Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Receptors, Catecholamine: Cell surface proteins that bind catecholamines with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The catecholamine messengers epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are synthesized from tyrosine by a common biosynthetic pathway.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseAdrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Normetanephrine: A methylated metabolite of norepinephrine that is excreted in the urine and found in certain tissues. It is a marker for tumors.Vanilmandelic AcidTyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Metanephrine: Product of epinephrine O-methylation. It is a commonly occurring, pharmacologically and physiologically inactive metabolite of epinephrine.Receptors, Adrenergic: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.Dihydroxyphenylalanine: A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.alpha-Methyltyrosine: An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Hydroxydopamines: Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.Phenoxybenzamine: An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal: A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the CAROTID BODY; GLOMUS JUGULARE; GLOMUS TYMPANICUM; AORTIC BODIES; and the female genital tract. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. (From Stedman, 27th ed)Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Veratridine: A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Homovanillic AcidMonoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Iodide: A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Sympathectomy, Chemical: Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Digitonin: A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.Catechol O-Methyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.Adrenergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol: Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Desipramine: A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Paraganglioma: A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Hexamethonium Compounds: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Dopa Decarboxylase: One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of DOPA to DOPAMINE. It is of clinical importance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Pargyline: A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Yohimbine: A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Glycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.Ganglionic Blockers: Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Adrenergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Trout: Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)3-Iodobenzylguanidine: A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromogranin B: A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.VeratrineMuscarine: A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Biogenic Amines: A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: A transient left ventricular apical dysfunction or ballooning accompanied by electrocardiographic (ECG) T wave inversions. This abnormality is associated with high levels of CATECHOLAMINES, either administered or endogenously secreted from a tumor or during extreme stress.Metaraminol: A sympathomimetic agent that acts predominantly at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It has been used primarily as a vasoconstrictor in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Hexamethonium: A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Adrenochrome: Pigment obtained by the oxidation of epinephrine.Nadolol: A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with a long half-life, used in cardiovascular disease to treat arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension. Nadolol is also used for MIGRAINE DISORDERS and for tremor.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases: An enzyme group with broad specificity. The enzymes decarboxylate a range of aromatic amino acids including dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA DECARBOXYLASE); TRYPTOPHAN; and HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.Alprenolol: One of the ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS used as an antihypertensive, anti-anginal, and anti-arrhythmic agent.Autonomic Agents: Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.Synephrine: Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic agonist with actions like PHENYLEPHRINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor in circulatory failure, asthma, nasal congestion, and glaucoma.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Prazosin: A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.Sympathectomy: The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.

Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats. (1/3332)

The effects of garlic supplementation on triglyceride metabolism were investigated by measurements of the degree of thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats fed two types of dietary fat. In Experiment 1, rats were given isoenergetic high-fat diets containing either shortening or lard with or without garlic powder supplementation (8 g/kg of diet). After 28 d feeding, body weight, plasma triglyceride levels and the weights of perirenal adipose tissue and epididymal fat pad were significantly lower in rats fed diets supplemented with garlic powder than in those fed diets without garlic powder. The content of mitochondrial protein and uncoupling protein (UCP) in IBAT, and urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion were significantly greater in rats fed a lard diet with garlic powder than in those fed the same diet without garlic. Other than adrenaline secretion, differences due to garlic were significant in rats fed shortening, also. In Experiment 2, the effects of various allyl-containing sulfides present in garlic on noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion were evaluated. Administration of diallyldisulfide, diallyltrisulfide and alliin, organosulfur compounds present in garlic, significantly increased plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, whereas the administration of disulfides without allyl residues, diallylmonosulfide and S-allyl-L-cysteine did not increase adrenaline secretion. These results suggest that in rats, allyl-containing sulfides in garlic enhance thermogenesis by increasing UCP content in IBAT, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion.  (+info)

Viral gene delivery selectively restores feeding and prevents lethality of dopamine-deficient mice. (2/3332)

Dopamine-deficient mice (DA-/- ), lacking tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic neurons, become hypoactive and aphagic and die by 4 weeks of age. They are rescued by daily treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); each dose restores dopamine (DA) and feeding for less than 24 hr. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses expressing human TH or GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) were injected into the striatum of DA-/- mice. Bilateral coinjection of both viruses restored feeding behavior for several months. However, locomotor activity and coordination were partially improved. A virus expressing only TH was less effective, and one expressing GTPCH1 alone was ineffective. TH immunoreactivity and DA were detected in the ventral striatum and adjacent posterior regions of rescued mice, suggesting that these regions mediate a critical DA-dependent aspect of feeding behavior.  (+info)

Adrenoreceptors of the guinea-pig urinary bladder. (3/3332)

1 Adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline (5 mug/ml) did not affect the resting tone of the isolated urinary bladder of the guinea-pig. 2 The catecholamines (1-2 mug/ml) inhibited neuronally evoked contractions at various stimulation frequencies; the inhibition was maximum at 2 Hz and minimum at 50 Hz. Isoprenaline produced maximum inhibition. 3 Propranolol (0.5 mug/ml) completely blocked the catecholamine-induced inhibition at all the frequencies employed. The concentration-response curves of isoprenaline at 2, 10 and 50 Hz were characteristically shifted by propranolol (50 ng/ml). Phenoxybenzamine (0.2 mug/ml) was totally ineffective. 4 In some experiments adrenaline significantly raised the tone of the bladder exposed to propranolol; this effect could be blocked by phenoxybenzamine. 5 Acetylcholine-induced bladder contractions were inhibited by adrenaline (2 mug/ml); the inhibition was completely blocked by propranolol (0.5 mug/ml). 6 The results indicate the presence of an inhibitory beta-adrenoceptor and suggest the possibility of an excitatory alpha-adrenoceptor in guinea-pig urinary bladder.  (+info)

In vivo demonstration of H3-histaminergic inhibition of cardiac sympathetic stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine and its prodrug BP 2.94 in the dog. (4/3332)

1. The aim of this study was to investigate whether histamine H3-receptor agonists could inhibit the effects of cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation in the dog. 2. Catecholamine release by the heart and the associated variation of haemodynamic parameters were measured after electrical stimulation of the right cardiac sympathetic nerves (1-4 Hz, 10 V, 10 ms) in the anaesthetized dog treated with R-alpha-methyl-histamine (R-HA) and its prodrug BP 2.94 (BP). 3. Cardiac sympathetic stimulation induced a noradrenaline release into the coronary sinus along with a tachycardia and an increase in left ventricular pressure and contractility without changes in mean arterial pressure. Intravenous administration of H3-receptor agonists significantly decreased noradrenaline release by the heart (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +77 +/- 25 vs +405 +/- 82; BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +12 +/- 11 vs +330 +/- 100 pg ml(-1) in control conditions, P < or = 0.05), and increases in heart rate (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +26 +/- 8 vs +65 +/- 10 and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +30 +/- 8 vs 75 +/- 6 beats min(-1), in control conditions P < or = 0.05), left ventricular pressure, and contractility. Treatment with SC 359 (1 mg kg(-1)) a selective H3-antagonist, reversed the effects of H3-receptor agonists. Treatment with R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1) and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1) tended to decrease, while that with SC 359 significantly increased basal heart rate (from 111 +/- 3 to 130 +/- 5 beats min(-1), P < or = 0.001). 4. Functional H3-receptors are present on sympathetic nerve endings in the dog heart. Their stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine or BP 2.94 can inhibit noradrenaline release by the heart and its associated haemodynamic effects.  (+info)

Evaluation of a new method for the analysis of free catecholamines in plasma using automated sample trace enrichment with dialysis and HPLC. (5/3332)

BACKGROUND: Analysis of urinary free catecholamines was automated recently, but analysis of plasma samples posed special difficulties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate a new method for the automated analysis of plasma catecholamines. METHODS: The procedure is based on an improved sample handling system that includes dialysis and sample clean-up on a strong cation trace-enrichment cartridge. The catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine are then separated by reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography and quantified by electrochemical detection. RESULTS: Use of a 740- microL sample is required to give the catecholamine detection limit of 0.05 nmol/L and analytical imprecision (CV) between 1.1% and 9.3%. The assay can be run unattended, although >12 h of analysis time is not recommended without cooling of the autosampler rack. Comparison (n = 68) of the automated cation-exchange clean-up with the well-established manual alumina procedure gave excellent agreement (mean, 3.78 +/- 2.76 and 3.8 +/- 2.89 nmol/L for norepinephrine and 0.99 +/- 1.72 and 1.08 +/- 1.78 nmol/L for epinephrine). Hemodialysis had no clear effect on plasma norepinephrine. Epinephrine concentrations were similar (0.05 < P < 0.1) in chronic renal failure patients (0.24 +/- 0.3 nmol/L; n = 15) and healthy controls (0.5 +/- 0.24 nmol/L; n = 31). Dopamine was not quantified, being usually <0.2 nmol/L. CONCLUSION: The availability of such a fully automated procedure should encourage the more widespread use of plasma catecholamine estimation, e.g., after dialysis, exercise, or trauma/surgery and in the investigation of catecholamine-secreting tumors, particularly in the anuric patient.  (+info)

Expression of the cell adhesion molecules on leukocytes that demarginate during acute maximal exercise. (6/3332)

The pulmonary vascular bed is an important reservoir for the marginated pool of leukocytes that can be mobilized by exercise or catecholamines. This study was designed to determine the phenotypic characteristics of leukocytes that are mobilized into the circulation during exercise. Twenty healthy volunteers performed incremental exercise to exhaustion [maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max)] on a cycle ergometer. Blood was collected at baseline, at 3-min intervals during exercise, at VO2 max, and 30 min after exercise. Total white cell, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN), and lymphocyte counts increased with exercise to VO2 max (P < 0.05). Flow cytometric analysis showed that the mean fluorescence intensity of L-selectin on PMN (from 14.9 +/- 1 at baseline to 9.5 +/- 1.6 at VO2 max, P < 0.05) and lymphocytes (from 11.7 +/- 1.2 at baseline to 8 +/- 0.8 at VO2 max, P < 0.05) decreased with exercise. Mean fluorescence intensity of CD11b on PMN increased with exercise (from 10.2 +/- 0.6 at baseline to 25 +/- 2.5 at VO2 max, P < 0.002) but remained unchanged on lymphocytes. Myeloperoxidase levels in PMN did not change with exercise. In vitro studies showed that neither catecholamines nor plasma collected at VO2 max during exercise changed leukocyte L-selectin or CD11b levels. We conclude that PMN released from the marginated pool during exercise express low levels of L-selectin and high levels of CD11b.  (+info)

NADPH oxidase inhibition does not interfere with low PO2 transduction in rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells. (7/3332)

The aim of the present work was to elucidate the role of NADPH oxidase in hypoxia sensing and transduction in the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor cells. We have studied the effects of several inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on the normoxic and hypoxia-induced release of [3H]catecholamines (CA) in an in vitro preparation of intact CB of the rat and rabbit whose CA deposits have been labeled by prior incubation with the natural precursor [3H]tyrosine. It was found that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI; 0.2-25 microM), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, caused a dose-dependent release of [3H]CA from normoxic CB chemoreceptor cells. Contrary to hypoxia, DPI-evoked release was only partially Ca2+ dependent. Concentrations of DPI reported to produce full inhibition of NADPH oxidase in the rat CB did not prevent the hypoxic release response in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells, as stimulation with hypoxia in the presence of DPI elicited a response equaling the sum of that produced by DPI and hypoxia applied separately. Neopterin (3-300 microM) and phenylarsine oxide (0.5-2 microM), other inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, did not promote release of [3H]CA in normoxic conditions or affect the response elicited by hypoxia. On the basis of effects of neopterin and phenylarsine oxide, it is concluded that NADPH oxidase does not appear to play a role in oxygen sensing or transduction in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells in vitro and, in the context of the present study, that DPI effects are not related to NADPH oxidase inhibition.  (+info)

Mediation of humoral catecholamine secretion by the renin-angiotensin system in hypotensive rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (8/3332)

The individual contributions of, and potential interactions between, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the humoral adrenergic stress response to blood pressure regulation were examined in rainbow trout. Intravenous injection of the smooth muscle relaxant, papaverine (10 mg/kg), elicited a transient decrease in dorsal aortic blood pressure (PDA) and systemic vascular resistance (RS), and significant increases in plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and catecholamine concentrations. Blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors before papaverine treatment prevented PDA and RS recovery, had no effect on the increase in plasma catecholamines, and resulted in greater plasma Ang II concentrations. Administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril (10(-4) mol/kg), before papaverine treatment attenuated the increases in the plasma concentrations of Ang II, adrenaline, and noradrenaline by 90, 79, and 40%, respectively and also prevented PDA and RS recovery. By itself, lisinopril treatment caused a gradual and sustained decrease in PDA and RS, and reductions in basal plasma Ang II and adrenaline concentrations. Bolus injection of a catecholamine cocktail (4 nmol/kg noradrenaline plus 40 nmol/kg adrenaline) in the lisinopril+papaverine-treated trout, to supplement their circulating catecholamine concentrations and mimic those observed in fish treated only with papaverine, resulted in a temporary recovery in PDA and RS. These results indicate that the RAS and the acute humoral adrenergic response are both recruited during an acute hypotensive stress, and have important roles in the compensatory response to hypotension in rainbow trout. However, whereas the contribution of the RAS to PDA recovery is largely indirect and relies on an Ang II-mediated secretion of catecholamines, the contribution from the adrenergic system is direct and relies at least in part on plasma catecholamines.  (+info)

1. Plasma and platelet free catecholamine concentrations were measured in 22 normal subjects and in 10 treated and 11 untreated patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia.. 2. Plasma noradrenaline concentrations were significantly higher in both treated and untreated hypercholesterolaemic patients than in normal subjects. Adrenaline concentrations did not differ.. 3. Platelet noradrenaline levels were higher in untreated hypercholesterolaemic patients than in normal subjects.. 4. Positive correlations between the plasma noradrenaline concentration and the platelet noradrenaline concentration were observed in both normal subjects and hypercholesterolaemic patients.. 5. Combining the data for normal subjects and hypercholesterolaemic patients revealed that the plasma noradrenaline concentration correlated positively with the plasma cholesterol concentration. The platelet noradrenaline concentration was also found to correlate with the plasma cholesterol concentration.. 6. Our ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of central control of adrenal catecholamine biosynthesis and release. AU - Slotkin, T. A.. AU - Chantry, Caroline J. AU - Bartolome, J.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - In the mature rat, sympatho-adrenal Stressors evoke release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla accompanied by stimulation of activity of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes; both processes are controlled transsynaptically by impulses arising in the central nervous system. In the neonatal rat, drugs which ordinarily elicit sympatho-adrenal reflexes do not evoke neurally-mediated release and do not induce tyrosine hydroxylase or dopamine beta-hydroxylase, despite the fact that the central nervous system senses the stimuli and sends impulses down sympathetic preganglionic neurons; reflex responses first appear toward the end of the first week of postnatal life and are fully mature by 10 days of age. Since the immature adrenal medulla is capable of secreting catecholamines and inducing tyrosine ...
D.P. Murray, R.D.S. Watson, A.V. Zezulka, R.G. Murray, W.A. Littler; Plasma Catecholamine Levels, Central Haemodynamics and Beta-Blockade in Myocardial Infarction. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1988; 74 (s18): 72P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs074072Pa. Download citation file:. ...
Serial hemodynamic and plasma catecholamine responses were compared among 10 healthy men (27 ± 3 years) ( ± 1 standard deviation) during symptom-limited handgrip (33% maximal voluntary contraction for 4.4 ± 1.8 minutes), cold pressor testing (6 minutes) and symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise (22 ± 5 minutes). Plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured by radioenzymatic assays; ejection fraction and changes in cardiac volumes were assessed by equilibrium radionuclide angiography. During maximal supine exercise, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations increased three to six times more than during either symptom-limited handgrip or cold pressor testing. Additionally, increases in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, rate-pressure product, stroke volume, ejection fraction and cardiac output were significantly greater during bicycle exercise than during the other two tests. A decrease in ejection fraction of 0.05 units or more was common in young normal subjects during ...
Recently it has been demonstrated that catecholamines are produced and used by macrophages and mediate immune response. The aim of this study was to verify if endothelial cells (EC), that are of myeloid origin, can produce catecholamines. We demonstrated by Real Time PCR that genes coding for TH, DDC, DβH and PNMT, enzymes involved in the synthesis of catecholamines, are all expressed in basal conditions in bovine aorta EC (BAEC) and their expression is enhanced in response to 16 hours of hypoxia (fold of basal: TH:4.7 ± 0.15; DDC:3.9 ± 0.21; DβH:4.8 ± 0.23; PNMT:5.01 ± 0.01). This result was confirmed by western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Moreover, hypoxia enhances norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) release respect to basal conditions (NE:+44,7±11,3; EPI:+51,6±6% of basal). In order to assess the signal transduction pathway that regulates catecholamines synthesis in EC, we overexpressed in BAEC either PKA or the transcription factor CREB, since PKA/CREB activation ...
ONEILL, H.A.; WEBB, E.C.; FRYLINCK, L. and STRYDOM, P.. Urinary catecholamine concentrations in three beef breeds at slaughter. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2012, vol.42, n.5, pp.545-549. ISSN 2221-4062.. Animal welfare has become an important determinant of meat quality with poor animal temperament leading to huge economic losses to the meat industry due to carcass bruising and condemnation. Handling and transport of live animals is a stressful experience for animals. The temperaments of cattle affect their behaviour and differ between breeds, i.e. studies have shown that Bos indicus types are more temperamental than Sanga and Bos taurus types. Catecholamines (CATs) are considered as indicators of stress, because higher concentrations of CATs in brain tissue were noted in animals that are better adapted to stressful situations. In the present study, urinary CATs of three beef breeds were determined immediately post mortem. Brahman cattle represented Bos indicus types, Simmentaler cattle ...
We report the effects of a tyrosine (and phenylalanine)-free amino acid mixture on tyrosine levels, ex vivo catecholamine synthesis and in vivo catecholamine release in brain regions of the rat. Administration of a tyrosine-free amino acid load reduced tissue levels of tyrosine (-50% after 2 h) in all brain regions examined (frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum). The tyrosine-free amino acid mixture also reduced DOPA accumulation: this effect was most marked in striatum (-44%) and nucleus accumbens (-34%), areas with a predominantly dopaminergic innervation. Smaller decreases (-20-24%) were detected in other areas (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus). The effect on DOPA accumulation was prevented by supplementing the mixture with tyrosine/phenylalanine. The tyrosine-free amino acid mixture did not alter 5-HTP accumulation in any region. In microdialysis experiments, the tyrosine-free amino acid mixture did not consistently alter striatal extracellular dopamine under basal conditions but markedly, and
1. To determine the reproducibility of a mental arithmetic stress test and a handgrip exercise test, we studied the responses of blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow and plasma catecholamines on two occasions, with an interval of at least 1 week, in 24 normotensive and 22 hypertensive subjects.. 2. The se of a single observation of the percentage changes of blood pressure ranged from 3.9 to 9.3% in normotensive subjects and from 3.9 to 7.4% in hypertensive subjects in both tests. For heart rate, these values were 4.9-12.3% in the normotensive subjects and 4.8-5.7% in the hypertensive subjects. However, there was a wide individual scatter of these haemodynamic responses during both tests. The forearm blood flow, only measured during mental arithmetic, had an se of a single observation of 33.7%.. 3. In 10 normotensive subjects the se of a single observation of the change in plasma noradrenaline was 0.16 nmol/l during handgrip exercise and 0.09 nmol/l during mental arithmetic. The ...
24 hour fasting and adrenoreceptor blocking agent influence on adrenal catecholamine synthesis rate changes induced by combined thermal and immobilization stress in ...
Catecholaminergic means "related to catecholamines". The catecholamine neurotransmitters include dopamine, epinephrine (adrenaline), and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). A catecholaminergic agent (or drug) is a chemical which functions to directly modulate the catecholamine systems in the body or brain. Examples include adrenergics and dopaminergics. ...
Levels of serum cortisol, plasma free fatty acids (FFA), and urinary catecholamines were collected in 31 patients with acute myocardial infarction on the day of admission to the coronary care unit (samples obtained from 15 patients with diseases other than myocardial infarction were considered as controls). These values were correlated with the presence or subsequent development of left ventricular failure, arrhythmias, shock, or death. Sixteen of 17 infarction patients without the above complications had cortisol levels less than 20 µg%; 10 of 12 patients with complications had higher cortisol levels. All of the infarction patients without complications had plasma FFA levels less than 1100 µEq/liter, while six of nine patients with complications had levels of 1100 µEq/liter or higher. Fourteen of 16 patients without complications had urinary catecholamines less than 12.5 µg%, while seven of 10 patients with complications had levels greater than this. Of interest were a few patients without ...
The catecholamine neurotransmitters are amino-acid derivatives of tyrosine. DOPA, tyrosine, phenylalanine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine and baseline are resolved on a Primesep 100 column with UV-transparent phosphate buffer. This method can be used for analysis of catecholamines and related impurities in various matrices. Peak order and retention time can be changed by changing the amount of ACN, buffer concentration and buffer pH. Various buffers can be used to accommodate desired detection technique. Primesep 100 is a reversed-phase cation-exchange mixed-mode column that can be used for analysis of polar neutral, polar ionizable, polar zwitter-ionic, hydrophobic neutral, and hydrophobic ionic compounds in the same run. Column can be operated in reverse-phase, cation-exchange, anion-exclusion, HILIC and mixed-modes depending on the mobile phase selection and nature of analytes. Column is compatible with LC/MS and does not require use of ion-pairing reagents. ...
Concentration-effect curves were obtained using isolated perfused (5 ml min : 25°C) bovine adrenals stimulated with chlorpromazine, caffeine or d-amphetamine. with and without calcium in the medium. The presence of extracellular calcium had no effect on catecholamine release by chlorpromazine or high concentrations of d-amphetamine but enhanced the response to caffeine or low concentrations of d-amphetamine. Procaine (10-3 M) blocked the effect of extracellular calcium but had no effect on drug-evoked secretion in calcium-free medium. Magnesium (5 x 10-3 M), by contrast, blocked drug-evoked release in time absence of calcium. Catecholamine release induced by chlorpromazine (10-3 M), caffeine (10-1 M) or d-amphetamine (5 x 10-2 in calcium-free medium generally paralleled 40Ca and 45Ca efflux from radiocalcium-labeled glands. However, d-amphetamine initially released catecholamines without significant effect on calcium efflux, although release of both substances increased after termination of ...
Synonyms for Catecholamines in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Catecholamines. 9 words related to catecholamine: endocrine, hormone, internal secretion, noradrenaline, norepinephrine, Adrenalin, adrenaline, epinephrin, epinephrine. What are synonyms for Catecholamines?
The complexities of catecholamine physiology have intrigued physicians and the public alike for centuries. Epinephrine was isolated in 1897 by John Jacob Abel (1), and in parallel in 1901 by the Japanese scientist Jokichi Takamine (2), who called it adrenaline. Quickly the positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of catecholamines were appreciated and exploited, but by the second half of the 20th century the adverse effects of chronic exposure were increasingly recognized, including their roles in hypertension and heart failure (HF), eventually yielding β-adrenoceptor blockers as HF therapy.. More recently the notion that short-term effects of catecholamines are temporary and reversible has been challenged. Acute HF in the context of adrenergic "storms" has highlighted that high circulating catecholamine levels can either be toxic or cause acute negative inotropic effects. However, the long-term effects of these acute surges in endogenous or exogenous catecholamines and associated acute ...
DefinitionThis test measures the levels of catecholamines in the blood. Catecholamines are hormones made by the adrenal glands. The three catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenalin), norepinephrine, and dopamine.
The management of patients with pheochromocytomas and the malignant potential of benign pheochromocytomas have challenged physicians for several decades. The usual criteria used to evaluate other types of tumors (e.g., cellular atypia, increased mitotic activity, and vascular or capsular invasion) have not been considered reliable predictors of malignancy in patients with pheochromocytomas.. Goldstein and associates reviewed the presentation, localization, surgical management, pathology and long-term outcomes in patients with pheochromocytomas. During a 48-year period, 104 patients presented to the authors with 108 pheochromocytomas. Before 1968, routine provocative tests included histamine and glucagon stimulation and regi-tine infusion. Beginning in 1968, virtually all patients underwent biochemical confirmation of pheochromocytoma by increased catecholamine and catecholamine metabolite concentration in a 24-hour urine sample or elevated plasma catecholamine concentration.. Historically, ...
Lung function was measured at 30 minutes and again at 2 hours after birth in 12 infants delivered vaginally, in 15 infants delivered by elective caesarean section under general anaesthesia (GA), and in 15 delivered under epidural anesthesia (EDA). Umbilical arterial blood was analysed for pH and for concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol. No important differences in gestational age, birthweight, Apgar scores, or haematocrit were found among the three groups. Tidal volume and minute ventilation measured 30 minutes after birth were lower in infants delivered by caesarean section than in those delivered vaginally and at 2 hours the tidal volume was still lower in the babies delivered by caesarean section than in those delivered vaginally. Dynamic compliance was lower at 30 minutes in the group that had a caesarean section than in the vaginal group, and this difference was significant at two hours. Tidal volume, minute ventilation, and dynamic compliance in the GA and EDA groups did not ...
Catecholamines are used to increase cardiac output and blood pressure, aiming ultimately at restoring/improving tissue perfusion. While intuitive in its concept, this approach nevertheless implies to be effective that regional organ perfusion would increase in parallel to cardiac output or perfusion pressure and that the catecholamine does not have negative effects on the microcirculation. Inotropic agents may be considered in some conditions, but it requires prior optimization of cardiac preload. Alternative approaches would be either to minimize exposure to vasopressors, tolerating hypotension and trying to prioritize perfusion but this may be valid as long as perfusion of the organ is preserved, or to combine moderate doses of vasopressors to vasodilatory agents, especially if these are predominantly acting on the microcirculation. In this review, we will discuss the pros and cons of the use of catecholamines and alternative agents for improving tissue perfusion in septic shock.
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An overview by Cosentino et al. about the role of endogenous catecholamines in immune cells and in immunoregulation and physiology..
Marley, PD, McLeod, J, Anderson, C and Thompson, KA 1995, Nerves containing nitric oxide synthase and their possible function in the control of catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla, Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 184-194, doi: 10.1016/0165-1838(95)00013-N. ...
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in developed countries. Smoking is an established risk factor for this malignancy but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous reports have provided evidence that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and beta-adrenergic receptors (α-ARs) stimulate the growth and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. But a potential cooperation of these two receptor families in the regulation of pancreatic cancer has not been studied to date. Using two pancreatic cancer cell lines and immortalized pancreatic duct epithelia in vitro, our current data show, that all three cell lines synthesized and released the catecholamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline upon exposure to nicotine and that this activity was regulated by the α3, 5 & 7-nAChRs. In accord with the established function of these catecholamines as α-AR agonists, nicotine-induced cell proliferation was blocked by the α-AR antagonist propranolol. ...
1. Plasma catecholamine, haemodynamic and metabolic responses to sustained isometric exercise were studied in eight healthy subjects, who maintained handgrip at the 30% level of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for as long as possible.. 2. The sustained handgrip was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) concentrations.. 3. The increase in plasma NA during handgrip was greater than that associated with heavy dynamic work involving large muscle groups.. 4. The results suggest that the known haemodynamic responses to static effort are related to a powerful activation of the adrenergic system, which may result from a reflex mechanism initiated in the exercising muscles. ...
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in developed countries. Smoking is an established risk factor for this malignancy but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous reports have provided evidence that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and beta adrenergic receptors (β-AR) stimulate the growth and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. However, a potential cooperation of these two receptor families in the regulation of pancreatic cancer has not been studied to date. Using two pancreatic cancer cell lines and immortalized pancreatic duct epithelia in vitro, our current data show that all three cell lines synthesized and released the catecholamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline upon exposure to nicotine and that this activity was regulated by α3, α5, and α7-nAChRs. In accordance with the established function of these catecholamines as β-AR agonists, nicotine-induced cell proliferation was blocked by the β-AR antagonist ...
Introduction: Stress inhibits the development of tolerance to morphine analgesia via activating Hypothalamic- Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis. Modified catecholamine systems have been reported following morphine tolerance development. In the current study we tried to evaluate changes in the gene expression levels for MAO-A, MAO-B, COMT and thyrosine hydroxylase (TyH) enzymes following ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Anna M W Taylor, Niall P Murphy, Christopher J Evans, Catherine M Cahill].
Video articles in JoVE about uric acid include Biochemical Measurement of Neonatal Hypoxia, A Convenient Method for Extraction and Analysis with High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography of Catecholamine Neurotransmitters and Their Metabolites, Performing Vaginal Lavage, Crystal Violet Staining, and Vaginal Cytological Evaluation for Mouse Estrous Cycle Staging Identification, Application of an In vitro DNA Protection Assay to Visualize Stress Mediation Properties of the Dps Protein, A Simple Fractionated Extraction Method for the Comprehensive Analysis of Metabolites, Lipids, and Proteins from a Single Sample, Application of Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Nitric Oxide (NO•) Probes, the geNOps, for Real-time Imaging of NO• Signals in Single Cells, Consensus Brain-derived Protein, Extraction Protocol for the Study of Human and Murine Brain Proteome Using Both 2D-DIGE and Mini 2DE Immunoblotting, HPLC Measurement of the DNA Oxidation Biomarker, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine, in
18 Adrenaline and noradrenaline: Most of the synthesis occurs in the adrenergic nerve ending and stored in granular vesicles called chromaffin granules close to the site of release into synaptic cleft . Biosynthesis could also occur in suprarenal medulla and other tissues. The enzyme (N-methyl transferase) which catalyses the conversion of noradrenaline to adrenaline occurs almost exclusively in suprarenal medulla and is therefore missing in the peripheral nerve terminals. Hence noradrenaline is the final step in the synthetic process in most adrenergic nerves. Catecholamines are sympathomimetics that contain the catechol nucleus (e.g. noradrenaline and adrenaline). Catecholamines are stored in synaptic granules in two forms in equilibrium: Bound noradrenaline with ATP and protein is the (inactive part). Free noradrenaline is released by nerve stimulation. Another portion of it is stored in the cytoplasm in free form (cytoplasmic free noradrenaline). ...
Catecholamines are hormones made by your adrenal glands like dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Your doctor may want to test your levels if he thinks you might have a rare tumor thats affecting your hormone levels.
Nineteen patients with normal renin idiopathic hypertension were arbitrarily classified as salt-sensitive or salt-resistant depending on whether their mean arterial pressure did or did not increase by 8% or more when sodium intake was increased. The
Posted on January 6, 2018 By Gabriel Bassi Whats Hot. A recent J. Immunology study provides perhaps the first evidence that catecholamines such as norepinephrine and epinephrine suppress the production of interleukin-27 (IL-27) via the activation of β2-adrenoceptors, and by mechanisms involving IL-10 and the JNK signaling pathway. Homeostasis within the immune system is largely dependent on cytokines, the hormones of the immune system that […] ...
Wednesday my Endo said i have an adrenal tumor. Norepinephrine,Pl- (0-399) mine was 1042 Catecholamine,TOT,PL- (0-699) mine was 1189 My thyroid was still out of whack- TSH- 0.179 Hyper...
Arbutamine is a short-acting synthetic potent nonselective β-adrenoceptor agonist that increases heart rate, cardiac contractility, and systolic blood pressure. Arbutamine is a catecholamine for a pharmacological cardiac stress agen. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
The catecholamine norepinephrine is required for fetal survival, but its essential function is unknown. When catecholamine-deficient [tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) null] mouse fetuses die at embryonic day (E)13.5-14.5, they resemble wild-type (wt) fetuse
The catecholamines - dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are successively derived from tyrosine. Syn-thesis occurs in the nerve terminals and in
Phosphodiesterase 3B is activated by inflammatory kinases, leading to attenuated catecholamine signalling in obesity - novel pathway shows potential for drug discovery
I want to know if the amount of adrenaline in ones blood system can be measured somehow by a 24-hour collection of urine. I know adrenaline is a catecholamine and that 24-hour collection is required to do a proper catecholamine test; however, Id like to know if adrenaline is measured as one of the catecholamines. Thank you if you can answer this ...
Incubation of cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells with p-chloromercuribenzoate (50-500 microM), a sulfhydryl-reacting agent, caused an increase in the secretion of catecholamines, p-Chloromercuriphenyl sulfonate, a p-chloromercuribenzoate analogue that poorly penetrates the cell membrane, caused a similar increase in catecholamine secretion. In both cases, catecholamine secretion was dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, p-chloromercuribenzoate caused both 45Ca2+ influx into the cells and an increase in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. The increases in catecholamine secretion and 45Ca2+ influx behaved similarly in relation to p-chloromercuribenzoate concentration. The time courses of the increased secretion, 45Ca2+ influx, and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration by p-chloromercuribenzoate were also quite similar. The stimulation of catecholamine secretion by p-chloromercuribenzoate was reversed by washing the cells with dithiothreitol-containing medium, but not by dithiothreitol
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nocturnal masseter muscle activity and urinary catecholamine levels in bruxers. AU - Clark, G. T.. AU - Rugh, John D. AU - Handelman, S. L.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Nocturnal electromyographic recordings of masseter muscle activity were performed on 20 bruxist and ten control subjects. Each subject collected two 24-hour urine samples. An analysis of urinary catecholamine content was performed. A positive relationship was found between increased epinephrine content and high levels of nocturnal masseter muscle activity.. AB - Nocturnal electromyographic recordings of masseter muscle activity were performed on 20 bruxist and ten control subjects. Each subject collected two 24-hour urine samples. An analysis of urinary catecholamine content was performed. A positive relationship was found between increased epinephrine content and high levels of nocturnal masseter muscle activity.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019168872&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of catechol O-methyltransferase to the removal of accumulated interstitial catecholamines evoked by myocardial ischemia. AU - Kuroko, Yosuke. AU - Fujii, Takafumi. AU - Yamazaki, Toji. AU - Akiyama, Tsuyoshi. AU - Ishino, Kozo. AU - Sano, Shunji. AU - Mori, Hidezo. PY - 2005/11/11. Y1 - 2005/11/11. N2 - Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays an important role for clearance of high catecholamine levels. Although myocardial ischemia evokes similar excessive catecholamine accumulation, it is uncertain whether COMT activity is involved in the removal of accumulated catecholamines evoked by myocardial ischemia. We examined how COMT activity affects myocardial catecholamine levels during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. We implanted a dialysis probe into the left ventricular myocardial free wall and measured dialysate catecholamines levels in anesthetized rabbits. Dialysate catecholamine levels served as an index of myocardial interstitial catecholamine levels. We ...
en] We investigated hemodynamics and plasma catecholamine concentrations in eight consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected pheochromocytoma. The same anesthesia protocol was used in all patients: a continuous infusion of sufentanil 0.5 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1) and isoflurane 0.4% (end-tidal) in 50% N2O/O2. Systolic arterial pressure was maintained between 120 and 160 mm Hg by adjusting an infusion of nicardipine, a calcium-channel blocker, while tachycardia (,100 bpm) was treated by 1-mg boluses of atenolol. Hemodynamics (thermodilution technique) and plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured before surgery, after the induction of anesthesia, after turning the patient to the lateral position, during pneumoperitoneum, during tumor manipulation, after adrenalectomy, and at the end of surgery. Two events resulted in significant catecholamine release: creation of the pneumoperitoneum and adrenal gland manipulation. As a consequence, a twofold increase in ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of carotid sinus and cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors in the reflex control of adrenal medullary catecholamine secretion. Afferent input from carotid sinus and cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors was decreased by carotid occlusion or cervical vagal cold block, respectively. Increases in arterial pressure were significantly greater when either intervention was tested in the presence of the other, with the role of the carotid sinus baroreflex being dominant. Neither carotid occlusion nor vagal cold block resulted in a significant increase in plasma epinephrine or norepinephrine concentrations. However, carotid occlusion during vagal block caused a significant increase in plasma epinephrine (+87%) and norepinephrine concentrations (+128%). Likewise, vagal block during carotid occlusion increased plasma epinephrine (+82%) and norepinephrine concentrations (+73%). Similar experiments performed in a group of chemically sympathectomized animals ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute hypertensive response, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) 140 mmHg or more within 24 h of onset, is frequently observed in hemorrhagic stroke patients. Although catecholamine surge is pivotal in its pathogenesis, few studies have evaluated the relationship between admission SBP and plasma catecholamine levels.. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was carried out to investigate potential differences in the acute hypertensive reaction between subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) by analyzing 200 SAH and 200 SICH patients. In each category, patients were quadrichotomized on the basis of their SBPs in emergency department: less than 140 mmHg, 140-184 mmHg, 185-219 mmHg, and 220 mmHg or more. The plasma catecholamine levels were compared among the four groups. Furthermore, multivariate regression analyses were carried out to identify variables correlated with hypertensive emergency (SBP≥185 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma catecholamines and cardiovascular responses during converting enzyme inhibition in normotensive and hypertensive man. AU - Niarchos, Andreas P.. AU - Pickering, Thomas G.. AU - Morganti, Alberto. AU - Laragh, John H.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - The hemodynamic and plasma catecholamine responses to isometric exercise and head up tilt were investigated in normotensive and hypertensive subjects during normal and low sodium intake and before and during the administration of the converting enzyme inhibitors teprotide or captopril. Although teprotide and captopril decreased significantly the mean arterial pressure during both sodium intakes the normal pattern of hemodynamic response to hand grip and head up tilt was preserved. Moreover changes of plasma catecholamines during hand grip and head up tilt were not affected either by teprotide or by captopril. When following the administration of teprotide or captopril fainting occurred either in the seated position or during head up ...
A 60 year old hypertensive patient suffered several cerebral infarctions. A phaeochromocytoma was suspected because the excretion rates of vanillylmandelic acid and its methoxy derivatives were raised and the patient had hypertensive crises. No tumour was found, however, by 131mI-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy and computed tomography of the abdomen. Moreover, the enhanced orthostatic plasma catecholamine response suggested that the high excretion rates of catecholamine metabolites were more likely to be caused by the syndrome of raised catecholamines after cerebrovascular accidents than a phaeochromocytoma. A phaeochromocytoma should not be diagnosed within several months of cerebral infarction without first excluding the possibility of a hyperadrenergic state induced by cerebral infarction. ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Enhanced catecholamine synthesis in isolated rat superior cervical ganglia caused by nerve stimulation: dissociation between ganglionic transmission and catecholamine synthesis. by Mitchell I. Steinberg et al.
Looking for online definition of Catecholamine hormone in the Medical Dictionary? Catecholamine hormone explanation free. What is Catecholamine hormone? Meaning of Catecholamine hormone medical term. What does Catecholamine hormone mean?
Results Compared with normoxic conditions, hypoxia increased TH protein expression and catecholamine synthesis and decreased release of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in OA/RA synovial cells. This inhibitory effect on TNF was reversed by TH inhibition with α-methyl-para-tyrosine (αMPT), which was particularly evident under hypoxic conditions. Incubation with specific TH cofactors (tetrahydrobiopterin and Fe2+) increased hypoxia-induced inhibition of TNF, which was also reversed by αMPT. To address a possible clinical role of TH+ cells, murine TH+ neuronal cells were generated from mesenchymal stem cells. TH+ neuronal cells exhibited a typical catecholaminergic phenotype. Adoptive transfer of TH+ neuronal cells markedly reduced CIA in mice, and 6-hydroxydopamine, which depletes TH+ cells, reversed this effect.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of catecholamines on pulmonary circulation at elevated vascular tone. AU - Barman, Scott A. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The effect of catecholamine stimulation on the longitudinal resistance and compliance distribution in the canine pulmonary vasculature was evaluated under control vascular tone and after vascular tone was elevated using the thromboxane analogue U-46619. The arterial-, venous-, and double-occlusion techniques were used to measure the segmental resistances and compliances in isolated dog lung blood perfused at constant flow. The results of this study indicate that at control vascular tone the catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine increase pulmonary vascular resistance and decrease pulmonary vascular compliance through α1- and α2-receptor-mediated stimulation with precapillary α1- and α2-receptors and postcapillary α2-receptors interacting with precapillary and postcapillary β2-receptors. In addition, epinephrine appears to have a ...
Cutibacterium acnes (former Propionibacterium acnes), is a bacterium characterized by high genomic variability, consisting of four subtypes and six major ribotypes. Skin is the largest neuroendocrine organ of the human body and many cutaneous hormones and neurohormones can modulate bacterial physiology. Here, we investigated the effect of catecholamines, i.e., epinephrine and norepinephrine, on two representative strains of C. acnes, of which the genome has been fully sequenced, identified as RT4 acneic and RT6 non-acneic strains. Epinephrine and norepinephrine (10−6 M) had no impact on the growth of C. acnes but epinephrine increased RT4 and RT6 biofilm formation, as measured by crystal violet staining, whereas norepinephrine was only active on the RT4 strain. We obtained the same results by confocal microscopy with the RT4 strain, whereas there was no effect of either catecholamine on the RT6 strain. However, this strain was also sensitive to catecholamines, as shown by MATs tests, as epinephrine
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; EC 2.1.1.6) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), catecholestrogens, and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure. In humans, catechol-O-methyltransferase protein is encoded by the COMT gene. Two isoforms of COMT are produced: the soluble short form (S-COMT) and the membrane bound long form (MB-COMT). As the regulation of catecholamines is impaired in a number of medical conditions, several pharmaceutical drugs target COMT to alter its activity and therefore the availability of catecholamines. COMT was first discovered by the biochemist Julius Axelrod in 1957. Catechol-O-methyltransferase is involved in the inactivation of the catecholamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine). The enzyme introduces a methyl group to the catecholamine, which is donated by S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). Any compound having a catechol structure, like catecholestrogens and ...
Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), also known as broken heart syndrome, is a severe and acute heart failure syndrome that often resolves spontaneously but can also be associated with significant mortality. TTS predominantly affects post-menopausal women and is usually triggered by identifiable physical or emotional stress. Considerable evidence suggests the precipitating factor to be the catecholamine surge from excess sympathetic activity that occurs during these events because it can be mimicked by exogenous catecholamine administration (1). TTS was first described in 1990 in Japan (2), when the shape formed by an akinetic left ventricular apex with hyperkinetic basal segments was compared to a Japanese Octopus pot, or takotsubo.. The importance of catecholamines in the induction of TTS has since been robustly demonstrated in vivo in preclinical rodent models. A number of groups have used these models to investigate the pathophysiology of TTS, including how the direct catecholaminergic myocardial ...
article{33c2ce44-ae43-4c7b-89f3-7561ca0ab535, abstract = {The Langerhans cells are capable of taking up L-dopa and the catecholamines dopamine and noradrenaline when exposed to these substances in vitro. Within the cell L-dopa is found in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus, whereas the catecholamines are confined to cytoplasmic granules. The L-dopa uptake is most probably carrier-mediated and the hypothesis is brought forward that L-dopa enters the cell by exchange diffusion. At present little is known about the nature of the amine uptake mechanism. }, author = {Axelsson, S and Elofsson, Rolf and Falck, Bengt and Sjöborg, Steinar}, language = {eng}, pages = {31--35}, series = {Acta Dermatovenerologica Supplement}, title = {In vitro-uptake of L-Dopa and catecholamines into the epidermal Langerhans cell}, volume = {79}, year = {1978 ...
We characterized a unique mouse line in which the expression of AT1AR is deleted from TH-expressing cells. This deletion was verified by loss of AT1AR binding in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla, as well as loss of a functional response to Ang II in the RVLM. At baseline, we observed no effect of this deletion. Subcutaneous infusion of a low dose of Ang II increased BP in both groups, but the increase was significantly delayed in onset (Discussion in the online-only Data Supplement) and reduced in magnitude in the CAT-KO mice. In WT mice, Ang II-dependent hypertension was associated with increased sympathetic activity as evidenced by increased power in the midfrequency band of the mean arterial pressure and HR spectra and activation of ROS production in key brain regions involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity. The CAT-KO mice have an attenuated sympathetic activation in response to Ang II and showed reduced ROS production in the RVLM. Overall, in Ang II-dependent hypertension, ...
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Vesicular exocytosis is a crucial process for living cells by which signalling species such as acetylcholine and catecholamines and other vesicular contents can be secreted into the extracellular environment. Single cell electrochemistry, especially the "semi-artificial synapse" based amperometry, has been used to scrutinize exocytosis dynamics of single vesicles due to its high sensitivity and appropriate temporal resolution. Important characteristics of vesicular release as well as the effects of biological, chemical and physical parameters on them have thus been evaluated for many cell lines. This has led to contest the conventional full release mode. Recently, the view that partial release is the most common for most neurotransmitters stored in dense core vesicles has gained acceptance. However, the fundamental reasons leading to partial fusion remain an open question waiting experimental characterization. In this work, catecholamine release was elicited from PC12 using sufficiently small ...
Both sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) generator, and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) have been found to raise cGMP levels in bovine chromaffin cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The effect of these compounds on catecholamine secretion and calcium influx has also been studied, and both compounds were found to produce a slowly developing inhibitory effect on acetylcholine- or depolarization-stimulated catecholamine secretion and calcium increases without affecting the spontaneous release or the basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These inhibitory effects were observed only at high doses of acetylcholine or high levels of extracellular potassium and required concentrations of SNP or CNP very similar to those that increased cGMP levels. Preincubation with 100 microM zaprinast, a cGMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor able to increase cGMP levels, mimicked the inhibitory effects of SNP and CNP. We investigated the effect of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ...
To further understand the role of neuro-immunological interactions in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we studied the influence of sympathetic neurotransmitters on cytokine production of T cells in patients with RA. T cells were isolated from peripheral blood of RA patients or healthy donors (HDs), and stimulated via CD3 and CD28. Co-incubation was carried out with epinephrine or norepinephrine in concentrations ranging from 10-5 M to 10-11 M. Interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-10 were determined in the culture supernatant with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, IFN-γ and IL-10 were evaluated with intracellular cytokine staining. Furthermore, basal and agonist-induced cAMP levels and catecholamine-induced apoptosis of T cells were measured. Catecholamines inhibited the synthesis of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 at a concentration of 10-5 M. In addition, IFN-γ release was suppressed by 10-7 M epinephrine. Lower catecholamine
100 Capsules 500 mg each Pharmaceutical Grade Hypoallergenic USAGE: Take 1-2 capsules daily, on an empty stomach immediately after arising in the morning, preferably with juice as a carbohydrate source, or as directed by your qualified health consultant. Note: Do not take in conjunction with MAO inhibitor drugs. Not for use by persons with a history of malignant melanoma. Do not use if bipolar, pregnant, suspect pregnancy, or lactating. L-Tyrosine is utilized for the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine. Jarrow Formulas® L-Tyrosine is pure crystalline amino acid from microbiolgical fermentation. It is NOT derived from milk. Keep out of the reach of children. Keep tightly closed in a cool, dry place. SUPPLEMENT FACTS Serving Size 1 Capsule Amount % DV -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- L-Tyrosine 500 mg * ---------------------------------------------------------------------
The role of catechol... | The activity of catecholaminergic neurons in the hypothalamus and the medullary visceral zone (MVZ) in rats in response to restraint water-immersion stress (RWIS) was measured by use of dual Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry. In RWIS rats Fos immunoreactive (...
We demonstrate sensitive spatially resolved detection of physiological chromophores that emit in the ultraviolet (,330 nm). An atypical laser source (a visible wavelength femtosecond optical parametric oscillator), and an unconventional collection geometry (a lensless detector that detects the forward-emitted fluorescence) enable this detection. We report the excitation spectra of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine, together with near-UV emitters serotonin and tryptophan, in the range of 550-595 nm. We estimate the molecular two-photon action cross section of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin to be 1.2 mGM (1 GM, or Goppert Mayor, is equal to 10-58 m4 s-1 photon-1), 2 mGM, and 43 mGM, respectively, at 560 nm. The sensitivity achieved by this method holds promise for the microscopic imaging of vesicular catecholamines in live cells.. © 2004 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
We demonstrate sensitive spatially resolved detection of physiological chromophores that emit in the ultraviolet (,330 nm). An atypical laser source (a visible wavelength femtosecond optical parametric oscillator), and an unconventional collection geometry (a lensless detector that detects the forward-emitted fluorescence) enable this detection. We report the excitation spectra of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine, together with near-UV emitters serotonin and tryptophan, in the range of 550-595 nm. We estimate the molecular two-photon action cross section of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin to be 1.2 mGM (1 GM, or Goppert Mayor, is equal to 10-58 m4 s-1 photon-1), 2 mGM, and 43 mGM, respectively, at 560 nm. The sensitivity achieved by this method holds promise for the microscopic imaging of vesicular catecholamines in live cells.. © 2004 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
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14:0 NPS PC Substrate for Lp-PLA2 Enzyme Activity Assay Gram quantities available! Contact us today!. SJK Global Vanilmandelic Acid (VMA) Assay is a quantitative immunoassay for measuring VMA in human urine.. VMA is an end-stage metabolite of the catecholamines: epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Catecholamines are secreted by chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system.. Urinary VMA is elevated in patients with catecholamine secreting tumors including pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma.. VMA levels in urine are also related to adrenal medulla hyperplasia (AMH). Research shows that medulla hyperplasia, hypertension, nocturnal hypoxemia and congestive heart failure may lead to elevated Vanilmandelic acid in patients urine. ...
While this herb is said to boost brain power in general, gotu kola is also considered to be an adaptogen, which means it lowers stress. Stress has an incredibly abhorrent affect on our brains ability to process information and to see things clearly -acting rapidly via catecholamines and more slowly via glucocorticoids. Catecholamine actions involve beta adrenergic receptors and also availability of glucose, whereas glucocorticoids biphasically modulate synaptic plasticity over hours and also produce longer-term changes in dendritic structure that last for weeks - dumbing us down, essentially, with every shallow breath and wrinkled eye-brow. Gotu Kola can help to minimize this reaction ...
Adrenal Glands are the bodies main protection against acute and chronic stress. The glands are yellow, pyramid-shaped and sit on the superior surface of the kidneys in the thoracic abdomen (Griffen & Ojeda, 2000). Part of the endocrine system the adrenal glands release hormones as a response to stressors. Adrenal glands are covered by a connective tissue, which is then covered by a layer of fat for protection and insulation. In general they weigh approximately 5 grams, measure 30 mm wide, 50 mm long and about 10 mm thick. These sizes change as secretory demands increase or decrease.The glands are comprised of two parts; the adrenal cortex, which releases steroid hormones, protects against immediate stress or injury and the adrenal medulla, which releases catecholamines which instigate the mobilization of glucose and fatty acids and prepare body organs for action during acute stress. Thus the relationship of the glands with the nervous system is that of a responsive nature to stimulants (in this ...
Decreased sympathetic activation of adipose tissue due to impaired catecholamine synthesis or sensitivity has been observed in obese patients (Reynisdottir et al., 1994; Stallknecht et al., 1997;Horowitz and Klein, 2000; Jocken et al., 2008). Obesity is commonly associated with blunted whole-body catecholamine-induced lipolysis (Horowitz and Klein, 2000). This is thought to occur through a number of mechanisms, including leptin resistance (Myers et al., 2010), as well as the reduced expression of β-adrenergic receptors (Reynisdottir et al., 1994) or increased expression of α2-adrenergic receptors (Stich et al., 2002). White adipose tissue and cultured isolated adipocytes from obese human and mouse models exhibit decreased cAMP-stimulated lipolysis and fat oxidation, due to reduced energy expenditure from decreased mitochondrial uncoupling (Yehuda-Shnaidman et al., 2010). This desensitization to adrenergic activation is also a feature of childhood onset obesity (Bougneres et al., 1997; Enoksson ...
Synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for adrenomedullary hormones. 2 synonyms for hormone: endocrine, internal secretion. What are synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones?
The effect of 0.5-1.0 microM taxol, a potent promoter of microtubule polymerization in vitro, was studied on the secretory activity of chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Taxol was found to have a dual effect: the long-term effect (after a 1-h incubation) of taxol was to induce almost complete inhibition of catecholamine release, whereas after a short incubation (10 min) a massive, nicotine-independent release of catecholamine was produced. From results obtained using the patch-clamp technique to study the Ca++-dependent K+ channels (Ic channels), it was possible to conclude that taxol probably provokes an augmentation of free [Ca++]i in the cytoplasm, values increasing from 10(-8) M at rest to several 10(-7) M. The increased spontaneous release of stored neurohormones and the increased frequency of opening of Ic channels occur simultaneously and could both originate from a rise of [Ca++]i upon taxol addition. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural studies showed that 13-h taxol treatment ...
PNMT / PENT, 0.1 ml. The product of this gene catalyzes the last step of the catecholamine biosynthesis pathway, which methylates norepinephrine to form epinephrine (adreline).
RESULTS: Surgery resulted in decreased ex vivo mHLA-DR expression, but no change in IL-10 or IL-12 plasma levels. mHLA-DR was low in LPS culture over the 4 postoperative days, whereas IL-10 release was increased and not counterbalanced by IL-12p40 production. The hormonal plasma pattern showed increased prolactin during anesthesia and peaks of cortisol, ACTH and arginine vasopressin during waking, but no alteration in catecholamine levels. mHLA-DR expression in LPS culture was not modified by plasma replacement, except immediately after surgery ...
This covers the inhaled β-agonists used for bronchodilation. Information on catecholamines and sympathomimetics with activity on β-receptors is covered under adrenergic vasoactives.. ...
兒茶酚胺(英語:Catecholamines)是具有兒茶酚核的(苯乙)胺類化合物的統稱,是由腎上腺產生的一類應激擬交感「鬥或逃」(Fight or Flight)激素。最重要的兒茶酚胺是腎上腺素(Epinephrine)、去甲腎上腺素(正腎上腺素)和多巴胺(Dopamine),均是從苯丙氨酸和酪氨酸合成。不少精神興奮劑也是兒茶酚胺的類似物。. 兒茶酚胺有去甲腎上腺素(NAd)、腎上腺素(Ad)、多巴胺(DA),過多的兒茶酚胺分泌可能導致高血壓和心肌梗塞。而低水平的兒茶酚胺可能引起低血壓、心肌缺血等的發生 、在臨床上兒茶酚胺常被用來治療神經源性、心源性、中毒源性休克早期,但過多劑量可能導致局部組織壞死或者腎臟衰竭。. ...
The chemical reactions and pathways involving any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.
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Biomimetic poly(catecholamine) coatings have gained much attention in recent years due to their versatility as functional materials. Despite this, only limited methods are available to modify the function and property of poly(catecholamine) coatings, primarily through post-modification methods. Our approach
Although you have listed some of your past medical history, unfortunately you do not explain the symptoms you presented with to your doctor for us to have a clear idea of why you are having a 24 hour urine collection. May we suggest that you speak to the doctor who has arranged for you to have this test, they should be able to answer your questions as they will know your medical history.. If you started collecting your urine at 07.00 you have until 07.00 tomorrow morning, drink plenty of fluids and that should increase your urine output.. Answered by the Health at Hand nurses ...
BACKGROUND - Chromogranin A, coreleased with catecholamines by exocytosis, is cleaved to the catecholamine release-inhibitory fragment catestatin. We identified a natural nonsynonymous variant of catestatin, Gly364Ser, that alters human autonomic function and blood pressure. METHODS AND RESULTS - Gly364Ser heterozygotes and controls underwent physiological and biochemical phenotyping, including catecholamine production, chromogranin A precursor, and its catestatin product. Case-control studies replicated effects of the gene on blood pressure in the population. Gly364Ser displayed diminished inhibition of catecholamine secretion from cultured neurons. Gly/Ser heterozygotes displayed increased baroreceptor slope during upward deflections (by ≈47%) and downward deflections (by ≈44%), increased cardiac parasympathetic index (by ≈2.4-fold), and decreased cardiac sympathetic index (by ≈26%). Renal norepinephrine excretion was diminished by ≈26% and epinephrine excretion by ≈34% in Gly/Ser ...
We have demonstrated previously that spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats exhibit decreased adrenal medullary catecholamine secretion in response to splanchnic nerve terminal stimulation. We hypothesized that this abnormality is caused by changes in the sensitivity of the adrenomedullary chromaffin cells to acetylcholine (ACh). To study this hypothesis, we isolated adrenal glands from control and spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats, perfused them with ACh, and measured catecholamine secretion. Adrenal catecholamine release in response to ACh was significantly decreased at 2, 8, and 16 weeks after the onset of diabetes compared with age-matched, nondiabetic control rats. Catecholamine release in response to perfusion with 20 mM K+ was the same in adrenals from diabetic and control rats. The decreased responsiveness of diabetic rat adrenals to perfusion with ACh was significantly correlated with a decrease in the release of catecholamines in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation. A similar ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sodium-azide-evoked noradrenaline and catecholamine release from peripheral sympathetic nerves and chromaffin cells. AU - Török, Tamás L.. AU - Pauló, Tünde. AU - Tóth, Péter T.. AU - Azzidani, Awad M.. AU - Powis, David A.. AU - Magyar, K.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - 1. 1. The spontaneous release of [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) has been measured from rabbit pulmonary arteries and bovine chromaffin cells in the presence of neuronal uptake blocker cocaine (3 × 10-5 M). 2. 2. The Na+-pump inhibitor sodium-azide (NaN3, 2 mM) produced a moderate increase of [3H]NA release from both preparations and relaxed the arteries. The [3H]releasing action of NaN3 was accompanied by a 30% inhibition of 86Rb-uptake into chromaffin cells. 3. 3. In both preparations, ouabain (10-4 M) markedly increased the release of [3H], contracted the arteries and inhibited the 86Rb-uptake of chromaffin cells by about 75%. A combined application of NaN3 and ouabain produced a similar inhibition of ...
The possibility of differentiating between chromaffin vesicles with different catecholamine contents was tested by studying the distribution of rabbit adrenal dopamine β-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.21) and catecholamines, and the buoyant densities of the catecholamine storage vesicles after isopycnic centrifugation of crude storage vesicle fractions in sucrose density gradients. Catecholamine storage vesicles were prepared from adrenal glands of untreated rabbits, rabbits which had received chlorisondamine chloride (10/kg intraperitoneally) to block ganglionic transmission, and rabbits which had received both chlorisondamine chloride and reserpine (1 mg kg). Adrenal glands were examined 1 day after treatmenmt with chlorisondamine and 1 and 8 days after combined treatment with chlorisondamine and reserpine. Intact storage vesicles obtained from glands of untreated animals had a specific gravity of 1.27, while the membranes obtained from vesicles lysed in distilled water had a specific gravity of 1.12. ...
ORIGINAL ARTICLES Depletion of Catecholaminergic Neurons of the Rostra1 Ventrolateral Medulla in Multiple Systems Atrophy with Autonomic Failure Eduardo E. Benarroch, MD, DSci,* Inge L. Smithson, MS,* Phillip A. Low, MD,* and Joseph E. Parisi, MDt The ventrolateral portion of the intermediate reticular formation of the medulla (ventrolateral medulla, VLM), including the CllAl groups of catecholaminergic neurons, is thought to be involved in control of sympathetic cardiovascular outaow, cardiorespiratory interactions, and reflex control of vasopressin release. As all these functions are affected in patients with multiple systems atrophy (MSA) with autonomic failure, we sought to test the hypothesis that catecholaminergic (tyrosine hydroxylase [THI-positive) neurons of the VLM are depleted in these patients. Medullas were obtained at autopsy from 4 patients with MSA with prominent autonomic failure and 5 patients with no neurological disease. Patients with MSA had laboratory evidence of severe ...
Alright. So Tyrosine is a precursor substrate for adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine in the brain (catecholamines). This study helped us understand it better (click here). As far as we could tell, Tyrosine by itself does not appear to have any major impact on sports performance.. Human studies examining its effect with caffeine vs. caffeine vs. placebo are nil from what we could find. The reason it is in the mix is because empirical evidence suggests that it works synergistically with caffeine. Simply put - it has an impact as a pre-workout stimulant when combined with caffeine. We have found this to be the case as well. Since tyrosine can increase catecholamine production and caffeine can increase catecholamine release - these two compounds should work together to increase the energy effect.. Although there are not numerous studies examining its effect when paired just with caffeine - from an expert review and empirical evidence standpoint its use when paired with caffeine is well ...
Ver más] Mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene are associated with pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, but the role of VHL in sympathoadrenal homeostasis is unknown. We generated mice lacking Vhl in catecholaminergic cells. They exhibited atrophy of the carotid body (CB), adrenal medulla, and sympathetic ganglia. Vhl‐null animals had an increased number of adult CB stem cells, although the survival of newly generated neuron‐like glomus cells was severely compromised. The effects of Vhl deficiency were neither prevented by pharmacological inhibition of prolyl hydroxylases or selective genetic down‐regulation of prolyl hydroxylase‐3, nor phenocopied by hypoxia inducible factor overexpression. Vhl‐deficient animals appeared normal in normoxia but survived for only a few days in hypoxia, presenting with pronounced erythrocytosis, pulmonary edema, and right cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, in the normal sympathoadrenal setting, Vhl deletion does not give rise to tumors but impairs ...
0139] Campese, V. M., Kogosov, E., (April 1995), Renal afferent denervation prevents hypertension in rats with chronic renal failure, 25(4 Pt. 2): 878-882. [0140] Campese, V. M., and Krol, E., (June 2002), Neurogenic factors in renal hypertension, Current Hypertension Reports, 4(3):256-260. [0141] Converse, R. L. Jr., Jacobsen, T. N., Toto, R. D., Jost, C. M., Cosentino, F., Fouad-Tarazi, F., Victor, R. G., (December 1992) Sympathetic overactivity in patients with chronic renal failure, New England Journal of Medicine, 327(27):1912-1918. [0142] Dibona, Gerald F. and Ulla C. Kopp, (January 1997), Neural Control of Renal Function, Physiological Reviews, 77(1): 75-197. [0143] DiBona, G. F. (2003), Neural control of the kidney: past, present and future, Hypertension, 41: 621-624. [0144] Esler, M., Jennings, G., Lambert, G., Meredith, I., Horne, M., Eisenhofer, G., (October 1990) Overflow of catecholamine neurotransmitters to the circulation: source, fate, and functions, Physiological Reviews, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - TRANSPORT AND TURNOVER OF DOPAMINE‐β‐HYDROXYLASE (EC 1.14.2.1) IN SYMPATHETIC NERVES OF THE RAT. AU - Brimijoin, S.. PY - 1972/9. Y1 - 1972/9. N2 - Axoplasmic transport of dopamine‐β‐hydroxylase (DBH), a marker enzyme for catecholamine storage vesicles, was studied in sympathetic nerves of the rat. At 24 h after ligation of the sciatic nerve, there was a marked accumulation of DBH activity in the first 3 mm proximal to the ligature. Immediately distal to the ligature, a slight accumulation took place. Accumulation proximal to the ligature was a linear function of time for at least 6 h; the velocity of transport was calculated as 4.6 mm/h. Local application of 1 ·l of 0.1 M colchicine, caused a rapid increase in DBH activity in superior cervical ganglia. This increase remained linear for 22 h and its rate indicated a turnover time of 12 h for DBH in these ganglia. After application of colchicine to the ganglia, there was a decrease in DBH activity in the submaxillary ...
An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally. [PubChem]
Accumbens 0-64 2-8 30 >100 > 10 >20 1-6 3 22 > 100 >10 >20 Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was measured in tissue homogenates prepared as described by ZIVKOVIC et al. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . The enzyme activity was measured with saturating concentrations of tyrosine and with 0-3 mM pteridine cofactor (dimethyltetrahydropteridine). 932 A. CARENZI, D . L . CHENEY, E. COSTA, A. GUIDOTTI and G . RACAGNI Table 3. Action of opiates, ( + )-amphetamine and antipsychotics on the stimulation of the adenyl cyclase from rat striatum and nucleus accumbens by D A I C 50 (M) Striatum Drug Clozapine Haloperidol ( + )-Amphetamine Morphine Viminol R 2 4 χ 10 N. Effect of tricyclic antidepressant and chloropromazine on brain catecholamine system. In : Proceedings of the International Symposium on Antidepressant Drugs (GARATTINI, S. and BURKES, Μ. N . ) pp. 28-34. Excerpta Medica Foundation, N e w York. ROTH, R. , WALTERS, J. , M U R R I N , L . C. and MORGENROTH, V. H. (1975). D o p a m i n e neurons: role of impulse flow ...
WARNINGS Withdrawal: Patients should be instructed not to discontinue therapy without consulting their physician. Sudden cessation of clonidine treatment has, in some cases, resulted in symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, headache, and tremor accompanied or followed by a rapid rise in blood pressure and elevated catecholamine concentrations in the plasma. The likelihood of such reactions to discontinuation of clonidine therapy appears to be greater after administration of higher doses or continuation of concomitant beta-blocker treatment and special caution is therefore advised in these situations. Rare instances of hypertensive encephalopathy, cerebrovascular accidents and death have been reported after clonidine withdrawal. When discontinuing therapy with clonidine hydrochloride, the physician should reduce the dose gradually over 2 to 4 days to avoid withdrawal symptomatology.. An excessive rise in blood pressure following discontinuation of clonidine therapy can be reversed by ...
When undetected, pheochromocytoma can maim or kill. Therefore, infrequent as the disease may be, accurate, safe, and feasible screening to find these tumors remains an important goal for the primary care physician, the clinical researcher, and the subspecialist alike. This crucial need is addressed by Lenders and colleagues in this issue [1]. Excess catecholamines released into the circulation by a pheochromocytoma cause the clinical manifestations of the disease. Increased plasma concentrations of norepinephrines or epinephrines or both are found in most but not all patients with these neoplasms. However, high plasma concentrations of catecholamines may be found in other disorders, and the limited sensitivity and specificity of measurement of plasma catecholamines for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma has been well established [2, 3 ...
In the present study, we demonstrate that systemic administration of α2-AR agonists reverses LPS- and central PGE2-evoked fevers and can induce a modest hypothermia in normal ambient temperatures. These effects arise from a potent inhibition of the metabolic heat production in BAT and in skeletal muscle during shivering due to an α2-AR-mediated inhibition of the populations of premotor neurons in the rRPa that are responsible for the descending excitatory drives to spinal BAT sympathetic preganglionic neurons and to spinal α-motoneurons. The catecholaminergic neurons providing the endogenous sources of adrenergic agonist for the α2-AR in the rRPa are located in the region of the caudal C1/rostral A1 catecholaminergic cell groups in the VLM. These findings explicate a novel mechanism for the inhibitory regulation of metabolic heat production and support a novel pharmacological approach to the control of excessive or neurogenic fevers that are resistant to commonly prescribed, cyclooxygenase ...
ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce and release cortisol.! These decreases in blood pressure are not accompanied by a significant change in heart rate or plasma catecholamine levels with chronic dosing.. Youll get everything you need to run your online shop.! He also prescribes other medications to essentially all of his patients who have diabetes.! You should work in partnership with your doctor to determine which medication best fits your needs.! When the proper Antabuse dosage is administered, accutane thin hair person becomes unable to digest alcohol; any intake of alcohol results in immediate intoxication and severe hangover symptoms, such as flushing, headache, nausea, hypotension and other unpleasant, even dangerous effects.. How big any of the drugs effects are is unclear.? Para tomar , el colageno se puede encontrar de hasta 20 gramos , pero hay muchas concentraciones y el acido hialuronico depende igualmente de las marcas 1500 mg mas omenos .? That said, low dosage accutane ...
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Hypertension can be an underlying risk element for cardiovascular disease. were observed. By contrast, inhibition of ganglionic transmission with either hexamethonium or prazosin abolished the difference in blood pressure between and wild-type mice. Strikingly, plasma epinephrine concentration as well as urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites were substantially elevated in mice. In freshly isolated chromaffin cells, lack of TRPM4 was shown to cause markedly more acetylcholine-induced exocytotic launch events, while neither cytosolic calcium concentration, size, nor denseness of vesicles were different. We consequently conclude that TRPM4 proteins limit catecholamine launch from chromaffin cells and that contributes to elevated sympathetic build and hypertension. Launch Regulation of blood circulation pressure is normally a complicated integrated response regarding various body organ systems, including vasculature, center, kidneys, adrenal glands, as well as the CNS. These functional ...
Looking for adrenomedullary hormone? Find out information about adrenomedullary hormone. secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon... Explanation of adrenomedullary hormone
Heart failure is a frequent disease in Denmark, and it is associated with very high mortality. Around 60,000 people in Denmark have heart failure, and there is about 11,000 hospitalizations every year due to this disease. From the time of diagnosis, patients survive an average of 4-5 years.. A critical illness mechanism in heart failure is that these patients have high blood levels of catecholamines; epinephrine and norepinephrine, which is stress hormones from the sympathetic nervous system. Standard treatment of heart failure is with the two medical preparations betablockers and ACE-inhibitors.. It is not known what effect betablocker-treatment have on blood concentration of epinephrine and norepinephrine.. It is the purpose of this study, to investigate the effect of Selo-Zok ® (metoprolol) on the blood concentration of epinephrine and norepinephrine. This is done by creating a stress condition for the body, in this case with the bicycle test, while doing blood samples to determine the ...
Deviceless decoupled electrochemical detection of catecholamines in capillary electrophoresis using gold microband array electrodes ...
Catecholamine and trace amine precursors[edit]. L-DOPA, a precursor of dopamine that crosses the blood-brain barrier, is used ... In humans, catecholamines and phenethylaminergic trace amines are derived from the amino acid L-phenylalanine. ... Biosynthetic pathways for catecholamines and trace amines in the human brain[46][47][48] ...
The catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine, secreted by the adrenal medulla form one component of the extended fight-or ... The impact of thyroid hormones is typically of a much longer duration than that of the catecholamines. The physiologically ...
catecholamines. Anabolism. (tyrosine→epinephrine). *Tyrosine → Levodopa → Dopamine → Norepinephrine → Epinephrine. Catabolism/ ...
Phenethylamines (related to catecholamines): *Phenethylamine[7][8][9] (PEA). *N-Methylphenethylamine[10][7][9] (endogenous ... Biosynthetic pathways for catecholamines and trace amines in the human brain[3][4][5] ... These data suggest that a D1/beta receptor gene duplication was required to elaborate novel catecholamine psychomotor adaptive ...
In humans, catecholamines and phenethylaminergic trace amines are derived from the amino acid L-phenylalanine. ... Biosynthetic pathways for catecholamines and trace amines in the human brain[9][10][11] ... It is also the precursor for the monoamine or catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and ... which are collectively known as catecholamines. Furthermore, L-DOPA itself mediates neurotrophic factor release by the brain ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives). *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Main article: Catecholamine. Catecholaminergic means "related to catecholamines". The catecholamine neurotransmitters include ... A catecholaminergic agent (or drug) is a chemical which functions to directly modulate the catecholamine systems in the body or ...
Main article: History of catecholamine research. Extracts of the adrenal gland were first obtained by Polish physiologist ... These extracts, which he called nadnerczyna, contained adrenaline and other catecholamines.[42] American ophthalmologist ...
Fluck, D C (1972). "Catecholamines". Heart. 34 (9): 869-73. doi:10.1136/hrt.34.9.869. PMC 487013 . PMID 4561627. Power, Michael ...
Pheochromocytoma[35] (most often located in the adrenal medulla) increases secretion of catecholamines such as epinephrine and ... "Catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy". Endocrine Practice. 14 (9): 1137-49. doi:10.4158/ep.14.9.1137. PMID 19158054. Retrieved ...
Liaudet, Lucas; Calderari, Belinda; Pacher, Pal (2014-11-01). "Pathophysiological mechanisms of catecholamine and cocaine- ...
Schematic illustration of major second messenger pathways in the brain. Gs and Gi/o, respectively, mediate the ability of neurotransmitter receptors (R) to activate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of cAMP. Also shown in the figure is the ability of G-protein bg subunits, released potentially by any type of G-protein, or Ca2+/calmodulin to stimulate or inhibit different forms of adenylyl cyclase. Gq and perhaps Gi/o mediate the ability of neurotransmitter receptors to regulate phospholipase C (PLC), which metabolizes phosphatidylinositol (PI) into the second messengers inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 then acts on specific IP3 receptors (IP3R) to increase intracellular levels of free Ca2+ (also a second messenger in brain) by releasing Ca2+ from internal stores. Increased levels of intracellular Ca2+ also result from the flux of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane through Ca2+ and other ion channels, a flux stimulated by nerve impulses and ...
Autonomic, Catecholamine, Epidemiology, Gene expression, Genetics, Hypertension, Nervous system National Category Medical and ... Autonomic function in hypertension; role of genetic variation at the catecholamine storage vesicle protein chromogranin B. ... Chromogranin B (CHGB) is the most abundant core protein in human catecholamine secretory vesicles, playing an important role in ... Does common interindividual variation at the CHGB locus contribute to phenotypic variation in CHGB and catecholamine secretion ...
BACKGROUND - Chromogranin A, coreleased with catecholamines by exocytosis, is cleaved to the catecholamine release-inhibitory ... Catecholamine release-inhibitory peptide catestatin (chromogranin A352-372): Naturally occurring amino acid variant Gly364Ser ... Acetylcholine, Blood pressure, Catecholamines, Genetics, Heart rate, Hypertension, Nervous system, sympathetic National ... Gly364Ser displayed diminished inhibition of catecholamine secretion from cultured neurons. Gly/Ser heterozygotes displayed ...
However, elevated catecholamine levels are not uniformly found in patients with this syndrome.3 High plasma catecholamine ... Catecholamine Cardiotoxicity. Wittstein et al12 compared admission plasma catecholamine concentrations between a group of 13 ... Abnormal catecholamine dynamics related to emotional distress seems to play a major role in the pathogenesis of this ... The heart stands out among organs of the body in terms of dependence on neuronal uptake for inactivating catecholamines in the ...
Catecholamines are produced in the central portion of the adrenal glands, the adrenal medulla. Adrenal glands are small ... Tests: Catecholamines, Plasma Free Metanephrines, Urine Metanephrines, Homovanillic Acid, Urine Creatinine. Conditions: ... The VMA test, along with other tests for catecholamines and their metabolites, can be used to help detect the presence of ... A VMA test sometimes may be ordered along with one or more metanephrine or catecholamine tests when a healthcare practitioner ...
Dialysate catecholamine levels served as an index of myocardial interstitial catecholamine levels. We introduced myocardial ... Dialysate catecholamine levels served as an index of myocardial interstitial catecholamine levels. We introduced myocardial ... Dialysate catecholamine levels served as an index of myocardial interstitial catecholamine levels. We introduced myocardial ... Dialysate catecholamine levels served as an index of myocardial interstitial catecholamine levels. We introduced myocardial ...
... caused a similar increase in catecholamine secretion. In both cases, catecholamine secretion was dependent on extracellular ... The stimulation of catecholamine secretion by p-chloromercuribenzoate was reversed by washing the cells with dithiothreitol- ... The increases in catecholamine secretion and 45Ca2+ influx behaved similarly in relation to p-chloromercuribenzoate ... These results indicate that catecholamine secretion due to p-chloromercuribenzoate occurs by Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. ...
The sympathomimetic amines in general will be discussed only in their relation to the catecholamines. Since TRENDELENBURG ... Catecholamines 1922 -1971 H. BLASCHKO Adrenaline and related substances were discussed in the 1924 edition of Heflters ... task of editing the present Volume it was decided to restrict it to adrenaline and the other naturally occurring catecholamines ... books.google.com/books/about/Catecholamines.html?id=yNN8AAAAIAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareCatecholamines. ...
Catecholamines are chemicals made by nerve tissue (including the brain) and the adrenal gland. ... Urine catecholamine levels are increased in most people with neuroblastoma.. The urine test for catecholamines may also be used ... All of the catecholamines are broken down into inactive substances that appear in the urine:. *Dopamine becomes homovanillic ... A urine test can be done to measure the level of catecholamines in your body. Separate urine tests may be done to measure ...
The catecholamines include such compounds as epinephrine , or adrenaline, ... catecholamine. catecholamine kăt˝əkôl´əmēn [key], any of several compounds occurring naturally in the body that serve as ... The catecholamines include such compounds as epinephrine , or adrenaline, norepinephrine, and dopamine. They resemble one ...
Catecholamines- (0-699) mine is 1189 Does this indicate that i have neuroblastoma or pheochromocytoma? My endo told me i had a ... High Norepinephrine,High Catecholamines. Norepinephrine- (0-399) mine is 1089 Catecholamines- (0-699) mine is 1189 Does this ... Catecholamines- (0-699) mine is 1189 Does this indicate that i have neuroblastoma or pheochromocytoma? My endo told me i had a ...
Norepinephrine,Pl- (0-399) mine was 1042 Catecholamine,TOT,PL- (0-699) mine was 1189 My thyroid was still out of whack- TSH- ... High catecholamine levels seem to suggest a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. The 24-hr urine catecholamine levels may provide ... Catecholamine,TOT,PL- (0-699) mine was 1189 My thyroid was still out of whack- TSH- 0.179 Hyperthyroid Free T4- 2.34 high T3- ... Catecholamines,TOT,PL- 1189 High (0-642 PG/ML) TSH- 0.093 Low (0.450-4.50 UIU/ML) 3 weeks ago it was 0.170 3wks before that- ...
Emergency infusion of catecholamines into bone marrow.. Berg RA.. Abstract. An emergency infusion of catecholamines into the ...
Catecholamines are hormones made by the adrenal glands. The three catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenalin), norepinephrine, ... This test measures the levels of catecholamines in the blood. ... Catecholamines are more often measured with a urine test than ... Catecholamines are released into the blood when a person is under physical or emotional stress. The main catecholamines are ... Catecholamines are hormones made by the adrenal glands. The three catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenalin), norepinephrine, ...
... Terreux Raphael terreux at chiminfo.unice.fr Tue Feb 11 16:21:50 EST 1997 *Previous ... Hello, I dont find in the litterature the value of the concentration of CATECHOLAMINES in ng/mg of protein in a rats brain. ...
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This is because all the tissues that store and release catecholamines have the capacity... ... the concentration of tissue catecholamines does not change appreciably. ... localisation and regulation of catecholamine synthesising enzymes, in: Frontiers in Catecholamine Research ( E. Usdin and S. ... Axelrod, J., and Tomchick, R., 1958, Enzymatic O-methylation of catecholamines, J. Biol. Chem. 233: 702-705.PubMedGoogle ...
Catecholamine is a test that measures the level of catecholamines or catecholamine metabolites (break-down products) in urine. ... Catecholamine is a test that measures the level of catecholamines or catecholamine metabolites (break-down products) in urine. ...
Raised plasma-catecholamines in some patients with primary hypertension.. DeQuattro V, Chan S. ...
Purchase Catecholamines: Bridging Basic Science with Clinical Medicine, Volume 42 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Catecholamines: Bridging Basic Science with Clinical Medicine, Volume 42 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ... This volume in Advances in Pharmacology focuses on all aspects of catecholamine research, from very basic to medical. It is ...
Catecholamines are hormones made by your adrenal glands like dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Your doctor may want to ... Types of Catecholamine Tests. Catecholamines can be measured by a urine test or a blood test. Urine tests are more common, but ... University of Michigan Health System: "Catecholamines in Urine.". University of Rochester Medical Center: "Catecholamines ( ... A urine catecholamines test measures the total amount in your urine over a 24-hour period. Thats because hormone levels can go ...
The autoxidation of nine catecholamines and two catechols as a function of pH was studied. The reaction rate constants of the ... Public Health Internal Medicine Catecholamine Charged Particle Catechol These keywords were added by machine and not by the ... Oxidative pathways for catecholamines in the genesis of neuromelanin and cytotoxic quinones. Mol Pharmacol 1978;14:633-43. ... The kinetics of the enzymaticO-methylation of catechols and catecholamines. Pharm Weekbl [Sci] 1983;5:291-7.Google Scholar ...
Catecholamines up (Catsup) is a dopamine regulatory membrane protein that functions as a zinc ion transmembrane transporter ( ... Stathakis, D G; Burton, D Y; McIvor, W E; Krishnakumar, S; Wright, T R; ODonnell, J M (September 1999). "The catecholamines up ... "Catecholamines up integrates dopamine synthesis and synaptic trafficking". Journal of Neurochemistry. 119 (6): 1294-1305. doi: ...
Sprinting for Weight Loss: Are Catecholamines the Secret?. This study explains why high-intensity interval training seems to ... Fast sprinting caused the body to release high levels of a specific group of hormones, called catecholamines, which drive the ... Ill be interested to see what other factors affect catecholamine release, and how big a difference these hormones really make. ... We dont know why, but moving limbs very fast generates high levels of catecholamine, Dr Boutcher, whose findings are ...
CRTC3 links catecholamine signalling to energy balance.. Song Y1, Altarejos J, Goodarzi MO, Inoue H, Guo X, Berdeaux R, Kim JH ... Increased catecholamine signaling in CRTC3−/− adipose. A. Top, In vivo imaging analysis showing CRE-luc reporter activity in ... Although the mechanism is unclear, catecholamine signalling is thought to be disrupted in obesity, leading to the development ... Crtc3 was activated in response to catecholamine signals, when it reduced adenyl cyclase activity by upregulating the ...
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