Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Glycine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Libraries, MedicalScience: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Library Science: Study of the principles and practices of library administration and services.Librarians: Specialists in the management of a library or the services rendered by a library, bringing professional skills to administration, organization of material and personnel, interpretation of bibliothecal rules, the development and maintenance of the library's collection, and the provision of information services.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalHormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Myxomatosis, InfectiousShab Potassium Channels: A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Priapism: A prolonged painful erection that may lasts hours and is not associated with sexual activity. It is seen in patients with SICKLE CELL ANEMIA, advanced malignancy, spinal trauma; and certain drug treatments.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Receptors, Catecholamine: Cell surface proteins that bind catecholamines with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The catecholamine messengers epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are synthesized from tyrosine by a common biosynthetic pathway.Nobel PrizeAwards and PrizesHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Psychology, Military: The branch of applied psychology concerned with psychological aspects of selection, assignment, training, morale, etc., of Armed Forces personnel.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Torture: The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Social Discrimination: Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.

The antidepressant-sensitive dopamine transporter in Drosophila melanogaster: a primordial carrier for catecholamines. (1/29)

Extracellular concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters are regulated by a family of high-affinity transporters that are the molecular targets for such psychoactive drugs as cocaine, amphetamines, and therapeutic antidepressants. In Drosophila melanogaster, cocaine-induced behaviors show striking similarities to those induced in vertebrate animal models. Although a cocaine-sensitive serotonin carrier exists in flies, there has been no pharmacological or molecular evidence to support the presence of distinct carrier subtypes for other bioactive monoamines. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a cocaine-sensitive fly dopamine transporter (dDAT). In situ hybridization demonstrates that dDAT mRNA expression is restricted to dopaminergic cells in the fly nervous system. The substrate selectivity of dDAT parallels that of the mammalian DATs in that dopamine and tyramine are the preferred substrates, whereas octopamine is transported less efficiently, and serotonin not at all. In contrast, dDAT inhibitors display a rank order of potency most closely resembling that of mammalian norepinephrine transporters. Cocaine has a moderately high affinity to the cloned dDAT (IC50 = 2.6 microM). Voltage-clamp analysis of dDAT expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicates that dDAT-mediated uptake is electrogenic; however, dDAT seems to lack the constitutive leak conductance that is characteristic of the mammalian catecholamine transporters. The combination of a DAT-like substrate selectivity and norepinephrine transporter-like inhibitor pharmacology within a single carrier, and results from phylogenetic analyses, suggest that dDAT represents an ancestral catecholamine transporter gene. The identification of a cocaine-sensitive target linked to dopaminergic neurotransmission in D. melanogaster will serve as a basis for further dissection of the genetic components of psychostimulant-mediated behavior.  (+info)

Norsalsolinol uptake into secretory vesicles via vesicular monoamine transporter and its secretion by membrane depolarization or purinoceptor stimulation in PC12 cells. (2/29)

The intracellular dynamics of norsalsolinol, a neurotoxin candidate causing parkinsonism-like symptoms, in PC12 cells was studied. We found that dopamine and norsalsolinol are co-localized to secretory granule layer by sucrose density gradient in norsalsolinol-treated PC12 cells. The norsalsolinol was actively taken up into isolated secretory vesicle fraction from PC12 cells with a Km value of 41.5+/-6.8 microM. The uptake of 10 microM of norsalsolinol was sensitive to reserpine (1 microM), an inhibitor of vesicular dopamine transporter, and dopamine, an endogenous substrate, but insensitive to GBR-12909, an inhibitor of dopamine transporter on plasma membrane. In norsalsolinol-treated PC12 cells, exposure to high K+ or ATP resulted in simultaneous release of norsalsolinol and dopamine. Time course of a release of dopamine and that of norsalsolinol evoked by 50 mM KCl or 100 microM ATP corresponded to each other. These releases were dependent on the concentrations of secretagogues. These data suggest that norsalsolinol is taken up with dopamine into secretory vesicle via vesicular catecholamine transporter.  (+info)

A Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporter for catecholamines, identified as a norepinephrine transporter, is expressed in the brain of the teleost fish medaka (Oryzias latipes). (3/29)

We report the isolation, functional characterization, and localization of a Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent catecholamine transporter (meNET) present in the brain of the teleost fish medaka. This carrier is very similar to the human neuronal norepinephrine transporter (NET) and the human neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT), showing 70 and 64% amino acid identity, respectively. When expressed in COS-7 cells, this transporter mediates the high-affinity uptake of dopamine (K(M) = 290 nM) and norepinephrine (K(M) = 640 nM). Its pharmacological profile reveals more similarities with NET, including a high affinity for the tricyclic antidepressants desipramine (IC(50) = 0.92 nM) and nortriptyline (IC(50) = 16 nM). In situ hybridization on the medaka brain shows that meNET mRNA is present only in a subset of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons found in the noradrenergic areas of the hindbrain, such as the locus ceruleus and area postrema. None of the dopaminergic areas anterior to the isthmus contains any labeled neurons. Neither reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers specific for gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter/NET nor autoradiographic experiments with [(125)I]3b-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane-2b-carboxylic acid methyl ester revealed an additional catecholamine transporter in the medaka brain. Uptake experiments with medaka brain synaptosomes show an endogenous transport with a pharmacological profile identical to that of the recombinant meNET. Thus, meNET is probably the predominant--if not the only--catecholamine transporter in the medaka fish brain. In view of the highly conserved primary structures and pharmacological properties of meNET, it is tempting to speculate that a specific dopamine transport developed later in vertebrate evolution and probably accompanied the tremendous enlargement of the meso-telencephalic dopaminergic pathways in amniotes.  (+info)

Tissue distribution and renal developmental changes in rat organic cation transporter mRNA levels. (4/29)

Organic cation transporters (OCTs) are responsible for excretion of cationic substances into urine. Tissue OCT expression may be important for the disposition and excretion of xenobiotics. Therefore, OCT1, OCT2, OCT3, OCTN1, and OCTN2 mRNA levels were measured in adult rat tissues and rat kidney tissue at various stages of development from day 0 to 45. OCT1 mRNA expression was highest in kidney and spleen, moderate in skin, and low in the gastrointestinal tract, brain, lung, thymus, muscle, and prostate. OCT2 mRNA levels were highest in kidney, with low expression in other tissues, and with renal OCT2 levels being approximately 4 times higher in males than that in females. In gonadectomized males, OCT2 mRNA levels were attenuated to female levels, suggesting a role for testosterone in OCT2 expression. OCT3 was moderately expressed in kidney and was highest in blood vessel, skin, and thymus. OCTN1 was expressed in most of the tissues examined, with relatively higher expression in kidney and ileum and lower levels in thymus. Lastly, OCTN2 was expressed abundantly in kidney and ileum, moderately in large intestine, dorsal prostate, bladder, duodenum, and cerebellum, and minimally in thymus, spleen, and cerebral cortex. Renal OCT1, OCTN1, and OCTN2 mRNA levels increased gradually from postnatal day 0 through day 45 in both genders. Renal OCT2 levels remained the same in males and females through day 25 and then dramatically increased only in male kidney after day 30. In summary, OCT mRNA was detected primarily in kidney, and the high level of renal OCT expression may explain why the kidney is a target organ for xenobiotics with cationic properties.  (+info)

Reduced expression of organic cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 in experimental diabetes. (5/29)

Recent reports have documented a functional deficit of organic cation transport in diabetic rats by an unknown mechanism. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that experimental diabetes decreases expression of organic cation transporters at the basolateral membrane. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were maintained for varying durations after induction of diabetes. A second group of age-matched control rats was maintained in a parallel manner. Kinetic analysis of tetraethylammonium accumulation in freshly isolated proximal tubular cells indicated a significantly lower V(max) value for the diabetics versus controls with no statistical difference in K(m) values between the two groups. Cortex sections were processed by standard procedures for Northern and immunoblot analysis. Protein expression of the organic cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 progressively decreased with increasing duration of diabetes. After 21 days of diabetes, rOCT1 and rOCT2 were maximally reduced by 50 and 70%, respectively. Quantification of mRNA expression revealed that the roct1 transcript remained unchanged, whereas the roct2 transcript was decreased by 50% after 14 days of diabetes. Treatment with insulin prevented the reductions in transporter levels. These results support the hypothesis by demonstrating that experimental diabetes decreased expression of both rOCT1 and rOCT2 protein and also of roct2 mRNA accumulation. On the other hand, roct1 mRNA levels were unaffected by the diabetic state. This suggests that differences in rOCT2 protein may result from transcriptional and/or translational changes, whereas rOCT1 deficits may be due to posttranscriptional alterations.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation of murine Slc22a1 (Oct1) by peroxisome proliferator agonist receptor-alpha and -gamma. (6/29)

The transport and metabolism of organic cationic endobiotics, nutrients, and drugs are essential hepatic functions. Slc22A1 is the basolateral liver transporter mediating the uptake of organic cations; however, little is known about the regulation of this transport protein. Peroxisome proliferator agonist receptor (PPAR)-alpha and -gamma agonists are commonly used agents that regulate many hepatocellular transport functions. Thus the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PPAR agonists on the hepatic regulation and function of Slc22a1. Mice and H35 cells were administered PPAR-alpha and -gamma agonists, and the effect on Slc22a1 gene expression was measured. We subsequently cloned the Slc22a1 promoter and employed chimeric constructs to assay Slc22a1 gene transcription. The effects of PPAR-agonist treatment on organic cation uptake was also assayed. Slc22a1 expression was increased by PPAR-alpha and -gamma agonist treatment in both murine livers and H35 cells. Gene expression in H35 cells was further increased following transfection with expression vectors of PPAR transcription factors and PPAR agonist treatment. We cloned the promoter region of Slc22a1 and identified a PPAR-response element, and transfections with chimeric Slc22a1; promoter-reporter gene constructs demonstrate that the increased gene expression was transcriptionally regulated. Functional assays confirmed that cells treated with PPAR agonists displayed significant increases in organic cation uptake. PPAR-alpha and -gamma agonists transcriptionally increase Slc22a1 gene expression, and the increased Slc22a1 expression results in enhanced cellular organic cation uptake. These studies may have implication for the uptake of organic cationic drugs and for lipid metabolism.  (+info)

Subtype-specific affinity for corticosterone of rat organic cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 depends on three amino acids within the substrate binding region. (7/29)

The affinity of corticosterone to organic cation transporters (OCTs) is subtype- and species-dependent. For example, the IC50 values for corticosterone inhibition of cation uptake by transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 are approximately 150 and approximately 4 microM, respectively. By introducing domains and amino acids from rOCT2 into rOCT1, we found that the exchange of three amino acids in the presumed 10th transmembrane alpha helix is sufficient to increase the affinity of rOCT1 for corticosterone to that of rOCT2. Replacement of these amino acids in rOCT2 decreased the affinity for corticosterone. These amino acids (Ala443, Leu447, and Gln448 in rOCT1 and Ile443, Tyr447, and Glu448 in rOCT2) are probably located within the substrate binding region because in rOCT1 mutants, the K(m) values for uptake of tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP) were decreased in parallel with a decrease of the IC50 values for the inhibition of cation uptake by corticosterone. In mutant rOCT1(L447Y/Q448E), the IC50 value for the inhibition of [3H]MPP (0.1 microM) uptake by corticosterone (24 +/- 4 microM) was significantly higher compared with the IC50 value for inhibition of [14C]TEA (10 microM) uptake (5.3 +/- 1.7 microM). This finding suggests an allosteric interaction between transported cation and corticosterone. Because this substrate-specific effect cannot be explained by differential replacement of corticosterone by MPP versus TEA and was observed after point mutations within the presumed substrate region, the data suggest that MPP or TEA bind to the substrate binding region simultaneously with corticosterone and cause a short-range allosteric effect on the corticosterone binding site.  (+info)

A species difference in the transport activities of H2 receptor antagonists by rat and human renal organic anion and cation transporters. (8/29)

A clinical drug-drug interaction between famotidine (a H2 receptor antagonist) and probenecid has not been reproduced in rats. The present study hypothesized that the species-dependent probenecid sensitivity is due to a species difference in the contribution of renal organic anion and cation transporters. The transport activities of the H2 receptor antagonists (cimetidine, famotidine, and ranitidine) by rat and human basolateral organic anion and cation transporters [human organic anion transporter (hOAT) 1, hOAT2, r/hOAT3, rat organic cation transporter (rOct) 1, and r/hOCT2] were compared using their cDNA transfectants. The transport activities (Vmax/Km) of famotidine (Km, 345 microM) by rOat3 were 8- and 15-fold lower than those of cimetidine (Km, 91 microM) and ranitidine (Km, 155 microM), respectively, whereas the activity by hOAT3 (Km, 124 microM) was 3-fold lower than that of cimetidine (Km, 149 microM) but similar to that of ranitidine (Km, 234 microM). Comparison of the relative transport activity with regard to that of cimetidine suggests that famotidine was more efficiently transported by hOAT3 than rOat3, and vice versa, for ranitidine. Only ranitidine was efficiently transported by hOAT2 (Km, 396 microM). rOct1 accepts all of the H2 receptor antagonists with a similar activity, whereas the transport activities of ranitidine and famotidine (Km, 61/56 microM) by r/hOCT2 were markedly lower than that of cimetidine (Km, 69/73 microM). Probenecid was a potent inhibitor of r/OAT3 (Ki, 2.6-5.8 microM), whereas it did not interact with OCTs. These results suggest that, in addition to the absence of OCT1 in human kidney, a species difference in the transport activity by hOAT3 and rOat3 accounts, at least in part, for the species difference in the drug-drug interaction between famotidine and probenecid.  (+info)

3-Fluorobenzamide 455-37-8 NMR spectrum, 3-Fluorobenzamide H-NMR spectral analysis, 3-Fluorobenzamide C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Buy high quality 4-​[3-​[4-​Cyano-​3-​(trifluoromethyl)​phenyl]​-​5,​5-​dimethyl-​4-​oxo-​2-​thioxo-​1-​imidazolidinyl]​-​2-​fluorobenzamide 1242137-16-1 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
Reversibility of Cocaines Cardiovascular Effects in Vivo. We have found that an efficient cocaine hydrolase will reduce hypertensive responses to cocaine in the rat and that such an enzyme can be beneficial even after responses to the drug have become established. It is particularly important that an injection of CocE restored baseline blood pressure in rats that received a near-LD50 dose of cocaine. This finding is directly relevant to the clinical utility of hydrolases for rescue from cocaine overdose.. The rapid restoration of normotension shows that cocaines binding to its sites of action is reversible in vivo on a time scale of seconds. Our data confirm previous indications that cocaines high affinity for its target, the catecholamine transporter, is compatible with ready reversibility. Such reversibility is expected. For example, even the potent muscarinic antagonist, N-methylscopolamine, with Kd of 0.2 nM, dissociates from its preferred receptor subtype with a rate constant of 0.027 ...
Wholesale organic cation transporters - buy latest organic cation transporters direct from 928 organic cation transporters Factories.
N-(1-((4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)methyl)-2-methylpropyl)-7-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxamide:
About 40% of all prescribed drugs are cationic at physiological pH and the multidrug Organic Cation Transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, are the initial steps in their...
The present study shows that in vivo gene transfer of the neuronal catecholamine transporter uptake-1 to the myocardium results in a clear improvement of cardiac function in rabbits with heart failure. These results suggest that increased local clearance of catecholamines, and above all of NE, should confer a marked therapeutic benefit in heart failure.. Decreased cardiac uptake-1 function in heart failure has been documented in a number of studies.6-10 The question of whether this finding reflects a general decrease of cardiac sympathoadrenergic neurons or a selective decrease of NE transporter proteins on these cells has not been fully clarified. Although some early studies claimed a decreased cardiac atrial neuron number in heart failure,21 recent evidence supports the notion that the transporters are specifically downregulated and other neuronal functions are intact. Release of NE from cardiac sympathetic nerve endings is clearly increased in heart failure, and elevated NE levels have been ...
TABLE-US-00002 Name MS data N-({1-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-4-[(cyclopropylmethyl)sulfonyl]cyclohexyl}methyl- )-2,4- 528 bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidine-5-carboxamide N-({1-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-4-[(cyclopropylmethyl)sulfonyl]cyclohexyl}methyl- )-4-methyl- 474 2-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidine-5-carboxamide 2-Chloro-N-({1-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4-[(cyclopropylmethyl)sulfonyl]cyclohex- yl}methyl)- 442 4-fluorobenzamide 2,6-Dichloro-N-({1-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4- 459 [(cyclopropylmethyl)sulfonyl]cyclohexyl}methyl)nicotinamide 2,4,6-Trichloro-N-({1-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4- 492 [(cyclopropylmethyl)sulfonyl]cyclohexyl}methyl)benzamide 2-Chloro-N-({1-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4-[(cyclopropylmethyl)sulfonyl]cyclohex- yl}methyl)- 492 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide N-({1-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-4-[(cyclopropylmethyl)sulfonyl]cyclohexyl}methyl- )-4- 468 (methylsulfonyl)benzamide N-({1-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-4-[(cyclopropylmethyl)sulfonyl]cyclohexyl}methyl- )-2- 474 (trifluoromethoxy)benzamide 4-Bromo-2-chloro-N-({1-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4- ...
The organic cation transporter OCT1 (SLC22A1) mediates the uptake of vitamin B1, cationic drugs, and xenobiotics into hepatocytes. Nine percent of Caucasians lack or have very low OCT1 activity due to loss-of-function polymorphisms in OCT1 gene. Here we analyzed the global genetic variability in OCT1 to estimate the therapeutic relevance of OCT1 polymorphisms in populations beyond Caucasians and to identify evolutionary patterns of the common loss of OCT1 activity in humans. We applied massively parallel sequencing to screen for coding polymorphisms in 1,079 unrelated individuals from 53 populations worldwide. The obtained data was combined with the existing 1000 Genomes data comprising an additional 1,092 individuals from 14 populations. The identified OCT1 variants were characterized in vitro regarding their cellular localization and their ability to transport 10 known OCT1 substrates. Both the population genetics data and transport data were used in tandem to generate a world map of loss of OCT1
The organic cation transporter OCT1 (SLC22A1) mediates the uptake of vitamin B1, cationic drugs, and xenobiotics into hepatocytes. Nine percent of Caucasians lack or have very low OCT1 activity due to loss-of-function polymorphisms in OCT1 gene. Here we analyzed the global genetic variability in OCT1 to estimate the therapeutic relevance of OCT1 polymorphisms in populations beyond Caucasians and to identify evolutionary patterns of the common loss of OCT1 activity in humans. We applied massively parallel sequencing to screen for coding polymorphisms in 1,079 unrelated individuals from 53 populations worldwide. The obtained data was combined with the existing 1000 Genomes data comprising an additional 1,092 individuals from 14 populations. The identified OCT1 variants were characterized in vitro regarding their cellular localization and their ability to transport 10 known OCT1 substrates. Both the population genetics data and transport data were used in tandem to generate a world map of loss of OCT1
View mouse Slc22a2 Chr17:12584189-12628465 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
SLC22A5 antibody (solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter), member 5) for WB. Anti-SLC22A5 pAb (GTX12395) is tested in Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The Slc22 family of organic anion and cation transporters (OATs, OCTs, OCTNs) are transmembrane proteins expressed predominantly in kidney and liver.…
The Slc22 family of organic anion and cation transporters (OATs, OCTs, OCTNs) are transmembrane proteins expressed predominantly in kidney and liver.…
Impact of Expression Levels of Platinum-uptake Transporters Copper Transporter 1 and Organic Cation Transporter 2 on Resistance to Anthracycline/Taxane-based Chemotherapy in Triple-negative Breast CancerImpact of Expression Levels of Platinum-uptake Transporters Copper Transporter 1 and Organic Cation Transporter 2 on Resistance to Anthracycline/Taxane-based Chemotherapy in Triple-negative Breast Cancer ...
Platinum-based chemotherapy is the first-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); it is therefore important to discover biomarkers that can be used to predict the efficacy and toxicity of this treatment. Four important transporter genes are expressed in the kidney, including organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1), ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1), and ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 2 (ABCC2), and genetic polymorphisms in these genes may alter the efficacy and adverse effects of platinum drugs. This study aimed to evaluate the association of genetic polymorphisms of these transporters with platinum-based chemotherapy response and toxicity in NSCLC patients. A total of 403 Chinese NSCLC patients were recruited for this study. All patients were newly diagnosed with NSCLC and received at least two cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy. The tumor response and toxicity were evaluated after two cycles of treatment, and the patients
Organic cation transporters in the kidney and liver play an important role in the removal of potentially toxic drugs and their metabolites from the systemic circulation (Zhang et al., 1998a). The fundamental mechanisms involved in the sequential flux of organic cations across renal and hepatic epithelia are reported to be similar among mammalian species (Pritchard and Miller, 1993, 1996; Zhang et al., 1998a). However, the extent of interspecies differences in kinetic characteristics and selectivities of organic cation transporters is not well understood. Our understanding of organic cation transport mechanisms is largely based on studies performed with tissue preparations from the rabbit kidney and rat liver (Wright, 1985;Gisclon et al., 1987; Dantzler et al., 1991; Moseley et al., 1992,1996, 1997; Martel et al., 1996). Relatively few studies have examined renal or hepatic transport mechanisms in humans (Ott et al., 1991; Chun et al., 1997; Muller and Jansen, 1997). There have been several ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Local inhibition of organic cation transporters increases extracellular serotonin in the medial hypothalamus. AU - Feng, Na. AU - Mo, Bing. AU - Johnson, Philip L.. AU - Orchinik, Miles. AU - Lowry, Christopher A.. AU - Renner, Kenneth J.. PY - 2005/11/23. Y1 - 2005/11/23. N2 - In the rat dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), serotonin (5-HT) concentrations are altered rapidly in response to acute stressors. The mechanism for rapid changes in 5-HT concentrations in the DMH is not clear. We hypothesize that the mechanism involves corticosteroid-induced alterations in the uptake of 5-HT from extracellular fluid through the action of corticosterone-sensitive organic cation transporters (OCTs). To determine if OCTs affect the clearance of 5-HT from the extracellular fluid compartment within the medial hypothalamus (MH), the OCT blocker, decynium 22 (0, 10, 30, or 100 μM), was perfused into the MH via a microdialysis probe, and dialysate 5-HT concentrations were measured at 20 min ...
The purpose of this study was to characterize blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of oxycodone, a cationic opioid agonist, via the pyrilamine transporter, a putative organic cation transporter, using conditionally immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cells (TR-BBB13). Oxycodone and [3H]pyrilamine were both transported into TR-BBB13 cells in a temperature- and concentration-dependent manner with Km values of 89 and 28 microM, respectively. The initial uptake of oxycodone was significantly enhanced by preloading with pyrilamine and vice versa. Furthermore, mutual uptake inhibition by oxycodone and pyrilamine suggests that a common mechanism is involved in their transport. Transport of both substrates was inhibited by type II cations (quinidine, verapamil, and amantadine), but not by classic organic cation transporter (OCT) substrates and/or inhibitors (tetraethylammonium, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, and corticosterone), substrates of OCTN1 (ergothioneine) and OCTN2 (L-carnitine), or ...
0115]Other examples of non-naturally occurring amino acids include 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-alanine, 3-chloro-phenylalanine, 4-chloro-phenylalanine, 2-fluoro-phenylalanine, 3-fluoro-phenylalanine, 4-fluoro-phenylalanine, 2-bromo-phenylalanine, 3-bromo-phenylalanine, 4-bromo-phenylalanine, homophenylalanine, 2-methyl-phenylalanine, 3-methyl-phenylalanine, 4-methyl-phenylalanine, 2,4-dimethyl-phenylalanine, 2-nitro-phenylalanine, 3-nitro-phenylalanine, 4-nitro-phenylalanine, 2,4-dinitro-phenylalanine, 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronorharman-3-carboxylic acid, 1-naphthylalanine, 2-naphthylalanine, pentafluorophenylalanine, 2,4-dichloro-phenylalanine, 3,4-dichloro-phenylalanine, 3,4-difluoro-phenylalanine, 3,5-difluoro-phenylalanine, 2,4,5-trifluoro-phenylalanine, 2-trifluoromethyl-phenylalanine, 3-trifluoromethyl-phenylalanine, 4-trifluoromethyl-phenylalanine, 2-cyano-phenyalanine, 3-cyano-phenyalanine, 4-cyano-phenyalanine, 2-iodo-phenyalanine, 3-iodo-phenyalanine, ...
Methamphetamine is one of the most abused illicit drugs with roughly 1.2 million users in the United States alone. A large portion of methamphetamine and its metabolites is eliminated by the kidney with renal clearance larger than glomerular filtration clearance. Yet the mechanism of active renal secretion is poorly understood. The goals of this study were to characterize the interaction of methamphetamine and its major metabolites with organic cation transporters (OCTs) and multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) transporters and to identify the major transporters involved in the disposition of methamphetamine and its major metabolites, amphetamine and para-hydroxymethamphetamine (p-OHMA). We used cell lines stably expressing relevant transporters to show that methamphetamine and its metabolites inhibit human OCTs 1-3 (hOCT1-3) and hMATE1/2-K with the greatest potencies against hOCT1 and hOCT2. Methamphetamine and amphetamine are substrates of hOCT2, hMATE1, and hMATE2-K, but not hOCT1 and hOCT3. ...
Inclusion Criteria: - Healthy volunteers - Written consent - rs316019 genotyped - Age 18-65 years old Exclusion Criteria: - Daily medication - Alcohol abuse - Pregnancy - Breastfeeding Inclusion Criteria: - Healthy volunteers - Written consent - rs316019 genotyped - Age 18-65 years old Exclusion Criteria: - Daily medication - Alcohol abuse - Pregnancy - Breastfeeding Metformin Organic Cation Transporter 2 Polymorphism,Single Nucleotide null ...
Much of the anti-cancer research conducted in our laboratory has centred on uncovering aspects of the mechanism of bifunctional platinum compounds of the kind clinically used [3,25,26]. As mentioned above, we investigated the role of the organic cation transporters in the mechanism of action of oxaliplatin [8]. Greater expression of this protein in cancer cells correlated with cytotoxicity. Following this study, we prepared a variety of platinum complexes with organic ligands chosen such that each complex bore an overall positive charge. The hypothesis was that such constructs should act as more efficient substrates for the OCTs. The complex that gave the best results, far better than those of oxaliplatin, was cationic cis-diamminepyridinechloroplatinum(II), also referred to as cDPCP or pyriplatin (figure 1) [27]. The anti-cancer activity of this compound had been investigated previously in an animal model [28], but only a small number of follow-up studies on related compounds were performed ...
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To discriminate between two general models of antagonism (participation and allosteric), an opioid antagonist lacking the basic nitrogen of tyramine was designed and characterized. Cyclo-[Tyr(Me)2-Tic-], the diketopiperazine of 2,6-dimethyltyrosyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, is a partially rigid opioid antagonist; its pA2 (5.8) is one smaller than that of N,N-bisallyl-enkephalin but it has a very high binding affinity (10 nM) and has a delta selectivity (66 with respect to the binding to mu receptors) higher than that of naltrindole. The conformational state of this diketopiperazine, studied under a variety of solvent and temperature conditions by NMR and molecular dynamics, can be described in terms of only three conformers whose relative populations vary widely with solvent. Only one of the three conformers, characterized by a 90 degree arrangement of the aromatic rings of Tyr(Me)2 and Tic similar to those of rigid agonists and of the bioactive conformation of the ...
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SLC22A5 is a membrane transport protein associated with primary carnitine deficiency. Polyspecific organic cation transporters in the liver, kidney, intestine, and other organs are critical for elimination of many endogenous small organic cations as well as a wide array of drugs and environmental toxins. The encoded protein is a plasma integral membrane protein which functions both as an organic cation transporter and as a sodium-dependent high affinity carnitine transporter. The encoded protein is involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Mutations in this gene are the cause of systemic primary carnitine deficiency (CDSP), an autosomal recessive disorder manifested early in life by hypoketotic hypoglycemia and acute metabolic decompensation, and later in life by skeletal myopathy or cardiomyopathy. Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000197375 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000018900 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse ...
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Different animal species have characteristic sizes. A mouse does not grow to the size of a horse, for example, because during development, environmental cues (particularly nutrient availability) act together with genetic cues to regulate cell growth and proliferation. The insulin receptor (InR) signalling pathway cell autonomously controls cellular responses to nutrient availability. Now, on p. 2617, Milán and colleagues report that calderón, which encodes a new organic cation transporter of the major facilitator superfamily, is a downstream effector of InR in developing Drosophila tissues. The researchers show that calderón mutant flies are smaller than wild-type flies and developmentally delayed, a phenotype that resembles that caused by mutations in the InR pathway. Genetic experiments indicate that the expression of calderón is positively regulated by InR downstream effectors, including TOR (target of rapamycin), and that calderón is required for TOR-mediated growth induction. Thus, the ...
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... the three transport mechanisms have been traced to the proteins and their genes since 1990. They now comprise the plasma ... Membranes play a twofold role for catecholamines: catecholamines must pass through membranes and deliver their chemical message ... The β-adrenoceptor was the first G protein-coupled receptor the gene of which was cloned. Goal-directed catecholamine research ... With the reserpine-sensitive uptake from the cytoplasm into the storage vesicles there were thus three catecholamine membrane ...
... catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.562.374.500.500 -- dopamine plasma membrane transport ... dopamine plasma membrane transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.625.139 -- gaba plasma membrane transport proteins MeSH ... gaba plasma membrane transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.562.374.781 -- glutamate plasma membrane transport proteins MeSH ... glycine plasma membrane transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.562.374.875 -- serotonin plasma membrane transport proteins ...
... including protein hormones and catecholamines, are water-soluble and are thus readily transported through the circulatory ... are embedded in the plasma membrane at the surface of the cell and the majority of these receptors belong to the G protein- ... Binding proteinsEdit. Hormone transport and the involvement of binding proteins is an essential aspect when considering the ... Transport of the hormone to the target cell(s). *Recognition of the hormone by an associated cell membrane or intracellular ...
In addition to the plasma membrane monoamine transporters, methamphetamine inhibits uptake and induces efflux of ... since both MAOIs and methamphetamine increase plasma catecholamines; therefore, concurrent use of both is dangerous. ... it triggers transporter phosphorylation via protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, ultimately resulting ... production and either completely inhibits or reverses the transport direction of the dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine ...
... including protein hormones and catecholamines, are water-soluble and are thus readily transported through the circulatory ... are embedded in the plasma membrane at the surface of the cell and the majority of these receptors belong to the G protein- ... Hormone transport and the involvement of binding proteins is an essential aspect when considering the function of hormones. ... Hormones exit their cell of origin via exocytosis or another means of membrane transport. The hierarchical model is an ...
... hormones are located on the plasma membrane because they have bound to a receptor protein located on the plasma membrane. Water ... Second messengers may also be sent to interact with intracellular receptors in order to enter the complex signal transport ... Water-soluble hormones include glycoproteins, catecholamines, and peptide hormones composed of polypeptides, e.g. thyroid- ... Receptors for peptide hormones tend to be cell surface receptors built into the plasma membrane of cells and are thus referred ...
The mast cell granule can now fuse with the plasma membrane. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion attachment protein ... A study of cyclic AMP levels and effects of catecholamines". Agents and Actions. 13 (2-3): 132-7. doi:10.1007/bf01967316. PMID ... that is involved in activation of H+ transport and other associated changes of oxyntic cells. In anaphylaxis (a severe systemic ... Complement proteins can activate membrane receptors on mast cells to exert various functions as well. Mast cells express a high ...
The encoded protein contains twelve putative transmembrane domains and is a plasma integral membrane protein. OCT3 is widely ... Capacity for transport and affinity for these substrates may vary between rat and human isoforms however. Transport activity of ... "Molecular identification of the corticosterone-sensitive extraneuronal catecholamine transporter". Nat. Neurosci. 1 (5): 349-51 ... 2007). "The organic cation transporters (OCT1, OCT2, EMT) and the plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) show ...
This can result in an increase in efflux of catecholamines through the plasma membrane, depleting catecholamine concentrations ... is a transport protein integrated into the membrane of synaptic vesicles of presynaptic neurons. It acts to transport monoamine ... This conformation occurs after the transport of one proton across the membrane and into the vesicle; proton transport drives ... Activated heterotrimeric G-protein Gαq downregulates VMAT2 mediated serotonin transport in blood platelets, but this is not the ...
They are found closer to the plasma membrane of the cell. This requires norepinephrine to diffuse from the site it is released ... The genetic defect in the NET protein results in decreased NET activity that could account for abnormally high NE plasma levels ... The transport of norepinephrine back into presynaptic cell is made possible by the cotransport with Na+ and Cl−. The sequential ... block reabsorption of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine through monoamine transporters (including NET), thereby ...
... leaving an ultrafiltrate that resembles plasma (except that the ultrafiltrate has negligible plasma proteins) to enter Bowman's ... These transport processes are driven by Starling forces, diffusion, and active transport. In some cases, reabsorption is ... The regulation of glucose production in the kidney is achieved by action of insulin, catecholamines and other hormones. Renal ... is facilitated out of the cell's basolateral membrane Some key regulatory hormones for reabsorption include: aldosterone, which ...
Approximately 15-40% of amphetamine circulating in the bloodstream is bound to plasma proteins. Following absorption, ... since both MAOIs and amphetamine increase plasma catecholamines (i.e., norepinephrine and dopamine); therefore, concurrent use ... Amphetamine can enter the presynaptic neuron either through DAT or by diffusing across the neuronal membrane directly. As a ... DHK-sensitive, EAAT2 uptake was not altered by AMPH (Figure 1A). The remaining glutamate transport in these midbrain cultures ...
Activates adipocyte plasma membrane type A guanylyl cyclase receptors NPR-A Increases intracellular cGMP levels that induce the ... Membrane Receptor-mediated elevation of vascular smooth muscle cGMP Inhibition of the effects of catecholamines Promotes ... Reeves WB, Andreoli TE (2008). "Chapter 31 - Sodium Chloride Transport in the Loop of Henle, Distal Convoluted Tubule, and ... phosphorylation of a hormone-sensitive lipase and perilipin A via the activation of a cGMP-dependent protein kinase-I (cGK-I) ...
Manchester, KL (1964). "Sites of Hormonal Regulation of Protein Metabolism". In Allison, NH & Munro JB. Mammalian Protein ... Ueda Y, Honda M, Tsuchiya M, Watanabe H, Izumi Y, Shiratsuchi T, Inoue T, Hatano M (April 1982). "Response of plasma ACTH and ... Cortisone, a hormone Membrane glucocorticoid receptor List of corticosteroids Scott E (2011-09-22). "Cortisol and Stress: How ... ISBN 978-1-55009-213-4. Sandle GI, Keir MJ, Record CO (1981). "The effect of hydrocortisone on the transport of water, sodium, ...
"Functional interaction between monoamine plasma membrane transporters and the synaptic PDZ domain-containing protein PICK1". ... transport, and degradation. The gene for DAT, known as DAT1, is located on chromosome 5p15. The protein encoding region of the ... Exposure of isolated catecholamine vesicles to protonophores collapses the pH gradient and rapidly redistributes transmitter ... Apart from these innate protein-protein interactions, recent studies demonstrated that viral proteins such as HIV-1 Tat protein ...
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) then binds to receptor proteins in the plasma membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ... Transport to the TGN may take about 30 min. Proinsulin undergoes maturation into active insulin through the action of cellular ... It appears that release of catecholamines by the sympathetic nervous system has conflicting influences on insulin release by ... to a G protein-coupled membrane receptor. Phospholipase C cleaves the membrane phospholipid, phosphatidyl inositol 4,5- ...
Activates adipocyte plasma membrane type A guanylyl cyclase receptors NPR-A Increases intracellular cGMP levels that induce the ... Membrane Receptor-mediated elevation of vascular smooth muscle cGMP Inhibition of the effects of catecholamines Promotes ... As a consequence, cGMP activates a cGMP-dependent kinase (PKG or cGK) that phosphorylates proteins at specific serine and ... Reeves WB, Andreoli TE (2008). "Chapter 31 - Sodium Chloride Transport in the Loop of Henle, Distal Convoluted Tubule, and ...
A more specific membrane binding would lead to accumulation of taipoxin in the plasma membranes of motor-neurons. The treatment ... There it enhanced catecholamine release in depolarizing cells by disassembling F-actin in the cytoskeletal barrier. This could ... The venom still functions with the almost identical multi-disulphide-bridged protein PLA2 scaffold, which causes the hydrolytic ... which would give more insight into how Taipoxin is transported to the nerve terminals and intramuscular axons. The toxicity of ...
In addition to the plasma membrane monoamine transporters, methamphetamine inhibits uptake and induces efflux of ... since both MAOIs and methamphetamine increase plasma catecholamines; therefore, concurrent use of both is dangerous.[23] ... it triggers transporter phosphorylation via protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, ultimately resulting ... TAAR1 activation also causes some of the dopamine transporters to move into the presynaptic neuron and cease transport (not ...
... inhibits insulin-dependent stimulation of glucose transport and prevents recruitment of glucose transporters in plasma membrane ... Kaniuk NA, Kiraly M, Bates HE, Vranic M, Volchuck A, Brumell JH (2007). "Ubiquitinated-protein aggregates form in pancreatic β- ... catecholamines and glucagon to hypoglycemia. He proposed a new approach to decrease the threat of hypoglycemia by blocking the ... He also revealed how acute and chronic hyperglycemia affects the expression of GLUT2 gene and protein in diabetes. Vranic ...
This precursor protein also includes the oxytocin carrier protein neurophysin I.[21] The inactive precursor protein is ... At least two uncontrolled studies have found increases in plasma oxytocin at orgasm - in both men and women.[103][104] Plasma ... Luck MR, Jungclas B (September 1987). "Catecholamines and ascorbic acid as stimulators of bovine ovarian oxytocin secretion". ... Brownstein MJ, Russell JT, Gainer H (January 1980). "Synthesis, transport, and release of posterior pituitary hormones". ...
Plasma transport[edit]. Most of the thyroid hormone circulating in the blood is bound to "transport protein"s. Only a very ... Membrane transport[edit]. Contrary to common belief, thyroid[35] hormones cannot traverse cell membranes in a passive manner ... and increase the body's sensitivity to catecholamines (such as adrenaline) by permissiveness. The thyroid hormones are ... Hennemann G, Docter R, Friesema EC, de Jong M, Krenning EP, Visser TJ (Aug 2001). "Plasma membrane transport of thyroid ...
The use of vasopressin is contraindicated in the presence of hypersentivity to beef or pork proteins, increased BUN and chronic ... The physiologic stimulus for secretion of vasopressin is increased osmolality of the plasma, monitored by the hypothalamus. A ... Knepper MA, Kim GH, Fernández-Llama P, Ecelbarger CA (March 1999). "Regulation of thick ascending limb transport by vasopressin ... This occurs through increased transcription and insertion of water channels (Aquaporin-2) into the apical membrane of ...
"Latherin: A Surfactant Protein of Horse Sweat and Saliva". PLoS ONE. 4 (5): e5726. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005726. PMC ... In humans, sweat is hypoosmotic relative to plasma (i.e. less concentrated). Sweat is found at moderately acidic to neutral pH ... Diaphoresis due to ectopic catecholamine is a classic symptom of a pheochromocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal gland. ... and their fluidic transport to the skin surface. Dissolved in the water are trace amounts of minerals, lactic acid, and urea. ...
membrane. • plasma membrane. • heterotrimeric G-protein complex. • intrinsic component of membrane. • extracellular exosome. • ... transport vesicle. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • cell nucleus. • cytosol. • trans-Golgi network membrane. • ... cellular response to catecholamine stimulus. • adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway. • adenylate ... apical plasma membrane. Biological process. • female pregnancy. • negative regulation of multicellular organism growth. • ...
These membrane proteins can perform a wide diversity of functions, such as transporting ions and molecules across the red cell ... The iron is released into the plasma to be recirculated by a carrier protein called transferrin. Almost all red blood cells are ... Inhibitors of eryptosis include erythropoietin, nitric oxide, catecholamines and high concentrations of urea. ... Protein 4.1R-based macromolecular complex - proteins interacting with Protein 4.1R. *Protein 4.1R - weak expression of Gerbich ...
What is Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins? Meaning of Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins medical ... What does Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins mean? ... Looking for online definition of Catecholamine plasma membrane ... transport proteins in the Medical Dictionary? Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins explanation free. ... Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins , definition of Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins by Medical ...
... adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the presence or absence of a functional hamartin/tuberin (TSC1/TSC2 ... Animals, Azacitidine, Blotting, Western, Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins, Disease Models, Animal, Epigenesis, ... Organic Cation Transport Proteins, Organic Cation Transporter 2, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Signal ... adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the presence or absence of a functional hamartin/tuberin (TSC1/TSC2 ...
Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors. *Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/ ... α-PBP and α-PPP are also catecholamine transporter blockers but display reduced potency. All of the test drugs are locomotor ... Taken together, our findings represent the first evidence that second generation analogs of MDPV are catecholamine-selective ... Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins. *Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins. *Pyrrolidines. *RNA-Binding ...
Talk:Catecholamine plasma membrane transport protein. *Talk:Catecholamines. *Talk:Central venous catheterization ...
Elevated catecholamine levels were documented after 15 minutes whereas the pituitary gland hormones vasopressin and ... CONCLUSIONS In a simple, reproducible, and reliable animal model of BD, a catecholamine storm, vasopressin and ACTH cessation, ... Plasma concentrations of pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, and pancreatic hormones were measured pre/post BD. The results are ... Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins. Citations. Publications citing this paper.. Showing 1-4 of 4 extracted ...
... catecholamine explanation free. What is catecholamine? Meaning of catecholamine medical term. What does catecholamine mean? ... Looking for online definition of catecholamine in the Medical Dictionary? ... Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins. *Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins. *Catecholamine plasma ... Related to catecholamine: serotonin. catecholamine. [kat″ĕ-kol´ah-mēn″] any of a group of sympathomimetic amines (including ...
Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins Medicine & Life Sciences View full fingerprint Cite this. * APA ... Oocytes are a source of catecholamines in the primate ovary: Evidence for a cell-cell regulatory loop. Proceedings of the ... N2 - Catecholamines, thought to derive from the extrinsic innervation of the ovary, participate in the regulation of ovarian ... AB - Catecholamines, thought to derive from the extrinsic innervation of the ovary, participate in the regulation of ovarian ...
What is Catecholamine-sulfating phenol sulfotransferase? Meaning of Catecholamine-sulfating phenol sulfotransferase medical ... Looking for online definition of Catecholamine-sulfating phenol sulfotransferase in the Medical Dictionary? Catecholamine- ... Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins. *Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins. *Catecholamine plasma ... Catecholamine-sulfating phenol sulfotransferase , definition of Catecholamine-sulfating phenol sulfotransferase by Medical ...
What is Catecholamine hormone? Meaning of Catecholamine hormone medical term. What does Catecholamine hormone mean? ... Looking for online definition of Catecholamine hormone in the Medical Dictionary? Catecholamine hormone explanation free. ... Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins. *Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins. *Catecholamine plasma ... catecholamine. (redirected from Catecholamine hormone). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. catecholamine. [kat ...
Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics. *Cetuximab/administration & dosage. *Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics* ... ABCB1 protein, human. *ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B. *Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins ...
Parkinson Disease , Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins Neurobiology. CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Behavioral ... Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins , Neurophysiology and behavioral , Neuropharmacology , Cardiovascular , ... Lipid Metabolism Disorders , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters , Adrenoleukodystrophy , Protein Transport , Metabolic Diseases ... Molecular Sensory Physiology (retina) , Drugability of Protein Interactions in LTCCs , Channelopathies , Calcium Channels, L- ...
Most of these transport proteins are integral membrane proteins, which remain embedded in the plasma membrane and other ... "The role of neuronal and extraneuronal plasma membrane transporters in the inactivation of peripheral catecholamines," ... More specifically, plasma membrane of metazoan cells possesses multiple transport proteins, pump, channel, lysine symporter ... Thus, plasma membrane regulates the transport of molecules into and out of the cell by simple diffusion and active transport ( ...
In vivo, membranes probably contain a mixture of heteromeric potassium channel complexes, making it difficult to assign ... Plays a role in the regulation of resting membrane potential and contraction in hypoxia-treated pulmonary artery smooth muscle ... The channel alternates between opened and closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane. ... Promotes trafficking of KCNG3, KCNH1 and KCNH2 to the cell surface membrane, presumably by forming heterotetrameric channels ...
Increases membrane transport of amino acids, increases protein synthesis, and decreases protein catabolism --, stops amino acid ... Leads to opening of voltage-dependent calcium channels in the plasma membrane ... Release catecholamines. *Alloxan and streptozotocin *Used to create experimental diabetes in mice ... Increases the supply of amino acids available as substrates for gluconeogenesis by promoting protein breakdown, particularly in ...
Antonyms for Catecholamines. 9 words related to catecholamine: endocrine, hormone, internal secretion, noradrenaline, ... Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins. *Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins. *Catecholamine plasma ... These biomarkers are not prone to the fluctuations seen for catecholamines and can be measured in the form of plasma free MNs ... catecholamine. (redirected from Catecholamines). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. #vtZoom,.vt-link{ ...
Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins Depolarization Catecholamines Neurons Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase 18 Citations ( ... ERK 1/2 is a negative regulator of homeodomain protein Arix/Phox2a. Hsieh, M. M., Lupas, G., Rychlik, J., Dziennis, S., ... Measurement of plasma norepinephrine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol: Method development for a translational research study. ... Disrupting protein tyrosine phosphatase σ does not prevent sympathetic axonal dieback following myocardial infarction. Johnsen ...
... the three transport mechanisms have been traced to the proteins and their genes since 1990. They now comprise the plasma ... Membranes play a twofold role for catecholamines: catecholamines must pass through membranes and deliver their chemical message ... The β-adrenoceptor was the first G protein-coupled receptor the gene of which was cloned. Goal-directed catecholamine research ... With the reserpine-sensitive uptake from the cytoplasm into the storage vesicles there were thus three catecholamine membrane ...
... processed by the endosome system and then recycled back to the plasma membrane. This process involves G-protein linked and ... This is transported (~10 minutes) to the tubulovesicular endosome system. Here, the vesicle membrane fuses with the membrane of ... catecholamines at postsynaptic sites in the brain, the role of catecholamines as antioxidants (in particular in the case of ... Volatile anaesthetics selectively inhibit plasma membrane Ca2+-transport APTase by binding to lipophilic sites and changing ...
This physical coupling facilitates the recruitment of intracellular DAT to the plasma membrane and leads to enhanced dopamine ... we report that the DAT is also regulated by the dopamine D2 receptor through a direct protein-protein interaction involving the ... Catecholamine. *Dopamine. *Transport. *Uptake. Get free article suggestions today. Mendeley saves you time finding and ...
... that the NKA α-subunit colocalizes with clathrin at the plasma membrane or in vesicles that are beneath the plasma membrane. ... as well as other forms of altered sodium transport, e.g., those engendered by catecholamines and other hormones. The latter are ... Elucidation of the mechanisms by which the traffic of ion transport proteins is regulated by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ... recruitment of adaptor proteins to the plasma membrane. Also, the interaction of clathrin adaptors with cargo molecules is ...
3.1 Lipophilic molecules that diffuse across the plasma membrane. *3.2 Lipophilic molecules that bind to cell-surface receptors ... Steroids are hydrophobic (water-fearing), so they are transported by carrier proteins, and are not rapidly degraded. Thus, ... The catecholamines, chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine, may act as neurohormones. The most abundant ... Lipophilic molecules that diffuse across the plasma membrane. Cholesterol is an important precursor of the steroid hormones, ...
Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins / Tacrolimus Binding Proteins. (Link to Publication Site). ● Publication site (DOI ... Adult / Anxiety / Anxiety Disorders / Biological Markers / Catechol O-Methyltransferase / Catecholamines / Depression / ... FK506-binding protein gene), SERT (serotonin transporter gene) and COMT (catechol-o-methyltransferase gene) mRNA expressions in ...
Studies with Protein Kinase Inhibitors. Intrasynaptosomal Protein Phosphorylation and Its Inhibition by Plasma Membrane ... Autoregulation of Catecholamine Release at Central and Sympathetic Nerve Terminals: Common Features. Autoreceptor Mediated ... Sodium Dependent, High Affinity Choline Transport Expressed in Oocytes. Comparison of the Effects of Vesamicol and of Cetiedil ... Prejunctional Neuropeptide Y Receptors Are Linked to a G-Protein: A Study with N-Ethylmaleimide and Pertussis Toxin. Protein ...
Effects on proteins is accomplished by increasing amino acid transport across the cell membrane, increasing translation and ... A cell wall on the exterior of the plasma membrane which prevents the protoplast (the bacterial plasma membrane and everything ... Catecholamines - epinephrine and norepinephrine.. -> Stress hormones, contribute to fight or flight response with sympathetic ... a plasma protein) into thrombin. 3. Thrombin governs the polymerization of the plasma protein fibrinogen to fibrin threads that ...
The channel alternates between opened and closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane. ... membranes probably contain a mixture of heteromeric potassium channel complexes, making it difficult to assign currents ... Plays a role in the regulation of resting membrane potential and contraction in hypoxia-treated pulmonary artery smooth muscle ... KCNH1 and KCNH2 to the cell surface membrane, presumably by forming heterotetrameric channels with these subunits (By ...
  • Recently, intraovarian neurons containing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, were described in the ovary of nonhuman primates. (elsevier.com)
  • By Western blot, a tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme of the catecholamine synthesis) immunoreactive protein species was demonstrated in isolated mucosal cells, comigrating with the TH immunoreactivity from PC12 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Finally, as a positive procedural control, the distribution of immunoreactivity for DAT within the deep layers of the prelimbic PFC was compared in adjacent sections to the localization of another marker for dopamine axons, the catecholamine synthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). (jneurosci.org)
  • The WGA protein is a small 18-kD cysteine-rich lectin that binds to N-acetylglucosamine and sialic acid carbohydrate moieties found on glycoproteins and glycolipids. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recent studies suggest that metformin attenuates mTORC1 signalling by the activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the presence or absence of a functional hamartin/tuberin (TSC1/TSC2) complex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Phosphorylation of the α-subunit is essential because dopamine failed to promote such interaction in cells lacking the protein kinase C phosphorylation residue (S18A). (pnas.org)
  • PST actions on hepatocytes and adipocytes were mediated by protein kinase C (PKC) activation ( 24 , 57 ). (physiology.org)
  • This production is regulated at the transcriptional level by a rapid activation of the enhancer elements NF-κB ( 3 ) and AP-1, through interactions with the protein kinases IκB kinase complex (IKK), 3 and c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK), respectively ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Metformin, a drug widely used to treat type 2 diabetes, was recently shown to activate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in intact cells and in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the downstream component of a protein kinase cascade that acts as a sensor of cellular energy charge ( 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • They proposed that it might act by stimulating phosphorylation of AMPK by upstream kinase(s) or by inhibiting dephosphorylation by protein phosphatases. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 6 In saponin skinned muscles, the pCa‐tension relationship in the presence of cyclic AMP and cyclic AMP‐dependent protein kinase (cyclic AMP‐PK) shifted to the right and to a lower level in comparison with the control. (deepdyve.com)
  • Forskolin or the stress mediator epinephrine further elevates cAMP in SS RBCs and increases adhesion of SS RBCs to laminin in a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner, with the low-density population being the most responsive. (bloodjournal.org)
  • As a consequence, cGMP activates a cGMP-dependent kinase (PKG or cGK) that phosphorylates proteins at specific serine and threonine residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is bound to a carrier protein, neurohypophysin, and transported along the supraoptic hypophyseal tract to the axonal terminals of magnocellular neurons located in the posterior pituitary. (scribd.com)
  • WGA is efficiently taken up into neurons by endocytosis and is transported to axons and dendrites in both the anterograde and retrograde directions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Injection of WGA in well-mapped neural pathways has shown that labeling occurs in both first- and second-order neurons and their processes, indicating that WGA is trans-neuronally transported. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Transport vesicles are released into the space between neurons, called the synaptic cleft, where they convey a chemical message to the next neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • As we know, the visceral fat tissues have more TNF[alpha] expression and more sensitive to catecholamines than subcutaneous fat tissues (Amer 1999), which leads to more FFA efflux to the portal venous system and directly provides a substrate for hepatic lipoprotein metabolism or glucose production. (freethesaurus.com)
  • The chemical structure of thyroxine , a hormone that stimulates the breakdown of glucose, fats, and proteins. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • PST regulates glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism in liver and adipose tissues. (physiology.org)
  • by combining the ingestion of glucose with fructose, both transport pathways are utilised, which increases the total capacity for carbohydrate absorption. (mdpi.com)
  • Active sodium and glucose cotransport by the SGLT1 transporter in the enterocyte brush border membrane and extrusion of sodium and glucose across the basolateral membrane stimulate water and solute absorption through both transcellular and paracellular routes. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Having a glomerular filtration rate of 180 liters per day, it filters approximately 180 grams of glucose per day, bringing its contribution in maintaining normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels . (amazonaws.com)
  • Homeostatic mechanisms maintain the plasma [glucose] within narrow limits in healthy humans, so that the energy needs during the postabsorptive state can be met by stored fuel. (zuniv.net)
  • Lipolysis, lipid oxidation, ketone body synthesis, tailored endogenous glucose production and uptake, and decreased glucose oxidation serve to protect against excessive erosion of protein mass, which is the predominant supplier of carbon chains for synthesis of newly formed glucose. (physiology.org)
  • These processes are crucial for survival and serve to protect the organism from excessive erosion of protein mass, which is the predominant supplier of carbon chains that can be used for synthesis of newly formed glucose ( 14 , 26 , 87 , 99 ). (physiology.org)
  • It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into liver, fat and skeletal muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have previously investigated possible mechanisms by which GPCRs regulate NKA activity in epithelia ( 10 ) and found that inhibition was associated with removal of active molecules from the plasma membrane in renal tubule cells ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Low doses of vasopressin can restore vasomotor tone in conditions that are resistant to catecholamines, with preservation of renal blood flow and urine output. (scribd.com)
  • which are inserted into the apical membrane of the renal collecting duct cells and endothelial cells. (scribd.com)
  • Treatment of HBP is usually directed at the cause of the HBP if it is known, for example, removal of tumors releasing catecholamines and correcting renal artery stenosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Catecholamines have a very short half-life and are metabolized through captation, enzymatic inactivation, or renal excretion. (hellonursing.info)
  • Reabsorption is a two-step process beginning with the active or passive extraction of substances from the tubule fluid into the renal interstitium (the connective tissue that surrounds the nephrons), and then the transport of these substances from the interstitium into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, the endothelial cells also possess transporters which show permeability characteristics and allow transport of oxygen and CO 2 across the BBB, bu these selectively prevent other substances from crossing [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Reabsorption is a two-step process: first, sodium enters via sodium-permeable channels in the apical membranes of alveolar type 1 and 2 cells followed by active extrusion of sodium into the interstitium by the basolateral Na + , K + -ATPase. (frontiersin.org)
  • This Na + transport across the alveolar epithelium is mostly effected via apical Na + and chloride channels and basolateral Na,K-ATPase. (rmmj.org.il)
  • This occurs through increased transcription and insertion of water channels (Aquaporin-2) into the apical membrane of collecting tubule and collecting duct epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopamine-induced inhibition of NKA activity and α-subunit endocytosis required the interaction of adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) with the catalytic α-subunit. (pnas.org)
  • Ki values for decynium-22 and corticosterone inhibition of OCT3 transport are respectively 10 and 100 times lower than Ki values of OCT1 and OCT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also affects lipid metabolism, lowering plasma triglycerides ( 4 ), and free fatty acids ( 5 ), the latter possibly due to inhibition of catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As further confirmed histopathologically, our findings strongly suggest that the cardioprotective effect of WSLEt on myocardium experiencing ISO-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidant system and an inhibition of LPO in the myocardial membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • Magnesium has been proposed as an endogenous endocrine modulator of the catecholamine component of the physiologic stress response. (medscape.com)
  • chromogranin a (chga) is a uniquely acidic, heat-stable and soluble protein that is ubiquitous in secretory cells of the nervous, endocrine, and immune system ( 31 , 90 ). (physiology.org)
  • To this end, several topics will be covered, including adrenal tissue zonation, mitochondrial organellar organization, and macromolecular protein complexes, all contributing to the regulation and optimization of adrenal endocrine signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • The adrenal medulla is innervated with chromaffin cells and plays a key role in catecholamine synthesis and the sympathetic stress response ( 4 ), while the cortex contains the steroidogenic cells responsible for the adrenal's contribution to the endocrine system ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • If the voltage changes by a large enough amount, an all-or-none electrochemical pulse called an action potential is generated and this change in cross-membrane potential travels rapidly along the cell's axon, and activates synaptic connections with other cells when it arrives. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea that proteins float freely within the lipid bilayer of biological membranes gained initial impetus through the formulation of the "fluid mosaic" model in the early 1970s. (springer.com)
  • 1 Based on electron microscopy and freeze-fracture analysis as well as a number of other studies, the structure of biological membranes was purported to be and is still believed to be as shown in Figure 1.1: "dissolved" proteins float within the "sea" of membrane lipid. (springer.com)
  • Gitler C. Plasticity of biological membranes. (springer.com)
  • Freeze-fracture electron microscopy enabled us to observe the molecular architecture of the biological membranes. (hindawi.com)
  • It also regulates the secretion of leptin and expression of leptin and uncoupling protein 2 in adipose tissue. (physiology.org)
  • However, there are also important differences between synaptic transmission and catecholamine secretion from chromaffin cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The physiologic stimulus for secretion of vasopressin is increased osmolality of the plasma, monitored by the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A decreased arterial blood volume, (such as can occur in cirrhosis, nephrosis and heart failure), stimulates secretion, even in the face of decreased osmolality of the plasma: it supersedes osmolality, but with a milder effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hormone (from the Greek participle "ὁρμῶ", "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present chapter deals with the role of the different members of the chromogranin family in the processes of hormone aggregation, secretory granule biogenesis, and hormone sorting through their interaction with the TGN membrane. (springer.com)
  • Title: The SNARE Protein Syntaxin-1a Plays an Essential Role in Biphasic Exocytosis of the Incretin Hormone Glucagon-Like Peptide 1. (nih.gov)
  • Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antidepressants and cocaine share the ability to alter neuronal signaling by blocking NE and 5HT transport. (acnp.org)
  • To overcome these problems, genetic approaches have been developed that introduce tracer proteins as transgenes under the control of cell-type-specific promoter elements for visualization of specific neuronal pathways. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Several mechanisms that explain the influence of ammonia on the central nervous system (CNS) have been proposed such as: specific interactions between brain endothelium and astrocytes, modification of transport across the blood-brain barrier, changes in energy metabolism, a direct neurotoxic effect on astrocytes, and neuronal membranes, reducing the synthesis of free glutamate with glutamatergic neurotransmission disorder [ 18 - 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Signaling pathways regulate cells through activating or inactivating gene expression, transport of metabolites, and controlling enzymatic activity in order to manage growth and functions of metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hCHGA gene is located on chromosome 14q32.12, which spans 12,192 bp and gives rise to a transcript of 2,041 bp that encodes a 439-amino acid (aa) mature protein ( 85 ). (physiology.org)
  • Evidence that the gene encodes a highly conserved copper-transporting adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) has stimulated investigation of the molecule's normal function in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. (medscape.com)
  • The norepinephrine transporter (NET), also known as solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking at variations or changes in a gene product such as mutations or abnormal levels and includes techniques such as knockouts, overexpression, anti-sense experiments and use of specific protein inhibitors. (uniprot.org)
  • The gene that encodes the DAT protein is located on human chromosome 5, consists of 15 coding exons, and is roughly 64 kbp long. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence for the associations between DAT and dopamine related disorders has come from a type of genetic polymorphism, known as a VNTR, in the DAT gene (DAT1), which influences the amount of protein expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxytocin peptide is synthesized as an inactive precursor protein from the OXT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo, membranes probably contain a mixture of heteromeric potassium channel complexes, making it difficult to assign currents observed in intact tissues to any particular potassium channel family member. (uniprot.org)
  • Compelling evidence now suggests that large fluxes of Mg 2+ can cross the cell plasma membrane in either direction following a variety of hormonal and non-hormonal stimuli, resulting in major changes in total and, to a lesser extent, free Mg 2+ content within tissues, and in a marked variation in the opposite direction of circulating Mg 2+ level. (bioscience.org)
  • Several aquaporins (AQPs), which form water channels that selectively transport water across the plasma membrane, have been cloned from a variety of mammalian tissues ( King and Agre, 1996 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Capacity for transport and affinity for these substrates may vary between rat and human isoforms however. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both isoforms are transmembrane proteins with 12 transmembrane domains (TMD's). (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been reported that these altered responses depend on a series of adaptations that increase the abundance of a multitude of proteins and protein isoforms that are involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), substrate availability, and metabolic by-product management. (physiology.org)
  • It has been clearly demonstrated that lactate is capable of entering cells via the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) protein shuttle system and that conversion of lactate to and from pyruvate is governed by specific lactate dehydrogenase isoforms, thereby forming a highly adaptable metabolic intermediate system. (biologists.org)
  • Laminin is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein distributed throughout most vascular beds, 1 with isoforms 10 and 11 specifically supporting more SS RBC adhesion than other ECM proteins tested under physiologic shear and flow conditions. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Catecholamines, thought to derive from the extrinsic innervation of the ovary, participate in the regulation of ovarian development and mature gonadal function. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, we evaluated whether agonists that counteract inhibitory effects on NKA activity do so by preventing α-subunit phosphorylation (or promoting its dephosphorylation through the action of protein phosphatases), or by regulation of other targets responsible for NKA endocytosis. (pnas.org)
  • Although the involvement of transporters in NE and 5HT clearance has been clear for several decades ( 30 ), progress in understanding transporter structure and regulation has been limited, largely due to difficulties associated with transporter protein purification. (acnp.org)
  • Below we review our present understanding of NE and 5HT transport and the new insights achieved from molecular cloning and regulation studies. (acnp.org)
  • Pyrimidine metabolism along with purine pathway fulfills a variety of functions in the metabolism of the cell of which the most important are regulation of energy conservation and transport, formation of coenzymes and of active intermediates of phospholipid and carbohydrate metabolism ( GENNIP, 1999 ). (ukessays.com)
  • The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a crucial protein in the regulation of dopamine transmission, serving to remove dopamine from the extracellular space after its release. (jneurosci.org)
  • These glutamate autoreceptors are able to inhibit synaptic fatigue in order to prevent the detrimental physiological consequences that could result from dysfunctional blood pressure regulation in the aorta (not true) When synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitters into the synapse that bind with post-synaptic membrane proteins to pass a signal, neurotransmitter re-uptake occurs to recycle neurotransmitters in the presynaptic cell in order to be released again. (wikipedia.org)
  • the second H+ efflux is coupled with a second large conformational change that leads to amine transport from the cytosolic side into the vesicle, reducing amine-binding affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies indicate that the amino acid residue His419, located on the domain between TMD X and XI of rat VMAT1, plays a role in energy coupling to the amine transport by assisting the first proton-dependent conformational change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerophosphocholine metabolite are involved in cell signaling and membrane integrity of the cell and serine is the precursor for choline and acetylcholine biosynthesis which is required in the brain and therefore any damage of the cell membrane can affect glycerophospholipids metabolites pathway and its concentration. (ukessays.com)
  • The Na + ,K + -ATPase (NKA) activity in polarized epithelia provides the motive force for vectorial transport of sodium ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Ambulatory refers to a process that involves the administration of h k atpase basolateral cell membranes honig and hume these dyes have been a fall from the mixture commercial pharmacia biotech nick sephadex column hybridization buffer formamide ml formamide m nacl ml m nacl. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • VMAT transport relies upon the pH and electrochemical gradient generated by a vesicular H+-ATPase for this energy source. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results suggest that oocytes and somatic cells are linked by a neuroendocrine loop consisting of NE synthesized in oocytes from actively transported DA and cAMP produced by somatic follicular cells in response to NE-induced β-adrenoreceptor activation. (elsevier.com)
  • These are quite different from other capillaries found in the body as their endothelial wall possesses tight junctions which obstruct transport between cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Although phosphorylation of the α-subunit is necessary for internalization, it does not affect per se the enzymatic activity of NKA while it resides in the plasma membrane, i.e., it is the subunits' removal from the membrane that causes the decreased activity in intact cells, whereas phosphorylation serves as the triggering signal in this process ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • The SNARE complex, which in mammalian neurosecretory cells is composed of the proteins synaptobrevin 2 (also called VAMP2), syntaxin, and SNAP-25, plays a key role in vesicle fusion.At least in neurosecretory cells, fusion pore formation may be directly accomplished by conformational changes in the SNARE complex via movement of the transmembrane domains ( Fang and Lindau 2014 ). (tcdb.org)
  • Mechanistic models for how transport is achieved are now more readily testable with overexpression in transfected cells providing opportunities for electrophysiological measurements of transporter turnover as a function of membrane potential, ion gradients, and cytosolic regulators. (acnp.org)
  • Recombinant proteins are produced biotechnologically by inserting foreign DNA into cells so that they then produce the proteins. (fh-campuswien.ac.at)
  • As a result, mast cells are coated with IgE, which is produced by plasma cells (the antibody-producing cells of the immune system). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other membrane activation events can either prime mast cells for subsequent degranulation or act in synergy with FcεRI signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is then balanced by fluid reabsorption from the alveolar space mediated by transepithelial salt and water transport through alveolar cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • They are also principally, involved in cell signaling, integrity and stability of the cell membrane as well as fuel or energy storage and energy source in cells. (ukessays.com)
  • It is present in all cells, where it is used to store and transport energy needed for biochemical reactions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Edema clearance is effected via vectorial transport of Na + out of the airspaces which generates an osmotic gradient causing water to follow the gradient out of the cells. (rmmj.org.il)
  • The steroidogenic capacity of the adrenal gland is highly compartmentalized, performed by specialized cells, organelles, and proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • There it enhanced catecholamine release in depolarizing cells by disassembling F-actin in the cytoskeletal barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • The features that define a neuron are electrical excitability and the presence of synapses, which are complex membrane junctions that transmit signals to other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. (hindawi.com)
  • This is a sub-part (carrier proteins only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same carrier protein called b cell recognizes the antigen from fetal blood (fig. Food is not uniformly enhance penetration into the outer portion constituting cialis of control and social behavior and your regular fasting schedule. (euskalmusika.com)
  • This precursor protein also includes the oxytocin carrier protein neurophysin I. The inactive precursor protein is progressively hydrolyzed into smaller fragments (one of which is neurophysin I) via a series of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Building on work demonstrating functional assembly of large protein complexes in respiration, we further review research demonstrating a role for multimeric protein complexes in mitochondrial cholesterol transport, steroidogenesis, and mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum contact. (frontiersin.org)
  • A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a genetic variation in which a genome sequence is altered by a single nucleotide (A, T, C or G). NET proteins with an altered amino acid sequence (more specifically, a missense mutation) could potentially be associated with various diseases that involve abnormally high or low plasma levels of norepinephrine due to altered NET function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Langer and Langosch ( 2011 ) have shown that lipid flippase activity is not essential for membrane fusion. (tcdb.org)