Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.
A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)
A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.
Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
The portion of the crystalline lens surrounding the nucleus and bound anteriorly by the epithelium and posteriorly by the capsule. It contains lens fibers and amorphous, intercellular substance.
The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.
A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.
Artificial implanted lenses.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.
Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.
The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
Diseases affecting the eye.
The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.
The making of a continuous circular tear in the anterior capsule during cataract surgery in order to allow expression or phacoemulsification of the nucleus of the lens. (Dorland, 28th ed)
'Lens diseases' is a broad term referring to various pathological conditions affecting the lens of the eye, including cataracts, subluxation, and dislocation, which can lead to visual impairment or blindness if not managed promptly.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
'Eye proteins' are structural or functional proteins, such as crystallins, opsins, and collagens, located in various parts of the eye, including the cornea, lens, retina, and aqueous humor, that contribute to maintaining transparency, refractive power, phototransduction, and overall integrity of the visual system.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.
A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.
The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.
Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).
Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The period following a surgical operation.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (PRIMARY OVARIAN INSUFFICIENCY); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)
A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.

Molecular chaperones: small heat shock proteins in the limelight. (1/2726)

Small heat shock proteins have been the Cinderellas of the molecular chaperone world, but now the crystal structure of a small heat shock protein has been solved and mutation of two human homologues implicated in genetic disease. Intermediate filaments appear to be one of the key targets of their chaperone activity.  (+info)

Modifications to rat lens major intrinsic protein in selenite-induced cataract. (2/2726)

PURPOSE: To identify modifications to rat lens major intrinsic protein (MIP) isolated from selenite-induced cataract and to determine whether m-calpain (EC 3.4.22.17) is responsible for cleavage of MIP during cataractogenesis. METHODS: Cataracts were induced in rats by a single injection of sodium selenite. Control and cataract lenses were harvested on day 16 and dissected into cortical and nuclear regions. Membranes were washed with urea buffer followed by NaOH. The protein was reduced/alkylated, delipidated, and cleaved with cyanogen bromide (CNBr). Cleavage products were fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and peptides were characterized by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. MIP cleavage by m-calpain was carried out by incubation with purified enzyme, and peptides released from the membrane were analyzed by Edman sequencing. RESULTS: The intact C terminus, observed in the control nuclear and cataractous cortical membranes, was not observed in the cataractous nuclear membranes. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed heterogeneous cleavage of the C terminus of MIP in control and cataract nuclear regions. The major site of cleavage was between residues 238 and 239, corresponding to the major site of in vitro cleavage by m-calpain. However, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis indicated that in vivo proteolysis during cataract formation also included sites closer to the C terminus not produced by m-calpain in vitro. Evidence for heterogeneous N-terminal cleavage was also observed at low levels with no differences between control and cataractous lenses. The major site of phosphorylation was determined to be at serine 235. CONCLUSIONS: Specific sites of MIP N- and C-terminal cleavage in selenite-induced cataractous lenses were identified. The heterogeneous cleavage pattern observed suggests that m-calpain is not the sole enzyme involved in MIP C-terminal processing in rat lens nuclei.  (+info)

Anterior polar cataracts in CS rats: a predictor of mature cataract formation. (3/2726)

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to characterize the morphology of the anterior opacities formed during recovery from posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. METHODS: Lenses from RCS rats at 8 and 12 weeks postnatal (n = 14 and 12, respectively) were examined under a dissecting microscope for the presence of anterior opacities. Lenses with anterior opacities were fixed, embedded in epoxy resin, and sectioned along the optic axis for light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: At eight weeks postnatal, 21.5% of animals (3/14) had anterior cataracts. Light microscopy of 1- to 2-microm-thick sections revealed an anomalous layer of material located at the epithelium-fiber interface, which was identified as a zone of liquefaction by TEM. Epithelial cells had minor structural defects but were not necrotic. Anterior portions of elongating and cortical fibers under the zone of liquefaction were undisrupted, whereas their posterior portions had numerous vacuoles. The anterior opacities were classified as anterior polar cataracts (APCs) based on the location and type of morphologic damage in the affected lenses. At twelve weeks postnatal, 25% of animals (3/12) had APCs that involved prominent vesiculation of the anterior cortex. Ultrastructural examination showed that large vesicles were located between and inside anterior fibers and that most extracellular spaces were abnormally widened. Posteriorly, internalization of the PSC by new fiber growth was disordered and displayed vesiculation and density variations. In the bow region, LM revealed minor structural irregularities that were identified as groups of apparently degenerating fibers by TEM. CONCLUSIONS: APCs in RCS rats are caused by degeneration of elongating fibers in the bow region and subsequent damage in the superficial anterior cortex. The percentage of animals with APCs (25%) was consistent with the percentage of animals in which mature cataracts eventually develop. The morphologic changes, time of onset, and percentage of animals affected suggest that APC is the initial manifestation of mature cataract formation in RCS rats.  (+info)

Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on GSH and NAD(P)-redox status, lipid peroxidation, and energy metabolism in diabetic precataractous lens. (4/2726)

PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in glutathione and NAD(P)-redox status, taurine and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glucose utilization, and energy metabolism in diabetic precataractous lenses and to assess whether these changes can be prevented with dietary taurine supplementation. METHODS: The experimental groups included control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats with a 3-week duration of diabetes fed unsupplemented or taurine (1% or 5%)-supplemented diets. The levels of glucose, sorbitol, fructose, myo-inositol, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glycolytic intermediates, malate, alpha-glycerophosphate, and adenine nucleotides were assayed in individual lenses spectrofluorometrically by enzymatic methods, reduced glutathione (GSH) spectrofluorometrically with O-phthaldialdehyde, MDA colorimetrically with N-methyl-2-phenylindole, and taurine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Free cytosolic NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH ratios were calculated from the lactate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme systems. RESULTS: Sorbitol pathway metabolites and MDA were increased, and GSH and taurine levels were reduced in diabetic rats versus controls. The profile of glycolytic intermediates (an increase in glucose 6-phosphate, no change in fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-diphosphate, an increase in dihydroxyacetone phosphate, a decrease in 3-phosphoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate, and no change in lactate), and a 9.2-fold increase in alpha-glycerophosphate suggest diabetes-induced inhibition of glycolysis. Free cytosolic NAD+/NADH ratios, ATP levels, ATP/ADP, and adenylate charge were reduced, whereas free cytosolic NADP+/NADPH ratios were elevated. Lens taurine levels in diabetic rats were not affected by supplementation with 1% taurine. With 5% taurine supplementation, they were increased approximately 2.2-fold higher than those in untreated diabetics but remained 3.4-fold lower than in controls. Lens GSH levels were similar in diabetic rats fed unsupplemented and 5% taurine-supplemented diets, whereas GSSG and MDA levels and GSSG/GSH ratios were reduced by 5% taurine supplementation. The decrease in free cytosolic NAD+/NADH, ATP/ADP, and adenylate energy charge were ameliorated by 5% taurine supplementation, whereas accumulation of sorbitol pathway intermediates, depletion of myoinositol, inhibition of glycolysis, a decrease in ATP and total adenine nucleotide, and an increase in free cytosolic NADP+/NADPH were not prevented. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary taurine supplementation ameliorates MDA levels, GSSG/GSH, and NAD+/NADH and fails to prevent the osmotically mediated depletion of GSH and taurine and the decrease in glucose utilization and ATP levels in diabetic precataractous lens. Dietary taurine supplementation cannot be regarded as an alternative to aldose reductase inhibition in eliminating antioxidant and metabolic deficits contributing to diabetes-associated cataractogenesis.  (+info)

Cardiac involvement in proximal myotonic myopathy. (5/2726)

Proximal myotonic myopathy (PROMM) is a recently described autosomal dominantly inherited disorder resulting in proximal muscles weakness, myotonia, and cataracts. A few patients with cardiac involvement (sinus bradycardia, supraventricular bigeminy, conduction abnormalities) have been reported. The cases of three relatives with PROMM (weakness of neck flexors and proximal extremity muscles, calf hypertrophy, myotonia, cataracts) are reported: a 54 year old man, his 73 year old mother, and 66 year old aunt. All three presented with conduction abnormalities and one had repeated, life threatening, sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. This illustrates that severe cardiac involvement may occur in PROMM.  (+info)

Changing trends in barriers to cataract surgery in India. (6/2726)

Cataract is a major cause of blindness in Asia. Efforts in India to provide cataract surgical services have had limited success in reaching the cataract-blind population. Earlier studies identified the major barriers to cataract surgery as poverty, lack of transportation or felt need, or sex related; and the critical barriers in rural areas as lack of awareness, difficult access, and cost. Compared with these earlier data, the results of the present study in Karnataka State indicate a shift in the character of the barriers. They now appear to be more related to case selection and service provision. These shifts are analysed and alternative strategies to increase the uptake to cataract surgery are recommended.  (+info)

Deamidation of alpha-A crystallin from nuclei of cataractous and normal human lenses. (7/2726)

PURPOSE: To quantitate the extent of deamidation of asparagine-101, glutamine-50, and glutamine-6 of alpha-A crystallin in the nucleus from human cataractous and normal lenses. METHODS: Reverse phase chromatography was used to prepare alpha-A crystallin from total proteins of the nucleus from cataractous and age-matched normal human lenses. Synthetic peptides were made corresponding to the expected amidated and deamidated tryptic fragments containing asparagine-101, glutamine-50, and glutamine-6. The peptides were used to identify and quantitate amidated and deamidated forms of tryptic fragments from alpha-A crystallin eluting from a reverse phase column. RESULTS: Significant amounts of deamidation of asparagine-101 and glutamine-50, but not glutamine-6, were present in alpha-A crystallin from nuclear sections of both cataractous and age-matched normal lenses. Quantitative analysis of tryptic peptides containing these residues indicated no statistical difference in deamidation in cataractous versus normal lenses. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in the extent of deamidation of asparagine-101, glutamine-50, and glutamine-6 for alpha-A crystallin, purified from the nucleus of cataractous versus age-matched normal lenses. These results strongly suggest that deamidation of these residues does not play a role in the biogenesis of human nuclear cataract.  (+info)

Management of phacolytic glaucoma: experience of 135 cases. (8/2726)

We retrospectively analyzed 135 eyes with phacolytic glaucoma. A trabeculectomy was added to standard cataract surgery if symptoms endured for more than seven days, or if preoperative control of intraocular pressure (IOP) with maximal medical treatment was inadequate. In the early postoperative period, IOP was significantly lower in the combined surgery group (89 eyes) compared to the cataract surgery group (46 eyes) (p < 0.001). At 6 months there was no difference in IOP or visual acuity between the two groups. There were no serious complications related to trabeculectomy. It is reasonable to conclude that in eyes with a long duration of phacolytic glaucoma, addition of a trabeculectomy to cataract surgery is safe, prevents postoperative rise in intraocular pressure and decreases the need for systemic hypotensive medications. A randomized trial is on to further address this question.  (+info)

A cataract is a clouding of the natural lens in the eye that affects vision. This clouding can cause vision to become blurry, faded, or dim, making it difficult to see clearly. Cataracts are a common age-related condition, but they can also be caused by injury, disease, or medication use. In most cases, cataracts develop gradually over time and can be treated with surgery to remove the cloudy lens and replace it with an artificial one.

Cataract extraction is a surgical procedure that involves removing the cloudy lens (cataract) from the eye. This procedure is typically performed to restore vision impairment caused by cataracts and improve overall quality of life. There are two primary methods for cataract extraction:

1. Phacoemulsification: This is the most common method used today. It involves making a small incision in the front part of the eye (cornea), inserting an ultrasonic probe to break up the cloudy lens into tiny pieces, and then removing those pieces with suction. After removing the cataract, an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is inserted to replace the natural lens and help focus light onto the retina.

2. Extracapsular Cataract Extraction: In this method, a larger incision is made on the side of the cornea, allowing the surgeon to remove the cloudy lens in one piece without breaking it up. The back part of the lens capsule is left intact to support the IOL. This technique is less common and typically reserved for more advanced cataracts or when phacoemulsification cannot be performed.

Recovery from cataract extraction usually involves using eye drops to prevent infection and inflammation, as well as protecting the eye with a shield or glasses during sleep for a few weeks after surgery. Most people experience improved vision within a few days to a week following the procedure.

The crystalline lens is a biconvex transparent structure in the eye that helps to refract (bend) light rays and focus them onto the retina. It is located behind the iris and pupil and is suspended by small fibers called zonules that connect it to the ciliary body. The lens can change its shape to accommodate and focus on objects at different distances, a process known as accommodation. With age, the lens may become cloudy or opaque, leading to cataracts.

The lens nucleus, also known as the crystalline lens nucleus, is the central part of the crystalline lens in the eye. The crystalline lens is a biconvex structure located behind the iris and pupil, which helps to refract (bend) light rays and focus them onto the retina.

The lens nucleus is composed of densely packed lens fibers that have lost their nuclei and cytoplasm during differentiation. It is surrounded by the lens cortex, which consists of younger lens fiber cells that are still metabolically active. The lens nucleus is relatively avascular and receives its nutrients through diffusion from the aqueous humor in the anterior chamber of the eye.

The lens nucleus plays an important role in the accommodation process, which allows the eye to focus on objects at different distances. During accommodation, the ciliary muscles contract and release tension on the lens zonules, allowing the lens to become thicker and increase its curvature. This results in a decrease in the focal length of the lens and enables the eye to focus on nearby objects. The lens nucleus is more rigid than the cortex and helps maintain the shape of the lens during accommodation.

Changes in the lens nucleus are associated with several age-related eye conditions, including cataracts and presbyopia. Cataracts occur when the lens becomes cloudy or opaque, leading to a decrease in vision clarity. Presbyopia is a condition that affects the ability to focus on near objects and is caused by a hardening of the lens nucleus and a loss of elasticity in the lens fibers.

Phacoemulsification is a surgical procedure used in cataract removal. It involves using an ultrasonic device to emulsify (break up) the cloudy lens (cataract) into small pieces, which are then aspirated or sucked out through a small incision. This procedure allows for smaller incisions and faster recovery times compared to traditional cataract surgery methods. After the cataract is removed, an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is typically implanted to replace the natural lens and restore vision.

Gamma-crystallins are a type of structural protein found in the lens of the eye. They are part of the crystallin family, which also includes alpha- and beta-crystallins. These proteins are responsible for maintaining the transparency and refractive properties of the lens, allowing light to pass through and focus on the retina. Mutations in the genes that encode gamma-crystallins have been associated with various forms of cataracts, which are clouding of the lens that can impair vision. Gamma-crystallins are primarily expressed during embryonic development and decrease in expression after birth.

Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is a surgical procedure that involves placing a small artificial lens inside the eye to replace the natural lens that has been removed. This procedure is typically performed during cataract surgery, where the cloudy natural lens is removed and replaced with an IOL to restore clear vision.

During the procedure, a small incision is made in the eye, and the cloudy lens is broken up and removed using ultrasound waves or laser energy. Then, the folded IOL is inserted through the same incision and positioned in the correct place inside the eye. Once in place, the IOL unfolds and is secured into position.

There are several types of IOLs available, including monofocal, multifocal, toric, and accommodating lenses. Monofocal lenses provide clear vision at one distance, while multifocal lenses offer clear vision at multiple distances. Toric lenses correct astigmatism, and accommodating lenses can change shape to focus on objects at different distances.

Overall, intraocular lens implantation is a safe and effective procedure that can help restore clear vision in patients with cataracts or other eye conditions that require the removal of the natural lens.

Visual acuity is a measure of the sharpness or clarity of vision. It is usually tested by reading an eye chart from a specific distance, such as 20 feet (6 meters). The standard eye chart used for this purpose is called the Snellen chart, which contains rows of letters that decrease in size as you read down the chart.

Visual acuity is typically expressed as a fraction, with the numerator representing the testing distance and the denominator indicating the smallest line of type that can be read clearly. For example, if a person can read the line on the eye chart that corresponds to a visual acuity of 20/20, it means they have normal vision at 20 feet. If their visual acuity is 20/40, it means they must be as close as 20 feet to see what someone with normal vision can see at 40 feet.

It's important to note that visual acuity is just one aspect of overall vision and does not necessarily reflect other important factors such as peripheral vision, depth perception, color vision, or contrast sensitivity.

The crystalline lens in the eye is composed of three main parts: the capsule, the cortex, and the nucleus. The lens cortex is the outer layer of the lens, located between the capsule and the nucleus. It is made up of proteins and water, and its primary function is to help refract (bend) light rays as they pass through the eye, contributing to the focusing power of the eye.

The cortex is more flexible than the central nucleus, allowing it to change shape and adjust the focus of the eye for different distances. However, with age, the lens cortex can become less elastic, leading to presbyopia, a common age-related condition that affects the ability to focus on close objects. Additionally, changes in the lens cortex have been associated with cataracts, a clouding of the lens that can impair vision.

The crystalline lens of the eye is covered by a transparent, elastic capsule known as the lens capsule. This capsule is made up of collagen and forms the continuous outer layer of the lens. It is highly resistant to both physical and chemical insults, which allows it to protect the lens fibers within. The lens capsule is important for maintaining the shape and transparency of the lens, which are essential for proper focusing of light onto the retina.

Crystallins are the major proteins found in the lens of the eye in vertebrates. They make up about 90% of the protein content in the lens and are responsible for maintaining the transparency and refractive properties of the lens, which are essential for clear vision. There are two main types of crystallins, alpha (α) and beta/gamma (β/γ), which are further divided into several subtypes. These proteins are highly stable and have a long half-life, which allows them to remain in the lens for an extended period of time. Mutations in crystallin genes have been associated with various eye disorders, including cataracts and certain types of glaucoma.

Intraocular lenses (IOLs) are artificial lens implants that are placed inside the eye during ophthalmic surgery, such as cataract removal. These lenses are designed to replace the natural lens of the eye that has become clouded or damaged, thereby restoring vision impairment caused by cataracts or other conditions.

There are several types of intraocular lenses available, including monofocal, multifocal, toric, and accommodative lenses. Monofocal IOLs provide clear vision at a single fixed distance, while multifocal IOLs offer clear vision at multiple distances. Toric IOLs are designed to correct astigmatism, and accommodative IOLs can change shape and position within the eye to allow for a range of vision.

The selection of the appropriate type of intraocular lens depends on various factors, including the patient's individual visual needs, lifestyle, and ocular health. The implantation procedure is typically performed on an outpatient basis and involves minimal discomfort or recovery time. Overall, intraocular lenses have become a safe and effective treatment option for patients with vision impairment due to cataracts or other eye conditions.

Blindness is a condition of complete or near-complete vision loss. It can be caused by various factors such as eye diseases, injuries, or birth defects. Total blindness means that a person cannot see anything at all, while near-complete blindness refers to having only light perception or the ability to perceive the direction of light, but not able to discern shapes or forms. Legal blindness is a term used to define a certain level of visual impairment that qualifies an individual for government assistance and benefits; it usually means best corrected visual acuity of 20/200 or worse in the better eye, or a visual field no greater than 20 degrees in diameter.

Aphakia, postcataract is a medical condition that refers to the absence of the lens in the eye after cataract surgery. A cataract is a clouding of the natural lens inside the eye that can cause vision loss. During cataract surgery, the cloudy lens is removed and replaced with an artificial lens implant. However, if there is a complication during the procedure and the artificial lens is not placed in the eye or if it becomes dislocated after surgery, then the patient will develop aphakia, postcataract.

Patients with aphakia, postcataract have poor vision and may experience symptoms such as blurry vision, glare, and halos around lights. They are also at an increased risk of developing glaucoma and retinal detachment. To correct the vision in patients with aphakia, they can wear special contact lenses or glasses with high-powered lenses, or undergo a secondary surgical procedure to implant an artificial lens in the eye.

Pseudophakia is a medical term that refers to the condition where a person's natural lens in the eye has been replaced with an artificial one. This procedure is typically performed during cataract surgery, where the cloudy, natural lens is removed and replaced with a clear, artificial lens to improve vision. The prefix "pseudo" means false or fake, and "phakia" refers to the natural lens of the eye, hence the term "Pseudophakia" implies a false or artificial lens.

Beta-crystallin A chain is a protein that is a component of the beta-crystallin complex, which is a major structural element of the vertebrate eye lens. The beta-crystallins are organized into two subfamilies, called beta-A and beta-B, based on their primary structures.

The beta-crystallin A chain is a polypeptide chain that contains approximately 100 amino acids and has a molecular weight of around 12 kilodaltons. It is encoded by the CRYBA1 gene in humans. The protein is characterized by four conserved domains, called Greek key motifs, which are involved in the formation of the quaternary structure of the beta-crystallin complex.

Mutations in the CRYBA1 gene have been associated with various forms of congenital cataracts, which are clouding of the eye lens that can lead to visual impairment or blindness. The precise function of beta-crystallins is not fully understood, but they are thought to play a role in maintaining the transparency and refractive properties of the eye lens.

Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and disorders of the eye and visual system. It is a surgical specialty, and ophthalmologists are medical doctors who complete additional years of training to become experts in eye care. They are qualified to perform eye exams, diagnose and treat eye diseases, prescribe glasses and contact lenses, and perform eye surgery. Some subspecialties within ophthalmology include cornea and external disease, glaucoma, neuro-ophthalmology, pediatric ophthalmology, retina and vitreous, and oculoplastics.

Eye diseases are a range of conditions that affect the eye or visual system, causing damage to vision and, in some cases, leading to blindness. These diseases can be categorized into various types, including:

1. Refractive errors: These include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia, which affect the way light is focused on the retina and can usually be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.
2. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens inside the eye that leads to blurry vision, glare, and decreased contrast sensitivity. Cataract surgery is the most common treatment for this condition.
3. Glaucoma: A group of diseases characterized by increased pressure in the eye, leading to damage to the optic nerve and potential blindness if left untreated. Treatment includes medications, laser therapy, or surgery.
4. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): A progressive condition that affects the central part of the retina called the macula, causing blurry vision and, in advanced stages, loss of central vision. Treatment may include anti-VEGF injections, laser therapy, or nutritional supplements.
5. Diabetic retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that affects the blood vessels in the retina, leading to bleeding, leakage, and potential blindness if left untreated. Treatment includes laser therapy, anti-VEGF injections, or surgery.
6. Retinal detachment: A separation of the retina from its underlying tissue, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly with surgery.
7. Amblyopia (lazy eye): A condition where one eye does not develop normal vision, often due to a misalignment or refractive error in childhood. Treatment includes correcting the underlying problem and encouraging the use of the weaker eye through patching or other methods.
8. Strabismus (crossed eyes): A misalignment of the eyes that can lead to amblyopia if not treated promptly with surgery, glasses, or other methods.
9. Corneal diseases: Conditions that affect the transparent outer layer of the eye, such as keratoconus, Fuchs' dystrophy, and infectious keratitis, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly.
10. Uveitis: Inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, which can cause vision loss if not treated promptly with anti-inflammatory medications or surgery.

Beta-crystallin B chain is a protein that forms part of the beta-crystallin complex, which is a major structural component of the vertebrate eye lens. The beta-crystallins are organized into two subgroups, beta-A and beta-B, based on their structural and genetic characteristics.

The beta-B crystallin proteins are encoded by four genes (CRYBB1, CRYBB2, CRYBB3, and CRYBB4) that are located in a cluster on chromosome 22 in humans. These proteins have a molecular weight of approximately 25 kDa and are composed of four distinct domains: an N-terminal domain, two Greek key motifs, and a C-terminal domain.

The beta-crystallin B chain proteins play important roles in maintaining the transparency and refractive properties of the eye lens. Mutations in these genes have been associated with various forms of cataracts, which are clouding of the eye lens that can lead to vision loss.

Capsulorhexis is a surgical procedure that is commonly performed during cataract surgery. It involves creating a circular opening in the front part of the lens capsule, which is a clear membrane that surrounds and holds the lens in place inside the eye. This opening allows the cloudy lens material (cataract) to be removed and replaced with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL).

The procedure is typically performed using a specialized instrument called a cystotome or a femtosecond laser, which creates a small tear in the capsule that can be carefully enlarged to the desired size. The capsulorhexis is crucial for the successful removal of the cataract and the proper placement of the IOL. If the capsulorhexis is not performed correctly, it can lead to complications such as posterior capsular opacification (PCO), which is a thickening and clouding of the back part of the lens capsule that can cause visual symptoms similar to those of a cataract.

Lens diseases refer to conditions that affect the lens of the eye, which is a transparent structure located behind the iris and pupil. The main function of the lens is to focus light onto the retina, enabling clear vision. Here are some examples of lens diseases:

1. Cataract: A cataract is a clouding of the lens that affects vision. It is a common age-related condition, but can also be caused by injury, disease, or medication.
2. Presbyopia: This is not strictly a "disease," but rather an age-related change in the lens that causes difficulty focusing on close objects. It typically becomes noticeable in people over the age of 40.
3. Lens dislocation: This occurs when the lens slips out of its normal position, usually due to trauma or a genetic disorder. It can cause vision problems and may require surgical intervention.
4. Lens opacity: This refers to any clouding or opacification of the lens that is not severe enough to be considered a cataract. It can cause visual symptoms such as glare or blurred vision.
5. Anterior subcapsular cataract: This is a type of cataract that forms in the front part of the lens, often as a result of injury or inflammation. It can cause significant visual impairment.
6. Posterior subcapsular cataract: This is another type of cataract that forms at the back of the lens, often as a result of diabetes or certain medications. It can also cause significant visual impairment.

Overall, lens diseases can have a significant impact on vision and quality of life, and may require medical intervention to manage or treat.

Dominant genes refer to the alleles (versions of a gene) that are fully expressed in an individual's phenotype, even if only one copy of the gene is present. In dominant inheritance patterns, an individual needs only to receive one dominant allele from either parent to express the associated trait. This is in contrast to recessive genes, where both copies of the gene must be the recessive allele for the trait to be expressed. Dominant genes are represented by uppercase letters (e.g., 'A') and recessive genes by lowercase letters (e.g., 'a'). If an individual inherits one dominant allele (A) from either parent, they will express the dominant trait (A).

Alpha-Crystallin A Chain is a protein that is part of the alpha-crystallin family, which are small heat shock proteins. These proteins play a role in protecting cells from stress and aggregation of other proteins. Alpha-Crystallin A Chain is found in various tissues, including the eye lens, where it helps maintain lens transparency and prevent cataracts. Mutations in the gene that encodes alpha-Crystallin A Chain have been associated with certain inherited forms of cataracts.

Vision disorders refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the visual system and result in various symptoms, such as blurry vision, double vision, distorted vision, impaired depth perception, and difficulty with visual tracking or focusing. These disorders can be categorized into several types, including:

1. Refractive errors: These occur when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina, resulting in blurry vision. Examples include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision).
2. Strabismus: Also known as crossed eyes or walleye, strabismus is a misalignment of the eyes where they point in different directions, which can lead to double vision or loss of depth perception.
3. Amblyopia: Often called lazy eye, amblyopia is a condition where one eye has reduced vision due to lack of proper visual development during childhood. It may be caused by strabismus, refractive errors, or other factors that interfere with normal visual development.
4. Accommodative disorders: These involve problems with the focusing ability of the eyes, such as convergence insufficiency (difficulty focusing on close objects) and accommodative dysfunction (inability to maintain clear vision at different distances).
5. Binocular vision disorders: These affect how the eyes work together as a team, leading to issues like poor depth perception, eye strain, and headaches. Examples include convergence insufficiency, divergence excess, and suppression.
6. Ocular motility disorders: These involve problems with eye movement, such as nystagmus (involuntary eye movements), strabismus, or restricted extraocular muscle function.
7. Visual processing disorders: These affect the brain's ability to interpret and make sense of visual information, even when the eyes themselves are healthy. Symptoms may include difficulty with reading, recognizing shapes and objects, and understanding spatial relationships.
8. Low vision: This term refers to significant visual impairment that cannot be fully corrected with glasses, contact lenses, medication, or surgery. It includes conditions like macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and cataracts.
9. Blindness: Complete loss of sight in both eyes, which can be caused by various factors such as injury, disease, or genetic conditions.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

The anterior chamber is the front portion of the eye, located between the cornea (the clear front "window" of the eye) and the iris (the colored part of the eye). It is filled with a clear fluid called aqueous humor that provides nutrients to the structures inside the eye and helps maintain its shape. The anterior chamber plays an important role in maintaining the overall health and function of the eye.

Medical definitions for visual impairment often vary, but according to the World Health Organization (WHO), visually impaired persons are those who have a best-corrected visual acuity of less than 0.3 (6/12) in their better eye or a visual field of less than 20 degrees in their better eye. This includes people who are blind, as well as those with partial sight.

Visual impairment can range from mild to severe and may result from a variety of causes, including genetic disorders, diseases, trauma, or aging. It is important to note that visual impairment does not necessarily mean total blindness; many visually impaired individuals have some remaining vision and can benefit from low vision services and assistive devices.

Local anesthesia is a type of anesthesia that numbs a specific area of the body, blocking pain signals from that particular region while allowing the person to remain conscious and alert. It is typically achieved through the injection or application of a local anesthetic drug, which works by temporarily inhibiting the function of nerve fibers carrying pain sensations. Common examples of local anesthetics include lidocaine, prilocaine, and bupivacaine.

Local anesthesia is commonly used for minor surgical procedures, dental work, or other medical interventions where only a small area needs to be numbed. It can also be employed as part of a combined anesthetic technique, such as in conjunction with sedation or regional anesthesia, to provide additional pain relief and increase patient comfort during more extensive surgeries.

The duration of local anesthesia varies depending on the type and dosage of the anesthetic agent used; some last for just a few hours, while others may provide numbness for up to several days. Overall, local anesthesia is considered a safe and effective method for managing pain during various medical procedures.

Eye proteins, also known as ocular proteins, are specific proteins that are found within the eye and play crucial roles in maintaining proper eye function and health. These proteins can be found in various parts of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, retina, and other structures. They perform a wide range of functions, such as:

1. Structural support: Proteins like collagen and elastin provide strength and flexibility to the eye's tissues, enabling them to maintain their shape and withstand mechanical stress.
2. Light absorption and transmission: Proteins like opsins and crystallins are involved in capturing and transmitting light signals within the eye, which is essential for vision.
3. Protection against damage: Some eye proteins, such as antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, help protect the eye from oxidative stress, UV radiation, and other environmental factors that can cause damage.
4. Regulation of eye growth and development: Various growth factors and signaling molecules, which are protein-based, contribute to the proper growth, differentiation, and maintenance of eye tissues during embryonic development and throughout adulthood.
5. Immune defense: Proteins involved in the immune response, such as complement components and immunoglobulins, help protect the eye from infection and inflammation.
6. Maintenance of transparency: Crystallin proteins in the lens maintain its transparency, allowing light to pass through unobstructed for clear vision.
7. Neuroprotection: Certain eye proteins, like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), support the survival and function of neurons within the retina, helping to preserve vision.

Dysfunction or damage to these eye proteins can contribute to various eye disorders and diseases, such as cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and others.

Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, often caused by an abnormally high pressure in the eye (intraocular pressure). This damage can lead to permanent vision loss or even blindness if left untreated. The most common type is open-angle glaucoma, which has no warning signs and progresses slowly. Angle-closure glaucoma, on the other hand, can cause sudden eye pain, redness, nausea, and vomiting, as well as rapid vision loss. Other less common types of glaucoma also exist. While there is no cure for glaucoma, early detection and treatment can help slow or prevent further vision loss.

Refractive errors are a group of vision conditions that include nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), astigmatism, and presbyopia. These conditions occur when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina, causing blurred or distorted vision.

Myopia is a condition where distant objects appear blurry while close-up objects are clear. This occurs when the eye is too long or the cornea is too curved, causing light to focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it.

Hyperopia, on the other hand, is a condition where close-up objects appear blurry while distant objects are clear. This happens when the eye is too short or the cornea is not curved enough, causing light to focus behind the retina.

Astigmatism is a condition that causes blurred vision at all distances due to an irregularly shaped cornea or lens.

Presbyopia is a natural aging process that affects everyone as they get older, usually around the age of 40. It causes difficulty focusing on close-up objects and can be corrected with reading glasses, bifocals, or progressive lenses.

Refractive errors can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam and are typically corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery such as LASIK.

Aqueous humor is a clear, watery fluid that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It is produced by the ciliary processes in the posterior chamber and circulates through the pupil into the anterior chamber, where it provides nutrients to the cornea and lens, maintains intraocular pressure, and helps to shape the eye. The aqueous humor then drains out of the eye through the trabecular meshwork and into the canal of Schlemm, eventually reaching the venous system.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Eye injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the eye or its surrounding structures. These injuries can vary in severity and may include:

1. Corneal abrasions: A scratch or scrape on the clear surface of the eye (cornea).
2. Chemical burns: Occurs when chemicals come into contact with the eye, causing damage to the cornea and other structures.
3. Eyelid lacerations: Cuts or tears to the eyelid.
4. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: Bleeding under the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye.
5. Hyphema: Accumulation of blood in the anterior chamber of the eye, which is the space between the cornea and iris.
6. Orbital fractures: Breaks in the bones surrounding the eye.
7. Retinal detachment: Separation of the retina from its underlying tissue, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly.
8. Traumatic uveitis: Inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye, caused by trauma.
9. Optic nerve damage: Damage to the optic nerve, which transmits visual information from the eye to the brain.

Eye injuries can result from a variety of causes, including accidents, sports-related injuries, violence, and chemical exposure. It is important to seek medical attention promptly for any suspected eye injury to prevent further damage and potential vision loss.

Microphthalmos is a medical condition where one or both eyes are abnormally small due to developmental anomalies in the eye. The size of the eye may vary from slightly smaller than normal to barely visible. This condition can occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome with other congenital abnormalities. It can also be associated with other ocular conditions such as cataracts, retinal disorders, and orbital defects. Depending on the severity, microphthalmos may lead to visual impairment or blindness.

Alpha-crystallins are small heat shock proteins found in the lens of the eye. They are composed of two subunits, alpha-A and alpha-B, which can form homo- or hetero-oligomers. Alpha-crystallins have chaperone-like activity, helping to prevent protein aggregation and maintain transparency of the lens. Additionally, they play a role in maintaining the structural integrity of the lens and protecting it from oxidative stress. Mutations in alpha-crystallin genes have been associated with certain forms of cataracts and other eye diseases.

Sodium Selenite is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound with the formula Na2SeO3. It is used in medicine as a dietary supplement and also in veterinary medicine. Medically, it is used to treat selenium deficiency, which is rare.

Selenium is an essential trace element for human health, playing a crucial role in various physiological processes, such as antioxidant defense systems, thyroid hormone metabolism, and DNA synthesis. Sodium Selenite serves as a source of selenium in these medical applications.

Please note that supplementation with sodium selenite should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as excessive selenium intake can lead to selenosis, a condition characterized by symptoms like nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and neurological damage.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

A vitrectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of some or all of the vitreous humor, which is the clear gel-like substance filling the center of the eye. This surgery is often performed to treat various retinal disorders such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, macular hole, and vitreous hemorrhage.

During a vitrectomy, the ophthalmologist makes small incisions in the sclera (the white part of the eye) to access the vitreous cavity. The surgeon then uses specialized instruments to remove the cloudy or damaged vitreous and may also repair any damage to the retina or surrounding tissues. Afterward, a clear saline solution is injected into the eye to maintain its shape and help facilitate healing.

In some cases, a gas bubble or silicone oil may be placed in the eye after the vitrectomy to help hold the retina in place while it heals. These substances will gradually be absorbed or removed during follow-up appointments. The body naturally produces a new, clear vitreous to replace the removed material over time.

Vitrectomy is typically performed under local anesthesia and may require hospitalization or outpatient care depending on the individual case. Potential risks and complications include infection, bleeding, cataract formation, retinal detachment, and increased eye pressure. However, with proper care and follow-up, most patients experience improved vision after a successful vitrectomy procedure.

Corneal opacity refers to a condition in which the cornea, the clear front part of the eye, becomes cloudy or opaque. This can occur due to various reasons such as injury, infection, degenerative changes, or inherited disorders. As a result, light is not properly refracted and vision becomes blurred or distorted. In some cases, corneal opacity can lead to complete loss of vision in the affected eye. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medication, corneal transplantation, or other surgical procedures.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Astigmatism is a common eye condition that occurs when the cornea or lens has an irregular shape, causing blurred or distorted vision. The cornea and lens are typically smooth and curved uniformly in all directions, allowing light to focus clearly on the retina. However, if the cornea or lens is not smoothly curved and has a steeper curve in one direction than the other, it causes light to focus unevenly on the retina, leading to astigmatism.

Astigmatism can cause blurred vision at all distances, as well as eye strain, headaches, and fatigue. It is often present from birth and can be hereditary, but it can also develop later in life due to eye injuries or surgery. Astigmatism can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery such as LASIK.

The vitreous body, also known simply as the vitreous, is the clear, gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina in the eye. It is composed mainly of water, but also contains collagen fibers, hyaluronic acid, and other proteins. The vitreous helps to maintain the shape of the eye and provides a transparent medium for light to pass through to reach the retina. With age, the vitreous can become more liquefied and may eventually separate from the retina, leading to symptoms such as floaters or flashes of light.

Low vision is a term used to describe significant visual impairment that cannot be corrected with standard glasses, contact lenses, medication or surgery. It is typically defined as visual acuity of less than 20/70 in the better-seeing eye after best correction, or a visual field of less than 20 degrees in the better-seeing eye.

People with low vision may have difficulty performing everyday tasks such as reading, recognizing faces, watching television, driving, or simply navigating their environment. They may also experience symptoms such as sensitivity to light, glare, or contrast, and may benefit from the use of visual aids, assistive devices, and rehabilitation services to help them maximize their remaining vision and maintain their independence.

Low vision can result from a variety of causes, including eye diseases such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, or cataracts, as well as congenital or inherited conditions, brain injuries, or aging. It is important for individuals with low vision to receive regular eye examinations and consult with a low vision specialist to determine the best course of treatment and management.

Iris diseases refer to a variety of conditions that affect the iris, which is the colored part of the eye that regulates the amount of light reaching the retina by adjusting the size of the pupil. Some common iris diseases include:

1. Iritis: This is an inflammation of the iris and the adjacent tissues in the eye. It can cause pain, redness, photophobia (sensitivity to light), and blurred vision.
2. Aniridia: A congenital condition characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of the iris. This can lead to decreased visual acuity, sensitivity to light, and an increased risk of glaucoma.
3. Iris cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the iris. They are usually benign but can cause vision problems if they grow too large or interfere with the function of the eye.
4. Iris melanoma: A rare type of eye cancer that develops in the pigmented cells of the iris. It can cause symptoms such as blurred vision, floaters, and changes in the appearance of the iris.
5. Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome (ICE): A group of rare eye conditions that affect the cornea and the iris. They are characterized by the growth of abnormal tissue on the back surface of the cornea and can lead to vision loss.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of iris diseases, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and preserve your vision.

A LOD (Logarithm of Odds) score is not a medical term per se, but rather a statistical concept that is used in genetic research and linkage analysis to determine the likelihood of a gene or genetic marker being linked to a particular disease or trait. The LOD score compares the odds of observing the pattern of inheritance of a genetic marker in a family if the marker is linked to the disease, versus the odds if the marker is not linked. A LOD score of 3 or higher is generally considered evidence for linkage, while a score of -2 or lower is considered evidence against linkage.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

Aldehyde reductase is an enzyme that belongs to the family of alcohol dehydrogenases. Its primary function is to catalyze the reduction of a wide variety of aldehydes into their corresponding alcohols, using NADPH as a cofactor. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated from various metabolic processes, such as lipid peroxidation and alcohol metabolism. It is widely distributed in different tissues, including the liver, kidney, and brain. In addition to its detoxifying function, aldehyde reductase has been implicated in several physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as neuroprotection, cancer, and diabetes.

Connexins are a family of proteins that form the structural units of gap junctions, which are specialized channels that allow for the direct exchange of small molecules and ions between adjacent cells. These channels play crucial roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis, coordinating cellular activities, and enabling communication between cells. In humans, there are 21 different connexin genes that encode for these proteins, with each isoform having unique properties and distributions within the body. Mutations in connexin genes have been linked to a variety of human diseases, including hearing loss, skin disorders, and heart conditions.

Aphakia is a medical condition that refers to the absence of the lens in the eye. This can occur naturally, but it's most commonly the result of surgery to remove a cataract, a cloudy lens that can cause vision loss. In some cases, the lens may not be successfully removed or may be accidentally lost during surgery, leading to aphakia. People with aphakia typically have significant vision problems and may require corrective measures such as glasses, contact lenses, or an intraocular lens implant to improve their vision.

Eyeglasses are a medical device used to correct vision problems. Also known as spectacles, they consist of frames that hold one or more lenses through which a person looks to see clearly. The lenses may be made of glass or plastic and are designed to compensate for various visual impairments such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, or presbyopia. Eyeglasses can be custom-made to fit an individual's face and prescription, and they come in a variety of styles, colors, and materials. Some people wear eyeglasses all the time, while others may only need to wear them for certain activities such as reading or driving.

Galactosemia is a rare metabolic disorder that affects the body's ability to metabolize the simple sugar galactose, which is found in milk and other dairy products. It is caused by deficiency or complete absence of one of the three enzymes needed to convert galactose into glucose:

1. Galactokinase (GALK) deficiency - also known as Galactokinase galactosemia, is a milder form of the disorder.
2. Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) deficiency - the most common and severe form of classic galactosemia.
3. Galactose epimerase (GALE) deficiency - also known as Epimerase deficiency galactosemia, is a rare and milder form of the disorder.

The most severe form of the disorder, GALT deficiency, can lead to serious health problems such as cataracts, liver damage, mental retardation, and sepsis if left untreated. Treatment typically involves removing galactose from the diet, which requires avoiding all milk and dairy products. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes in individuals with galactosemia.

Vision tests are a series of procedures used to assess various aspects of the visual system, including visual acuity, accommodation, convergence, divergence, stereopsis, color vision, and peripheral vision. These tests help healthcare professionals diagnose and manage vision disorders, such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, amblyopia, strabismus, and eye diseases like glaucoma, cataracts, and macular degeneration. Common vision tests include:

1. Visual acuity test (Snellen chart or letter chart): Measures the sharpness of a person's vision at different distances.
2. Refraction test: Determines the correct lens prescription for glasses or contact lenses by assessing how light is bent as it passes through the eye.
3. Color vision test: Evaluates the ability to distinguish between different colors and color combinations, often using pseudoisochromatic plates or Ishihara tests.
4. Stereopsis test: Assesses depth perception and binocular vision by presenting separate images to each eye that, when combined, create a three-dimensional effect.
5. Cover test: Examines eye alignment and the presence of strabismus (crossed eyes or turned eyes) by covering and uncovering each eye while observing eye movements.
6. Ocular motility test: Assesses the ability to move the eyes in various directions and coordinate both eyes during tracking and convergence/divergence movements.
7. Accommodation test: Evaluates the ability to focus on objects at different distances by using lenses, prisms, or dynamic retinoscopy.
8. Pupillary response test: Examines the size and reaction of the pupils to light and near objects.
9. Visual field test: Measures the peripheral (side) vision using automated perimetry or manual confrontation techniques.
10. Slit-lamp examination: Inspects the structures of the front part of the eye, such as the cornea, iris, lens, and anterior chamber, using a specialized microscope.

These tests are typically performed by optometrists, ophthalmologists, or other vision care professionals during routine eye examinations or when visual symptoms are present.

DNA Mutational Analysis is a laboratory test used to identify genetic variations or changes (mutations) in the DNA sequence of a gene. This type of analysis can be used to diagnose genetic disorders, predict the risk of developing certain diseases, determine the most effective treatment for cancer, or assess the likelihood of passing on an inherited condition to offspring.

The test involves extracting DNA from a patient's sample (such as blood, saliva, or tissue), amplifying specific regions of interest using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then sequencing those regions to determine the precise order of nucleotide bases in the DNA molecule. The resulting sequence is then compared to reference sequences to identify any variations or mutations that may be present.

DNA Mutational Analysis can detect a wide range of genetic changes, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, deletions, duplications, and rearrangements. The test is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations to provide a comprehensive assessment of a patient's genetic profile.

It is important to note that not all mutations are pathogenic or associated with disease, and the interpretation of DNA Mutational Analysis results requires careful consideration of the patient's medical history, family history, and other relevant factors.

Ocular refraction is a medical term that refers to the bending of light as it passes through the optical media of the eye, including the cornea and lens. This process allows the eye to focus light onto the retina, creating a clear image. The refractive power of the eye is determined by the curvature and transparency of these structures.

In a normal eye, light rays are bent or refracted in such a way that they converge at a single point on the retina, producing a sharp and focused image. However, if the curvature of the cornea or lens is too steep or too flat, the light rays may not converge properly, resulting in a refractive error such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), or astigmatism.

Ocular refraction can be measured using a variety of techniques, including retinoscopy, automated refraction, and subjective refraction. These measurements are used to determine the appropriate prescription for corrective lenses such as eyeglasses or contact lenses. In some cases, ocular refractive errors may be corrected surgically through procedures such as LASIK or PRK.

Myopia, also known as nearsightedness, is a common refractive error of the eye. It occurs when the eye is either too long or the cornea (the clear front part of the eye) is too curved. As a result, light rays focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it, causing distant objects to appear blurry while close objects remain clear.

Myopia typically develops during childhood and can progress gradually or rapidly until early adulthood. It can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery such as LASIK. Regular eye examinations are essential for people with myopia to monitor any changes in their prescription and ensure proper correction.

While myopia is generally not a serious condition, high levels of nearsightedness can increase the risk of certain eye diseases, including cataracts, glaucoma, retinal detachment, and myopic degeneration. Therefore, it's crucial to manage myopia effectively and maintain regular follow-ups with an eye care professional.

Ophthalmic solutions are sterile, single-use or multi-dose preparations in a liquid form that are intended for topical administration to the eye. These solutions can contain various types of medications, such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents, antihistamines, or lubricants, which are used to treat or prevent ocular diseases and conditions.

The pH and osmolarity of ophthalmic solutions are carefully controlled to match the physiological environment of the eye and minimize any potential discomfort or irritation. The solutions may be packaged in various forms, including drops, sprays, or irrigations, depending on the intended use and administration route.

It is important to follow the instructions for use provided by a healthcare professional when administering ophthalmic solutions, as improper use can lead to eye injury or reduced effectiveness of the medication.

Different types of cataracts Posterior polar cataract of an 8-year-old boy in left eye Nuclear sclerosis cataract of a 70-year- ... old male Cortical cataract of a 60-year-old male Retroillumination of cortical cataract Posterior subcapsular cataract of a 16- ... A cataract is a cloudy area in the lens of the eye that leads to a decrease in vision. Cataracts often develop slowly and can ... Cataracts become more common with age. In the United States, cataracts occur in 68% of those over the age of 80 years. ...
Congenital cataracts are a lens opacity that is present at birth. Congenital cataracts occur in a broad range of severity. Some ... Congenital cataracts are responsible for nearly 10% of all vision loss in children worldwide. Congenital cataracts are one of ... Metabolic diseases tend to be more commonly associated with bilateral cataracts. Approximately 50% of all congenital cataract ... Laboratory Tests : In contrast to unilateral cataracts, bilateral congenital cataracts may be associated with many systemic and ...
... is located in Wollondilly and Wollongong LGAs. As at 21 January 2009, Cataract Dam was the first of the four water ... Cataract Dam was the first major dam situated within a large water supply catchment area constructed in NSW. Cataract Dam is ... The Cataract Dam is a heritage-listed dam in Cataract (formerly Appin), New South Wales, Australia, provides water to the ... Cataract Dam is located within the Upper Nepean Catchment Area which has developed with the completion of the Cataract and ...
The Cataract Group is a geologic group in Ohio. It dates back to the Silurian. Earth sciences portal Ohio portal Paleontology ...
... was so named on account of a nearby waterfall, or cataract. Like other mountains in Banff Park, Cataract Peak is ... "Topographic map of Cataract Peak". opentopomap.org. Retrieved 2021-08-15. "Cataract Peak". Geographical Names Data Base. ... Based on the Köppen climate classification, Cataract Peak is located in a subarctic climate zone with cold, snowy winters, and ... Temperatures can drop below −20 °C with wind chill factors below −30 °C. "Cataract Peak". Bivouac.com. Retrieved 2021-08-15. " ...
... glassblowers cataracts can also be diagnosed the same way as cataracts not associated with glassblowing. To diagnose cataracts ... Glassblower's cataracts are a form of cataract due to an occupational exposure. They are formed by many years or decades of ... There is not one clear cut way to prevent cataracts. As this specific type of cataract is associated with occupational ... "Cataracts". National Eye Institute. August 3, 2019. "Cataract Diagnosis and Treatment". American Academy of Ophthalmology. 2019 ...
Heavy rainfall can then wash away the micro-islands, so a cataract bog is in a continual state of change and renewal. Cataract ... While a cataract bog is host to plants typical of a bog, it is technically a fen. Bogs get water from the atmosphere, while ... Cataract bogs inhabit a narrow, linear zone next to the stream and are partly shaded by trees and shrubs in the adjacent plant ... A cataract bog is a rare ecological community formed where a permanent stream flows over a granite outcropping. The sheeting of ...
A galactosemic cataract is cataract which is associated with the consequences of galactosemia. The presence of presenile ... Galactosemic cataract at NLM Genetics Home Reference Kinoshita JH (October 1965). "Cataracts in galactosemia. The Jonas S. ... 6 depicts the three stages of galactosemic cataract with their respective changes in lens hydration. As cataract formation ... The treatment for galactosemic cataract is no different from general galactosemia treatment. In fact, galactosemic cataract is ...
Australia Cataracts of the Nile Old Cataract Hotel, a hotel in Aswan, Egypt Cataract, Ontario Cataract, Indiana Cataract, ... Look up cataract in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. A cataract is an opacity in the lens of the eye or its capsule. Cataract ... Cataract album), by the eponymous band Songs: "Cataract," by Sparta on album Wiretap Scars (2002) "Cataracts", by Andrew Bird ... California hip hop duo Cataract (band), European metalcore band from Switzerland Cataract ( ...
... can refer to In Australia Cataract Falls (Blue Mountains), in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales In the United ... States Cataract Falls in Marin County, California Cataract Falls (Indiana) in Owen County, Indiana Cataract Falls in Waterfalls ... of Montana This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Cataract Falls. If an internal link led you here, ...
Cataract was a Swiss metalcore band signed to Metal Blade Records. The band formed in 1998 and disbanded in 2013. Cataract was ... 2006 Cataract - 2008 Killing the Eternal - 2010 Official website Cataract Interview with Fedi (French) on Skartnak.com (Use dmy ... Shortly after, Cataract recorded five songs for the Martyr's Melodies EP, which was released on 7" and as a MCD. The band ... Cataract caught the attention of Metal Blade Records and was ultimately signed to their roster in 2004. In March they entered ...
... was shortlisted for the 2013 Scotiabank Giller Prize. Richler, Noah (13 September 2013). "Book Review: Cataract ... Cataract City is a 2013 novel by Craig Davidson published in Canada by Doubleday. The title refers to the city nickname of ... Cataract City was published to positive reviews. The National Post wrote of it as a "superb, thoughtful and thoroughly ... Beattie, Steven W. (13 September 2013). "Craig Davidson's Cataract City, red in tooth and claw". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved ...
The overall cataract-surgery coverage rate was 9.19%. The prevalence of cataract and cataract surgical coverage also ... Cataracts become more common with age. In the United States, cataracts occur in 68% of those over the age of 80 years. They are ... A cataract is a cloudy area in the lens of the eye that causes visual impairment. Cataracts usually develop slowly and can ... Early symptoms of cataract may be improved by wearing specific types of glasses; if this does not help, cataract surgery is the ...
... is cataract that occurs at birth or in childhood. It may be congenital or acquired. Congenital cataracts are ... Blindness Cataract Cataract Surgery Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K. (2015-01-01). "Pediatric cataract: challenges and future ... Childhood cataracts make up 7.4% to 15.3% of blindness in kids. The prevalence of childhood cataracts ranges from 0.63/10,000 ... Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness in children. Childhood cataracts are the primary cause of childhood blindness. ...
Because of the difficulty of the rapids, Powell named the canyon Cataract Canyon. After exiting Cataract Canyon, Powell ... With this newer equipment, many commercial outfitters began running Grand Canyon and Cataract Canyon. Cataract Canyon remains a ... and spend up to five days on the river before entering Cataract Canyon. Motorized trips can make the trip into Cataract Canyon ... ISBN 978-0-06-095586-1 History of Cataract Canyon Archived 2010-07-03 at the Wayback Machine Historic Flows in Cataract Canyon ...
Cataract was platted in 1851. It takes its name from the large waterfalls, or cataract, nearby. A post office was established ... Cataract is located 6 miles (9.7 km) south of Cloverdale, at 39°25′39″N 86°48′59″W / 39.42750°N 86.81639°W / 39.42750; - ... Cataract is an unincorporated community in Jennings Township, Owen County, in the U.S. state of Indiana. ... "Cataract, Indiana". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the ...
ISBN 0-9596090-7-5. Media related to Cataract Gorge at Wikimedia Commons Original video of the Cataract Gorge in flood, August ... "Cataract Gorge Reserve". 15 June 2008. "Cataract Gorge". 15 June 2008. "Longest Single span chairlift". 22 September 2007. ... August 2009 View of first Basin King's Bridge View of Cataract Gorge "Launceston Cataract Gorge & First Basin - Launceston's ... Picture of Cataract Gorge taken from the suspension bridge South Esk River in flood at the Gorge South Esk River in flood at ...
... may refer to: Cagles Mill Lake, Indiana, United States Cataract Lake (Arizona), United States Lake Cataract, near ... Cataract Dam, New South Wales, Australia This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Cataract Lake. If an ...
... is .70 miles (1.13 km) NNE of Piegan Mountain and more than a mile west of Mount Siyeh. Based on the Köppen ... Cataract Mountain (8,180 feet (2,493 m)) is located in the Lewis Range, Glacier National Park in the U.S. state of Montana. ... "Cataract Mountain". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the ... Mountains and mountain ranges of Glacier National Park (U.S.) "Cataract Mountain, Montana". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved May 27, ...
... may refer to: Cataract River (Michigan), a watercourse in Michigan, United States Cataract River (Tenterfield), ... a tributary of the Clarence River in north-eastern New South Wales, Australia Cataract River (Wollondilly), a tributary of the ...
Rapids and Cataract House, 1844-1894 North wing of Cataract House, 1844-1894 "Niagara Falls: Hotels & Campgrounds - a history ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cataract House. History of the Cataract House and the Underground Railroad from the ... The Cataract House Hotel was built on the Niagara River bank in 1825 by owner David Chapman. The land for the hotel near what ... The Cataract House was a hotel in the neighborhood of Buffalo Avenue in Niagara Falls, New York. The hotel was established in ...
Sign Welcome sign Elementary school Downtown Cataract Cataract dam waterfall Cataract pond List of census-designated places in ... Cataract has an area of 0.594 square miles (1.54 km2), all of it land. The Paul and Matilda Wegner Grotto, located southwest of ... Cataract is a census-designated place (CDP) in the Town of Little Falls in Monroe County, Wisconsin, United States. As of the ... Southeast of Cataract is The Little Falls Railroad & Doll Museum, with a garden railway, model railroad layout, and doll ...
An air cataract of this type was supplied for the Ale and Cakes Mine. The plunger pump design of cataract had appeared in ... The cataract runs at its own speed, but does not measure the resultant speed of the engine. The cataract has also been ... including a water cataract where the same water was used and recycled continuously and also an air cataract using a circular ... Use of a cataract could allow an engine to be operated at only a third of its ungoverned speed. When pumping load was variable ...
The cataract provides one of the main inflows of North Atlantic Deep Water, accounting for around half of dense water overflow ... The cataract transports around 3.2 million m3 (110 million cu ft) of water per second, greatly eclipsing the discharge of the ... The dense and cold water mass that spills across the cataract, known as Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW), is thought to ... The North Icelandic Jet and two branches of the East Greenland Current transport the dense water to and across the cataract. ...
Outdoor view of the Old Cataract dining room. Inside the Old Cataract dining room. Architect's mark Old Cataract from the Nile ... during which the 1961 New Cataract tower was combined with the historic Old Cataract wing into one hotel. The Old Cataract wing ... In the 1990s, the French Accor hotel company assumed management of the Old Cataract and the New Cataract, placing them first in ... The hotel reopened on October 18, 2011, as the Sofitel Legend Old Cataract Aswan Hotel. Egypt's CBC used the Old Cataract as ...
Cataract River rises on the eastern slopes of the Great Dividing Range, near Red Hill, southeast of Tenterfield and flows ... "Map of Cataract River, NSW". Bonzle Digital Atlas of Australia. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 29°04′54″S 152°07′04″E / 29.08167°S ... Cataract River, a mostly perennial stream of the Clarence River catchment, is located in the Northern Tablelands district of ... Between Timbara Road and Sandy Hill, the course of the Cataract River is generally adjacent to the Bruxner Highway. New South ...
Before this technology, cataract surgery consisted of intracapsular cataract extraction, in which the entire lens and capsule ... Nepal is the only country in the Himalayan region performing more cataract surgery than the annual rate of new cataract ... and failed cataract surgery. In contrast, in 2017, over 600,000 cataract surgeries were performed in over 16 countries and over ... The Himalayan Cataract Project (HCP) was created in 1994 by Dr. Geoffrey Tabin and Dr. Sanduk Ruit with a goal of establishing ...
The Cataract River, a perennial river that is part of the Hawkesbury-Nepean catchment, is located in the Macarthur region of ... The Cataract River rises on the western slopes of the Illawarra escarpment, west of Mount Pleasant, and flows generally north ... "Cataract River, NSW". Bonzle Digital Atlas of Australia. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 34°15′S 150°47′E / 34.250°S 150.783°E / - ... "Cataract River". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Retrieved 1 April 2013 ...
The Cataract River is a 1.9-mile-long (3.1 km) river in Newton Township, Mackinac County in the Upper Peninsula of the U.S. ... "Cataract River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior ... The river rises from Mud Lake at 45°59′59″N 85°39′38″W / 45.99972°N 85.66056°W / 45.99972; -85.66056 (Cataract River ( ... Cataract River (mouth)) between Point Patterson and Needle Point "Mud Lake". Geographic Names Information System. United States ...
"Cataract and the six-song Rag & Bone (combined as Rag & Bone Plus Cataract, a single CD bearing the EP's original artwork) are ... Cataract is the second studio album by American alternative country band The Walkabouts released on March 1, 1989, through Sub ... Rag & bone/Cataract, The Walkabouts at AllMusic. Retrieved November 13, 2012. Coley, Byron (August 1989). "Underground". Spin. ... "Sub Pop, The Walkabouts, Cataract". Sub Pop Records. Archived from the original on November 20, 2012. Retrieved November 13, ...
Cataracts are very common in older people. Learn about symptoms and surgery. ... A cataract is a clouding of the lens in your eye. It affects your vision. ... Facts about Cataract (National Eye Institute) Also in Spanish * What Are Cataracts? (American Academy of Ophthalmology) Also in ... Cataract Surgery (American Academy of Ophthalmology) Also in Spanish * Cataract surgery - series -- Normal anatomy (Medical ...
With most cataracts caused by aging, cataract surgery has become one of the most common and successful surgeries around. ...
Infrared energy (glass-blowers cataract), electric shock, and ionizing radiation are other rare causes of traumatic cataracts. ... Traumatic cataracts occur secondary to blunt or penetrating ocular trauma. ... Traumatic cataracts occur secondary to blunt or penetrating ocular trauma. Infrared energy (glass-blowers cataract), electric ... Accuracy of 3 imaging modalities for evaluation of the posterior lens capsule in traumatic cataract. J Cataract Refract Surg. ...
Cataract is responsible for over 51% of blindness in the Eastern Mediterranean RegionWhat is cataract?. Cataract is a clouding ... Cataract is also an important cause of low vision.. There is no known prevention for the cataract. Reduction of cigarette ... Cataract is responsible for over 51% of blindness in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Although cataract can be easily ... Cataract, the most common cause of blindness and visual impairment, is often related to ageing. Occasionally children are born ...
Different types of cataracts Posterior polar cataract of an 8-year-old boy in left eye Nuclear sclerosis cataract of a 70-year- ... old male Cortical cataract of a 60-year-old male Retroillumination of cortical cataract Posterior subcapsular cataract of a 16- ... A cataract is a cloudy area in the lens of the eye that leads to a decrease in vision. Cataracts often develop slowly and can ... Cataracts become more common with age. In the United States, cataracts occur in 68% of those over the age of 80 years. ...
Fungal Endophthalmitis Outbreak after Cataract Surgery, South Korea, 2020 Soo Jeong Yoon1, Soo Hyun Kim1, Hyun Jung Bahk, Yeong ... Characteristics of patients with fungal endophthalmitis after cataract surgery, South Korea, 2020 ... Fungal Endophthalmitis Outbreak after Cataract Surgery, South Korea, 2020. ...
Researchers used a new calculation method to determine that Medicare reimbursements for complex cataract surgery dont always ... Key findings of the cataract surgery study. The study included a total of 16,092 cataract surgeries, out of which 13,904 were ... Complex cataract surgery requires more time, resources, and effort from the physician compared to simple cataract surgery. But ... Cataract-clearing drug shows promise as treatment without surgery. Scientists have seen promising results in treating cataracts ...
The researchers examined the link between quitting smoking and more than 5,700 cases of cataract removal over the course of 12 ... The study findings showed that men who smoked more than 15 cigarettes daily had a 42 percent higher risk of undergoing cataract ... Smokers who kick the habit may reduce their risk of developing the blurred vision problem known as cataracts, new research ... Smoking cessation may decrease the risk of cataract, but the risk among former smokers persists for decades. Since smoking is ...
Streamlined workflows can simplify your procedures and ease up your cataract surgery especially when it comes to routine ... Join our recorded session from last ESCRS in 2020 and learn more on latest technology in cataract surgery!. ... Streamlined workflows can simplify your procedures and ease up your cataract surgery especially when it comes to routine ... Andreas Borkenstein will illuminate their approaches to simplify cataract surgery procedures from an intra-operative ...
A new book about health care in Roman Britain details cataract operations carried out in the UK. ... "A cataract is a clouding of the lens, which loses its transparency and becomes misty and foggy and white," he said. "The lens ... Blows to the head were sometimes used to try and dislodge the cataract. Dr Nick Summerton, GP and advisor to the National ... Cataract surgery is now the commonest operation performed on the NHS with vastly superior techniques and generally excellent ...
Everything related to CATARACT on MetalSucks, your source for heavy metal news, music reviews and events. ... NEAERA AND CATARACT: RECYCLING OLD REVIEWS TO ASSESS NEW MUSIC September 21st, 2010 at 1:00pm. Axl Rosenberg ... CATARACTS SELF-TITLED ALBUM: COMPETENTLY GENERIC May 12th, 2008 at 12:19pm. Axl Rosenberg ...
In the US, cataracts affect over 24 million people. ... the most prevalent causes of foggy and hazy vision is cataracts ... Current Treatments for Cataracts. One of the most widely used and highly effective methods for treating cataracts is a surgical ... One of the most prevalent causes of foggy and hazy vision is cataracts. In the US, cataracts affect over 24 million people. ... Cataract surgery Medical Illustrations. ACCESS Health International. Cataract removal is the most commonly performed surgical ...
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A cataract is an opacification of the lens of the eye. There are three specific types of cataract: nuclear, cortical, and ... Economic Impact of Cataract. Delaying cataract by 10 years can have a significant impact on quality of life while decreasing ... Cataract is a prevalent condition in developed and developing countries. Adult cataract is typically seen in people aged 50 ... In the U.S., there are two main types of extraction surgeries for cataract: extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and ...
From posterior polar cataract and temporal negative dysphotopsia to phaco in uveitis and glaucoma patients, the 2016 Cataract ... cataract from a posterior polar cataract (PPC). PPC is an uncommon condition compared with subcapsu-lar cataract. A typical PPC ... J Cataract Refract Surg. 2016;42(10):1449-1455.. Sam Masket While negative dysphotopsia is not rare early after cataract ... Case 3: Posterior Polar Cataract. Q3.1 For a posterior polar cataract, I would …. Hydrodissect and hydrodelineate ...
Technique articles that describe innovative surgical approaches to cataract and refractive surgery, and Review/Update, Case ... The Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery® (JCRS) publishes monthly in its current form since 1996, the JCRS is a preeminent ... Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please ...
There is no natural cure for cataracts. However, animal research is ongoing into nonsurgical treatments for the condition. ... What to know about cataracts and vision loss. Without treatment, cataracts can cause blindness. Learn more about cataract ... Cortical cataracts: Symptoms, causes, treatment, and more. Cortical cataracts can cause vision loss that may gradually progress ... There is no natural way to prevent cataracts, but there are some measures a person can take to help prevent cataracts from ...
Causes of cataract • Senile cataract: Most people above fifty develop some degree of cataract. While the type of cataract and ... Symptoms of cataract. These depend upon the type and severity of the cataract. As the cataract progresses, vision becomes ... The most common types of cataract surgery include intra-capsular cataract extraction, extra-capsular cataract extraction and ... Silicea treats cataract cases owing to skin eruptions or foot sweat.. • Kali Muris is advised when cataract is associated with ...
... Surgery Mission in Ghana. September 05, 2023 13:47 ET. , Source: Micro ... The medical device companys contribution played a pivotal role in enabling safe and successful cataract surgeries in Techiman ... carried out the transformative cataract surgery mission in Techiman. The latest mission to Ghana was led by Dr. Seth Meskin, an ...
Major advances in cataract extraction techniques and instrumentation have occurred over the past decade. Smaller incisions, ... Control of intraocular inflammation associated with cataract surgery Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2000 Feb;11(1):3-6. doi: 10.1097/ ... Major advances in cataract extraction techniques and instrumentation have occurred over the past decade. Smaller incisions, ... This article reviews the most recent literature regarding the control of intraocular inflammation associated with cataract ...
Cataract patients may benefit from higher sensory input ... "Cataract disease affects many older adults, and cataract ... Cataract extraction was more strongly linked to reduced dementia risk during the first 5 years after cataract surgery (HR 0.68 ... "Because cataract affects the overall quality of light that reaches the retina including the blue light, cataract surgery may ... Dementia Incidence Linked to Cataract Surgery. - Cataract patients may benefit from higher sensory input. by Judy George, ...
Recovery from cataract surgery generally lasts a short period of time, and you can return to many normal daily activities. ... What to Know About Childhood Cataracts. Cataracts are far less common that in adults. Its important for a child with cataracts ... Does Cataract Surgery Last a Lifetime?. Cataract surgery itself lasts 20-30 minutes. The results of surgery may last a lifetime ... Cataracts are a leading cause of blindness across the world. Age-related cataracts usually take decades to cause blindness. But ...
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Diabetes Related Cataracts in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes ... This is a cataract. Over time, the cataract may grow larger and cloud more of the lens, making it harder to see.. Researchers ... Diabetes Related Cataracts. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Diabetes Related Cataracts in minutes with ... Most cataract surgery today is done by phacoemulsification, also called "small incision cataract surgery.". Extracapsular ...
Both canine cataract surgery and medicinal treatment offer results in the treatment of canine cataracts. While the surgerys ... Treatment for a canine with cataracts currently offers two options, cataract surgery or treatment with medicine. While each ... Results of this treatment are unpredictable and vary depending upon the maturity and type of cataract. Injury-induced cataracts ... Medicinal Option For Cataracts. The medicinal option is a process of giving eye drops to your dog three to four times every day ...
cataract (DOID:83) Alliance: disease page Alt IDs: OMIM:601371, ICD10CM:H26, ICD9CM:366.8, OMIM:PS116200, UMLS_CUI:C0029531 ... Human Disease Modeled: cataract. Associated Mouse Gene: Lim2 Allelic Composition. Genetic Background. Reference. Phenotypes. ... Human Disease Modeled: cataract. Associated Mouse Gene: Lss Allelic Composition. Genetic Background. Reference. Phenotypes. ... Human Disease Modeled: cataract. Associated Mouse Gene: Pank4 Allelic Composition. Genetic Background. Reference. Phenotypes. ...
... regenerative medicine approach to remove congenital cataracts in infants, permitting remaining stem cells to regrow functional ... Age-related cataracts is the leading cause of blindness in the world. More than 20 million Americans suffer from cataracts, and ... Congenital cataracts -- lens clouding that occurs at birth or shortly thereafter -- is a significant cause of blindness in ... "We believe that our new approach will result in a paradigm shift in cataract surgery and may offer patients a safer and better ...
During cataract surgery, your cloudy natural lens is removed and replaced with a clear artificial lens. That lens is called an ... Popular Cataract Answers. *Can cataract surgery affect depth perception? (Video Answer). *How long will I have blurry vision ... Can I prevent or slow the development of my mild cataract?. *How long do I have to use the antibiotic eye drops after cataract ... Your own lens should be clear, but with a cataract it is cloudy. Having a cataract can be like looking through a foggy or dusty ...
Her primary role at the office will consist of helping cataract surgery patients. ... She is a licensed nurse who has been in the field for over ten years, and we know shell be an asset to our cataract patients. ... Cataract surgery can be a little scary for some people, Dr. LeBlanc added. But Mariesha is great at making our patients ... Her primary role at the office will consist of helping cataract surgery patients.. We are excited to welcome Mariesha to the ...
Is cataract surgery right for me?. Not everyone with cataracts needs cataract surgery. If you can go about your daily life ... Learn more about the different types of cataracts. What is cataract surgery?. It involves removing the cataract-filled lens and ... What is a cataract?. A cataract doesnt form on the surface of the eye, its actually inside the lens. This sits behind the ... Here are some signs you may have cataracts. Cataracts occur gradually over time and can happen at any age, but usually develop ...
If a patient is already scheduled for cataract surgery and and the surgeon performs this... ... If a patient is already scheduled for cataract surgery and and the surgeon performs this surgery and ends up having do a ...
  • 14 It would be expected that, owing to an aging population, the number of people undergoing cataract surgery and the cost in the U.S. would be much higher in 2009. (uspharmacist.com)
  • And the immediate impact on patients subject to unnecessary delay should have been obvious: this is an incredibly common procedure with some 4 million Americans undergoing cataract surgery each year. (biospace.com)
  • To compare the performance of nylon sutures to that of polyglactin sutures in pediatric patients undergoing cataract surgery . (bvsalud.org)
  • Polyglactin sutures were found to be safe and effective for pediatric patients undergoing cataract surgery . (bvsalud.org)
  • This study represents the first controlled randomized clinical trial to compare nylon sutures to polyglactin sutures in pediatric patients undergoing cataract surgery . (bvsalud.org)
  • In a study from 2022, researchers examined whether an oxygenated derivative of cholesterol - oxysterol - would be an effective treatment for cataracts in mice. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This is a promising sign that oxysterol may be an effective, nonsurgical treatment for cataracts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The only proven treatment for cataracts is lens replacement surgery. (healthnews.com)
  • Eye health experts may recommend treating cataracts with phacoemulsification, a modern cataract surgery technique that utilizes a type of laser. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Eric Donnenfeld Phacoemulsification in patients with uveitis is among the most challenging cataract surgeries we perform. (aao.org)
  • The most common types of cataract surgery include intra-capsular cataract extraction, extra-capsular cataract extraction and phacoemulsification. (lifepositive.com)
  • Most cataract surgery today is done by phacoemulsification, also called "small incision cataract surgery. (smartdraw.com)
  • For more than 30 years, phacoemulsification has been the dominant cataract extraction method in developed countries. (escrs.org)
  • Phacoemulsification is the most common cataract surgery, but in developing countries a modified version is used called MSICS (manual small incision cataract surgery). (healthnews.com)
  • Phacoemulsification is the most commonly recommended surgical method for cataract surgery today. (healthnews.com)
  • Phacoemulsification constitutes over 90% of cataract surgeries worldwide today and is considered the standard of care. (healthnews.com)
  • ECCE is preferred for patients who have very hard cataracts or in other clinical situations when phacoemulsification may not be possible. (healthnews.com)
  • Almost all cataract surgery in the UK is done using a technique called phacoemulsification (pronounced fa-co-emul-se-fa-cation). (bupa.co.uk)
  • The treatment, which has been tested in animals and in a small, human clinical trial, produced much fewer surgical complications than the current standard-of-care and resulted in regenerated lenses with superior visual function in all 12 of the pediatric cataract patients who received the new surgery. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Like any surgery, cataract surgery carries risks of problems or complications. (aao.org)
  • Most cataract surgery is performed as an outpatient procedure with very low complications, high rates of success, and fast recovery. (healthnews.com)
  • Advanced cataracts carry more risk of complications during their surgical removal and they may even lead to blindness. (ramsayhealth.co.uk)
  • Cataract surgery has a high success rate and the risk of serious complications developing is very low. (ramsayhealth.co.uk)
  • This issue of CRST is packed with complications that we cataract surgeons will all encounter. (crstoday.com)
  • Cataract & Refractive Surgery Today delivers cutting-edge information to cataract and refractive surgeons and promotes continuing education by covering such topics as surgical pearls, complications management, technological advances, and practice management. (crstoday.com)
  • Through cases, Douglas Koch will describe the importance of catching irregularities at the cornea and the retina prior to cataract surgery. (zeiss.com)
  • Cataract surgery may be performed prior to a decline in visual function in a diabetic patient if the lens is too opaque for the ophthalmologist to clearly evaluate the retina. (uspharmacist.com)
  • One possible mechanism by which cataract surgery could decrease the risk of dementia or Alzheimer's disease is by enabling higher quality sensory input to the retina and therefore improving stimuli to the brain," Lee observed. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Another potential explanation for the association between cataract surgery and decreased dementia risk centers around how cataract affects the type and quality of light that reaches the retina," Lee added. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Because cataract affects the overall quality of light that reaches the retina including the blue light, cataract surgery may enable the reactivation of those cells in a way that is protective against cognitive decline. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Complicated cataract: This may follow owing to a long-term detachment of the retina, glaucoma, tumours inside the eye and inflammation of the eyes. (lifepositive.com)
  • An animation of how cataract of the lens can cause blurring of images on the retina. (medindia.net)
  • Your ophthalmologist will talk with you about the risks and benefits of cataract surgery. (aao.org)
  • What are the benefits of cataract surgery? (nuffieldhealth.com)
  • One of the greatest benefits of cataract surgery is an increased quality of life. (ramsayhealth.co.uk)
  • This article reviews the most recent literature regarding the control of intraocular inflammation associated with cataract surgery. (nih.gov)
  • In 2015, the Department of Public Health notified the Betsy Lehman Center of an "uptick in reports of Serious Reportable Events" - preventable errors causing patient harm - associated with cataract surgery, according to the report. (wwlp.com)
  • Signs and symptoms vary depending on the type of cataract, though considerable overlap occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results of this treatment are unpredictable and vary depending upon the maturity and type of cataract. (vetinfo.com)
  • While the type of cataract and the position of opacities vary from person to person, the most common site for a cataract is in the main body of the lens followed by opacity in the centre of the lens. (lifepositive.com)
  • Those with posterior subcapsular cataracts usually complain of glare as their major symptom. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three specific types of cataract: nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Among the 557 eyes with cataract, nuclear sclerotic changes were present in 442 while posterior subcapsular changes were present in 204. (nih.gov)
  • For current smokers of fewer than 20 cigarettes per day, no increased risks were observed of total, nuclear sclerosis, or posterior subcapsular cataract. (nih.gov)
  • These data provide support for the hypothesis that cigarette smoking increases the risk of developing both nuclear sclerosis and posterior subcapsular cataract. (nih.gov)
  • Along with aseptic surgical protocols, the use of perioperative povidone iodine and isolation of the eyelids and eyelashes with proper draping are effective in limiting the incidence of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. (medscape.com)
  • Cataracts cause 51% of all cases of blindness and 33% of visual impairment worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poorer regions account for about 50% of cases of blindness as a result of cataract. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Cataracts are the world's leading cause of blindness, accounting for half of all cases of blindness. (harvard.edu)
  • Up to 20 percent of all cataract surgeries are performed on people with diabetes. (healthline.com)
  • More than 20 million Americans suffer from cataracts, and more than 4 million surgeries are performed annually to replace the clouded lens with an artificial plastic version, called an intraocular lens. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Most cataract surgeries are performed under local anesthesia with mild sedation and patients go home the same day. (healthnews.com)
  • A cataract can occur in either or both eyes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Traumatic cataracts occur secondary to blunt or penetrating ocular trauma. (medscape.com)
  • Cataracts are most commonly due to aging but may also occur due to trauma or radiation exposure, be present from birth, or occur following eye surgery for other problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, cataracts occur in 68% of those over the age of 80 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cataracts occur when the proteins in the eye's lens begin to break down and clump together. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cataracts occur gradually over time and can happen at any age, but usually develop as you get older. (nuffieldhealth.com)
  • Cataracts are seen in older dogs but they can also occur in young dogs and even in puppies. (dogster.com)
  • Cataracts can occur secondary to uveitis, and they can also cause uveitis," Dr. Kimmitt explains. (dogster.com)
  • Traumatic cataracts in service members can occur immediately after an eye injury, months, or even years later. (health.mil)
  • Cataracts can occur at any age because of a variety of causes, and can be present at birth. (cdc.gov)
  • Wearing sunglasses and a wide brimmed hat, eating leafy vegetables and fruits, and avoiding smoking may reduce the risk of developing cataracts, or slow down the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally children are born with the condition, or a cataract may develop following an eye injury, or as a result of inflammation or other diseases, such glaucoma and diabetes. (who.int)
  • The researchers tracked 3,038 people diagnosed with cataract or glaucoma in the Adult Changes in Thought ( ACT ) cohort, a Seattle-based study at Kaiser Permanente Washington. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In contrast to cataract extraction, the researchers did not find lower dementia risk among people who had glaucoma surgery (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.75-1.56, P =0.68). (medpagetoday.com)
  • From posterior polar cataract and temporal negative dysphotopsia to phaco in uveitis and glaucoma patients, the 2016 Cataract Spotlight session covered much ground. (aao.org)
  • Cataract surgery will not restore vision lost from other eye conditions, such as macular degeneration , glaucoma , or diabetic retinopathy . (aao.org)
  • The leading causes of blindness and low vision in the United States are primarily age-related eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. (cdc.gov)
  • There are three main types of cataract surgery that are widely used today. (healthnews.com)
  • Certain breeds are more likely to develop cataracts, including Australian Shepherds , Boston Terriers , French Bulldogs and Staffordshire Bull Terriers . (dogster.com)
  • The study authors found that women whose diet contained the highest total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were significantly less likely to develop cataracts , compared with those whose diets were low in antioxidants. (allaboutvision.com)
  • This article discusses the different options for cataract surgery and which might be best for you. (healthnews.com)
  • What are my options for cataract surgery? (sharecare.com)
  • Your vision could become cloudy or blurry weeks, months or years after cataract surgery. (aao.org)
  • In fact, there is a modification of ECCE which has been adopted called manual small incision cataract surgery or MSICS where no sutures are required. (healthnews.com)
  • Senile cataracts are associated with a decrease in antioxidant capacity in the lens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Senile cataract: Most people above fifty develop some degree of cataract. (lifepositive.com)
  • A cataract is a cloudy area in the lens of the eye that leads to a decrease in vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your own lens should be clear, but with a cataract it is cloudy. (aao.org)
  • During cataract surgery, your cloudy natural lens is removed and replaced with a clear artificial lens. (aao.org)
  • If you have a cataract it means the lens has become cloudy, making it unable to focus and create a clear picture. (nuffieldhealth.com)
  • Cloudy eyes don't always mean your dog has cataracts. (dogster.com)
  • Cataract surgery is an operation to remove a cloudy lens (cataract) in your eye and replace it with an artificial one. (bupa.co.uk)
  • If you have a cataract , the lens inside your eye becomes cloudy. (bupa.co.uk)
  • While the exact cause of cataracts is unknown, experts believe that oxidative stress damages certain enzymes and proteins in the eye's natural lens, which causes the lens to become cloudy. (allaboutvision.com)
  • In the eye, oxidation affects proteins and fats in the lens to the extent that the lens becomes damaged and cloudy, creating a cataract. (allaboutvision.com)
  • Cataract surgery is a common day case eye procedure that replaces a cloudy cataract lens with an artificial lens to improve sight. (ramsayhealth.co.uk)
  • As you develop cataracts your eye lens becomes cloudy and a yellowish/brownish colour caused by a build-up and clumping together of protein cells in your lens. (ramsayhealth.co.uk)
  • During cataract surgery, your consultant will remove the cloudy lens in your eye and insert a clear artificial lens. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • Interestingly the Roman author Celsus described cataract extraction surgery using a specially pointed needle - and possible cataract needles (specilla) have been found in Britain as well as elsewhere in the Roman Empire. (bbc.co.uk)
  • At Wroxeter in Shropshire there may have been a particular focus on eye care with the discovery of two collyrium stamps in the names of Tiberius Claudius and Lucillianus together with a case of probable surgical instruments including an eye needle for cataract extraction. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Major advances in cataract extraction techniques and instrumentation have occurred over the past decade. (nih.gov)
  • This surgical technique is also called manual extracapsular cataract extraction. (healthnews.com)
  • Transscleral sulcus fixation of a small-diameter iris-diaphragm intraocular lens in combined penetrating keratoplasty and cataract extraction for correction of traumatic cataract, aniridia, and corneal scarring. (medscape.com)
  • There are many causes of cataracts in dogs, including inherited (genetic) cataracts, diabetes mellitus, uveitis (inflammation inside the eye) and trauma to the lens, among others," says Beth Kimmitt, DVM, resident of ophthalmology at Purdue University's College of Veterinary Medicine in West Lafayette, Indiana. (dogster.com)
  • What are the symptoms of cataracts in dogs? (dogster.com)
  • Cataracts typically do not cause any symptoms until they have grown large enough to interfere with vision. (harvard.edu)
  • Your story of your visual symptoms is an important part of diagnosing cataract. (harvard.edu)
  • What are the sign and symptoms of cataracts? (ramsayhealth.co.uk)
  • Cataract symptoms may not be apparent at first. (ramsayhealth.co.uk)
  • Traumatic retinal break from a viscoelastic cannula during cataract surgery. (medscape.com)
  • The policy applied equally among its members, from children born with cataracts, to adults whose cataracts interfere with their ability to drive, to people in need of emergency cataract surgery before vision-threatening retinal conditions can be treated. (biospace.com)
  • Traumatic cataract can present many medical and surgical challenges to the ophthalmologist. (medscape.com)
  • Comparative study of visual outcome between open- and closed-globe injuries following surgical treatment of traumatic cataract in children. (medscape.com)
  • In some cases, a person may have other eye conditions besides cataracts, which requires additional interventions to be performed during the surgical procedure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We also outline surgical treatments for cataracts and nonsurgical measures for managing and preventing cataracts and discuss the outlook for a person with cataracts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In subsequent tests in animals with cataracts and in a small human trial, they found the new surgical technique allowed pre-existing LECs to regenerate functional lenses. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Operation International, a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing surgical and medical care to underserved populations around the world, carried out the transformative cataract surgery mission in Techiman. (globenewswire.com)
  • The cataract surgical coverage was 28.9for men and 18.1for women . (bvsalud.org)
  • Cataract blindness is a major health problem in the study area with low surgical uptake. (bvsalud.org)
  • There is no natural way to prevent cataracts, but there are some measures a person can take to help prevent cataracts from developing and slow their progression. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It can increase their risk of developing cataracts and can also increase their risk of macular degeneration . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Nuclear cataracts typically cause greater impairment of distance vision than of near vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, cataracts arise due to the breakdown of the lens microarchitecture. (forbes.com)
  • Adult cataract is typically seen in patients 50 years and older. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Typically, patients with cataract experience a decrease in vision over months to years. (uspharmacist.com)
  • But researchers in Sweden found that middle-aged men who smoked at least 15 cigarettes per day could lower their risk for cataracts over the course of two decades if they quit smoking. (newsday.com)
  • Evaluation of the eating habits of more than 1,600 adults revealed that individuals in the top 25 percent for total carbohydrate intake had more than three times the risk for cataracts than those in the lowest 25 percent for carbohydrate intake. (allaboutvision.com)
  • One 2017 stu dy evaluated how effective N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) eye drops were in helping reverse the formation of cataracts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • citation needed] The genetic component is strong in the development of cataracts, most commonly through mechanisms that protect and maintain the lens. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large study of adult women in the United States found that eating foods rich in a variety of vitamins and minerals may help delay the development of cataracts . (allaboutvision.com)
  • In their study, Dr. Portney and his colleagues conducted an economic analysis of simple and complex cataract surgery cases that were performed at the University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center from 2017 to 2021. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This past October, the 15th annual Spotlight on Cataract Surgery Symposium at the Academy's annual meeting was entitled "Complicated Phaco Cases-My Top 5 Pearls. (aao.org)
  • MICOR 700 (Zeiss) is a mechanical lens fragmentation and aspiration device capable of gently removing cataracts without potential tissue damage due to cavitation and heat rise of phaco ultrasound. (escrs.org)
  • As the cataract progresses, vision becomes blurred and distorted. (lifepositive.com)
  • This may start out faint, and then become more obvious as the cataract progresses. (dogster.com)
  • Does diabetes affect cataract surgery recovery? (healthline.com)
  • Before cataract surgery, people with diabetes should have good blood sugar management and no evidence of eye infections. (healthline.com)
  • Good blood sugar management can help ensure a better outcome after cataract surgery for people with diabetes. (healthline.com)
  • Injury-induced cataracts and those caused by diabetes frequently take longer to respond. (vetinfo.com)
  • Diseases: Young people with diabetes, decreased calcium levels, poor nutrition, and heavy drinkers are prone to cataract. (lifepositive.com)
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Diabetes Related Cataracts in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)
  • Researchers suspect that there are several causes of cataract, such as smoking and diabetes. (smartdraw.com)
  • Some cataracts are caused by an injury to the eye, long-term diabetes, the use of corticosteroid medications, or radiation treatment. (harvard.edu)
  • Along with aging, cataracts can develop due to other risk factors , such as smoking, exposure to excessive ultraviolet rays (mostly sunlight), the presence of pre-existing ocular diseases, previous eye surgeries, or systemic diseases such as diabetes or autoimmune disorders. (health.mil)
  • Roger Steinert con-cluded the spotlight symposium by delivering the 12th annual AAO Charles Kelman Lecture, "Cataract/Refractive Surgery: The Next Big Thing? (aao.org)
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw in Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery. (lww.com)
  • The Academy teamed up with the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery to provide documented patient cases and membership data that substantiated the need for Aetna to rescind its disruptive policy. (biospace.com)
  • 1 By restoring vision, and even treating preexisting refractive errors, cataract surgery produces an amazing improvement in the lives of our patients. (crstoday.com)
  • 13 Changing modifiable risk factors may delay cataract, but surgery is required to restore vision. (uspharmacist.com)
  • people with early cognitive problems may be less conscious of vision issues, which might delay cataract surgery. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Both canine cataract surgery and medicinal treatment offer results in the treatment of canine cataracts. (vetinfo.com)
  • We take your through the basics on canine cataracts and what to do if your dog has them. (dogster.com)
  • Inherited cataracts are the most common type of canine cataracts. (dogster.com)
  • Infrared energy (glass-blower's cataract), electric shock, and ionizing radiation are other rare causes of traumatic cataracts. (medscape.com)
  • Shah et al found that traumatic cataracts without globe rupture generally have a better prognosis for visual recovery after surgery, at least in children. (medscape.com)
  • Regardless of how it occurs, the effects cannot be undone when it comes to traumatic cataracts, said Viswanathan. (health.mil)
  • Viswanathan said that cases of traumatic cataracts have leveled off in recent times, depending on the conflicts U.S. service members have been involved in because advances in eye protection have been accompanied by advances in armaments deployed by the enemy. (health.mil)
  • Cataracts are very common in older people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As people in the world live longer, the number of people with cataract is anticipated to grow. (who.int)
  • About 20 million people worldwide are blind due to cataracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with nuclear sclerotic or brunescent cataracts often notice a reduction of vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the US, cataracts affect over 24 million people. (forbes.com)
  • According to the World Health Organization , approximately 65.2 million people have cataracts globally. (forbes.com)
  • 1 Vision 2020 estimates that 18 million people are bilaterally blind from cataract. (uspharmacist.com)
  • 1 In the United States, the Framingham Eye Study found a decrease in vision as a result of cataract in 15.5% of the population overall and in 45.9% of people over 75 years of age. (uspharmacist.com)
  • This equates to about 1.5 million people who underwent cataract surgery in 1991. (uspharmacist.com)
  • People need to eat plenty of fruits and vegetables to lower their risk of developing cataracts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • About 45% of the group (1,382 people) had cataract surgery during the study. (medpagetoday.com)
  • It's estimated that 9 out of 10 people see better after cataract surgery, but everyone is different. (healthline.com)
  • But because it happens after the eye has healed from cataract surgery, some people think of it as a scar. (aao.org)
  • Cataracts often develop slowly over time, and people forget how good their vision once was. (nuffieldhealth.com)
  • Cataract surgery can be a little scary for some people,' Dr. LeBlanc added. (prleap.com)
  • The name cataract comes from the term for "huge waterfall," which is how some people describe their clouded sight: like trying to look through a waterfall. (harvard.edu)
  • People with cataracts can use eyeglasses, magnifying lenses, or stronger lighting to help improve their vision. (harvard.edu)
  • Cataract surgery improves the vision of most - but not all - people who have it. (harvard.edu)
  • Most people eventually need surgery for cataracts. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Many people dread cataract surgery because they're afraid of a lengthy recovery period. (sharecare.com)
  • People who consistently follow a healthy diet that includes colorful fruits, vegetables and whole grains may show a decreased risk of cataracts. (allaboutvision.com)
  • Although treatment for the removal of cataract is widely available, access barriers such as insurance coverage, treatment costs, patient choice, or lack of awareness prevent many people from receiving the proper treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • The total number of people who have cataracts is estimated to increase to 30.1 million by 2020. (cdc.gov)
  • Chuang LH, Lai CC. Secondary intraocular lens implantation of traumatic cataract in open-globe injury. (medscape.com)
  • Kumar S, Panda A, Badhu BP, Das H. Safety of primary intraocular lens insertion in unilateral childhood traumatic cataract. (medscape.com)
  • Following your cataract operation, you should be able to: see things in focus, differentiate colours and, look into bright lights without too much glare. (ramsayhealth.co.uk)
  • 1 Patients aged over 50 years have a lower prevalence of cataract development than patients aged 60 years and older. (uspharmacist.com)
  • In an earlier study published in the same journal, the same researchers found diets rich in and are moderately associated with decreased prevalence of cataracts in older women. (allaboutvision.com)
  • To assess the prevalence of cataract blindness in rural Ethiopia in order to facilitate further health care planning . (bvsalud.org)
  • For patient education resources, see the Eye & Vision Center as well as Cataracts . (medscape.com)
  • Cataract is also an important cause of low vision. (who.int)
  • Poor vision caused by cataracts may also result in an increased risk of falling and depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most prevalent causes of foggy and hazy vision is cataracts. (forbes.com)
  • Cataracts are a disorder that clouds the eye and thoroughly obstructs vision. (forbes.com)
  • However, with numerous treatment options available for cataracts, those experiencing vision problems can find relief and regain clear sight. (forbes.com)
  • Smokers who kick the habit may reduce their risk of developing the blurred vision problem known as cataracts, new research shows. (newsday.com)
  • The Beaver Dam Eye Study, using a similar definition of vision loss due to cataract, found a frequency of 38.8% in men and 45.9% in women aged 75 years and older. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Vision loss related to cataract may affect employment opportunities and the ability to function independently. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Cataracts are the leading cause of vision impairment worldwide. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It concluded that NACA has the potential to significantly improve vision and decrease the burden of cataract-related loss of vision. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The medical device company's contribution played a pivotal role in enabling safe and successful cataract surgeries in Techiman, Ghana, helping hundreds of patients regain their vision and transform their lives. (globenewswire.com)
  • Owners may also notice vision deficits as the cataract worsens. (dogster.com)
  • Some cataracts are small and affect the vision less. (dogster.com)
  • It's the only way to restore your vision if you have cataracts. (bupa.co.uk)
  • If you have cataracts that are starting to affect your vision, your optometrist may suggest surgery. (bupa.co.uk)
  • An eye cataract is the clouding of the lens of the eye which can cause reduced vision and can deteriorate over time. (ramsayhealth.co.uk)
  • In case of traumatic cataract, it can be from direct and indirect trauma to the eye," explained Dr. Mariia Viswanathan, an ophthalmologist and the chief of Education, Training, Research, and Surveillance at the Clinical Care and Integration branch of the Defense Health Agency's Vision Center of Excellence (VCE). (health.mil)
  • At Spire Dunedin Hospital, we use trusted and clinically proven techniques to improve blurred eyesight caused by cataracts and get you back to everyday life with better vision. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • Cataract was defined as lens opacity identified as the cause of blindness and low vision after ruling out other causes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Your ophthalmologist will recommend removing a cataract when it keeps you from doing things you want or need to do. (aao.org)
  • Dr. John Jarstead, an ophthalmologist from the University of Missouri, wraps a patient's eye after performing cataract surgery in an operating room aboard the hospital ship USNS Comfort (T-AH 20) in October 2018 (Photo by: Petty Officer 2nd Class Kris Lindstrom, Navy Public Affairs Support Element East). (health.mil)
  • Such a condition is called cataract-where there is opacity or clouding of the eye's natural lens, which if not treated can lead to blindness. (lifepositive.com)
  • In 1991, Medicare spent $3.4 billion on cataract surgery, at an average cost of $2,500 per procedure. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Mike Burdon, president of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists, who also chaired NICE's guideline committee, said that it was his mission before he stepped down as president in a year's time to convince clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) to stop rationing cataract surgery and not to label it a procedure of "limited clinical value. (bmj.com)
  • Cataract surgery is usually done as a day-case procedure, which means you'll have the operation and go home on the same day. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Cataract surgery is a very common and straightforward day case procedure that aims to give you improved eyesight. (ramsayhealth.co.uk)
  • A cataract operation is a quick and straightforward day case procedure. (ramsayhealth.co.uk)
  • If you have cataracts in both eyes, you will need a cataract operation for each eye, with the second procedure performed a few weeks after the first. (ramsayhealth.co.uk)
  • Despite the seemingly constant reduction in the relative value given to cataract surgery by insurance companies, it is not an easy procedure. (crstoday.com)
  • Inability to afford the procedure (64.5) and poor knowledge of cataract (29.8) were the reasons why surgery had not been performed. (bvsalud.org)
  • The severity of cataract formation, assuming no other eye disease is present, is judged primarily by a visual acuity test. (wikipedia.org)
  • New evidence gathered by The BMJ shows that patients with cataracts are being screened and that those who don't meet visual acuity thresholds are being denied surgery. (bmj.com)
  • An incident cataract was defined as a self-report confirmed by medical record review to have been first diagnosed after randomization, age-related in origin, and responsible for a decrease in best corrected visual acuity to 20/30 or worse. (nih.gov)
  • Smoking cessation may decrease the risk of cataract, but the risk among former smokers persists for decades. (newsday.com)
  • Because many individual cataract surgeons will never be personally involved in a serious harm event, they may not recognize the risk," the report said. (wwlp.com)
  • Despite mounting evidence that routine prophylaxis with intracameral cefuroxime and moxifloxacin reduce the endophthalmitis rate following cataract surgery, many surgeons have not adopted this practice. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, increasing numbers of cataract surgeons have adopted intracameral antibiotic prophylaxis, in addition to or in lieu of topical perioperative antibiotics. (medscape.com)
  • It also once held your eye's natural lens (what became the cataract) in place. (aao.org)
  • Cataract® Oars has over forty years of filament winding experience that goes into every composite oar we manufacture. (riversports.com)
  • citation needed] Congenital cataracts can result in amblyopia if not treated in a timely manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have developed a new, regenerative medicine approach to remove congenital cataracts in infants, permitting remaining stem cells to regrow functional lenses. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Shiley Eye Institute, with colleagues in China, have developed a new, regenerative medicine approach to remove congenital cataracts in infants, permitting remaining stem cells to regrow functional lenses. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Congenital cataracts -- lens clouding that occurs at birth or shortly thereafter -- is a significant cause of blindness in children. (sciencedaily.com)
  • In the case of cataracts, crystallin proteins may become damaged or misfolded, which can cause clumping. (forbes.com)
  • These proteins often cause cataracts to develop in aging. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cataracts caused by blunt trauma classically form stellate- or rosette-shaped posterior axial opacities that may be stable or progressive, whereas penetrating trauma with disruption of the lens capsule forms cortical changes that may remain focal if small or may progress rapidly to total cortical opacification. (medscape.com)
  • A cataract is an opacification of the lens of the eye. (uspharmacist.com)
  • If the rent is sufficiently large, the entire lens rapidly opacifies, but when small, cortical cataract can seal itself off and remain localized. (medscape.com)
  • It involves removing the cataract-filled lens and replacing it with an artificial lens implant. (nuffieldhealth.com)
  • Cataract surgery involves removing the clouded lens and replacing it with a plastic lens inserted in the eye during surgery. (harvard.edu)
  • Cataract surgery involves replacing the lens in your eye with an artificial one. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Researchers conducted an economic analysis of simple and complex cataract surgeries using a method called time-driven activity-based costing. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In a new study, researchers hypothesized there are excess costs associated with complex cataract surgeries that are not adequately covered by Medicare reimbursements. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers examined the link between quitting smoking and more than 5,700 cases of cataract removal over the course of 12 years. (newsday.com)
  • The researchers found that more than 20 years after quitting, men who had smoked an average of more than 15 cigarettes per day had only a 21 percent greater risk for having a cataract removed than those who never smoked. (newsday.com)
  • In the above 2017 study, researchers induced cataracts in rats before treating them with NACA eye drops. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Researchers in Sweden published the results of a study of the association between all antioxidants in the diet and age-related cataract. (allaboutvision.com)
  • Researchers in Australia found a diet high in carbohydrates may increase cataract risk . (allaboutvision.com)
  • Mechanical cataract disassembly device could largely supersede ultrasound. (escrs.org)
  • Evaluation of posterior lens capsule by 20-MHz ultrasound probe in traumatic cataract. (medscape.com)
  • However, about 35-50 per cent infants who develop cataract before their first birthday may not have any associated illnesses-cataract can develop if the newly formed lens fibres are opaque. (lifepositive.com)
  • In infants and young children, cataracts also can be one symptom of a disease that affects how the body processes carbohydrates, amino acids, calcium or copper. (harvard.edu)