KynurenineCitric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Tricarboxylic Acids: Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.Fumarate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.MalatesGlycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.CitratesKetoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)PyruvatesSuccinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase ComplexFatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.GlyoxylatesFumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Fluoroacetates: Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Oxaloacetates: Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Succinate-CoA Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the first step leading to the oxidation of succinic acid by the reversible formation of succinyl-CoA from succinate and CoA with the concomitant cleavage of ATP to ADP (EC 6.2.1.5) or GTP to GDP (EC 6.2.1.4) and orthophosphate. Itaconate can act instead of succinate and ITP instead of GTP.EC 6.2.1.-.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.IsocitratesBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Aurintricarboxylic Acid: A dye which inhibits protein biosynthesis at the initial stages. The ammonium salt (aluminon) is a reagent for the colorimetric estimation of aluminum in water, foods, and tissues.Coenzyme AOxaloacetic Acid: A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.Dicarboxylic AcidsPyruvate Carboxylase: A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC 6.4.1.1.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.MalonatesBiological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Epsilonproteobacteria: A group of proteobacteria consisting of chemoorganotrophs usually associated with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM of humans and animals.Decarboxylation: The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.Aconitum: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain a number of diterpenoid alkaloids including: aconitans, hypaconitine, ACONITINE, jesaconitine, ignavine, napelline, and mesaconitine. The common name of Wolfbane is similar to the common name for ARNICA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Lipoxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Isocitrate Lyase: A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC 4.1.3.1.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.GlutaratesProtein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.PentosephosphatesBiosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Fatty Acid Desaturases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Malate Synthase: An important enzyme in the glyoxylic acid cycle which reversibly catalyzes the synthesis of L-malate from acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.2.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.GluconatesPhenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.PhosphoenolpyruvateCoenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The citric acid cycle is a key metabolic pathway that connects carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. The reactions of the ... In protein catabolism, proteins are broken down by proteases into their constituent amino acids. Their carbon skeletons (i.e. ... The citric acid cycle (CAC) - also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle - is a series of chemical ... The regulation of the citric acid cycle is largely determined by product inhibition and substrate availability. If the cycle ...
Nucleotides are made from amino acids, carbon dioxide and formic acid in pathways that require large amounts of metabolic ... "Analysis of tricarboxylic acid-cycle metabolism of hepatoma cells by comparison of 14CO2 ratios". Biochem J. 246 (3): 633-639. ... In intrinsic regulation, the metabolic pathway self-regulates to respond to changes in the levels of substrates or products; ... The metabolism of a cell achieves this by coupling the spontaneous processes of catabolism to the non-spontaneous processes of ...
Metabolism map. Carbon. fixation Photo-. respiration Pentose. phosphate. pathway Citric. acid cycle ... Citric acid cycle. Main article: Citric acid cycle. This is also called the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle. When ... Major metabolic pathways in metro-style map. Click any text (name of pathway or metabolites) to link to the corresponding ... Substrate-level phosphorylation: 2 ATP from glycolysis + 2 ATP (directly GTP) from Krebs cycle ...
Fatty acid metabolism Urea cycle Aspartate amino acid group synthesis Porphyrins and corrinoids metabolism Citric acid cycle ... Some metabolic pathways flow in a 'cycle' wherein each component of the cycle is a substrate for the subsequent reaction in the ... The glyoxylate shunt pathway is an alternative to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, for it redirects the pathway of TCA to ... anabolism and catabolism) Each metabolic pathway consists of a series of biochemical reactions that are connected by their ...
Main article: citric acid cycle. The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or the TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle is ... Catabolism[edit]. The ten-step catabolic pathway of glycolysis is the initial phase of free-energy release in the breakdown of ... The diphosphate group of ADP is attachted to the 5' carbon of the sugar backbone, while the adenosine attaches to the 1' carbon ... Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is ...
The citric acid cycle is a key metabolic pathway that connects carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. The reactions of the ... In protein catabolism, proteins are broken down by proteases into their constituent amino acids. Their carbon skeletons (i.e. ... The citric acid cycle (CAC) - also known as the TCA cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle) or the Krebs cycle[1][2] - is a series of ... The regulation of the citric acid cycle is largely determined by product inhibition and substrate availability. If the cycle ...
... amino acid catabolism, and the oxidation of even-numbered fatty acyl chains. These distinct metabolic pathways are all capable ... the primary function of acetyl-CoA throughout all cell types is as a carbon donor in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. ... The failing heart, however, experiences complex alterations in energy metabolism and substrate utilization that are ... modulate the activity of mitochondria-localized fatty acid β-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), urea cycle, and ...
... catabolism) are referred to as metabolic pathways. Glucose metabolism involves the anabolic pathways of gluconeogenesis and ... ketone body degradation can be oxidised to carbon dioxide and water via the sequential actions of the tricarboxylic acid cycle ... is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as lactate, ... Interplay between metabolic pathways The interplay between glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, ketone body metabolism and ...
The growing interest in cancer metabolism reprogrammation can lead to innovative approaches exploiting metabolic ... The growing interest in cancer metabolism reprogrammation can lead to innovative approaches exploiting metabolic ... In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on GSCs with a particular focus on their metabolic complexity. We will ... In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on GSCs with a particular focus on their metabolic complexity. We will ...
... indicated that mitochondrial metabolism was reorganized to support the selective catabolism of both amino acids and fatty acids ... such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, mitochondrial electron transfer chain, iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis, transporters, as ... Glutamate, being the substrate of the strongly up-regulated cytosolic glutamine synthase, is likely to become a metabolically ... Such adjustments would ensure the replenishment of α-ketoglutarate and glutamate, which provide the carbon backbones for ...
However, this alternative pathway cannot provide an anaplerotic supplement for the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Therefore, in the ... supplying 4-carbon intermediates for the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This finding is suggested by the fact that icl mutant ... S. cerevisiae utilizes an alternative pathway for the metabolism of acetyl units, derived from the β-oxidation of fatty acids. ... This pathway ultimately provides substrates for biosynthetic processes and respiration (5).. In addition to its established ...
... indicated that mitochondrial metabolism was reorganized to support the selective catabolism of both amino acids and fatty acids ... such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, mitochondrial electron transfer chain, iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis, transporters, as ... Glutamate, being the substrate of the strongly up-regulated cytosolic glutamine synthase, is likely to become a metabolically ... This could make reduced carbon available as alternative energy source during darkness. In this thesis we observed that ...
Gluconeogenic carbon flow of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates is critical for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to establish and ... However, little is known about the metabolic substrates and central metabolic pathways that support this resistance. Therefore ... Casamino Acids enter central metabolism either at pyruvate or through quinone-dependent oxidation by the TCA cycle. Download ... which allows for continued carbon catabolism via NAD+-dependent pathways. During NO· exposure, S. aureus performs heterolactic ...
... is highly restricted in contrast to Salmonella Typhimurium and other enteropathogenic bacteria because several common pathways ... Despite these metabolic limitations, C. jejuni efficiently colonizes various animal hosts as a commensal intestinal inhabitant ... Despite these metabolic limitations, C. jejuni efficiently colonizes various animal hosts as a commensal intestinal inhabitant ... Furthermore, new insights into the metabolic requirements that support the intracellular survival of C. jejuni were obtained. ...
4-dienoate is further converted to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates by 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate hydratase, 4-hydroxy-2 ... The metabolic pathway for ethylbenzene seems to be separate from the metabolic pathway for biphenyl in RHA1, because RHA1 ... 1993) Gene components responsible for discrete substrate specificity in the metabolism of biphenyl (bph operon) and toluene ( ... indicating that the meta-ring cleavage pathway responsible for ethylbenzene catabolism was present. These results imply that ...
... pathway that sequesters tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates into methylcitrate cycle intermediates, depletes ... Its metabolic network, however, allows efficient co-catabolism of multiple carbon substrates. To gain insight into the ... Para-aminosalicylic Acid Acts As an Alternative Substrate of Folate Metabolism in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Science (New York ... Gluconeogenic Carbon Flow of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates is Critical for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis to Establish and ...
... indicated that mitochondrial metabolism was reorganized to support the selective catabolism of both amino acids and fatty acids ... such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, mitochondrial electron transfer chain, iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis, transporters, as ... the perception of carbon starvation drove a profound metabolic readjustment in which branched-chain amino acids and potentially ... This active transport could be the basis for a progressive metabolic shift in the substrates fueling mitochondrial activities, ...
2.1.1. The Tricarboxylic Acid, Glyoxylate, and Citramalic Acid Cycles. Although some metabolic pathways in M. tuberculosis ... "Metabolomics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals compartmentalized co-catabolism of carbon substrates," Chemistry and Biology ... 13C-labeled metabolites/substrates permit the metabolic pathway to be elucidated and the metabolism of a substrate and its ... and carboxylic acids [33] via the glycolysis pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and ...
... phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid ... focusing on their energy and central carbon metabolism. We then compare the metabolic capabilities of pathogenic and ... Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious ... Our data served to propose a time-resolved model for type III protein secretion during the developmental cycle, and we provide ...
Pyc also contributes to several additional metabolic pathways, including the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and amino acid ... Amino acid catabolism in Staphylococcus aureus and the function of carbon catabolite repression. MBio 8, e01434-16 (2017).. ... Osteoclast precursors display dynamic metabolic shifts toward accelerated glucose metabolism at an early stage of RANKL- ... aureus infection and a unique environment characterized by dynamic substrate accessibility, infection-induced hypoxia, and a ...
The study of metabolic pathways: There are two main reasons for studying a metabolic pathway: (1) to describe, in quantitative ... the chief nitrogen-containing end product of protein metabolism in mammals, is formed exclusively in the liver. They cannot ... to describe the various intracellular controls that govern the rate at which the pathway functions. Studies with whole ... The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle*Formation of coenzyme A, carbon dioxide, and reducing equivalent ...
Marrero J, Rhee KY, Schnappinger D, Pethe K, Ehrt S (2010) Gluconeogenic carbon flow of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates ... Numerous studies have indicated that host-derived lipid (cholesterol and fatty acid) substrates and the metabolic pathways ... 2010) Metabolomics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals compartmentalized co-catabolism of carbon substrates. Chem Biol 17: ... Within macrophages, Mtb exploits a specialized set of metabolic pathways to utilize host-derived nutrients, such as fatty acids ...
To mine the gene information relevant to GlcNAc metabolism, the DNA sequences of dasR-dasA-dasBCD-nagB and nagKA in S. ... DasR, however, could not directly affect the expression of the pathway-specific repressor BlmR in the bleomycins gene cluster. ... but also extended the utilization of chitin-derived substrates in microbial-based antibiotic production. ... Based on GlcNAc regulation and assisted metabolic profiling analysis, the yields of bleomycin A2 and B2 were ultimately ...
... subsurface microorganism that is likely to play an important role in the carbon and metal cycles in the subsurface. It also has ... including an expanded range of substrates that support growth, such as cellobiose and citrate, and provided additional insights ... via photosynthesis or fermentation of sugars like other members of this genus and uncovered novel genes for benzoate metabolism ... genome-scale in silico metabolic model and laboratory studies. The iterative modeling and experimental approach unveiled ...
The citric acid cycle is a key metabolic pathway that connects carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. The reactions of the ... In protein catabolism, proteins are broken down by proteases into their constituent amino acids. Their carbon skeletons (i.e. ... The citric acid cycle (CAC) - also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle - is a series of chemical ... The regulation of the citric acid cycle is largely determined by product inhibition and substrate availability. If the cycle ...
Roots in drained soil respire by catabolising carbohydrates in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, with the reducing power ... Carbon is diverted to fermentative end-products, allowing oxidation of NADH and sustained catabolism of carbohydrates. Key ... Carbohydrates are then broken down via fermentative pathways to yield at least some ATP, produced during substrate-level ... 18.3 - Biochemical and metabolic adaptations. Back to top 18.3.1 - Root respiration and anaerobic metabolism. When plants are ...
PDK4 prevents the flow of glycolytic intermediates into the tricarboxylic acid cycle and, therefore, spares glucose and limits ... Each purified recombinant PTL was assayed using the pH-stat method with two triacylglycerol substrates, 4-carbon tributyrin (TB ... Names of metabolic pathways are shown in italics. Arrows with a single arrowhead indicate a single reaction. Continuous arrows ... to fat-based catabolism during hibernation. Insulin has been shown to repress PDK4 gene activity, whereas specific fatty acids ...
Topics Metabolism Energy Pathways Biosynthesis 1 Catabolism Anabolism Enzymes Metabolism 2 Metabolic balancing act Catabolism ... TCA CYCLE The Citric Acid Cycle is also known as: Kreb s cycle Sir Hans Krebs Nobel prize, 1953 TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle ... Splits a 6 carbon sugar into two 3 carbon molecules Coenzyme NAD is reduced to NADH Substrate-level-phosphorylation (Four ATPs ... 43 Various Pathways Catabolism Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway or glycolysis Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) Respiratory ...
Diagram depicting the metabolism of glucose and glutamine via glycolysis and the TCA cycle. Both substrates contribute to the ... Although cancer cells can exhibit unique metabolic pathways, they also use the classic metabolic pathways of normal cells. This ... this study uncovered a previously unsuspected glucose-independent glutamine-driven tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Cancer cells ... Lactate and carbon dioxide, produced from glucose and glutamine catabolism, are exported through monocarboxylate transporters ...
The citric acid cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) or the Krebs cycle, (On rare occasions the citric ... Major metabolic pathways converging on the TCA cycle Most of the bodys catabolic pathways converge on the TCA cycle, as the ... In protein catabolism, proteins are broken down by protease enzymes into their constituent amino acids. The carbon backbone of ... Metabolism: Citric acid cycle enzymes. Cycle. Citrate synthase - Aconitase - Isocitrate dehydrogenase - Oxoglutarate ...
... via the tricarboxylic cycle, the production of metabolic energy in the form of ATP. This fatty acid-catabolism pathway is the ... Some category members (generally substances with a high mono- and diester content and short to medium fatty acid carbon chain ... Metabolism After lipid content, the degree of biotransformation seems to be the most relevant factor regarding the ... van Leeuwen and Hermens, 1995). Carboxylesterases are a group of ubiquitous and low substrate specific enzymes, involved in the ...
  • The iterative modeling and experimental approach unveiled exciting, previously unknown physiological features, including an expanded range of substrates that support growth, such as cellobiose and citrate, and provided additional insights into important features such as the stoichiometry of the electron transport chain and the ability to grow via fumarate dismutation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The name of this metabolic pathway is derived from the citric acid (a type of tricarboxylic acid, often called citrate, as the ionized form predominates at biological pH) that is consumed and then regenerated by this sequence of reactions to complete the cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fungi, two systems for acetyl unit transport have been identified: a shuttle dependent on the carrier carnitine and a (peroxisomal) citrate synthase-dependent pathway. (asm.org)
  • This withdrawal of citrate may stop the TCA cycle unless additional pathways are engaged to supply OAA to keep the cycle going. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Based on GlcNAc regulation and assisted metabolic profiling analysis, the yields of bleomycin A2 and B2 were ultimately increased to 61.79 and 36.9 mg/L, respectively. (springer.com)
  • By studying the role of posttranscriptional regulation during metabolic adaptation, for the first time, we demonstrate the role of sugar reserve played by glycogen in E. coli . (asm.org)
  • Since the essential posttranscriptional regulatory system Csr is a major regulator of glycogen accumulation, this work also sheds light on the central role of posttranscriptional regulation in metabolic adaptation. (asm.org)
  • if the exercise is intense enough, there is anet loss of muscle protein (as a resultofdecreasedproteinsynthesis,increasedbreakdown,orboth);someoftheamino acidsareoxidizedasfuel,whereastherestprovidesubstratesforgluconeogenesisand possibly for acid-based regulation. (docplayer.net)
  • furthermore, muscle is important not only as a machine for the transduction of chemical energy into mechanical work, but it is also engaged in the diurnal regulation of the ebb and flow of amino acids between the center and the periphery with feeding and fasting, and muscle can be considered to be a store of energy and nitrogen during starvation and disease and after injury. (docplayer.net)
  • The ability to estimate liver GCK activity in vivo for genetic and pharmacologic studies may provide important physiologic insights into the regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recent work has brought new insights into the regulation of energy metabolism by suggesting that the bioenergetic activity of cells is not merely controlled by increased ATP demand but may also be coordinated by signal transduction pathways that act to directly modulate nutrient uptake and metabolism. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Modulations in plant secondary metabolism as a result of environmental perturbations are often associated with the altered regulation of other metabolic pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The transcriptomes of both dehydration and rehydration offer insight into the complexity of the regulation of responses to these processes that involve complex signaling pathways and associated transcription factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this article we review existing knowledge of M. tuberculosis 's central carbon metabolism as reported by studies of its basic genetic and biochemical composition, regulation, and organization, with the hope that such knowledge will inform our understanding of M. tuberculosis 's ability to traverse the stringent and heterogeneous niches encountered in the host. (asmscience.org)
  • We use binary linear programming and show that the design of a regulated, optimal metabolic network of minimal functionality can be formulated as a standard optimization problem, where EM and regulation show up as constraints. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fatty acids are an important source of energy, particularly for tissues with high metabolic demands such as the liver, which plays a major role in the regulation of energy homeostasis in mammals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although insulin signaling may directly regulate cardiac metabolism, its main role is likely the regulation of substrate delivery from the periphery to the heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • With the possibility of engineering microbial metabolism to facilitate product formation, it became clear that NADPH availability remains a major hurdle in the efficient generation of many products. (online-casino-player.info)
  • However, with the exception of studies focusing on fibre and polyphenols, there have been relatively few recent human studies specifically evaluating microbial metabolism. (springer.com)
  • In the polyphenol-related studies, a large amount of inter-individual variation was observed in the microbial metabolism and absorption of certain polyphenols. (springer.com)
  • Computational modeling of metabolic networks has been useful in studying microbial metabolism and developing tools for many applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nowadays, amino acids such as L-glutamate and L-lysine are produced in scale of million of tons by fermentation. (caister.com)
  • The prosperity of amino acid fermentation industry started about half a century ago with my discovery of a glutamic acid-producing bacterium. (caister.com)
  • Fermentation, while also degradative, never results in mineralization except for the conversion of acetate to methane and carbon diaxide by certain methanogens. (studylibid.com)
  • Nevertheless, it appears that the IM plays a role in energy homeostasis and that protein microbial breakdown and fermentation produced ammonia, amines, phenols and branch chain fatty acids, and a greater diversity in the microbes present. (springer.com)
  • The deduced amino acid sequences were quite similar to the amino acid sequences of the products of the single-ring aromatic hydrolase genes, such as dmpD , cumD , todF , and xylF , and not very similar to the amino acid sequences of the products of bphD genes from PCB degraders, including RHA1. (asm.org)
  • Thus, the products of a set of catabolic genes, bphA1A2A3A4BCDEFG , are responsible for the aerobic metabolism of biphenyl. (asm.org)
  • Alterations in the metabolic profile of an organism can be directly linked to the corresponding genes in its genome, as Raamsdonk et al. (hindawi.com)
  • Microarray analysis in Mycobacterium smegmatis overexpressing VapC/VapBC revealed a high percentage of downregulated genes with annotated roles in carbon transport and metabolism, suggesting that VapC was targeting specific metabolic mRNA transcripts. (asm.org)
  • The Drosophila bubblegum (bgm) and double bubble (dbb) genes have overlapping functions, and the consequences of bubblegum double bubble double knockout in the fly brain are profound, affecting behavior and brain morphology, and providing the best paradigm to date for an animal model of Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a fatal childhood neurodegenerative disease associated with the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. (sdbonline.org)
  • Induction of the genes required to achieve an optimal response suitable for the respective conditions allows for growth when plants are exposed to different light intensities and nutrient conditions with varying rates of energy input and different assimilatory pathways for its consumption are the required in the long term. (springer.com)
  • It is acknowledged that a complex interdependence exists between the IM and the mammalian host and that the IM possesses a far greater diversity of genes and repertoire of metabolic and enzymatic capabilities than their hosts. (springer.com)
  • Recent studies demonstrate that either MR or targeting specific genes in the methionine cycle can induce cell apoptosis while decreasing proliferation in several cancer models. (orentreich.org)
  • Shown are the major metabolic pathways discussed, which include the genes included in our screen. (g3journal.org)
  • In recent years comparative genome sequence, transcriptome and metabolome analyses as well as mutagenesis studies combined with animal infection models have provided a new understanding of how the specific metabolic capacity of C. jejuni drives its persistence in the intestinal habitat of various hosts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, when used in combination, these biomarkers can serve as a valuable tool for sensitive, label-free identification of changes in specific metabolic pathways and characterization of the heterogeneity of the elicited responses with single-cell resolution. (sciencemag.org)
  • There seems to be a clear link between the self-renewal of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), in which cells proliferate indefinitely without differentiation, and the activity of specific metabolic pathways. (hep.com.cn)
  • Identifying the specific metabolic pathways involved in pluripotency maintenance is crucial for progress in the field of developmental biology and regenerative medicine. (hep.com.cn)
  • Metabolic modeling has largely advanced through the development of GEnome-scale Metabolic models (GEMs) and constraint-based modeling techniques such as Flux Balance Analysis (FBA). (nature.com)
  • 13 C-MFA showed that 6-phosphogluconate is catabolized primarily via the oxidative PPP in both phases I and II (62% and 93%) and demonstrated a cyclic carbon flux through the oxidative PPP. (asm.org)
  • II, 14.25 h) at which samples were taken for 13 C-based metabolic flux analysis. (asm.org)
  • By applying both experimental and computational biology tools, such as metabolic engineering and 13 C-metabolic flux analysis ( 13 C-MFA), we investigated and quantitatively described the physiological, metabolic, and bioenergetic response of the whole-cell biocatalyst to the targeted bioconversion and identified possible metabolic bottlenecks for further rational pathway engineering. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of carbon flux through central metabolism of the mutant strain revealed that the increased a -KG demand for P4H activity did not enhance the a -KG generating flux, indicating a tightly regulated TCA cycle operation under the conditions studied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular, 13 C metabolic flux analysis ( 13 C-MFA) has emerged as the primary technique for quantifying intracellular fluxes in cancer cells. (nature.com)
  • We report a new approach, RELATCH, which uses flux and gene expression data from a reference state to predict metabolic responses in a genetically or environmentally perturbed state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using the concept of relative optimality, which considers relative flux changes from a reference state, we hypothesize a relative metabolic flux pattern is maintained from one state to another, and that cells adapt to perturbations using metabolic and regulatory reprogramming to preserve this relative flux pattern. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Typically, evolutionary rationalized objectives like maximization of biomass or minimization of metabolic adjustments are used to predict changes in the flux distribution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite this genetically-encoded flexibility of carbon metabolism, attempts to exogenously manipulate central carbon flux by rational design have proven difficult, suggesting a robust network structure. (g3journal.org)
  • Glucagon acts on the liver to increase glucose production through alterations in hepatic metabolism, and reducing the elevated glucagon signalling in diabetic patients is an attractive strategy for the treatment of hyperglycaemia. (springer.com)
  • Nonetheless, despite robust effects of glucagon on transcriptional control, in this review we will focus on the direct post-translational effects of glucagon on hepatic metabolism, which we favour as the primary physiological site of glucagon action for two reasons. (springer.com)
  • Second, glucagon-dependent changes in systemic and hepatic metabolism occur too rapidly to be mediated by transcriptional events. (springer.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS This novel model of lactate kinetics extends the utility of the FSIGT protocol beyond whole-body glucose homeostasis by providing estimates for indices pertaining to hepatic glucose metabolism, including hepatic GCK activity and glycolysis rate. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In rodents, MR induces adiposity resistance, improves hepatic glucose metabolism, preserves cardiac function, and reduces body size, which could affect the onset of age-related diseases. (orentreich.org)