A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)
A common condition characterized by transient partial or total paralysis of skeletal muscles and areflexia that occurs upon awakening from sleep or less often while falling asleep. Stimuli such as touch or sound may terminate the episode, which usually has a duration of seconds to minutes. This condition may occur in normal subjects or be associated with NARCOLEPSY; CATAPLEXY; and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS. The pathophysiology of this condition is closely related to the normal hypotonia that occur during REM sleep. (From Adv Neurol 1995;67:245-271)
The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
G-protein-coupled NEUROPEPTIDE RECEPTORS that have specificity for OREXINS and play a role in appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles. Two principle receptor types exist, each having a specificity for OREXIN A and OREXIN B peptide subtypes.
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
Amides of salicylic acid.
An involuntary expression of merriment and pleasure; it includes the patterned motor responses as well as the inarticulate vocalization.
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.

Unilateral cataplexy associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. (1/120)

A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed attacks of unilateral cataplexy precipitated by laughter. Unilateral cataplexy has not been described previously in detail and its association with SLE is unique. The clinical details, investigations, and diagnostic criteria are discussed and a causal relationship between cataplexy and SLE is suggested.  (+info)

Sulpiride, a D2/D3 blocker, reduces cataplexy but not REM sleep in canine narcolepsy. (2/120)

Cataplexy, an abnormal manifestation of REM sleep atonia, is currently treated with antidepressants. These medications also reduce physiological REM sleep and induce nocturnal sleep disturbances. Because a recent work on canine narcolepsy suggests that the mechanisms for triggering cataplexy are different from those for REM sleep, we hypothesized that compounds which act specifically on cataplexy, but not on REM sleep, could be developed. Canine studies also suggest that the dopamine D2/D3 receptor mechanism is specifically involved in the regulation of cataplexy, but little evidence suggests that this mechanism is important for REM sleep regulation. We therefore assessed the effects of sulpiride, a commonly used D2/D3 antagonist, on cataplexy and sleep in narcoleptic canines to explore the possible clinical application of D2/D3 antagonists for the treatment of human narcolepsy. Both acute and chronic oral administration of sulpiride (300 mg/dog, 600 mg/dog) significantly reduced cataplexy without noticeable side effects. Interestingly, the anticataplectic dose of sulpiride did not significantly reduce the amount of REM sleep. Sulpiride (and other D2/D3 antagonists) may therefore be an attractive new therapeutic indication in human narcolepsy.  (+info)

Complex HLA-DR and -DQ interactions confer risk of narcolepsy-cataplexy in three ethnic groups. (3/120)

Human narcolepsy-cataplexy, a sleep disorder associated with a centrally mediated hypocretin (orexin) deficiency, is tightly associated with HLA-DQB1*0602. Few studies have investigated the influence that additional HLA class II alleles have on susceptibility to this disease. In this work, 1,087 control subjects and 420 narcoleptic subjects with cataplexy, from three ethnic groups, were HLA typed, and the effects of HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 were analyzed. As reported elsewhere, almost all narcoleptic subjects were positive for both HLA-DQA1*0102 and -DQB1*0602. A strong predisposing effect was observed in DQB1*0602 homozygotes, across all ethnic groups. Relative risks for narcolepsy were next calculated for heterozygous DQB1*0602/other HLA class II allelic combinations. Nine HLA class II alleles carried in trans with DQB1*0602 were found to influence disease predisposition. Significantly higher relative risks were observed for heterozygote combinations including DQB1*0301, DQA1*06, DRB1*04, DRB1*08, DRB1*11, and DRB1*12. Three alleles-DQB1*0601, DQB1*0501, and DQA1*01 (non-DQA1*0102)-were found to be protective. The genetic contribution of HLA-DQ to narcolepsy susceptibility was also estimated by use of lambda statistics. Results indicate that complex HLA-DR and -DQ interactions contribute to the genetic predisposition to human narcolepsy but that additional susceptibility loci are also most likely involved. Together with the recent hypocretin discoveries, these findings are consistent with an immunologically mediated destruction of hypocretin-containing cells in human narcolepsy-cataplexy.  (+info)

Health-related quality of life in narcolepsy. (4/120)

Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterised by symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. The aim of this study was to describe the health-related quality of life of people with narcolepsy residing in the UK. The study comprised a postal survey of 500 members of the UK narcolepsy patient association, which included amongst other questions the UK Short Form 36 (SF-36), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Ullanlinna Narcolepsy Scale (UNS). A total of 305 questionnaires were included in the final analysis. The results showed that the subjects had significantly lower median scores on all eight domains of the SF-36 than normative data, and scored particularly poorly for the domains of role physical, energy/vitality, and social functioning. The BDI indicated that 56.9% of subjects had some degree of depression. In addition, many individuals described limitations on their education, home, work and social life caused by their symptoms. There was little difference between the groups receiving different types of medication. This study is the largest of its type in the UK, although the limitations of using a sample from a patient association have been recognised. The results are consistent with studies of narcolepsy in other countries in demonstrating the extensive impact of this disorder on health-related quality of life.  (+info)

Increased and decreased muscle tone with orexin (hypocretin) microinjections in the locus coeruleus and pontine inhibitory area. (5/120)

Orexin-A (OX-A) and orexin-B (OX-B) (hypocretin 1 and hypocretin 2) are synthesized in neurons of the perifornical, dorsomedial, lateral, and posterior hypothalamus. The locus coeruleus (LC) receives the densest extrahypothalamic projections of the orexin (OX) system. Recent evidence suggests that descending projections of the LC have a facilitatory role in the regulation of muscle tone. The pontine inhibitory area (PIA), located ventral to LC, receives a moderate OX projection and participates in the suppression of muscle tone in rapid-eye-movement sleep. We have examined the role of OX-A and -B in muscle-tone control using microinjections (0.1 microM to 1 mM, 0.2 microl) into the LC and PIA in decerebrate rats. OX-A and -B microinjections into the LC produced ipsi- or bilateral hindlimb muscle-tone facilitation. The activity of LC units was correlated with the extent of hindlimb muscle-tone facilitation after OX microinjections (100 microM, 1 microl) into fourth ventricle. Microinjections of OX-A and -B into the PIA produced muscle-tone inhibition. We did not observe any significant difference in the effect of OX-A and -B on muscle tone at either site. Our data suggest that OX release activates LC units and increases noradrenergic tonus in the CNS. Moreover, OX-A and -B may also regulate the activity of pontine cholinoceptive and cholinergic neurons participating in muscle-tone suppression. Loss of OX function may therefore disturb both facilitatory and inhibitory motor processes.  (+info)

MAO-A and COMT polymorphisms and gene effects in narcolepsy. (6/120)

Narcolepsy presents one of the tightest associations with a specific HLA antigen (DQB1*0602) but there is strong evidence that non-HLA genes also confer susceptibility. Recent observations have implicated the hypocretin/orexin system in narcolepsy in both humans and animals. In addition, the implication of monoaminergic systems in the pathophysiology of narcolepsy is well established and a significant association between the monoamine oxydase-A (MAO-A) gene and human narcolepsy has recently provided a possible genetic link. We investigated polymorphisms of MAO-A and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in 97 Caucasians with well-defined narcolepsy-cataplexy and sought for genotypic effects on disease symptoms. No evidence of association between genotype or allele frequencies of both MAO-A or COMT gene and narcolepsy was found. However, a sexual dimorphism and a strong effect of COMT genotype on disease severity were found. Women narcoleptics with high COMT activity fell asleep twice as fast as those with low COMT activity during the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) while the opposite was true for men. COMT genotype also strongly affected the presence of sleep paralysis and the number of REM sleep onsets during the MSLT. In agreement with well-documented pharmacological results in canine narcolepsy, this study reports the first genetic evidence for the critical involvement of the dopaminergic and/or noradrenergic systems in human narcolepsy.  (+info)

Childhood onset of narcolepsy-cataplexy syndrome in Turkey: clinical and genetic study. (7/120)

Narcolepsy is a disabling sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and abnormal manifestations of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep including cataplexy, sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations. It is known to be complex disorder in which both genetic predisposition and environmental factors play a role. In humans, susceptibility to narcolepsy is tightly associated with a specific HLA allele, DQB1*0602. In this report, we took advantage of the ongoing genetic study in Turkish narcoleptic patients to document clinical and genetic data of eight patients whose onset of symptoms were in the childhood period.  (+info)

Hypocretin (orexin) deficiency in narcolepsy and primary hypersomnia. (8/120)

The discovery that hypocretins are involved in narcolepsy, a disorder associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and unusually rapid transitions to rapid eye movement sleep, opens a new field of investigation in the area of disorders of sleep and activation. Hypocretin-1 (hcrt-1) and hypocretin-2 (hcrt-2) (also called orexin-A and orexin-B) are newly discovered neuropeptides processed from a common precursor. Hypocretin containing cells are located exclusively in the lateral hypothalamus, with widespread projections within the central nervous system. The role of the hypocretin system in other disorders causing excessive daytime sleepiness is more uncertain. This study reports the findings of a prospective study measuring cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of hypocretin-1 and hypocretin-2 in HLA DQB1*0602 positive narcolepsy with cataplexy, monosymptomatic narcolepsy, and primary hypersomnia. The results confirmed the previous observations, that hcrt-1 is deficient in narcolepsy and for the first time report very low levels of hcrt-1 in primary hypersomnia. It is also reported for the first time that there is a generalised defect in hcrt-2 transmission in all three of these clinical entities compared with controls.  (+info)

Cataplexy is a medical condition characterized by sudden and temporary loss of muscle tone or strength, typically triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, anger, or surprise. This can result in symptoms ranging from a slight slackening of the muscles to complete collapse. Cataplexy is often associated with narcolepsy, which is a neurological disorder that affects sleep-wake cycles. It's important to note that cataplexy is different from syncope (fainting), as it specifically involves muscle weakness rather than loss of consciousness.

Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that affects the control of sleep and wakefulness. It's characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), where people experience sudden, uncontrollable episodes of falling asleep during the day. These "sleep attacks" can occur at any time - while working, talking, eating, or even driving.

In addition to EDS, narcolepsy often includes cataplexy, a condition that causes loss of muscle tone, leading to weakness and sometimes collapse, often triggered by strong emotions like laughter or surprise. Other common symptoms are sleep paralysis (a temporary inability to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up), vivid hallucinations during the transitions between sleep and wakefulness, and fragmented nighttime sleep.

The exact cause of narcolepsy is not fully understood, but it's believed to involve genetic and environmental factors, as well as problems with certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as hypocretin/orexin, which regulate sleep-wake cycles. Narcolepsy can significantly impact a person's quality of life, making it essential to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and management.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that are used by neurons to communicate with each other and with other cells in the body. They are produced in the cell body of a neuron, processed from larger precursor proteins, and then transported to the nerve terminal where they are stored in secretory vesicles. When the neuron is stimulated, the vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space.

Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators, depending on their target receptors and the duration of their effects. They play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including pain perception, appetite regulation, stress response, and social behavior. Some neuropeptides also have hormonal functions, such as oxytocin and vasopressin, which are produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream to regulate reproductive and cardiovascular function, respectively.

There are hundreds of different neuropeptides that have been identified in the nervous system, and many of them have multiple functions and interact with other signaling molecules to modulate neural activity. Dysregulation of neuropeptide systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as chronic pain, addiction, depression, and anxiety.

Idiopathic hypersomnolence is a type of central disorder of hypersomnolence, which is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) that isn't caused by another known medical condition or lifestyle factor. "Idiopathic" means that the cause of the condition is unknown.

In idiopathic hypersomnolence, individuals experience prolonged nighttime sleep and recurrent episodes of daytime sleep that can last for several hours, causing significant impairment in their daily functioning. Despite getting adequate or even prolonged periods of sleep, they continue to feel excessive sleepiness during the day.

Other symptoms associated with idiopathic hypersomnolence may include difficulty waking up from sleep, automatic behavior (performing actions without conscious awareness), cognitive impairment, and mood changes. The exact cause of this condition remains unclear, but it is thought to involve dysfunction in the brain's sleep-wake regulation mechanisms.

Sleep paralysis is a temporary inability to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up, often accompanied by frightening hallucinations. These episodes typically last a few seconds to several minutes. During sleep paralysis, a person's body is immobile and cannot perform voluntary muscle movements even though they are fully conscious and awake. This condition can be quite alarming, but it is generally harmless and does not pose any serious threat to one's health. Sleep paralysis is often associated with certain sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy, or other medical conditions, as well as stress, lack of sleep, and changes in sleep patterns.

There is no specific medical definition for "Wit and Humor as Topic." However, in the context of medicine and healthcare, wit and humor can be defined as the use of clever or amusing words, ideas, or actions to communicate, entertain, or cope with difficult situations.

Humor has been shown to have various positive effects on health and well-being, such as reducing stress, improving mood, enhancing social connections, and boosting immune function. In healthcare settings, humor can help patients and healthcare providers to build rapport, reduce anxiety, and improve communication. Wit and humor can also be used in medical education to engage learners, facilitate learning, and promote critical thinking.

However, it is important to use wit and humor appropriately and sensitively in medical contexts, taking into account factors such as cultural differences, individual preferences, and the severity of the situation. Inappropriate or insensitive use of humor can cause offense, harm relationships, and undermine trust.

HLA-DQ beta-chains are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecule found on the surface of cells in the human body. The HLAs are a group of proteins that play an important role in the immune system by helping the body recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-DQ beta-chains are part of the HLA-DQ complex, which is a heterodimer made up of two polypeptide chains: an alpha chain (HLA-DQ alpha) and a beta chain (HLA-DQ beta). These chains are encoded by genes located on chromosome 6 in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region.

The HLA-DQ complex is involved in presenting peptides to CD4+ T cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. The peptides presented by the HLA-DQ complex are derived from proteins that have been processed within the cell, and they are used to help the CD4+ T cells recognize and respond to infected or abnormal cells.

Variations in the genes that encode the HLA-DQ beta-chains can affect an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases, including autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases.

REM sleep, or Rapid Eye Movement sleep, is a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, low muscle tone, and active brain activity. It is one of the two main types of sleep along with non-REM sleep and is marked by vivid dreaming, increased brain metabolism, and altered brain wave patterns. REM sleep is often referred to as "paradoxical sleep" because of the seemingly contradictory nature of its characteristics - an active brain in a state of relaxation. It is thought to play a role in memory consolidation, learning, and mood regulation. A typical night's sleep cycle includes several episodes of REM sleep, with each episode becoming longer as the night progresses.

Sodium oxybate is a central nervous system depressant, which is a sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). It is also known as gamma-hydroxybutyrate monosodium salt or sodium GHB. Sodium oxybate is used in the medical field for the treatment of narcolepsy, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone). It is sold under the brand name Xyrem.

Sodium oxybate works by affecting the neurotransmitters in the brain, specifically increasing the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps regulate sleep and wakefulness. The medication is available only through a restricted distribution program due to its potential for abuse and dependence. It is usually taken at night in two doses, one at bedtime and the other about 2.5 to 4 hours later.

It's important to note that sodium oxybate has a high potential for misuse and addiction, and it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that play a crucial role in transmitting signals within cells, which ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior or function. These signals can originate from outside the cell (extracellular) or within the cell itself. Intracellular signaling molecules include various types of peptides and proteins, such as:

1. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): These are seven-transmembrane domain receptors that bind to extracellular signaling molecules like hormones, neurotransmitters, or chemokines. Upon activation, they initiate a cascade of intracellular signals through G proteins and secondary messengers.
2. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): These are transmembrane receptors that bind to growth factors, cytokines, or hormones. Activation of RTKs leads to autophosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues, creating binding sites for intracellular signaling proteins such as adapter proteins, phosphatases, and enzymes like Ras, PI3K, and Src family kinases.
3. Second messenger systems: Intracellular second messengers are small molecules that amplify and propagate signals within the cell. Examples include cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), diacylglycerol (DAG), inositol triphosphate (IP3), calcium ions (Ca2+), and nitric oxide (NO). These second messengers activate or inhibit various downstream effectors, leading to changes in cellular responses.
4. Signal transduction cascades: Intracellular signaling proteins often form complex networks of interacting molecules that relay signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. These cascades involve kinases (protein kinases A, B, C, etc.), phosphatases, and adapter proteins, which ultimately regulate gene expression, cell cycle progression, metabolism, and other cellular processes.
5. Ubiquitination and proteasome degradation: Intracellular signaling pathways can also control protein stability by modulating ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. E3 ubiquitin ligases recognize specific substrates and conjugate them with ubiquitin molecules, targeting them for proteasomal degradation. This process regulates the abundance of key signaling proteins and contributes to signal termination or amplification.

In summary, intracellular signaling pathways involve a complex network of interacting proteins that relay signals from the plasma membrane to various cellular compartments, ultimately regulating gene expression, metabolism, and other cellular processes. Dysregulation of these pathways can contribute to disease development and progression, making them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.

Orexin receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the central nervous system that play a crucial role in regulating various physiological functions, including wakefulness, energy balance, and reward processing. There are two subtypes of orexin receptors: OX1R (orexin-1 receptor) and OX2R (orexin-2 receptor). These receptors bind to the neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, which are synthesized in a small group of neurons located in the hypothalamus. Activation of these receptors leads to increased wakefulness, appetite stimulation, and reward-seeking behavior, among other effects. Dysregulation of the orexin system has been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as narcolepsy, where a loss of orexin-producing neurons results in excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy.

Disorders of excessive somnolence (DES) are a group of medical conditions characterized by an increased tendency to fall asleep or experience excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), despite having adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep. These disorders are typically classified as central disorders of hypersomnolence according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-3).

The most common DES is narcolepsy, a chronic neurological disorder caused by the brain's inability to regulate sleep-wake cycles normally. Other DES include idiopathic hypersomnia, Kleine-Levin syndrome, and recurrent hypersomnia. These disorders can significantly impact an individual's daily functioning, quality of life, and overall health.

Narcolepsy is further divided into two types: narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). NT1 is characterized by the presence of cataplexy, a sudden loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions, while NT2 does not include cataplexy. Both types of narcolepsy involve excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, and fragmented nighttime sleep.

Idiopathic hypersomnia is a DES without the presence of REM-related symptoms like cataplexy or sleep paralysis. Individuals with idiopathic hypersomnia experience excessive daytime sleepiness and prolonged nighttime sleep, often lasting 10 to 14 hours, but do not feel refreshed upon waking.

Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare DES characterized by recurrent episodes of excessive sleepiness, often accompanied by cognitive impairment, altered perception, hyperphagia (excessive eating), and hypersexuality during the episodes. These episodes can last days to weeks and typically occur multiple times per year.

Recurrent hypersomnia is another rare DES with recurring episodes of excessive sleepiness lasting for several days, followed by a period of normal or reduced sleepiness. The episodes are not as predictable or consistent as those seen in Kleine-Levin syndrome.

Treatment for DES typically involves pharmacological interventions to manage symptoms and improve daytime alertness. Modafinil, armodafinil, and traditional stimulants like amphetamine salts are commonly used to treat excessive daytime sleepiness. Additionally, antidepressants may be prescribed to manage REM-related symptoms like cataplexy or sleep paralysis. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as scheduled napping and good sleep hygiene practices, can also help improve symptoms.

Sleep stages are distinct patterns of brain activity that occur during sleep, as measured by an electroencephalogram (EEG). They are part of the sleep cycle and are used to describe the different types of sleep that humans go through during a normal night's rest. The sleep cycle includes several repeating stages:

1. Stage 1 (N1): This is the lightest stage of sleep, where you transition from wakefulness to sleep. During this stage, muscle activity and brain waves begin to slow down.
2. Stage 2 (N2): In this stage, your heart rate slows, body temperature decreases, and eye movements stop. Brain wave activity becomes slower, with occasional bursts of electrical activity called sleep spindles.
3. Stage 3 (N3): Also known as deep non-REM sleep, this stage is characterized by slow delta waves. It is during this stage that the body undergoes restorative processes such as tissue repair, growth, and immune function enhancement.
4. REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep: This is the stage where dreaming typically occurs. Your eyes move rapidly beneath closed eyelids, heart rate and respiration become irregular, and brain wave activity increases to levels similar to wakefulness. REM sleep is important for memory consolidation and learning.

The sleep cycle progresses through these stages multiple times during the night, with REM sleep periods becoming longer towards morning. Understanding sleep stages is crucial in diagnosing and treating various sleep disorders.

Polysomnography (PSG) is a comprehensive sleep study that monitors various body functions during sleep, including brain activity, eye movement, muscle tone, heart rate, respirations, and oxygen levels. It is typically conducted in a sleep laboratory under the supervision of a trained technologist. The data collected during PSG is used to diagnose and manage various sleep disorders such as sleep-related breathing disorders (e.g., sleep apnea), movement disorders (e.g., periodic limb movement disorder), parasomnias, and narcolepsy.

The study usually involves the attachment of electrodes to different parts of the body, such as the scalp, face, chest, and legs, to record electrical signals from the brain, eye movements, muscle activity, and heartbeats. Additionally, sensors may be placed on or near the nose and mouth to measure airflow, and a belt may be worn around the chest and abdomen to monitor breathing efforts. Oxygen levels are also monitored through a sensor attached to the finger or ear.

Polysomnography is often recommended when a sleep disorder is suspected based on symptoms or medical history, and other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive. The results of the study can help guide treatment decisions and improve overall sleep health.

Wakefulness is a state of consciousness in which an individual is alert and aware of their surroundings. It is characterized by the ability to perceive, process, and respond to stimuli in a purposeful manner. In a medical context, wakefulness is often assessed using measures such as the electroencephalogram (EEG) to evaluate brain activity patterns associated with consciousness.

Wakefulness is regulated by several interconnected neural networks that promote arousal and attention. These networks include the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), which consists of a group of neurons located in the brainstem that project to the thalamus and cerebral cortex, as well as other regions involved in regulating arousal and attention, such as the basal forebrain and hypothalamus.

Disorders of wakefulness can result from various underlying conditions, including neurological disorders, sleep disorders, medication side effects, or other medical conditions that affect brain function. Examples of such disorders include narcolepsy, insomnia, hypersomnia, and various forms of encephalopathy or brain injury.

Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to recognize, understand, and manage our own emotions and the emotions of others. It involves the skills of perception, understanding, reasoning with emotions, and managing emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth. EI includes four key components:

1. Perception and Expression of Emotion: The ability to accurately perceive, identify, and express emotions in oneself and others.
2. Understanding and Analyzing Emotion: The ability to understand the causes and consequences of emotions and how they may combine and change over time.
3. Emotional Reasoning: The ability to use emotions to facilitate thinking and problem solving, and to make decisions based on both emotional and rational information.
4. Emotional Management: The ability to manage emotions in oneself and others, including the regulation of one's own emotions and the ability to influence the emotions of others.

Emotional intelligence is not a fixed trait, but rather can be developed and improved through practice and learning. It has been shown to have significant implications for personal well-being, interpersonal relationships, and professional success.

Muscle hypotonia, also known as decreased muscle tone, refers to a condition where the muscles appear to be flaccid or lacking in tension and stiffness. This results in reduced resistance to passive movements, making the limbs feel "floppy" or "like a rag doll." It can affect any muscle group in the body and can be caused by various medical conditions, including neurological disorders, genetic diseases, and injuries to the nervous system. Hypotonia should not be confused with muscle weakness, which refers to the inability to generate normal muscle strength.

HLA-DQ antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) that are found on the surface of cells in our body. They are a part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, which play a crucial role in the immune system by presenting pieces of proteins from outside the cell to CD4+ T cells, also known as helper T cells. This presentation process is essential for initiating an appropriate immune response against potentially harmful pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

HLA-DQ antigens are encoded by genes located on chromosome 6p21.3 in the HLA region. Each individual inherits a pair of HLA-DQ genes, one from each parent, which can result in various combinations of HLA-DQ alleles. These genetic variations contribute to the diversity of immune responses among different individuals.

HLA-DQ antigens consist of two noncovalently associated polypeptide chains: an alpha (DQA) chain and a beta (DQB) chain. There are several isotypes of HLA-DQ antigens, including DQ1, DQ2, DQ3, DQ4, DQ5, DQ6, DQ7, DQ8, and DQ9, which are determined by the specific combination of DQA and DQB alleles.

Certain HLA-DQ genotypes have been associated with an increased risk of developing certain autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease (DQ2 and DQ8), type 1 diabetes (DQ2, DQ8), and rheumatoid arthritis (DQ4). Understanding the role of HLA-DQ antigens in these conditions can provide valuable insights into disease pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets.

Neuropeptide receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to neuropeptides, which are small signaling molecules made up of short chains of amino acids. These receptors play an important role in the nervous system by mediating the effects of neuropeptides on various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, pain perception, and hormone release.

Neuropeptide receptors are typically composed of seven transmembrane domains and are classified into several families based on their structure and function. Some examples of neuropeptide receptor families include the opioid receptors, somatostatin receptors, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors.

When a neuropeptide binds to its specific receptor, it activates a signaling pathway within the cell that leads to various cellular responses. These responses can include changes in gene expression, ion channel activity, and enzyme function. Overall, the activation of neuropeptide receptors helps to regulate many important functions in the body, including mood, appetite, and pain sensation.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

The pons is a part of the brainstem that lies between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. Its name comes from the Latin word "ponte" which means "bridge," as it serves to connect these two regions of the brainstem. The pons contains several important structures, including nerve fibers that carry signals between the cerebellum (the part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements) and the rest of the nervous system. It also contains nuclei (clusters of neurons) that help regulate various functions such as respiration, sleep, and facial movements.

Hypothalamic hormones are a group of hormones that are produced and released by the hypothalamus, a small region at the base of the brain. These hormones play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep, and emotional behavior.

The hypothalamus produces two main types of hormones: releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones. Releasing hormones stimulate the pituitary gland to release its own hormones, while inhibiting hormones prevent the pituitary gland from releasing hormones.

Some examples of hypothalamic hormones include:

* Thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH), which stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland.
* Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin, which regulate the release of growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary gland.
* Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn regulate reproductive function.
* Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland, which regulates the stress response.
* Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) and prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH), which regulate the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland, which is involved in lactation.

Overall, hypothalamic hormones play a critical role in maintaining homeostasis in the body by regulating various physiological processes.

Sleep is a complex physiological process characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, reduced voluntary muscle activity, and decreased interaction with the environment. It's typically associated with specific stages that can be identified through electroencephalography (EEG) patterns. These stages include rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, associated with dreaming, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, which is further divided into three stages.

Sleep serves a variety of functions, including restoration and strengthening of the immune system, support for growth and development in children and adolescents, consolidation of memory, learning, and emotional regulation. The lack of sufficient sleep or poor quality sleep can lead to significant health problems, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even cognitive decline.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) defines sleep as "a period of daily recurring natural rest during which consciousness is suspended and metabolic processes are reduced." However, it's important to note that the exact mechanisms and purposes of sleep are still being researched and debated among scientists.

Salicylamides are organic compounds that consist of a salicylic acid molecule (a type of phenolic acid) linked to an amide group. They are derivatives of salicylic acid and are known for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. Salicylamides have been used in various pharmaceutical and therapeutic applications, including the treatment of pain, fever, and inflammation. However, they have largely been replaced by other compounds such as acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) due to their lower potency and potential side effects.

While I'm an assistant and not a doctor, I can share that laughter is not typically defined in a medical context. However, it's often studied in the field of psychology and health. Laughter is a human behavior characterized by involuntary vocalizations and facial expressions, often associated with positive emotions and humor.

From a physiological perspective, when we laugh, our bodies respond with a series of reactions. The diaphragm and abdominal muscles contract, causing us to breathe in and out rapidly, which can lead to increased heart rate and blood pressure. At the same time, the brain releases endorphins, which are chemicals associated with feelings of happiness and well-being.

In a medical context, laughter is sometimes used as a therapeutic tool. Laughter therapy, for instance, is used to promote physical and emotional health through intentional laughter exercises. It's believed that laughter can help reduce stress, improve mood, boost the immune system, and alleviate pain.

Catalepsy is a medical condition characterized by a trance-like state, with reduced sensitivity to pain and external stimuli, muscular rigidity, and fixed postures. In this state, the person's body may maintain any position in which it is placed for a long time, and there is often a decreased responsiveness to social cues or communication attempts.

Catalepsy can be a symptom of various medical conditions, including neurological disorders such as epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, or brain injuries. It can also occur in the context of mental health disorders, such as severe depression, catatonic schizophrenia, or dissociative identity disorder.

In some cases, catalepsy may be induced intentionally through hypnosis or other forms of altered consciousness practices. However, when it occurs spontaneously or as a symptom of an underlying medical condition, it can be a serious concern and requires medical evaluation and treatment.

In a medical or physiological context, "arousal" refers to the state of being awake and responsive to stimuli. It involves the activation of the nervous system, particularly the autonomic nervous system, which prepares the body for action. Arousal levels can vary from low (such as during sleep) to high (such as during states of excitement or stress). In clinical settings, changes in arousal may be assessed to help diagnose conditions such as coma, brain injury, or sleep disorders. It is also used in the context of sexual response, where it refers to the level of physical and mental awareness and readiness for sexual activity.

... without narcolepsy is rare and the cause is unknown. The term cataplexy originates from the Greek κατά (kata, meaning ... Cataplexy is treated with medications. Treatment for narcolepsy and cataplexy can be divided to those that act on the excessive ... Secondary cataplexy is associated with specific lesions located primarily in the lateral and posterior hypothalamus. Cataplexy ... Cataplexy is considered secondary when it is due to specific lesions in the brain that cause a depletion of the hypocretin ...
In February 2019, Mac released a new single titled "Cataplexy" and confirmed a new album is coming soon. In April, Mac ... "Cataplexy - single". iTunes Australia. 15 February 2019. Retrieved 19 April 2019. "Flamenco - single". iTunes Australia. 12 ...
Unlike narcolepsy with cataplexy, which has a known cause (autoimmune destruction of hypocretin-producing neurons), the cause ... The prevalence of narcolepsy (with cataplexy) is estimated between 1/3,300 and 1/5,000. Although the true prevalence of IH is ... This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with cataplexy, and ... "Narcolepsy-cataplexy". Retrieved 2014-08-14. "Idiopathic hypersomnia". Retrieved 2014-08-14. "Primary hypersomnia epidemiology ...
The attacks of cataplexy in dogs can involve partial or full collapse. Narcolepsy with cataplexy was identified in a few breeds ... Narcolepsy paired with cataplexy is evidenced to be an autoimmune disorder. These experiences of cataplexy can be brought on by ... The antidepressant class is used mainly for the treatment of cataplexy; for people with narcolepsy without cataplexy these are ... differentiates between narcolepsy with cataplexy (type 1) and narcolepsy without cataplexy (type 2), while the fifth edition of ...
Compulsive nail-biting (onychophagia). Cataplexy associated with narcolepsy. This is a TGA and MHRA-labeled indication for ...
GHB has been used in the medical setting as a general anesthetic and as treatment for cataplexy, narcolepsy, and alcoholism. ... "FDA Approval Letter for Xyrem; Indication: Cataplexy associated with narcolepsy; 17 July 2002" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the ... Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of cataplexy associated with narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) ...
See also laughter-induced syncope, cataplexy, and Bezold-Jarisch reflex. Gelastic seizures can be due to focal lesions to the ... Totah AR, Benbadis SR (January 2002). "Gelastic syncope mistaken for cataplexy". Sleep Med. 3 (1): 77-78. doi:10.1016/S1389- ... "Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy". PLOS ONE. 3 (5): e2225. Bibcode:2008PLoSO...3.2225R. doi:10.1371/ ...
Unlike syncope, there is no loss of consciousness in cataplexy, which affects 65-75% of patients with narcolepsy. To date there ... Laughter-induced syncope should not be confused with cataplexy, a sudden loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions, ... "Characterizing the Emotions That Trigger Cataplexy". Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. American ...
Vossler DG, Wyler AR, Wilkus RJ, Gardner-Walker G, Vlcek BW (May 1996). "Cataplexy and monoamine oxidase deficiency in Norrie ...
Kane N (May 2017). "Sodium oxybate for the treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy in adults" (PDF). NHS Regional Drug & ... Reviews of sodium oxybate concluded that it is well tolerated and associated with "significant reductions in cataplexy and ... "Narcolepsy with or without cataplexy in adults: pitolisant , Guidance and guidelines: Other Treatments". NICE. March 2017. ... cataplexy, weakness, nervousness or anxiety, depressed mood, nightmares or abnormal dreams, sleep paralysis, sleepwalking, or ...
... was reported by Montplaisir and Godbout to be very effective for cataplexy in 1986, back when this was usually ... Zimelidine was able to improve cataplexy without causing daytime sleepiness. Most often reported were: Dry mouth, dryness of ... Godbout R, Montplaisir J (1986). "The effect of zimelidine, a serotonin-reuptake blocker, on cataplexy and daytime sleepiness ...
Clinton suggests her condition may have been narcolepsy or cataplexy. A definitive diagnosis is not possible due to lack of ...
Narcolepsy with cataplexy, also known as type 1 narcolepsy, is thought to be caused by loss of orexin-producing neurons in the ... Similarly, narcolepsy with cataplexy in dogs is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the OX2 receptor, and knockout mice ... In addition, little to no cataplexy has been observed even with high doses of orexin receptor antagonists in animals and humans ... Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and ...
Cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis can also be present in narcolepsy. H3R antagonism leads to histamine ...
He has type 1 narcolepsy with cataplexy and faints when experiencing intense emotions. Assisted by his trusty associates, ...
"Case Study: Cataplexy and SOREMPs Without Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Prader Willi Syndrome. Is This the Beginning of ...
In narcolepsy, viloxazine has been shown to suppress auxiliary symptoms such as cataplexy and also abnormal sleep-onset REM ... In 1984, the FDA granted the medication an orphan designation for treatment of cataplexy and narcolepsy with the tentative ... In a cross-over trial (56 participants) viloxazine significantly reduced EDS and cataplexy. Viloxazine has also been studied ...
"Case Study: Cataplexy and SOREMPs Without Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Prader Willi Syndrome. Is This the Beginning of ...
January 2020). "Cataplexy and ataxia: red flags for the diagnosis of DNA methyltransferase 1 mutation". Journal of Clinical ... Usually, people with this disorder have ataxia, mild-moderate sensorineural hearing loss, narcolepsy, and cataplexy. These ... narcolepsy with cataplexy, and dementia later in life. People with this disorder usually start showing symptoms when they are ...
"Case Study: Cataplexy and SOREMPs Without Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Prader Willi Syndrome. Is This the Beginning of ...
... is indicated for the treatment of cataplexy in people aged seven years of age and older with narcolepsy. In August 2021, ... Xywav, is a medication used to treat cataplexy or excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). It contains a mixture of oxybate salts, ... Oral Solution for Cataplexy or Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Associated with Narcolepsy". Retrieved 20 September 2022. Portal: ...
... narcolepsy-cataplexy Hypocretin ligand deficiency in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid is also link to narcolepsy-cataplexy. ... Nishino S, Kanbayashi T (August 2005). "Symptomatic narcolepsy, cataplexy and hypersomnia, and their implications in the ...
GHB has been used as a general anesthetic and as a treatment for cataplexy, narcolepsy, and alcoholism. The sodium salt of GHB ... "Sodium oxybate demonstrates long-term efficacy for the treatment of cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy". Sleep Medicine. 5 ( ... "Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients With Narcolepsy-Cataplexy Treated With Sodium Oxybate (Xyrem)". Clinical Neuropharmacology. 34 ...
Cataplexy, on the other hand, is an involuntary loss of muscle tone during wakefulness. The mechanism of narcolepsy is unknown ...
Other scientists have also linked OBEs to cases of hypnagogia and sleep paralysis (cataplexy). In case studies fantasy ...
Narcolepsy, often with cataplexy - when manifestation of degenerative and irreversible brain damage has already occurred. ... Preprint: Injury protection strategies for H63D syndrome patients suffering from cataplexy 2021 Semenova EA, Miyamoto-Mikami E ...
"English translations of the first clinical reports on narcolepsy and cataplexy by Westphal and Gélineau in the late 19th ... He was the first physician to provide a clinical description of narcolepsy and cataplexy (1877). French physician Jean-Baptiste ...
March 2001). "Complex HLA-DR and -DQ interactions confer risk of narcolepsy-cataplexy in three ethnic groups". American Journal ...
... as a weapon for inducing cataplexy. The name of the device is a reference to the neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield. Dick also ...
Cataplexy is the symptom of narcolepsy when full awareness of the environment is maintained, but all muscle tone is lost. This ... "Activity of dorsal raphe cells across the sleep-waking cycle and during cataplexy in narcoleptic dogs". J. Physiol. 554 (Pt 1 ...
Cataplexy without narcolepsy is rare and the cause is unknown. The term cataplexy originates from the Greek κατά (kata, meaning ... Cataplexy is treated with medications. Treatment for narcolepsy and cataplexy can be divided to those that act on the excessive ... Secondary cataplexy is associated with specific lesions located primarily in the lateral and posterior hypothalamus. Cataplexy ... Cataplexy is considered secondary when it is due to specific lesions in the brain that cause a depletion of the hypocretin ...
About Cataplexy. Cataplexy is the sudden loss of voluntary muscle tone or temporary paralysis that is often triggered by ... Accommodating Employees with Cataplexy. People with cataplexy may develop some of the limitations discussed below, but seldom ... Cataplexy by itself is considered a rare disease. Most episodes are short in duration, lasting a few seconds up to five minutes ... Other Information Regarding Cataplexy. External Links. *EEOCs Reasonable Accommodation and Undue Hardship Guidance Under the ...
But not everyone who experiences cataplexy has narcolepsy. Learn about causes, symptoms, and treatment. ... Most people who experience cataplexy also have narcolepsy. ... This can cause cataplexy. *Prader-Willi syndrome: Prader-Willi ... Other causes and conditions can also lead to cataplexy.. Treating cataplexy depends on how often episodes occur and on the ... But not everyone who experiences cataplexy has narcolepsy. Cataplexy can also be a symptom of some genetic conditions or the ...
The case is described of a man who developed attacks of cataplexy, narcolepsy, and sleep paralysis because of microglioma which ...
... baclofen on arousal state and cataplexy in two models of narcolepsy. ... Cataplexy decreased from baseline in 57 and 86% of mice after GHB and R -BAC, respectively, whereas cataplexy increased in 79% ... At the doses tested, R -BAC suppressed cataplexy to a greater extent than GHB. These results suggest utility of R -BAC-based ... γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an approved therapeutic for the excessive sleepiness and sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy) ...
Cataplexy - Epidemiology Forecast to 2032 report delivers an in-depth understanding of the disease, historical and ... forecasted Cataplexy - Market research report and industry analysis - 30625112 ... Cataplexy Understanding. The DelveInsight Cataplexy epidemiology report gives a thorough understanding of the Cataplexy by ... 11-year Forecast of Cataplexy epidemiology. • 7MM Coverage. • Prevalent and Diagnosed Cases of Cataplexy. • Cases of Cataplexy ...
... Lanting Lu1,2*, Chris Roome3, Lain Lang2,3 and Ken Stein1 ... but we found no information allowing us to relate such findings to impact on cataplexy (or of resolution of cataplexy or ... The base case was assumed to be a 20-year-old cohort with narcolepsy and cataplexy. In the base case analysis, using the values ... A number of other studies (Table 1) have also reported sleepiness as the main symptom of narcolepsy with cataplexy, and this is ...
Laughter is one of the more common triggers of cataplexy. Cataplexy can pop up at any time during a persons life, and though ... Cataplexy is more serious than that. When a person experiences the trigger, their muscles stop functioning, just the way they ... Cataplexy and narcolepsy, which often coincide in patients, are both related to sleep disorders and both brought out by extreme ... Cataplexy sufferers also tend to be leery of stairs or cooking over a hot stove. The difficulties add up. ...
A Study to Evaluate Safety, and Efficacy of SUVN-G3031 in Patients With Narcolepsy With and Without Cataplexy. * Print details ... Have narcolepsy with or without cataplexy (Na-1 or Na-2) based on the International. Classification of Sleep Disorders (3rd ...
Utilize the latest clinical evidence to guide treatment planning for adults with EDS and cataplexy associated with narcolepsy. ... Examining the Latest Evidence on EDS and Cataplexy in Narcolepsy: What are the Implications for Your Practice? ... Treatment planning in patients with narcolepsy-associated excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and cataplexy is many-faceted, as ... it is important to not just reduce EDS and control cataplexy, nightmares and hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disturbed ...
Avadel Pharmaceuticals Announces U.S. Commercial Launch of LUMRYZ™ (sodium oxybate) for the Treatment of Cataplexy or Excessive ... as the first and only once-at-bedtime oxybate for the treatment of cataplexy or excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in adults ... Clinical Global Impression-Improvement and mean weekly cataplexy attacks) for all three doses evaluated, 6, 7.5 and 9 grams. ... is an extended-release formulation of sodium oxybate indicated to be taken once at bedtime for the treatment of cataplexy or ...
Cataplexy Cataplexy refers to sudden muscle weakness that affects the face, neck, and knees. Some people will have only mild ... For cataplexy. Sodium oxybate has approval. from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating excessive daytime ... It also features abnormal rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and can involve cataplexy, or brief attacks of muscle weakness and ... Antidepressant drugs can help a person manage cataplexy, but they can have adverse effects, such as high blood pressure and ...
Cataplexy (2) diagnosis (1) disrupted nighttime sleep (1) DNS (1) dreams (1) EDS (2) Excessive daytime sleepiness (1) ... First experiences of Cataplexy June 15, 2019 / No Comments Around the age of 14, my sleepiness was developing, but I also ... Laughing is my weakness My first memory of a cataplexy attack happened in our family kitchen. My father likes to joke around, ...
Automatic cataplexy detection by applying SHIATSU to a standardized test for video documentation of cataplexy is feasible, with ... Automatic cataplexy detection by applying SHIATSU to a standardized test for video documentation of cataplexy is feasible, with ... Automatic detection of cataplexy. Bartolini, Ilaria;Pizza, Fabio;Di Luzio, Andrea;Neccia, Giulia;Antelmi, Elena;Vandi, Stefano; ... Our study aimed at testing the accuracy of an automatic video detection of cataplexy in NT1 patients vs. non-cataplectic ...
Posts Tagged cataplexy video. National Geographic Channel Features Narcolepsy with Cataplexy on Taboo: Strange Behavior ( ... This preview highlights cataplexy, a symptom of narcolepsy when emotions (humor, annoyance, joy, anger) causes loss of muscle ... Strange Behavior featuring narcolepsy with cataplexy. Watch a short video preview of National Geographic Channel Taboo: Strange ...
Vol 171 , Cataplexy. 10/23/2023. More. .css-jwkwg4{overflow:hidden;height:0;-webkit-transition:height 150ms linear;transition: ...
Cataplexy. Cataplexy is the term for a brief temporary loss of muscles tonus. It ranges from mild cases, in which for example ... Episodes of cataplexy can be triggered by emotions such as laughing, anger or surprise and usually last only a few seconds (10 ... The intensity of the symptoms can be very different from one patient to another, and some symptoms (e.g. cataplexy) may be ... These can help to avoid agitation and physical exertion that could trigger cataplexy. To enable quick and correct treatment in ...
Assessing Narcolepsy with Cataplexy in Children and Adolescents: Development of a Cataplexy Diary and the ESS-CHAD. Nat Sci ... In children, cataplexy attacks may resemble clonic, atonic, and/or myoclonic seizures. Alternatively, at onset, cataplexy may ... The researchers thus created a child-friendly definition of cataplexy that could be used in an electronic cataplexy daily diary ... The ESS-CHAD can be used in combination with a cataplexy diary to diagnose children with narcolepsy and cataplexy and the two ...
science #cataplexy #stemgeek #neurology #pob #vyb #health #medicine #muscle-biology 4 months ago. in. StemSocial. by. sam9999. ... Well, thats cataplexy saying, "Surprise!" in its own unique way.. The good news which might be a consolation is that cataplexy ... Yes, folks, cataplexy is like a prankster comedian, waiting for the perfect punchline to leave you helpless with laughter or ... You see, Cataplexy is like a ninja sneaking into your body and stealing your muscle control, leaving you temporarily paralyzed ...
Be the first to review "Cataplexy "Devangelight" CD" Cancel reply. Your rating *. Rate…. Perfect. Good. Average. Not that bad. ...
Strong emotions such as fear, anger, or sadness may trigger cataplexy attacks in some people with narcolepsy. ... Cataplexy is the sudden loss of muscle tone. ... My emotions trigger cataplexy. Cataplexy attacks are some of ... Do you experience cataplexy attacks? What are some things in daily life that tend to trigger them? Have you found any ... In my case, most emotions will trigger a cataplexy attack in some way, but anger is the one that completely cripples me. ...
Is this related to cataplexy? Its not when any strong emotions happen its just I noticed it feels harder to have control over ...
If you are suffering from narcolepsy with cataplexy ICD 10 you should seek the proper treatment to help you recover from this ... Narcolepsy With Cataplexy ICD 10; If you are suffering from narcolepsy with cataplexy ICD 10 you should seek the proper ... Narcolepsy With Cataplexy. Diagnosis. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a relatively common neurological sleep disorder. People ... Narcolepsy With Cataplexy - Treatment. Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder which affects the brains ability to regulate sleep-wake ...
Narcolepsy with cataplexy is one of the most studied sleep disorders in a number of scientific fields. In particular, ... Narcolepsy with cataplexy has associated structural abnormalities in the hypothalamus and thalamus, in line with a loss of ... White matter alterations in narcolepsy patients with cataplexy: tract-based spatial statistics. J Sleep Res 2016;25:181-9.. ... Analysis of cortical thickness in narcolepsy patients with cataplexy. Sleep 2011;34:1357-64.. ...
All vertebrate animals yawn, but yawning too much can be a sign of a sleep disorder or other problem. Learn about causes and treatment for excessive yawning.
What Is Cataplexy? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention. This narcolepsy symptom can cause someone to lose ...
Cataplexy. Cataplexy is the term for a brief temporary loss of muscles tonus. It ranges from mild cases, in which for example ... Episodes of cataplexy can be triggered by emotions such as laughing, anger or surprise and usually last only a few seconds (10 ... The intensity of the symptoms can be very different from one patient to another, and some symptoms (e.g. cataplexy) may be ... These can help to avoid agitation and physical exertion that could trigger cataplexy. To enable quick and correct treatment in ...
CATAPLEXY *During these attacks, you cant control your muscles and cant move. Strong emotions, such as laughter or anger, can ... Most people with narcolepsy have daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. Not everyone has all these symptoms. Surprisingly, despite ... Type 2 involves having excessive daytime sleepiness, but no cataplexy, and a normal level of hypocretin. ... Sodium oxybate (Xyrem) works well to control cataplexy. It can also help control daytime sleepiness. ...
  • Cataplexy affects approximately 20% of people who have narcolepsy, and is caused by an autoimmune destruction of hypothalamic neurons that produce the neuropeptide hypocretin (also called orexin), which regulates arousal and has a role in stabilization of the transition between wake and sleep states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cataplexy is considered secondary when it is due to specific lesions in the brain that cause a depletion of the hypocretin neurotransmitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • One study concluded that the neurochemical hypocretin, also known as orexin, which is regulated by the hypothalamus, was significantly reduced in study participants with symptoms of cataplexy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Localized loss of hypocretin (orexin) cells in narcolepsy without cataplexy. (aop-health.com)
  • Studies in animal models have shown that deficient hypocretin transmission causes narcolepsy with cataplexy [ 4 ], and lower cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin levels have been observed in those with narcolepsy with cataplexy [ 5 ]. (pfmjournal.org)
  • Type 1 involves having excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and a low level of hypocretin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. (lesswrong.com)
  • Type 1 narcolepsy (narcolepsy with cataplexy), the most common form of the condition, is caused by a deficiency in the neurotransmitter hypocretin (orexin). (adam.com)
  • Cataplexy is a sudden and transient episode of muscle weakness accompanied by full conscious awareness, typically triggered by emotions such as laughing, crying, or terror. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with cataplexy find themselves constantly having to guard against certain emotions. (gizmodo.com)
  • This preview highlights cataplexy, a symptom of narcolepsy when emotions (humor, annoyance, joy, anger) causes loss of muscle tone without loss of consciousness. (julieflygare.com)
  • Episodes of cataplexy can be triggered by emotions such as laughing, anger or surprise and usually last only a few seconds (10). (aop-health.com)
  • Painting, drawing, writing, or even trying your hand at pottery can help you express your emotions without the fear of cataplexy sneaking up on you. (stemgeeks.net)
  • In my case, most emotions will trigger a cataplexy attack in some way, but anger is the one that completely cripples me. (sleep-disorders.net)
  • Strong emotions, such as laughter or anger, can trigger cataplexy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, experts believe that strong, sudden emotions may trigger cataplexy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Strong emotions like fear or anger, or when you're laughing, may trigger cataplexy. (healthline.com)
  • Besides EDS, people with narcolepsy type 1 also have cataplexy, which is a sudden but temporary muscle weakness, sometimes brought on by laughter or other emotions. (adam.com)
  • Temporary and sudden muscle weakness without loss of consciousness (called cataplexy ), usually brought on by sudden or strong emotions. (adam.com)
  • Treatment planning in patients with narcolepsy-associated excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and cataplexy is many-faceted, as it is important to not just reduce EDS and control cataplexy, nightmares and hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disturbed nocturnal sleep (DNS) but to also improve the patient's psychosocial dysfunction and quality of life (QOL), their safety and that of the public, and to optimize the risks and benefits of pharmacotherapies. (neurosciencecme.com)
  • The classic symptoms of narcolepsy include abnormal sleepiness during the day, disturbed sleep at night, hallucinations, sleep paralysis and cataplexy. (aop-health.com)
  • Cataplexy, extreme daytime sleepiness , hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis are the most frequent symptoms of narcolepsy. (therapynyc.net)
  • Narcolepsy is characterized by EDS with or without cataplexy (sudden and uncontrollable muscle weakness or paralysis triggered by a strong emotion), hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis (vivid and dream-like hallucinations and muscle paralysis while falling asleep), and disturbed nocturnal sleep. (nature.com)
  • citation needed] Cataplexy attacks are self-limiting and resolve without the need for medical intervention. (wikipedia.org)
  • While cataplexy worsens with fatigue, it is different from narcoleptic sleep attacks and is usually, but not always, triggered by strong emotional reactions such as laughter, anger, surprise, awe, and embarrassment, or by sudden physical effort, especially if the person is caught off guard. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some people with narcolepsy can have cataplectic attacks almost daily, while there are some people with narcolepsy that have never experienced cataplexy. (askjan.org)
  • The case is described of a man who developed attacks of cataplexy, narcolepsy, and sleep paralysis because of microglioma which infiltrated the walls and floor of the IIIrd ventricle and the upper brain stem. (bmj.com)
  • 0.001) and clinically meaningful improvement compared to placebo across all three co-primary endpoints (Maintenance of Wakefulness Test, Clinical Global Impression-Improvement and mean weekly cataplexy attacks) for all three doses evaluated, 6, 7.5 and 9 grams. (tipranks.com)
  • It also features abnormal rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and can involve cataplexy, or brief attacks of muscle weakness and tone that can lead to body collapse. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Seven months later, the boy presented to the hospital again, this time with cataplexy in the form of head dropping attacks. (chionfoundation.org)
  • Cataplexy attacks are some of the most debilitating and physically exerting times of my life. (sleep-disorders.net)
  • Cataplexy attacks are triggered by pure emotion and nothing else. (sleep-disorders.net)
  • Do you experience cataplexy attacks? (sleep-disorders.net)
  • Have you found any strategies for coping with cataplexy attacks or the exhaustion that comes after? (sleep-disorders.net)
  • Moreover, unlike adults, children often experience cataplexy without a clear emotional trigger. (chionfoundation.org)
  • Utilize the latest clinical evidence to guide treatment planning for adults with EDS and cataplexy associated with narcolepsy. (neurosciencecme.com)
  • γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an approved therapeutic for the excessive sleepiness and sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy) characteristic of narcolepsy. (sri.com)
  • The main symptoms are Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) and cataplexy, which affects approximately 75% of those with narcolepsy [ 4 ] and is characterised by a sudden decrease of muscular tone, caused by emotion, typically laughter. (omicsonline.org)
  • LUMRYZ is an extended-release formulation of sodium oxybate indicated to be taken once at bedtime for the treatment of cataplexy or excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in adults with narcolepsy. (tipranks.com)
  • Avadel's commercial product, LUMRYZ, was approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) as the first and only once-at-bedtime oxybate for the treatment of cataplexy or excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in adults with narcolepsy. (tipranks.com)
  • Sodium oxybate has approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating excessive daytime sleepiness, poor nighttime sleep, and cataplexy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder associated with abnormal regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, resulting in excessive daytime sleepiness, disturbed nocturnal sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phenomena including cataplexy. (pfmjournal.org)
  • Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, disruption of sleep-wake behavior, cataplexy, and other rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phenomena, such as sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucination [ 1 ]. (pfmjournal.org)
  • Narcolepsy is characterized by chronic excessive daytime sleepiness, often with sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy). (msdmanuals.com)
  • There are a few medications that help control cataplexy, but they are expensive and relatively rare. (gizmodo.com)
  • Most people who experience episodes of cataplexy also have narcolepsy, a chronic condition that causes uncontrollable episodes of sleep. (healthline.com)
  • Treating cataplexy depends on how often episodes occur and on the severity of episodes. (healthline.com)
  • Cataplexy is characterized by episodes of a sudden loss of muscle tone and control. (healthline.com)
  • Sometimes, cataplexy episodes are the first symptom of narcolepsy and can help lead to a diagnosis. (healthline.com)
  • But not everyone with narcolepsy experiences episodes of cataplexy, and not everyone who experiences cataplexy has narcolepsy. (healthline.com)
  • Most people who experience episodes of cataplexy have narcolepsy. (healthline.com)
  • Cataplexy causes episodes of muscle weakness and loss of muscle tone. (healthline.com)
  • But unlike seizures, people with cataplexy remain awake and aware during their episodes. (healthline.com)
  • Treatment for cataplexy depends on how often your episodes happen and how severe they are. (healthline.com)
  • For instance, people who have mild cataplexy episodes once or twice a year might not need a formal treatment plan. (healthline.com)
  • That way, someone can keep an eye out for episodes to ensure the person with cataplexy is safe if one occurs. (healthline.com)
  • There's no cure for cataplexy, but medications are often an effective way of reducing episodes. (healthline.com)
  • Cataplexy is a condition that causes sudden episodes of a loss of muscle control. (healthline.com)
  • Cataplexy is sudden episodes of partial or complete paralysis of voluntary muscles, triggered by emotional stimulation [ 2 ]. (pfmjournal.org)
  • The increased level of these substances achieved through prevention of reuptake results in better emotion control and as a result, rarer episodes of cataplexy. (rxshop.md)
  • Objective: Although being the most specific symptom of narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), cataplexy is currently investigated by clinical interview only, with potential diagnostic pitfalls. (univr.it)
  • Narcolepsy type 2 is defined as narcolepsy without cataplexy. (adam.com)
  • Around 90% of patients with narcolepsy type 1 (narcolepsy with cataplexy) and half of patients with narcolepsy type 2 (narcolepsy without cataplexy) carry a specific genetic variation, called a haplotype, in an immune system gene (HLA-DQB1*06:02). (adam.com)
  • The cause of narcolepsy type 2 (without cataplexy) is still unknown. (adam.com)
  • Cataplexy can also be a symptom of some genetic conditions or the result of a stroke or brain tumor. (healthline.com)
  • Type 2 does not have cataplexy as a symptom. (healthline.com)
  • Cataplexy is the sudden loss of voluntary muscle tone or temporary paralysis that is often triggered by extreme emotion, such as laughter or fear. (askjan.org)
  • A secretary with cataplexy would experience an attack after a fit of laughter, causing her to fall out of her chair. (askjan.org)
  • Laughter is one of the more common triggers of cataplexy. (gizmodo.com)
  • Our study aimed at testing the accuracy of an automatic video detection of cataplexy in NT1 patients vs. non-cataplectic subjects undergoing a standardized test with emotional stimulation.Methods: Fifteen drug-naive NT1 patients and 15 age-and sex-balanced non-cataplectic subjects underwent a standardized video recording procedure including emotional stimulation causing laughter. (univr.it)
  • In non-cataplectic subjects, automatic detection falsely identified cataplexy in two out of 15 (13.3%) subjects who showed active eyes closure during intense laughter as a confounder with ptosis.Conclusions: Automatic cataplexy detection by applying SHIATSU to a standardized test for video documentation of cataplexy is feasible, with an overall accuracy of 81% compared to human examiners. (univr.it)
  • Yes, folks, cataplexy is like a prankster comedian, waiting for the perfect punchline to leave you helpless with laughter or love. (stemgeeks.net)
  • Medications such as sodium oxybate ( Xyrem ) and venlafaxine (Effexor) can help prevent cataplexy. (healthline.com)
  • Sodium oxybate (Xyrem, generic) for cataplexy as well as for EDS. (adam.com)
  • The DelveInsight Cataplexy epidemiology report gives a thorough understanding of the Cataplexy by including details such as disease definition, symptoms, causes, pathophysiology, and diagnosis. (marketresearch.com)
  • Moreover, the diagnosis of cataplexy may be the first clue that a patient has narcolepsy, a disorder that takes a median of nine years to be diagnosed, and for which there are now several treatment options. (chionfoundation.org)
  • His diagnosis of narcolepsy and cataplexy took thirteen months from first presentation. (chionfoundation.org)
  • The hope is that these tools, in combination with increased awareness in health care providers and patients, will facilitate the diagnosis of cataplexy in children, many of whom live with the label of being "lazy. (chionfoundation.org)
  • The presence of cataplexy supports a diagnosis of type-I narcolepsy. (adam.com)
  • Further studies are warranted to enlarge the range of elementary motor patterns detected, analyse their temporal/spatial relations and quantify cataplexy for diagnostic purposes. (univr.it)
  • Secondary cataplexy is associated with specific lesions located primarily in the lateral and posterior hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cataplexy may also occur transiently or permanently due to lesions of the hypothalamus that were caused by surgery, especially in difficult tumor resections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous studies, exploring gray matter and white matter, showed distinct aspects of disease and symptoms in narcolepsy with cataplexy related to the hypothalamus, thalamus, amygdalo-hippocampus, and frontoparietal cortex. (pfmjournal.org)
  • Cataplexy manifests itself as muscular weakness which may range from a barely perceptible slackening of the facial muscles to complete muscle paralysis with postural collapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cataplexy refers to sudden muscle weakness that affects the face, neck, and knees. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Laughing is my weakness My first memory of a cataplexy attack happened in our family kitchen. (narcolepsylife.com)
  • Cataplexy is a sudden feeling of weakness in your legs, arms, head or face. (chionfoundation.org)
  • It can also cause acute muscle weakness known as cataplexy and vivid dream imagery on falling asleep or after waking up. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cataplexy is an unexpected and quick incident of muscle weakness with full consciousness. (rxshop.md)
  • Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of sodium oxybate plus antidepressants and stimulants compared with the current standard treatment for narcolepsy with cataplexy in the UK. (omicsonline.org)
  • Sodium oxybate was licensed in the UK in 2005 for the treatment of cataplexy in adults with narcolepsy. (omicsonline.org)
  • The ESS-CHAD can be used in combination with a cataplexy diary to diagnose children with narcolepsy and cataplexy and the two are currently being used in a Phase III, placebo-controlled clinical trial of sodium oxybate in children and adolescents with narcolepsy. (chionfoundation.org)
  • Often, cataplexy is confused with seizure disorders, like epilepsy or fainting disorders . (healthline.com)
  • Cataplexy and narcolepsy, which often coincide in patients, are both related to sleep disorders and both brought out by extreme fatigue and over-tiring situations. (gizmodo.com)
  • Narcolepsy with cataplexy is one of the most studied sleep disorders in a number of scientific fields. (pfmjournal.org)
  • Cataplexy is a condition that causes a sudden loss of muscle control and muscle tone. (healthline.com)
  • I didn't know it at the time, but what I was experiencing was cataplexy, or the sudden loss of muscle control. (webmd.com)
  • For cataplexy management, sometimes antidepressants are used. (rxshop.md)
  • Cataplexy management formulations include majorly antidepressants which principle of action is laid in the inhibition/prevention of reuptake of free serotonin and norepinephrine by the presynaptic cleft. (rxshop.md)
  • The Cataplexy epidemiology segment covers the epidemiology data in the US, EU5 countries (Germany, Spain, Italy, France, and the UK), and Japan from 2019 to 2032. (marketresearch.com)
  • The Cataplexy epidemiology covered in the report provides historical as well as forecasted Cataplexy epidemiology scenario in the 7MM covering the United States, EU5 countries (Germany, Spain, Italy, France, and the United Kingdom), and Japan from 2019 to 2032. (marketresearch.com)
  • What are the key findings pertaining to the Cataplexy epidemiology across 7MM and which country will have the highest number of patients during the forecast period (2019-2032)? (marketresearch.com)
  • What would be the total number of patients of Cataplexy across the 7MM during the forecast period (2019-2032)? (marketresearch.com)
  • Specifically, parents were not as good as their children at recognizing cataplexy symptoms/triggers. (chionfoundation.org)
  • Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a relatively common neurological sleep disorder. (therapynyc.net)
  • While cataplexy is rare, experts agree that it is important for health care providers to recognize it and to know that its presentation differs in adults and children. (chionfoundation.org)
  • The primary signs are cataplexy and unexpected falling asleep. (rxshop.md)
  • People with cataplexy may develop some of the limitations discussed below, but seldom develop all of them. (askjan.org)
  • Be aware that not all people with cataplexy will need accommodations to perform their jobs and many others may only need a few accommodations. (askjan.org)
  • Some people with narcolepsy also have a condition called cataplexy. (healthline.com)
  • People with type 1 narcolepsy experience cataplexy . (healthline.com)
  • It wasn't until I went without it for a few days and started falling over with cataplexy 20 times a day that people really started to get it. (webmd.com)
  • Cataplexy can be a side effect of certain medications, but this is rare. (healthline.com)
  • Off-label means the medications are intended to treat symptoms of depression, but they've also been found to relieve symptoms of cataplexy. (healthline.com)
  • You see, Cataplexy is like a ninja sneaking into your body and stealing your muscle control, leaving you temporarily paralyzed, but not in a cool superhero way. (stemgeeks.net)
  • Type 1 features a sudden loss of muscle tone, known as cataplexy. (healthline.com)
  • At the doses tested, R -BAC suppressed cataplexy to a greater extent than GHB. (sri.com)
  • Cataplexy can be mild, where your head drops, or it can be severe, causing you to collapse. (healthline.com)
  • Video recordings were visually inspected by human scorers to detect three typical cataplexy facial motor patterns (ptosis, mouth opening and head drop), and then analysed by SHIATSU (Semantic-based HIearchical Automatic Tagging of videos by Segmentation using cUts). (univr.it)
  • Often children with cataplexy have prominent facial involvement that can include active movement of the tongue and perioral muscles. (chionfoundation.org)
  • You may experience cataplexy several times a day or only once a year. (healthline.com)
  • It also provides treatment algorithms and treatment guidelines for Cataplexy in the US, Europe, and Japan. (marketresearch.com)
  • Further clinical data permitted a change in the licence to "the treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy in adult patients" in 2008 [ 6 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Once diagnosed with narcolepsy with cataplexy, he received treatment and responded with a reduction of symptoms and normalization of body mass index. (chionfoundation.org)
  • If you are suffering from narcolepsy with cataplexy ICD 10 you should seek the proper treatment to help you recover from this disease. (therapynyc.net)
  • Not only is cataplexy commonly seen in children with narcolepsy, but it can also be caused by other conditions such as Prader-Willi Syndrome, Niemann-Pick type C, and lesions in the hypothalamic or pontomedullary regions of the brain. (chionfoundation.org)
  • The Ullanlinna Narcolepsy Scale is a set of 11 questions that also asks about unusual sleeping tendencies and cataplexy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sidney suffers from cataplexy, an unusual medical condition where he becomes literally paralyzed when he is overcome with emotion. (kqed.org)
  • Cataplexy is the term for a brief temporary loss of muscles tonus. (aop-health.com)
  • Even if he preferred the term 'astasia' instead of 'cataplexy' the case described by him remained iconic for the full narcoleptic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)