A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cell surface proteins that bind catecholamines with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The catecholamine messengers epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are synthesized from tyrosine by a common biosynthetic pathway.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
A methylated metabolite of norepinephrine that is excreted in the urine and found in certain tissues. It is a marker for tumors.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Product of epinephrine O-methylation. It is a commonly occurring, pharmacologically and physiologically inactive metabolite of epinephrine.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.
A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.
An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the CAROTID BODY; GLOMUS JUGULARE; GLOMUS TYMPANICUM; AORTIC BODIES; and the female genital tract. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. (From Stedman, 27th ed)
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.
Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.
Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.
Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of DOPA to DOPAMINE. It is of clinical importance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.
Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
A transient left ventricular apical dysfunction or ballooning accompanied by electrocardiographic (ECG) T wave inversions. This abnormality is associated with high levels of CATECHOLAMINES, either administered or endogenously secreted from a tumor or during extreme stress.
A sympathomimetic agent that acts predominantly at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It has been used primarily as a vasoconstrictor in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Pigment obtained by the oxidation of epinephrine.
A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with a long half-life, used in cardiovascular disease to treat arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension. Nadolol is also used for MIGRAINE DISORDERS and for tremor.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
An enzyme group with broad specificity. The enzymes decarboxylate a range of aromatic amino acids including dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA DECARBOXYLASE); TRYPTOPHAN; and HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
One of the ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS used as an antihypertensive, anti-anginal, and anti-arrhythmic agent.
Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.
Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic agonist with actions like PHENYLEPHRINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor in circulatory failure, asthma, nasal congestion, and glaucoma.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.

Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats. (1/3332)

The effects of garlic supplementation on triglyceride metabolism were investigated by measurements of the degree of thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats fed two types of dietary fat. In Experiment 1, rats were given isoenergetic high-fat diets containing either shortening or lard with or without garlic powder supplementation (8 g/kg of diet). After 28 d feeding, body weight, plasma triglyceride levels and the weights of perirenal adipose tissue and epididymal fat pad were significantly lower in rats fed diets supplemented with garlic powder than in those fed diets without garlic powder. The content of mitochondrial protein and uncoupling protein (UCP) in IBAT, and urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion were significantly greater in rats fed a lard diet with garlic powder than in those fed the same diet without garlic. Other than adrenaline secretion, differences due to garlic were significant in rats fed shortening, also. In Experiment 2, the effects of various allyl-containing sulfides present in garlic on noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion were evaluated. Administration of diallyldisulfide, diallyltrisulfide and alliin, organosulfur compounds present in garlic, significantly increased plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, whereas the administration of disulfides without allyl residues, diallylmonosulfide and S-allyl-L-cysteine did not increase adrenaline secretion. These results suggest that in rats, allyl-containing sulfides in garlic enhance thermogenesis by increasing UCP content in IBAT, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion.  (+info)

Viral gene delivery selectively restores feeding and prevents lethality of dopamine-deficient mice. (2/3332)

Dopamine-deficient mice (DA-/- ), lacking tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic neurons, become hypoactive and aphagic and die by 4 weeks of age. They are rescued by daily treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); each dose restores dopamine (DA) and feeding for less than 24 hr. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses expressing human TH or GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) were injected into the striatum of DA-/- mice. Bilateral coinjection of both viruses restored feeding behavior for several months. However, locomotor activity and coordination were partially improved. A virus expressing only TH was less effective, and one expressing GTPCH1 alone was ineffective. TH immunoreactivity and DA were detected in the ventral striatum and adjacent posterior regions of rescued mice, suggesting that these regions mediate a critical DA-dependent aspect of feeding behavior.  (+info)

Adrenoreceptors of the guinea-pig urinary bladder. (3/3332)

1 Adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline (5 mug/ml) did not affect the resting tone of the isolated urinary bladder of the guinea-pig. 2 The catecholamines (1-2 mug/ml) inhibited neuronally evoked contractions at various stimulation frequencies; the inhibition was maximum at 2 Hz and minimum at 50 Hz. Isoprenaline produced maximum inhibition. 3 Propranolol (0.5 mug/ml) completely blocked the catecholamine-induced inhibition at all the frequencies employed. The concentration-response curves of isoprenaline at 2, 10 and 50 Hz were characteristically shifted by propranolol (50 ng/ml). Phenoxybenzamine (0.2 mug/ml) was totally ineffective. 4 In some experiments adrenaline significantly raised the tone of the bladder exposed to propranolol; this effect could be blocked by phenoxybenzamine. 5 Acetylcholine-induced bladder contractions were inhibited by adrenaline (2 mug/ml); the inhibition was completely blocked by propranolol (0.5 mug/ml). 6 The results indicate the presence of an inhibitory beta-adrenoceptor and suggest the possibility of an excitatory alpha-adrenoceptor in guinea-pig urinary bladder.  (+info)

In vivo demonstration of H3-histaminergic inhibition of cardiac sympathetic stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine and its prodrug BP 2.94 in the dog. (4/3332)

1. The aim of this study was to investigate whether histamine H3-receptor agonists could inhibit the effects of cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation in the dog. 2. Catecholamine release by the heart and the associated variation of haemodynamic parameters were measured after electrical stimulation of the right cardiac sympathetic nerves (1-4 Hz, 10 V, 10 ms) in the anaesthetized dog treated with R-alpha-methyl-histamine (R-HA) and its prodrug BP 2.94 (BP). 3. Cardiac sympathetic stimulation induced a noradrenaline release into the coronary sinus along with a tachycardia and an increase in left ventricular pressure and contractility without changes in mean arterial pressure. Intravenous administration of H3-receptor agonists significantly decreased noradrenaline release by the heart (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +77 +/- 25 vs +405 +/- 82; BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +12 +/- 11 vs +330 +/- 100 pg ml(-1) in control conditions, P < or = 0.05), and increases in heart rate (R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1): +26 +/- 8 vs +65 +/- 10 and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1): +30 +/- 8 vs 75 +/- 6 beats min(-1), in control conditions P < or = 0.05), left ventricular pressure, and contractility. Treatment with SC 359 (1 mg kg(-1)) a selective H3-antagonist, reversed the effects of H3-receptor agonists. Treatment with R-HA at 2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1) and BP 2.94 at 1 mg kg(-1) tended to decrease, while that with SC 359 significantly increased basal heart rate (from 111 +/- 3 to 130 +/- 5 beats min(-1), P < or = 0.001). 4. Functional H3-receptors are present on sympathetic nerve endings in the dog heart. Their stimulation by R-alpha-methyl-histamine or BP 2.94 can inhibit noradrenaline release by the heart and its associated haemodynamic effects.  (+info)

Evaluation of a new method for the analysis of free catecholamines in plasma using automated sample trace enrichment with dialysis and HPLC. (5/3332)

BACKGROUND: Analysis of urinary free catecholamines was automated recently, but analysis of plasma samples posed special difficulties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate a new method for the automated analysis of plasma catecholamines. METHODS: The procedure is based on an improved sample handling system that includes dialysis and sample clean-up on a strong cation trace-enrichment cartridge. The catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine are then separated by reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography and quantified by electrochemical detection. RESULTS: Use of a 740- microL sample is required to give the catecholamine detection limit of 0.05 nmol/L and analytical imprecision (CV) between 1.1% and 9.3%. The assay can be run unattended, although >12 h of analysis time is not recommended without cooling of the autosampler rack. Comparison (n = 68) of the automated cation-exchange clean-up with the well-established manual alumina procedure gave excellent agreement (mean, 3.78 +/- 2.76 and 3.8 +/- 2.89 nmol/L for norepinephrine and 0.99 +/- 1.72 and 1.08 +/- 1.78 nmol/L for epinephrine). Hemodialysis had no clear effect on plasma norepinephrine. Epinephrine concentrations were similar (0.05 < P < 0.1) in chronic renal failure patients (0.24 +/- 0.3 nmol/L; n = 15) and healthy controls (0.5 +/- 0.24 nmol/L; n = 31). Dopamine was not quantified, being usually <0.2 nmol/L. CONCLUSION: The availability of such a fully automated procedure should encourage the more widespread use of plasma catecholamine estimation, e.g., after dialysis, exercise, or trauma/surgery and in the investigation of catecholamine-secreting tumors, particularly in the anuric patient.  (+info)

Expression of the cell adhesion molecules on leukocytes that demarginate during acute maximal exercise. (6/3332)

The pulmonary vascular bed is an important reservoir for the marginated pool of leukocytes that can be mobilized by exercise or catecholamines. This study was designed to determine the phenotypic characteristics of leukocytes that are mobilized into the circulation during exercise. Twenty healthy volunteers performed incremental exercise to exhaustion [maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max)] on a cycle ergometer. Blood was collected at baseline, at 3-min intervals during exercise, at VO2 max, and 30 min after exercise. Total white cell, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN), and lymphocyte counts increased with exercise to VO2 max (P < 0.05). Flow cytometric analysis showed that the mean fluorescence intensity of L-selectin on PMN (from 14.9 +/- 1 at baseline to 9.5 +/- 1.6 at VO2 max, P < 0.05) and lymphocytes (from 11.7 +/- 1.2 at baseline to 8 +/- 0.8 at VO2 max, P < 0.05) decreased with exercise. Mean fluorescence intensity of CD11b on PMN increased with exercise (from 10.2 +/- 0.6 at baseline to 25 +/- 2.5 at VO2 max, P < 0.002) but remained unchanged on lymphocytes. Myeloperoxidase levels in PMN did not change with exercise. In vitro studies showed that neither catecholamines nor plasma collected at VO2 max during exercise changed leukocyte L-selectin or CD11b levels. We conclude that PMN released from the marginated pool during exercise express low levels of L-selectin and high levels of CD11b.  (+info)

NADPH oxidase inhibition does not interfere with low PO2 transduction in rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells. (7/3332)

The aim of the present work was to elucidate the role of NADPH oxidase in hypoxia sensing and transduction in the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor cells. We have studied the effects of several inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on the normoxic and hypoxia-induced release of [3H]catecholamines (CA) in an in vitro preparation of intact CB of the rat and rabbit whose CA deposits have been labeled by prior incubation with the natural precursor [3H]tyrosine. It was found that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI; 0.2-25 microM), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, caused a dose-dependent release of [3H]CA from normoxic CB chemoreceptor cells. Contrary to hypoxia, DPI-evoked release was only partially Ca2+ dependent. Concentrations of DPI reported to produce full inhibition of NADPH oxidase in the rat CB did not prevent the hypoxic release response in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells, as stimulation with hypoxia in the presence of DPI elicited a response equaling the sum of that produced by DPI and hypoxia applied separately. Neopterin (3-300 microM) and phenylarsine oxide (0.5-2 microM), other inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, did not promote release of [3H]CA in normoxic conditions or affect the response elicited by hypoxia. On the basis of effects of neopterin and phenylarsine oxide, it is concluded that NADPH oxidase does not appear to play a role in oxygen sensing or transduction in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells in vitro and, in the context of the present study, that DPI effects are not related to NADPH oxidase inhibition.  (+info)

Mediation of humoral catecholamine secretion by the renin-angiotensin system in hypotensive rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (8/3332)

The individual contributions of, and potential interactions between, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the humoral adrenergic stress response to blood pressure regulation were examined in rainbow trout. Intravenous injection of the smooth muscle relaxant, papaverine (10 mg/kg), elicited a transient decrease in dorsal aortic blood pressure (PDA) and systemic vascular resistance (RS), and significant increases in plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and catecholamine concentrations. Blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors before papaverine treatment prevented PDA and RS recovery, had no effect on the increase in plasma catecholamines, and resulted in greater plasma Ang II concentrations. Administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril (10(-4) mol/kg), before papaverine treatment attenuated the increases in the plasma concentrations of Ang II, adrenaline, and noradrenaline by 90, 79, and 40%, respectively and also prevented PDA and RS recovery. By itself, lisinopril treatment caused a gradual and sustained decrease in PDA and RS, and reductions in basal plasma Ang II and adrenaline concentrations. Bolus injection of a catecholamine cocktail (4 nmol/kg noradrenaline plus 40 nmol/kg adrenaline) in the lisinopril+papaverine-treated trout, to supplement their circulating catecholamine concentrations and mimic those observed in fish treated only with papaverine, resulted in a temporary recovery in PDA and RS. These results indicate that the RAS and the acute humoral adrenergic response are both recruited during an acute hypotensive stress, and have important roles in the compensatory response to hypotension in rainbow trout. However, whereas the contribution of the RAS to PDA recovery is largely indirect and relies on an Ang II-mediated secretion of catecholamines, the contribution from the adrenergic system is direct and relies at least in part on plasma catecholamines.  (+info)

An emerging area of research has documented a novel role for the plasminogen activation system in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. Prohormones, secreted by cells within the sympathoadrenal system, are processed by plasmin to bioactive peptides that feed back to inhibit secretagogue-stimulated release. Catecholaminergic cells of the sympathoadrenal system are prototypic prohormone-secreting cells. Processing of prohormones by plasmin is enhanced in the presence of catecholaminergic cells, and the enhancement requires binding of plasmin(ogen) to cellular receptors. Consequently, modulation of the local cellular fibrinolytic system of catecholaminergic cells results in substantial changes in catecholamine release. However, mechanisms for enhancing prohormone processing and cell-surface molecules mediating the enhancement on catecholaminergic cells have not been investigated. Here we show that plasminogen activation was enhanced >6.5-fold on catecholaminergic cells. Carboxypeptidase B ...
1. Plasma and platelet free catecholamine concentrations were measured in 22 normal subjects and in 10 treated and 11 untreated patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia.. 2. Plasma noradrenaline concentrations were significantly higher in both treated and untreated hypercholesterolaemic patients than in normal subjects. Adrenaline concentrations did not differ.. 3. Platelet noradrenaline levels were higher in untreated hypercholesterolaemic patients than in normal subjects.. 4. Positive correlations between the plasma noradrenaline concentration and the platelet noradrenaline concentration were observed in both normal subjects and hypercholesterolaemic patients.. 5. Combining the data for normal subjects and hypercholesterolaemic patients revealed that the plasma noradrenaline concentration correlated positively with the plasma cholesterol concentration. The platelet noradrenaline concentration was also found to correlate with the plasma cholesterol concentration.. 6. Our ...
1. Plasma and platelet free catecholamine concentrations were measured in 22 normal subjects and in 10 treated and 11 untreated patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia.. 2. Plasma noradrenaline concentrations were significantly higher in both treated and untreated hypercholesterolaemic patients than in normal subjects. Adrenaline concentrations did not differ.. 3. Platelet noradrenaline levels were higher in untreated hypercholesterolaemic patients than in normal subjects.. 4. Positive correlations between the plasma noradrenaline concentration and the platelet noradrenaline concentration were observed in both normal subjects and hypercholesterolaemic patients.. 5. Combining the data for normal subjects and hypercholesterolaemic patients revealed that the plasma noradrenaline concentration correlated positively with the plasma cholesterol concentration. The platelet noradrenaline concentration was also found to correlate with the plasma cholesterol concentration.. 6. Our ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of central control of adrenal catecholamine biosynthesis and release. AU - Slotkin, T. A.. AU - Chantry, Caroline J. AU - Bartolome, J.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - In the mature rat, sympatho-adrenal Stressors evoke release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla accompanied by stimulation of activity of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes; both processes are controlled transsynaptically by impulses arising in the central nervous system. In the neonatal rat, drugs which ordinarily elicit sympatho-adrenal reflexes do not evoke neurally-mediated release and do not induce tyrosine hydroxylase or dopamine beta-hydroxylase, despite the fact that the central nervous system senses the stimuli and sends impulses down sympathetic preganglionic neurons; reflex responses first appear toward the end of the first week of postnatal life and are fully mature by 10 days of age. Since the immature adrenal medulla is capable of secreting catecholamines and inducing tyrosine ...
D.P. Murray, R.D.S. Watson, A.V. Zezulka, R.G. Murray, W.A. Littler; Plasma Catecholamine Levels, Central Haemodynamics and Beta-Blockade in Myocardial Infarction. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1988; 74 (s18): 72P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs074072Pa. Download citation file:. ...
Serial hemodynamic and plasma catecholamine responses were compared among 10 healthy men (27 ± 3 years) ( ± 1 standard deviation) during symptom-limited handgrip (33% maximal voluntary contraction for 4.4 ± 1.8 minutes), cold pressor testing (6 minutes) and symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise (22 ± 5 minutes). Plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured by radioenzymatic assays; ejection fraction and changes in cardiac volumes were assessed by equilibrium radionuclide angiography. During maximal supine exercise, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations increased three to six times more than during either symptom-limited handgrip or cold pressor testing. Additionally, increases in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, rate-pressure product, stroke volume, ejection fraction and cardiac output were significantly greater during bicycle exercise than during the other two tests. A decrease in ejection fraction of 0.05 units or more was common in young normal subjects during ...
Recently it has been demonstrated that catecholamines are produced and used by macrophages and mediate immune response. The aim of this study was to verify if endothelial cells (EC), that are of myeloid origin, can produce catecholamines. We demonstrated by Real Time PCR that genes coding for TH, DDC, DβH and PNMT, enzymes involved in the synthesis of catecholamines, are all expressed in basal conditions in bovine aorta EC (BAEC) and their expression is enhanced in response to 16 hours of hypoxia (fold of basal: TH:4.7 ± 0.15; DDC:3.9 ± 0.21; DβH:4.8 ± 0.23; PNMT:5.01 ± 0.01). This result was confirmed by western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Moreover, hypoxia enhances norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) release respect to basal conditions (NE:+44,7±11,3; EPI:+51,6±6% of basal). In order to assess the signal transduction pathway that regulates catecholamines synthesis in EC, we overexpressed in BAEC either PKA or the transcription factor CREB, since PKA/CREB activation ...
ONEILL, H.A.; WEBB, E.C.; FRYLINCK, L. and STRYDOM, P.. Urinary catecholamine concentrations in three beef breeds at slaughter. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2012, vol.42, n.5, pp.545-549. ISSN 2221-4062.. Animal welfare has become an important determinant of meat quality with poor animal temperament leading to huge economic losses to the meat industry due to carcass bruising and condemnation. Handling and transport of live animals is a stressful experience for animals. The temperaments of cattle affect their behaviour and differ between breeds, i.e. studies have shown that Bos indicus types are more temperamental than Sanga and Bos taurus types. Catecholamines (CATs) are considered as indicators of stress, because higher concentrations of CATs in brain tissue were noted in animals that are better adapted to stressful situations. In the present study, urinary CATs of three beef breeds were determined immediately post mortem. Brahman cattle represented Bos indicus types, Simmentaler cattle ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adrenergic mechanisms of catecholamine action on glucose homeostasis in man. AU - Rizza, R. A.. AU - Cryer, P. E.. AU - Haymond, M. W.. AU - Gerich, J. E.. N1 - Funding Information: From the Endocrine Research Unii. Departments of Medicine and Physiology. Mayo Medical School and Ma.yo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. and the Metabolism Division. Washington ffniversity School of Medicine,S t, Louis. MO. Supported in part by USPHS grants AM00648, AM2041 1. AM20837, AM05827. RR00585. AM20579, and RR0036 and by grants from the Diabetic Childrens Welfare Association/American Diabetes Association, Greater St. Louis Afiliate. and the Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minn. Dr. Rizza is a recipient of a Clinical Investigator Award from the National Institutes of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases. Address reprint requests io Dr. R. A. R&a. Endocrine Research Unit, Mayo Clinic. Rochester, Minn. 55901, @I 980 by Grune & Stratton, Inc. 0026~495/80/2913~009$01.00/0. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - To assess the ...
TH is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine and is responsible for converting L-tyrosine to L-dopa. Synthesis of catecholamines is regulated by the interaction of TH with its cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and the substrates L-tyrosine and molecular oxygen. In humans four TH mRNA splice variants (hTH1-hTH4) have been isolated while subprimate species rely on a single form of TH. It is known that the hTH1-hTH4 variants are identical in their catalytic domain but differ in their N-terminal regulatory domains. Importantly, LNC1 reacts with the catalytic domain of TH and thus with all four isoforms of human TH. The role of TH in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters suggests a connection between the enzyme and a number of neuropathogenic diseases characterized by irregular catecholamine levels, such as Parkinsons disease, schizophrenia, and dystonia, as well as a variety of cardiovascular ...
We report the effects of a tyrosine (and phenylalanine)-free amino acid mixture on tyrosine levels, ex vivo catecholamine synthesis and in vivo catecholamine release in brain regions of the rat. Administration of a tyrosine-free amino acid load reduced tissue levels of tyrosine (-50% after 2 h) in all brain regions examined (frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum). The tyrosine-free amino acid mixture also reduced DOPA accumulation: this effect was most marked in striatum (-44%) and nucleus accumbens (-34%), areas with a predominantly dopaminergic innervation. Smaller decreases (-20-24%) were detected in other areas (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus). The effect on DOPA accumulation was prevented by supplementing the mixture with tyrosine/phenylalanine. The tyrosine-free amino acid mixture did not alter 5-HTP accumulation in any region. In microdialysis experiments, the tyrosine-free amino acid mixture did not consistently alter striatal extracellular dopamine under basal conditions but markedly, and
1. To determine the reproducibility of a mental arithmetic stress test and a handgrip exercise test, we studied the responses of blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow and plasma catecholamines on two occasions, with an interval of at least 1 week, in 24 normotensive and 22 hypertensive subjects.. 2. The se of a single observation of the percentage changes of blood pressure ranged from 3.9 to 9.3% in normotensive subjects and from 3.9 to 7.4% in hypertensive subjects in both tests. For heart rate, these values were 4.9-12.3% in the normotensive subjects and 4.8-5.7% in the hypertensive subjects. However, there was a wide individual scatter of these haemodynamic responses during both tests. The forearm blood flow, only measured during mental arithmetic, had an se of a single observation of 33.7%.. 3. In 10 normotensive subjects the se of a single observation of the change in plasma noradrenaline was 0.16 nmol/l during handgrip exercise and 0.09 nmol/l during mental arithmetic. The ...
24 hour fasting and adrenoreceptor blocking agent influence on adrenal catecholamine synthesis rate changes induced by combined thermal and immobilization stress in ...
Catecholaminergic means related to catecholamines. The catecholamine neurotransmitters include dopamine, epinephrine (adrenaline), and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). A catecholaminergic agent (or drug) is a chemical which functions to directly modulate the catecholamine systems in the body or brain. Examples include adrenergics and dopaminergics. ...
Levels of serum cortisol, plasma free fatty acids (FFA), and urinary catecholamines were collected in 31 patients with acute myocardial infarction on the day of admission to the coronary care unit (samples obtained from 15 patients with diseases other than myocardial infarction were considered as controls). These values were correlated with the presence or subsequent development of left ventricular failure, arrhythmias, shock, or death. Sixteen of 17 infarction patients without the above complications had cortisol levels less than 20 µg%; 10 of 12 patients with complications had higher cortisol levels. All of the infarction patients without complications had plasma FFA levels less than 1100 µEq/liter, while six of nine patients with complications had levels of 1100 µEq/liter or higher. Fourteen of 16 patients without complications had urinary catecholamines less than 12.5 µg%, while seven of 10 patients with complications had levels greater than this. Of interest were a few patients without ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors in heart failure. T2 - The adaptive arm of the cardiac response to chronic catecholamine stimulation. AU - Jensen, Brian C.. AU - OConnell, Timothy D.. AU - Simpson, Paul C.. PY - 2014/4. Y1 - 2014/4. N2 - Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors (ARs) are G protein-coupled receptors activated by catecholamines. The alpha-1A and alpha-1B subtypes are expressed in mouse and human myocardium, whereas the alpha-1D protein is found only in coronary arteries. There are far fewer alpha-1-ARs than beta-ARs in the nonfailing heart, but their abundance is maintained or increased in the setting of heart failure, which is characterized by pronounced chronic elevation of catecholamines and beta-AR dysfunction. Decades of evidence from gain and loss-of-function studies in isolated cardiac myocytes and numerous animal models demonstrate important adaptive functions for cardiac alpha-1-ARs to include physiological hypertrophy, positive inotropy, ischemic preconditioning, and ...
The catecholamine neurotransmitters are amino-acid derivatives of tyrosine. DOPA, tyrosine, phenylalanine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine and baseline are resolved on a Primesep 100 column with UV-transparent phosphate buffer. This method can be used for analysis of catecholamines and related impurities in various matrices. Peak order and retention time can be changed by changing the amount of ACN, buffer concentration and buffer pH. Various buffers can be used to accommodate desired detection technique. Primesep 100 is a reversed-phase cation-exchange mixed-mode column that can be used for analysis of polar neutral, polar ionizable, polar zwitter-ionic, hydrophobic neutral, and hydrophobic ionic compounds in the same run. Column can be operated in reverse-phase, cation-exchange, anion-exclusion, HILIC and mixed-modes depending on the mobile phase selection and nature of analytes. Column is compatible with LC/MS and does not require use of ion-pairing reagents. ...
Concentration-effect curves were obtained using isolated perfused (5 ml min : 25°C) bovine adrenals stimulated with chlorpromazine, caffeine or d-amphetamine. with and without calcium in the medium. The presence of extracellular calcium had no effect on catecholamine release by chlorpromazine or high concentrations of d-amphetamine but enhanced the response to caffeine or low concentrations of d-amphetamine. Procaine (10-3 M) blocked the effect of extracellular calcium but had no effect on drug-evoked secretion in calcium-free medium. Magnesium (5 x 10-3 M), by contrast, blocked drug-evoked release in time absence of calcium. Catecholamine release induced by chlorpromazine (10-3 M), caffeine (10-1 M) or d-amphetamine (5 x 10-2 in calcium-free medium generally paralleled 40Ca and 45Ca efflux from radiocalcium-labeled glands. However, d-amphetamine initially released catecholamines without significant effect on calcium efflux, although release of both substances increased after termination of ...
Catecholamines:. Catecholamines are synthesized in the medulla of the adrenal gland. Theyre then released into the circulation. The catecholamines bind to adrenergic receptors all over the body, which causes the same effects as sympathetic activation. The adrenal medulla releases catecholamines in response to sympathetic stimulation. As such, we should think of the circulating catecholamines as an extension of the sympathetic nervous system.. There are two main types of adrenergic receptors, alpha adrenergic and beta adrenergic receptors. Each main type has multiple subtypes. Each subtype has different functions and each subtype has different affinity for the two catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine.. ...
Synonyms for Catecholamines in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Catecholamines. 9 words related to catecholamine: endocrine, hormone, internal secretion, noradrenaline, norepinephrine, Adrenalin, adrenaline, epinephrin, epinephrine. What are synonyms for Catecholamines?
The complexities of catecholamine physiology have intrigued physicians and the public alike for centuries. Epinephrine was isolated in 1897 by John Jacob Abel (1), and in parallel in 1901 by the Japanese scientist Jokichi Takamine (2), who called it adrenaline. Quickly the positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of catecholamines were appreciated and exploited, but by the second half of the 20th century the adverse effects of chronic exposure were increasingly recognized, including their roles in hypertension and heart failure (HF), eventually yielding β-adrenoceptor blockers as HF therapy.. More recently the notion that short-term effects of catecholamines are temporary and reversible has been challenged. Acute HF in the context of adrenergic storms has highlighted that high circulating catecholamine levels can either be toxic or cause acute negative inotropic effects. However, the long-term effects of these acute surges in endogenous or exogenous catecholamines and associated acute ...
TY - JOUR AU - Pilipović, Ivan AU - Kosec, Duško AU - Radojević, Katarina AU - Perišić, M. AU - Pešić, Vesna AU - Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica AU - Leposavić, Gordana PY - 2010 UR - http://farfar.pharmacy.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/1381 AB - There is evidence that the major mediators of stress, i.e., catecholamines and glucocorticoids, play an important role in modulating thymopoiesis and consequently immune responses. Furthermore, there are data suggesting that glucocorticoids influence catecholamine action. Therefore, to assess the putative relevance of glucocorticoid-catecholamine interplay in the modulation of thymopoiesis we analyzed thymocyte differentiation/maturation in non-adrenalectomized and andrenalectomized rats subjected to treatment with propranolol (0.4 mg.100 g body weight(-1).day(-1)) for 4 days. The effects of beta-adrenoceptor blockade on thymopoiesis in non-adrenalectomized rats differed not only quantitatively but also qualitatively from those in adrenalectomized rats. ...
DefinitionThis test measures the levels of catecholamines in the blood. Catecholamines are hormones made by the adrenal glands. The three catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenalin), norepinephrine, and dopamine.
The management of patients with pheochromocytomas and the malignant potential of benign pheochromocytomas have challenged physicians for several decades. The usual criteria used to evaluate other types of tumors (e.g., cellular atypia, increased mitotic activity, and vascular or capsular invasion) have not been considered reliable predictors of malignancy in patients with pheochromocytomas.. Goldstein and associates reviewed the presentation, localization, surgical management, pathology and long-term outcomes in patients with pheochromocytomas. During a 48-year period, 104 patients presented to the authors with 108 pheochromocytomas. Before 1968, routine provocative tests included histamine and glucagon stimulation and regi-tine infusion. Beginning in 1968, virtually all patients underwent biochemical confirmation of pheochromocytoma by increased catecholamine and catecholamine metabolite concentration in a 24-hour urine sample or elevated plasma catecholamine concentration.. Historically, ...
Lung function was measured at 30 minutes and again at 2 hours after birth in 12 infants delivered vaginally, in 15 infants delivered by elective caesarean section under general anaesthesia (GA), and in 15 delivered under epidural anesthesia (EDA). Umbilical arterial blood was analysed for pH and for concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol. No important differences in gestational age, birthweight, Apgar scores, or haematocrit were found among the three groups. Tidal volume and minute ventilation measured 30 minutes after birth were lower in infants delivered by caesarean section than in those delivered vaginally and at 2 hours the tidal volume was still lower in the babies delivered by caesarean section than in those delivered vaginally. Dynamic compliance was lower at 30 minutes in the group that had a caesarean section than in the vaginal group, and this difference was significant at two hours. Tidal volume, minute ventilation, and dynamic compliance in the GA and EDA groups did not ...
Catecholamines are used to increase cardiac output and blood pressure, aiming ultimately at restoring/improving tissue perfusion. While intuitive in its concept, this approach nevertheless implies to be effective that regional organ perfusion would increase in parallel to cardiac output or perfusion pressure and that the catecholamine does not have negative effects on the microcirculation. Inotropic agents may be considered in some conditions, but it requires prior optimization of cardiac preload. Alternative approaches would be either to minimize exposure to vasopressors, tolerating hypotension and trying to prioritize perfusion but this may be valid as long as perfusion of the organ is preserved, or to combine moderate doses of vasopressors to vasodilatory agents, especially if these are predominantly acting on the microcirculation. In this review, we will discuss the pros and cons of the use of catecholamines and alternative agents for improving tissue perfusion in septic shock.
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An overview by Cosentino et al. about the role of endogenous catecholamines in immune cells and in immunoregulation and physiology..
Marley, PD, McLeod, J, Anderson, C and Thompson, KA 1995, Nerves containing nitric oxide synthase and their possible function in the control of catecholamine secretion in the bovine adrenal medulla, Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 184-194, doi: 10.1016/0165-1838(95)00013-N. ...
Catecholamines are hormones produced by the adrenal glands. They react to stress in the body by increasing blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing.
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in developed countries. Smoking is an established risk factor for this malignancy but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous reports have provided evidence that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and beta-adrenergic receptors (α-ARs) stimulate the growth and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. But a potential cooperation of these two receptor families in the regulation of pancreatic cancer has not been studied to date. Using two pancreatic cancer cell lines and immortalized pancreatic duct epithelia in vitro, our current data show, that all three cell lines synthesized and released the catecholamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline upon exposure to nicotine and that this activity was regulated by the α3, 5 & 7-nAChRs. In accord with the established function of these catecholamines as α-AR agonists, nicotine-induced cell proliferation was blocked by the α-AR antagonist propranolol. ...
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in developed countries. Smoking is an established risk factor for this malignancy but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous reports have provided evidence that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and beta adrenergic receptors (β-AR) stimulate the growth and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. However, a potential cooperation of these two receptor families in the regulation of pancreatic cancer has not been studied to date. Using two pancreatic cancer cell lines and immortalized pancreatic duct epithelia in vitro, our current data show that all three cell lines synthesized and released the catecholamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline upon exposure to nicotine and that this activity was regulated by α3, α5, and α7-nAChRs. In accordance with the established function of these catecholamines as β-AR agonists, nicotine-induced cell proliferation was blocked by the β-AR antagonist ...
Introduction: Stress inhibits the development of tolerance to morphine analgesia via activating Hypothalamic- Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis. Modified catecholamine systems have been reported following morphine tolerance development. In the current study we tried to evaluate changes in the gene expression levels for MAO-A, MAO-B, COMT and thyrosine hydroxylase (TyH) enzymes following ...
Introduction: Stress inhibits the development of tolerance to morphine analgesia via activating Hypothalamic- Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis. Modified catecholamine systems have been reported following morphine tolerance development. In the current study we tried to evaluate changes in the gene expression levels for MAO-A, MAO-B, COMT and thyrosine hydroxylase (TyH) enzymes following ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Anna M W Taylor, Niall P Murphy, Christopher J Evans, Catherine M Cahill].
Video articles in JoVE about uric acid include Biochemical Measurement of Neonatal Hypoxia, A Convenient Method for Extraction and Analysis with High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography of Catecholamine Neurotransmitters and Their Metabolites, Performing Vaginal Lavage, Crystal Violet Staining, and Vaginal Cytological Evaluation for Mouse Estrous Cycle Staging Identification, Application of an In vitro DNA Protection Assay to Visualize Stress Mediation Properties of the Dps Protein, A Simple Fractionated Extraction Method for the Comprehensive Analysis of Metabolites, Lipids, and Proteins from a Single Sample, Application of Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Nitric Oxide (NO•) Probes, the geNOps, for Real-time Imaging of NO• Signals in Single Cells, Consensus Brain-derived Protein, Extraction Protocol for the Study of Human and Murine Brain Proteome Using Both 2D-DIGE and Mini 2DE Immunoblotting, HPLC Measurement of the DNA Oxidation Biomarker, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine, in
18 Adrenaline and noradrenaline: Most of the synthesis occurs in the adrenergic nerve ending and stored in granular vesicles called chromaffin granules close to the site of release into synaptic cleft . Biosynthesis could also occur in suprarenal medulla and other tissues. The enzyme (N-methyl transferase) which catalyses the conversion of noradrenaline to adrenaline occurs almost exclusively in suprarenal medulla and is therefore missing in the peripheral nerve terminals. Hence noradrenaline is the final step in the synthetic process in most adrenergic nerves. Catecholamines are sympathomimetics that contain the catechol nucleus (e.g. noradrenaline and adrenaline). Catecholamines are stored in synaptic granules in two forms in equilibrium: Bound noradrenaline with ATP and protein is the (inactive part). Free noradrenaline is released by nerve stimulation. Another portion of it is stored in the cytoplasm in free form (cytoplasmic free noradrenaline). ...
Catecholamines are hormones made by your adrenal glands like dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Your doctor may want to test your levels if he thinks you might have a rare tumor thats affecting your hormone levels.
Nineteen patients with normal renin idiopathic hypertension were arbitrarily classified as salt-sensitive or salt-resistant depending on whether their mean arterial pressure did or did not increase by 8% or more when sodium intake was increased. The
Posted on January 6, 2018 By Gabriel Bassi Whats Hot. A recent J. Immunology study provides perhaps the first evidence that catecholamines such as norepinephrine and epinephrine suppress the production of interleukin-27 (IL-27) via the activation of β2-adrenoceptors, and by mechanisms involving IL-10 and the JNK signaling pathway. Homeostasis within the immune system is largely dependent on cytokines, the hormones of the immune system that […] ...
Wednesday my Endo said i have an adrenal tumor. Norepinephrine,Pl- (0-399) mine was 1042 Catecholamine,TOT,PL- (0-699) mine was 1189 My thyroid was still out of whack- TSH- 0.179 Hyper...
Arbutamine is a short-acting synthetic potent nonselective β-adrenoceptor agonist that increases heart rate, cardiac contractility, and systolic blood pressure. Arbutamine is a catecholamine for a pharmacological cardiac stress agen. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
The catecholamine norepinephrine is required for fetal survival, but its essential function is unknown. When catecholamine-deficient [tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) null] mouse fetuses die at embryonic day (E)13.5-14.5, they resemble wild-type (wt) fetuse
Catecholamines (say kat-uh-KOH-luh-meens) are hormones made mostly by your adrenal glands as a reaction to stress. When you feel stressed, these hormones increase heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, muscle strength, and mental alertness. They also lower the amount of blood that goes to the skin and...
The catecholamines - dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are successively derived from tyrosine. Syn-thesis occurs in the nerve terminals and in
Phosphodiesterase 3B is activated by inflammatory kinases, leading to attenuated catecholamine signalling in obesity - novel pathway shows potential for drug discovery
I want to know if the amount of adrenaline in ones blood system can be measured somehow by a 24-hour collection of urine. I know adrenaline is a catecholamine and that 24-hour collection is required to do a proper catecholamine test; however, Id like to know if adrenaline is measured as one of the catecholamines. Thank you if you can answer this ...
As coaches, we often see both sides of this continuum. I myself have worked with many leaders who have become disengaged(often due to working for other leaders who are themselves overloaded on catecholamines due to stress and are thus leading in a reactive way) and are hanging on in an organization fueled only by either loyalty to the mission or fear of not having another job. One brilliant, dedicated leader I have been coaching told me that she simply gave up at one point when her boss made one more uninformed decision and overrode her authority. She stopped caring and said she knew she had lost her edge and literally felt stupid. She felt she wasnt making decisions well and was wondering what value she brought to the organization. Quite possibly a case of too few catecholamines.. On the other end of things I have no end of stories of leaders who have become swept away by stress and also lost their focus. A particularly poignant example was a young employee of one of my clients. She came in ...
Incubation of cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells with p-chloromercuribenzoate (50-500 microM), a sulfhydryl-reacting agent, caused an increase in the secretion of catecholamines, p-Chloromercuriphenyl sulfonate, a p-chloromercuribenzoate analogue that poorly penetrates the cell membrane, caused a similar increase in catecholamine secretion. In both cases, catecholamine secretion was dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, p-chloromercuribenzoate caused both 45Ca2+ influx into the cells and an increase in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. The increases in catecholamine secretion and 45Ca2+ influx behaved similarly in relation to p-chloromercuribenzoate concentration. The time courses of the increased secretion, 45Ca2+ influx, and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration by p-chloromercuribenzoate were also quite similar. The stimulation of catecholamine secretion by p-chloromercuribenzoate was reversed by washing the cells with dithiothreitol-containing medium, but not by dithiothreitol
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nocturnal masseter muscle activity and urinary catecholamine levels in bruxers. AU - Clark, G. T.. AU - Rugh, John D. AU - Handelman, S. L.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Nocturnal electromyographic recordings of masseter muscle activity were performed on 20 bruxist and ten control subjects. Each subject collected two 24-hour urine samples. An analysis of urinary catecholamine content was performed. A positive relationship was found between increased epinephrine content and high levels of nocturnal masseter muscle activity.. AB - Nocturnal electromyographic recordings of masseter muscle activity were performed on 20 bruxist and ten control subjects. Each subject collected two 24-hour urine samples. An analysis of urinary catecholamine content was performed. A positive relationship was found between increased epinephrine content and high levels of nocturnal masseter muscle activity.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019168872&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of catechol O-methyltransferase to the removal of accumulated interstitial catecholamines evoked by myocardial ischemia. AU - Kuroko, Yosuke. AU - Fujii, Takafumi. AU - Yamazaki, Toji. AU - Akiyama, Tsuyoshi. AU - Ishino, Kozo. AU - Sano, Shunji. AU - Mori, Hidezo. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by Grands-in-Aid for scientific research (15590787) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The authors thank Orion-Pharma (Espoo, Finland) for the supply of entacapone.. PY - 2005/11/11. Y1 - 2005/11/11. N2 - Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays an important role for clearance of high catecholamine levels. Although myocardial ischemia evokes similar excessive catecholamine accumulation, it is uncertain whether COMT activity is involved in the removal of accumulated catecholamines evoked by myocardial ischemia. We examined how COMT activity affects myocardial catecholamine levels during myocardial ischemia and ...
en] We investigated hemodynamics and plasma catecholamine concentrations in eight consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected pheochromocytoma. The same anesthesia protocol was used in all patients: a continuous infusion of sufentanil 0.5 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1) and isoflurane 0.4% (end-tidal) in 50% N2O/O2. Systolic arterial pressure was maintained between 120 and 160 mm Hg by adjusting an infusion of nicardipine, a calcium-channel blocker, while tachycardia (,100 bpm) was treated by 1-mg boluses of atenolol. Hemodynamics (thermodilution technique) and plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured before surgery, after the induction of anesthesia, after turning the patient to the lateral position, during pneumoperitoneum, during tumor manipulation, after adrenalectomy, and at the end of surgery. Two events resulted in significant catecholamine release: creation of the pneumoperitoneum and adrenal gland manipulation. As a consequence, a twofold increase in ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of carotid sinus and cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors in the reflex control of adrenal medullary catecholamine secretion. Afferent input from carotid sinus and cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors was decreased by carotid occlusion or cervical vagal cold block, respectively. Increases in arterial pressure were significantly greater when either intervention was tested in the presence of the other, with the role of the carotid sinus baroreflex being dominant. Neither carotid occlusion nor vagal cold block resulted in a significant increase in plasma epinephrine or norepinephrine concentrations. However, carotid occlusion during vagal block caused a significant increase in plasma epinephrine (+87%) and norepinephrine concentrations (+128%). Likewise, vagal block during carotid occlusion increased plasma epinephrine (+82%) and norepinephrine concentrations (+73%). Similar experiments performed in a group of chemically sympathectomized animals ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute hypertensive response, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) 140 mmHg or more within 24 h of onset, is frequently observed in hemorrhagic stroke patients. Although catecholamine surge is pivotal in its pathogenesis, few studies have evaluated the relationship between admission SBP and plasma catecholamine levels.. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was carried out to investigate potential differences in the acute hypertensive reaction between subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) by analyzing 200 SAH and 200 SICH patients. In each category, patients were quadrichotomized on the basis of their SBPs in emergency department: less than 140 mmHg, 140-184 mmHg, 185-219 mmHg, and 220 mmHg or more. The plasma catecholamine levels were compared among the four groups. Furthermore, multivariate regression analyses were carried out to identify variables correlated with hypertensive emergency (SBP≥185 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma catecholamines and cardiovascular responses during converting enzyme inhibition in normotensive and hypertensive man. AU - Niarchos, Andreas P.. AU - Pickering, Thomas G.. AU - Morganti, Alberto. AU - Laragh, John H.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - The hemodynamic and plasma catecholamine responses to isometric exercise and head up tilt were investigated in normotensive and hypertensive subjects during normal and low sodium intake and before and during the administration of the converting enzyme inhibitors teprotide or captopril. Although teprotide and captopril decreased significantly the mean arterial pressure during both sodium intakes the normal pattern of hemodynamic response to hand grip and head up tilt was preserved. Moreover changes of plasma catecholamines during hand grip and head up tilt were not affected either by teprotide or by captopril. When following the administration of teprotide or captopril fainting occurred either in the seated position or during head up ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of nicotine on central catecholamine neurons and gonadotropin secretion. I. Studies in the male rat. AU - Fuxe, K.. AU - Agnati, L.. AU - Eneroth, P.. AU - Gustafsson, Jan-Ake. AU - Hökfelt, T.. AU - Löfström, A.. AU - Skett, B.. AU - Skett, P.. PY - 1977/12/1. Y1 - 1977/12/1. N2 - The effects of nicotine, cotinine and mecamylamine on central dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) pathways of normal male rat were studied and the effects of nicotine on serum prolactin, LH and FSH levels evaluated. Nicotine, cotinine and mecamylamine in a concentration of 10 -5 M had only weak - if any - effects on [ 3H]DA and [ 3H]NA uptake, retention and release in various in vitro models. Nicotine in four doses of 2 mg/kg (30 min intervals) caused a significant reduction of the catecholamine (CA) stores (microspectrofluorimetrical evaluation of CA fluorescence intensities) in the medial palisade zone (MPZ) of the median eminence but in no other brain region. Nicotine in four doses of ...
A 60 year old hypertensive patient suffered several cerebral infarctions. A phaeochromocytoma was suspected because the excretion rates of vanillylmandelic acid and its methoxy derivatives were raised and the patient had hypertensive crises. No tumour was found, however, by 131mI-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy and computed tomography of the abdomen. Moreover, the enhanced orthostatic plasma catecholamine response suggested that the high excretion rates of catecholamine metabolites were more likely to be caused by the syndrome of raised catecholamines after cerebrovascular accidents than a phaeochromocytoma. A phaeochromocytoma should not be diagnosed within several months of cerebral infarction without first excluding the possibility of a hyperadrenergic state induced by cerebral infarction. ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Enhanced catecholamine synthesis in isolated rat superior cervical ganglia caused by nerve stimulation: dissociation between ganglionic transmission and catecholamine synthesis. by Mitchell I. Steinberg et al.
Looking for online definition of Catecholamine hormone in the Medical Dictionary? Catecholamine hormone explanation free. What is Catecholamine hormone? Meaning of Catecholamine hormone medical term. What does Catecholamine hormone mean?
Results Compared with normoxic conditions, hypoxia increased TH protein expression and catecholamine synthesis and decreased release of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in OA/RA synovial cells. This inhibitory effect on TNF was reversed by TH inhibition with α-methyl-para-tyrosine (αMPT), which was particularly evident under hypoxic conditions. Incubation with specific TH cofactors (tetrahydrobiopterin and Fe2+) increased hypoxia-induced inhibition of TNF, which was also reversed by αMPT. To address a possible clinical role of TH+ cells, murine TH+ neuronal cells were generated from mesenchymal stem cells. TH+ neuronal cells exhibited a typical catecholaminergic phenotype. Adoptive transfer of TH+ neuronal cells markedly reduced CIA in mice, and 6-hydroxydopamine, which depletes TH+ cells, reversed this effect.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of catecholamines on pulmonary circulation at elevated vascular tone. AU - Barman, S. A.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The effect of catecholamine stimulation on the longitudinal resistance and compliance distribution in the canine pulmonary vasculature was evaluated under control vascular tone and after vascular tone was elevated using the thromboxane analogue U-46619. The arterial-, venous-, and double-occlusion techniques were used to measure the segmental resistances and compliances in isolated dog lung blood perfused at constant flow. The results of this study indicate that at control vascular tone the catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine increase pulmonary vascular resistance and decrease pulmonary vascular compliance through α1- and α2-receptor-mediated stimulation with precapillary α1- and α2-receptors and postcapillary α2-receptors interacting with precapillary and postcapillary β2-receptors. In addition, epinephrine appears to have a greater ...
Cutibacterium acnes (former Propionibacterium acnes), is a bacterium characterized by high genomic variability, consisting of four subtypes and six major ribotypes. Skin is the largest neuroendocrine organ of the human body and many cutaneous hormones and neurohormones can modulate bacterial physiology. Here, we investigated the effect of catecholamines, i.e., epinephrine and norepinephrine, on two representative strains of C. acnes, of which the genome has been fully sequenced, identified as RT4 acneic and RT6 non-acneic strains. Epinephrine and norepinephrine (10−6 M) had no impact on the growth of C. acnes but epinephrine increased RT4 and RT6 biofilm formation, as measured by crystal violet staining, whereas norepinephrine was only active on the RT4 strain. We obtained the same results by confocal microscopy with the RT4 strain, whereas there was no effect of either catecholamine on the RT6 strain. However, this strain was also sensitive to catecholamines, as shown by MATs tests, as epinephrine
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; EC 2.1.1.6) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), catecholestrogens, and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure. In humans, catechol-O-methyltransferase protein is encoded by the COMT gene. Two isoforms of COMT are produced: the soluble short form (S-COMT) and the membrane bound long form (MB-COMT). As the regulation of catecholamines is impaired in a number of medical conditions, several pharmaceutical drugs target COMT to alter its activity and therefore the availability of catecholamines. COMT was first discovered by the biochemist Julius Axelrod in 1957. Catechol-O-methyltransferase is involved in the inactivation of the catecholamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine). The enzyme introduces a methyl group to the catecholamine, which is donated by S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). Any compound having a catechol structure, like catecholestrogens and ...
Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), also known as broken heart syndrome, is a severe and acute heart failure syndrome that often resolves spontaneously but can also be associated with significant mortality. TTS predominantly affects post-menopausal women and is usually triggered by identifiable physical or emotional stress. Considerable evidence suggests the precipitating factor to be the catecholamine surge from excess sympathetic activity that occurs during these events because it can be mimicked by exogenous catecholamine administration (1). TTS was first described in 1990 in Japan (2), when the shape formed by an akinetic left ventricular apex with hyperkinetic basal segments was compared to a Japanese Octopus pot, or takotsubo.. The importance of catecholamines in the induction of TTS has since been robustly demonstrated in vivo in preclinical rodent models. A number of groups have used these models to investigate the pathophysiology of TTS, including how the direct catecholaminergic myocardial ...
Catecholamine Accelerator is used as TIER 1 support for TRIAD 2 BRAIN dopmaine reward issues, including food cravings and other addictive behaviors and catecholamine support.
article{33c2ce44-ae43-4c7b-89f3-7561ca0ab535, abstract = {The Langerhans cells are capable of taking up L-dopa and the catecholamines dopamine and noradrenaline when exposed to these substances in vitro. Within the cell L-dopa is found in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus, whereas the catecholamines are confined to cytoplasmic granules. The L-dopa uptake is most probably carrier-mediated and the hypothesis is brought forward that L-dopa enters the cell by exchange diffusion. At present little is known about the nature of the amine uptake mechanism. }, author = {Axelsson, S and Elofsson, Rolf and Falck, Bengt and Sjöborg, Steinar}, language = {eng}, pages = {31--35}, series = {Acta Dermatovenerologica Supplement}, title = {In vitro-uptake of L-Dopa and catecholamines into the epidermal Langerhans cell}, volume = {79}, year = {1978 ...
We characterized a unique mouse line in which the expression of AT1AR is deleted from TH-expressing cells. This deletion was verified by loss of AT1AR binding in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla, as well as loss of a functional response to Ang II in the RVLM. At baseline, we observed no effect of this deletion. Subcutaneous infusion of a low dose of Ang II increased BP in both groups, but the increase was significantly delayed in onset (Discussion in the online-only Data Supplement) and reduced in magnitude in the CAT-KO mice. In WT mice, Ang II-dependent hypertension was associated with increased sympathetic activity as evidenced by increased power in the midfrequency band of the mean arterial pressure and HR spectra and activation of ROS production in key brain regions involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity. The CAT-KO mice have an attenuated sympathetic activation in response to Ang II and showed reduced ROS production in the RVLM. Overall, in Ang II-dependent hypertension, ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Comparison of the effect of soy and casein-derived peptide administration on tyrosine and catecholamine metabolism in the mouse brain. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Vesicular exocytosis is a crucial process for living cells by which signalling species such as acetylcholine and catecholamines and other vesicular contents can be secreted into the extracellular environment. Single cell electrochemistry, especially the semi-artificial synapse based amperometry, has been used to scrutinize exocytosis dynamics of single vesicles due to its high sensitivity and appropriate temporal resolution. Important characteristics of vesicular release as well as the effects of biological, chemical and physical parameters on them have thus been evaluated for many cell lines. This has led to contest the conventional full release mode. Recently, the view that partial release is the most common for most neurotransmitters stored in dense core vesicles has gained acceptance. However, the fundamental reasons leading to partial fusion remain an open question waiting experimental characterization. In this work, catecholamine release was elicited from PC12 using sufficiently small ...
Both sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) generator, and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) have been found to raise cGMP levels in bovine chromaffin cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The effect of these compounds on catecholamine secretion and calcium influx has also been studied, and both compounds were found to produce a slowly developing inhibitory effect on acetylcholine- or depolarization-stimulated catecholamine secretion and calcium increases without affecting the spontaneous release or the basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These inhibitory effects were observed only at high doses of acetylcholine or high levels of extracellular potassium and required concentrations of SNP or CNP very similar to those that increased cGMP levels. Preincubation with 100 microM zaprinast, a cGMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor able to increase cGMP levels, mimicked the inhibitory effects of SNP and CNP. We investigated the effect of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ...
To further understand the role of neuro-immunological interactions in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we studied the influence of sympathetic neurotransmitters on cytokine production of T cells in patients with RA. T cells were isolated from peripheral blood of RA patients or healthy donors (HDs), and stimulated via CD3 and CD28. Co-incubation was carried out with epinephrine or norepinephrine in concentrations ranging from 10-5 M to 10-11 M. Interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-10 were determined in the culture supernatant with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, IFN-γ and IL-10 were evaluated with intracellular cytokine staining. Furthermore, basal and agonist-induced cAMP levels and catecholamine-induced apoptosis of T cells were measured. Catecholamines inhibited the synthesis of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 at a concentration of 10-5 M. In addition, IFN-γ release was suppressed by 10-7 M epinephrine. Lower catecholamine
100 Capsules 500 mg each Pharmaceutical Grade Hypoallergenic USAGE: Take 1-2 capsules daily, on an empty stomach immediately after arising in the morning, preferably with juice as a carbohydrate source, or as directed by your qualified health consultant. Note: Do not take in conjunction with MAO inhibitor drugs. Not for use by persons with a history of malignant melanoma. Do not use if bipolar, pregnant, suspect pregnancy, or lactating. L-Tyrosine is utilized for the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine. Jarrow Formulas® L-Tyrosine is pure crystalline amino acid from microbiolgical fermentation. It is NOT derived from milk. Keep out of the reach of children. Keep tightly closed in a cool, dry place. SUPPLEMENT FACTS Serving Size 1 Capsule Amount % DV -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- L-Tyrosine 500 mg * ---------------------------------------------------------------------
The role of catechol... | The activity of catecholaminergic neurons in the hypothalamus and the medullary visceral zone (MVZ) in rats in response to restraint water-immersion stress (RWIS) was measured by use of dual Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry. In RWIS rats Fos immunoreactive (...
We demonstrate sensitive spatially resolved detection of physiological chromophores that emit in the ultraviolet (,330 nm). An atypical laser source (a visible wavelength femtosecond optical parametric oscillator), and an unconventional collection geometry (a lensless detector that detects the forward-emitted fluorescence) enable this detection. We report the excitation spectra of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine, together with near-UV emitters serotonin and tryptophan, in the range of 550-595 nm. We estimate the molecular two-photon action cross section of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin to be 1.2 mGM (1 GM, or Goppert Mayor, is equal to 10-58 m4 s-1 photon-1), 2 mGM, and 43 mGM, respectively, at 560 nm. The sensitivity achieved by this method holds promise for the microscopic imaging of vesicular catecholamines in live cells.. © 2004 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
We demonstrate sensitive spatially resolved detection of physiological chromophores that emit in the ultraviolet (,330 nm). An atypical laser source (a visible wavelength femtosecond optical parametric oscillator), and an unconventional collection geometry (a lensless detector that detects the forward-emitted fluorescence) enable this detection. We report the excitation spectra of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine, together with near-UV emitters serotonin and tryptophan, in the range of 550-595 nm. We estimate the molecular two-photon action cross section of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin to be 1.2 mGM (1 GM, or Goppert Mayor, is equal to 10-58 m4 s-1 photon-1), 2 mGM, and 43 mGM, respectively, at 560 nm. The sensitivity achieved by this method holds promise for the microscopic imaging of vesicular catecholamines in live cells.. © 2004 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
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14:0 NPS PC Substrate for Lp-PLA2 Enzyme Activity Assay Gram quantities available! Contact us today!. SJK Global Vanilmandelic Acid (VMA) Assay is a quantitative immunoassay for measuring VMA in human urine.. VMA is an end-stage metabolite of the catecholamines: epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Catecholamines are secreted by chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system.. Urinary VMA is elevated in patients with catecholamine secreting tumors including pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma.. VMA levels in urine are also related to adrenal medulla hyperplasia (AMH). Research shows that medulla hyperplasia, hypertension, nocturnal hypoxemia and congestive heart failure may lead to elevated Vanilmandelic acid in patients urine. ...
While this herb is said to boost brain power in general, gotu kola is also considered to be an adaptogen, which means it lowers stress. Stress has an incredibly abhorrent affect on our brains ability to process information and to see things clearly -acting rapidly via catecholamines and more slowly via glucocorticoids. Catecholamine actions involve beta adrenergic receptors and also availability of glucose, whereas glucocorticoids biphasically modulate synaptic plasticity over hours and also produce longer-term changes in dendritic structure that last for weeks - dumbing us down, essentially, with every shallow breath and wrinkled eye-brow. Gotu Kola can help to minimize this reaction ...
Adrenal Glands are the bodies main protection against acute and chronic stress. The glands are yellow, pyramid-shaped and sit on the superior surface of the kidneys in the thoracic abdomen (Griffen & Ojeda, 2000). Part of the endocrine system the adrenal glands release hormones as a response to stressors. Adrenal glands are covered by a connective tissue, which is then covered by a layer of fat for protection and insulation. In general they weigh approximately 5 grams, measure 30 mm wide, 50 mm long and about 10 mm thick. These sizes change as secretory demands increase or decrease.The glands are comprised of two parts; the adrenal cortex, which releases steroid hormones, protects against immediate stress or injury and the adrenal medulla, which releases catecholamines which instigate the mobilization of glucose and fatty acids and prepare body organs for action during acute stress. Thus the relationship of the glands with the nervous system is that of a responsive nature to stimulants (in this ...
Decreased sympathetic activation of adipose tissue due to impaired catecholamine synthesis or sensitivity has been observed in obese patients (Reynisdottir et al., 1994; Stallknecht et al., 1997;Horowitz and Klein, 2000; Jocken et al., 2008). Obesity is commonly associated with blunted whole-body catecholamine-induced lipolysis (Horowitz and Klein, 2000). This is thought to occur through a number of mechanisms, including leptin resistance (Myers et al., 2010), as well as the reduced expression of β-adrenergic receptors (Reynisdottir et al., 1994) or increased expression of α2-adrenergic receptors (Stich et al., 2002). White adipose tissue and cultured isolated adipocytes from obese human and mouse models exhibit decreased cAMP-stimulated lipolysis and fat oxidation, due to reduced energy expenditure from decreased mitochondrial uncoupling (Yehuda-Shnaidman et al., 2010). This desensitization to adrenergic activation is also a feature of childhood onset obesity (Bougneres et al., 1997; Enoksson ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship between altered sympathetic innervation, oxidative metabolism and contractile function in the cardiomyopathic human heart. T2 - A non-invasive study using positron emission tomography. AU - Bengel, Frank M.. AU - Permanetter, B.. AU - Ungerer, M.. AU - Nekolla, S. G.. AU - Schwaiger, M.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Aims: To identify functional and metabolic correlates of impaired presynaptic sympathetic innervation in the cardiomyopathic human heart using non-invasive correlative imaging. Methods and Results: In 10 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, presynaptic catecholamine uptake sites were quantified by positron emission tomography with C-11 hydroxyephedrine. Oxidative metabolism was measured using C-11 acetate. Global and regional function was assessed by tomographic radionuclide angiography. Left ventricular ejection fraction in patients was 19% ± 10%. Myocardial hydroxyephedrine retention was abnormally low in 58% ± 38% of the left ventricles. ...
Synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for adrenomedullary hormones. 2 synonyms for hormone: endocrine, internal secretion. What are synonyms for adrenomedullary hormones?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of catecholamine administration to the central nervous system in sick neonates. AU - Sano, T.. AU - Kibe, T.. AU - Ohki, S.. AU - Katoh, I.. AU - Suzuki, T.. AU - Miyaguchi, H.. AU - Sobajima, H.. AU - Suzuki, S.. AU - Togari, H.. AU - Wada, Y.. AU - Itoh, T.. AU - Suzuki, Y.. AU - Nishimura, Y.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026642361&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026642361&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0026642361. VL - 28. SP - 256. EP - 263. JO - Acta Neonatologica Japonica. JF - Acta Neonatologica Japonica. SN - 0029-0386. IS - 2. ER - ...
The effect of 0.5-1.0 microM taxol, a potent promoter of microtubule polymerization in vitro, was studied on the secretory activity of chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Taxol was found to have a dual effect: the long-term effect (after a 1-h incubation) of taxol was to induce almost complete inhibition of catecholamine release, whereas after a short incubation (10 min) a massive, nicotine-independent release of catecholamine was produced. From results obtained using the patch-clamp technique to study the Ca++-dependent K+ channels (Ic channels), it was possible to conclude that taxol probably provokes an augmentation of free [Ca++]i in the cytoplasm, values increasing from 10(-8) M at rest to several 10(-7) M. The increased spontaneous release of stored neurohormones and the increased frequency of opening of Ic channels occur simultaneously and could both originate from a rise of [Ca++]i upon taxol addition. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural studies showed that 13-h taxol treatment ...
PNMT / PENT, 0.1 ml. The product of this gene catalyzes the last step of the catecholamine biosynthesis pathway, which methylates norepinephrine to form epinephrine (adreline).
CatecholaCalm™ is designed to support healthy catecholamine levels with adaptogenic herbs and nutrients that may help mood and promote calmness and relaxation. This unique formulation addresses adrenal gland health, which may help people handle stress more effectively.** Recommended Use: As a dietary supplement, take t
RESULTS: Surgery resulted in decreased ex vivo mHLA-DR expression, but no change in IL-10 or IL-12 plasma levels. mHLA-DR was low in LPS culture over the 4 postoperative days, whereas IL-10 release was increased and not counterbalanced by IL-12p40 production. The hormonal plasma pattern showed increased prolactin during anesthesia and peaks of cortisol, ACTH and arginine vasopressin during waking, but no alteration in catecholamine levels. mHLA-DR expression in LPS culture was not modified by plasma replacement, except immediately after surgery ...
This covers the inhaled β-agonists used for bronchodilation. Information on catecholamines and sympathomimetics with activity on β-receptors is covered under adrenergic vasoactives.. ...
兒茶酚胺(英語:Catecholamines)是具有兒茶酚核的(苯乙)胺類化合物的統稱,是由腎上腺產生的一類應激擬交感「鬥或逃」(Fight or Flight)激素。最重要的兒茶酚胺是腎上腺素(Epinephrine)、去甲腎上腺素(正腎上腺素)和多巴胺(Dopamine),均是從苯丙氨酸和酪氨酸合成。不少精神興奮劑也是兒茶酚胺的類似物。. 兒茶酚胺有去甲腎上腺素(NAd)、腎上腺素(Ad)、多巴胺(DA),過多的兒茶酚胺分泌可能導致高血壓和心肌梗塞。而低水平的兒茶酚胺可能引起低血壓、心肌缺血等的發生 、在臨床上兒茶酚胺常被用來治療神經源性、心源性、中毒源性休克早期,但過多劑量可能導致局部組織壞死或者腎臟衰竭。. ...
The chemical reactions and pathways involving any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.
The University of Gloucestershire has a vibrant academic community where creative research and cutting-edge scholarship are conducted at a high level. Our learning-led environment enables research to thrive, providing the best support for students.
Biomimetic poly(catecholamine) coatings have gained much attention in recent years due to their versatility as functional materials. Despite this, only limited methods are available to modify the function and property of poly(catecholamine) coatings, primarily through post-modification methods. Our approach
Catecholamine and trace amine precursors[edit]. L-DOPA, a precursor of dopamine that crosses the blood-brain barrier, is used ... In humans, catecholamines and phenethylaminergic trace amines are derived from the amino acid L-phenylalanine. ... Biosynthetic pathways for catecholamines and trace amines in the human brain[46][47][48] ...
Fluck, D C (1972). "Catecholamines". Heart. 34 (9): 869-73. doi:10.1136/hrt.34.9.869. PMC 487013. PMID 4561627. Power, Michael ...
"Catecholamines - blood ." National Library of Medicine . N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Mar. 2011. .. ...
"CV Physiology , Circulating Catecholamines". cvphysiology.com. Retrieved 2019-02-27. Sacha, Pollard; Stephenie, B Edwin; Cesar ...
The catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine, secreted by the adrenal medulla form one component of the extended fight-or ... The impact of thyroid hormones is typically of a much longer duration than that of the catecholamines. The physiologically ...
catecholamines. Anabolism. (tyrosine→epinephrine). *Tyrosine → Levodopa → Dopamine → Norepinephrine → Epinephrine. Catabolism/ ...
Phenethylamines (related to catecholamines): *Phenethylamine[7][8][9] (PEA). *N-Methylphenethylamine[10][7][9] (endogenous ... Biosynthetic pathways for catecholamines and trace amines in the human brain[3][4][5] ... These data suggest that a D1/beta receptor gene duplication was required to elaborate novel catecholamine psychomotor adaptive ...
In humans, catecholamines and phenethylaminergic trace amines are derived from the amino acid L-phenylalanine. ... Biosynthetic pathways for catecholamines and trace amines in the human brain[9][10][11] ... It is also the precursor for the monoamine or catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and ... which are collectively known as catecholamines. Furthermore, L-DOPA itself mediates neurotrophic factor release by the brain ...
Catecholamine levels are thought to be high when individuals are experiencing higher stress. Half of participants completed two ... However, participants who completed the two values essays did not show an increase in catecholamine levels from baseline to ... PLoS ONE, 8(5), e62593 James, G. D., Crews, D. E., & Pearson, J. (1989). Catecholamines and stress. Human population biology: a ... Participants who did not complete the self-affirmation condition demonstrated increased catecholamine response from baseline to ...
Catecholamines then and now. J. Pharm. Pharmac. 28, 348-355. 1977 (with A Den Henog) The 8-action of catecholamines on the ... IV International Catecholamine Symposium, pp 429-431 in Catecholamines: Basic and Clinical Frontiers. Eds. Usdin Kopin and ... Bülbring's work on catecholamines and on smooth muscle led to her election to the Royal Society in 1958. Her multiple successes ... Action of catecholamines on the smooth muscle cell membrane. pp. 1-13 In: "Drug Receptors", ed. H.P. Rang. Macmillan London. ...
It is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families. Dopamine constitutes about 80% of the catecholamine ... The functions of plant catecholamines have not been clearly established, but there is evidence that they play a role in the ... Kulma A, Szopa J (2007). "Catecholamines are active compounds in plants". Plant Science. 172 (3): 433-40. doi:10.1016/j. ... As such, dopamine is the simplest possible catecholamine, a family that also includes the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and ...
All three of these compounds also belong to the catecholamine family. The pharmacology of epinine largely resembles that of its ... F. Märki, J. Axelrod and B. Witkop (1962). "Catecholamines and N-methyltransferase in the South American toad (Bufo marinus)." ... "The structure of the catecholamines. V. The crystal and molecular structure of epinine hydrobromide." Acta Crystallographica ... Occurrence and biosynthesis of catecholamine and other intermediates." Acta Chem. Scand. 25 3489-3499. http://actachemscand.dk/ ...
... means "related to catecholamines". The catecholamine neurotransmitters include dopamine, epinephrine ( ... is a chemical which functions to directly modulate the catecholamine systems in the body or brain. Examples include adrenergics ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives). *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
... cathinones exert their stimulating and sympathomimetic effects via increasing synaptic concentration of catecholamines such as ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives). *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Catecholamines. (and close relatives) *6-FNE. *6-OHDA. *a-Me-DA. *a-Me-TRA ...
Franksson G, Anggård E (2009-03-13). "The plasma protein binding of amphetamine, catecholamines and related compounds". Acta ... Peaston RT, Weinkove C (January 2004). "Measurement of catecholamines and their metabolites". Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. ... These extracts, which he called nadnerczyna, contained adrenaline and other catecholamines. American ophthalmologist William H ...
This causes the release of catecholamines. The chromaffin cells release catecholamines: ~80% of adrenaline (epinephrine) and ~ ... Chromium salts oxidise and polymerise catecholamines to form a brown color, most strongly in the cells secreting noradrenaline ... This increased sympathetic activity leads to chronically increased synthesis and secretion of catecholamines from the adrenal ... neuroendocrine regulation of catecholamine secretion in non-mammalian vertebrates". Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical ...
The sympathomimetic amines in general will be discussed only in their relation to the catecholamines. Since TRENDELENBURG ... Catecholamines 1922 -1971 H. BLASCHKO Adrenaline and related substances were discussed in the 1924 edition of Heflters ... task of editing the present Volume it was decided to restrict it to adrenaline and the other naturally occurring catecholamines ... books.google.com/books/about/Catecholamines.html?id=yNN8AAAAIAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareCatecholamines. ...
Catecholamines are chemicals made by nerve tissue (including the brain) and the adrenal gland. ... Urine catecholamine levels are increased in most people with neuroblastoma.. The urine test for catecholamines may also be used ... All of the catecholamines are broken down into inactive substances that appear in the urine:. *Dopamine becomes homovanillic ... A urine test can be done to measure the level of catecholamines in your body. Separate urine tests may be done to measure ...
The catecholamines include such compounds as epinephrine , or adrenaline, ... catecholamine. catecholamine kăt˝əkôl´əmēn [key], any of several compounds occurring naturally in the body that serve as ... The catecholamines include such compounds as epinephrine , or adrenaline, norepinephrine, and dopamine. They resemble one ...
Catecholamines- (0-699) mine is 1189 Does this indicate that i have neuroblastoma or pheochromocytoma? My endo told me i had a ... High Norepinephrine,High Catecholamines. Norepinephrine- (0-399) mine is 1089 Catecholamines- (0-699) mine is 1189 Does this ... Catecholamines- (0-699) mine is 1189 Does this indicate that i have neuroblastoma or pheochromocytoma? My endo told me i had a ...
Norepinephrine,Pl- (0-399) mine was 1042 Catecholamine,TOT,PL- (0-699) mine was 1189 My thyroid was still out of whack- TSH- ... High catecholamine levels seem to suggest a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. The 24-hr urine catecholamine levels may provide ... Catecholamine,TOT,PL- (0-699) mine was 1189 My thyroid was still out of whack- TSH- 0.179 Hyperthyroid Free T4- 2.34 high T3- ... Catecholamines,TOT,PL- 1189 High (0-642 PG/ML) TSH- 0.093 Low (0.450-4.50 UIU/ML) 3 weeks ago it was 0.170 3wks before that- ...
Catecholamine tests check for levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine in urine or blood. High levels can indicate ... What are catecholamine tests?. Catecholamines are hormones made by your adrenal glands, two small glands located above your ... A catecholamine test may be done in urine or blood. Urine testing is done more often because catecholamine blood levels can ... For a catecholamine urine test, your health care provider will ask you to collect all urine during a 24-hour period. This is ...
Catecholamines up (Catsup) is a dopamine regulatory membrane protein that functions as a zinc ion transmembrane transporter ( ... Stathakis DG, Burton DY, McIvor WE, Krishnakumar S, Wright TR, ODonnell JM (September 1999). "The catecholamines up (Catsup) ... "Catecholamines up integrates dopamine synthesis and synaptic trafficking". Journal of Neurochemistry. 119 (6): 1294-305. doi: ...
Emergency infusion of catecholamines into bone marrow.. Berg RA.. Abstract. An emergency infusion of catecholamines into the ...
... Terreux Raphael terreux at chiminfo.unice.fr Tue Feb 11 16:21:50 EST 1997 *Previous ... Hello, I dont find in the litterature the value of the concentration of CATECHOLAMINES in ng/mg of protein in a rats brain. ...
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This is because all the tissues that store and release catecholamines have the capacity... ... the concentration of tissue catecholamines does not change appreciably. ... localisation and regulation of catecholamine synthesising enzymes, in: Frontiers in Catecholamine Research ( E. Usdin and S. ... Axelrod, J., and Tomchick, R., 1958, Enzymatic O-methylation of catecholamines, J. Biol. Chem. 233: 702-705.PubMedGoogle ...
Catecholamines are a class of biologically active substances, derived from the amino acid, tyrosine. Chemically, they are ortho ... In general, stress causes increased secretion of catecholamines. The most important are dopamine, epinephrine and ...
Catecholamine tests are done to identify rare tumors at the adrenal gland or in the nervous system. Catecholamine tests provide ... "Catecholamines in Urine". webmd.com. Retrieved 4 May 2017. Kuklin, A. I.; Conger, B. V. (1995). "Catecholamines in Plants". ... Catecholamines are water-soluble and are 50% bound to plasma proteins in circulation. Included among catecholamines are ... Increased catecholamines may also cause an increased respiratory rate (tackypnoea) in patients. Catecholamine is secreted into ...
Raised plasma-catecholamines in some patients with primary hypertension.. DeQuattro V, Chan S. ...
Purchase Catecholamines: Bridging Basic Science with Clinical Medicine, Volume 42 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Catecholamines: Bridging Basic Science with Clinical Medicine, Volume 42 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ... This volume in Advances in Pharmacology focuses on all aspects of catecholamine research, from very basic to medical. It is ...
Catecholamines are hormones made by your adrenal glands like dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Your doctor may want to ... Types of Catecholamine Tests. Catecholamines can be measured by a urine test or a blood test. Urine tests are more common, but ... University of Michigan Health System: "Catecholamines in Urine.". University of Rochester Medical Center: "Catecholamines ( ... A urine catecholamines test measures the total amount in your urine over a 24-hour period. Thats because hormone levels can go ...
The autoxidation of nine catecholamines and two catechols as a function of pH was studied. The reaction rate constants of the ... Public Health Internal Medicine Catecholamine Charged Particle Catechol These keywords were added by machine and not by the ... Oxidative pathways for catecholamines in the genesis of neuromelanin and cytotoxic quinones. Mol Pharmacol 1978;14:633-43. ... The kinetics of the enzymaticO-methylation of catechols and catecholamines. Pharm Weekbl [Sci] 1983;5:291-7.Google Scholar ...
... measurement of catecholamines in plasma and urine in clinical chemistry laboratories has been the cornerstone of the diagnosis ... Determination of catecholamines in plasma and urine Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Oct;27(5):713-23. doi: 10.1016/j ... Although assay of catecholamines in urine are still considered the biochemical standard for the diagnosis of NB, they have been ... The aim of this chapter is to provide an update about the catecholamine assays in plasma and urine and to show the most common ...
Catecholamines in plasma may be measured to assess sympathoadrenal activity. Numerous assay methodologies have been published, ... Plasma catecholamines--analytical challenges and physiological limitations Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Apr;7(2):307- ... In the forearm, for example, 40-50% of catecholamines are removed during one passage; about half of the NA in a venous sample ... Catecholamines in plasma may be measured to assess sympathoadrenal activity. Numerous assay methodologies have been published, ...
Extremely high levels of catecholamine (also known as catecholamine toxicity) can occur in CNS trauma due to stimulation and/or ... There is a basic synthetic pathway shared by all catecholamines. Tryosine, one of the main precursors of catecholamines, is ... Catecholamine are important as neurotransmitters and hormones. The most abundant catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), ... Definition of catecholamine MedicineNet.com. Retrieved October 23, 2007.. Credits. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors ...
Sprinting for Weight Loss: Are Catecholamines the Secret?. This study explains why high-intensity interval training seems to ... Fast sprinting caused the body to release high levels of a specific group of hormones, called catecholamines, which drive the ... Ill be interested to see what other factors affect catecholamine release, and how big a difference these hormones really make. ... We dont know why, but moving limbs very fast generates high levels of catecholamine, Dr Boutcher, whose findings are ...
A catecholamine blood test measures the amount of three hormones in your body. Find out what the test measures and what the ... Because catecholamines are related to even small amounts of stress, the level of catecholamines in your body changes based on ... The catecholamine blood test determines whether the level of catecholamines in your blood is too high. ... Your child and the catecholamine blood test. Your childs doctor may order a catecholamine blood test if theyre concerned that ...
Catecholamines (say kat-uh-KOH-luh-meens) are hormones made mostly by your adrenal glands as a reaction to stress. When you ... Catecholamines in a 24-hour urine samplefootnote 1. Free catecholamines. Less than 100 micrograms (mcg) or less than 591 ... Catecholamines in Urine. Test Overview. Catecholamines (say "kat-uh-KOH-luh-meens") are hormones made mostly by your adrenal ... To learn more about a catecholamine blood test, see the topic Catecholamines in Blood. ...
The catecholamines-primarily epinephrine, but also norepinephrine and dopamine-are secreted by the adrenal medulla and are ... Training Adaptations of Catecholamines. Heavy resistance training has been shown to increase the ability of an athlete to ... Role of Catecholamines. The physiological functions of epinephrine and norepinephrine in muscle are these:. Increase force ... The importance of catecholamines during resistance exercise was highlighted by the finding that men who had a higher ...
... I have to do a 24 urine test for catecholamines. I have LBBB,tachycardia,hypertension and have ...
... when catecholamine testing is requested, and what the results of catecholamine testing might mean ... Urine catecholamine testing measures the total amount of catecholamines released over a 24 hour period. Since the hormone ... Urine and plasma catecholamine and catecholamine metabolite testing can be used to help detect the presence of ... If a symptomatic patient has large amounts of catecholamines and or catecholamine metabolites in their blood or urine, further ...
The main types of catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine,... ... Catecholamines are chemicals made by nerve tissue (including ... Catecholamine blood test. This test measures the levels of catecholamines in the blood. Catecholamines are hormones made by the ... Urine catecholamine levels are increased in most persons with neuroblastoma.. The urine test for catecholamines may also be ... Catecholamines can also be measured with a blood test. How the Test is Performed. For this test, you must collect your urine in ...
Catecholamines, Cardiac β-Adrenergic Receptors, and Heart Failure. Robert J. Lefkowitz, Howard A. Rockman, Walter J. Koch ... Chronic catecholamine (agonist) stimulation of the heart demonstrably has deleterious effects, which appear to be mediated ... For example, whereas treatment with β-blockers will antagonize the catecholamine toxicity associated with heart failure, βARK ... 32 enhancing catecholamine sensitivity, and raising levels of β1ARs. Thus, it is plausible that the salutary effects of β- ...
Catecholamines in Blood. Skip to the navigation Test Overview. A test for catecholamines measures the amount of the hormones ... These catecholamines are made by nerve tissue, the brain, and the adrenal glands. Catecholamines help the body respond to ... A catecholamine test is done to help diagnose a tumor in the adrenal glands called a pheochromocytoma. Catecholamine levels in ... This may increase catecholamine levels. Be sure to keep warm, because being cold can also increase your catecholamine levels. ...
Purchase A New Era of Catecholamines in the Laboratory and Clinic, Volume 68 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Cellular Dynamics of Catecholamine Release and Re-uptake. Susan Amara. *Catecholamine Metabolism in Hypoxia, Cell Growth, and ... Presents catecholamine symposium proceedings. *Chapters cover a variety of topics such as cellular dynamics of catecholamine ... Catecholamines, Neuropeptides, and Schizophrenia. Vivian Y.H. Hook. *Catecholamines and Other Transmitters in Stress. Tomris ...
  • The main types of catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The catecholamines include such compounds as epinephrine , or adrenaline, norepinephrine, and dopamine. (infoplease.com)
  • The adrenal tumor was a presumption on my Endo's part because the norepinephrine and the Catecholamines were high. (medhelp.org)
  • Included among catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and dopamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most abundant catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and dopamine, all of which are produced by phenylalanine and tyrosine. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Epinephrine is synthesized from norepinephrine in a synthetic pathway shared by all catecholamines. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Catecholamines" is an umbrella term for the hormones dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, which naturally occur in your body. (healthline.com)
  • A test for catecholamines measures the amount of the hormones epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine in the urine. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • The catecholamines-primarily epinephrine, but also norepinephrine and dopamine-are secreted by the adrenal medulla and are important for the acute expression of strength and power because the hormones act as central motor stimulators and peripheral vascular dilators to enhance enzyme systems and calcium release in muscle. (nsca.com)
  • A test for catecholamines measures the amount of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine in the blood. (uwhealth.org)
  • Here, we investigated the effect of catecholamines, i.e., epinephrine and norepinephrine, on two representative strains of C. acnes , of which the genome has been fully sequenced, identified as RT4 acneic and RT6 non-acneic strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, this strain was also sensitive to catecholamines, as shown by MATs tests, as epinephrine and norepinephrine affected its surface polarity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Exposure of sebocytes to control or catecholamine-treated bacteria showed epinephrine and norepinephrine to have no effect on the cytotoxic or inflammatory potential of either C. acnes strains but to stimulate their effect on sebocyte lipid synthesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) are small cyclic compounds derived from tyrosine. (frontiersin.org)
  • The interaction of catecholamines with bacteria has been particularly investigated in the gastro-intestinal tract, where it was demonstrated that epinephrine and norepinephrine play an important role in the stimulation of enteric pathogens, such as enterohemorrhagic E. coli ( 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The catecholamine norepinephrine is required for fetal survival, but its essential function is unknown. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Some catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) are produced naturally by the body and function as key neurologic chemicals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Therefore, the goals of this study were, first, to characterize the effects of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (Epi) on the lipolytic rate of intact rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) and, second, to determine whether the plasma glycerol concentration is a reliable index of R a glycerol. (biologists.org)
  • Among catecholamines, the main focus will be on dopamine (DA), however the role of norepinephrine (NE) will also be briefly addressed. (frontiersin.org)
  • The catecholamine messengers epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are synthesized from tyrosine by a common biosynthetic pathway. (harvard.edu)
  • Catecholamine is the common term for the important hormones Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline), Epinephrine (Adrenaline) and Dopamine. (proteinlounge.com)
  • The tyrosine is then transported to catecholamine-secreting neurons where a series of reactions convert it to dopamine, norepinephrine and finally to epinephrine. (proteinlounge.com)
  • OR exp Drug Overdose/) AND (exp Catecholamines/ OR exp Epinephrine/ OR exp Norepinephrine/ OR exp Dopamine/ OR exp Adrenalin/ OR exp Noradrenalin/ OR (catecholamine OR epinephrine OR norepinephrine OR dopamine OR adrenaline OR noradrenaline).mp. (bestbets.org)
  • The three catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine) are the principal secretory products of neural tissue. (specialtylabs.com)
  • We report the excitation spectra of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine, together with near-UV emitters serotonin and tryptophan, in the range of 550-595 nm. (osapublishing.org)
  • Plasma catecholamines (unchanged during euglycemia) rose during hypoglycemia with epinephrine, increasing approximately fivefold more than norepinephrine. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Plasma norepinephrine levels fall in most patients with hypertension, but in patients with pheochromocytoma, because of unregulated secretion of catecholamines by the tumor, plasma norepinephrine levels remain unchanged, decrease by less than 50% when compared to baseline, or increase. (endotext.org)
  • This study examined whether different forms of hereditary pheochromocytoma are characterized by different catecholamine phenotypes and whether this is reflected by differences in plasma concentrations of normetanephrine, metanephrine and methoxytyramine the respective O-methylated metabolites of norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Relative proportions of norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine in tumor tissue were closely matched by relative increases of plasma O-methylated metabolites, but not by those of the parent catecholamines. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Catecholamines up (Catsup) is a dopamine regulatory membrane protein that functions as a zinc ion transmembrane transporter (orthologous to ZIP7), and a negative regulator of rate-limiting enzymes involved in dopamine synthesis and transport: Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), GTP Cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH), and Vesicular Monoamine Transporter (VMAT) in Drosophila melanogaster. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other causes of raised levels of plasma catecholamines include hypoglycemia, stress, various drugs including thyroid hormone supplements, methyldopa, dopamine agonists etc. (medhelp.org)
  • Catecholamine-secreting cells use several reactions to convert tyrosine serially to L-DOPA and then to dopamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopamine is the first catecholamine synthesized from DOPA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results show significant loss of ventral striatal dopamine in neuropathic pain conditions, and the relationship of ventral striatal catecholamines to pain thresholds is changed in neuropathic pain. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The inhibition of purified CPE with catecholamines was time-dependent and, for dopamine quinone, dilution-independent, suggesting covalent modification of the protein by the catecholamine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The Langerhans cells are capable of taking up L-dopa and the catecholamines dopamine and noradrenaline when exposed to these substances in vitro. (lu.se)
  • Adrenal medulla, catecholamines, and pheochromocytoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hi, High catecholamine levels seem to suggest a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. (medhelp.org)
  • Hi, Pheochromocytoma is diagnosed based on the plasma and urine levels of catecholamines. (medhelp.org)
  • If an adrenal mass was detected on imaging and the plasma shows high levels of catecholamines, pheochromocytoma is a likely possibility. (medhelp.org)
  • If your results show high levels of catecholamines in your urine or blood, it may mean you have a pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, or paraganglioma tumor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For more than 20 years, measurement of catecholamines in plasma and urine in clinical chemistry laboratories has been the cornerstone of the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors deriving from the neural crest such as pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and neuroblastoma (NB), and is still used to assess sympathetic stress function in man and animals. (nih.gov)
  • Most likely, your doctor has ordered a catecholamine blood test because they're concerned that you might have a pheochromocytoma . (healthline.com)
  • A catecholamine test is done to help diagnose a rare tumor in the adrenal glands called a pheochromocytoma . (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • Certain rare tumors (such as a pheochromocytoma ) can increase the amount of catecholamines in the blood. (uwhealth.org)
  • The measurement of plasma MN and NMN has been shown to be more clinically sensitive than urinary free catecholamines and metanephrines for the detection of pheochromocytoma (8-11). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether drugs commonly prescribed to subjects with symptoms of pheochromocytoma interfere with the measurement of urinary free catecholamines and total metanephrines by these new immunoassays. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These findings suggest that alpha-receptor stimulation by catecholamines is important in causing glucose intolerance and blunted insulin secretion in patients with pheochromocytoma. (annals.org)
  • Catecholamines and metanephrines are biomarkers used for the detection of diseases such as hypertension, pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. (biotage.com)
  • Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a marker for catecholamine-secreting cancers such as pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma, and neuroblastoma. (cerilliant.com)
  • If there is a question whether elevated catecholamines could be related to pheochromocytoma or not, I would suggest clonidine test. (endotext.org)
  • This test is currently the standard way to determine if high basal levels of plasma catecholamines are due to an idiopathic hyperadrenergic state or to a pheochromocytoma. (endotext.org)
  • This does not occur in patients with a pheochromocytoma since the tumor continues to release catecholamines even in the absence of sympathetic nerve stimulation. (endotext.org)
  • We have used this technique to study catecholamine secretion from the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC-12, which has been used extensively as a model secretory cell system. (jneurosci.org)
  • The study establishes that differences in tumor catecholamine phenotypes can be accurately assessed using measurements of plasma O-methylated metabolites and that these phenotypes differ markedly among patients with different hereditary forms of pheochromocytoma. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Normally, catecholamines and their metabolites are present in the body in small, varying amounts that only increase greatly during and shortly after a period of stress. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Phaeochromocytomas and other neuroendocrine tumours , however, can produce large amounts of catecholamines, resulting in greatly increased levels of the hormones and their metabolites in both the blood and urine. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • You may also need a homovanillic acid or vanillylmandelic acid test for catecholamine metabolites in your blood or urine. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Catecholamine is a test that measures the level of catecholamines or catecholamine metabolites (break-down products) in urine. (floridahealthfinder.gov)
  • Parkinson's disease: The effect of L-dopa therapy on urinary free catecholamines and metabolites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The usual methods are measurement of urinary free catecholamines and its metabolites VMA and MNs in a 24-hour urine sample. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this study we examined the metabolic fate of ortho -quinones derived from the catecholamine metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPE), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol (DOPEG), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylmandelic acid (DOMA). (mdpi.com)
  • Neurogenic hypertension associated with an excessively high excretion rate of catecholamine metabolites. (bmj.com)
  • Moreover, the enhanced orthostatic plasma catecholamine response suggested that the high excretion rates of catecholamine metabolites were more likely to be caused by the syndrome of raised catecholamines after cerebrovascular accidents than a phaeochromocytoma. (bmj.com)
  • The rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for catecholamines and their metabolites, and to know the efficiency for the diagnosis of phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs). (omicsonline.org)
  • Plasma and urinary catecholamines and metabolites, and tumor tissue catecholamines in a subset of patients, were measured by HPLC. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • You or your child may need this test if you have symptoms of a tumor that affect catecholamine levels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Since even small amounts of stress affect catecholamine levels in the blood, some people's levels may rise just because they're nervous about having a blood test. (healthline.com)
  • The test can help diagnose certain conditions that affect catecholamine levels. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Three rare tumors can also affect catecholamine levels. (ahealthyme.com)
  • books.google.com - Catecholamines 1922 -1971 H. BLASCHKO Adrenaline and related substances were discussed in the 1924 edition of Hefl'ter's Handbook by PAUL TRENDELENBURG. (google.com)
  • When the present Editors of the Handbook entrusted us with the task of editing the present Volume it was decided to restrict it to adrenaline and the other naturally occurring catecholamines. (google.com)
  • One such catecholamine is adrenaline (epinephrine) that is released in substantial quantities when the body is under stress. (chromatography-online.org)
  • Adrenaline (epinephrine) is a catecholamine hormone produced by the body and used therapeutically to reduce swelling due to allergies. (chromatography-online.org)
  • Plasma catecholamines adrenaline (ADR) and noradrenaline (NOR) were measured by HPLC and metanephrine with normetanephrine (NMN) by ELISA (n = 67). (ovid.com)
  • Various species show different responses in vitro, and the effects of catecholamines on fish lipolysis have not been measured in vivo using tracer methods. (biologists.org)
  • The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of catecholamines on R a glycerol in intact fish to obtain an integrated hormonal response rather than tissue- or cell-specific contributions to total fatty acid supply. (biologists.org)
  • Age-related cardiovascular effects of catecholamines in anesthetized piglets. (ahajournals.org)
  • This conclusion is supported by the observations that potentiation was obtained for both the alpha and beta adrenergic effects of catecholamines in vivo and in vitro . (aspetjournals.org)
  • Or was the adrenal tumor a presumption based on the high levels of catecholamines? (medhelp.org)
  • But if you have other issues, like headaches , unusual heartbeat patterns, bone pain , weight loss , sweating , trouble walking or moving normally, or lumps in your stomach , your doctor may want to test your catecholamines to see if a tumor might be causing them. (webmd.com)
  • If you have high levels of catecholamines in your blood, your doctor will do other tests to find out if you have a tumor. (webmd.com)
  • This is a tumor that grows on your adrenal gland, where catecholamines are released. (healthline.com)
  • High levels of free catecholamines, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), or metanephrine can mean an adrenal gland tumor or other type of tumor is present. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • Your child may have this test if he or she has symptoms of a tumor that affects catecholamine levels. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Tumor removal was more effective than phentolamine in restoring plasma glucose and insulin levels to normal after glucose administration, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of phenochromocytoma on insulin secretion may not be mediated entirely through catecholamine stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors. (annals.org)
  • This exercise-mediated suppression of cell viability and tumor formation was completely blunted by blockade of β-adrenergic signaling in MCF-7 cells, indicating that catecholamines were the responsible exercise factors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Electrical vagus nerve (VN) stimulation during sepsis attenuates tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, which depends on the integrity of the VN and catecholamine production. (hindawi.com)
  • Because epinephrine is involved in metabolic control, force production, and the response mechanisms of other hormones (such as testosterone, GHs, and IGFs), stimulation of catecholamines is probably one of the first endocrine mechanisms to occur in response to resistance exercise. (nsca.com)
  • 1 Moreover, in human heart failure, as well as in several animal models, elevated circulating catecholamines lead, via various compensatory mechanisms, to decreased levels and functional activity of cardiac β 1 -adrenergic receptors (β 1 ARs) and thus to marked desensitization of the heart to inotropic β-adrenergic stimulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • These biochemical and physiological changes appear to be mediated by elevated levels of the enzyme βAR kinase1 (βARK-1, GRK2) in the heart that are invariably associated with dampened responsiveness to catecholamine stimulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Stimulation of the cells with nicotine released both catecholamines and MPP+ at identical rates and percentages of cellular content in a calcium-dependent manner. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, obesity is also associated with insensitivity to catecholamine stimulation of adipose tissue, resulting in lower energy expenditure and decreased lipolysis. (thermofisher.com)
  • We have demonstrated previously that spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats exhibit decreased adrenal medullary catecholamine secretion in response to splanchnic nerve terminal stimulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The decreased responsiveness of diabetic rat adrenals to perfusion with ACh was significantly correlated with a decrease in the release of catecholamines in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The differences between various catecholamines results from the ratio of stimulation of alpha-receptors vs. beta-receptors (adjacent figure). (emcrit.org)
  • A urine test can be done to measure the level of catecholamines in your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The catecholamine blood test determines whether the level of catecholamines in your blood is too high. (healthline.com)
  • Because catecholamines are related to even small amounts of stress, the level of catecholamines in your body changes based on whether you're standing, sitting, or lying down. (healthline.com)
  • We suggest that the positive effect on motivation, elicited by an increased level of catecholamines, might have led to changes in performance observed in previous literature, but not to changes in the ability of retaining visual information per se. (queensu.ca)
  • 4 ), before the scientific community accepted that bacteria actually express specific catecholamine receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Receptors, Catecholamine" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Receptors, Catecholamine" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Receptors, Catecholamine" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Receptors, Catecholamine" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Other studies have proved that binding of agonists to these receptors occurs when the catecholamine molecule is in the protonated state (6), all of these receptors being coupled with G proteins. (scielo.br)
  • Using both inhibitors and activators of K ATP channels, we report here a novel functional effect of glibenclamide to enhance catecholamine release via an action on sulfonylurea receptors that cannot be accounted for by effects on membrane potential or Ca 2+ influx. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recently, the measurement of plasma free metanephrine and free normetanephrine has been advocated as being more clinically sensitive than urinary free catecholamines and metanephrines (tM plus tNM together) (6). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An automated method for the analysis of urinary free catecholamines using ASTED and highpertormance liquid chromatography. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The automation of such techniques using automated sequential trace enrichment of dialysates (ASTED) [3] has been applied successfully to the assay of urinary free catecholamines (2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the present experiments, urinary free catecholamines were assayed using a modification of a method described previously (7). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although assay of catecholamines in urine are still considered the biochemical standard for the diagnosis of NB, they have been progressively abandoned for excluding/confirming PHEOs to the advantage of metanephrines (MNs). (nih.gov)
  • Nevertheless, catecholamine determinations are still of interest to improve the biochemical diagnosis of PHEO in difficult cases that usually require a clonidine-suppression test, or to establish whether a patient with PHEO secretes high concentrations of catecholamines in addition to metanephrines. (nih.gov)
  • EVOLUTE® EXPRESS WCX 96 well plates can be used to extract catecholamines and metanephrines from pooled human plasma in a highly sensitive, linear and rugged assay. (biotage.com)
  • To compare the diagnostic performance of plasma metanephrines by ELISA and plasma catecholamine measurements by HPLC in patients selected for clonidine suppression testing. (ovid.com)
  • Plasma metanephrines (metanephrine with NMN) were equally effective as plasma catecholamines during CST. (ovid.com)
  • Blood is drawn via an i.v., for determination of catecholamines and metanephrines before and at 3 hours after clonidine is given. (endotext.org)
  • Some foods also can increase your catecholamine levels. (webmd.com)
  • Be sure to keep warm, because being cold can also increase your catecholamine levels. (uwhealth.org)
  • Catecholamines are derived from the amino acid tyrosine, which is derived from dietary sources as well as synthesis from phenylalanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate limiting step in catecholamine biosynthesis through the predominant metabolic pathway is the hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Catecholamine synthesis is inhibited by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT), which inhibits tyrosine hydroxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine are precursors for catecholamines. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Catecholamine synthesis is usually considered to begin with tyrosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catecholamines are a class of biologically active substances, derived from the amino acid, tyrosine . (citizendium.org)
  • tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Catecholamine is any of a group of amines (nitrogen-contain organic compounds) derived from the amino acid tyrosine and containing a catechol group (aromatic chemical compound consisting of a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Catecholamines are chemical compounds that are derived from tyrosine and contain both a catechol group and an amine group. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • When catecholamine-deficient [tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) null] mouse fetuses die at embryonic day (E)13.5-14.5, they resemble wild-type (wt) fetuses exposed to hypoxia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, a reward learning task was applied to study the behavior of 20 female subjects with remitted bulimia nervosa and 27 female healthy controls under placebo and catecholamine depletion with alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Catecholamines, a group of compounds with active roles in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine and act as hormones or neurotransmitters. (chromatography-online.org)
  • Tyrosine initiates catecholamine biosynthesis. (proteinlounge.com)
  • 0.1 microgram/kg X min DA infusion fully normalized PRL serum levels in 8 normal cycling women whose endogenous catecholamine synthesis had been inhibited by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) pretreatment. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The observation that potentiation was obtained in reserpine-treated tissues both with and without cocaine indicates that the action of HC is not dependent upon the integrity of the endogenous catecholamine stores. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The young woman mounts a robust endogenous catecholamine response which defends her blood pressure. (emcrit.org)
  • The synthesis, function, and degradation of catecholamines reflects the complexity and harmonious coordination in bodily systems. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The adrenal glands are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are the key site of catecholamine synthesis and collections of these cells are also found in heart, liver, kidney, gonads, adrenergic neurons of the postganglionic sympathetic system, and CNS (Central Nervous System). (proteinlounge.com)
  • Since the catecholamine concentrations found to be inhibitory to PC1/3, PC2 and CPE are well within the physiological range found in chromaffin granules, we conclude that catecholaminergic transmitter systems have the potential to exert considerable dynamic influence over peptidergic transmitter synthesis by altering the activity of peptide processing enzymes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Testing of catecholamine levels is conducted to confirm or rule out rare tumors. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Clinically, the measurement of circulating catecholamines is valuable in the diagnosis of catecholamine secreting tumors associated chiefly with hypertension (phechromocytomas, neuroblastomas, and gangliomas) and with the evaluation of orthostatic hypotension. (specialtylabs.com)
  • In other words, patients with metastatic tumors to adrenal gland do not present with elevated catecholamine levels. (endotext.org)
  • Plasma and urinary catecholamines in salt-sensitive idiopathic hypertension. (biomedsearch.com)
  • FRYLINCK, L. and STRYDOM, P. . Urinary catecholamine concentrations in three beef breeds at slaughter . (scielo.org.za)
  • By having monkeys perform a visual sequential comparison task, which allows the systematic manipulation of working memory load, we tested the hypothesis that increased catecholamine levels modulate task performance in a dose- and memory load-dependent way. (queensu.ca)
  • The adrenal glands make large amounts of catecholamines as a reaction to stress. (uwhealth.org)
  • Urine catecholamine levels are increased in most people with neuroblastoma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The 24-hr urine catecholamine levels may provide further confirmation. (medhelp.org)
  • Urine testing is done more often because catecholamine blood levels can change quickly and may also be affected by the stress of testing. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Catecholamines as hormone are released by the adrenal glands in situations of stress such as psychological stress or low blood sugar levels (Hoffman 1999). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Fast sprinting caused the body to release high levels of a specific group of hormones, called catecholamines, which drive the release of fat, especially abdominal and visceral fat, from fat stores so it can be burned by working muscles. (runnersworld.com)
  • We don't know why, but moving limbs very fast generates high levels of catecholamine,'' Dr Boutcher, whose findings are published in the Journal of Obesity , said. (runnersworld.com)
  • Coffee, tea, and chocolate are examples of things you might have recently consumed that make your catecholamine levels rise. (healthline.com)
  • Children's levels of catecholamines vary dramatically and change by the month in some cases because of their rapid growth. (healthline.com)
  • Being cold can raise your catecholamine levels. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • This test measures the levels of catecholamines in the blood. (scripps.org)
  • Even at these very low levels, marked potentiation of catecholamine-stimulated inotropy was observed, with no pathological consequences. (ahajournals.org)
  • Catecholamine levels in the blood can change quickly, so it may be hard to find high values in a single blood sample. (uwhealth.org)
  • Doctors may want to do a urine test that measures catecholamine levels over 24 hours. (uwhealth.org)
  • This may increase catecholamine levels. (uwhealth.org)
  • Your healthcare provider may also order a urine test to check your catecholamine levels. (ahealthyme.com)
  • At E12.5, before the appearance of morphological deficits, catecholamine-deficient fetuses are preferentially killed by experimentally induced hypoxia and have lower tissue Po(2) levels than wt siblings. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Surprisingly, increasing maternal oxygen (inspired O(2) 33 or 63%) prevents the effects of catecholamine deficiency, restoring heart rate, myocardial tissue, and survival of Th null fetuses to wt levels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Catecholamine levels are measured most often with a urinalysis than a blood test. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Catecholamine levels in space are twice those of the supine levels on Earth. (dovepress.com)
  • Serum magnesium levels are significantly reduced, with potential vicious cycles triggered by elevation of catecholamines. (dovepress.com)
  • Here, we review the current state of the literature regarding how modulations in catecholamine levels within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) alter the neuronal and behavioral correlates of cognitive functions, particularly attention and working memory. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, leptin levels were sensitive to a depletion of catecholamine stores in both remitted bulimia nervosa and controls. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Therefore, experiments were done in 23 chloralosed, paralyzed and artificially ventilated cats to investigate the effects of occluding (n = 17) or sham-occluding (n = 6) the left middle cerebral artery on the myocardium and on circulating levels of plasma catecholamines. (ahajournals.org)
  • In animals which did not have acute myocardial damage (10/17) the circulating plasma levels of catecholamines were not significantly different from pre-occlusion values. (ahajournals.org)
  • Similarly, sham occlusion did not alter plasma catecholamine levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • This suggests that a rise in plasma catecholamine levels, due to increased sympathetic activity after middle cerebral artery occlusion, may cause myocardial damage. (ahajournals.org)
  • During the development of pneumoconiosis produced by the intratracheal administration of coal-mine dust to rats, the adrenal catecholamine levels of the animals undergo phased changes. (ilo.org)
  • Treatment of cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells with the catecholamine transport blocker reserpine was previously shown to increase enkephalin levels several-fold. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Stages of anxiety and stress can cause fluctuations in the catecholamine levels. (specialtylabs.com)
  • We used microdialysis to distinguish the effects hyperinsulinemia of and hypoglycemia on glucose, gluconeogenic substrate, and catecholamine levels in adipose and muscle extracellular fluid (ECF). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To characterize the effect of electroacupuncture at ST36 (EA-ST36) on serum TNF, IL-6, nitrite, and HMGB1 levels and survival rates, based on VN integrity and catecholamine production, a sepsis model was induced in rats using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). (hindawi.com)
  • however, when subdiaphragmatic vagotomy was performed, the serum levels of TNF in the CLP+ST36 group did not show a significant difference compared with the group without electrostimulation, and, similarly, no significant difference in serum TNF levels was found under the pharmacological blockade of catecholamines. (hindawi.com)
  • To study this hypothesis, we isolated adrenal glands from control and spontaneously diabetic BB-Wistar rats, perfused them with ACh, and measured catecholamine secretion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Under normal physiological conditions, the concentration of tissue catecholamines does not change appreciably. (springer.com)
  • The catecholamines play an important role in the body's physiological response to stress. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Catecholamines can serve as hormones, regulating physiological functions, or as neurotransmitters. (lgcstandards.com)
  • Catecholamines are responsible for general physiological changes that prepare the body for a fight-or-flight response to stress. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Local release of platelet catecholamines may affect the platelet/vessel wall interaction, the primary physiological step in platelet activation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Catecholamines released by the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal medulla are involved in regulating a host of physiological functions, particularly the integration of responses to a range of stresses (1). (scielo.br)
  • Echocardiograms showed severe systolic dysfunction, and high catecholamine concentrations were measured in his blood. (mja.com.au)
  • Catecholamines (CAT's) are considered as indicators of stress, because higher concentrations of CAT's in brain tissue were noted in animals that are better adapted to stressful situations. (scielo.org.za)
  • The role of catecholamines in growth-promoting actions in muscle tissue is less clear, but they act to stimulate other anabolic hormones. (nsca.com)
  • These findings question the previously suggested influence that catecholamines exert on cognition, and suggest that the role of catecholamines in working memory should be reevaluated. (queensu.ca)
  • We studied cardiac and peripheral circulatory effects of graded doses of catecholamines (0.05-1.0 microgram/kg) in piglets aged less than or equal to 1 day, 2--4 days, 1 wweek, 2 weeks, and 2.5-3 months, under anesthesia with pentobarbital. (ahajournals.org)
  • Both hypoglycemia and thyroid hormone excess are stressors which can cause an increased release of catecholamines. (medhelp.org)
  • In general, stress causes increased secretion of catecholamines. (citizendium.org)
  • A Randomised, Double Blinded, Crossover Study of the Influence of Metoprolol on Exercise Induced Elevation of Catecholamines in Healthy Subjects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This volume in Advances in Pharmacology focuses on all aspects of catecholamine research, from very basic to medical. (elsevier.com)
  • This new volume of Advances in Pharmacology presents catecholamine symposium proceedings. (elsevier.com)
  • Exercise and stress can affect catecholamines, so your doctor may recommend that you don't do any vigorous exercise and avoid stressful situations before and during your test. (webmd.com)
  • Your body produces more catecholamines during times of stress. (healthline.com)
  • Catecholamines (say "kat-uh-KOH-luh-meens") are hormones made mostly by your adrenal glands as a reaction to stress. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • Catecholamines appear to reflect the acute demands and physical stress of resistance exercise protocols (105). (nsca.com)
  • Long-term continued high stress can even lead to adrenal exhaustion, at which point the ability of the adrenal medulla to release catecholamines is diminished. (nsca.com)
  • Catecholamines help the body respond to stress or fright and prepare the body for "fight-or-flight" reactions. (uwhealth.org)
  • This study suggests that C. acnes may play a role as a relay between stress mediators (catecholamines) and acne. (frontiersin.org)
  • catecholamines are produced by sympathetic nervous system activation Activity Autonomic arousal, fight-or-flight stress response, reward response. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • catecholamines are rapidly metabolized because of their extremely reduced half-life, helping an effective mobilization of all the available internal resources to counteract stress. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Catecholamines are produced by the adrenal glands as a reaction to stress. (verywellhealth.com)
  • This is done by creating a stress condition for the body, in this case with the bicycle test, while doing blood samples to determine the concentration of catecholamines. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Changes in stress-triggered response of catecholamines. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19658273 Title: Stress and catecholamine excretion in intercollegiate golfers : a test of the arousal/performance relationship Author: Nicholas Edward Hubalik Publisher: 1987. (worldcat.org)
  • Catecholamine and angiotensin II influences can be in excess arising from, for example, hypercaloric food intake or psychosocial stress. (isbn.nu)
  • Catecholamines and pulmonary hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Raised plasma-catecholamines in some patients with primary hypertension. (nih.gov)
  • catecholamine kăt˝əkôl´əmēn [ key ] , any of several compounds occurring naturally in the body that serve as hormones or as neurotransmitters in the sympathetic nervous system . (infoplease.com)
  • citation needed] Catecholamines are produced mainly by the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the sympathetic nerve endings and probably most of the central adrenergic structures have the property of taking up a considerable fraction of the catecholamines which have been released. (springer.com)
  • Your child's doctor may order a catecholamine blood test if they're concerned that your child may have neuroblastoma, which is a common childhood cancer. (healthline.com)
  • Catecholamines are chemicals made by nerve tissue (including the brain) and the adrenal gland. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These catecholamines are made by nerve tissue , the brain, and the adrenal glands . (uwhealth.org)
  • Catecholamines are used to increase cardiac output and blood pressure, aiming ultimately at restoring/improving tissue perfusion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we will discuss the pros and cons of the use of catecholamines and alternative agents for improving tissue perfusion in septic shock. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, vasopressive catecholamines may be associated with excessive vasoconstriction which may result in an impairment in tissue perfusion, even when perfusion pressure is restored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this paper, we will focus on septic shock and discuss the different possibilities to optimize tissue perfusion and catecholamine use. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The subcellular localization of the incorporated [methyl-3H]MPP+ was examined by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient fractionation and was found to be predominantly colocalized with catecholamines in chromaffin vesicles, and negligible amounts were detected within the mitochondrial fraction. (pnas.org)
  • These substances form when catecholamines break down in the body. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Concentration-effect studies for infused catecholamines may be used for receptor sensitivity studies in vivo, but reflexogenic contributions to responses need to be determined. (nih.gov)
  • Its in vivo regulation by catecholamines has been thoroughly investigated in mammals, but little information is available for ectotherms. (biologists.org)
  • Pelizzetti E, Mentasti E, Pramauro E. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation pathways of some catecholamines with periodic acid. (springer.com)
  • Potential oxidative pathways of brain catecholamines. (springer.com)
  • Oxidative pathways for catecholamines in the genesis of neuromelanin and cytotoxic quinones. (springer.com)
  • There is also increasing evidence that catecholamine and angiotensin II induced cellular injury not solely arises from classical pathways but also from a perturbed gene expression. (isbn.nu)
  • Basic biochemical processes are covered in detail and the potential of these pathways for explaining chronic diseases associated with excess catecholamine and angiotensin II influences should become apparent. (isbn.nu)
  • Using quartz fiber-immobilized laccase, detection of catecholamine neurotransmitter is described in this work. (spie.org)
  • Catecholamines are hormones made by the adrenal glands. (scripps.org)
  • Catecholamines are a type of hormone made by the adrenal gland. (lgcstandards.com)
  • Phaeochromocytoma and catecholamine induced cardiomyopathy presenting as heart failure. (bmj.com)
  • Potentiation by hydrocortisone (HC) of responses to catecholamines has been studied in the dog and in the aortic strip preparation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The failure to demonstrate potentiation by HC of the aortic strip responses produced by agents other than catecholamines (with one exception, synephrine) indicates that there is considerable specificity in the action of HC. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 1. We have used high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to measure plasma and platelet catecholamines in 24 normal subjects. (portlandpress.com)
  • These results indicate that methcathinone and methylone are potent and selective inhibitors of plasma membrane catecholamine reuptake transporters, with more modest effects at the serotonin reuptake transporter. (mdma.net)
  • 9780845127070: Catecholamines: Basic and Peripheral Mechanisms (Neurology & Neurobiology S. (abebooks.com)
  • Catecholamines, Part A: Basic and Peripheral Mechanisms. (abebooks.com)
  • Catecholamines are hormones made by your adrenal glands , two small glands located above your kidneys. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Catecholamines are hormones made by your adrenal glands, which are located on top of your kidneys . (webmd.com)
  • Electrochemical detection of quantal catecholamine release from PC-12 cells revealed that glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K + channels, potentiated Ca 2+ -dependent exocytosis evoked by raised extracellular [K + ] and by exposure of cells to caffeine. (jneurosci.org)
  • Catecholamines are a group of similar hormones produced in the medulla (central portion) of the adrenal glands. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • The aim of this chapter is to provide an update about the catecholamine assays in plasma and urine and to show the most common pre-analytical and analytical pitfalls associated with their determination. (nih.gov)