Catalogs as Topic
National Library of Medicine (U.S.)
Library Technical Services
Molecular Sequence Data
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Small Molecule Libraries
Amino Acid Sequence
Databases, Nucleic Acid
Molecular Sequence Annotation
Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques
Library Collection Development
Information Storage and Retrieval
Gene Expression Profiling
Expressed Sequence Tags
Sequence Analysis, RNA
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Abstracting and Indexing as Topic
Databases as Topic
Terminology as Topic
Database Management Systems
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
Computer Communication Networks
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Open Reading Frames
Facility Design and Construction
Genome-Wide Association Study
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Health Services Administration
Reproducibility of Results
Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial
Sequence Analysis, Protein
Gene Expression Regulation
Protein Interaction Maps
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
High-Throughput Screening Assays
DNA Transposable Elements
Costs and Cost Analysis
RNA Splice Sites
Architecture as Topic
Comparative Genomic Hybridization
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Directed Molecular Evolution
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Genetic Diseases, Inborn
Interior Design and Furnishings
Bibliography as Topic
Two-Hybrid System Techniques
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Online tables of contents for books: effect on usage. (1/45)OBJECTIVES: To explore whether the presence of online tables of contents (TOC) in an online catalog affects circulation (checkouts and inhouse usage). Two major questions were posed: (1) did the presence of online tables of contents for books increase use, and, (2) if it did, what factors might cause the increase? METHOD: A randomized and stratified design was used in tracking usage of 3,957 book titles that were previously divided into two groups: one with TOC and one without TOC. Stratification was done for year of imprint, location, subject, previous use, circulating or non-circulating status, and presence of TOC. The use was tracked by the online catalog statistics in the InnoPac online catalog for fourteen months. RESULTS: The study found that tables of contents do increase usage. It also showed a correlation in the size of the effect based on the currency of the titles. In general, even after adjusting for all of the variables (publication date, location, circulation status, subject, and previous use), the odds of a title being used increased by 45% if the titles had online tables of contents, a statistically significant impact at the 0.05 level. CONCLUSIONS: This case-control study presents new information about the impact on circulation and inhouse use when tables of contents for books are added to the online catalog record. The study helps to establish the positive role of tables of contents in online catalogs. The research establishes TOC as a major parameter that can be successfully studied using quantitative methods. The study also provides information professionals with some guidance on when enhancement of TOC is likely to be most effective in increasing the use of existing collections. (+info)
Brandon/Hill selected list of print books and journals for the small medical library. (2/45)After thirty-six years of biennial updates, the authors take great pride in being able to publish the nineteenth version (2001) of the "Brandon/Hill Selected List of Print Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library." This list of 630 books and 143 journals is intended as a selection guide for health sciences libraries or similar facilities. It can also function as a core collection for a library consortium. Books and journals are categorized by subject; the book list is followed by an author/editor index, and the subject list of journals, by an alphabetical title listing. Due to continuing requests from librarians, a "minimal core list" consisting of 81 titles has been pulled out from the 217 asterisked (*) initial-purchase books and marked with daggers (dagger *) before the asterisks. To purchase the entire collection of 630 books and to pay for 143 2001 journal subscriptions would require $124,000. The cost of only the asterisked items, books and journals, totals $55,000. The "minimal core list" book collection costs approximately $14,300. (+info)
Mechanization of library procedures in a medium-sized medical library: XVI. Computer-assisted cataloging, the first decade. (3/45)After ten years of experimentation in computer-assisted cataloging, the Washington University School of Medicine Library has decided to join the Ohio College Library Center network. The history of the library's work preceding this decision is reviewed. The data processing equipment and computers that have permitted librarians to explore different ways of presenting cataloging information are discussed. Certain cataloging processes are facilitated by computer manipulation and printouts, but the intellectual cataloging processes such as descriptive and subject cataloging are not. Networks and shared bibliographic data bases show promise of eliminating the intellectual cataloging for one book by more than one cataloger. It is in this area that future developments can be expected. (+info)
Computer-assisted cataloging: experiences at the UCLA Biomedical Library. (4/45)The computer-assisted procedures developed in the UCLA Biomedical Library Cataloging Division have been in effect for approximately three years. The system utilizes a Delta Data System cathode ray tube terminal and cassette attachment for on or off-line input of data. Products of the system include catalog card sets arranged in filing order, a monthly Recent Acquisitions List, and computer-generated book catalogs. Planning, personnel, and equipment requirements are discussed, and preliminary cost figures for various parts of the system are given. Potential applications of the automated system on a regional level and in terms of the library's future automation plans are considered. (+info)
A description of the catalog division project at the College of Physicians of Philadelphia Library. (5/45)This paper describes the procedures used at the Library of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia to divide its ninety-year-old dictionary card catalog. The division was necessitated by overcrowding, obsolete subject headings, and lack of a complete authority list which resulted in like materials being scattered throughout the catalog under several headings. Two catalogs were created: the historical-biographical catalog, representing all works published before 1950 and all works of historical or biographical nature; and the current catalog, containing all works published from 1950 on, excepting historical or biographical materials. The 1950- catalog was further divided into name and subject catalogs, and the subject section was revised according to MeSH. The project was completed in about two years. As a result, searching time has been much reduced, and the library is able to take advantage of the annual revisions of MeSH to update the subject catalog. (+info)
Automated cataloging: the state of the art. (6/45)The art of cataloging is in a state of constant dynamic change. The capabilities of automation are causing changes in the tools we have at our disposal, the education and training we need to work with these tools, the caliber of staff we use at various stages of the cataloging process, and the physical form of the end product of the efforts of the catalog department. But perhaps of more importance is the cooperation and sharing between libraries on both the national and international level that become possible as the result of automated systems. (+info)
The PHILSOM system--one user's experience. (7/45)The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio joined the PHILSOM system, a comprehensive serials control network, in 1971. The experiences of the library in using the system are described. The major benefit of the system has been multiple copies of the holdings list which have made the serial records publicly accessible and significantly increased their value. Tallies of these lists' use indicate that more than half of serials-related questions are now answered directly by the users. The effects of PHILSOM on the procedures of the serials department--processing, claiming, bindery, and personnel are described. Costs to the network and the UTHSCSA Library are briefly summarized. (+info)
BOOK CATALOGS VERSUS CARD CATALOGS. (8/45)The development of the library catalog in book form and its abandonment in favor of the card catalog are briefly traced. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of catalogs are enumerated, and several solutions which tried to combine the best features of both are discussed. The present trend back to the book catalog, made possible by recent advances in computer technology, is analyzed, advantages and disadvantages are compared, current examples are illustrated, and finally the computerized catalog is weighed against both the book and card catalog as to main features and practicality. (+info)
In the medical field, a catalog or library catalog is a database or index that lists the books, journals, articles, and other resources available in a library or medical center. It provides information about the content of each item, including the title, author, publication date, and subject matter. The catalog is typically searchable, allowing users to find specific resources by keyword, author, title, or subject. It may also include information about the availability of each item, such as whether it is checked out or available for borrowing. In addition to physical catalogs, many libraries and medical centers also offer online catalogs that can be accessed from anywhere with an internet connection. These online catalogs may include additional features, such as the ability to place holds on items or to renew borrowed materials.
In the medical field, "Catalogs as Topic" refers to the use of catalogs to organize and classify medical information, such as medical products, equipment, and supplies. Catalogs can be used by healthcare providers, administrators, and other medical professionals to access and manage medical resources efficiently. They can also be used to track inventory, manage purchasing, and ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. Catalogs can be in print or digital format and may be produced by manufacturers, distributors, or other organizations that provide medical products and services.
In the medical field, "Catalogs, Union" typically refers to a type of database that contains information about medical resources, such as journals, books, and other publications. The term "union" refers to the fact that the database includes records from multiple catalogs, which are combined into a single searchable index. A union catalog in the medical field can be useful for researchers, clinicians, and other healthcare professionals who need to find information on a particular topic or resource. By searching the union catalog, they can access a wide range of resources from multiple sources, rather than having to search each catalog individually. Union catalogs in the medical field may be maintained by libraries, medical associations, or other organizations. They may be available online or in print, and may be searchable by keyword, author, title, or other criteria.
In the medical field, cataloging refers to the process of organizing and indexing medical information, such as patient records, medical images, and research studies, in a systematic and standardized manner. This information is typically stored in a medical library or electronic database, and can be accessed by healthcare providers, researchers, and other authorized users. The purpose of cataloging in the medical field is to facilitate access to medical information and to ensure that it is accurate, up-to-date, and easily retrievable. Cataloging involves assigning unique identifiers to each piece of medical information, creating detailed descriptions and subject headings, and organizing the information into a hierarchical structure that allows users to quickly find the information they need. Cataloging is an important part of medical research and patient care, as it enables healthcare providers to access the latest medical information and make informed decisions about patient treatment. It also helps to ensure that medical research is conducted in a systematic and rigorous manner, and that the results of research studies are accurately reported and disseminated.
In the medical field, a catalog is a comprehensive list or directory of medical products, equipment, or services offered by a particular company or organization. It typically includes detailed descriptions, specifications, pricing information, and images of the products or services listed. Medical catalogs can be used by healthcare providers, hospitals, clinics, and other medical facilities to find and purchase the equipment and supplies they need. They can also be used by patients to research and compare different medical products and services before making a decision about their healthcare. Medical catalogs can be in print or digital format and may be distributed through mail, email, or online platforms. They are an important resource for the medical industry, helping to facilitate the efficient and effective delivery of medical products and services to patients.
In the medical field, "catalogs, commercial" typically refers to printed or online directories that list and describe medical products and equipment available for purchase from commercial suppliers. These catalogs may include information on the features, specifications, pricing, and availability of a wide range of medical products, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic equipment, patient monitoring devices, and pharmaceuticals. Medical professionals, such as doctors, nurses, and hospital administrators, may use these catalogs to research and select products for their facilities or to place orders for supplies. Some catalogs may also include information on the manufacturers of the products, as well as contact information for sales representatives or customer service. It's worth noting that there are also specialized medical catalogs that focus on specific areas of medicine, such as orthopedics, cardiology, or oncology. These catalogs may provide more detailed information on products and equipment that are relevant to specific medical specialties.
In the medical field, book classification refers to the process of organizing and categorizing medical books based on their subject matter, intended audience, and level of complexity. This classification system helps medical professionals and students quickly locate and access the information they need to make informed decisions about patient care and medical research. Medical book classification typically follows a hierarchical system, with broad categories at the top and more specific subcategories at the bottom. For example, a medical book classification system might include the following categories: 1. Anatomy and physiology 2. Pathology and laboratory medicine 3. Pharmacology and therapeutics 4. Surgery and anesthesia 5. Pediatrics and neonatology 6. Obstetrics and gynecology 7. Internal medicine 8. Neurology and psychiatry 9. Dermatology and venereology 10. Ophthalmology and otolaryngology Each of these categories might be further divided into subcategories, such as "Cardiovascular diseases" under "Internal medicine" or "Neonatal intensive care" under "Pediatrics and neonatology." Medical book classification is important because it helps medical professionals and students quickly locate the information they need to make informed decisions about patient care and medical research. By organizing medical books into a logical and easy-to-use system, medical professionals can save time and improve their ability to provide high-quality care to their patients.
In the medical field, "Catalogs, Publishers" typically refers to companies or organizations that publish medical catalogs or directories. These catalogs or directories may contain information about medical products, equipment, supplies, and services, as well as contact information for manufacturers, distributors, and suppliers. They may also include information about medical research, clinical trials, and other medical-related topics. Medical catalogs and directories can be useful resources for healthcare professionals, researchers, and other individuals who need to find information about medical products and services.
In the medical field, "Catalogs, Booksellers" typically refers to companies or organizations that specialize in selling medical books, journals, and other educational materials to healthcare professionals, students, and researchers. These catalogs may offer a wide range of products, including textbooks, reference books, clinical guides, medical dictionaries, and more. They may also provide online access to these materials through subscription-based services or individual purchases. Booksellers in the medical field may also offer other services, such as book rentals, used book sales, and custom bookbinding.
In the medical field, "books" typically refer to written works that provide information and guidance on various aspects of medicine, healthcare, and related fields. These books can cover a wide range of topics, including anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, diagnosis and treatment of diseases, medical ethics, and more. Medical books can be used by healthcare professionals, students, and researchers to gain knowledge and stay up-to-date with the latest developments in the field. They can also be used as reference materials for clinical decision-making and as teaching tools in medical education. Some examples of medical books include textbooks, handbooks, atlases, monographs, and review articles. These books can be published by academic presses, medical societies, and commercial publishers, and can be available in print or digital formats.
In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.
In the medical field, "Databases, Genetic" refers to electronic systems that store and manage genetic data. These databases are used to collect, organize, and analyze genetic information from individuals, families, and populations. Genetic databases can contain a wide range of information, including genetic markers, genetic mutations, and genetic variations. This information can be used to study the genetic basis of diseases, identify genetic risk factors, and develop personalized treatment plans. There are several types of genetic databases, including population databases, family databases, and clinical databases. Population databases contain genetic information from large groups of individuals, while family databases focus on the genetic relationships between individuals within families. Clinical databases contain genetic information from patients with specific diseases or conditions. Genetic databases are an important tool in medical research and clinical practice, as they allow researchers and healthcare providers to access and analyze large amounts of genetic data quickly and efficiently. However, the use of genetic databases also raises important ethical and privacy concerns, as genetic information is highly sensitive and personal.
In the medical field, "catalogs, drug" refers to a collection of information about drugs, including their names, dosages, indications, contraindications, side effects, and other relevant details. These catalogs are typically used by healthcare professionals, such as pharmacists and physicians, to help them make informed decisions about prescribing and dispensing medications to patients. There are many different types of drug catalogs, including those produced by pharmaceutical companies, government agencies, and professional organizations. These catalogs may be available in print or electronic format, and may be accessed through various channels, such as online databases, medical libraries, or proprietary software systems. The information contained in drug catalogs is typically based on scientific research and clinical trials, and is intended to be accurate and up-to-date. However, it is important for healthcare professionals to exercise caution when using drug catalogs, as they may not always reflect the most current or complete information about a particular medication.
In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.
In the medical field, "Databases, Nucleic Acid" refers to digital repositories of genetic information, specifically the DNA or RNA sequences of organisms. These databases are used to store, organize, and analyze large amounts of genetic data, which can be used for various purposes such as identifying genetic mutations associated with diseases, developing new drugs, and studying evolutionary relationships between organisms. Some examples of nucleic acid databases include GenBank, Ensembl, and the Human Genome Project database.
Cloning, molecular, in the medical field refers to the process of creating identical copies of a specific DNA sequence or gene. This is achieved through a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which amplifies a specific DNA sequence to produce multiple copies of it. Molecular cloning is commonly used in medical research to study the function of specific genes, to create genetically modified organisms for therapeutic purposes, and to develop new drugs and treatments. It is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their DNA. In the context of human cloning, molecular cloning is used to create identical copies of a specific gene or DNA sequence from one individual and insert it into the genome of another individual. This technique has been used to create transgenic animals, but human cloning is currently illegal in many countries due to ethical concerns.
Combinatorial chemistry techniques are a set of methods used to generate and screen large libraries of chemical compounds in order to identify potential drug candidates. These techniques are commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry to accelerate the drug discovery process and increase the chances of finding effective and selective drugs. In the medical field, combinatorial chemistry techniques are used to generate libraries of small molecules that can interact with biological targets such as enzymes, receptors, and nucleic acids. These libraries are then screened using high-throughput screening methods to identify compounds that have the desired biological activity. Once a promising compound is identified, it can be further optimized through medicinal chemistry techniques to improve its potency, selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties. This process can ultimately lead to the development of new drugs for the treatment of various diseases and conditions. Overall, combinatorial chemistry techniques play a crucial role in the drug discovery process by enabling the rapid generation and screening of large libraries of chemical compounds, which can help to identify potential drug candidates with high efficiency and accuracy.
In the medical field, "DNA, Complementary" refers to the property of DNA molecules to pair up with each other in a specific way. Each strand of DNA has a unique sequence of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine), and the nucleotides on one strand can only pair up with specific nucleotides on the other strand in a complementary manner. For example, adenine (A) always pairs up with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always pairs up with cytosine (C). This complementary pairing is essential for DNA replication and transcription, as it ensures that the genetic information encoded in one strand of DNA can be accurately copied onto a new strand. The complementary nature of DNA also plays a crucial role in genetic engineering and biotechnology, as scientists can use complementary DNA strands to create specific genetic sequences or modify existing ones.
In the medical field, computers are used for a variety of purposes, including: 1. Electronic Health Records (EHRs): EHRs are digital versions of a patient's medical records, which can be accessed and updated by healthcare providers from anywhere with an internet connection. EHRs help to improve patient care by providing healthcare providers with access to a patient's complete medical history, test results, and medications. 2. Medical Imaging: Computers are used to process and analyze medical images such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs. This helps healthcare providers to diagnose and treat a wide range of medical conditions. 3. Telemedicine: Telemedicine involves the use of computers and other digital technologies to provide medical care remotely. This can include virtual consultations, remote monitoring of patients, and the use of telemedicine devices to collect patient data. 4. Medical Research: Computers are used to analyze large amounts of medical data, including patient records, genetic data, and clinical trial results. This helps researchers to identify new treatments and develop more effective medical interventions. 5. Medical Education: Computers are used to provide medical education and training to healthcare providers. This can include online courses, virtual simulations, and other digital resources. Overall, computers play a critical role in the medical field, helping to improve patient care, advance medical research, and enhance medical education and training.
In the medical field, "Databases, Factual" refers to electronic databases that contain factual information about medical topics, such as diseases, treatments, medications, and medical procedures. These databases are typically created and maintained by medical organizations, such as the National Library of Medicine (NLM) or the World Health Organization (WHO), and are used by healthcare professionals, researchers, and the general public to access and retrieve information about medical topics. Factual databases in the medical field may include information such as: * Descriptions of diseases and conditions, including symptoms, causes, and treatments * Information about medications, including dosage, side effects, and interactions with other drugs * Data on medical procedures, including risks, benefits, and outcomes * Research studies and clinical trials related to medical topics * Guidelines and recommendations from medical organizations and professional associations Factual databases in the medical field are often searchable and may include features such as filtering, sorting, and the ability to save and share search results. They are an important resource for healthcare professionals and researchers, as they provide access to a large and up-to-date collection of information on medical topics.
Computational biology is an interdisciplinary field that combines computer science, mathematics, statistics, and molecular biology to study biological systems at the molecular and cellular level. In the medical field, computational biology is used to analyze large amounts of biological data, such as gene expression data, protein structures, and medical images, to gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of diseases and to develop new treatments. Some specific applications of computational biology in the medical field include: 1. Genomics: Computational biology is used to analyze large amounts of genomic data to identify genetic mutations that are associated with diseases, such as cancer, and to develop personalized treatments based on an individual's genetic makeup. 2. Drug discovery: Computational biology is used to predict the efficacy and toxicity of potential drug candidates, reducing the time and cost of drug development. 3. Medical imaging: Computational biology is used to analyze medical images, such as MRI and CT scans, to identify patterns and anomalies that may be indicative of disease. 4. Systems biology: Computational biology is used to study complex biological systems, such as the human immune system, to identify key regulatory mechanisms and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Overall, computational biology has the potential to revolutionize the medical field by enabling more accurate diagnoses, more effective treatments, and a deeper understanding of the underlying biology of diseases.
In the medical field, audiovisual aids refer to any technology or equipment used to enhance the delivery of medical information to patients, healthcare professionals, and other stakeholders. These aids can include a wide range of devices and tools, such as: 1. Videos: Medical videos can be used to demonstrate surgical procedures, explain medical conditions, or provide educational content to patients. 2. Audio recordings: Audio recordings can be used to provide patients with information about their medical condition, medication instructions, or other important details. 3. Interactive software: Interactive software can be used to help patients understand complex medical concepts, track their progress, or manage their health. 4. Projectors and screens: Projectors and screens can be used to display medical images, videos, or other visual aids to patients and healthcare professionals. 5. Virtual reality: Virtual reality technology can be used to simulate medical procedures, provide immersive educational experiences, or help patients manage pain and anxiety. Overall, audiovisual aids can be a valuable tool in the medical field, helping to improve patient education, enhance communication between healthcare professionals, and promote better health outcomes.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
In the medical field, "Databases, Bibliographic" refers to electronic databases that are specifically designed to store and organize bibliographic information about medical literature, such as journal articles, books, and other types of publications. These databases are used by healthcare professionals, researchers, and students to access and retrieve relevant information for their work. Bibliographic databases typically include metadata about each publication, such as the author, title, publication date, journal or book title, and abstract or summary of the content. Some databases also include full-text versions of the publications, while others provide links to the full-text content hosted on other websites. Examples of bibliographic databases in the medical field include PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Library. These databases are widely used by healthcare professionals to stay up-to-date on the latest research and developments in their field, as well as to conduct literature reviews and meta-analyses.
Chromosome mapping is a technique used in genetics to identify the location of genes on chromosomes. It involves analyzing the physical and genetic characteristics of chromosomes to determine their structure and organization. This information can be used to identify genetic disorders, understand the inheritance patterns of traits, and develop new treatments for genetic diseases. Chromosome mapping can be done using various techniques, including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH).
Automatic Data Processing (ADP) in the medical field refers to the use of computer systems and software to automate the processing of medical data. This includes tasks such as managing patient records, scheduling appointments, processing insurance claims, and generating reports. ADP systems in healthcare can help healthcare providers to streamline their operations, reduce errors, and improve patient care. For example, electronic health records (EHRs) are a type of ADP system that allows healthcare providers to store and manage patient information electronically, making it easier to access and share information among healthcare providers. Other examples of ADP systems used in healthcare include medical billing and coding software, which automates the process of submitting claims to insurance companies, and patient scheduling software, which automates the process of scheduling appointments with patients. Overall, ADP systems in healthcare can help healthcare providers to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and provide better care to their patients.
Contig mapping is a technique used in molecular biology and bioinformatics to assemble and order DNA sequences from a set of short, overlapping reads. The goal of contig mapping is to create a contiguous sequence of DNA that represents the entire genome or a specific region of interest. Contig mapping involves aligning the short reads to a reference genome or a set of reference sequences, and then grouping them into longer contiguous sequences called contigs. This is done by finding the best alignment between the reads and the reference sequences, and then merging the reads that overlap with each other. Contig mapping is an important step in genome assembly, which is the process of creating a complete sequence of a genome from a set of short reads. Contig mapping can also be used to identify structural variations in the genome, such as insertions, deletions, and inversions. Contig mapping is typically performed using specialized software tools, such as Bowtie, BWA, and SOAPdenovo. These tools use algorithms to align the reads to the reference sequences and merge them into contigs. The resulting contigs can then be further analyzed to identify genes, regulatory elements, and other features of the genome.
In the medical field, "Databases, Protein" refers to digital repositories of information about proteins, which are large, complex molecules that play a crucial role in the functioning of cells and organisms. These databases are used to store and organize data on the structure, function, and interactions of proteins, as well as information on their genetic origins and evolutionary relationships. Protein databases are an important resource for researchers in fields such as biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics, as they provide a wealth of information that can be used to study the structure and function of proteins, as well as their roles in disease and other biological processes. Some of the most well-known protein databases include the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the UniProt Knowledgebase, and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Protein database.
Abstracting and indexing (A&I) as a topic in the medical field refers to the process of selecting and summarizing relevant information from medical research articles and other sources, and organizing it into a searchable database or index. This process is essential for keeping up-to-date with the latest medical research and for identifying relevant studies for further investigation. A&I services in the medical field typically involve the use of specialized databases and indexing systems, such as PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Library, which contain abstracts and bibliographic information on a wide range of medical topics. These databases are used by researchers, clinicians, and other healthcare professionals to identify relevant studies and articles for their work. In addition to providing access to medical research articles, A&I services may also include other types of information, such as clinical guidelines, drug information, and patient education materials. These services are typically provided by specialized organizations, such as medical libraries, research institutions, and government agencies, and may be available online or in print.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.
Cluster analysis is a statistical method used in the medical field to group patients or medical data based on similarities in their characteristics or outcomes. The goal of cluster analysis is to identify patterns or subgroups within a larger population that may have distinct clinical features, treatment responses, or outcomes. In the medical field, cluster analysis can be used for various purposes, such as: 1. Disease classification: Cluster analysis can be used to classify patients with similar disease characteristics or outcomes into distinct subgroups. This can help healthcare providers to tailor treatment plans to the specific needs of each subgroup. 2. Risk prediction: Cluster analysis can be used to identify subgroups of patients who are at high risk of developing a particular disease or condition. This can help healthcare providers to implement preventive measures or early interventions to reduce the risk of disease. 3. Drug discovery: Cluster analysis can be used to identify subgroups of patients who respond differently to a particular drug. This can help pharmaceutical companies to develop more targeted and effective treatments. 4. Clinical trial design: Cluster analysis can be used to design more efficient clinical trials by identifying subgroups of patients who are likely to respond to a particular treatment. Overall, cluster analysis is a powerful tool in the medical field that can help healthcare providers to better understand and manage patient populations, improve treatment outcomes, and advance medical research.
In the medical field, the proteome refers to the complete set of proteins expressed by an organism, tissue, or cell type. It includes all the proteins that are present in a cell or organism, including those that are actively functioning and those that are not. The proteome is made up of the products of all the genes in an organism's genome, and it is dynamic, constantly changing in response to various factors such as environmental stimuli, developmental stage, and disease states. The study of the proteome is an important area of research in medicine, as it can provide insights into the function and regulation of cellular processes, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying various diseases. Techniques such as mass spectrometry and proteomics analysis are used to identify and quantify the proteins present in a sample, allowing researchers to study changes in the proteome in response to different conditions. This information can be used to develop new diagnostic tools and treatments for diseases, as well as to better understand the underlying biology of various disorders.
Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.
In the medical field, "Databases as Topic" refers to the use of databases to store, manage, and analyze large amounts of medical data. This data can include patient records, medical images, laboratory results, and other types of health information. Databases in the medical field are used to support a wide range of activities, including clinical decision-making, research, and public health surveillance. They can also be used to support administrative tasks, such as scheduling appointments and managing patient billing. There are many different types of databases that can be used in the medical field, including relational databases, object-oriented databases, and NoSQL databases. Each type of database has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the choice of database will depend on the specific needs of the organization or institution using it. Overall, the use of databases in the medical field is essential for the efficient and effective management of medical data, and can help to improve patient care and outcomes.
In the medical field, algorithms are a set of step-by-step instructions used to diagnose or treat a medical condition. These algorithms are designed to provide healthcare professionals with a standardized approach to patient care, ensuring that patients receive consistent and evidence-based treatment. Medical algorithms can be used for a variety of purposes, including diagnosing diseases, determining the appropriate course of treatment, and predicting patient outcomes. They are often based on clinical guidelines and best practices, and are continually updated as new research and evidence becomes available. Examples of medical algorithms include diagnostic algorithms for conditions such as pneumonia, heart attack, and cancer, as well as treatment algorithms for conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. These algorithms can help healthcare professionals make more informed decisions about patient care, improve patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of medical errors.
In the medical field, a Database Management System (DBMS) is a software application that allows healthcare professionals to store, manage, and retrieve patient data efficiently. It is designed to organize and store large amounts of patient information, such as medical history, test results, medications, and treatment plans, in a structured and secure manner. DBMSs in the medical field are used to manage electronic health records (EHRs), which are digital versions of a patient's medical history. EHRs are used to store and share patient information among healthcare providers, improve patient care, and reduce medical errors. DBMSs in the medical field are also used to manage clinical trials, research studies, and other healthcare-related data. They provide a centralized repository for data, which can be accessed by authorized users across different locations and departments. Overall, DBMSs play a critical role in the medical field by providing healthcare professionals with access to accurate and up-to-date patient information, improving patient care, and facilitating research and clinical trials.
In the medical field, "DNA, Concatenated" refers to the process of joining together two or more DNA sequences to create a single, longer DNA molecule. This process is often used in genetic engineering and molecular biology to create recombinant DNA molecules that can be used for various purposes, such as creating genetically modified organisms or studying gene function. Concatenation of DNA sequences can be achieved through various methods, including ligase-mediated joining, restriction enzyme-mediated joining, and homologous recombination. The resulting concatenated DNA molecule can be further manipulated and analyzed using various molecular biology techniques, such as PCR, sequencing, and cloning. Overall, the concatenation of DNA sequences is a fundamental technique in molecular biology and has numerous applications in the medical field, including the development of new drugs, gene therapies, and diagnostic tests.
In the medical field, Computer Communication Networks (CCNs) refer to the interconnected system of computers, devices, and networks that allow for the exchange of information and data between healthcare providers, patients, and other stakeholders. CCNs in healthcare can include local area networks (LANs) within a single healthcare facility, wide area networks (WANs) that connect multiple facilities, and the internet. These networks enable the sharing of patient data, medical images, and other critical information between healthcare providers, allowing for more efficient and effective care. CCNs also support telemedicine, which allows healthcare providers to remotely diagnose and treat patients using video conferencing and other communication technologies. This can be particularly useful in rural or remote areas where access to healthcare may be limited. Overall, CCNs play a critical role in modern healthcare, enabling healthcare providers to access and share critical information and data in real-time, improving patient outcomes and reducing costs.
In the medical field, a conserved sequence refers to a segment of DNA or RNA that is highly similar or identical across different species or organisms. These sequences are often important for the function of the molecule, and their conservation suggests that they have been evolutionarily conserved for a long time. Conserved sequences can be found in a variety of contexts, including in coding regions of genes, in regulatory regions that control gene expression, and in non-coding regions that have important functional roles. They can also be used as markers for identifying related species or for studying the evolution of a particular gene or pathway. Conserved sequences are often studied using bioinformatics tools and techniques, such as sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. By identifying and analyzing conserved sequences, researchers can gain insights into the function and evolution of genes and other biological molecules.
Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are found in almost every environment on Earth, including soil, water, and the human body. In the medical field, bacteria are often studied and classified based on their characteristics, such as their shape, size, and genetic makeup. Bacteria can be either beneficial or harmful to humans. Some bacteria are essential for human health, such as the bacteria that live in the gut and help digest food. However, other bacteria can cause infections and diseases, such as strep throat, pneumonia, and meningitis. In the medical field, bacteria are often identified and treated using a variety of methods, including culturing and identifying bacteria using specialized laboratory techniques, administering antibiotics to kill harmful bacteria, and using vaccines to prevent bacterial infections.
In the medical field, automation refers to the use of technology to perform tasks that were previously done manually by healthcare professionals. This can include tasks such as data entry, scheduling appointments, and processing medical records. Automation in healthcare can help to improve efficiency, accuracy, and patient outcomes. For example, automated systems can help to reduce errors in data entry, which can improve the accuracy of medical records and reduce the risk of medical errors. Automation can also help to streamline administrative tasks, freeing up healthcare professionals to focus on patient care. Some examples of automation in healthcare include electronic health records (EHRs), automated scheduling systems, and robotic surgery systems. These technologies can help to improve the quality of care, reduce costs, and enhance the overall patient experience.
In the medical field, peptides are short chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. They are typically composed of 2-50 amino acids and can be found in a variety of biological molecules, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes. Peptides play important roles in many physiological processes, including growth and development, immune function, and metabolism. They can also be used as therapeutic agents to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In the pharmaceutical industry, peptides are often synthesized using chemical methods and are used as drugs or as components of drugs. They can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific peptide and the condition being treated.
In the medical field, disease is defined as a disorder of the body or mind that impairs normal functioning and is associated with signs and symptoms. Diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic, environmental, and infectious agents. Diseases can be classified into various categories based on their characteristics, such as acute or chronic, infectious or non-infectious, and systemic or localized. Acute diseases are those that develop rapidly and have a short duration, while chronic diseases are those that persist for a long time or recur over time. Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, and can be transmitted from person to person or from animals to humans. Non-infectious diseases, on the other hand, are not caused by microorganisms and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Diseases can also be classified based on their severity, such as mild, moderate, or severe. Mild diseases may cause minimal symptoms and have a good prognosis, while severe diseases can cause significant symptoms and have a poor prognosis. Overall, the definition of disease in the medical field encompasses a wide range of conditions that can affect the body and mind, and can be caused by various factors.
Chromosomes, artificial, bacterial refer to artificially created or modified bacterial chromosomes that are used in various applications in the medical field. These artificial chromosomes are typically created by inserting foreign DNA into a bacterial genome, which can then be used to express genes of interest or to study gene function. One common use of artificial bacterial chromosomes is in the development of genetically modified bacteria for the production of biofuels, pharmaceuticals, and other valuable compounds. These bacteria can be engineered to produce specific enzymes or metabolic pathways that are necessary for the production of these compounds. Artificial bacterial chromosomes can also be used in basic research to study gene function and regulation. By inserting foreign DNA into a bacterial genome, researchers can study how the inserted gene is expressed and regulated in the bacterial cell, which can provide insights into the function of the gene in other organisms. Overall, artificial bacterial chromosomes are a powerful tool in the medical field, allowing researchers to manipulate bacterial genomes in a controlled and predictable manner, and to study gene function and regulation in a variety of applications.
RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a type of nucleic acid that is involved in the process of protein synthesis in cells. It is composed of a chain of nucleotides, which are made up of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are three types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In the medical field, RNA is often studied as a potential target for the development of new drugs and therapies. For example, some researchers are exploring the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to silence specific genes and treat diseases such as cancer and viral infections. Additionally, RNA is being studied as a potential biomarker for various diseases, as changes in the levels or structure of certain RNA molecules can indicate the presence of a particular condition.
DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.
Data mining is the process of extracting useful information and knowledge from large and complex datasets. In the medical field, data mining is used to analyze medical data, such as patient records, medical images, and laboratory results, to identify patterns and relationships that can be used to improve patient care, identify disease risk factors, and develop new treatments. Some examples of data mining applications in the medical field include: 1. Predictive modeling: Data mining can be used to develop predictive models that can identify patients who are at high risk of developing certain diseases or conditions. These models can help healthcare providers to intervene early and prevent or manage the disease more effectively. 2. Clinical decision support: Data mining can be used to develop clinical decision support systems that can provide healthcare providers with real-time recommendations based on patient data. These systems can help healthcare providers to make more informed decisions and improve patient outcomes. 3. Drug discovery: Data mining can be used to analyze large datasets of chemical compounds and identify potential drug candidates. This can help to accelerate the drug discovery process and reduce the cost of developing new drugs. 4. Medical imaging analysis: Data mining can be used to analyze medical images, such as X-rays and MRIs, to identify patterns and anomalies that may be indicative of disease. This can help to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment planning. Overall, data mining has the potential to revolutionize the medical field by providing healthcare providers with powerful tools for analyzing and interpreting medical data, and ultimately improving patient care.
DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons, are segments of DNA that can move or transpose from one location in the genome to another. They are found in the genomes of many organisms, including plants, animals, and bacteria. In the medical field, DNA transposable elements are of interest because they can play a role in the evolution of genomes and the development of diseases. For example, some transposable elements can cause mutations in genes, which can lead to genetic disorders or cancer. Additionally, transposable elements can contribute to the evolution of new genes and the adaptation of organisms to changing environments. Transposable elements can also be used as tools in genetic research and biotechnology. For example, scientists can use transposable elements to insert genes into cells or organisms, allowing them to study the function of those genes or to create genetically modified organisms for various purposes.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They are typically 18-24 nucleotides in length and are transcribed from endogenous genes. In the medical field, miRNAs have been found to be involved in a wide range of biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Dysregulation of miRNA expression has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases. MiRNAs can act as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors, depending on the target gene they regulate. They can also be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers for various diseases, as well as therapeutic targets for the development of new drugs.
Computer graphics in the medical field refers to the use of computer-generated images and visual representations to aid in the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of medical conditions. These images can be created using various techniques, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Computer graphics in medicine can be used to create visualizations of internal organs, tissues, and structures, which can help doctors and medical professionals to better understand the anatomy and physiology of the body. These visualizations can be used to identify abnormalities, plan surgeries, and monitor the progression of diseases. In addition to medical imaging, computer graphics can also be used to create models of the human body and its systems, which can be used for research, education, and training purposes. These models can be used to simulate various medical procedures and treatments, allowing doctors and medical professionals to practice and refine their skills before performing them on real patients. Overall, computer graphics plays a crucial role in the medical field, providing doctors and medical professionals with powerful tools for diagnosis, treatment, and research.
In the medical field, binding sites refer to specific locations on the surface of a protein molecule where a ligand (a molecule that binds to the protein) can attach. These binding sites are often formed by a specific arrangement of amino acids within the protein, and they are critical for the protein's function. Binding sites can be found on a wide range of proteins, including enzymes, receptors, and transporters. When a ligand binds to a protein's binding site, it can cause a conformational change in the protein, which can alter its activity or function. For example, a hormone may bind to a receptor protein, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to a specific cellular response. Understanding the structure and function of binding sites is important in many areas of medicine, including drug discovery and development, as well as the study of diseases caused by mutations in proteins that affect their binding sites. By targeting specific binding sites on proteins, researchers can develop drugs that modulate protein activity and potentially treat a wide range of diseases.
In the medical field, costs and cost analysis refer to the process of determining the expenses associated with providing healthcare services. This includes the costs of medical equipment, supplies, personnel, facilities, and other resources required to provide medical care. Cost analysis involves examining the costs associated with different aspects of healthcare delivery, such as patient care, administrative tasks, and research and development. This information can be used to identify areas where costs can be reduced or optimized, and to make informed decisions about resource allocation and pricing. Cost analysis is important in the medical field because it helps healthcare providers and administrators to understand the financial implications of providing care, and to make decisions that are both effective and efficient. By analyzing costs, healthcare providers can identify opportunities to improve the quality of care while reducing expenses, which can ultimately benefit patients and the healthcare system as a whole.
In the medical field, "RNA, Untranslated" refers to a type of RNA molecule that does not code for a functional protein. These molecules are often referred to as non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and can play important roles in regulating gene expression and other cellular processes. There are several types of untranslated RNA, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs). These molecules can interact with messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules to regulate gene expression by blocking the translation of mRNA into protein or by promoting the degradation of the mRNA. Untranslated RNA molecules have been implicated in a wide range of diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases. Understanding the function and regulation of these molecules is an active area of research in the field of molecular biology and has the potential to lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for these diseases.
RNA splice sites are specific sequences of nucleotides within pre-mRNA molecules that are recognized and cleaved by the spliceosome, a large ribonucleoprotein complex, during the process of RNA splicing. RNA splicing is a critical step in eukaryotic gene expression, as it removes introns (non-coding regions) from pre-mRNA and joins exons (coding regions) together to form mature mRNA molecules that can be translated into proteins. RNA splice sites are typically composed of consensus sequences that are recognized by the spliceosome, including the 5' splice site (GU), the 3' splice site (AG), and the branch point sequence (BP) located within the intron. The recognition and cleavage of these sites by the spliceosome is a highly regulated process that is essential for proper gene expression and the production of functional proteins. Mutations or alterations in RNA splice sites can lead to a variety of genetic disorders and diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and developmental disorders.
In the medical field, "Architecture as Topic" refers to the study of the design and planning of healthcare facilities, including hospitals, clinics, and other medical buildings. This includes the layout and organization of spaces, the use of materials and finishes, and the integration of technology and equipment. The goal of medical architecture is to create safe, functional, and aesthetically pleasing environments that support the delivery of high-quality healthcare services. Factors such as patient privacy, infection control, and accessibility are also important considerations in medical architecture.
In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.
Bacteriophage M13 is a type of virus that infects bacteria. It is a member of the family of filamentous bacteriophages, which are characterized by their long, helical shape. Bacteriophage M13 is commonly used in research as a vector for gene expression and as a tool for studying bacterial genetics and molecular biology. It has also been used in various biotechnology applications, such as the production of recombinant proteins and the development of diagnostic tests. In the medical field, bacteriophage M13 has been studied as a potential treatment for bacterial infections, particularly those caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
In the medical field, classification refers to the process of grouping individuals or conditions into categories based on shared characteristics or features. This process is often used to help healthcare providers better understand and manage diseases, disorders, and other medical conditions. For example, a classification system might be used to group patients with heart disease into different categories based on the specific type of heart disease they have, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, or valvular heart disease. This can help healthcare providers tailor treatment plans to the specific needs of each patient. Classification can also be used to group individuals based on other characteristics, such as age, gender, or risk factors for certain diseases. For example, a classification system might be used to identify individuals who are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes based on factors such as age, weight, and family history. Overall, classification is an important tool in the medical field that helps healthcare providers better understand and manage a wide range of medical conditions and patients.
Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) is a molecular genetic technique used to compare the DNA content of two or more samples. It is commonly used in the medical field to identify genetic changes or abnormalities in a sample, such as deletions, duplications, or amplifications of specific regions of DNA. In CGH, a reference sample of normal DNA is labeled with a fluorescent dye, and the sample of interest is also labeled with a different fluorescent dye. The two samples are then mixed and hybridized to a microarray, which is a slide containing thousands of small DNA fragments from a reference genome. The microarray is then scanned to detect any differences in the intensity of the fluorescent signals between the two samples. CGH can be used to detect genetic changes in a variety of settings, including cancer research, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis. It is particularly useful for identifying copy number variations (CNVs), which are changes in the number of copies of a specific region of DNA. CNVs can be associated with a wide range of genetic disorders and diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and neurological disorders.
Blotting, Northern is a laboratory technique used to detect and quantify specific RNA molecules in a sample. It involves transferring RNA from a gel onto a membrane, which is then hybridized with a labeled complementary DNA probe. The probe binds to the specific RNA molecules on the membrane, allowing their detection and quantification through autoradiography or other imaging methods. Northern blotting is commonly used to study gene expression patterns in cells or tissues, and to compare the expression levels of different RNA molecules in different samples.
Alternative splicing is a process that occurs during the maturation of messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules in eukaryotic cells. It involves the selective inclusion or exclusion of specific exons (coding regions) from the final mRNA molecule, resulting in the production of different protein isoforms from a single gene. In other words, alternative splicing allows a single gene to code for multiple proteins with different functions, structures, and cellular locations. This process is essential for the regulation of gene expression and the diversification of protein functions in eukaryotic organisms. Mutations or abnormalities in the splicing machinery can lead to the production of abnormal protein isoforms, which can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and genetic diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of alternative splicing is crucial for the development of new therapeutic strategies for these diseases.
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S is a type of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that is found in bacteria and archaea. It is a small subunit of the ribosome, which is the cellular machinery responsible for protein synthesis. The 16S rRNA is located in the 30S subunit of the ribosome and is essential for the binding and decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during translation. The sequence of the 16S rRNA is highly conserved among bacteria and archaea, making it a useful target for the identification and classification of these organisms. In the medical field, the 16S rRNA is often used in molecular biology techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing to study the diversity and evolution of bacterial and archaeal populations. It is also used in the development of diagnostic tests for bacterial infections and in the identification of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.
In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.
Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.
Cosmids are a type of artificial DNA cloning vector that was first developed in the 1980s. They are derived from the bacteriophage lambda and contain a bacterial origin of replication, a bacterial antibiotic resistance gene, and a bacterial origin of transfer. Cosmids are typically used to clone and study large DNA fragments, such as those found in the human genome. They are often used in conjunction with other cloning vectors, such as plasmids and phage, to create a library of DNA fragments that can be screened for specific genes or genetic sequences. In the medical field, cosmids have been used to study the genetic basis of various diseases and to identify potential therapeutic targets.
I'm sorry, but I'm not aware of any specific definition of "book collecting" in the medical field. Book collecting is generally considered to be an activity in which individuals amass and organize books for personal enjoyment or as a hobby. It is not typically associated with the medical field, which is focused on the study and practice of medicine. However, it is possible that some medical professionals may be interested in collecting medical books or other related materials as part of their personal interests or as a way to further their knowledge and understanding of the field.
Keratins are a family of fibrous proteins that are primarily found in the epidermis and hair of mammals. They are responsible for providing strength and protection to the skin and hair, and are also involved in the formation of nails and claws. In the medical field, keratins are often studied in relation to various skin conditions, such as psoriasis, eczema, and skin cancer. They are also used as markers for the differentiation of various types of skin cells, and as a diagnostic tool for identifying different types of cancer. Keratins are also found in other tissues, such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and the eye. In these tissues, they play important roles in maintaining the integrity and function of the epithelial lining. Overall, keratins are an important component of the skin and other tissues, and their study is important for understanding the function and health of these tissues.
In the medical field, "book selection" typically refers to the process of choosing appropriate textbooks, reference books, and other reading materials for medical students, residents, and practitioners. This process involves evaluating the content, accuracy, and relevance of various books to ensure that they provide the necessary information and knowledge for medical professionals to make informed decisions and provide high-quality patient care. Book selection is an important aspect of medical education and professional development, as it helps medical professionals stay up-to-date with the latest research, advances, and best practices in their field. Medical schools and hospitals often have dedicated book selection committees or librarians who are responsible for selecting and maintaining a comprehensive collection of medical books and resources.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a small, transparent, soil-dwelling nematode worm that is widely used in the field of biology as a model organism for research. It has been extensively studied in the medical field due to its simple genetics, short lifespan, and ease of cultivation. In the medical field, C. elegans has been used to study a wide range of biological processes, including development, aging, neurobiology, and genetics. It has also been used to study human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and infectious diseases. One of the key advantages of using C. elegans as a model organism is its transparency, which allows researchers to easily observe and manipulate its cells and tissues. Additionally, C. elegans has a relatively short lifespan, which allows researchers to study the effects of various treatments and interventions over a relatively short period of time. Overall, C. elegans has become a valuable tool in the medical field, providing insights into a wide range of biological processes and diseases.
Inborn genetic diseases, also known as genetic disorders or hereditary diseases, are conditions that are caused by mutations or variations in an individual's DNA. These mutations can be inherited from one or both parents and can affect the normal functioning of the body's cells, tissues, and organs. Inborn genetic diseases can be classified into several categories, including single-gene disorders, chromosomal disorders, and multifactorial disorders. Single-gene disorders are caused by mutations in a single gene, while chromosomal disorders involve changes in the number or structure of chromosomes. Multifactorial disorders are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Examples of inborn genetic diseases include cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Huntington's disease, Down syndrome, and Turner syndrome. These diseases can have a wide range of symptoms and severity, and can affect various parts of the body, including the heart, lungs, brain, and skeletal system. Diagnosis of inborn genetic diseases typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and genetic testing. Treatment options may include medications, surgery, and supportive care, depending on the specific disease and its severity.
In the medical field, alleles refer to the different forms of a gene that exist at a particular genetic locus (location) on a chromosome. Each gene has two alleles, one inherited from each parent. These alleles can be either dominant or recessive, and their combination determines the expression of the trait associated with that gene. For example, the gene for blood type has three alleles: A, B, and O. A person can inherit one or two copies of each allele, resulting in different blood types (A, B, AB, or O). The dominant allele is the one that is expressed when present in one copy, while the recessive allele is only expressed when present in two copies. Understanding the different alleles of a gene is important in medical genetics because it can help diagnose genetic disorders, predict disease risk, and guide treatment decisions. For example, mutations in certain alleles can cause genetic diseases such as sickle cell anemia or cystic fibrosis. By identifying the specific alleles involved in a genetic disorder, doctors can develop targeted therapies or genetic counseling to help affected individuals and their families.
In the medical field, a codon is a sequence of three nucleotides (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, or uracil) that codes for a specific amino acid in a protein. There are 64 possible codons, and each one corresponds to one of the 20 amino acids used to build proteins. The sequence of codons in a gene determines the sequence of amino acids in the resulting protein, which ultimately determines the protein's structure and function. Mutations in a gene can change the codon sequence, which can lead to changes in the amino acid sequence and potentially affect the function of the protein.
In the medical field, a bibliography is a list of sources (such as books, articles, and websites) that were consulted during the research process for a particular topic or project. The purpose of a bibliography is to provide a comprehensive and accurate record of the sources that were used to gather information and support the research findings. A bibliography can be used for a variety of purposes in the medical field, including: 1. To provide evidence to support a particular medical theory or treatment. 2. To summarize the current state of knowledge on a particular medical topic. 3. To provide a reference for further research on a particular medical topic. 4. To demonstrate the thoroughness and accuracy of the research process. Bibliographies are typically included in academic papers, research reports, and other types of written work in the medical field. They are usually formatted according to a specific citation style, such as APA, MLA, or Chicago, and include information such as the author's name, title of the source, publication date, and publication information.
Biological evolution refers to the process by which species of living organisms change over time through the mechanisms of natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and gene flow. In the medical field, biological evolution is important because it helps us understand how diseases and pathogens have evolved and adapted to survive in different environments and populations. This knowledge is crucial for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for infectious diseases, as well as for understanding the genetic basis of inherited diseases and disorders. Additionally, understanding the evolutionary history of organisms can provide insights into their biology, ecology, and behavior, which can inform conservation efforts and the management of natural resources.
Blotting, Southern is a laboratory technique used to detect specific DNA sequences in a sample. It is named after Edwin Southern, who developed the technique in the 1970s. The technique involves transferring DNA from a gel onto a membrane, such as nitrocellulose or nylon, and then using labeled probes to detect specific DNA sequences. The blotting process is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, genetic variation, and other aspects of DNA biology.
Bacteriophages, also known as phages, are viruses that specifically infect and replicate within bacteria. They are one of the most abundant biological entities on the planet and are found in virtually every environment where bacteria exist. In the medical field, bacteriophages have been studied for their potential use as an alternative to antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections. Unlike antibiotics, which target all types of bacteria, bacteriophages are highly specific and only infect and kill the bacteria they are designed to target. This makes them a promising option for treating antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, which are becoming increasingly common. Bacteriophages have also been used in research to study bacterial genetics and to develop new vaccines. In addition, they have been proposed as a way to control bacterial populations in industrial settings, such as food processing plants and water treatment facilities. Overall, bacteriophages have the potential to play an important role in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections, and ongoing research is exploring their potential applications in medicine and other fields.
DNA, Bacterial refers to the genetic material of bacteria, which is a type of single-celled microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Bacterial DNA is typically circular in shape and contains genes that encode for the proteins necessary for the bacteria to survive and reproduce. In the medical field, bacterial DNA is often studied as a means of identifying and diagnosing bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA can be extracted from samples such as blood, urine, or sputum and analyzed using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. This information can be used to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment. Bacterial DNA can also be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of bacteria, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Additionally, bacterial DNA can be modified or manipulated to create genetically engineered bacteria with specific properties, such as the ability to produce certain drugs or to degrade pollutants.
Cataloging (library science)
Cataloging & Classification Quarterly
Trade catalogs prior to the 1800s
Paris Principles (cataloging)
Program for Cooperative Cataloging
National Union Catalog
Whole Earth Catalog
Online public access catalog
National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections
Cataloging in Publication
Agustín Fernández (artist)
Library and information science
List of West Virginia archives
Library of Congress Classification:Class Q -- Science
Street Samurai Catalog
List of closed stack libraries
Library catalog - Wikipedia
Catalogs and Search Tools: Libraries - Northwestern University
Library Catalogs | UC Irvine Libraries
PCC Calendar - Program for Cooperative Cataloging (Library of Congress)
Catalog Search - Kalamazoo Public Library
Catalog Your Books, Games and More Into Your Own Searchable 'Library' With Libib
The EPA National Library Catalog | EPA National Library Network | US EPA
The EPA National Library Catalog | EPA National Library Network | US EPA
Special Collections Cataloging: Maps | Association for Library Collections & Technical Services (ALCTS)
Commonwealth Catalog | SAILS Library Network
Online Catalog: Report a Problem in the Record ...
Search Results: "LC-DIG-prok-02490" - Prints & Photographs Online Catalog (Library of Congress)
Databases and catalog | Jenkins Law Library
Princeton University Library Catalog
KB4053349 - FIX: 'sys.external libraries' catalog views are empty for non-dbo users in SQL Server - Microsoft Support
WHO HQ Library catalog
Data Catalog v1 API - Class BusinessContext (2.7.0) | .NET client library | Google Cloud
Richelieu Catalog Library - Storage Accessories - page 1 - Richelieu Hardware
TEI | Ritter Catalog | ID: gq67k2898 | Tufts Digital Library
Catalog & Account Help | Arapahoe Libraries
Catalog - Howell Carnegie District Library
Astraea lobata | University of Michigan Herbarium Catalog Collection | University of Michigan Library Digital Collections
Catalog Upgrade - Campbell County Public Library
How do I change my default pickup library and my other preferred catalog settings? | FVRLibraries
Clemson Graduate Catalog - South Carolina Digital Library
SWAN Library Catalog - Elmwood Park Public Library
Browse the Catalog - Moultrie-Colquitt County Library System
Log into the Catalog - Erie County Public Library
- Library Jobs Join our team as a librarian, staffer or student worker. (northwestern.edu)
- Carolyn Hansen is an independent librarian and historian with expertise in descriptive cataloging of cartographic resources. (ala.org)
- Previously, Carolyn also held positions as Head of Cataloging and Metadata Services at Stony Brook University and Metadata Librarian at the University of Cincinnati and Eastern Washington University. (ala.org)
- Log in to your library account to check your loans, renew materials, pay late fees or chat with a librarian. (lu.se)
- A library catalog (or library catalogue in British English) is a register of all bibliographic items found in a library or group of libraries, such as a network of libraries at several locations. (wikipedia.org)
- Cutter made an explicit statement regarding the objectives of a bibliographic system in his Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalog. (wikipedia.org)
- Cutter's objectives were revised by Lubetzky and the Conference on Cataloging Principles (CCP) in Paris in 1960/1961, resulting in the Paris Principles (PP). A more recent attempt to describe a library catalog's functions was made in 1998 with Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR), which defines four user tasks: find, identify, select, and obtain. (wikipedia.org)
- A catalog card is an individual entry in a library catalog containing bibliographic information, including the author's name, title, and location. (wikipedia.org)
- Pan American Health Organization is a database which contains bibliographic references and summaries of the Pan American Health Organization Library collection in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. PAHO's database covers documentation on themes related to health indexed by the Library. (bvsalud.org)
- Very shortly afterward, Melvil Dewey and other American librarians began to champion the card catalog because of its great expandability. (wikipedia.org)
- This webinar would be geared toward catalogers and metadata specialists whose work includes special collections map cataloging, archivists, and map librarians who are interested in learning standards and best practices for describing unique and rare maps. (ala.org)
- Licensed and free resources selected by librarians and provided by Lund University libraries. (lu.se)
- From the website: As a result of generous support from the David A. Gardner '69 Magic Project, the Princeton University Library created Voyager cataloging records for most of the approximately 9,500 Islamic manuscripts in the Manuscripts Division, which are from Robert Garrett (Class of 1897) and other sources. (lu.se)
- Catalogs & Search Tools Explore our catalog, find databases and journals, or locate books in our stacks. (northwestern.edu)
- Databases A-Z provides links to all library databases. (northwestern.edu)
- To access articles and books, you will need to search library databases or the library catalog (NUSearch). (northwestern.edu)
- The collective entry point to all the Lund University libraries' resources: e-journals, e-books, databases and more. (lu.se)
- The largest international library catalog in the world is the WorldCat union catalog managed by the non-profit library cooperative OCLC. (wikipedia.org)
- In January 2021, WorldCat had over half a billion catalog records and three billion library holdings. (wikipedia.org)
- WorldCat searches collections from thousands of libraries. (northwestern.edu)
- In LubCat you find the books of the RWI Library. (lu.se)
- At the end of the webinar, attendees should be able to identify content standards and best practices used in special collections map cataloging, understand how special collections map cataloging differs from standard descriptive practice, identify research tools that aid in the identification and description of special collections maps, and learn how to create successful cataloging workflows for these unique materials. (ala.org)
- Identify content standards and best practices used in special collections map cataloging, including: DCRM(C), RDA, the Getty Vocabularies, LCGFT, and RBMS controlled vocabularies. (ala.org)
- Finally, comments and corrections have been provided from a consultant hired to assess the content of the collection in 2002, Mr. John Shepard, Head, Rare Books & Manuscripts, Music Division Special Collections, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts. (tufts.edu)
- From the website: Arabic Collections Online (ACO) is a publicly available digital library of public domain Arabic language content. (lu.se)
- Digital Collections contains the Libraries' digital image, audio and video collections of primary sources from our distinctive collections. (northwestern.edu)
- The presenter will share general principles, best practices, and tips for cataloging special collections maps. (ala.org)
- Carolyn has been cataloging special collections for over twelve years and is currently working on a book project that will be the first historical atlas of Brooklyn. (ala.org)
- The library has one of Europe's largest and most current collections of international law with a focus on human rights. (lu.se)
- From the website: Through the Islamic Heritage Project (IHP), Harvard University has cataloged, conserved, and digitized hundreds of Islamic manuscripts, maps, and published texts from Harvard's renowned library and museum collections. (lu.se)
- Initially, more than 200 of these manuscripts were digitized as the core of the Princeton Digital Library of Islamic Manuscripts. (lu.se)
Books and periodicals1
- The Ritter Library included scores, books and periodicals about music, from the 16th century to the time of his death. (tufts.edu)
- Funding for the Commonwealth Catalog provided by the Massachusetts Board of Library Commissioners and the Institute of Museum and Library Services . (sailsinc.org)
- to show what the library has (Collocating objective) by a given author on a given subject in a given kind of literature 3. (wikipedia.org)
- WHO Library resources and expertise also provide scientific evidence and knowledge to low- and middle- income countries through a set of low-cost/high-use initiatives. (who.int)
- The Commonwealth Catalog extends your search beyond your local library's resources.In one easy step, you can search through millions of items at participating libraries across Massachusetts to find the books, DVDs, and music you're looking for. (sailsinc.org)
- Library Rooms and Study Spaces Reserve a study space, carrel, viewing room or classroom. (northwestern.edu)
- The website and app allow you to create a searchable catalog of all of your books, video games, movies and more by just scanning the barcode on the back of them. (lifehacker.com)
- It solved the problems of the structural catalogs in marble and clay from ancient times and the later codex-handwritten and bound-catalogs that were manifestly inflexible and presented high costs in editing to reflect a changing collection. (wikipedia.org)
- English inventor Francis Ronalds began using a catalog of cards to manage his growing book collection around 1815, which has been denoted as the first practical use of the system. (wikipedia.org)
- NUsearch searches the Libraries' vast collection of books, journals, articles and multimedia. (northwestern.edu)
- So, if you have a huge collection and friends you like to trade with, you can share Libib catalogs with each other and see what your pal might have available on her bookshelf before you hit Amazon to buy yourself a copy of a new release. (lifehacker.com)
- Metcalf donated the Ritter Library, along with items from his own collection, to the new Department of Music in 1902. (tufts.edu)
- If you have concerns about the inclusion of an item in this collection, please contact Library Information Technology . (umich.edu)
- A catalog helps to serve as an inventory or bookkeeping of the library's contents. (wikipedia.org)
- Of primary importance was the short title catalog used to describe the contents of the personal library of Frederic Louis Ritter at its auction after his death in 1891. (tufts.edu)
- Title : A Note on "A Catalog of Biases in Questionnaires" [Response to Letter] Personal Author(s) : Choi, Bernard C.K.;Pak, Anita W.P. (cdc.gov)
- Click here to begin your visit to the TumbleBook Library! (sailsinc.org)
- In some libraries books were cataloged based on the size of the book while other libraries organized based only on the author's name. (wikipedia.org)
- Building Maps Navigate our Libraries using our maps and book location guide. (northwestern.edu)
- An item's call number tells us where the book is located in the library. (northwestern.edu)
- Teach with the Libraries Support student research with customized course instruction. (northwestern.edu)
- The card catalog was a familiar sight to library users for generations, but it has been effectively replaced by the online public access catalog (OPAC). (wikipedia.org)
- Some libraries with OPAC access still have card catalogs on site, but these are now strictly a secondary resource and are seldom updated. (wikipedia.org)
- The WHO Library is the world's leading library on public health. (who.int)
- Real-time, chat reference service is provided by reference staff from various academic libraries. (uci.edu)
- Reference documentation and code samples for the Data Catalog v1 API class BusinessContext. (google.com)
- Contact the Library Speak with a staffer, suggest a purchase or provide feedback. (northwestern.edu)
- When non-dbo users try to select from the sys.external_libraries catalog view in SQL Server 2017, they might be unable to view the extensibility external libraries. (microsoft.com)
- No previous knowledge of map cataloging is necessary, although general familiarity with the MARC record structure is helpful. (ala.org)
- Antonio Genesio Maria Panizzi in 1841 and Charles Ammi Cutter in 1876 undertook pioneering work in the definition of early cataloging rule sets formulated according to theoretical models. (wikipedia.org)