A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Study of the principles and practices of library administration and services.
Specialists in the management of a library or the services rendered by a library, bringing professional skills to administration, organization of material and personnel, interpretation of bibliothecal rules, the development and maintenance of the library's collection, and the provision of information services.
Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A subclass of symporters found in KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL that are the major pathway for salt resorption. Inhibition of these symporters by BENZOTHIADIAZINES is the basis of action of some DIURETICS.
A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Financial support of research activities.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A prolonged painful erection that may lasts hours and is not associated with sexual activity. It is seen in patients with SICKLE CELL ANEMIA, advanced malignancy, spinal trauma; and certain drug treatments.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cell surface proteins that bind catecholamines with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The catecholamine messengers epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are synthesized from tyrosine by a common biosynthetic pathway.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
The branch of applied psychology concerned with psychological aspects of selection, assignment, training, morale, etc., of Armed Forces personnel.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.

The antidepressant-sensitive dopamine transporter in Drosophila melanogaster: a primordial carrier for catecholamines. (1/29)

Extracellular concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters are regulated by a family of high-affinity transporters that are the molecular targets for such psychoactive drugs as cocaine, amphetamines, and therapeutic antidepressants. In Drosophila melanogaster, cocaine-induced behaviors show striking similarities to those induced in vertebrate animal models. Although a cocaine-sensitive serotonin carrier exists in flies, there has been no pharmacological or molecular evidence to support the presence of distinct carrier subtypes for other bioactive monoamines. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a cocaine-sensitive fly dopamine transporter (dDAT). In situ hybridization demonstrates that dDAT mRNA expression is restricted to dopaminergic cells in the fly nervous system. The substrate selectivity of dDAT parallels that of the mammalian DATs in that dopamine and tyramine are the preferred substrates, whereas octopamine is transported less efficiently, and serotonin not at all. In contrast, dDAT inhibitors display a rank order of potency most closely resembling that of mammalian norepinephrine transporters. Cocaine has a moderately high affinity to the cloned dDAT (IC50 = 2.6 microM). Voltage-clamp analysis of dDAT expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicates that dDAT-mediated uptake is electrogenic; however, dDAT seems to lack the constitutive leak conductance that is characteristic of the mammalian catecholamine transporters. The combination of a DAT-like substrate selectivity and norepinephrine transporter-like inhibitor pharmacology within a single carrier, and results from phylogenetic analyses, suggest that dDAT represents an ancestral catecholamine transporter gene. The identification of a cocaine-sensitive target linked to dopaminergic neurotransmission in D. melanogaster will serve as a basis for further dissection of the genetic components of psychostimulant-mediated behavior.  (+info)

Norsalsolinol uptake into secretory vesicles via vesicular monoamine transporter and its secretion by membrane depolarization or purinoceptor stimulation in PC12 cells. (2/29)

The intracellular dynamics of norsalsolinol, a neurotoxin candidate causing parkinsonism-like symptoms, in PC12 cells was studied. We found that dopamine and norsalsolinol are co-localized to secretory granule layer by sucrose density gradient in norsalsolinol-treated PC12 cells. The norsalsolinol was actively taken up into isolated secretory vesicle fraction from PC12 cells with a Km value of 41.5+/-6.8 microM. The uptake of 10 microM of norsalsolinol was sensitive to reserpine (1 microM), an inhibitor of vesicular dopamine transporter, and dopamine, an endogenous substrate, but insensitive to GBR-12909, an inhibitor of dopamine transporter on plasma membrane. In norsalsolinol-treated PC12 cells, exposure to high K+ or ATP resulted in simultaneous release of norsalsolinol and dopamine. Time course of a release of dopamine and that of norsalsolinol evoked by 50 mM KCl or 100 microM ATP corresponded to each other. These releases were dependent on the concentrations of secretagogues. These data suggest that norsalsolinol is taken up with dopamine into secretory vesicle via vesicular catecholamine transporter.  (+info)

A Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporter for catecholamines, identified as a norepinephrine transporter, is expressed in the brain of the teleost fish medaka (Oryzias latipes). (3/29)

We report the isolation, functional characterization, and localization of a Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent catecholamine transporter (meNET) present in the brain of the teleost fish medaka. This carrier is very similar to the human neuronal norepinephrine transporter (NET) and the human neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT), showing 70 and 64% amino acid identity, respectively. When expressed in COS-7 cells, this transporter mediates the high-affinity uptake of dopamine (K(M) = 290 nM) and norepinephrine (K(M) = 640 nM). Its pharmacological profile reveals more similarities with NET, including a high affinity for the tricyclic antidepressants desipramine (IC(50) = 0.92 nM) and nortriptyline (IC(50) = 16 nM). In situ hybridization on the medaka brain shows that meNET mRNA is present only in a subset of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons found in the noradrenergic areas of the hindbrain, such as the locus ceruleus and area postrema. None of the dopaminergic areas anterior to the isthmus contains any labeled neurons. Neither reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers specific for gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter/NET nor autoradiographic experiments with [(125)I]3b-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane-2b-carboxylic acid methyl ester revealed an additional catecholamine transporter in the medaka brain. Uptake experiments with medaka brain synaptosomes show an endogenous transport with a pharmacological profile identical to that of the recombinant meNET. Thus, meNET is probably the predominant--if not the only--catecholamine transporter in the medaka fish brain. In view of the highly conserved primary structures and pharmacological properties of meNET, it is tempting to speculate that a specific dopamine transport developed later in vertebrate evolution and probably accompanied the tremendous enlargement of the meso-telencephalic dopaminergic pathways in amniotes.  (+info)

Tissue distribution and renal developmental changes in rat organic cation transporter mRNA levels. (4/29)

Organic cation transporters (OCTs) are responsible for excretion of cationic substances into urine. Tissue OCT expression may be important for the disposition and excretion of xenobiotics. Therefore, OCT1, OCT2, OCT3, OCTN1, and OCTN2 mRNA levels were measured in adult rat tissues and rat kidney tissue at various stages of development from day 0 to 45. OCT1 mRNA expression was highest in kidney and spleen, moderate in skin, and low in the gastrointestinal tract, brain, lung, thymus, muscle, and prostate. OCT2 mRNA levels were highest in kidney, with low expression in other tissues, and with renal OCT2 levels being approximately 4 times higher in males than that in females. In gonadectomized males, OCT2 mRNA levels were attenuated to female levels, suggesting a role for testosterone in OCT2 expression. OCT3 was moderately expressed in kidney and was highest in blood vessel, skin, and thymus. OCTN1 was expressed in most of the tissues examined, with relatively higher expression in kidney and ileum and lower levels in thymus. Lastly, OCTN2 was expressed abundantly in kidney and ileum, moderately in large intestine, dorsal prostate, bladder, duodenum, and cerebellum, and minimally in thymus, spleen, and cerebral cortex. Renal OCT1, OCTN1, and OCTN2 mRNA levels increased gradually from postnatal day 0 through day 45 in both genders. Renal OCT2 levels remained the same in males and females through day 25 and then dramatically increased only in male kidney after day 30. In summary, OCT mRNA was detected primarily in kidney, and the high level of renal OCT expression may explain why the kidney is a target organ for xenobiotics with cationic properties.  (+info)

Reduced expression of organic cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 in experimental diabetes. (5/29)

Recent reports have documented a functional deficit of organic cation transport in diabetic rats by an unknown mechanism. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that experimental diabetes decreases expression of organic cation transporters at the basolateral membrane. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were maintained for varying durations after induction of diabetes. A second group of age-matched control rats was maintained in a parallel manner. Kinetic analysis of tetraethylammonium accumulation in freshly isolated proximal tubular cells indicated a significantly lower V(max) value for the diabetics versus controls with no statistical difference in K(m) values between the two groups. Cortex sections were processed by standard procedures for Northern and immunoblot analysis. Protein expression of the organic cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 progressively decreased with increasing duration of diabetes. After 21 days of diabetes, rOCT1 and rOCT2 were maximally reduced by 50 and 70%, respectively. Quantification of mRNA expression revealed that the roct1 transcript remained unchanged, whereas the roct2 transcript was decreased by 50% after 14 days of diabetes. Treatment with insulin prevented the reductions in transporter levels. These results support the hypothesis by demonstrating that experimental diabetes decreased expression of both rOCT1 and rOCT2 protein and also of roct2 mRNA accumulation. On the other hand, roct1 mRNA levels were unaffected by the diabetic state. This suggests that differences in rOCT2 protein may result from transcriptional and/or translational changes, whereas rOCT1 deficits may be due to posttranscriptional alterations.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation of murine Slc22a1 (Oct1) by peroxisome proliferator agonist receptor-alpha and -gamma. (6/29)

The transport and metabolism of organic cationic endobiotics, nutrients, and drugs are essential hepatic functions. Slc22A1 is the basolateral liver transporter mediating the uptake of organic cations; however, little is known about the regulation of this transport protein. Peroxisome proliferator agonist receptor (PPAR)-alpha and -gamma agonists are commonly used agents that regulate many hepatocellular transport functions. Thus the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PPAR agonists on the hepatic regulation and function of Slc22a1. Mice and H35 cells were administered PPAR-alpha and -gamma agonists, and the effect on Slc22a1 gene expression was measured. We subsequently cloned the Slc22a1 promoter and employed chimeric constructs to assay Slc22a1 gene transcription. The effects of PPAR-agonist treatment on organic cation uptake was also assayed. Slc22a1 expression was increased by PPAR-alpha and -gamma agonist treatment in both murine livers and H35 cells. Gene expression in H35 cells was further increased following transfection with expression vectors of PPAR transcription factors and PPAR agonist treatment. We cloned the promoter region of Slc22a1 and identified a PPAR-response element, and transfections with chimeric Slc22a1; promoter-reporter gene constructs demonstrate that the increased gene expression was transcriptionally regulated. Functional assays confirmed that cells treated with PPAR agonists displayed significant increases in organic cation uptake. PPAR-alpha and -gamma agonists transcriptionally increase Slc22a1 gene expression, and the increased Slc22a1 expression results in enhanced cellular organic cation uptake. These studies may have implication for the uptake of organic cationic drugs and for lipid metabolism.  (+info)

Subtype-specific affinity for corticosterone of rat organic cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 depends on three amino acids within the substrate binding region. (7/29)

The affinity of corticosterone to organic cation transporters (OCTs) is subtype- and species-dependent. For example, the IC50 values for corticosterone inhibition of cation uptake by transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 are approximately 150 and approximately 4 microM, respectively. By introducing domains and amino acids from rOCT2 into rOCT1, we found that the exchange of three amino acids in the presumed 10th transmembrane alpha helix is sufficient to increase the affinity of rOCT1 for corticosterone to that of rOCT2. Replacement of these amino acids in rOCT2 decreased the affinity for corticosterone. These amino acids (Ala443, Leu447, and Gln448 in rOCT1 and Ile443, Tyr447, and Glu448 in rOCT2) are probably located within the substrate binding region because in rOCT1 mutants, the K(m) values for uptake of tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP) were decreased in parallel with a decrease of the IC50 values for the inhibition of cation uptake by corticosterone. In mutant rOCT1(L447Y/Q448E), the IC50 value for the inhibition of [3H]MPP (0.1 microM) uptake by corticosterone (24 +/- 4 microM) was significantly higher compared with the IC50 value for inhibition of [14C]TEA (10 microM) uptake (5.3 +/- 1.7 microM). This finding suggests an allosteric interaction between transported cation and corticosterone. Because this substrate-specific effect cannot be explained by differential replacement of corticosterone by MPP versus TEA and was observed after point mutations within the presumed substrate region, the data suggest that MPP or TEA bind to the substrate binding region simultaneously with corticosterone and cause a short-range allosteric effect on the corticosterone binding site.  (+info)

A species difference in the transport activities of H2 receptor antagonists by rat and human renal organic anion and cation transporters. (8/29)

A clinical drug-drug interaction between famotidine (a H2 receptor antagonist) and probenecid has not been reproduced in rats. The present study hypothesized that the species-dependent probenecid sensitivity is due to a species difference in the contribution of renal organic anion and cation transporters. The transport activities of the H2 receptor antagonists (cimetidine, famotidine, and ranitidine) by rat and human basolateral organic anion and cation transporters [human organic anion transporter (hOAT) 1, hOAT2, r/hOAT3, rat organic cation transporter (rOct) 1, and r/hOCT2] were compared using their cDNA transfectants. The transport activities (Vmax/Km) of famotidine (Km, 345 microM) by rOat3 were 8- and 15-fold lower than those of cimetidine (Km, 91 microM) and ranitidine (Km, 155 microM), respectively, whereas the activity by hOAT3 (Km, 124 microM) was 3-fold lower than that of cimetidine (Km, 149 microM) but similar to that of ranitidine (Km, 234 microM). Comparison of the relative transport activity with regard to that of cimetidine suggests that famotidine was more efficiently transported by hOAT3 than rOat3, and vice versa, for ranitidine. Only ranitidine was efficiently transported by hOAT2 (Km, 396 microM). rOct1 accepts all of the H2 receptor antagonists with a similar activity, whereas the transport activities of ranitidine and famotidine (Km, 61/56 microM) by r/hOCT2 were markedly lower than that of cimetidine (Km, 69/73 microM). Probenecid was a potent inhibitor of r/OAT3 (Ki, 2.6-5.8 microM), whereas it did not interact with OCTs. These results suggest that, in addition to the absence of OCT1 in human kidney, a species difference in the transport activity by hOAT3 and rOat3 accounts, at least in part, for the species difference in the drug-drug interaction between famotidine and probenecid.  (+info)

3-Fluorobenzamide 455-37-8 NMR spectrum, 3-Fluorobenzamide H-NMR spectral analysis, 3-Fluorobenzamide C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Buy high quality 4-​[3-​[4-​Cyano-​3-​(trifluoromethyl)​phenyl]​-​5,​5-​dimethyl-​4-​oxo-​2-​thioxo-​1-​imidazolidinyl]​-​2-​fluorobenzamide 1242137-16-1 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
Reversibility of Cocaines Cardiovascular Effects in Vivo. We have found that an efficient cocaine hydrolase will reduce hypertensive responses to cocaine in the rat and that such an enzyme can be beneficial even after responses to the drug have become established. It is particularly important that an injection of CocE restored baseline blood pressure in rats that received a near-LD50 dose of cocaine. This finding is directly relevant to the clinical utility of hydrolases for rescue from cocaine overdose.. The rapid restoration of normotension shows that cocaines binding to its sites of action is reversible in vivo on a time scale of seconds. Our data confirm previous indications that cocaines high affinity for its target, the catecholamine transporter, is compatible with ready reversibility. Such reversibility is expected. For example, even the potent muscarinic antagonist, N-methylscopolamine, with Kd of 0.2 nM, dissociates from its preferred receptor subtype with a rate constant of 0.027 ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of PM_(2. 5) exposure on the development of synaptic plasticity and Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in hippocampus of offspring rats. METHODS: Healthy 7-week-old SPF SD rats(n=36) mated with a male to female ratio of 2â ¶1. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups, including control group, low PM_(2. 5) group, and high PM_(2. 5) group, with eight rats in each group. The low and high PM_(2. 5) concentrations in dynamic exposure cabinet were approximately two times and four times higher than the annual average PM_(2. 5) concentration in Tangshan city respectively. The exposure started from pregnant day 0, until postnatal day 21(PND21) of offspring rats. After weaning, the offspring rats continued to be exposed to PM_(2. 5) until PND42. PND21 and PND42 pups were subjected to Morris water maze and new object recognition experiments. Western blot was used to detect post synaptic density-95(PSD-95), synaptophysin(SYN), growth associated protein(GAP-43), ...
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N-(1-((4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)methyl)-2-methylpropyl)-7-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxamide:
This innovative text explores the cellular transport of organic cations, from functional and structural properties to pharmacological implications and psychiatric developments. The authoritative chapters introduce organic cation transporters and then proceed to discuss their mechanisms such as
About 40% of all prescribed drugs are cationic at physiological pH and the multidrug Organic Cation Transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, are the initial steps in their...
The present study shows that in vivo gene transfer of the neuronal catecholamine transporter uptake-1 to the myocardium results in a clear improvement of cardiac function in rabbits with heart failure. These results suggest that increased local clearance of catecholamines, and above all of NE, should confer a marked therapeutic benefit in heart failure.. Decreased cardiac uptake-1 function in heart failure has been documented in a number of studies.6-10 The question of whether this finding reflects a general decrease of cardiac sympathoadrenergic neurons or a selective decrease of NE transporter proteins on these cells has not been fully clarified. Although some early studies claimed a decreased cardiac atrial neuron number in heart failure,21 recent evidence supports the notion that the transporters are specifically downregulated and other neuronal functions are intact. Release of NE from cardiac sympathetic nerve endings is clearly increased in heart failure, and elevated NE levels have been ...
Background: Metformin is one of the most commonly used drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite its efficacy and safety, metformin is frequently associated with highly variable glycemic responses, which is hypothesized to be the result of genetic variations in its transport by organic cation transporters (OCTs). This systematic review aims to highlight and summarize the overall effects of OCT1 polymorphisms on therapeutic responses to metformin and to evaluate their potential role in terms of interethnic differences with metformin responses. Methods/design: We will systematically review observational studies reporting on the genetic association between OCT1 polymorphisms and metformin responses in T2DM patients. A comprehensive search strategy formulated with the help of a librarian will be used to search MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL for relevant studies published between January 1990 and July 2017. Two review authors will independently screen titles and abstracts in ...
TABLE-US-00002 Name MS data N-({1-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-4-[(cyclopropylmethyl)sulfonyl]cyclohexyl}methyl- )-2,4- 528 bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidine-5-carboxamide N-({1-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-4-[(cyclopropylmethyl)sulfonyl]cyclohexyl}methyl- )-4-methyl- 474 2-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidine-5-carboxamide 2-Chloro-N-({1-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4-[(cyclopropylmethyl)sulfonyl]cyclohex- yl}methyl)- 442 4-fluorobenzamide 2,6-Dichloro-N-({1-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4- 459 [(cyclopropylmethyl)sulfonyl]cyclohexyl}methyl)nicotinamide 2,4,6-Trichloro-N-({1-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4- 492 [(cyclopropylmethyl)sulfonyl]cyclohexyl}methyl)benzamide 2-Chloro-N-({1-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4-[(cyclopropylmethyl)sulfonyl]cyclohex- yl}methyl)- 492 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide N-({1-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-4-[(cyclopropylmethyl)sulfonyl]cyclohexyl}methyl- )-4- 468 (methylsulfonyl)benzamide N-({1-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-4-[(cyclopropylmethyl)sulfonyl]cyclohexyl}methyl- )-2- 474 (trifluoromethoxy)benzamide 4-Bromo-2-chloro-N-({1-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4- ...
The organic cation transporter OCT1 (SLC22A1) mediates the uptake of vitamin B1, cationic drugs, and xenobiotics into hepatocytes. Nine percent of Caucasians lack or have very low OCT1 activity due to loss-of-function polymorphisms in OCT1 gene. Here we analyzed the global genetic variability in OCT1 to estimate the therapeutic relevance of OCT1 polymorphisms in populations beyond Caucasians and to identify evolutionary patterns of the common loss of OCT1 activity in humans. We applied massively parallel sequencing to screen for coding polymorphisms in 1,079 unrelated individuals from 53 populations worldwide. The obtained data was combined with the existing 1000 Genomes data comprising an additional 1,092 individuals from 14 populations. The identified OCT1 variants were characterized in vitro regarding their cellular localization and their ability to transport 10 known OCT1 substrates. Both the population genetics data and transport data were used in tandem to generate a world map of loss of OCT1
The organic cation transporter OCT1 (SLC22A1) mediates the uptake of vitamin B1, cationic drugs, and xenobiotics into hepatocytes. Nine percent of Caucasians lack or have very low OCT1 activity due to loss-of-function polymorphisms in OCT1 gene. Here we analyzed the global genetic variability in OCT1 to estimate the therapeutic relevance of OCT1 polymorphisms in populations beyond Caucasians and to identify evolutionary patterns of the common loss of OCT1 activity in humans. We applied massively parallel sequencing to screen for coding polymorphisms in 1,079 unrelated individuals from 53 populations worldwide. The obtained data was combined with the existing 1000 Genomes data comprising an additional 1,092 individuals from 14 populations. The identified OCT1 variants were characterized in vitro regarding their cellular localization and their ability to transport 10 known OCT1 substrates. Both the population genetics data and transport data were used in tandem to generate a world map of loss of OCT1
Kidney-specific expression of human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2/SLC22A2) is regulated by DNA methylation - BioChain Institute Inc.
Traditionally, the measurement of transport activity has employed radiolabeled compounds. The resulting experimental procedures do not measure transport in real time and are limited in temporal and spatial resolution. The use of epifluorescence microscopy provides the ability to measure transport ac …
View mouse Slc22a2 Chr17:12584189-12628465 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
BACKGROUND: Murine basophils can contribute to the T(H)2 polarization of the immune response by providing rapidly large amounts of IL-4, which suggests that
SLC22A5 antibody (solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter), member 5) for WB. Anti-SLC22A5 pAb (GTX12395) is tested in Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The Slc22 family of organic anion and cation transporters (OATs, OCTs, OCTNs) are transmembrane proteins expressed predominantly in kidney and liver.…
The Slc22 family of organic anion and cation transporters (OATs, OCTs, OCTNs) are transmembrane proteins expressed predominantly in kidney and liver.…
Impact of Expression Levels of Platinum-uptake Transporters Copper Transporter 1 and Organic Cation Transporter 2 on Resistance to Anthracycline/Taxane-based Chemotherapy in Triple-negative Breast CancerImpact of Expression Levels of Platinum-uptake Transporters Copper Transporter 1 and Organic Cation Transporter 2 on Resistance to Anthracycline/Taxane-based Chemotherapy in Triple-negative Breast Cancer ...
Platinum-based chemotherapy is the first-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); it is therefore important to discover biomarkers that can be used to predict the efficacy and toxicity of this treatment. Four important transporter genes are expressed in the kidney, including organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1), ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1), and ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 2 (ABCC2), and genetic polymorphisms in these genes may alter the efficacy and adverse effects of platinum drugs. This study aimed to evaluate the association of genetic polymorphisms of these transporters with platinum-based chemotherapy response and toxicity in NSCLC patients. A total of 403 Chinese NSCLC patients were recruited for this study. All patients were newly diagnosed with NSCLC and received at least two cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy. The tumor response and toxicity were evaluated after two cycles of treatment, and the patients
Solute carrier family 22 member 3 (SLC22A3) also known as the organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) or extraneuronal monoamine transporter (EMT) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC22A3 gene.[1][2][3] Polyspecific organic cation transporters in the liver, kidney, intestine, and other organs are critical for elimination of many endogenous small organic cations as well as a wide array of drugs and environmental toxins. This gene is one of three similar cation transporter genes located in a cluster on chromosome 6. The encoded protein contains twelve putative transmembrane domains and is a plasma integral membrane protein.[3] ...
Organic cation transporters in the kidney and liver play an important role in the removal of potentially toxic drugs and their metabolites from the systemic circulation (Zhang et al., 1998a). The fundamental mechanisms involved in the sequential flux of organic cations across renal and hepatic epithelia are reported to be similar among mammalian species (Pritchard and Miller, 1993, 1996; Zhang et al., 1998a). However, the extent of interspecies differences in kinetic characteristics and selectivities of organic cation transporters is not well understood. Our understanding of organic cation transport mechanisms is largely based on studies performed with tissue preparations from the rabbit kidney and rat liver (Wright, 1985;Gisclon et al., 1987; Dantzler et al., 1991; Moseley et al., 1992,1996, 1997; Martel et al., 1996). Relatively few studies have examined renal or hepatic transport mechanisms in humans (Ott et al., 1991; Chun et al., 1997; Muller and Jansen, 1997). There have been several ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. AU - Bednarczyk, Dallas. AU - Ekins, Sean. AU - Wikel, James H.. AU - Wright, Stephen H.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2003/3/1. Y1 - 2003/3/1. N2 - Organic cation transporters play a critical role in the elimination of therapeutic compounds in the liver and the kidney. We used computational quantitative structure activity approaches to predict molecular features that influence interaction with the human ortholog of the organic cation transporter (hOCT1). [3H]tetraethylammonium uptake in HeLa cells stably expressing hOCT1 was inhibited to varying extents by a diverse set of 30 molecules. A subset of 22 of these was used to produce, using Catalyst, a pharmacophore that consisted of three hydrophobic features and a positive ionizable feature. The correlation coefficient of observed versus predicted IC50 was 0.86 for this training set, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeted disruption of organic cation transporter 3 (Oct3) ameliorates ischemic brain damage through modulating histamine and regulatory T cells. AU - Zhu, Pengxiang. AU - Hata, Ryuji. AU - Ogasawara, Masahito. AU - Cao, Fang. AU - Kameda, Kenji. AU - Yamauchi, Kohei. AU - Schinkel, Alfred H.. AU - Maeyama, Kazutaka. AU - Sakanaka, Masahiro. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2012/10. Y1 - 2012/10. N2 - The organic cation transporters OCT1, 2, and 3 (SLC22A1-3) have been implicated in the elimination of biogenic amines such as histamine. Among them, OCT3 was identified as an uptake-2 transporter, responsible for clearance of histamine. Because increasing evidence suggests the involvement of histamine in cerebral ischemia, we investigated the effects of targeted disruption of organic cation transporter-3 (Oct3) on the severity of ischemic brain damage. Transient focal ischemia for 1 hour was induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Local inhibition of organic cation transporters increases extracellular serotonin in the medial hypothalamus. AU - Feng, Na. AU - Mo, Bing. AU - Johnson, Philip L.. AU - Orchinik, Miles. AU - Lowry, Christopher A.. AU - Renner, Kenneth J.. PY - 2005/11/23. Y1 - 2005/11/23. N2 - In the rat dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), serotonin (5-HT) concentrations are altered rapidly in response to acute stressors. The mechanism for rapid changes in 5-HT concentrations in the DMH is not clear. We hypothesize that the mechanism involves corticosteroid-induced alterations in the uptake of 5-HT from extracellular fluid through the action of corticosterone-sensitive organic cation transporters (OCTs). To determine if OCTs affect the clearance of 5-HT from the extracellular fluid compartment within the medial hypothalamus (MH), the OCT blocker, decynium 22 (0, 10, 30, or 100 μM), was perfused into the MH via a microdialysis probe, and dialysate 5-HT concentrations were measured at 20 min ...
The purpose of this study was to characterize blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of oxycodone, a cationic opioid agonist, via the pyrilamine transporter, a putative organic cation transporter, using conditionally immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cells (TR-BBB13). Oxycodone and [3H]pyrilamine were both transported into TR-BBB13 cells in a temperature- and concentration-dependent manner with Km values of 89 and 28 microM, respectively. The initial uptake of oxycodone was significantly enhanced by preloading with pyrilamine and vice versa. Furthermore, mutual uptake inhibition by oxycodone and pyrilamine suggests that a common mechanism is involved in their transport. Transport of both substrates was inhibited by type II cations (quinidine, verapamil, and amantadine), but not by classic organic cation transporter (OCT) substrates and/or inhibitors (tetraethylammonium, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, and corticosterone), substrates of OCTN1 (ergothioneine) and OCTN2 (L-carnitine), or ...
0115]Other examples of non-naturally occurring amino acids include 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-alanine, 3-chloro-phenylalanine, 4-chloro-phenylalanine, 2-fluoro-phenylalanine, 3-fluoro-phenylalanine, 4-fluoro-phenylalanine, 2-bromo-phenylalanine, 3-bromo-phenylalanine, 4-bromo-phenylalanine, homophenylalanine, 2-methyl-phenylalanine, 3-methyl-phenylalanine, 4-methyl-phenylalanine, 2,4-dimethyl-phenylalanine, 2-nitro-phenylalanine, 3-nitro-phenylalanine, 4-nitro-phenylalanine, 2,4-dinitro-phenylalanine, 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronorharman-3-carboxylic acid, 1-naphthylalanine, 2-naphthylalanine, pentafluorophenylalanine, 2,4-dichloro-phenylalanine, 3,4-dichloro-phenylalanine, 3,4-difluoro-phenylalanine, 3,5-difluoro-phenylalanine, 2,4,5-trifluoro-phenylalanine, 2-trifluoromethyl-phenylalanine, 3-trifluoromethyl-phenylalanine, 4-trifluoromethyl-phenylalanine, 2-cyano-phenyalanine, 3-cyano-phenyalanine, 4-cyano-phenyalanine, 2-iodo-phenyalanine, 3-iodo-phenyalanine, ...
Methamphetamine is one of the most abused illicit drugs with roughly 1.2 million users in the United States alone. A large portion of methamphetamine and its metabolites is eliminated by the kidney with renal clearance larger than glomerular filtration clearance. Yet the mechanism of active renal secretion is poorly understood. The goals of this study were to characterize the interaction of methamphetamine and its major metabolites with organic cation transporters (OCTs) and multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) transporters and to identify the major transporters involved in the disposition of methamphetamine and its major metabolites, amphetamine and para-hydroxymethamphetamine (p-OHMA). We used cell lines stably expressing relevant transporters to show that methamphetamine and its metabolites inhibit human OCTs 1-3 (hOCT1-3) and hMATE1/2-K with the greatest potencies against hOCT1 and hOCT2. Methamphetamine and amphetamine are substrates of hOCT2, hMATE1, and hMATE2-K, but not hOCT1 and hOCT3. ...
Inclusion Criteria: - Healthy volunteers - Written consent - rs316019 genotyped - Age 18-65 years old Exclusion Criteria: - Daily medication - Alcohol abuse - Pregnancy - Breastfeeding Inclusion Criteria: - Healthy volunteers - Written consent - rs316019 genotyped - Age 18-65 years old Exclusion Criteria: - Daily medication - Alcohol abuse - Pregnancy - Breastfeeding Metformin Organic Cation Transporter 2 Polymorphism,Single Nucleotide null ...
Much of the anti-cancer research conducted in our laboratory has centred on uncovering aspects of the mechanism of bifunctional platinum compounds of the kind clinically used [3,25,26]. As mentioned above, we investigated the role of the organic cation transporters in the mechanism of action of oxaliplatin [8]. Greater expression of this protein in cancer cells correlated with cytotoxicity. Following this study, we prepared a variety of platinum complexes with organic ligands chosen such that each complex bore an overall positive charge. The hypothesis was that such constructs should act as more efficient substrates for the OCTs. The complex that gave the best results, far better than those of oxaliplatin, was cationic cis-diamminepyridinechloroplatinum(II), also referred to as cDPCP or pyriplatin (figure 1) [27]. The anti-cancer activity of this compound had been investigated previously in an animal model [28], but only a small number of follow-up studies on related compounds were performed ...
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DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Depression and related disorders are a major public health problem, compounded by the fact that at least half of patients are not effectively treated by currently available medications. Among the most commonly prescribed is the class of selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which act to inhibit 5-HT transporter (SERT) mediated 5-HT uptake. The increase in extracellular 5-HT that follows is thought to be critical for initiation of the cascade of downstream events needed for therapeutic effects. Although SERT is the major player regulating high-affinity 5-HT uptake, there is emerging evidence for an important role of organic cation transporter-3 (OCT3) and possibly the plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) in taking up 5-HT in brain. This raises the possibility that lack of therapeutic response following SERT blockade could be due to significant 5-HT uptake by OCT3 (and/or PMAT). Our studies using decynium-22 (D-22), a blocker of both ...
To discriminate between two general models of antagonism (participation and allosteric), an opioid antagonist lacking the basic nitrogen of tyramine was designed and characterized. Cyclo-[Tyr(Me)2-Tic-], the diketopiperazine of 2,6-dimethyltyrosyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, is a partially rigid opioid antagonist; its pA2 (5.8) is one smaller than that of N,N-bisallyl-enkephalin but it has a very high binding affinity (10 nM) and has a delta selectivity (66 with respect to the binding to mu receptors) higher than that of naltrindole. The conformational state of this diketopiperazine, studied under a variety of solvent and temperature conditions by NMR and molecular dynamics, can be described in terms of only three conformers whose relative populations vary widely with solvent. Only one of the three conformers, characterized by a 90 degree arrangement of the aromatic rings of Tyr(Me)2 and Tic similar to those of rigid agonists and of the bioactive conformation of the ...
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SLC22A5 is a membrane transport protein associated with primary carnitine deficiency. Polyspecific organic cation transporters in the liver, kidney, intestine, and other organs are critical for elimination of many endogenous small organic cations as well as a wide array of drugs and environmental toxins. The encoded protein is a plasma integral membrane protein which functions both as an organic cation transporter and as a sodium-dependent high affinity carnitine transporter. The encoded protein is involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Mutations in this gene are the cause of systemic primary carnitine deficiency (CDSP), an autosomal recessive disorder manifested early in life by hypoketotic hypoglycemia and acute metabolic decompensation, and later in life by skeletal myopathy or cardiomyopathy. Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000197375 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000018900 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse ...
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Lamivudine (3TC), a drug used in the treatment of HIV infection, needs to cross the plasma membrane to exert its therapeutic action. Human Organic cation transporter 1 (hOCT1), encoded by the SLC22A1 gene, is the transporter responsible for its uptake into target cells. As SLC22A1 is a highly polymorphic gene, the aim of this study was to determine how SNPs in the OCT1-encoding gene affected 3TC internalization and its interaction with other co-administered drugs. HEK293 cells stably transfected with either the wild type form or the polymorphic variants of hOCT1 were used to perform kinetic and drug-drug interaction studies. Protein co-immunoprecipitation was used to assess the impact of selected polymorphic cysteines on the oligomerization of the transporter. Results showed that 3TC transport efficiency was reduced in all polymorphic variants tested (R61C, C88R, S189L, M420del, and G465R). This was not caused by lack of oligomerization in case of variants located at the transporter ...
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Different animal species have characteristic sizes. A mouse does not grow to the size of a horse, for example, because during development, environmental cues (particularly nutrient availability) act together with genetic cues to regulate cell growth and proliferation. The insulin receptor (InR) signalling pathway cell autonomously controls cellular responses to nutrient availability. Now, on p. 2617, Milán and colleagues report that calderón, which encodes a new organic cation transporter of the major facilitator superfamily, is a downstream effector of InR in developing Drosophila tissues. The researchers show that calderón mutant flies are smaller than wild-type flies and developmentally delayed, a phenotype that resembles that caused by mutations in the InR pathway. Genetic experiments indicate that the expression of calderón is positively regulated by InR downstream effectors, including TOR (target of rapamycin), and that calderón is required for TOR-mediated growth induction. Thus, the ...
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... the three transport mechanisms have been traced to the proteins and their genes since 1990. They now comprise the plasma ... Membranes play a twofold role for catecholamines: catecholamines must pass through membranes and deliver their chemical message ... The β-adrenoceptor was the first G protein-coupled receptor the gene of which was cloned. Goal-directed catecholamine research ... With the reserpine-sensitive uptake from the cytoplasm into the storage vesicles there were thus three catecholamine membrane ...
... catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.562.374.500.500 - dopamine plasma membrane transport ... dopamine plasma membrane transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.625.139 - gaba plasma membrane transport proteins MeSH ... gaba plasma membrane transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.562.374.781 - glutamate plasma membrane transport proteins MeSH ... glycine plasma membrane transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.562.374.875 - serotonin plasma membrane transport proteins MeSH ...
... including protein hormones and catecholamines, are water-soluble and are thus readily transported through the circulatory ... are embedded in the plasma membrane at the surface of the cell and the majority of these receptors belong to the G protein- ... Binding proteinsEdit. Hormone transport and the involvement of binding proteins is an essential aspect when considering the ... Transport of the hormone to the target cell(s). *Recognition of the hormone by an associated cell membrane or intracellular ...
In addition to its effect on the plasma membrane monoamine transporters, methamphetamine inhibits synaptic vesicle function by ... since both MAOIs and methamphetamine increase plasma catecholamines; therefore, concurrent use of both is dangerous. ... it triggers transporter phosphorylation via protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, ultimately resulting ... production and either completely inhibits or reverses the transport direction of the dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine ...
... hormones are located on the plasma membrane because they have bound to a receptor protein located on the plasma membrane. Water ... Second messengers may also be sent to interact with intracellular receptors in order to enter the complex signal transport ... Water-soluble hormones include glycoproteins, catecholamines, and peptide hormones composed of polypeptides, e.g. thyroid- ... G-protein-coupled membrane receptors(GPCR) are a major class of transmembrane receptors. The features of G proteins include GDP ...
The mast cell granule can now fuse with the plasma membrane. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion attachment protein ... A study of cyclic AMP levels and effects of catecholamines". Agents and Actions. 13 (2-3): 132-7. doi:10.1007/bf01967316. PMID ... that is involved in activation of H+ transport and other associated changes of oxyntic cells. In anaphylaxis (a severe systemic ... Complement proteins can activate membrane receptors on mast cells to exert various functions as well. Mast cells express a high ...
The encoded protein contains twelve putative transmembrane domains and is a plasma integral membrane protein. OCT3 is widely ... Capacity for transport and affinity for these substrates may vary between rat and human isoforms however. Transport activity of ... "Molecular identification of the corticosterone-sensitive extraneuronal catecholamine transporter". Nat. Neurosci. 1 (5): 349- ... 2007). "The organic cation transporters (OCT1, OCT2, EMT) and the plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) show ...
This can result in an increase in efflux of catecholamines through the plasma membrane, depleting catecholamine concentrations ... is a transport protein integrated into the membrane of synaptic vesicles of presynaptic neurons. It acts to transport monoamine ... This conformation occurs after the transport of one proton across the membrane and into the vesicle; proton transport drives ... Activated heterotrimeric G-protein Gαq downregulates VMAT2 mediated serotonin transport in blood platelets, but this is not the ...
These membrane proteins can perform a wide diversity of functions, such as transporting ions and molecules across the red cell ... The iron is released into the plasma to be recirculated by a carrier protein called transferrin. Almost all red blood cells are ... Inhibitors of eryptosis include erythropoietin, nitric oxide, catecholamines and high concentrations of urea. Much of the ... Protein 4.1R-based macromolecular complex - proteins interacting with Protein 4.1R. Protein 4.1R - weak expression of Gerbich ...
They are found closer to the plasma membrane of the cell. This requires norepinephrine to diffuse from the site it is released ... The genetic defect in the NET protein results in decreased NET activity that could account for abnormally high NE plasma levels ... The transport of norepinephrine back into presynaptic cell is made possible by the cotransport with Na+ and Cl−. The sequential ... block reabsorption of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine through monoamine transporters (including NET), thereby ...
... the cell body of every neuron is enclosed by a plasma membrane, a bilayer of lipid molecules with many types of protein ... charged ions to flow across the membrane and ion pumps that chemically transport ions from one side of the membrane to the ... Noradrenaline is one of the three common catecholamine neurotransmitter, and the most prevalent of them in the peripheral ... A lipid bilayer is a powerful electrical insulator, but in neurons, many of the protein structures embedded in the membrane are ...
Approximately 20% of amphetamine circulating in the bloodstream is bound to plasma proteins. Following absorption, amphetamine ... since both MAOIs and amphetamine increase plasma catecholamines (i.e., norepinephrine and dopamine); therefore, concurrent use ... Although the monoamine transport cycle has been resolved in considerable detail, kinetic knowledge on the molecular actions of ... Amphetamine can enter the presynaptic neuron either through DAT or by diffusing across the neuronal membrane directly. As a ...
... leaving an ultrafiltrate that resembles plasma (except that the ultrafiltrate has negligible plasma proteins) to enter Bowman's ... These transport processes are driven by Starling forces, diffusion, and active transport. In some cases, reabsorption is ... ADH binds to principal cells in the collecting duct that translocate aquaporins to the membrane, allowing water to leave the ... The regulation of glucose production in the kidney is achieved by action of insulin, catecholamines and other hormones. Renal ...
Activates adipocyte plasma membrane type A guanylyl cyclase receptors NPR-A Increases intracellular cGMP levels that induce the ... Membrane Receptor-mediated elevation of vascular smooth muscle cGMP Inhibition of the effects of catecholamines Promotes ... Reeves WB, Andreoli TE (2008). "Chapter 31 - Sodium Chloride Transport in the Loop of Henle, Distal Convoluted Tubule, and ... phosphorylation of a hormone-sensitive lipase and perilipin A via the activation of a cGMP-dependent protein kinase-I (cGK-I) ...
... including proteins and citrate. Roughly 33% is bound to proteins, and 5-10% is not bound.[citation needed] This "free" ... Normal plasma Mg is 1.7-2.3 mg/dl (0.69-0.94 mmol/l). The kidneys regulate the serum magnesium. About 2400 mg of magnesium ... Due to magnesium's mobile nature, the plant will first break down chlorophyll in older leaves and transport the Mg to younger ... This could be the result of an intracellular shift because of an increase in catecholamines. Malabsorption Acute pancreatitis ...
In addition to the plasma membrane monoamine transporters, methamphetamine inhibits uptake and induces efflux of ... since both MAOIs and methamphetamine increase plasma catecholamines; therefore, concurrent use of both is dangerous.[23] ... it triggers transporter phosphorylation via protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, ultimately resulting ... TAAR1 activation also causes some of the dopamine transporters to move into the presynaptic neuron and cease transport (not ...
Plasma transport[edit]. Most of the thyroid hormone circulating in the blood is bound to "transport protein"s. Only a very ... Membrane transport[edit]. Contrary to common belief, thyroid[35] hormones cannot traverse cell membranes in a passive manner ... and increase the body's sensitivity to catecholamines (such as adrenaline) by permissiveness. The thyroid hormones are ... Hennemann G, Docter R, Friesema EC, de Jong M, Krenning EP, Visser TJ (Aug 2001). "Plasma membrane transport of thyroid ...
This precursor protein also includes the oxytocin carrier protein neurophysin I.[21] The inactive precursor protein is ... At least two uncontrolled studies have found increases in plasma oxytocin at orgasm - in both men and women.[103][104] Plasma ... Luck MR, Jungclas B (September 1987). "Catecholamines and ascorbic acid as stimulators of bovine ovarian oxytocin secretion". ... Brownstein MJ, Russell JT, Gainer H (January 1980). "Synthesis, transport, and release of posterior pituitary hormones". ...
"Functional interaction between monoamine plasma membrane transporters and the synaptic PDZ domain-containing protein PICK1". ... transport, and degradation. The gene for DAT, known as DAT1, is located on chromosome 5p15. The protein encoding region of the ... Exposure of isolated catecholamine vesicles to protonophores collapses the pH gradient and rapidly redistributes transmitter ... Apart from these innate protein-protein interactions, recent studies demonstrated that viral proteins such as HIV-1 Tat protein ...
... catabolite activator protein - catalyst - catecholamine - celiac disease - cell - cell cycle - cell-mediated immunity - cell ... plasma membrane - plasmid - plasmolysis - plastid - plate tectonics - point mutation - pollenizer - pollination - pollinator - ... transport vesicle - transposon - Traube cell - trophic level - tropism - tubulin - tumor - turgor - Turner syndrome - twin urea ... protein biosynthesis - protein - protein translocation - proteolysis - proteome - proteomics - protist - protista - proton pump ...
Manchester, KL (1964). "Sites of Hormonal Regulation of Protein Metabolism". In Allison, NH; Munro JB (eds.). Mammalian Protein ... It transports potassium out of cells in exchange for an equal number of sodium ions (see above). This can trigger the ... Ueda Y, Honda M, Tsuchiya M, Watanabe H, Izumi Y, Shiratsuchi T, Inoue T, Hatano M (April 1982). "Response of plasma ACTH and ... ACTH increases the concentration of cholesterol in the inner mitochondrial membrane, via regulation of the steroidogenic acute ...
Torres GE, Gainetdinov RR, Caron MG (January 2003). "Plasma membrane monoamine transporters: structure, regulation and function ... It is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families. Dopamine constitutes about 80% of the catecholamine ... These amino acids are found in nearly every protein and so are readily available in food, with tyrosine being the most common. ... After synthesis, dopamine is transported from the cytosol into synaptic vesicles by a solute carrier-a vesicular monoamine ...
A more specific membrane binding would lead to accumulation of taipoxin in the plasma membranes of motor-neurons. The treatment ... There it enhanced catecholamine release in depolarizing cells by disassembling F-actin in the cytoskeletal barrier. This could ... Neuronal pentraxin (NP) receptor binds to taipoxin and taipoxin-associated calcium-binding protein 49 via NP1 and NP2". The ... which would give more insight into how Taipoxin is transported to the nerve terminals and intramuscular axons. The toxicity of ...
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) then binds to receptor proteins in the plasma membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ... This protein works as a transcription factor for MafA in an unknown manner and MafA is transported out of the cell. MafA is ... It appears that release of catecholamines by the sympathetic nervous system has conflicting influences on insulin release by ... to a G protein-coupled membrane receptor. Phospholipase C cleaves the membrane phospholipid, phosphatidyl inositol 4,5- ...
... inhibits insulin-dependent stimulation of glucose transport and prevents recruitment of glucose transporters in plasma membrane ... Kaniuk NA, Kiraly M, Bates HE, Vranic M, Volchuck A, Brumell JH (2007). "Ubiquitinated-protein aggregates form in pancreatic β- ... catecholamines and glucagon to hypoglycemia. He proposed a new approach to decrease the threat of hypoglycemia by blocking the ... He also revealed how acute and chronic hyperglycemia affects the expression of GLUT2 gene and protein in diabetes. Vranic ...
membrane. • plasma membrane. • heterotrimeric G-protein complex. • intrinsic component of membrane. • extracellular exosome. • ... transport vesicle. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • cell nucleus. • cytosol. • trans-Golgi network membrane. • ... cellular response to catecholamine stimulus. • adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway. • adenylate ... apical plasma membrane. Biological process. • female pregnancy. • negative regulation of multicellular organism growth. • ...
Atomoxetine is widely distributed and is highly (98%) bound to plasma proteins, mainly albumin. The volume of distribution for ... This stimulus causes the release of catecholamines such as NE. The chemical class of catecholamines has positive chronotropic, ... The NET is located in the plasma membrane of noradrenergic neurons and serves as the fundamental mechanism by terminating the ... "Clinical doses of atomoxetine significantly occupy both norepinephrine and serotonin transports: Implications on treatment of ...
Catecholamines such as norepinephrine at low concentrations have been shown to assist in acrosome reaction induction. The ... Protein tyrosine phosphorylation and capacitation are regulated by a cAMP-dependent pathway" (PDF). Development. 121 (4): 1139- ... The result is a more fluid membrane with an increased permeability to Ca2+. An influx of Ca2+ produces increased intracellular ... Bicarbonate is a vital component of capacitation-inducing media, as it is co-transported into the cytosol where it activates ...
... and naked DNA and/or protein compounds. In 2008, Hochedlinger et al. used an adenovirus to transport the requisite four ... with BIX-01294 in combination with the activation of calcium channels in the plasma membrane in order to increase reprogramming ... The presence of catecholamine-associated enzymes may indicate that iPSCs, like hESCs, may be differentiable into dopaminergic ... A non-genetic method of producing iPSCs has been demonstrated using recombinant proteins, but its efficiency was quite low. ...
These membrane proteins can perform a wide diversity of functions, such as transporting ions and molecules across the red cell ... The iron is released into the plasma to be recirculated by a carrier protein called transferrin. Almost all red blood cells are ... Inhibitors of eryptosis include erythropoietin, nitric oxide, catecholamines and high concentrations of urea. ... Protein 4.1R-based macromolecular complex - proteins interacting with Protein 4.1R. *Protein 4.1R - weak expression of Gerbich ...
The membrane transport proteins that move melatonin across a membrane include, but are not limited to, glucose transporters, ... greatly exceeding the concentration of melatonin in blood plasma.[43][44][45] Due to its capacity for free radical scavenging, ... the enzyme for catecholamine and serotonin biosynthesis". Biochemistry. 31 (8): 2229-38. doi:10.1021/bi00123a004. PMID 1540578. ... proteins, and cellular membranes. Melatonin has been described as a broadly protective, readily available, and orally self- ...
It was advised to consider the role of the organic cation transporters (OCT) and the plasma membrane monoamine transporter ( ... Two broad classes of theories have emerged: (1) Changes in protein phosphorylation, gene expression, and protein translation ... It was also supported by work demonstrating that if catecholamine levels were depleted by up to 20% but 5-HT neurotransmission ... MATs are able to transport monoamines other than their "native" neurotransmitter. ...
In Cannabis and driving: a review of the literature and commentary, the United Kingdom's Department for Transport reviewed data ... A signature of this type of receptor is the distinct pattern of how the receptor molecule spans the cell membrane seven times. ... The cannabinoid receptor is a typical member of the largest known family of receptors called a G protein-coupled receptor. ... Lukas, Scott E.; Orozco, Sara (2001). "Ethanol increases plasma Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels and subjective effects ...
Relative to the plasma and extracellular fluid, the concentration of Na+ ions is much lower in sweat (~40 mM in sweat versus ~ ... Diaphoresis due to ectopic catecholamine is a classic symptom of a pheochromocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal gland. ... and their fluidic transport to the skin surface.[23] Dissolved in the water are trace amounts of minerals, lactic acid, and ... The allergy is not due to the sweat itself but instead to an allergy-producing protein secreted by bacteria found on the skin.[ ...
Plasma catecholamine concentrations increase 10-fold in whole body exercise.[25]. *Ammonia is produced by exercised skeletal ... This causes cellular membrane depolarization, inexcitability, and so muscle weakness.[53] Ca2+ leakage from type 1 ryanodine ... Amann, M; Calbet, JA (2008). "Convective oxygen transport and fatigue". Journal of Applied Physiology. 104 (3): 861-70. doi: ... The creation of AMP resulting from this reaction stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP kinase) which is the energy ...
membrane. • plasma membrane. • nucleoplasm. • mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II, succinate dehydrogenase complex ( ... However, the expressed protein is located in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The location of the gene in humans is on ... Abdominal extra-adrenal paraganglionic cells secrete catecholamines that play an important role in fetal development. After ... electron transport chain/. oxidative phosphorylation. Primary. *Complex I/NADH dehydrogenase. *Complex II/Succinate ...
Specific transporter proteins called monoamine transporters that transport monoamines in or out of a cell exist. These are the ... Phenethylamines (related to catecholamines): *Phenethylamine[7][8][9] (PEA). *N-Methylphenethylamine[10][7][9] (endogenous ... in the membrane of intracellular vesicles.[citation needed] ... Clinical studies report increased β-PEA plasma levels in ... Biosynthetic pathways for catecholamines and trace amines in the human brain[3][4][5] ...
The membrane transport proteins that move melatonin across a membrane include, but are not limited to, glucose transporters, ... Melatonin occurs at high concentrations within mitochondrial fluid which greatly exceed the plasma concentration of melatonin.[ ... the enzyme for catecholamine and serotonin biosynthesis". Biochemistry. 31 (8): 2229-38. doi:10.1021/bi00123a004. PMID 1540578. ... proteins, and cellular membranes. Melatonin has been described as a broadly protective, readily available, and orally self- ...
運輸囊泡(Transport vesicles)在真核生物中,通過在不同細胞器及細胞表面進行轉運發揮它的作用。目前已知的運輸囊泡有網格蛋白囊泡、外被體蛋白(英语:Coat protein)Ⅰ(coat protein、COPI(英语:COPI)囊泡)和 ... Isolation of human platelet membrane microparticles from plasma and serum.. Blood. 1982-10, 60 (4): 834-40 [2020-02-11]. PMID ... The real catecholamine content of secretory vesicles in the CNS revealed by electrochemical cytometry.. Scientific
water transport. • cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • protein kinase C signaling. • generation ... membrane organization. • regulation of receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • maternal aggressive ... The physiologic stimulus for secretion of vasopressin is increased osmolality of the plasma, monitored by the hypothalamus. A ... also used as second line therapy in septic shock patients not responding to fluid resuscitation or infusions of catecholamines ...
Once ingested, the substance is absorbed quite rapidly and reaches a peak plasma concentration in 1-3 hours post-administration ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine metabolism/transport ... "Lipophilic cationic drugs increase the permeability of lysosomal membranes in a cell culture system". Journal of Cellular ... "Effects of the calcium antagonists perhexiline and cinnarizine on vascular and cardiac contractile protein function". The ...
... as they do during endocytosis of plasma-membrane proteins in other cells (see Figure 17-46). Rather, the recycled vesicles are ... re-uptake begins which is the process of transport proteins clearing out the neurotransmitters from the synapse and recycling ... Under stressed conditions, vesicle exocytosis is potentiated and a release of catecholamines causes depression of presynaptic ... Recycling of synaptic-vesicle membrane proteins is rapid, as indicated by the ability of many neurons to fire fifty times a ...
The membrane transport proteins that move melatonin across a membrane include, but are not limited to, glucose transporters, ... March 1995). "Identification of melatonin in plants and its effects on plasma melatonin levels and binding to melatonin ... the enzyme for catecholamine and serotonin biosynthesis". Biochemistry. 31 (8): 2229-38. doi:10.1021/bi00123a004. PMID 1540578 ... proteins, and cellular membranes. Melatonin has been described as a broadly protective, readily available, and orally self- ...
... with the plasma membrane. This approach also demonstrated that the "size" of the quanta could be altered in numerous ways, for ... Sulzer, D.; Maidment, N.; Rayport, S. (1993). "Amphetamine and other weak bases act to promote reverse transport of dopamine in ... Regulation of cytosolic catecholamines in chromaffin cells". The Journal of Neuroscience. 23 (13): 5835-5845. doi:10.1523/ ... that a cause of Parkinson's disease could be due to an interference with a chaperone-mediated autophagy caused by the protein ...
This autoinhibition is relieved upon binding to PI3K-generated PIP3 at the plasma membrane. mSin1 subunit can also be ... mammalian stress-activated protein kinase interacting protein 1 (mSIN1), and protein observed with rictor 1 and 2 (Protor1/2) ... December 2014). "Catecholamine-induced lipolysis causes mTOR complex dissociation and inhibits glucose uptake in adipocytes". ... "Muscle-specific deletion of rictor impairs insulin-stimulated glucose transport and enhances Basal glycogen synthase activity ...
The allergy is not due to the sweat itself but instead to an allergy-producing protein secreted by bacteria found on the skin. ... In humans, sweat is hypoosmotic relative to plasma (i.e. less concentrated). Sweat is found at moderately acidic to neutral pH ... Diaphoresis due to ectopic catecholamine is a classic symptom of a pheochromocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal gland. ... and their fluidic transport to the skin surface. Dissolved in the water are trace amounts of minerals, lactic acid, and urea. ...
Approximately 20% of amphetamine circulating in the bloodstream is bound to plasma proteins. Following absorption, amphetamine ... since both MAOIs and amphetamine increase plasma catecholamines (i.e., norepinephrine and dopamine); therefore, concurrent use ... DHK-sensitive, EAAT2 uptake was not altered by AMPH (Figure 1A). The remaining glutamate transport in these midbrain cultures ... Despite the challenges in determining synaptic vesicle pH, the proton gradient across the vesicle membrane is of fundamental ...
What is Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins? Meaning of Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins medical ... What does Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins mean? ... Looking for online definition of Catecholamine plasma membrane ... transport proteins in the Medical Dictionary? Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins explanation free. ... Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins , definition of Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins by Medical ...
Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins / genetics * Cell Line, Tumor * Cell Survival / drug effects ...
... adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the presence or absence of a functional hamartin/tuberin (TSC1/TSC2 ... Animals, Azacitidine, Blotting, Western, Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins, Disease Models, Animal, Epigenesis, ... Organic Cation Transport Proteins, Organic Cation Transporter 2, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Signal ... adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the presence or absence of a functional hamartin/tuberin (TSC1/TSC2 ...
Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors. *Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/ ... α-PBP and α-PPP are also catecholamine transporter blockers but display reduced potency. All of the test drugs are locomotor ... Taken together, our findings represent the first evidence that second generation analogs of MDPV are catecholamine-selective ... Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins. *Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins. *Pyrrolidines. *RNA-Binding ...
Talk:Catecholamine plasma membrane transport protein. *Talk:Catecholamines. *Talk:Central venous catheterization ...
Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins .. Catecholamine Carrier .. Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transporter Proteins ... Transport Protein, Catecholamine .. Transporters, Catecholamine-Specific Neurotransmitter .. Catecholamine Plasma Membrane ... D12.776.157.530.562.374.500 Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins .. D12.776.543 Membrane Proteins .. D12.776. ... A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. ...
Elevated catecholamine levels were documented after 15 minutes whereas the pituitary gland hormones vasopressin and ... CONCLUSIONS In a simple, reproducible, and reliable animal model of BD, a catecholamine storm, vasopressin and ACTH cessation, ... Plasma concentrations of pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, and pancreatic hormones were measured pre/post BD. The results are ... Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins. Citations. Publications citing this paper.. Showing 1-4 of 4 extracted ...
... catecholamine explanation free. What is catecholamine? Meaning of catecholamine medical term. What does catecholamine mean? ... Looking for online definition of catecholamine in the Medical Dictionary? ... Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins. *Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins. *Catecholamine plasma ... Related to catecholamine: serotonin. catecholamine. [kat″ĕ-kol´ah-mēn″] any of a group of sympathomimetic amines (including ...
Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins Medicine & Life Sciences View full fingerprint Cite this. * APA ... Oocytes are a source of catecholamines in the primate ovary: Evidence for a cell-cell regulatory loop. Proceedings of the ... N2 - Catecholamines, thought to derive from the extrinsic innervation of the ovary, participate in the regulation of ovarian ... AB - Catecholamines, thought to derive from the extrinsic innervation of the ovary, participate in the regulation of ovarian ...
Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins Medicine & Life Sciences * Desipramine Medicine & Life Sciences ... Weinshenker D, White SS, Javors MA, Palmiter RD, Szot P. Regulation of norepinephrine transporter abundance by catecholamines ... There are some qualitative and quantitative differences in the down-regulation of the NET by catecholamine depletion and DMI ... Regulation of norepinephrine transporter abundance by catecholamines and desipramine in vivo. In: Brain Research. 2002 ; Vol. ...
Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics. *Cetuximab/administration & dosage. *Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics* ... ABCB1 protein, human. *ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B. *Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins ...
Parkinson Disease , Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins Neurobiology. CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Behavioral ... Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins , Neurophysiology and behavioral , Neuropharmacology , Cardiovascular , ... Lipid Metabolism Disorders , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters , Adrenoleukodystrophy , Protein Transport , Metabolic Diseases ... Molecular Sensory Physiology (retina) , Drugability of Protein Interactions in LTCCs , Channelopathies , Calcium Channels, L- ...
Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins - physiology , Animals , Drug Interactions - physiology , HEK293 Cells , ... Membrane Proteins - biosynthesis , Animals , Carrier Proteins - metabolism , In Situ Hybridization , Membrane Proteins - ... organic cation transport proteins - metabolism (830) 830 Filter by. Remove filter. organic cation transport proteins - genetics ... Organic Cation Transport Proteins - metabolism , Solvents - chemistry , Humans , Organic Cation Transport Proteins - chemistry ...
Most of these transport proteins are integral membrane proteins, which remain embedded in the plasma membrane and other ... "The role of neuronal and extraneuronal plasma membrane transporters in the inactivation of peripheral catecholamines," ... More specifically, plasma membrane of metazoan cells possesses multiple transport proteins, pump, channel, lysine symporter ... Thus, plasma membrane regulates the transport of molecules into and out of the cell by simple diffusion and active transport ( ...
In vivo, membranes probably contain a mixture of heteromeric potassium channel complexes, making it difficult to assign ... Plays a role in the regulation of resting membrane potential and contraction in hypoxia-treated pulmonary artery smooth muscle ... The channel alternates between opened and closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane. ... Promotes trafficking of KCNG3, KCNH1 and KCNH2 to the cell surface membrane, presumably by forming heterotetrameric channels ...
Increases membrane transport of amino acids, increases protein synthesis, and decreases protein catabolism --, stops amino acid ... Leads to opening of voltage-dependent calcium channels in the plasma membrane ... Release catecholamines. *Alloxan and streptozotocin *Used to create experimental diabetes in mice ... Increases the supply of amino acids available as substrates for gluconeogenesis by promoting protein breakdown, particularly in ...
Antonyms for Catecholamines. 9 words related to catecholamine: endocrine, hormone, internal secretion, noradrenaline, ... Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins. *Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins. *Catecholamine plasma ... These biomarkers are not prone to the fluctuations seen for catecholamines and can be measured in the form of plasma free MNs ... catecholamine. (redirected from Catecholamines). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. #vtZoom,.vt-link{ ...
Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins Depolarization Catecholamines Neurons Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase 18 Citations ( ... ERK 1/2 is a negative regulator of homeodomain protein Arix/Phox2a. Hsieh, M. M., Lupas, G., Rychlik, J., Dziennis, S., ... Measurement of plasma norepinephrine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol: Method development for a translational research study. ... Disrupting protein tyrosine phosphatase σ does not prevent sympathetic axonal dieback following myocardial infarction. Johnsen ...
... the three transport mechanisms have been traced to the proteins and their genes since 1990. They now comprise the plasma ... Membranes play a twofold role for catecholamines: catecholamines must pass through membranes and deliver their chemical message ... The β-adrenoceptor was the first G protein-coupled receptor the gene of which was cloned. Goal-directed catecholamine research ... With the reserpine-sensitive uptake from the cytoplasm into the storage vesicles there were thus three catecholamine membrane ...
This physical coupling facilitates the recruitment of intracellular DAT to the plasma membrane and leads to enhanced dopamine ... we report that the DAT is also regulated by the dopamine D2 receptor through a direct protein-protein interaction involving the ... Catecholamine. *Dopamine. *Transport. *Uptake. Get free article suggestions today. Mendeley saves you time finding and ...
... processed by the endosome system and then recycled back to the plasma membrane. This process involves G-protein linked and ... This is transported (~10 minutes) to the tubulovesicular endosome system. Here, the vesicle membrane fuses with the membrane of ... catecholamines at postsynaptic sites in the brain, the role of catecholamines as antioxidants (in particular in the case of ... Volatile anaesthetics selectively inhibit plasma membrane Ca2+-transport APTase by binding to lipophilic sites and changing ...
3.1 Lipophilic molecules that diffuse across the plasma membrane. *3.2 Lipophilic molecules that bind to cell-surface receptors ... Steroids are hydrophobic (water-fearing), so they are transported by carrier proteins, and are not rapidly degraded. Thus, ... The catecholamines, chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine, may act as neurohormones. The most abundant ... Lipophilic molecules that diffuse across the plasma membrane. Cholesterol is an important precursor of the steroid hormones, ...
... that the NKA α-subunit colocalizes with clathrin at the plasma membrane or in vesicles that are beneath the plasma membrane. ... as well as other forms of altered sodium transport, e.g., those engendered by catecholamines and other hormones. The latter are ... Elucidation of the mechanisms by which the traffic of ion transport proteins is regulated by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ... recruitment of adaptor proteins to the plasma membrane. Also, the interaction of clathrin adaptors with cargo molecules is ...
Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins / Tacrolimus Binding Proteins. (Link to Publication Site). ● Publication site (DOI ... Adult / Anxiety / Anxiety Disorders / Biological Markers / Catechol O-Methyltransferase / Catecholamines / Depression / ... FK506-binding protein gene), SERT (serotonin transporter gene) and COMT (catechol-o-methyltransferase gene) mRNA expressions in ...
... activity protein binding plasma membrane plasma membrane integral component of plasma membrane drug transmembrane transport ... 2002; Vialou et al., 2004; Sakata et al., 2010). SLC22A3 uptakes catecholamines and neurotoxic organic cations in glial cells ( ... activity protein binding plasma membrane plasma membrane integral component of plasma membrane drug transmembrane transport ... to be composed of 12 TMDs and both NH2 and COOH termini of the protein locate at the cytoplasmic site of the plasma membrane ( ...
Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins * Iodine Radioisotopes * Membrane Glycoproteins * Membrane Transport Proteins ... evidence that reactive oxygen species may be the main determining factors in the neurodegenerative effects of catecholamines. ...
Studies with Protein Kinase Inhibitors. Intrasynaptosomal Protein Phosphorylation and Its Inhibition by Plasma Membrane ... Autoregulation of Catecholamine Release at Central and Sympathetic Nerve Terminals: Common Features. Autoreceptor Mediated ... Sodium Dependent, High Affinity Choline Transport Expressed in Oocytes. Comparison of the Effects of Vesamicol and of Cetiedil ... Prejunctional Neuropeptide Y Receptors Are Linked to a G-Protein: A Study with N-Ethylmaleimide and Pertussis Toxin. Protein ...
Effects on proteins is accomplished by increasing amino acid transport across the cell membrane, increasing translation and ... A cell wall on the exterior of the plasma membrane which prevents the protoplast (the bacterial plasma membrane and everything ... Catecholamines - epinephrine and norepinephrine.. -> Stress hormones, contribute to fight or flight response with sympathetic ... a plasma protein) into thrombin. 3. Thrombin governs the polymerization of the plasma protein fibrinogen to fibrin threads that ...
Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins * cocaine receptor * Genes * Dopaminergic Neurons * Gene Order ... COUNTERREGULATION OF INSULINS ACTION BY CATECHOLAMINES. Simpson, I.. Project: Research project. Community Services Department ...
5. Mg2+ TRANSPORT ACROSS THE CELL PLASMA MEMBRANE Heretofore, the Mg2+ transporter(s) in the plasma membrane has(have) not been ... that permeate the cell plasma membrane and interact directly with protein kinase C (78). Accumulation of Mg2+ by phorbol ... 9. G Guideri: Catecholamine modulation of Mg2+ plasma levels in the rat. Arch Intern Pharmacodyn Therap 14, 122-125 (1992) 10. ... 5. Mg2+ transport across the cell plasma membrane 6. Physiological significance of Mg2+ changes within mitochondria 7. ...
  • The β-adrenoceptor was the first G protein-coupled receptor the gene of which was cloned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report that the DAT is also regulated by the dopamine D2 receptor through a direct protein-protein interaction involving the DAT amino‐terminus and the third intracellular loop of the D2 receptor. (mendeley.com)
  • increased Ins P 6 in response to G protein-coupled receptor signals blocks the recruitment of AP-2 and thereby clathrin-dependent endocytosis of NKA. (pnas.org)
  • Elucidation of the mechanisms by which the traffic of ion transport proteins is regulated by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signals is central to understanding pressure natriuresis, as well as other forms of altered sodium transport, e.g., those engendered by catecholamines and other hormones. (pnas.org)
  • SNARE (Soluble NSF Attachment protein Receptor) transmembrane domains catalyze lipid flipping as well as membrane fusion. (tcdb.org)
  • [1] [2] Hormones affect distant cells by binding to specific receptor proteins in the target cell resulting in a change in cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1971. Studies on the cholinergic receptor protein of Electrophorus electricus. (springer.com)
  • protein of PML glycine in many electrochemical MET, through a lethal export that proteins in receptor of a house immunity PML-RARA, interacts to Saturated specific bind( result et al. (evakoch.com)
  • Cassel D, Selinger Z. Mechanism of adenylate activation through the 13-adrenergic receptor: catecholamine-induced displacement of bound GDP by GTP. (springer.com)
  • The NSILA-s receptor in liver plasma membranes. (springer.com)
  • In the dual signaling mechanism of PST receptor, mostly PST activates Gαq /11 protein leads to the activation of phospholipase C β3-isoform, therefore increasing cytoplasmic free calcium and stimulating protein kinase C. PST inhibits the cell growth in rat HTC hepatoma cells, mediated by nitric oxide and cyclic GMP production. (physiology.org)
  • This enzyme is activated by an interaction between a specific hormone and its membrane receptor protein. (euvolution.com)
  • Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase. (drugbank.ca)
  • The present study investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signal transduction in the M 3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR)-stimulated increase in aquaporin-5 (AQP5) levels in the apical plasma membrane (APM) of rat parotid glands. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Aldo was shown by Edelman (4) to bind to a specific receptor and then be transported into the nucleus of aldo responsive cells and subsequently lead to the production of aldo-induced proteins. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Plasma catecholamines increased in permeability of human stratum corneum () and nonliquid receptor media. (euskalmusika.com)
  • This system of internal hormone secretion is subject to complex regulatory mechanisms that govern receptor activity and hormone synthesis, release, transport, metabolism, and delivery to the interior of the target cells. (doctorlib.info)
  • Hormones are released by endocrine glands and transported through the bloodstream to tissues where they bind to specific receptor molecules and regulate target tissue function (Chapter 3). (doctorlib.info)
  • As a variant of this mechanism, peptide hormones can remain in the membrane of one cell and interact with a receptor on a juxtaposed cell. (doctorlib.info)
  • The catecholamine messengers epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are synthesized from tyrosine by a common biosynthetic pathway. (bireme.br)
  • Oocytes contain neither TH mRNA nor protein, indicating that they are unable to synthesize dopamine (DA). (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, tyrosine hydroxylase knockout (Th -/-) mice that lack both NE and dopamine (DA) have reduced levels of NET, suggesting that it is down-regulated by a complete absence of catecholamines and not NE per se. (uthscsa.edu)
  • The catecholamines comprise the endogenous substances dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) as well as numerous artificially synthesized compounds such as isoprenaline. (wikipedia.org)
  • This physical coupling facilitates the recruitment of intracellular DAT to the plasma membrane and leads to enhanced dopamine reuptake. (mendeley.com)
  • Dopamine-induced inhibition of NKA activity and α-subunit endocytosis required the interaction of adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) with the catalytic α-subunit. (pnas.org)
  • Phosphorylation of the α-subunit is essential because dopamine failed to promote such interaction in cells lacking the protein kinase C phosphorylation residue (S18A). (pnas.org)
  • Confocal microscopy confirmed that oxymetazoline prevents incorporation of NKA molecules into clathrin vesicles by inhibiting the ability of dopamine to recruit clathrin to the plasma membrane. (pnas.org)
  • Organic cation transporter-3 and plasma membrane monoamine transporter, low affinity, and high capacity transporters, also potentially uptake dopamine when high-affinity transporters do not work normally. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, these studies could underestimate the complexities of DAT/dopamine interactions, because initial dopamine recognition is likely to be followed by a series of molecular events required for normal dopamine and ionic translocation by this complex protein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Dopamine is a member of the catecholamine family of neurotransmitters in the brain and is a precursor to epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). (hmdb.ca)
  • We sought to determine whether the reportedly greater diffusion of dopamine in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) as compared with the striatum is associated with a more restricted axonal distribution of the cortical DAT protein. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results suggest that considerable extracellular diffusion of dopamine in the prelimbic PFC may result, at least in part, from a paucity of DAT content in mesocortical dopamine axons, as well as a distribution of the DAT protein at a distance from synaptic release sites. (jneurosci.org)
  • The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a crucial protein in the regulation of dopamine transmission, serving to remove dopamine from the extracellular space after its release. (jneurosci.org)
  • suggest that this protein is perhaps the single most important determinant of the extraneuronal concentration and duration of dopamine. (jneurosci.org)
  • We sought to test the hypothesis that the neurochemical profile of dopamine overflow and diffusion in the rat prelimbic PFC is associated with a restricted distribution of the DAT protein within individual dopamine axons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Finally, as a positive procedural control, the distribution of immunoreactivity for DAT within the deep layers of the prelimbic PFC was compared in adjacent sections to the localization of another marker for dopamine axons, the catecholamine synthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, roles of various receptors, ATP powered pumps, channels, and transporters in transport of vital molecules in maintenance of homeostasis and normal body functions have been described in detail. (hindawi.com)
  • Inhibition of Na + ,K + -ATPase (NKA) activity in renal epithelial cells by activation of G protein-coupled receptors is mediated by phosphorylation of the catalytic α-subunit followed by endocytosis of active molecules. (pnas.org)
  • The next chapters are devoted to the molecular pharmacology of presynaptic receptors, of which can interfere with G proteins and modify the activity of adenylate cyclase, guanylate cyclase, or protein kinase C. The purification and molecular biology of transporter systems, including cloning and sequencing of the neuronal sodium-ion coupled GABA transporter are also discussed. (elsevier.com)
  • Yet only within the past decade has considerable progress been made in the identification and purification of a variety of membrane-localized hormone receptors. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, examples will deal only with several of the polypeptide hormones and with catecholamines and will thus omit a large body of work on cholinergic receptors and on membrane receptors for an enlarging number of polypeptide hormones and other compounds. (springer.com)
  • These G-protein coupled receptors activate phospholipase-C via Gq G-protein, which ultimately leads to an increase in intracellular calcium. (scribd.com)
  • These G-protein coupled receptors activate adenyl cyclase to increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate. (scribd.com)
  • Because these WGA receptors are commonly expressed on the plasma membrane surface of most types of neurons in the central nervous system, WGA has been used as an effective tracer for a variety of neural pathways. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This includes integral membrane proteins, that is, proteins that completely traverse the lipid bilayer sometimes more than once such as membrane receptors, as well as peripheral membrane proteins such as the guanosine-triphosphate (GTP) binding protein ("G-protein") subunits and cell-cell recognition molecules such as LFA-2 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen-2), which are only associated with the membrane and do not traverse it. (springer.com)
  • Raff MC, De Petris S. Movement of lymphocyte surface antigens and receptors: the fluid nature of the lymphocyte plasma membrane and its immunological significance. (springer.com)
  • Cuatrecasas P. Membrane receptors. (springer.com)
  • Membrane receptors for hormones and neurotransmitters. (springer.com)
  • Craig SW, Cuatrecasas P. Mobility of cholera toxin receptors on rat lymphocyte membranes. (springer.com)
  • Transported to distant targets ► Effective at very low concentration ► Bind to receptors (differing effects on some tissues) ► Hormone action must be of limited duration ► Some are stored, others are manufactured as needed. (coursehero.com)
  • In order to bind their receptors these hormones must cross the cell membrane. (wikidoc.org)
  • Larger (typically peptide/protein) molecules involved in signaling, do not readily cross the plasma membrane, and work through receptors at the cell surface. (seghea.com)
  • therefore, they cross cell membranes readily and bind to receptors found intracellularly. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Furthermore, thyroid hormones cross cell membranes to bind with intracellular receptors and may be administered orally (e.g., synthryoid). (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Because these hormones do not cross cell membranes, they bind to receptors on the membrane surface. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Several others have reported stimulating effects of low concentrations of cardiac glycosides on active Na/K transport in multicellular cardiac preparations, and also in the squid axon, it was noted that the inhibitory effect of ouabain on 22 Na efflux was preceded by an up to 20% stimulation possibly related to the low occupancy of the receptors in the early phase of exposure ( Baker and Willis, 1972 ). (rupress.org)
  • Plasma concentrations of pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, and pancreatic hormones were measured pre/post BD. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Measuring the hormones of stress response including cortisol levels and catecholamines has been done for a number of years in research circles and is becoming more common in clinical practice. (freethesaurus.com)
  • steroid hormones , being lipid-soluble, move through the plasma membranes of target cells (both cytoplasmic and nuclear ) to act within their nuclei . (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon secretion, certain hormones, including protein hormones and catecholamines, are water-soluble and are thus readily transported through the circulatory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • to allow for their widespread distribution, these hormones must bond to carrier plasma glycoproteins (e.g., thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)) to form ligand -protein complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones exit their cell of origin via exocytosis or another means of membrane transport . (wikipedia.org)
  • Derived from embryonic postganglionic sympathetic neurons, the adrenal medulla secretes catecholamine hormones-epinephrine and (to a lesser degree) norepinephrine. (euvolution.com)
  • Peptide (Protein) Hormones 1. (coursehero.com)
  • Peptide (Protein) Hormones ► Synthesis as preprohormone → post-translational modification to prohormone → then hormone ► Storage - release? (coursehero.com)
  • Steroid Hormones ► ► Only gonads, adrenals, placenta Derived from cholesterol (lipophilic) Cross membranes (no storage) ► ► SER, on-demand synthesis Usually Bound to Carrier proteins May extend t½ May block entry to target cell ► Activity is intracellular Next slide Steroid Hormone Mechanism of Steroid Hormone Mechanism of Action Lipophilic when unbound Cross membranes New DNA Replication De novo synthesis or response 3. (coursehero.com)
  • 2 neurohormones ► Both are peptides (9 aa) transported in secretory vesicles via axonal transport Fig 7-12 Anterior Pituitary Anterior Pituitary ► Secretes 6 Hormones (names? (coursehero.com)
  • While insulin is certainly a powerful modulator of plasma glucose levels, one must also consider several other hormones that exert the opposite physiological effects as insulin. (ericcressey.com)
  • Knowledge of these hormones - glucagon, growth hormone, cortisol, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine - is an important prerequisite to comprehending the insulin response to exercise. (ericcressey.com)
  • Basically hormones are divided into steroids (cholesterol derived proteins), peptides, and amines (Table 33.1). (hellonursing.info)
  • However, because their lipid solubility renders them insoluble in blood, these hormones are transported in the blood bound to proteins. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Protein/peptide hormones are derived from amino acids. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • These hormones are preformed and stored for future use in membrane-bound secretory granules. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Protein/peptide hormones are water soluble, circulate in the blood predominantly in an unbound form, and thus tend to have short half-lives. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Protein/peptide hormones cannot be administered orally because they would be digested in the gastrointestinal tract. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Amine hormones include the thyroid hormones and the catecholamines. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • The catecholamines are biologically similar to protein/peptide hormones. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • These hormones are soluble in the blood and are transported in an unbound form. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Polypeptide hormones are direct translation products of specific mRNAs, cleavage products of larger precursor proteins, or modified peptides. (doctorlib.info)
  • Catecholamines and thyroid hormones are amino acid derivatives. (doctorlib.info)
  • eicosanoids , steroids , and amino acid / protein derivatives ( amines , peptides , and proteins ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptides and proteins 2. (coursehero.com)
  • Synthesis, transport and storage take 1-2 hours. (scribd.com)
  • Magnesium is involved in nearly every aspect of biochemical metabolism (eg, DNA and protein synthesis, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation). (medscape.com)
  • In addition to promoting glucose uptake, insulin regulates long-chain fatty acid uptake, protein synthesis, and vascular function in the normal cardiovascular system. (ahajournals.org)
  • By Western blot, a tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme of the catecholamine synthesis) immunoreactive protein species was demonstrated in isolated mucosal cells, comigrating with the TH immunoreactivity from PC12 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • 1. Most common Steroids Amines Eicosanoids Differ on basis of synthesis, storage, release, transport and cellular mechanism of action (review Table 7-1) 1. (coursehero.com)
  • Although the hormone does play a role in promoting protein synthesis, this effect is largely dependent on amino acid availability (7-9). (ericcressey.com)
  • Some studies have noted that insulin elevations without concurrent increases in amino acid availability actually decrease protein synthesis as a result of low plasma amino acid concentrations (10,11). (ericcressey.com)
  • Conversely, dietary amino acids exert their most prominent effect on optimizing protein synthesis rather than reducing protein breakdown (7,8,12). (ericcressey.com)
  • They include stimulation of glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and protein degradation with concurrent inhibition of protein synthesis (13,14). (ericcressey.com)
  • In addition, the synthesis of catecholamines is increased as well as the sensitivity of the cardiovascular system to them. (vin.com)
  • Insulin promotes the storage of energy, the synthesis of glycogen, mRNA and proteins. (zuniv.net)
  • It is known that hypoxia is associated with disturbances of ATP synthesis resulting from depressed functions of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation in the respiratory chain. (scirp.org)
  • Lipolysis, lipid oxidation, ketone body synthesis, tailored endogenous glucose production and uptake, and decreased glucose oxidation serve to protect against excessive erosion of protein mass, which is the predominant supplier of carbon chains for synthesis of newly formed glucose. (physiology.org)
  • These processes are crucial for survival and serve to protect the organism from excessive erosion of protein mass, which is the predominant supplier of carbon chains that can be used for synthesis of newly formed glucose ( 14 , 26 , 87 , 99 ). (physiology.org)
  • Some catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) are produced naturally by the body and function as key neurologic chemicals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recent studies suggest that metformin attenuates mTORC1 signalling by the activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the presence or absence of a functional hamartin/tuberin (TSC1/TSC2) complex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • SLC22A3 also contains putative phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C (Ser-286, Thr-292 and Thr-459) and protein kinase A (Thr-346 and Thr-544) (Kekuda et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • This production is regulated at the transcriptional level by a rapid activation of the enhancer elements NF-κB ( 3 ) and AP-1, through interactions with the protein kinases IκB kinase complex (IKK), 3 and c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK), respectively ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • PST actions on hepatocytes and adipocytes were mediated by protein kinase C (PKC) activation ( 24 , 57 ). (physiology.org)
  • Metformin, a drug widely used to treat type 2 diabetes, was recently shown to activate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in intact cells and in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the downstream component of a protein kinase cascade that acts as a sensor of cellular energy charge ( 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • They proposed that it might act by stimulating phosphorylation of AMPK by upstream kinase(s) or by inhibiting dephosphorylation by protein phosphatases. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 6 In saponin skinned muscles, the pCa‐tension relationship in the presence of cyclic AMP and cyclic AMP‐dependent protein kinase (cyclic AMP‐PK) shifted to the right and to a lower level in comparison with the control. (deepdyve.com)
  • Forskolin or the stress mediator epinephrine further elevates cAMP in SS RBCs and increases adhesion of SS RBCs to laminin in a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner, with the low-density population being the most responsive. (bloodjournal.org)
  • active transport The movement of molecules or ions across the cell membranes of epithelial cells by membrane carriers. (euvolution.com)
  • monosaccharides by enzymes in plasma membranes of small intestine epithelial cells. (cram.com)
  • The sugars will be transported by the cytoskeleton through the epithelial cells and released in the connective matrix of the lamina basalis, as the concentrations will rapidly increase, diffusion towards the capillaries follows automatically. (fichier-pdf.fr)
  • Cell surface proteins that bind catecholamines with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. (bireme.br)
  • Two mechanisms contribute to the regulation of the Na,K-ATPase activity:recruitment of its subunits from intracellular compartments into the basolateral membrane, and transcriptional/translational regulation. (rmmj.org.il)
  • Magnesium ions also may interfere with the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. (medscape.com)
  • Ex: Preganglionic sympathetic nervous system (SNS) fibers stimulate the adrenal medulla to secrete catecholamines. (amazonaws.com)
  • Recently, intraovarian neurons containing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, were described in the ovary of nonhuman primates. (elsevier.com)
  • It is bound to a carrier protein, neurohypophysin, and transported along the supraoptic hypophyseal tract to the axonal terminals of magnocellular neurons located in the posterior pituitary. (scribd.com)
  • WGA is efficiently taken up into neurons by endocytosis and is transported to axons and dendrites in both the anterograde and retrograde directions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Injection of WGA in well-mapped neural pathways has shown that labeling occurs in both first- and second-order neurons and their processes, indicating that WGA is trans-neuronally transported. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • acetylcholine (ACh) (ua-setl-kol=en) An acetic acid ester of choline-a substance that functions as a neurotransmitter in somatic motor nerve and parasympathetic nerve fibers. (euvolution.com)
  • As we know, the visceral fat tissues have more TNF[alpha] expression and more sensitive to catecholamines than subcutaneous fat tissues (Amer 1999), which leads to more FFA efflux to the portal venous system and directly provides a substrate for hepatic lipoprotein metabolism or glucose production. (freethesaurus.com)
  • The chemical structure of thyroxine , a hormone that stimulates the breakdown of glucose, fats, and proteins. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • PST regulates glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism in liver and adipose tissues. (physiology.org)
  • Maintenance of plasma glucose concentrations is of paramount importance to optimal functioning of muscles and the central nervous system. (ericcressey.com)
  • by combining the ingestion of glucose with fructose, both transport pathways are utilised, which increases the total capacity for carbohydrate absorption. (mdpi.com)
  • Active sodium and glucose cotransport by the SGLT1 transporter in the enterocyte brush border membrane and extrusion of sodium and glucose across the basolateral membrane stimulate water and solute absorption through both transcellular and paracellular routes. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Having a glomerular filtration rate of 180 liters per day, it filters approximately 180 grams of glucose per day, bringing its contribution in maintaining normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels [2]. (amazonaws.com)
  • Homeostatic mechanisms maintain the plasma [glucose] within narrow limits in healthy humans, so that the energy needs during the postabsorptive state can be met by stored fuel. (zuniv.net)
  • the glucose becomes membrane permeable again). (fichier-pdf.fr)
  • glucose moves through the cell membrane) And the Daltons run off because the world is so big, away from prison (glucose does this because when glucagons comes around it means that the glucose levels in the blood are running low, thus concentration difference and electrochemical potential difference) The Daltons run away on the roads and then hide in the countryside. (fichier-pdf.fr)
  • Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling. (bireme.br)
  • Without further ado, I present "the insulin response to exercise: carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism implications. (ericcressey.com)
  • The response of insulin to these demands has far-reaching implications in terms of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. (ericcressey.com)
  • In terms of protein metabolism, insulin's foremost role is inhibition of protein breakdown. (ericcressey.com)
  • It also affects lipid metabolism, lowering plasma triglycerides ( 4 ), and free fatty acids ( 5 ), the latter possibly due to inhibition of catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Pyrimidine metabolism along with purine pathway fulfills a variety of functions in the metabolism of the cell of which the most important are regulation of energy conservation and transport, formation of coenzymes and of active intermediates of phospholipid and carbohydrate metabolism ( GENNIP, 1999 ). (ukessays.com)
  • 1998). The protein is predicted to be composed of 12 TMDs and both NH2 and COOH termini of the protein locate at the cytoplasmic site of the plasma membrane (Kekuda et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The presence of OAs in cytoplasmic half (P face) of frozen cleaved biological plasma membranes has been described in different cell types of different species and different organs and tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • A hormone (from the Greek participle " ὁρμῶν ", "setting in motion") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behavior . (wikipedia.org)
  • Vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone is a potent endogenous hormone, which is responsible for regulating plasma osmolality and volume. (scribd.com)
  • Title: The SNARE Protein Syntaxin-1a Plays an Essential Role in Biphasic Exocytosis of the Incretin Hormone Glucagon-Like Peptide 1. (nih.gov)
  • Classically defined, a hormone is a substance that is synthesized in one organ and transported by the circulatory system to act on another tissue. (wordpress.com)
  • More specifically, the endothelial cells also possess transporters which show permeability characteristics and allow transport of oxygen and CO 2 across the BBB, bu these selectively prevent other substances from crossing [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Grow by incorporating lipids and proteins from the cytosol. (brainscape.com)
  • This traditional definition has been expanded to include similar regulatory molecules that are distributed by diffusion across cell membranes instead of by a circulatory system . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Irregular shaped area inside a prokaryotic cell formed from the genetic material (DNA, RNA and protein complex) and serves as a nucleus. (brainscape.com)
  • Compelling evidence now suggests that large fluxes of Mg 2+ can cross the cell plasma membrane in either direction following a variety of hormonal and non-hormonal stimuli, resulting in major changes in total and, to a lesser extent, free Mg 2+ content within tissues, and in a marked variation in the opposite direction of circulating Mg 2+ level. (bioscience.org)
  • Fusion of a vesicle with the cell membrane opens a pore that releases neurotransmitters to the extracellular space. (tcdb.org)
  • Since the earliest pharmacological studies, the cell membrane has been considered a likely site of drug interaction (Clark, 1933). (springer.com)
  • To overcome these problems, genetic approaches have been developed that introduce tracer proteins as transgenes under the control of cell-type-specific promoter elements for visualization of specific neuronal pathways. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The fluid mosaic model of the structure of cell membranes. (springer.com)
  • Impairment of insulin binding to the fat cell membrane in the obese hypoglycemic mouse. (springer.com)
  • Water channel proteins named aquaporins (AQPs) have been found in the cell membranes of these organisms. (hindawi.com)
  • In mammals, they have been identified in cell membranes such as in epithelial and endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • adenylate cyclase (ua-denl-it sikl=as) An enzyme found in cell membranes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP and pyrophosphate (PP1). (euvolution.com)
  • Ambulatory refers to a process that involves the administration of h k atpase basolateral cell membranes honig and hume these dyes have been a fall from the mixture commercial pharmacia biotech nick sephadex column hybridization buffer formamide ml formamide m nacl ml m nacl. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • Pass through the cell membrane. (scribd.com)
  • Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8). (cellsignal.com)
  • Hemorrhagic pneumonia, however, which the cilia of the cell membrane. (19box.me)
  • In addition, plasma levels of laminin are elevated in sickle cell disease, 4 suggesting that laminin may be deposited on the surface of the endothelium where it could also serve as an adhesive substrate. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The same carrier protein called b cell recognizes the antigen from fetal blood (fig. Food is not uniformly enhance penetration into the outer portion constituting cialis of control and social behavior and your regular fasting schedule. (euskalmusika.com)
  • Glycerophosphocholine metabolite are involved in cell signaling and membrane integrity of the cell and serine is the precursor for choline and acetylcholine biosynthesis which is required in the brain and therefore any damage of the cell membrane can affect glycerophospholipids metabolites pathway and its concentration. (ukessays.com)
  • They are also principally, involved in cell signaling, integrity and stability of the cell membrane as well as fuel or energy storage and energy source in cells. (ukessays.com)
  • It is of great importance for cell membrane structure and function in vertebrates. (avsabonline.org)
  • One can compare it to the Daltons in the Lucky Luke comic: as soon as the Daltons enter in the prison (liver parenchym cell), they get around their ankle (6th Carbon atom) a chain with a big and heavy metal ball (phosphate group) which withholds them of climbing over the prison wall (the cell membrane). (fichier-pdf.fr)
  • E-spun composite fibers of collagen and dragline silk protein: fiber mechanics, biocompatibility, and application in stem cell differentiation. (usu.edu)
  • This role is determined primarily by the trigger function of mitochondria in the cell, the function of a self-regulating biological machine that uses oxygen for generation of energy in the form of ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential. (scirp.org)
  • However, excessive production can damage lipids, proteins and DNA and compromise cell function leading to cell death by necrosis or apoptosis. (slideshare.net)
  • The idea that proteins float freely within the lipid bilayer of biological membranes gained initial impetus through the formulation of the "fluid mosaic" model in the early 1970s. (springer.com)
  • 1 Based on electron microscopy and freeze-fracture analysis as well as a number of other studies, the structure of biological membranes was purported to be and is still believed to be as shown in Figure 1.1: "dissolved" proteins float within the "sea" of membrane lipid. (springer.com)
  • Gitler C. Plasticity of biological membranes. (springer.com)
  • Freeze-fracture electron microscopy enabled us to observe the molecular architecture of the biological membranes. (hindawi.com)
  • We have previously investigated possible mechanisms by which GPCRs regulate NKA activity in epithelia ( 10 ) and found that inhibition was associated with removal of active molecules from the plasma membrane in renal tubule cells ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Low doses of vasopressin can restore vasomotor tone in conditions that are resistant to catecholamines, with preservation of renal blood flow and urine output. (scribd.com)
  • which are inserted into the apical membrane of the renal collecting duct cells and endothelial cells. (scribd.com)
  • Treatment of HBP is usually directed at the cause of the HBP if it is known, for example, removal of tumors releasing catecholamines and correcting renal artery stenosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Catecholamines have a very short half-life and are metabolized through captation, enzymatic inactivation, or renal excretion. (hellonursing.info)
  • Body weight, blood pressure, metabolic parameters, urine catecholamines and cortisol, antioxidant status and lymphocyte subsets were measured after each period. (freethesaurus.com)
  • With the help of genetic engineering, cells are manipulated in such a way that they produce therapeutic proteins such as insulin and vaccines. (fh-campuswien.ac.at)
  • Major role of integral membrane proteins, carriers, or transporters in drug transport is highlighted. (hindawi.com)
  • Organic transporters have been included into the family of solute carrier proteins due to their homologies and third member of this family which was previously called organic cation transporter 3, OCT3, and the extraneuronal monoamine transporter, EMT, renamed as SLC22A3 (Verhaagh et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Although the involvement of transporters in NE and 5HT clearance has been clear for several decades ( 30 ), progress in understanding transporter structure and regulation has been limited, largely due to difficulties associated with transporter protein purification. (acnp.org)
  • Hippocampal asymmetry in expression of catecholamine synthesizing enzyme and transporters in socially isolated rats. (nel.edu)
  • Spasojevic N, Stanisavljevic D, Gavrilovic L, Jovanovic P, Cucakovic A, Dronjak S. Hippocampal asymmetry in expression of catecholamine synthesizing enzyme and transporters in socially isolated rats. (nel.edu)
  • Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. (hindawi.com)
  • This list covers carrier proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hCHGA gene is located on chromosome 14q32.12, which spans 12,192 bp and gives rise to a transcript of 2,041 bp that encodes a 439-amino acid (aa) mature protein ( 85 ). (physiology.org)
  • Finally, transmitter can be recycled for another round of release once it is transported back across the presynaptic membrane and into synaptic vesicles. (acnp.org)
  • Title: Early Golgi Abnormalities and Neurodegeneration upon Loss of Presynaptic Proteins Munc18-1, Syntaxin-1, or SNAP-25. (nih.gov)
  • Myosin II has been shown to participate in the transport of vesicles, and in the final phases of exocytosis, it affects the kinetics of catecholamine release in adrenal chromaffin cells. (tcdb.org)
  • Giant cystic pheochromocytoma containing high concentrations of catecholamines and metanephrines. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Hence, stimulation of active Na/K transport arising from an increased population of Na/K pump seems to be an unlikely response to low concentrations of cardiac glycosides in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Present review paper highlights role of BBB in endothelial transport of various substances into the brain. (hindawi.com)
  • Many substances (neurotransmitters, proteins, complex carbohydrates, small molecules such as ATP) in eukaryotes are sequestered in vesicles which then fuse with the plasma membrane releasing to the extracellular medium the intravesicular contents. (tcdb.org)
  • Magnesium has been proposed as an endogenous endocrine modulator of the catecholamine component of the physiologic stress response. (medscape.com)
  • chromogranin a (chga) is a uniquely acidic, heat-stable and soluble protein that is ubiquitous in secretory cells of the nervous, endocrine, and immune system ( 31 , 90 ). (physiology.org)
  • Reabsorption is a two-step process: first, sodium enters via sodium-permeable channels in the apical membranes of alveolar type 1 and 2 cells followed by active extrusion of sodium into the interstitium by the basolateral Na + , K + -ATPase. (frontiersin.org)
  • This Na + transport across the alveolar epithelium is mostly effected via apical Na + and chloride channels and basolateral Na,K-ATPase. (rmmj.org.il)
  • A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. (bireme.br)
  • Enzyme and membrane conformation in biochemical control. (springer.com)
  • acetylcholinesterase (ua-setl-kolu1-nestue-r=as) An enzyme in the membrane of postsynaptic cells that catalyzes the conversion of ACh into choline and acetic acid. (euvolution.com)
  • In vivo, membranes probably contain a mixture of heteromeric potassium channel complexes, making it difficult to assign currents observed in intact tissues to any particular potassium channel family member. (uniprot.org)
  • Several aquaporins (AQPs), which form water channels that selectively transport water across the plasma membrane, have been cloned from a variety of mammalian tissues ( King and Agre, 1996 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Catecholamines, thought to derive from the extrinsic innervation of the ovary, participate in the regulation of ovarian development and mature gonadal function. (elsevier.com)
  • There are some qualitative and quantitative differences in the down-regulation of the NET by catecholamine depletion and DMI treatment, suggesting that different mechanisms may be involved. (uthscsa.edu)
  • In the present study, we evaluated whether agonists that counteract inhibitory effects on NKA activity do so by preventing α-subunit phosphorylation (or promoting its dephosphorylation through the action of protein phosphatases), or by regulation of other targets responsible for NKA endocytosis. (pnas.org)
  • Below we review our present understanding of NE and 5HT transport and the new insights achieved from molecular cloning and regulation studies. (acnp.org)
  • Taken together, our findings represent the first evidence that second generation analogs of MDPV are catecholamine-selective uptake blockers which may pose risk for addiction and adverse effects in human users. (nih.gov)
  • Indeed, it now appears that, unlike previous suggestions, most (if not all) antagonists block uptake by binding directly to the transporter protein. (acnp.org)
  • Voltage-gated potassium channel that mediates transmembrane potassium transport in excitable membranes, primarily in the brain, but also in the pancreas and cardiovascular system. (uniprot.org)
  • 2013 ) provided evidence that the transmembrane domains of SNARES are not required for membrane fusion. (tcdb.org)
  • The SNARE complex, which in mammalian neurosecretory cells is composed of the proteins synaptobrevin 2 (also called VAMP2), syntaxin, and SNAP-25, plays a key role in vesicle fusion.At least in neurosecretory cells, fusion pore formation may be directly accomplished by conformational changes in the SNARE complex via movement of the transmembrane domains ( Fang and Lindau 2014 ). (tcdb.org)
  • However, the other regulator of the thickness of the alveolar fluid layer is the active transport of Na + , followed by potential-driven anion movement through cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, and the aquaporin-mediated transport of water. (frontiersin.org)
  • Langer and Langosch ( 2011 ) have shown that lipid flippase activity is not essential for membrane fusion. (tcdb.org)
  • We are that its lipid-linked download the senses of walden an expanded edition 1992, the various histone lipid, can play generated, signaling the antiviral transport of support pumps into mannosyl-oligosaccharide. (evakoch.com)
  • Furthermore, the availability of transporter-specific antibodies and nucleic acid probes has renewed interest in the endogenous control mechanisms acutely regulating NE and 5HT transport in vivo and whether chronic alterations in NET and SERT genes underlie neuropsychiatric disorders. (acnp.org)
  • Makes the membrane selectively permeable because it is able to select between molecules of similar size and charge. (brainscape.com)
  • absorption (ab-sorpshun) The transport of molecules across epithelial membranes into the body fluids. (euvolution.com)
  • And the protein layers of the phospholipid molecules. (euskalmusika.com)
  • axis of the damaging release of manner may be p66 biosynthesis with the protein recognition( Shenoy et al. (evakoch.com)
  • For other protein-related codes, see List of MeSH codes (D12.776). (wikipedia.org)
  • The WGA protein is a small 18-kD cysteine-rich lectin that binds to N-acetylglucosamine and sialic acid carbohydrate moieties found on glycoproteins and glycolipids. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This interdisciplinary communication could lead to interesting new developments in these diverse fields (e.g., concerning the role of redox reactions at the glutamate synapse, the role of endocytosis in postsynaptic functions, the role of dismuting catecholamine-iron complexes in the brain, etc. (bio.net)
  • The Na + ,K + -ATPase (NKA) activity in polarized epithelia provides the motive force for vectorial transport of sodium ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Evidence that the gene encodes a highly conserved copper-transporting adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) has stimulated investigation of the molecule's normal function in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. (medscape.com)
  • Digitalis glycosides are major tools for the identification of the Na/K ATPase as well as the Na/K fluxes mediated by this transport system. (rupress.org)
  • The membrane and Presentation of region throughout the gamma of a maintenance may determine known by signaling for numerous alternative that is liver in ligand living. (evakoch.com)
  • Like metformin, it also decreases plasma triglycerides and free fatty acids in vivo ( 18 ) and inhibits catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in rat adipocytes ( 12 , 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It has also been reported that these altered responses depend on a series of adaptations that increase the abundance of a multitude of proteins and protein isoforms that are involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), substrate availability, and metabolic by-product management. (physiology.org)
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as catecholamines and derivatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • Catecholamines and derivatives are compounds containing 4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol [4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol] or a derivative thereof formed by substitution. (hmdb.ca)
  • Antidepressants and cocaine share the ability to alter neuronal signaling by blocking NE and 5HT transport. (acnp.org)