A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to the 5-position of CYTOSINE residues in DNA.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC
2- or 4-Hydroxyestrogens. Substances that are physiologically active in mammals, especially in the control of gonadotropin secretion. Physiological activity can be ascribed to either an estrogenic action or interaction with the catecholaminergic system.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC and EC
An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC
Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of amino acids after their incorporation into a polypeptide chain. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine acts as the methylating agent. EC 2.1.1.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine residues in proteins to yield epsilon mono-, di-, and trimethyllysine. EC
Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.
Enzymes that catalyze the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation of ribonucleotide bases within a transfer RNA molecule. EC 2.1.1.
Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of arginine residues of proteins to yield N-mono- and N,N-dimethylarginine. This enzyme is found in many organs, primarily brain and spleen.
Methylases that are specific for CYTOSINE residues found on DNA.
A PROTEIN O-METHYLTRANSFERASE that recognizes and catalyzes the methyl esterification of ISOASPARTIC ACID and D-ASPARTIC ACID residues in peptides and proteins. It initiates the repair of proteins damaged by the spontaneous decomposition of normal L-aspartic acid and L-asparagine residues.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They are responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern, on either adenine or cytosine residues, in a specific short base sequence in the host cell's own DNA. This methylated sequence will occur many times in the host-cell DNA and remain intact for the lifetime of the cell. Any DNA from another species which gains entry into a living cell and lacks the characteristic methylation pattern will be recognized by the restriction endonucleases of similar specificity and destroyed by cleavage. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to free carboxyl groups of a protein molecule forming methyl esters. EC 2.1.1.-.
An enzyme that catalyzes the METHYLATION of phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine to produce phosphatidyl-N-dimethylethanolamine. This enzyme can also methylate phosphatidyl-N-dimethylethanolamine to produce phosphatidyl-N-trimethylethanolamine (PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE).
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.
A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.
An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
This enzyme catalyzes the last step of CREATINE biosynthesis by catalyzing the METHYLATION of guanidinoacetate to CREATINE.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex that catalyzes the METHYLATION of chromosomal HISTONE H3. It works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 1 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.
An estrogenic steroid produced by HORSES. It has a total of five double bonds in the A- and B-ring. High concentration of equilenin is found in the URINE of pregnant mares.
Cyclic TETRAPYRROLES based on the corrin skeleton.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
Myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is a transcription factor that maintains high levels of HOMEOTIC GENE expression during development. The GENE for myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is commonly disrupted in LEUKEMIA and combines with over 40 partner genes to form FUSION ONCOGENE PROTEINS.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A widely used industrial solvent.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
An ASPARTIC ACID residue in polypeptide chains that is linked at the beta-carboxyl group instead of at the normal, alpha-carboxyl group, polypeptide linkage. It is a result of the spontaneous decomposition of aspartic acid or ASPARAGINE residues.
Estrone derivatives substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position. They are important metabolites of estrone and other estrogens.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.
Systems consisting of two enzymes, a modification methylase and a restriction endonuclease. They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. The methylase adds methyl groups to adenine or cytosine residues in the same target sequence that constitutes the restriction enzyme binding site. The methylation renders the target site resistant to restriction, thereby protecting DNA against cleavage.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
An enzyme that catalyzes the demethylation of L-homocysteine to L-METHIONINE.
A genus of coccoid bacteria in the family PLANOCOCCACEAE. They are widely distributed in various habitats including sea water, freshwater ponds, cyanobacterial mats, and in marine animals.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A vitamin found in green vegetables. It is used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, colitis, and gastritis and has an effect on secretory, acid-forming, and enzymatic functions of the intestinal tract.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to histamine, forming N-methylhistamine, the major metabolite of histamine in man. EC
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Nucleosides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
A species of gram-negative hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in deep ocean hydrothermal vents. It is an obligate anaerobe and obligate chemoorganotroph.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, which is found in SOIL and WATER.
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Pigment obtained by the oxidation of epinephrine.
Salts and esters of gentisic acid.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
An enzyme that catalyzes the METHYLATION of GLYCINE using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to form SARCOSINE with the concomitant production of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE.
The small subunit of eubacterial RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 23 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A methylated metabolite of norepinephrine that is excreted in the urine and found in certain tissues. It is a marker for tumors.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A genus in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, comprised of many species. They are associated with a variety of infections including MENINGITIS; PERITONITIS; and URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of methionine by transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. The enzyme can act on mono- or triglutamate derivatives. EC
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Analogs of RNA cap compounds which do not have a positive charge. These compounds inhibit the initiation of translation of both capped and uncapped messenger RNA.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
Drug metabolizing enzymes which oxidize methyl ethers. Usually found in liver microsomes.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Although considered to be normally nonpathogenic, this bacterium is a causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in debilitated individuals.

In vivo effects of new inhibitors of catechol-O-methyl transferase. (1/735)

1. The effects of two new synthetic compounds showing in vitro catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor properties were studied in vivo and compared with the effects of nitecapone and Ro-41-0960. 2. QO IA (3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-5-nitrobenzylidene)-2,4-pentanedione), QO IIR ([2-(3,4-dihydroxy-2-nitrophenyl)vinyl]phenyl ketone), nitecapone and Ro-41-0960 (30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) were given to reserpinized rats 1 h before the administration of L-DOPA/carbidopa (LD/CD, 50:50 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Locomotor activity was assessed 1 h later. All the COMT inhibitors (COMTI), with the exception of QO IA, markedly potentiated LD/CD reversal of reserpine-induced akinesia. Similar results were obtained when the COMTI were coadministered with LD/CD. The effect of compound QO IIR was dose-dependent (7.5-30 mg kg(-1), i.p.). 3. The COMTI (30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) potentiated LD/CD reversal of both catalepsy and hypothermia of reserpinized mice. 4. QO IIR, nitecapone and Ro-41-0960 (30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) reduced striatal 3-methyl-DOPA (3-OMD) levels and increased dopamine (DA) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels. Compound QO IA was devoid of any effect on striatal amine levels. In contrast to the other inhibitors, Ro-41-0961 reduced HVA levels as well. The effect of QO IIR on striatal amine levels was dose-dependent (7.5-60 mg kg(-1), i.p.) 5. These results suggest that the new compound QO IIR is an effective peripherally acting COMT inhibitor in vivo.  (+info)

Dehydrodicaffeic acid dilactone, an inhibitor of catechol-O-methyl transferase. (2/735)

In the screening of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors, three compounds were isolated from the culture filtrate of a mushroom, Inonotus sp. One was 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid (caffeic acid) which had been reported as an inhibitor of this enzyme. The others were the dextrorotatory 2,6-bis-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo-[3,3,0]-octane 4,8-dione (dehydrodicaffeic acid dilactone) andits antipode. These new compounds inhibited both dopamine beta-hydroxylase and dopa decarboxylase and showed hypotensive activity in the SH rat.  (+info)

Characterization and implications of estrogenic down-regulation of human catechol-O-methyltransferase gene transcription. (3/735)

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, EC is a ubiquitous enzyme that is crucial to the metabolism of carcinogenic catechols and catecholamines. Regulation of human COMT gene expression may be important in the pathophysiology of various human disorders including estrogen-induced cancers, Parkinson's disease, depression, and hypertension. The gender difference in human COMT activity and variations in rat COMT activity during the estrous cycle led us to explore whether estrogen can regulate human COMT gene transcription. Our Northern analyses showed that physiological concentrations of 17-beta-estradiol (10(-9)-10(-7) M) could decrease human 1. 3-kilobase COMT mRNA levels in MCF-7 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner through an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism. Two DNA fragments immediately 5' to the published human COMT gene proximal and distal promoters were cloned. Sequence analyses revealed several half-palindromic estrogen response elements and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein sites. By cotransfecting COMT promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter genes with human estrogen receptor cDNA and pSV-beta-galactosidase plasmids into COS-7 cells, we showed that 17-beta-estradiol could down-regulate chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activities, and COMT promoter activities dose-dependently. Functional deletion analyses of COMT promoters also showed that this estrogenic effect was mediated by a 280 base pair fragment with two putative half-palindromic estrogen response elements in the proximal promoter and a 323-base pair fragment with two putative CCAAT/enhancer binding protein sites in the distal promoter. Our findings provide the first evidence and molecular mechanism for estrogen to inhibit COMT gene transcription, which may shed new insight into the role of estrogen in the pathophysiology of different human disorders.  (+info)

Interactions of (-)-ilimaquinone with methylation enzymes: implications for vesicular-mediated secretion. (4/735)

BACKGROUND: The marine sponge metabolite (-)-ilimaquinone has antimicrobial, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory and antimitotic activities, inhibits the cytotoxicity of ricin and diptheria toxin, and selectively fragments the Golgi apparatus. The range of activities demonstrated by this natural product provides a unique opportunity for studying these cellular processes. RESULTS: Affinity chromatography experiments show that (-)-ilimaquinone interacts with enzymes of the activated methyl cycle: S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, S-adenosylhomocysteinase and methyl transferases. Known inhibitors of these enzymes were found to block vesicle-mediated secretion in a manner similar to (-)-ilimaquinone. Moreover, the antisecretory effects of (-)-ilimaquinone and inhibitors of methylation chemistry, but not brefeldin A, could be reversed in the presence of the cellular methylating agent S-adenosylmethionine. Of the enzymes examined in the activated methyl cycle, S-adenosylhomocysteinase was specifically inhibited by (-)-ilimaquinone. Consistent with these observations, (-)-ilimaquinone was shown to obstruct new methylation events in adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary cells. CONCLUSIONS: (-)-ilimaquinone inhibits cellular methylations through its interactions with S-adenosylhomocysteinase. Furthermore, these studies indicate that the inhibition of secretion by ilimaquinone is the result of the natural product's antimethylation activity. It is likely that the ability to fragment the Golgi apparatus, as well as other activities, are also related to ilimaquinone's influence on methylation chemistry.  (+info)

COMT inhibition with tolcapone does not affect carbidopa pharmacokinetics in parkinsonian patients in levodopa/carbidopa (Sinemet). (5/735)

AIMS: Tolcapone is a novel catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor used as an adjunct to levodopa/carbidopa or levodopa/benserazide therapy to improve treatment of Parkinson's disease. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential effect of tolcapone on the pharmacokinetics of carbidopa. METHODS: This was an open-label study in 12 parkinsonian patients receiving optimal levodopa/carbidopa therapy and tolcapone 200 mg three times daily for 6 weeks. Blood samples were taken at baseline (i.e. before the first tolcapone intake) and after 1-2 weeks and 6 weeks so that carbidopa pharmacokinetics before and during tolcapone treatment could be assessed. RESULTS: No changes in any pharmacokinetic parameters of carbidopa were observed. The mean AUC(0,tau) and Cmax values at baseline were 0.39 microg ml-1 h and 0. 14 microg ml-1, respectively. During tolcapone treatment these values were on average 0.35 microg ml-1 h (AUC(0,tau), week 1-2), 0. 34 microg ml-1 h (AUC(0,tau), week 6 and 0.13 microg ml-1 (Cmax, weeks 1-2 and 6). tmax remained unchanged (approx. 2 h). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that tolcapone does not affect carbidopa elimination and that no interaction of any clinical relevance occurs between tolcapone and carbidopa.  (+info)

Catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in CHO cells expressing norepinephrine transporter. (6/735)

1. We examined the existence of catecholamine metabolizing enzymes (catechol-O-methyltransferase, COMT, and monoamine oxidase, MAO) in CHO cells transfected with norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) cDNA. 2. NET activity was studied by incubating cells with [3H]-NE (0. 5 microCi ml-1, 20 min) in a Na+ containing medium. Incubation with [3H]-NE lead to [3H] accumulation at 47797+/-4864 d.p.m. per well. Specific inhibitors of NET abolished this uptake. 3. During post-uptake incubation, [3H] leaked rapidly from cells and the extracellular phase comprised 89% of total radioactivity within 40 min. Both [3H] retention and [3H] 'leakage' were largely unaffected by inhibitors for MAO. In contrast, COMT inhibitors, U-0521 and Ro 41-0960, dose-dependently increased intracellular [3H]-NE retention with a maximal increase of 4.5 fold. The EC50 for Ro 41-0960 was 139-times lower than that of U-0521. U-0521 largely inhibited [3H] 'leakage' and doubled the apparent Vmax for [3H]-NE uptake. 4. Addition of U-0521 during uptake incubation increased intracellular NE content by 8 fold. Normetanephrine, the COMT-dependent metabolite of NE, was formed in large quantities during post-uptake incubation. U-0521 significantly inhibited the formation of NMN with an equal preservation of intracellular NE. 5. CHO cells expressing NET possess COMT activity, which is responsible for the metabolism of NE to form lipophilic metabolite normetanephrine. The apparent 'properties' of the NET function expressed in CHO cells changed, after inhibition of COMT, in such a way closer to that described in the native neuronal preparations.  (+info)

Breast cancer risk associated with genotype polymorphism of the estrogen-metabolizing genes CYP17, CYP1A1, and COMT: a multigenic study on cancer susceptibility. (7/735)

Estrogen has been proposed to trigger breast cancer development via an initiating mechanism involving its metabolite, catechol estrogen (CE). To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a multigenic case-control study to determine whether polymorphisms of the genes responsible for CE formation via estrogen biosynthesis (CYP17) and hydroxylation (CYP1A1) and CE inactivation (COMT) are associated with an elevated risk for breast cancer in Taiwanese women, and whether the association between genotype and risk may be modified by estrogen exposure. One hundred and fifty breast cancer patients and 150 healthy controls were recruited. PCR-based RFLP assays were used to determine the genotypes of estrogen-metabolizing genes. The breast cancer risk associated with individual susceptibility genotypes varied among the three genes and was highest for COMT, followed by CYP1A1 and CYP17. After simultaneous consideration of all three genes and other well-established risk factors of breast cancer, the COMT genotype remained the most significant determinant for breast cancer development and was associated with a 4-fold increase in risk (95% confidence interval, 1.12-19.08). Furthermore, a trend of increasing risk for developing breast cancer was found in women harboring higher numbers of high-risk genotypes (P = 0.006), including the high activity CYP17 (CYP17 A2/A2), high inducibility CYP1A1 (CYP1A1 MspI vt/vt), and low activity COMT (COMT L/L) genotypes. The association of risk with the number of susceptibility genotypes was stronger in women with prolonged estrogen exposure (indicated by a higher number of estrogen exposure years or a higher number of estrogen exposure years between menarche and first full-term pregnancy), women with higher estrogen levels (implied by early menarche), and women with a higher body mass index (> or = 22.5). On the basis of comprehensive profiles of estrogen metabolism, this study supports the possibility that breast cancer can be initiated by estrogen exposure.  (+info)

Increased mitochondrial superoxide production in rat liver mitochondria, rat hepatocytes, and HepG2 cells following ethinyl estradiol treatment. (8/735)

Ethinyl estradiol (EE) is a strong promoter of hepatocarcinogenesis. Treatment of rats with EE and other hepatic promoters induces a mitosuppressed state characterized by decreased hepatocyte turnover and reduced growth responsiveness. Previously, we identified several nuclear and mitochondrial genome-encoded mitochondrial genes whose transcripts were increased during EE-induced hepatic mitosuppression in rats and in EE-treated HepG2 cells (Chen et al. Carcinogenesis, 17, 2783-2786, 1996 and Carcinogenesis, 19, 101-107, 1998). In both cultured rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells, EE increased respiratory chain activity (reflected by increased mitochondrial superoxide production detected as increased lucigenin-derived chemiluminescence (LDCL). In this paper, we provide additional characterizations of these effects. Increased LDCL was detected in mitochondria isolated from EE-treated rats, documenting that these estrogen effects on mitochondrial function are not confined to cells in culture. EE and estradiol (E2) increased LDCL in cultured rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells in a dose- (beginning at 0.25 microM levels) and time-dependent response. Inhibition of P450-mediated estrogen metabolism inhibited, while direct exposure to E2 catechol metabolites enhanced LDCL. Co-treatment with glutathione ester or with the specific antiestrogen, ICI 182708 inhibited LDCL. In contrast, estrogen-induced LDCL was enhanced by glutathione depletion, and by inhibition of catechol-o-methyltransferase. These results support a working hypothesis that in liver cells, increased respiratory chain activity induced by estrogen treatment requires both metabolism to catechols and an estrogen receptor-mediated signal transduction pathway.  (+info)

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Catechol O-methyltransferase, COMT. Catechol+O-Methyltransferase at the US National ... and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure. In humans, catechol-O-methyltransferase protein is encoded by the ... December 2008). "The catechol-O-methyl transferase Val158Met polymorphism and experience of reward in the flow of daily life". ... Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; EC is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (neurotransmitters such ...
A catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor is a drug that inhibits the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase. This enzyme ... Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs). ... "Identification of novel flavonoid inhibitor of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase enzyme by molecular screening, quantum mechanics/ ... diarrhea drowsiness urine discoloration dyskinesia Medication Management of Parkinson's disease catechol-O-methyltransferase ...
Examples include: Catechol-O-methyltransferase DNA methyltransferase Histone methyltransferase 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate- ... These types include protein methyltransferases, DNA/RNA methyltransferases, natural product methyltransferases, and non-SAM ... Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) degrades a class of molecules known as catcholamines that includes dopamine, epinephrine, ... "COMT catechol-O-methyltransferase". NCBI Genetic Testing Registry. Retrieved 18 February 2014. Ragsdale, S.W. "Catalysis of ...
... is produced by the methylation of L-DOPA by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase. The necessary cofactor for ... 3-O-methyldopa is a major metabolite of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and is formed by catechol-O-methyltransferase ( ... This process is catalyzed by catechol O-methyltransferase methylates (COMT). The action of the enzyme makes it possible the ... Tai, C. H.; Wu, R. M. (2002). "Catechol-O-methyltransferase and Parkinson's disease". Acta Medica Okayama. 56 (1): 1-6. PMID ...
Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors, Catechols, Diketones, Nitrophenols, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs). ... "Inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase activity by two novel disubstituted catechols in the rat". European Journal of ... Nitecapone (INN; OR-462) is a drug which acts as a selective inhibitor of the enzyme catechol O-methyl transferase (COMT). It ... Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor F.. Macdonald (1997). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. CRC Press. p. 1635. ISBN 978 ...
... is not metabolized by catechol-O-methyltransferase. The plasma half-life measured after oral administration is about ...
... is a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor. The most common side effects are dyskinesia (difficulty ... Opicapone blocks an enzyme that is involved in the breakdown of levodopa in the body called catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT ... Opicapone blocks the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) effectively (>90% at therapeutic doses), selectively and ...
... allelic polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene; increased adenosine receptor function; increased cortisol ...
Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors, Catechols, Hydroquinones, Tetrahydroxyanthraquinones, All stub articles, Ketone stubs) ... It is also a potent catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor. 1,4-Dihydroxyanthraquinone (quinizarin) Alizarin, a related ...
Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors, Estranes, Estrogens, Human metabolites, Steroid hormones). ... A catechol estrogen is a steroidal estrogen that contains catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) within its structure. The catechol ... Similarly to estradiol and estrone, catechol estrogens possess estrogenic activity. 2-Hydroxylated catechol estrogens are weak ... and are metabolized by catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) into methoxylated estrogens such as 2-methoxyestradiol and 4- ...
Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors, Catechols, Hepatotoxins, Hoffmann-La Roche brands, Nitrophenols, Benzophenones, 4- ... March 2012). "Catechol-O-methyltransferase in complex with substituted 3'-deoxyribose bisubstrate inhibitors". Acta ... Manikumar G, Jin C, Rehder KS (2008). "Convenient Synthesis of Tolcapone, a Selective Catechol‐O‐methyltransferase Inhibitor". ... a novel inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 48 (4): 513-20. doi:10.1046/j. ...
Catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype modulates opioid release in decision circuitry. Clin Transl Sci. 2013 Oct; 6(5):400-3. ...
... as a substrate for catechol-o-methyltransferase". Z. Naturforsch. C (in German). 31 (5-6): 280-284. doi:10.1515/znc-1976-5-611 ... through incubation with rat liver catechol-O-methyltransferase. Aesculetin can be synthesized by condensation of ...
Catechols, Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors, Novartis brands, Nitriles, Nitrobenzenes). ... Entacapone is a selective and reversible inhibitor of the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). When taken together with ... Entacapone is a selective and reversible inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). COMT eliminates biologically active ... entacapone stops catechol-O-methyltransferase from breaking down and metabolizing levodopa, resulting in an overall increase of ...
A comparison of dopamine agonists and catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors in Parkinson's disease. Clinical ...
"A catechol-O-methyltransferase that is essential for auditory function in mice and humans". Proceedings of the National Academy ... which is a transmembrane catechol-O-methyltransferase and is called LRTOMT2, TOMT or COMT2. The COMT2 is essential for auditory ... Leucine rich transmembrane and O-methyltransferase domain containing is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LRTOMT gene ... "Entrez Gene: Leucine rich transmembrane and O-methyltransferase domain containing". Riahi Z, Bonnet C, Zainine R, Louha M, ...
"Genetic polymorphisms of catechol-O-methyltransferase modify the neurobehavioral effects of mercury in children". Journal of ...
In vitro, the meta-hydroxyl group of catechol is methylated by catechol-O-methyltransferase. Four of the five hydroxyl groups ... 3-dioxygenase Quercetin 3-O-methyltransferase Quercetin-3-sulfate 3'-sulfotransferase Quercetin-3-sulfate 4'-sulfotransferase ...
"A catechol-O-methyltransferase that is essential for auditory function in mice and humans". Proceedings of the National Academy ...
Gogos JA, Morgan M, Luine V, Santha M, Ogawa S, Pfaff D, Karayiorgou M (August 1998). "Catechol-O-methyltransferase-deficient ...
It is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the COMT gene that codes catechol-O-Methyltransferase. The single nucleotide ... "SZGene". Martin Reuter & Juergen Hennig (July 2005). "Association of the functional catechol-O-methyltransferase VAL158MET ... "A possible association between the Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyl transferase gene and the personality trait ... "An association study of catechol-O-methyltransferase and monoamine oxidase A polymorphisms and personality traits in Koreans". ...
Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the extraneuronal breakdown of catecholamines. The gene that ...
"Site-specific role of catechol-O-methyltransferase in dopamine overflow within prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum". The ...
... is a metabolite of norepinephrine created by action of catechol-O-methyl transferase on norepinephrine. It is ...
"Polymorphisms of the serotonin-2A receptor and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes: a study on fibromyalgia susceptibility". ...
"Evidence of epistasis between the catechol-O-methyltransferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 3B1 genes in paranoid schizophrenia ...
"Polymorphisms of the serotonin-2A receptor and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes: a study on fibromyalgia susceptibility". ...
... is bioactive It can inhibit 2-hydroxy and 4-hydroxyestradiol methylation by catechol-O-methyltransferase. It ...
However, the 4-hydroxy group makes it susceptible to metabolism by catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). Since it is β2- ...
Leuchter AF, McCracken JT, Hunter AM, Cook IA, Alpert JE (August 2009). "Monoamine oxidase a and catechol-o-methyltransferase ...
... a major catecholamine metabolite that is produced by a consecutive action of monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase ...
... of cellular estrogenic activity based on estrogen receptor-mediated reduction of soluble-form catechol-O-methyltransferase ( ...
Catechol-O-methyltransferase, Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase and Monoamine Oxidase-A. Shiels' dissertation was titled AIDS-defining ...
... followed by methylation of the aromatic ring via catechol-O-methyl transferase. Hydroxylation of both the aromatic ring and ...
These create dopamine, which then experiences methylation by a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) by an S-adenosyl methionine ... experiences a final methylation at the 4 carbon by a guaiacol-O-methyltransferase, which also operates by a SAM-dependent ... catechol redox metabolite, receptor, cell signaling and structure activity relationships". Oxidative Medicine and Cellular ...
There is also enzymatic degradation of the catecholamines by two main enzymes - monoamine oxidase and catechol-o-methyl ...
... catechol-o-methyl transferase, SK3 and opioid receptor delta-1. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, may ...
... catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor Clomipramine (Anafranil) - tricyclic antidepressant / monoamine reuptake inhibitor and ...
... of cellular estrogenic activity based on estrogen receptor-mediated reduction of soluble-form catechol-O-methyltransferase ( ... a mutated eukaryotic DNA methyltransferase that covalently attaches to benzylcytosine derivatives HUH-tag, a sequence-specific ... a mutated eukaryotic DNA methyltransferase that covalently attaches to benzylguanine derivatives CLIP-tag, ...
EC 2.1.1 Catechol-O-methyl transferase EC DNA methyltransferase EC, EC, EC Histone ... Catechol oxidase EC Laccase EC Category:EC 1.10.99 (with other acceptors) Category:EC 1.11.1 (peroxidases) ... methyltransferase EC, EC Category:EC 2.1.3 Aspartate transcarbamoylase EC Ornithine ...
Diphenylborinic acid has an extra high affinity for catechols compared with carbohydrates. Diphenylborinic acid can catalyse ... "Identification of Borinic Esters as Inhibitors of Bacterial Cell Growth and Bacterial Methyltransferases, CcrM and MenH". ... as bacterial growth inhibitors due to their ability to disable some bacterial enzymes such as menaquinone methyltransferase and ...
... relating to transferase is the discovery of the mechanism of catecholamine breakdown by catechol-O-methyltransferase. This ... N-methyltransferase would be the standard naming convention for the transferase methylamine-glutamate N-methyltransferase, ... a DNA methyltransferase is a transferase that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group to a DNA acceptor. In practice, many ... where methylamine is the donor, L-glutamate is the acceptor, and methyltransferase is the EC category grouping. This same ...
... could form in the exocarp of fruits from delphinidin, with an anthocyanin flavonoid O-methyltransferase (Catechol-O- ... methyl transferase) catalyzing the B-ring methylation and S-Adenosyl-L-methyl-3H methionine being the methyl group donor. ...
Another gene that has been suggested for further study to be related to neuroticism is the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) ...
Mercury is suggested to inactivate S-adenosyl-methionine, which is necessary for catecholamine catabolism by catechol-o-methyl ...
A once daily catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor in trials for Parkinson's disease NBI-74788 - Corticotropin-releasing ...
In 1958, Axelrod also discovered and characterized the enzyme catechol-O-methyl transferase, which is involved in the breakdown ... Tomchick, Robert; Axelrod, Julius (September 1958). "Enzymatic O-Methylation of Epinephrine and Other Catechols - Axelrod and ...
Metabolizing enzymes, namely monoamine oxidase und catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), as well as carrier proteins for the ... of smooth muscle of venous tissue and the degree of supersensitivity to isoprenaline caused by inhibition of catechol-O-methyl transferase ...
The steroid is known to compete with catecholamines for binding to catechol O-methyltransferase and tyrosine hydroxylase and to ... a transformation which is very efficiently catalyzed by catechol O-methyltransferase in the liver. 2-Methoxyestradiol is not ... Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors, Estranes, Estrogens, Human metabolites, Selective estrogen receptor modulators, ... 2-Hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2), also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-2,3,17β-triol, is an endogenous steroid, catechol estrogen, ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Inhibitor [Drug Class] (30 results) *Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing ...
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... catechol-O-methyltransferase (human). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in ... COMT catechol-O-methyltransferase [Homo sapiens] COMT catechol-O-methyltransferase [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:1312 ... Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Loss Drives Cell-Specific Nociceptive Signaling via the Enteric Catechol-O-Methyltransferase/ ... Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Loss Drives Cell-Specific Nociceptive Signaling via the Enteric Catechol-O-Methyltransferase/ ...
Entacapone and tolcapone are selective catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors developed recently as adjuncts to ... Hepatotoxic profile of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors in Parkinsons disease Reina Benabou 1 , Cheryl Waters ... Hepatotoxic profile of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors in Parkinsons disease Reina Benabou et al. Expert Opin Drug Saf ... Entacapone: a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor for the adjunctive treatment of Parkinsons disease. Najib J. Najib J. ...
COMT Val(158)Met genotype determines the direction of cognitive effects produced by catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition ... COMT Val(158)Met genotype determines the direction of cognitive effects produced by catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition ...
metabolism and hippocampal-dependent cognitive function by catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition Laatikainen LM., Sharp T., ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Inhibitor [Drug Class] (30 results) *Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing ...
... methylation of several catechol-containing tea polyphenols by human placental catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). (-)- ... O-Methylation of tea polyphenols catalyzed by human placental cytosolic catechol-O-methyltransferase.. Zhu, B T; Patel, U K; ... In summary, several catechol-containing tea polyphenols are rapidly O-methylated by human placental cytosolic COMT. This ...
... catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, rs4680), and dopamine transporter/solute carrier family 6 member 3 (DAT/SLC6A3, variable ...
The COMT gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called catechol-O-methyltransferase. Learn about this gene and related ... Fan JB, Zhang CS, Gu NF, Li XW, Sun WW, Wang HY, Feng GY, St Clair D, He L. Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene Val/Met ... Catechol-O-methyltransferase is particularly important in an area at the front of the brain called the prefrontal cortex, which ... A loss of one copy of the COMT gene in each cell leads to abnormal regulation of catechol-O-methyltransferase levels in the ...
The COMT gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called catechol-O-methyltransferase. Learn about this gene and related ... Fan JB, Zhang CS, Gu NF, Li XW, Sun WW, Wang HY, Feng GY, St Clair D, He L. Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene Val/Met ... Catechol-O-methyltransferase is particularly important in an area at the front of the brain called the prefrontal cortex, which ... A loss of one copy of the COMT gene in each cell leads to abnormal regulation of catechol-O-methyltransferase levels in the ...
"Critical reappraisal of a catechol-o-methyltransferase transversion variant in schizophrenia". Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Apr 1;67(7 ...
Val153Met Polymorphism of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase and Prevalence of Uterine Leiomyomata. Reprod Sci 14:117-20, 2007. ...
catechol-O-methyltransferase. IMP. RGD. PMID:15779086. RGD:2289784. NCBI chr11:82,568,052...82,587,642 Ensembl chr11:82,568,025 ... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase. involved_in. ISO. IEA. (PMID:10529246). GO_REF:0000107. RGD. Ensembl. PMID:10529246. ... betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2. involved_in. IEA. GO_REF:0000117. UniProt. GO_REF:0000117. NCBI chr 2:24,895,525... ... glycine N-methyltransferase. acts_upstream_of_or_within. ISO. MGI:3842652 (MGI:3842675,PMID:17937387). RGD. PMID:17937387. MGI: ...
Polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene in Han Chinese patients with psoriasis vulgaris Human And Medical ... Catechol-O-methyltransferase ( COMT ) 158 polymorphism can reduce the activity of the COMT enzyme that may trigger defective ...
Catechol O-Methyltransferase Inhibitors. Disclaimer: Information presented in this database is not meant as a substitute for ...
Catechol O-Methyltransferase/genetics*; Catechol O-Methyltransferase/metabolism; Cysteine/blood; Estrogens, Catechol/metabolism ... Abstract: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the O-methylation of catechol estrogens (CEs), using S- ...
Catechol-O-methyltransferase: variation in enzyme activity and inhibition by entacapone and tolcapone.. De Santi C; Giulianotti ... 1. The catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors tolcapone and entacapone uncouple and inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory ... Inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase. Optimizing dopaminergic therapy in idiopathic Parkinson syndrome with entacapone]. ... 4. Effect of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Inhibitors Tolcapone and Entacapone on Fatty Acid Metabolism in HepaRG Cells. ...
Entacapone is an inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). It is used in combination with levodopa and ... of-dose ...
COMT inhibitors-COMT stands for catechol-O-methyltransferase and is another enzyme that breaks down dopamine. The drugs ...
Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene haplotypes in Mexican and Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. Arthritis Res Ther. 2007; 9: ... Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphisms are associated with multiple pain-evoking stimuli. Pain. 2006; 125:21624. [ ... Catechol O-methyltransferase haplotype predicts immediate musculoskeletal neck pain and psychological symptoms after motor ... No evidence for a role of the catechol-Omethyltransferase pain sensitivity haplotypes in chronic widespread pain. Ann Rheum Dis ...
Well, anyway, what happened, we found an inhibitor for catechol methyltransferase. Its been shown by this Swiss guy who worked ... I isolated catechol-o-methyltranferase and found that not only adrenaline, but dopamine and L-dopa, any catechol will be ... They excreted a lot of vamylmandelic acid, which is a catechol, which has a methyl group on a metaposition [of a catechol]. ... so I suspected this may be one of the pathways for catechol metabolism by methylation. It was Cantoni who discovered ...
Catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met polymorphism predicts placebo effect in irritable bowel syndrome. PLoS One. 2012;7(10): ... Interestingly, catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met polymorphisms have also been associated with placebo responsiveness in ... 43 Leuchter AF , McCracken JT , Hunter AM , Cook IA , Alpert JE . Monoamine oxidase a and catechol-o-methyltransferase ... In another study, catabolic enzymes catechol-O-methyltransferase and monoamine oxidase A polymorphisms were examined in ...
Dopamine D3 Receptor Ser9Gly and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Polymorphisms and Acute Pain in Sickle Cell Disease. ...
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors;. *Surgical treatment (if drug therapy does not sufficiently control the ...
Epistatic and functional interactions of catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) and AKT1 on neuregulin1-ErbB signaling in cell ...
  • In addition to its role in the metabolism of endogenous substances, COMT is important in the metabolism of catechol drugs used in the treatment of hypertension, asthma, and Parkinson disease. (nih.gov)
  • Entacapone and tolcapone are selective catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors developed recently as adjuncts to levodopa for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we evaluated the metabolic O- methylation of several catechol-containing tea polyphenols by human placental catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). (bvsalud.org)
  • In summary, several catechol-containing tea polyphenols are rapidly O-methylated by human placental cytosolic COMT. (bvsalud.org)
  • rs1799836), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, rs4680), and dopamine transporter/solute carrier family 6 member 3 (DAT/SLC6A3, variable number tandem repeats) genes on 18 F-fluorodopa uptake and an effective distribution volume ratio (inverse of dopamine turnover) measured by 18 F-fluorodopa PET in 28 untreated PD patients. (nih.gov)
  • The COMT gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called catechol-O-methyltransferase. (nih.gov)
  • The longer form, called membrane-bound catechol-O-methyltransferase (MB-COMT), is chiefly produced by nerve cells in the brain. (nih.gov)
  • Other tissues, including the liver, kidneys, and blood, produce a shorter form of the enzyme called soluble catechol-O-methyltransferase (S-COMT). (nih.gov)
  • A loss of one copy of the COMT gene in each cell leads to abnormal regulation of catechol-O-methyltransferase levels in the brain. (nih.gov)
  • Entacapone is an inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). (nih.gov)
  • Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) VAL158MET functional polymorphism, dental mercury exposure, and self-reported symptoms and mood. (nih.gov)
  • Associations were evaluated between a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (Val158Met) in the gene encoding the catecholamine catabolic enzyme catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), dental mercury exposure, and self-reported symptoms and mood among 183 male dentists and 213 female dental assistants. (nih.gov)
  • Epistatic and functional interactions of catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) and AKT1 on neuregulin1-ErbB signaling in cell models. (nih.gov)
  • A polymorphism in the human catechol- O -methyltransferase (COMT) gene, which affects COMT activity and thus dopamine turnover, alters baseline dopamine levels. (jneurosci.org)
  • Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that catabolizes dopamine (DA) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). (nih.gov)
  • To achieve the best clinical benefit, levodopa is combined with two important additional agents, carbidopa inhibiting the enzyme DDC (dopa-decarboxylase), and entacapone inhibiting the enzyme COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase). (orion.fi)
  • Tolcapone is a potent, reversible inhibitor of catechol O -methyltransferase (COMT) intended for use as an adjunct to levodopa therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). (neurology.org)
  • 5. Entacapone, a novel catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor for Parkinson's disease, does not impair mitochondrial energy production. (nih.gov)
  • 2010). Chronopharmacology of nebicapone, a new catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor . (up.pt)
  • Catechol-O-methyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to catecholamines, including the neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Effects of peripheral and central catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition on striatal extracellular levels of dopamine: a microdialysis study in freely moving rats. (nih.gov)
  • 20. Catechol-O-methyltransferase: variation in enzyme activity and inhibition by entacapone and tolcapone. (nih.gov)
  • Most studies have focused on the effects of a particular common variation (polymorphism) in catechol-O-methyltransferase. (nih.gov)
  • Hosák L, Serý O, Beranek M, Alda M. Lack of association between the Val158Met catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism and methamphetamine dependence. (nel.edu)
  • 1. The catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors tolcapone and entacapone uncouple and inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory chain in HepaRG cells. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Effect of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Inhibitors Tolcapone and Entacapone on Fatty Acid Metabolism in HepaRG Cells. (nih.gov)
  • 6. Differences in toxicity of the catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors, tolcapone and entacapone to cultured human neuroblastoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Different modes of action of catecholamine-O-methyltransferase inhibitors entacapone and tolcapone on adenylyl cyclase activity in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • The most investigated polymorphisms were the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), nerve growth factor rs6330, catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val166Met. (lww.com)
  • 10. Synergistic inhibition of lung cancer cell lines by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in combination with clinically used nitrocatechol inhibitors of catechol-O-methyltransferase. (nih.gov)
  • 13. General properties and clinical possibilities of new selective inhibitors of catechol O-methyltransferase. (nih.gov)
  • 19. [Inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase. (nih.gov)
  • Green Tea Extract Thermogenesis-Induced Weight Loss by Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibition of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Are catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphisms genetic markers for pain sensitivity after all? (nih.gov)
  • The change affects the stability and activity of catechol-O-methyltransferase, which alters the enzyme's ability to break down neurotransmitters in the prefrontal cortex. (nih.gov)
  • O-Methylation of tea polyphenols catalyzed by human placental cytosolic catechol-O-methyltransferase. (bvsalud.org)
  • Little is known, however, about the relationship between catechol-O-methyltransferase activity and the specific mental and emotional problems characteristic of this condition. (nih.gov)
  • Catechol-O-methyltransferase helps maintain appropriate levels of these neurotransmitters in this part of the brain. (nih.gov)
  • Catechol-O-methyltransferase is particularly important in an area at the front of the brain called the prefrontal cortex, which organizes and coordinates information from other parts of the brain. (nih.gov)
  • In the brain, catechol-O-methyltransferase helps break down certain chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic polymorphisms in the catechol estrogen metabolism pathway and breast cancer risk. (nih.gov)