Receptors, Dopamine D2
Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists
Basal Ganglia Diseases
Synergistic interactions between ampakines and antipsychotic drugs. (1/188)Tests were made for interactions between antipsychotic drugs and compounds that enhance synaptic currents mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid-type glutamate receptors ("ampakines"). Typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs decreased methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats; the effects of near or even subthreshold doses of the antipsychotics were greatly enhanced by the ampakines. Interactions between the ampakine CX516 and low doses of different antipsychotics were generally additive and often synergistic. The ampakine did not exacerbate neuroleptic-induced catalepsy, indicating that the interaction between the different pharmacological classes was selective. These results suggest that positive modulators of cortical glutamatergic systems may be useful adjuncts in treating schizophrenia. (+info)
Attenuation of haloperidol-induced catalepsy by a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist. (2/188)Atypical neuroleptics produce fewer extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) than typical neuroleptics. The pharmacological profile of atypical neuroleptics is that they have equivalent or higher antagonist affinity for 5-HT2 than for dopamine D2 receptors. Our aim was to identify which 5-HT2 receptor contributed to the atypical profile. Catalepsy was defined as rats remaining immobile over a horizontal metal bar for at least 30 s, 90 min after dosing. Radioligand binding assays were carried out with homogenates of human recombinant 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors expressed in Human Embryo Kidney (HEK293) cells. Haloperidol (1.13 mg kg(-1) i.p.) induced catalepsy in all experiments. The selective 5-HT2C/2B receptor antagonist, SB-228357 (0.32-10 mg kg(-1) p.o.) significantly reversed haloperidol-induced catalepsy whereas the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor antagonists, MDL-100907 (0.003-0.1 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and SB-215505 (0.1-3.2 mg kg(-1) p.o.) respectively did not reverse haloperidol-induced catalepsy. The data suggest a role for 5-HT2C receptors in the anticataleptic action of SB-228357. (+info)
In vivo effects of new inhibitors of catechol-O-methyl transferase. (3/188)1. The effects of two new synthetic compounds showing in vitro catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor properties were studied in vivo and compared with the effects of nitecapone and Ro-41-0960. 2. QO IA (3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-5-nitrobenzylidene)-2,4-pentanedione), QO IIR ([2-(3,4-dihydroxy-2-nitrophenyl)vinyl]phenyl ketone), nitecapone and Ro-41-0960 (30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) were given to reserpinized rats 1 h before the administration of L-DOPA/carbidopa (LD/CD, 50:50 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Locomotor activity was assessed 1 h later. All the COMT inhibitors (COMTI), with the exception of QO IA, markedly potentiated LD/CD reversal of reserpine-induced akinesia. Similar results were obtained when the COMTI were coadministered with LD/CD. The effect of compound QO IIR was dose-dependent (7.5-30 mg kg(-1), i.p.). 3. The COMTI (30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) potentiated LD/CD reversal of both catalepsy and hypothermia of reserpinized mice. 4. QO IIR, nitecapone and Ro-41-0960 (30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) reduced striatal 3-methyl-DOPA (3-OMD) levels and increased dopamine (DA) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels. Compound QO IA was devoid of any effect on striatal amine levels. In contrast to the other inhibitors, Ro-41-0961 reduced HVA levels as well. The effect of QO IIR on striatal amine levels was dose-dependent (7.5-60 mg kg(-1), i.p.) 5. These results suggest that the new compound QO IIR is an effective peripherally acting COMT inhibitor in vivo. (+info)
Effects of rubidium on behavioral responses to methamphetamine and tetrabenazine. (4/188)Different groups of mice were injected subcutaneously every other day with rubidium chloride at three doses (0.41(50), 1.23(150) and 3.69(450) meq/kg (mg/kg)) or with saline as a control for a period of 2-3 weeks. Rubidium administered acutely did not affect spontaneous locomotor activities, while it tended to increase the activities when administered repeatedly though the increase was not statistically significant. The methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotor activities were potentiated in the rubidium groups as compared with those in the saline group, this effect of ribidium being increased with prolongation of repeated administrations. Monotonic decreases in ambulation after tetrabenazine were not significantly affected in the rubidium-treated animals though the decreases were sometimes preceded by slight increases and recovery from the decrement tended to be more rapid. After tetrabenazine in the rubidium-treated groups, incidences of catalepsy were increased and jumping behavior and Straub tail responses occurred in a few cases. The results suggest that rubidium potentiates the excitatory action of methamphetamine on spontaneous locomotor activities, as contrasted with inhibitory influence of lithium. (+info)
Identification of quantitative trait loci for haloperidol-induced catalepsy on mouse chromosome 14. (5/188)Previous studies have established that neuroleptic-induced catalepsy in mice is a highly heritable trait. The current study focuses on the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for haloperidol-induced catalepsy in a BALB/cJ x LP/J F(2) intercross. One thousand thirty-seven F(2) animals were phenotyped and divided into four categories: very responsive (RR), responsive, nonresponsive, and very nonresponsive (NN). The RR and NN phenotypes comprised approximately 18% each of the total and differed in their haloperidol sensitivity by >10-fold. Sex differed significantly between the NN and RR groups (chi(2) = 14.0; p <.0002); females comprised 58% of the RR individuals but only 38% of the NN individuals. The difference between the extreme phenotypes in the number of piebald animals was highly significant (chi(2) = 30, p <. 00001). Eight percent of the RR individuals were piebald compared with 30% of the NN individuals. A genome wide scan confirmed the presence of a QTL (peak LOD = 6.4) on chromosome 14 near the piebald (Ednrb) and 5-hydroxytryptamine(2A) (Htr2a) loci. Although the parental BALB/cJ and LP/J strains differed significantly in striatal 5-hydroxytryptamine(2A) receptor binding, no marked differences were detected between the phenotypic extremes. A second QTL was detected on chromosome 14 (peak LOD = 6.9), which was located more proximally and included the Chat locus. No QTLs were detected on chromosomes 1 and 9, thus differentiating this cross from previous results obtained for a C57BL/6J x DBA/2J intercross. (+info)
Enhanced cortical dopamine output and antipsychotic-like effects of raclopride by alpha2 adrenoceptor blockade. (6/188)Clozapine exerts superior clinical efficacy and markedly enhances cortical dopamine output compared with classical antipsychotic drugs. Here the alpha2 adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan was administered to rats alone or in combination with the D2/3 dopamine receptor antagonist raclopride. Dopamine efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex and conditioned avoidance responding were analyzed. Idazoxan selectively potentiated the cortical output of dopamine and augmented the suppression of conditioned avoidance responding induced by raclopride. These results challenge basic assumptions underlying the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia and provide insight into clozapine's mode of action. (+info)
Conditioning to injection procedures and repeated testing increase SCH 23390-induced catalepsy in mice. (7/188)The cataleptic behavior induced by the dopamine D1 antagonist SCH 23390 (SCH) has proven to be a useful assay for investigating the sensitivity of D1-like dopamine receptor-mediated effects during chronic drug administration. A fundamental flaw in most of these studies may be the involvement of the "repeated measures effect," a behavioral phenomenon well demonstrated for neuroleptic-induced catalepsy but not yet investigated for dopamine D1 antagonists. In this study, mice exposed for various sessions to the bar test presented a strong sensitization to the cataleptic behavior induced by repeated SCH treatment. Conversely, single tested animals exhibited a trend toward decreased catalepsy after repeated SCH treatment, which was in line with the development of a D1-like dopamine receptor supersensitivity suggested by an increase in SKF 38393-induced grooming behavior. Surprisingly, a challenge intraperitoneal saline injection increased the cataleptic behavior of single tested mice after long-term SCH treatment. This "injection-conditioned catalepsy" was also observed after repeated treatment with the dopamine D2 antagonists, haloperidol and metoclopramide. While these findings seem to explain some important contradictory data in the literature, they provide a new and simple animal model of the placebo effect. (+info)
Role of adenosine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in mediating haloperidol-induced gene expression and catalepsy. (8/188)Acute blockade of dopamine D(2) receptors by the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol leads to alterations in neuronal gene expression and behavior. In the dorsolateral striatum, the levels of mRNA for the immediate-early gene c-fos and the neuropeptide gene neurotensin/neuromedin N (NT/N) are significantly increased by haloperidol. An acute behavioral response to haloperidol is catalepsy, considered to be a rodent correlate of some of the immediate extrapyramidal motor side effects seen in humans. Several lines of evidence suggest a link between neurotensin induction in the dorsolateral striatum and catalepsy. We hypothesize that both striatal gene induction and catalepsy elicited by haloperidol arise from the combined effect of excitatory adenosinergic and glutamatergic inputs acting at adenosine A(2A) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, respectively. In agreement with our previous reports, adenosine antagonists reduced haloperidol-induced c-fos and neurotensin gene expression as well as catalepsy. In agreement with other reports, the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 also reduced gene expression and catalepsy in response to haloperidol. The competitive NMDA receptor antagonist LY235959 decreased haloperidol-induced catalepsy. We show here that blocking both A(2A) and NMDA receptors simultaneously in conjunction with haloperidol resulted in a combined effect on gene expression and behavior that was greater than that for block of either receptor alone. Both c-fos and NT/N mRNA levels were reduced, and catalepsy was completely abolished. These results indicate that the haloperidol-induced increases in c-fos and NT gene expression in the dorsolateral striatum and catalepsy are driven largely by adenosine and glutamatergic inputs acting at A(2A) and NMDA receptors. (+info)
It is important to note that catalepsy is not the same as catatonia, which is a more specific condition characterized by a wide range of symptoms, including immobility, mutism, negativism, and emotional dysregulation. However, catalepsy and catatonia do share some similarities, and the terms are often used interchangeably in clinical practice.
The exact cause of catalepsy is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to dysfunction in certain areas of the brain, such as the neocortex and basal ganglia. In some cases, catalepsy may be a side effect of medication or drug intoxication.
Treatment for catalepsy typically focuses on addressing the underlying cause, such as managing seizures or withdrawing from drugs. In some cases, medications such as benzodiazepines or antipsychotics may be used to help manage symptoms. Other approaches, such as physical therapy and behavioral interventions, may also be helpful in improving mobility and function.
Some examples of basal ganglia diseases include:
1. Parkinson's disease: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slow movement), and postural instability.
2. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder that causes progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia and a decline in cognitive, motor, and psychiatric functions.
3. Dystonia: A movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions that cause abnormal postures or movements.
4. Tourette's syndrome: A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic, such as repeated sounds or words.
5. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): An anxiety disorder characterized by recurring thoughts or compulsions to perform repetitive behaviors.
6. Schizophrenia: A psychotic disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and cognitive impairments.
7. Kleine-Levin syndrome: A rare sleep disorder characterized by recurring periods of excessive sleepiness and automatic behaviors.
8. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder caused by copper accumulation in the basal ganglia, leading to cognitive and motor impairments.
9. Hemiballism: A rare movement disorder characterized by unilateral or bilateral involuntary movements of the upper limbs.
10. Chorea-acanthocytosis: A rare genetic disorder characterized by chorea (involuntary movements), acanthocytosis (abnormal red blood cell shape), and cognitive decline.
These conditions are often challenging to diagnose and manage, and may require a comprehensive evaluation by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including neurologists, psychiatrists, geneticists, and other specialists. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help improve outcomes for individuals with these conditions.
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- Secondly, there are L-NG-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)- and haloperidol-induced catalepsy as well as the rat acute and chronic models of 'positive-like' schizophrenia symptoms, that BPC 157 counteracted, and resolved the complex relationship of the nitric oxide-system with amphetamine and apomorphine (dopamine agents application), MK-801 (non-competitive antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) and chronic methamphetamine administration (to induce sensitivity). (lww.com)
- In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic administration of 8-OH-DPAT on 6-OHDA-induced catalepsy and levels of inflammatory cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (ac.ir)
- Chronic injection of 8-OH-DPAT decreased catalepsy in a dose dependent manner when compared with the control group. (ac.ir)
- Our study indicated that chronic administration of 8-OH-DPAT improves catalepsy in 6-OHDA-induced animal model of PD and restores central concentration of inflammatory cytokines to the basal levels. (ac.ir)
- In the meanwhile, everyone's lying low -- creeping catalepsy, collective catatonia, eyes riveted on the countdown. (metafilter.com)
- Spatial learning in the Morris water maze in mice genetically different in the predisposition to catalepsy: the effect of intraventricular treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor. (nih.gov)
- The present study evaluated the effect of REM-sleep deprivation on the catalepsy induced by lactate administration plus forced muscular activity. (bvsalud.org)
- The number of animals displaying catalepsy (50%) and mean total catalepsy time (11,92 ± 4,12 minutes) were lower in sleep deprived animals than in controls (91.7% and 26.67 ± 5.86 min respectively), results being statistically significant at the limit level (p=0,05). (bvsalud.org)