Encyclopedias as Topic
Dictionaries as Topic
Methods and principles in biomedical ethics. (1/5)The four principles approach to medical ethics plus specification is used in this paper. Specification is defined as a process of reducing the indeterminateness of general norms to give them increased action guiding capacity, while retaining the moral commitments in the original norm. Since questions of method are central to the symposium, the paper begins with four observations about method in moral reasoning and case analysis. Three of the four scenarios are dealt with. It is concluded in the "standard" Jehovah's Witness case that having autonomously chosen the authority of his religious institution, a Jehovah's Witness has a reasonable basis on which to refuse a recommended blood transfusion. The author's view of the child of a Jehovah's Witness scenario is that it is morally required-not merely permitted-to overrule this parental refusal of treatment. It is argued in the selling kidneys for transplantation scenario that a fair system of regulating and monitoring would be better than the present system which the author believes to be a shameful failure. (+info)
Statistical association criteria in forensic psychiatry-a criminological evaluation of casuistry. (2/5)PURPOSE: Identification of potential shared primary psychoprophylaxis and crime prevention is measured by analyzing the rate of commitments for patients-subjects to forensic examination. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The statistic trial is a retrospective, document-based study. The statistical lot consists of 770 initial examination reports performed and completed during the whole year 2007, primarily analyzed in order to summarize the data within the National Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bucharest, Romania (INML), with one of the group variables being 'particularities of the psychiatric patient history', containing the items 'forensic onset', 'commitments within the last year prior to the examination' and 'absence of commitments within the last year prior to the examination'. The method used was the Kendall bivariate correlation. For this study, the authors separately analyze only the two items regarding commitments by other correlation alternatives and by modern, elaborate statistical analyses, i.e. recording of the standard case study variables, Kendall bivariate correlation, cross tabulation, factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. RESULTS: The results are varied, from theoretically presumed clinical nosography (such as schizophrenia or manic depression), to non-presumed (conduct disorders) or unexpected behavioral acts, and therefore difficult to interpret. CONCLUSIONS: One took into consideration the features of the batch as well as the results of the previous standard correlation of the whole statistical lot. The authors emphasize the role of medical security measures that are actually applied in the therapeutic management in general and in risk and second offence management in particular, as well as the role of forensic psychiatric examinations in the detection of certain aspects related to the monitoring of mental patients. (+info)
Use of the vascularized iliac-crest flap in musculoskeletal lesions. (3/5)(+info)
Doctors' stories, patients' stories: a narrative approach to teaching medical ethics. (4/5)Many senior doctors have had little in the way of formal ethics training, but express considerable interest in extending their education in this area. This paper is the report of an initiative in continuing medical education in which doctors were introduced to narrative ethics. We review the theoretical basis of narrative ethics, and the structure of and response to the two-day workshop. (+info)
An anthropological exploration of contemporary bioethics: the varieties of common sense. (5/5)Patients and physicians can inhabit distinctive social worlds where they are guided by diverse understandings of moral practice. Despite the contemporary presence of multiple moral traditions, religious communities and ethnic backgrounds, two of the major methodological approaches in bioethics, casuistry and principlism, rely upon the notion of a common morality. However, the heterogeneity of ethnic, moral, and religious traditions raises questions concerning the singularity of common sense. Indeed, it might be more appropriate to consider plural traditions of moral reasoning. This poses a considerable challenge for bioethicists because the existence of plural moral traditions can lead to difficulties regarding "closure" in moral reasoning. The topics of truth-telling, informed consent, euthanasia, and brain death and organ transplantation reveal the presence of different understandings of common sense. With regard to these subjects, plural accounts of "common sense" moral reasoning exist. (+info)
Casuistry is a term that has its roots in the ethical and moral discussions within theology and philosophy. In medical terms, casuistry refers to the use of specific case studies or past precedents to analyze and make decisions about current ethical dilemmas in clinical practice. It is a method of reasoning that applies general principles of morality and ethics to particular cases, taking into account the unique circumstances and contexts of those cases.
Casuistry can be helpful for medical professionals when faced with complex ethical issues, as it allows them to consider the specific details of a situation and weigh the potential consequences of different actions. By examining similar cases from the past, healthcare providers can gain insights into how others have approached similar dilemmas and use this information to inform their own decision-making process.
However, casuistry has also been criticized for its potential to be overly reductionist or to prioritize situational factors over broader ethical principles. Some argue that relying too heavily on casuistic reasoning can lead to moral relativism, where the rightness or wrongness of an action is determined solely by its context rather than by any universal standards of ethics.
In summary, casuistry in medical terms refers to the use of specific case studies and past precedents to analyze and make decisions about current ethical dilemmas in clinical practice. While it can be a valuable tool for considering the unique circumstances of each situation, it is important to balance this approach with broader ethical principles and guidelines.
An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "morals" is not a term that has a medical definition. Morals refer to personal or societal beliefs about right and wrong behavior. It is a concept that falls under the realm of ethics, philosophy, and sociology rather than medicine. If you have any questions related to medical terminologies or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.
A medical dictionary is a reference book that contains definitions and explanations of medical terms and jargon. It serves as a useful tool for healthcare professionals, students, patients, and anyone else who needs to understand medical terminology. Medical dictionaries can include definitions of diseases, conditions, treatments, procedures, drugs, equipment, anatomy, and more. They may also provide pronunciation guides, etymologies, and abbreviations.
Medical dictionaries can be found in print or digital form, and some are specialized to cover specific areas of medicine, such as oncology, psychiatry, or surgery. Some medical dictionaries are also bilingual, providing translations of medical terms between different languages. Overall, a medical dictionary is an essential resource for anyone who needs to communicate effectively in the field of medicine.
"Dictionaries as Topic" is a medical subject heading (MeSH) that refers to the study or discussion of dictionaries as a reference source in the field of medicine. Dictionaries used in this context are specialized works that provide definitions and explanations of medical terms, concepts, and technologies. They serve as important tools for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and patients to communicate effectively and accurately about health and disease.
Medical dictionaries can cover a wide range of topics, including anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathology, diagnostic procedures, treatment methods, and medical ethics. They may also provide information on medical eponyms, abbreviations, symbols, and units of measurement. Some medical dictionaries are general in scope, while others focus on specific areas of medicine or healthcare, such as nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, or alternative medicine.
The use of medical dictionaries can help to ensure that medical terminology is used consistently and correctly, which is essential for accurate diagnosis, treatment planning, and communication among healthcare providers and between providers and patients. Medical dictionaries can also be useful for non-medical professionals who need to understand medical terms in the context of their work, such as lawyers, journalists, and policymakers.
An ethical theory is a structured framework of principles and concepts that helps to guide and inform moral judgments and decisions about right and wrong conduct. It provides a systematic and coherent approach to understanding, analyzing, and resolving ethical issues and dilemmas in various contexts, including healthcare.
There are several types of ethical theories, but some of the most prominent ones include:
1. Deontological theory: This theory emphasizes the inherent rightness or wrongness of actions based on whether they conform to moral rules or duties, regardless of their consequences. It is often associated with the work of Immanuel Kant.
2. Utilitarianism: This theory holds that the morality of an action is determined by its overall usefulness or benefit to society as a whole, measured in terms of the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
3. Virtue ethics: This theory focuses on the character and virtues of the moral agent, rather than on specific rules or consequences. It emphasizes the importance of cultivating good habits, traits, and dispositions that contribute to a flourishing and fulfilling life.
4. Social contract theory: This theory posits that moral norms and rules emerge from mutual agreements or understandings among individuals in society, based on their shared interests and values.
5. Feminist ethics: This theory challenges traditional ethical theories by emphasizing the importance of context, relationships, and power dynamics in moral decision-making, with a focus on promoting justice and equality for marginalized groups.
In healthcare, ethical theories can help guide clinical practice, research, policy, and education, by providing a framework for addressing complex ethical issues such as informed consent, patient autonomy, confidentiality, resource allocation, and end-of-life care.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Jurisprudence" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Jurisprudence refers to the theory and philosophy of law, or the study of legal systems, principles, and practices. It is a subject that falls under the purview of lawyers, judges, and scholars of law. If you have any questions about medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those!