrations and mimic those observed in fish treated only with papaverine, resulted in a temporary recovery in PDA and RS. These results indicate that the RAS and the acute humoral adrenergic response are both recruited during an acute hypotensive stress, and have important roles in the compensatory response to hypotension in rainbow trout. However, whereas the contribution of the RAS to PDA recovery is largely indirect and relies on an Ang II-mediated secretion of catecholamines, the contribution from the adrenergic system is direct and relies at least in part on plasma catecholamines.  (+info)

Symptoms of pheochromocytoma can include:

* Rapid heartbeat
* High blood pressure
* Sweating
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Headaches
* Nausea and vomiting

If left untreated, pheochromocytoma can lead to complications such as heart failure, stroke, and even death. Therefore, it is important that individuals who experience any of the above symptoms seek medical attention as soon as possible.

Treatment options for pheochromocytoma may include surgery to remove the tumor, medication to manage symptoms, and in some cases, radiation therapy. In rare cases, the tumor may recur after treatment, so regular monitoring is necessary to ensure that any new symptoms are detected early on.

Overall, while pheochromocytoma is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition, prompt medical attention and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Some common types of adrenal gland neoplasms include:

1. Adrenocortical carcinoma: A rare and aggressive malignancy that arises in the outer layer of the adrenal cortex.
2. Adrenocortical adenoma: A benign tumor that arises in the outer layer of the adrenal cortex.
3. Pheochromocytoma: A rare tumor that arises in the inner part of the adrenal medulla and produces excessive amounts of hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine.
4. Paraganglioma: A rare tumor that arises in the sympathetic nervous system, often near the adrenal glands.

Symptoms of adrenal gland neoplasms can include:

* Weight gain or weight loss
* High blood pressure
* Fatigue
* Abdominal pain
* Headache
* Nausea and vomiting
* Palpitations

Diagnosis of adrenal gland neoplasms typically involves imaging tests such as computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, as well as hormone level assessments. Treatment options vary depending on the type and size of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy.

Symptoms of an extra-adrenal paraganglioma may include high blood pressure, palpitations, sweating, headaches, and weight loss. The exact cause of this condition is not known, but genetics may play a role in some cases. Treatment options vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they often involve surgery to remove the affected tissue.

Paragangliomas are rare, accounting for less than 1% of all tumors diagnosed in adults. They can occur at any age but are more common in young adults and middle-aged individuals. These tumors are more common in males than females, and their incidence is higher in certain families with inherited syndromes, such as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) or familial paraganglioma.

The symptoms of paraganglioma depend on their location and size. Small tumors may not cause any symptoms, while larger tumors can press on nearby organs and structures, causing a variety of symptoms such as:

* Pain in the abdomen or pelvis
* Swelling or lump in the neck or abdomen
* High blood pressure
* Headaches
* Blurred vision
* Confusion or seizures (in cases of malignant paraganglioma)

Paragangliomas are difficult to diagnose, as they can be mistaken for other conditions such as appendicitis or pancreatitis. Imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans are often used to help identify the location and size of the tumor, while laboratory tests may be used to evaluate hormone levels and other factors that can help differentiate paraganglioma from other conditions.

Treatment for paraganglioma depends on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health status. Small, benign tumors may not require treatment, while larger or malignant tumors may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. In some cases, a combination of these treatments may be used.

The prognosis for paraganglioma is generally good if the tumor is diagnosed and treated early, but it can be poor if the tumor is large or has spread to other parts of the body. With surgical removal of the tumor, the 5-year survival rate is approximately 90% for patients with benign paraganglioma and 30-50% for those with malignant paraganglioma. However, the overall prognosis can vary depending on individual factors such as the size and location of the tumor, the effectiveness of treatment, and the patient's underlying health status.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

The symptoms of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy are similar to those of a heart attack and can include chest pain, shortness of breath, and irregular heartbeat. However, unlike a heart attack, there is no evidence of blockage in the coronary arteries. Instead, the heart muscle becomes stunned and weakened, leading to a decrease in cardiac function.

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is often brought on by a surge of stress hormones, such as adrenaline and cortisol, which can cause changes in the heart's electrical activity and reduce blood flow to the muscle. The condition is more common in women than men and typically affects individuals between the ages of 58 and 75.

While Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a serious condition, it is usually reversible with treatment and most patients recover completely within a few weeks. Treatment may include medications to manage symptoms such as high blood pressure and heart failure, as well as therapy to address the underlying stress or emotional trauma that triggered the condition.

In summary, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that is caused by extreme physical or emotional stress and can mimic the symptoms of a heart attack. It is important to be aware of this condition and seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

... (Catsup) is a dopamine regulatory membrane protein that functions as a zinc ion transmembrane transporter ( ... Stathakis DG, Burton DY, McIvor WE, Krishnakumar S, Wright TR, O'Donnell JM (September 1999). "The catecholamines up (Catsup) ... "Catecholamines up integrates dopamine synthesis and synaptic trafficking". Journal of Neurochemistry. 119 (6): 1294-305. doi: ...
... tests are done to identify rare tumors at the adrenal gland or in the nervous system. Catecholamine tests provide ... "Catecholamines in Urine". webmd.com. Retrieved 4 May 2017. Kuklin, A. I.; Conger, B. V. (1995). "Catecholamines in Plants". ... Catecholamines are water-soluble and are 50% bound to plasma proteins in circulation. Included among catecholamines are ... Increased catecholamines may also cause an increased respiratory rate (tachypnoea) in patients. Catecholamine is secreted into ...
Axelrod's group in Bethesda wished to clarify the in vivo fate of catecholamines using radioactively labelled catecholamines of ... catecholamines must pass through membranes and deliver their chemical message at membrane receptors. Catecholamines are ... Research on the catecholamines was interwoven with research on their receptors. In 1904, Dale became head of the Wellcome ... They sought for catecholamines in human urine and found a blood pressure-increasing material Urosympathin that they identified ...
Fluck, D C (1972). "Catecholamines". Heart. 34 (9): 869-73. doi:10.1136/hrt.34.9.869. PMC 487013. PMID 4561627. Power, Michael ...
"Catecholamines - blood ." National Library of Medicine . N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. . (All articles with dead external links ...
"CV Physiology , Circulating Catecholamines". cvphysiology.com. Retrieved 2019-02-27. Sacha, Pollard; Stephenie, B Edwin; Cesar ...
Plasma catecholamines". American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 242 (5): R528-R532 ...
Catecholamine levels are thought to be high when individuals are experiencing higher stress. Half of participants completed two ... However, participants who completed the two values essays did not show an increase in catecholamine levels from baseline to ... PLoS ONE, 8(5), e62593 James, G. D., Crews, D. E., & Pearson, J. (1989). Catecholamines and stress. Human population biology: a ... Participants who did not complete the self-affirmation condition demonstrated increased catecholamine response from baseline to ...
Catecholamines then and now. J. Pharm. Pharmac. 28, 348-355. 1977 (with A Den Henog) The 8-action of catecholamines on the ... IV International Catecholamine Symposium, pp 429-431 in Catecholamines: Basic and Clinical Frontiers. Eds. Usdin Kopin and ... Bülbring's work on catecholamines and on smooth muscle led to her election to the Royal Society in 1958. Her multiple successes ... Action of catecholamines on the smooth muscle cell membrane. pp. 1-13 In: "Drug Receptors", ed. H.P. Rang. Macmillan London. ...
It is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families. Dopamine constitutes about 80% of the catecholamine ... The functions of plant catecholamines have not been clearly established, but there is evidence that they play a role in the ... Kulma A, Szopa J (2007). "Catecholamines are active compounds in plants". Plant Science. 172 (3): 433-40. doi:10.1016/j. ... As such, dopamine is the simplest possible catecholamine, a family that also includes the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and ...
Bathmotropic Inotrope Catecholamines ""AV node; the magnitude of the delay" - Google Search". www.Google.ca. Retrieved 14 April ...
All three of these compounds also belong to the catecholamine family. The pharmacology of epinine largely resembles that of its ... F. Märki, J. Axelrod and B. Witkop (1962). "Catecholamines and N-methyltransferase in the South American toad (Bufo marinus)." ... Catecholamines, D1-receptor agonists, D2-receptor agonists, Dopamine agonists, Norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agents). ... "The structure of the catecholamines. V. The crystal and molecular structure of epinine hydrobromide." Acta Crystallographica ...
... means "related to catecholamines". The catecholamine neurotransmitters include dopamine, epinephrine ( ... is a chemical which functions to directly modulate the catecholamine systems in the body or brain. Examples include adrenergics ...
Interaction with Pre- and Post-Synaptic Dopaminergic Sites". In Usdin E, Kopin IJ, Barchas J (eds.). Catecholamines: Basic and ...
"Julius Axelrod Award 2013". Catecholamine Society. Retrieved 12 April 2022. (Articles with short description, Short description ...
Franksson G, Anggård E (2009-03-13). "The plasma protein binding of amphetamine, catecholamines and related compounds". Acta ... Peaston RT, Weinkove C (January 2004). "Measurement of catecholamines and their metabolites". Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. ... These extracts, which he called nadnerczyna, contained adrenaline and other catecholamines. American ophthalmologist William H ...
This causes the release of catecholamines. The chromaffin cells release catecholamines: ~80% of adrenaline (epinephrine) and ~ ... Chromium salts oxidise and polymerise catecholamines to form a brown color, most strongly in the cells secreting noradrenaline ... This increased sympathetic activity leads to chronically increased synthesis and secretion of catecholamines from the adrenal ... neuroendocrine regulation of catecholamine secretion in non-mammalian vertebrates". Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical ...
Kuchel O, Buu NT, Serri O (1982). "Sulfoconjugation of catecholamines, nutrition, and hypertension". Hypertension. 4 (5 Pt 2): ... resulting in a rise of catecholamine level which contributes to the occurrence of recurring headache in migraine. It is also ... three genes implicated in the metabolism of catecholamines, thyroid hormones and drugs". Chemico-Biological Interactions. 109 ( ...
Dimsdale, Joel E.; Jonathan Moss (1980). "Plasma Catecholamines in Stress and Exercise". Journal of the American Medical ...
Glucocorticoids and catecholamines influence immune cells. Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal axis releases the needed hormones to ... Chronic secretion of stress hormones, glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines (CAs), as a result of disease, may reduce the ... Through stimulation of these receptors, locally released norepinephrine, or circulating catecholamines such as epinephrine, ... catecholamine modulators, ion-channel blockers, anticonvulsants, GABA agonists (including opioids and cannabinoids), COX ...
The adrenal medulla is a major contributor to total circulating catecholamines (L-DOPA is at a higher concentration in the ... Noradrenaline Catecholamines Adrenal gland Andersen AM (1975). "Structural Studies of Metabolic Products of Dopamine. III. ... Unlike many other hormones, adrenaline (as with other catecholamines) does not exert negative feedback to down-regulate its own ... Kindermann W, Schnabel A, Schmitt WM, Biro G, Hippchen M (May 1982). "[Catecholamines, GH, cortisol, glucagon, insulin, and sex ...
ISBN 978-1-58562-239-9. Kassim TA, Clarke DD, Mai VQ, Clyde PW, Mohamed Shakir KM (December 2008). "Catecholamine-induced ... Pheochromocytoma (most often located in the adrenal medulla) increases secretion of catecholamines such as epinephrine and ... Catecholamines, Coarctation of the Aorta, Cushing's Syndrome D: Drugs, Diet E: Erythropoietin, Endocrine Disorders Ecder T, ...
1999). "Catecholamine Receptors". Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects (6th ed.). Lippincott-Raven. ...
... it liberated catecholamines from the adrenal medulla; it showed muscarine-like and sympathomimetic effects in some assays, and ...
... is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine. Its structure differs from that of epinephrine only in that epinephrine ... Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that ... Musacchio JM (2013). "Chapter 1: Enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of catecholamines". In Iverson L (ed.). ... ISBN 978-0-444-80493-8. Blaschko H (1987). "A half-century of research on catecholamine biosynthesis". Journal of Applied ...
Muftic MK (1971). Are the catecholamines precursors of the catatonine? Journal of the American Institute of Hypnosis, 12(1):29- ...
Catecholamines are associated with enhanced physical performance. The simultaneous reductions in both catecholamine and ... "Oral branched-chain amino acid supplements that reduce brain serotonin during exercise in rats also lower brain catecholamines ... the reduced uptake depresses catecholamine synthesis and release in the brain. ...
In 1971 he defended his dissertation on studies on catecholamine release and uptake in adreno-medullary storage glands and was ... Euler, U. S. V.; Lishajko, F. (1959). "The Estimation of Catechol Amines in Urine". Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 45 (2-3): ... Of particular note are two methodological works concerning the determination of catecholamines by fluorometry, cited 199 times ... Lishajko, F. (1971). "Studies on catecholamine release and uptake in adreno-medullary storage granules". Acta Physiologica ...
These data suggest that a D1/beta receptor gene duplication was required to elaborate novel catecholamine psychomotor adaptive ... Classical monoamines Imidazoleamines: Histamine Catecholamines: Adrenaline (Ad; Epinephrine, Epi) Dopamine (DA) Noradrenaline ( ... NAd; Norepinephrine, NE) Indolamines: Serotonin (5-HT) Melatonin (MT) Trace amines Phenethylamines (related to catecholamines ...
... is a catecholamine. Excessive cysteinyldopa in plasma and urine has been linked to malignant melanoma. ... Catecholamines, Human pathological metabolites, Sulfur amino acids, All stub articles, Amine stubs). ...
Catecholamines -- RDoC Element. Type of Element: Molecule. The following construct(s)/subconstruct(s) refer to this element... ... Home , Research , Research Funded by NIMH , Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) , Units of Analysis , Molecules , Catecholamines. ...
Catecholamines are chemicals made by nerve tissue (including the brain) and the adrenal gland. ... Urine catecholamine levels are increased in most people with neuroblastoma.. The urine test for catecholamines may also be used ... All of the catecholamines are broken down into inactive substances that appear in the urine:. *Dopamine becomes homovanillic ... A urine test can be done to measure the amount of catecholamines produced by your body. Separate urine tests may be done to ...
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Receptors, Catecholamine. All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryOrganic ChemicalsAminesCatecholamines ... AromaticBenzene DerivativesPhenolsCatecholsCatecholaminesDihydroxyphenylalanineCysteinyldopaLevodopaMethyldopa +Dobutamine ...
The main catecholamines are adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), and dopamine. Catecholamines increase ... Catecholamines are hormones made chiefly by the adrenal glands, located above the kidneys. ...
Recognition of catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy, especially in patients with pheochromocytoma, before surgical treatment is ... Results: Catecholamines and their oxidation products cause a direct toxic effect on the myocardium. Catecholamines also exert a ... Catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy Thaslim Ahamed Kassim 1 , Douglas D Clarke, Vinh Q Mai, Patrick W Clyde, K M Mohamed ... Catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy Thaslim Ahamed Kassim et al. Endocr Pract. 2008 Dec. ...
... antibodies against the catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) … ... Results of recent studies using immunohistochemistry show evidence of an occurrence of catecholamine production in the cells ( ... The observations show not only evidence of local catecholamine production at the protein level, which was the case in recent ... Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization observations favor a local catecholamine production in the human Achilles tendon ...
... and the restoration of catecholamine sensitivity is through reductions in G-protein receptor kinase 2, protein phosphatase 1 ... restores calcium transient amplitude and the hearts response to catecholamines. Accompanying these effects, tadalafil ... a loss of catecholamine reserve and cellular structural remodeling in the form of disorganization and loss of the transverse ... Impaired responsiveness to catecholamines is a hallmark of the failing heart and is detectable both in vivo and in isolated ...
Effect of Central Catecholamine Depletion on the Osmotic and Nonosmotic Stimulation of Vasopressin (Antidiuretic Hormone) in ... Effect of Central Catecholamine Depletion on the Osmotic and Nonosmotic Stimulation of Vasopressin (Antidiuretic Hormone) in ... In this study, the role of CNS catecholamines in effecting ADH release was examined in conscious rats 10-14 d after the ... These results therefore suggest that CNS catecholamines may play an important role in mediating ADH release in response to both ...
Catecholamine neurons are rare in the nervous system, and why they are vulnerable in PD and related disorders has been ... Several neurodegenerative diseases involve loss of catecholamine neurons-Parkinson disease is a prototypical example. ... Catecholamine autotoxicity. Implications for pharmacology and therapeutics of Parkinson disease and related disorders David S ... Catecholamine neurons are rare in the nervous system, and why they are vulnerable in PD and related disorders has been ...
Furthermore, the L-NNA-induced attenuation of rises in the resting IASP and catecholamine levels in response to HGNS was ... Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor inhibits catecholamines release caused by hypogastric sympathetic nerve stimulation.. P ... Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor inhibits catecholamines release caused by hypogastric sympathetic nerve stimulation.. P ... Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor inhibits catecholamines release caused by hypogastric sympathetic nerve stimulation.. P ...
Effect of Age on Post-Prandial Blood Pressure, Catecholamine and Insulin Responses N. Winslow; N. Winslow ... Catecholamine and Insulin Responses. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1988; 74 (s18): 44P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs074044P ...
The determination of catecholamines has clinical significance in the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas and other tumours affecting ... The determination of catecholamines has clinical significance in the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas and other tumours affecting ... The catecholamines adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and dopamine are biogenic amines, which play a ... The catecholamines adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and dopamine are biogenic amines, which play a ...
Central cardiovascular effect of α-adrenergic drugs: Differences between catecholamines and imidazolines ...
Elevated Catecholamine Levels, or Increased Sodium Retention in Conscious Normal Rats Sietse J Koopmans; Sietse J Koopmans ... Elevated Catecholamine Levels, or Increased Sodium Retention in Conscious Normal Rats. Diabetes 1 October 1997; 46 (10): 1572- ... catecholamine levels, or sodium retention. This indicates that hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin resistance is not associated ...
Apr 10 "Catecholamine-Induced Lipolysis Inhibits Glucose Uptake and Causes mTOR Complex Dissociation in Adipocytes" - ... The 2014 Robert Haynes Award for his talk on "Catecholamine-Induced Lipolysis Inhibits Glucose Uptake and Causes mTOR Complex ...
Despite evidence that catecholamines contribute to contextual encoding and memory retrieval, the precise temporal dynamics of ... In addition, new animal models are required to probe the effects of altered catecholamine synthesis on release dynamics and ... Partial or complete loss of norepinephrine differentially alters contextual fear and catecholamine release dynamics in ...
Stress hormones: catecholamines. Stress hormones and noradrenaline have been analyzed to correlate with the length of the ...
of Ho Chi Minh City for the first time on 26 September 2008.. Operation license No. 06454/HCM- ...
Catecholamines. Genre(s):. Archival Materials. Articles. Abstract:. For the 1981 Harvey Cushing Oration, Axelrod reviewed the ... Catecholamine Neurotransmitters, Psychoactive Drugs, and Biological Clocks. Contributor(s):. Journal of Neurosurgery. Axelrod, ...
Bilgrami NL, Kumar S, Tariq M. Myocardial catecholamines in experimental cholaemia in albino rats. Indian Heart Journal. 1980 ...
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Dive into the research topics of Urinary catecholamine excretion during gynecological laparoscopy. Together they form a ...
Home / Biogenic Amine Elisa Kits / Catecholamines / Norepinephrine Norepinephrine. Catecholamine is the name of a group of ...
By Leonard F. Rozek, Published on 05/01/64
Oxidation of DNA, proteins and lipids by DOPA, protein-bound DOPA, and related catechol(amine)s. Research output: Contribution ... Oxidation of DNA, proteins and lipids by DOPA, protein-bound DOPA, and related catechol(amine)s. Toxicology. 2002 Aug 1;177(1): ... Oxidation of DNA, proteins and lipids by DOPA, protein-bound DOPA, and related catechol(amine)s. / Pattison, David I; Dean, ... Oxidation of DNA, proteins and lipids by DOPA, protein-bound DOPA, and related catechol(amine)s. In: Toxicology. 2002 ; Vol. ...
  • The main types of catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The plasma levels of catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine were measured using a radioenzymatic assay. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The catecholamines adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and dopamine are biogenic amines, which play a central role in the body as hormones and neurotransmitters. (chromsystems.com)
  • Catecholamine is the name of a group of aromatic amines (noradrenaline or norepinephrine, adrenaline or epinephrine, dopamine, and their derivatives) which act as hormones and neurotransmitters, respectively. (rmdiagnostics.com)
  • The catecholamine messengers epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are synthesized from tyrosine by a common biosynthetic pathway. (ouhsc.edu)
  • The catecholamines-primarily epinephrine, but also norepinephrine and dopamine-are secreted by the adrenal medulla and are important for the acute expression of strength and power because the hormones act as central motor stimulators and peripheral vascular dilators to enhance enzyme systems and calcium release in muscle. (nsca.com)
  • Adrenal medulla, catecholamines, and pheochromocytoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To review the pathogenesis as well as the clinical and laboratory features of catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy associated with pheochromocytoma and other disorders and discuss the various treatment options available. (nih.gov)
  • Receptors, Catecholamine" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ouhsc.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Receptors, Catecholamine" by people in this website by year, and whether "Receptors, Catecholamine" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Receptors, Catecholamine" by people in Profiles. (ouhsc.edu)
  • In this study, the role of CNS catecholamines in effecting ADH release was examined in conscious rats 10-14 d after the cerebroventricular injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). (jci.org)
  • The observations suggest that the tenocytes, especially those with disfigured appearances in tendinosis, can produce catecholamines and also that they can respond to sympathetic transmitters. (nih.gov)
  • Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor inhibits catecholamines release caused by hypogastric sympathetic nerve stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Finally, we were able to confirm that urinary catecholamine levels can help to direct the evaluation of the exposure time to low temperatures in causes of death different than hypothermia. (unich.it)
  • Evaluation of urinary catecholamines. (unich.it)
  • A urine test can be done to measure the amount of catecholamines produced by your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some foods can increase catecholamines in your urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Urine catecholamine levels are increased in most people with neuroblastoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The urine test for catecholamines may also be used to monitor those who are receiving treatment for these conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These diseases result in the production of surplus catecholamines, which are then excreted in the urine. (chromsystems.com)
  • For the HPLC analysis of catecholamines in urine, there is an additional method available (order no. 6000). (chromsystems.com)
  • Determination of catecholamines in plasma and urine. (jchemrev.com)
  • After dealing with the fatal circumstances related to the collapse of the hotel and the presence of the snow mass, and the medico-legal estimation of the different agony times, this tragic event allowed a study of the catecholamine levels in the urine of 10 of the cadavers. (unich.it)
  • Neurotransmitters catecholamines and histamine in allelopathy: Plant cells as models in fluorescence microscopy. (jchemrev.com)
  • Electrochemical sensors and biosensors for determination of catecholamine neurotransmitters: a review. (jchemrev.com)
  • In the present study, antibodies against the catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and alpha1-adrenoreceptors were applied to sections of specimens of normal and tendinosis Achilles tendons. (nih.gov)
  • Catecholamine-mediated myocardial stunning has been implicated in the pathogenesis of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. (nih.gov)
  • Myocardial catecholamines in experimental cholaemia in albino rats. (who.int)
  • Bilgrami NL, Kumar S, Tariq M. Myocardial catecholamines in experimental cholaemia in albino rats. (who.int)
  • Liquid chromatographic methods for the quantification of catecholamines and their metabolites in several biological samples-a review. (jchemrev.com)
  • Systematic research has yet to elucidate or quantify the extent of the role of the catecholamines or adrenocortical and thyroid axis hormonal influences in the condition. (edu.au)
  • Catecholamine and hormonal data were collected sequentially at 4-h intervals or during and between episodes of PSH. (edu.au)
  • Several neurodegenerative diseases involve loss of catecholamine neurons-Parkinson disease is a prototypical example. (nih.gov)
  • Catecholamine neurons are rare in the nervous system, and why they are vulnerable in PD and related disorders has been mysterious. (nih.gov)
  • The determination of catecholamines has clinical significance in the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas and other tumours affecting the nervous system. (chromsystems.com)
  • Vasopressin injection is indicated to increase blood pressure in adults with vasodilatory shock who remain hypotensive despite fluids and catecholamines. (nih.gov)
  • Pressor effects of catecholamines and vasopressin are expected to be additive. (nih.gov)
  • After target blood pressure has been maintained for 8 hours without the use of catecholamines, taper vasopressin injection by 0.005 units/minute every hour as tolerated to maintain target blood pressure. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, new animal models are required to probe the effects of altered catecholamine synthesis on release dynamics and contextual learning. (nih.gov)
  • We wished to determine whether catecholamine (CA) mechanisms are involved in estradiol (E 2 )-induced LH surges and if amplification of such surges by progesterone (P)affects these CA systems. (illinois.edu)
  • Catecholamines and their oxidation products cause a direct toxic effect on the myocardium. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of Non- and Low-Caloric Sweeteners on Substrate Oxidation, Energy Expenditure, and Catecholamines in Humans-A Systematic Review. (bvsalud.org)
  • This systematic review aimed to assess the impact of NCS and LCS on fasting and postprandial substrate oxidation , energy expenditure , and catecholamines , compared to caloric sweeteners or water , across different doses and types of NCS and LCS, acutely and in the longer-term. (bvsalud.org)
  • A total of 20 studies were eligible 16 studies for substrate oxidation and energy expenditure and four studies for catecholamines . (bvsalud.org)
  • Catecholamines are chemicals made by nerve tissue (including the brain) and the adrenal gland. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For the HPLC analysis of catecholamines in plasma any isocratic HPLC system with electrochemical detector is suitable. (chromsystems.com)
  • Despite evidence that catecholamines contribute to contextual encoding and memory retrieval, the precise temporal dynamics of their release in the hippocampus during behavior is unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Cell surface proteins that bind catecholamines with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Studies in: catecholamines and behavior. (nih.gov)
  • We propose that the molecular switch for the loss of transverse tubules in HF and their restoration following tadalafil treatment involves the BAR domain protein Amphiphysin II (BIN1) and the restoration of catecholamine sensitivity is through reductions in G-protein receptor kinase 2, protein phosphatase 1 and protein phosphatase 2 A abundance following phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition. (nature.com)
  • It is likely that locally produced catecholamines and the occurrence of autocrine/paracrine effects of these substances are of great relevance during the process of tendinosis. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the L-NNA-induced attenuation of rises in the resting IASP and catecholamine levels in response to HGNS was reversed stereoselectively by L-arginine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, 7 days of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia induces severe insulin resistance with respect to whole-body glucose metabolism but does not increase blood pressure, catecholamine levels, or sodium retention. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Despite this increased awareness, the pathophysiology of the condition remains unknown, and few reports have suggested a specific mechanism, beyond high catecholamine levels, as a trigger for the syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Parallel studies to determine the effects of hypogastric nerve stimulation (HGNS) on the resting IASP and catecholamine release were performed. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Results of recent studies using immunohistochemistry show evidence of an occurrence of catecholamine production in the cells (tenocytes) of patellar tendons exhibiting tendinopathy (tendinosis). (nih.gov)
  • These results therefore suggest that CNS catecholamines may play an important role in mediating ADH release in response to both osmotic and nonosmotic (hypovolemic) stimuli. (jci.org)
  • This study presents an overview on the recent advances in fluorescence methods for detection of catecholamines. (jchemrev.com)
  • Using a sheep model of advanced HF, we show that tadalafil treatment improves contractile function, reverses transverse tubule loss, restores calcium transient amplitude and the heart's response to catecholamines. (nature.com)
  • The observations show not only evidence of local catecholamine production at the protein level, which was the case in recent studies for the patellar tendon, but also at the mRNA level. (nih.gov)
  • Catecholamines also exert a receptor-mediated effect on the myocardium. (nih.gov)
  • Heart failure (HF) is characterized by poor survival, a loss of catecholamine reserve and cellular structural remodeling in the form of disorganization and loss of the transverse tubule network. (nature.com)
  • Catecholamines can also be measured with a blood test . (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is intended as a monitoring test for patients with suspected catecholamine-secreting tumour. (chromsystems.com)