Dental Casting Technique
Dental Casting Investment
Dental Impression Technique
Clostridium botulinum type D
Dental Impression Materials
Dental Prosthesis Design
Jaw Relation Record
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Post and Core Technique
Dental Prosthesis Retention
Metal Ceramic Alloys
Zinc Phosphate Cement
Dimensional Measurement Accuracy
Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic
Dental Stress Analysis
Dental Marginal Adaptation
Malocclusion, Angle Class II
Denture, Partial, Removable
Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported
Malocclusion, Angle Class I
Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute
Analysis of Variance
Orthodontic Space Closure
Palatal Expansion Technique
Air Abrasion, Dental
Denture, Partial, Fixed
Kirsten murine sarcoma virus
Peer Review, Health Care
Acute Kidney Injury
Dental Restoration Failure
Differential Thermal Analysis
Orthodontic Appliance Design
Biliary Tract Diseases
Foot Deformities, Acquired
Heat-Shock Proteins, Small
Reproducibility of Results
Bence Jones Protein
Mice, Inbred Strains
Immunoglobulin Light Chains
Fracture Fixation, Internal
Motion Therapy, Continuous Passive
Patterns of healing of scaphoid fractures. The importance of vascularity. (1/410)We studied 45 patients with 46 fractures of the scaphoid who presented sequentially over a period of 21 months. MRI enabled us to relate the pattern of the fracture to the blood supply of the scaphoid. Serial MRI studies of the four main patterns showed that each followed a constant sequence during healing and failure to progress normally predicted nonunion. (+info)
Acute fractures of the scaphoid. Treatment by cast immobilisation with the wrist in flexion or extension? (2/410)Acute fractures of the scaphoid were randomly allocated for conservative treatment in a Colles'-type plaster cast with the wrist immobilised in either 20 degrees flexion or 20 degrees extension. The position of the wrist did not influence the rate of union of the fracture (89%) but when reviewed after six months the wrists which had been immobilised in flexion had a greater restriction of extension. We recommend that acute fractures of the scaphoid should be treated in a Colles'-type cast with the wrist in slight extension. (+info)
Use of computed tomography and plantar pressure measurement for management of neuropathic ulcers in patients with diabetes. (3/410)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Total contact casting is effective at healing neuropathic ulcers, but patients have a high rate (30%-57%) of ulcer recurrence when they resume walking without the cast. The purposes of this case report are to describe how data from plantar pressure measurement and spiral x-ray computed tomography (SXCT) were used to help manage a patient with recurrent plantar ulcers and to discuss potential future benefits of this technology. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 62-year-old man with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) of 34 years' duration, peripheral neuropathy, and a recurrent plantar ulcer. Although total contact casting or relieving weight bearing with crutches apparently allowed the ulcer to heal, the ulcer recurred 3 times in an 18-month period. Spiral x-ray computed tomography and simultaneous pressure measurement were conducted to better understand the mechanism of his ulceration. OUTCOMES: The patient had a severe bony deformity that coincided with the location of highest plantar pressures (886 kPa). The results of the SXCT and pressure measurement convinced the patient to wear his prescribed footwear always, even when getting up in the middle of the night. The ulcer healed in 6 weeks, and the patient resumed his work, which required standing and walking for 8 to 10 hours a day. DISCUSSION: Following intervention, the patient's recurrent ulcer healed and remained healed for several months. Future benefits of these methods may include the ability to define how structural changes of the foot relate to increased plantar pressures and to help design and fabricate optimal orthoses. (+info)
Fractures of the posteromedial process of the talus. A report of two cases. (4/410)The authors present two cases of fractures of posteromedial process of talus. One was treated conservatively and the other by excision. The appearances of the CT scans, the therapeutic options and the mechanisms of injury are discussed. (+info)
Chondrodiatasis in a patient with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia using the Ilizarov technique: successful correction of an angular deformity with ensuing ossification of a large metaphyseal lesion. A case report. (5/410)Distraction through the physis (chondrodiatasis) is a controversial technique with unpredictable results. However, it has been used in the past for the lengthening and correction of angular deformities of long bones. We report the case of an 11-year-old patient with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) who presented with a severe recurvatum deformity of the left proximal tibia secondary to collapse of the tibial plateau into a large metaphyseal cystic lesion. Using the chondrodiatasis technique with a percutaneously applied Ilizarov circular frame, we were able to correct this deformity. Surprisingly, healing and ossification of the metaphyseal lesion was simultaneously observed at the end of the treatment, a finding which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported. (+info)
A five-year assessment of controlled trials of in-patient and out-patient treatment and of plaster-of-Paris jackets for tuberculosis of the spine in children on standard chemotherapy. Studies in Masan and Pusan, Korea. Fifth report of the Medical Research Council Working Party on tuberculosis of the spine. (6/410)In two centres in Korea 350 patients with a diagnosis of tuberculosis of the thoracic and/or lumbar spine were allocated at random: in Masan to in-patient rest in bed (IP) for six months followed by out-patient treatment or to ambulatory out-patient treatment (OP) from the start; in Pusan to out-patient treatment with a plaster-of-Paris jacket (J) for nine months or to ambulatory treatment without any support (No J). All patients recieved chemotherapy with PAS with isoniazid for eighteen months, either supplemented with streptomycin for the first three months (SPH) or without this supplement (PH), by random allocation. The main analysis of this report concerns 299 patients (eighty-three IP, eighty-three OP, sixty-three J, seventy No J; 143 SPH, 156 PH). Pre-treatment factors were similar in both centres except that the patients in Pusan had, on average, less extensive lesions although in a greater proportion the disease was radiographically active. One patient (J/SPH) died with active spinal disease and three (all No J/SPH) with paraplegia. A fifth patient (IP/PH) who died from cardio respiratory failure also had pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-three patients required operation and/or additional chemotherapy for the spinal lesion. A sinus or clinically evident abscess was either present initially or developed during treatment in 41 per cent of patients. Residual lesions persisted in ten patients (four IP, two OP, one J, three No J; six SPH, four PH) at five years. Thirty-two patients had paraparesis on admission or developing later. Complete resolution occurred in twenty on the allocated regimen and in eight after operation or additional chemotherapy or both. Of the remaining four atients, all of whom had operation and additional chemotherapy, three died and one still had paraparesis at five years. Of 295 patients assessed at five years 89 per cent had a favourable status. The proportions of the patients responding favourably were similar in the IP (91 per cent) and OP (89 per cent) series, in the J (90 per cent) and No J (84 per cent) series and in the SPH (86 per cent) and PH (92 per cent) series. (+info)
Intra-articular absorption and distribution of ketoprofen after topical plaster application and oral intake in 100 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy. (7/410)OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to assess the kinetics of ketoprofen in synovial fluid and intra-articular tissues in relation to plasma. The secondary objective was to study whether intra-articular tissues act as reservoirs. METHODS: The ketoprofen concentration was analysed in plasma, synovial fluid and intra-articular tissues after single application of a 30 mg plaster (n = 40), multiple applications for 5 days (n = 30) or oral intake of 50 mg (n = 30) in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy. RESULTS: Median CMax values after topical application were 12.8 ng/ml in synovial fluid, 56.7 ng/g in synovial tissue, 349.3 ng/g in meniscus and 568.9 ng/g in cartilage. CONCLUSION: Topical applications of ketoprofen allow the attainment of high intra-articular tissue concentrations. (+info)
Atraumatic bilateral Achilles tendon rupture: an association of systemic steroid treatment. (8/410)A case of bilateral Achilles tendon rupture associated with steroid use is reported. This case illustrates the importance of taking a thorough drug history in cases of tendon rupture. In lower limb tendon rupture all patients, especially those on steroids, should be warned of the increased risk of contralateral injury. (+info)
Overbite: This occurs when the upper teeth overlap the lower teeth too much.
Underbite: This happens when the lower teeth overlap the upper teeth too much.
Crossbite: This is when the upper teeth do not align with the lower teeth, causing them to point towards the inside of the mouth.
Open bite: This occurs when the upper and lower teeth do not meet properly, resulting in a gap or an open bite.
Overjet: This is when the upper teeth protrude too far forward, overlapping the lower teeth.
Crowding: This refers to when there is not enough space in the mouth for all the teeth to fit properly, leading to overlapping or misalignment.
Spacing: This occurs when there is too much space between the teeth, which can lead to gum problems and other issues.
Each type of malocclusion can cause a range of symptoms, including difficulty chewing, jaw pain, headaches, and difficulty opening and closing the mouth fully. Treatment options for malocclusion depend on the severity of the problem and may include orthodontic braces, aligners, or surgery to correct the bite and improve oral function and aesthetics.
The exact cause of clubfoot is not known, but it is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors during fetal development. Clubfoot can occur on either foot, but it is more common in the right foot. Boys are slightly more likely to be affected than girls.
There are several types of clubfoot, including:
1. Idiopathic clubfoot: This is the most common type and has no known cause.
2. Familial clubfoot: This type runs in families and is associated with other congenital anomalies.
3. Neurological clubfoot: This type is caused by a neurological condition, such as spina bifida or cerebral palsy.
4. Traumatic clubfoot: This type is caused by injury to the foot or ankle.
Symptoms of clubfoot can include:
1. A visible deformity of the foot and ankle
2. Difficulty walking or standing
3. Pain in the foot or ankle
4. Limited range of motion in the foot or ankle
5. Skin irritation or blisters due to shoe pressure
Clubfoot can be diagnosed through a physical examination and imaging tests such as X-rays or ultrasound. Treatment options include:
1. Casting and bracing: The foot is cast or braced in a correct position to help straighten the ankle and foot.
2. Surgery: In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to realign the bones of the foot and ankle.
3. Physical therapy: To improve range of motion and strength in the foot and ankle.
4. Orthotics: Custom-made shoe inserts or braces can help support the foot and ankle.
Early treatment is important to achieve the best possible outcomes, and to prevent complications such as arthritis and limited mobility. It's important to seek medical attention if you notice any signs of clubfoot in your child. With proper treatment, most children with clubfoot can grow up to have normal, healthy feet.
The symptoms of ancylostomiasis can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but they typically include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and iron deficiency anemia. In severe cases, it can lead to life-threatening complications such as intestinal blockage or bleeding.
The diagnosis of ancylostomiasis is made by identifying the parasites in a stool sample or through blood tests that detect antigens produced by the parasites. Treatment typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs to kill the parasites, and supportive care to manage symptoms such as diarrhea and anemia. Prevention measures include improving sanitation and personal hygiene, and avoiding contact with contaminated soil or feces.
Types of Radius Fractures:
1. Stable fracture: The bone is broken but still in place.
2. Displaced fracture: The bone is broken and out of place.
3. Comminuted fracture: The bone is broken into several pieces.
4. Hairline fracture: A thin crack in the bone.
1. Pain in the arm or forearm.
2. Swelling and bruising.
3. Limited mobility or deformity of the arm.
4. Difficulty moving the arm or wrist.
1. Physical examination and medical history.
2. Imaging tests, such as X-rays or CT scans.
1. Minor fractures may be treated with immobilization in a cast or brace.
2. Displaced or comminuted fractures may require surgical intervention to realign and stabilize the bone.
3. Physical therapy may be necessary to regain strength and mobility in the arm.
2. Nerve damage.
3. Delayed healing.
4. Malunion or nonunion of the fracture, which can cause long-term complications.
1. Wear protective gear during sports and physical activities.
2. Use proper lifting techniques to avoid strain on the arm.
3. Maintain good bone density through a balanced diet and exercise.
Types of Ulna Fractures:
There are several types of ulna fractures, depending on the location and severity of the injury. These include:
1. Distal Humerus-Ulna (DHU) fracture: A break between the ulna and humerus bones near the wrist joint.
2. Mid-shaft ulna fracture: A break in the middle portion of the ulna bone.
3. Proximal ulna fracture: A break at the base of the ulna bone, nearest to the elbow joint.
4. Monteggia fracture: A combination of a proximal ulna fracture and a dislocation of the radial head (a bone in the forearm).
Symptoms of Ulna Fractures:
Patients with ulna fractures may experience pain, swelling, bruising, limited mobility and difficulty grasping objects. In some cases, there may be an audible snapping or popping sound when the injury occurs.
Diagnosis of Ulna Fractures:
Ulna fractures are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, X-rays and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. In some cases, an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) surgery may be necessary to realign and stabilize the bones.
Treatment of Ulna Fractures:
The treatment for ulna fractures depends on the severity and location of the injury. Non-surgical treatments may include immobilization with a cast or splint, pain management with medication and physical therapy to regain strength and range of motion. Surgical intervention may be necessary in more severe cases or those that do not respond to non-surgical treatment.
Complications of Ulna Fractures:
As with any fracture, there is a risk of complications with ulna fractures including infection, nerve damage, and poor healing. In some cases, the fracture may not properly align, leading to long-term functional issues such as loss of grip strength or limited mobility.
Prevention of Ulna Fractures:
While it is not possible to completely prevent ulna fractures, there are steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of injury. These include wearing protective gear during sports and physical activities, maintaining good bone density through a balanced diet and exercise, and taking steps to prevent falls such as removing tripping hazards from the home environment.
Prognosis for Ulna Fractures:
The prognosis for ulna fractures is generally good, with most patients experiencing a full recovery within 6-8 weeks. However, in some cases, complications may arise and long-term functional issues may persist. It is important to follow the treatment plan recommended by your healthcare provider and attend all scheduled follow-up appointments to ensure proper healing and minimize the risk of complications.
Ulna fractures are a common injury that can occur as a result of sports, falls, or other traumatic events. The prognosis for ulna fractures is generally good, but it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With proper treatment and follow-up care, most patients experience a full recovery within 6-8 weeks. However, in some cases, complications may arise and long-term functional issues may persist, so it is important to be aware of the risk factors and seek medical attention if any concerns or symptoms arise.
A tooth that has died due to injury, disease, or other factors and cannot be saved or repaired. A nonvital tooth may require extraction. Also called dead tooth.
The term "nonvital" is used in the medical field to describe something that is not functioning properly or is no longer alive. In the context of dentistry, a nonvital tooth is one that has died and cannot be saved or repaired. This can happen due to injury, disease, or other factors. Nonvital teeth are typically extracted to prevent further infection or complications. The term "dead tooth" is sometimes used interchangeably with "nonvital tooth."
Types of Forearm Injuries:
1. Fractures: Breakage of one or more bones in the forearm is a common injury. The most common fracture is a radial head fracture, which affects the upper end of the radius bone.
2. Sprains and strains: Overstretching or tearing of ligaments and muscles in the forearm can occur due to sudden twisting or bending movements.
3. Tendon injuries: Injuries to tendons, which connect muscles to bones, are common in the forearm. Tendinitis is inflammation of a tendon, while tendon rupture is a more severe injury.
4. Nerve injuries: Compression or damage to nerves in the forearm can cause numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.
5. Contusions: Bruises caused by direct blows to the forearm can result in pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
Symptoms of Forearm Injuries:
1. Pain: Sudden, sharp pain or a dull ache in the forearm, wrist, or hand may indicate an injury.
2. Swelling and bruising: Inflammation and discoloration in the affected area can occur due to bleeding under the skin.
3. Limited mobility: Difficulty moving the wrist, hand, or fingers can be a sign of a forearm injury.
4. Numbness or tingling: Decreased sensation in the hand or fingers may indicate nerve damage.
5. Deformity: Visible deviations from the normal shape of the forearm or wrist may indicate a more severe injury.
Treatment for Forearm Injuries:
1. Rest and ice: Allowing the affected area to rest and applying ice can reduce pain and inflammation.
2. Compression: Wrapping the forearm with an elastic bandage can help reduce swelling.
3. Elevation: Keeping the affected arm above heart level can promote blood flow and reduce swelling.
4. Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, can alleviate discomfort.
5. Physical therapy: Gentle exercises and stretches can help improve mobility and strength in the affected hand and wrist.
6. Immobilization: In some cases, a cast or splint may be used to immobilize the forearm and allow healing.
7. Surgery: In severe cases of nerve damage or tendon rupture, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair the damaged tissue.
Also known as: Class II malocclusion, overbite.
* Overlapping of the upper teeth over the lower teeth
* Limited opening of the mouth
* Difficulty chewing or biting food
* Tooth wear on the upper teeth
* Gum disease
* Jaw pain
* Genetics (inheritance)
* Poor oral hygiene
* Thumb sucking or pacifier use beyond age 3
* Premature loss of baby teeth
* Tongue thrust
* Large overbite in primary dentition
* Incorrect swallowing pattern
* Orthodontic treatment (braces, aligners) to move teeth into proper position
* Jaw surgery (if necessary)
* Dental restorations (fillings, crowns) to repair damaged teeth
* Oral hygiene instructions to prevent gum disease
* Dietary changes to avoid chewing on hard objects
Note: This is a general definition and the specifics may vary depending on the source. It's important to consult with a medical professional for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.
There are many different types of ankle injuries, ranging from mild sprains and strains to more severe fractures and dislocations. Some common causes of ankle injuries include:
* Rolling or twisting the ankle
* Landing awkwardly on the foot
* Direct blows to the ankle
* Overuse or repetitive motion
Symptoms of an ankle injury can vary depending on the severity of the injury, but may include:
* Pain and tenderness in the ankle area
* Swelling and bruising
* Difficulty moving the ankle or putting weight on it
* Instability or a feeling of the ankle giving way
* Limited range of motion
Ankle injuries can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or MRIs, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment for ankle injuries may include:
* Rest and ice to reduce swelling and pain
* Compression bandages to help stabilize the ankle
* Elevation of the injured ankle to reduce swelling
* Physical therapy exercises to strengthen the muscles around the ankle and improve range of motion
* Bracing or taping to provide support and stability
* In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged ligaments or bones.
It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated ankle injuries can lead to chronic pain, instability, and limited mobility. With proper treatment and care, however, many people are able to recover from ankle injuries and return to their normal activities without long-term complications.
There are several types of tooth fractures, including:
1. Vertical fractures: These occur when the tooth breaks vertically and can affect one or more layers of the tooth.
2. Horizontal fractures: These occur when the tooth breaks horizontally and can affect the enamel, dentin, or cementum layers.
3. Oblique fractures: These occur when the tooth breaks at an angle and can affect multiple layers of the tooth.
4. Root fractures: These occur when the root of the tooth becomes cracked or broken.
5. Crown-root fractures: These occur when the crown (the visible part of the tooth) and the root become separated.
Tooth fractures can cause symptoms such as pain, sensitivity to temperature or sweetness, difficulty chewing or biting, and discomfort when speaking or opening the mouth. Treatment options for tooth fractures depend on the severity of the injury and may include dental fillings, crowns, root canals, or extraction.
It is important to seek professional dental care as soon as possible if you suspect that you have a tooth fracture, as early treatment can help prevent further damage and restore the tooth to its normal function and appearance.
1. The patient was diagnosed with a Class I malocclusion, which was causing discomfort and difficulty chewing.
2. The dentist recommended braces to correct the Class I malocclusion and improve the alignment of the teeth.
3. TheClass I malocclusion was treated with a combination of orthodontic therapy and minor oral surgery to achieve optimal results.
The symptoms of Colles' fracture can include pain and swelling in the wrist and forearm, as well as limited mobility and deformity of the affected hand. Treatment typically involves immobilization of the wrist in a cast or splint for several weeks to allow the bone to heal properly. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to realign and stabilize the bones.
Colles' fracture is classified into three types based on the extent of displacement and the presence of other injuries:
* Type 1: Non-displaced fracture with minimal displacement (less than 2 mm).
* Type 2: Displaced fracture with moderate displacement (greater than 2 mm but less than 50%).
* Type 3: Comminuted fracture with severe displacement (greater than 50%).
Overall, Colles' fracture is a relatively common and treatable injury that can be successfully managed with appropriate immobilization and/or surgical intervention. However, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time to prevent complications such as infection, nerve damage, or long-term disability.
There are several potential causes of muscle hypertonia, including:
1. Neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, or multiple sclerosis
2. Musculoskeletal injuries or inflammation
3. Infections such as Lyme disease or viral infections
4. Metabolic disorders such as hypokalemia (low potassium levels) or hyperthyroidism
5. Adverse reactions to certain medications
6. Emotional stress or anxiety
Symptoms of muscle hypertonia can vary depending on the severity and location of the condition, but may include:
1. Stiffness and rigidity of the affected muscles
2. Pain or tenderness in the muscles
3. Limited range of motion in the affected joints
4. Fatigue or weakness in the affected limbs
5. Difficulty with movement and balance
6. Muscle spasms or cramping
Treatment for muscle hypertonia typically involves a combination of physical therapy, medication, and lifestyle modifications. Physical therapy may include stretching and strengthening exercises to improve range of motion and reduce stiffness, as well as techniques such as heat or cold therapy to relax the muscles. Medications such as muscle relaxants or anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed to reduce muscle spasms and inflammation. Lifestyle modifications such as regular exercise, proper nutrition, and stress management techniques can also help to reduce symptoms of muscle hypertonia. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to release or lengthen the affected muscles.
In this answer, we will explore the definition of 'Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute' in more detail, including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options.
What is Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute?
Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute (ATN) is a condition that affects the tubules of the kidneys, leading to inflammation and damage. The condition is often caused by various factors such as sepsis, shock, toxins, or medications.
The term "acute" refers to the sudden and severe nature of the condition, which can progress rapidly within hours or days. The condition can be life-threatening if left untreated, and it is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Causes of Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute
There are various factors that can cause Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute, including:
### 1. Sepsis
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to an infection, which can lead to damage to the tubules of the kidneys.
### 2. Shock
Shock can cause a decrease in blood flow to the kidneys, leading to damage and inflammation.
### 3. Toxins
Exposure to certain toxins, such as heavy metals or certain medications, can damage the tubules of the kidneys.
### 4. Medications
Certain medications, such as antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can cause damage to the tubules of the kidneys.
### 5. Infection
Infections such as pyelonephritis or perinephric abscess can spread to the kidneys and cause inflammation and damage to the tubules.
### 6. Radiation necrosis
Radiation therapy can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to inflammation and scarring.
### 7. Kidney transplant rejection
Rejection of a kidney transplant can lead to inflammation and damage to the tubules of the transplanted kidney.
Symptoms of Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute
The symptoms of acute tubular necrosis can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the underlying cause. Some common symptoms include:
### 1. Fatigue
Fatigue is a common symptom of acute tubular necrosis, as the condition can lead to a decrease in the kidneys' ability to filter waste products from the blood.
### 2. Nausea and vomiting
Nausea and vomiting can occur due to electrolyte imbalances and changes in fluid levels in the body.
### 3. Decreased urine output
Acute tubular necrosis can cause a decrease in urine production, as the damaged tubules are unable to filter waste products from the blood effectively.
### 4. Swelling (edema)
Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet can occur due to fluid buildup in the body.
### 5. Abdominal pain
Abdominal pain can be a symptom of acute tubular necrosis, as the condition can cause inflammation and scarring in the kidneys.
### 6. Fever
Fever can occur due to infection or inflammation in the kidneys.
### 7. Blood in urine (hematuria)
Hematuria, or blood in the urine, can be a symptom of acute tubular necrosis, as the damaged tubules can leak blood into the urine.
## Causes and risk factors
The exact cause of acute tubular necrosis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be due to damage to the kidney tubules, which can occur for a variety of reasons. Some possible causes and risk factors include:
1. Sepsis: Bacterial infections can spread to the kidneys and cause inflammation and damage to the tubules.
2. Toxins: Exposure to certain toxins, such as heavy metals or certain medications, can damage the kidney tubules.
3. Medications: Certain medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antibiotics, can cause kidney damage and increase the risk of acute tubular necrosis.
4. Hypotension: Low blood pressure can reduce blood flow to the kidneys and increase the risk of acute tubular necrosis.
5. Shock: Severe shock can lead to damage to the kidney tubules.
6. Burns: Severe burns can cause damage to the kidneys and increase the risk of acute tubular necrosis.
7. Trauma: Traumatic injuries, such as those caused by car accidents or falls, can damage the kidneys and increase the risk of acute tubular necrosis.
8. Surgery: Major surgery can cause damage to the kidneys and increase the risk of acute tubular necrosis.
9. Kidney disease: People with pre-existing kidney disease are at increased risk of developing acute tubular necrosis.
10. Chronic conditions: Certain chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure, can increase the risk of developing acute tubular necrosis.
It is important to note that acute tubular necrosis can occur in people with no underlying medical conditions or risk factors, and it is often a diagnosis of exclusion, meaning that other potential causes of the person's symptoms must be ruled out before the diagnosis can be made.
Open fracture: The bone breaks through the skin, exposing the bone to the outside environment.
Closed fracture: The bone breaks, but does not penetrate the skin.
Comminuted fracture: The bone is broken into many pieces.
Hairline fracture: A thin crack in the bone that does not fully break it.
Non-displaced fracture: The bone is broken, but remains in its normal position.
Displaced fracture: The bone is broken and out of its normal position.
Stress fracture: A small crack in the bone caused by repetitive stress or overuse.
Some common types of bronchial diseases include:
1. Asthma: a chronic condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the bronchial tubes, which can cause wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a progressive condition that causes inflammation and damage to the lungs, leading to chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
3. Bronchitis: an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which can be acute or chronic.
4. Cystic fibrosis: a genetic disorder that affects the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems, and can cause bronchial disease.
5. Bronchiolitis: an inflammation of the small airways, or bronchioles, which can be caused by viral infections.
6. Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause inflammation and narrowing of the bronchial tubes.
7. Tuberculosis: a bacterial infection that can affect the bronchial tubes and cause scarring and inflammation.
8. Bronchiectasis: a condition where the bronchial tubes are damaged and widened, leading to chronic infections and inflammation.
These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental exposures, and infections. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or pulmonary function tests. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and may include medications, respiratory therapy, and lifestyle changes.
There are different types of contractures, including:
1. Scar contracture: This type of contracture occurs when a scar tissue forms and tightens, causing a loss of movement in the affected area.
2. Neurogenic contracture: This type of contracture is caused by nerve damage and can occur after an injury or surgery.
3. Post-burn contracture: This type of contracture occurs after a burn injury and is caused by scarring and tightening of the skin and underlying tissues.
4. Congenital contracture: This type of contracture is present at birth and can be caused by genetic or environmental factors.
Signs and symptoms of contractures may include:
1. Limited range of motion
2. Pain or stiffness in the affected area
3. Skin tightening or shrinkage
4. Deformity of the affected area
Treatment options for contractures depend on the severity and cause of the condition, and may include:
1. Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength
2. Bracing to support the affected area and prevent further tightening
3. Surgery to release or lengthen the scar tissue or tendons
4. Injections of botulinum toxin or other medications to relax the muscle and improve range of motion.
Examples of 'Fractures, Closed' in a sentence:
* The patient suffered a closed fracture of his wrist after falling from a bike.
* The doctor diagnosed a closed fracture of the ankle and prescribed rest and physical therapy for recovery.
* The athlete was unable to continue playing due to a closed fracture of the collarbone.
The symptoms of a femoral fracture may include:
* Severe pain in the thigh or groin area
* Swelling and bruising around the affected area
* Difficulty moving or straightening the leg
* A visible deformity or bone protrusion
Femoral fractures are typically diagnosed through X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs. Treatment for these types of fractures may involve immobilization with a cast or brace, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or in some cases, surgical plate and screws or rods may be used to hold the bone in place as it heals.
In addition to surgical intervention, patients may also require physical therapy to regain strength and mobility in the affected leg after a femoral fracture.
Tibial fractures can range in severity from minor cracks or hairline breaks to more severe breaks that extend into the bone's shaft or even the joint. Treatment for these injuries often involves immobilization of the affected leg with a cast, brace, or walking boot, as well as pain management with medication and physical therapy. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to realign and stabilize the bone fragments.
Types of Kidney Diseases:
1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): A sudden and reversible loss of kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, infection, or medication.
2. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A gradual and irreversible loss of kidney function that can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
3. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): A severe and irreversible form of CKD that requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
4. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste products.
5. Interstitial Nephritis: An inflammation of the tissue between the tubules and blood vessels in the kidneys.
6. Kidney Stone Disease: A condition where small, hard mineral deposits form in the kidneys and can cause pain, bleeding, and other complications.
7. Pyelonephritis: An infection of the kidneys that can cause inflammation, damage to the tissues, and scarring.
8. Renal Cell Carcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the cells of the kidney.
9. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS): A condition where the immune system attacks the platelets and red blood cells, leading to anemia, low platelet count, and damage to the kidneys.
Symptoms of Kidney Diseases:
1. Blood in urine or hematuria
2. Proteinuria (excess protein in urine)
3. Reduced kidney function or renal insufficiency
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet (edema)
5. Fatigue and weakness
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
8. Frequent urination or polyuria
9. Increased thirst and drinking (polydipsia)
10. Weight loss
Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases:
1. Physical examination
2. Medical history
3. Urinalysis (test of urine)
4. Blood tests (e.g., creatinine, urea, electrolytes)
5. Imaging studies (e.g., X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound)
6. Kidney biopsy
7. Other specialized tests (e.g., 24-hour urinary protein collection, kidney function tests)
Treatment of Kidney Diseases:
1. Medications (e.g., diuretics, blood pressure medication, antibiotics)
2. Diet and lifestyle changes (e.g., low salt intake, increased water intake, physical activity)
3. Dialysis (filtering waste products from the blood when the kidneys are not functioning properly)
4. Kidney transplantation ( replacing a diseased kidney with a healthy one)
5. Other specialized treatments (e.g., plasmapheresis, hemodialysis)
Prevention of Kidney Diseases:
1. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Monitoring blood pressure and blood sugar levels
3. Avoiding harmful substances (e.g., tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption)
4. Managing underlying medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, high blood pressure)
5. Getting regular check-ups and screenings
Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases can help prevent or slow the progression of the disease, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of kidney diseases and seek medical attention if they are present.
Types of Wrist Injuries:
1. Sprains and Strains: These are common wrist injuries that occur when the ligaments or muscles are stretched or torn due to sudden movements or overuse.
2. Fractures: A fracture is a break in one or more of the bones in the wrist, which can be caused by a fall onto an outstretched hand or by a direct blow to the wrist.
3. Tendinitis: This is inflammation of the tendons, which connect muscles to bones. Wrist tendinitis can occur due to repetitive movements such as typing or gripping.
4. Carpal tunnel syndrome: This is a condition where the median nerve, which runs down the arm and into the hand through a narrow passageway in the wrist, becomes compressed or pinched. It can cause pain, numbness, and tingling in the hand and wrist.
5. Wrist fracture-dislocations: This is a type of injury where a bone in the wrist is broken and displaced from its normal position.
6. Ganglion cysts: These are non-cancerous lumps that can develop on the top of the wrist, usually due to repetitive movement or inflammation.
7. De Quervain's tenosynovitis: This is a condition that affects the tendons on the thumb side of the wrist, causing pain and stiffness in the wrist and thumb.
Symptoms of Wrist Injuries:
4. Limited mobility or stiffness
5. Difficulty gripping or grasping objects
6. Numbness or tingling in the hand or fingers
7. Weakness in the wrist or hand
Treatment of Wrist Injuries:
The treatment for wrist injuries depends on the severity of the injury and can range from conservative methods such as rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to surgical intervention. Some common treatments include:
1. Immobilization: A cast or splint may be used to immobilize the wrist and allow it to heal.
2. Physical therapy: Gentle exercises and stretches can help improve mobility and strength in the wrist.
3. Medications: Pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, or steroid injections may be prescribed to manage pain and inflammation.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissue or realign bones.
5. Rest: Avoid activities that aggravate the injury and give your wrist time to heal.
6. Ice: Apply ice to the affected area to reduce pain and inflammation.
7. Compression: Use a compression bandage to help reduce swelling.
8. Elevation: Keep your hand elevated above the level of your heart to reduce swelling.
It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms:
* Severe pain that doesn't improve with medication
* Swelling or bruising that gets worse over time
* Difficulty moving your wrist or fingers
* Deformity or abnormal alignment of the wrist
* Numbness or tingling in your hand or fingers
* Weakness or difficulty gripping objects
If you suspect that you have a wrist injury, it's important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can evaluate your symptoms and provide an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.
An open bite can lead to a range of dental problems, including:
* Tooth wear: The excessive wear on the upper and lower teeth can cause them to become weakened and sensitive.
* Gum recession: The continuous pressure on the gums can cause them to recede, exposing the roots of the teeth and increasing the risk of decay and sensitivity.
* Bone loss: The chronic open bite can lead to bone loss in the jaw, which can eventually result in a weakened jaw structure and an altered facial appearance.
* Difficulty chewing and biting food: An open bite can make it challenging to eat certain foods, leading to digestive problems and nutritional deficiencies.
* Aesthetic concerns: An open bite can also affect the appearance of the teeth and face, potentially leading to low self-esteem and confidence issues.
Treatment for an open bite usually involves a combination of orthodontic and restorative dental procedures, such as braces, Invisalign, or dental fillings to correct the alignment of the teeth and close the gap. Surgical options may also be considered in severe cases where the jaw structure needs to be realigned.
It is essential to seek professional dental care if you suspect that you have an open bite, as early treatment can help prevent more significant problems from developing and improve your overall oral health and well-being.
This condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, or surgery. Treatment options for Equinus Deformity include physical therapy, bracing, and in some cases, surgery. The goal of treatment is to improve the range of motion in the foot and ankle, allowing the individual to walk and stand more comfortably.
In conclusion, Equinus Deformity is a condition that affects the foot and ankle, causing difficulty walking or standing due to limited range of motion. Treatment options are available, including physical therapy and surgery, to improve the condition and allow for greater mobility.
1. Tooth size discrepancy: When one tooth is larger than the others, it can cause a gap to form between them.
2. Missing teeth: If a tooth is missing, it can create a space between the adjacent teeth.
3. Poor dental hygiene: Inadequate brushing and flossing can lead to a buildup of plaque and tartar, which can cause teeth to shift and form gaps.
4. Genetics: Some people may be more prone to developing diastema due to their genetic makeup.
5. Thumb-sucking or pacifier use: Prolonged thumb-sucking or use of a pacifier can push the front teeth forward and create a gap.
6. Tongue thrust: A condition where the tongue presses against the teeth, causing them to shift and form gaps.
7. Orthodontic treatment: In some cases, diastema may be intentionally created during orthodontic treatment to help straighten teeth.
8. Gum disease: Advanced gum disease can cause teeth to pull away from each other, creating a gap.
9. Bone loss: Loss of bone in the jaw can cause teeth to shift and form gaps.
10. Facial trauma: A blow to the face or jaw can cause teeth to become displaced and form gaps.
Diastema can be treated with a variety of methods, including orthodontic braces, crowns, veneers, and dental bonding. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct the underlying issue causing the diastema.
A condition where one or more teeth are missing from the jawbone, resulting in a partial dental defect. This can cause difficulties with chewing, speaking, and other oral functions. Treatment options may include dentures, implants, or bridges to restore the natural function and appearance of the mouth.
The definition of AKI has evolved over time, and it is now defined as a syndrome characterized by an abrupt or rapid decrease in kidney function, with or without oliguria (decreased urine production), and with evidence of tubular injury. The RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease) criteria are commonly used to diagnose and stage AKI based on serum creatinine levels, urine output, and other markers of kidney damage.
There are three stages of AKI, with stage 1 representing mild injury and stage 3 representing severe and potentially life-threatening injury. Treatment of AKI typically involves addressing the underlying cause, correcting fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and providing supportive care to maintain blood pressure and oxygenation. In some cases, dialysis may be necessary to remove waste products from the blood.
Early detection and treatment of AKI are crucial to prevent long-term damage to the kidneys and improve outcomes for patients.
Irritant dermatitis is characterized by redness, itching, and swelling of the affected area, and may be accompanied by blisters or oozing. Unlike allergic contact dermatitis, which is caused by an immune response to a specific allergen, irritant dermatitis is caused by direct damage to the skin cells.
Examples of substances that can cause irritant dermatitis include chemicals, cleaning products, detergents, fragrances, and certain metals. Prolonged exposure to these substances or repeated contact with them can lead to the development of chronic inflammation and scarring.
Treatment for irritant dermatitis typically involves avoiding the offending substance and using topical medications such as corticosteroids or antibiotics to reduce inflammation and promote healing. In severe cases, oral medications or injectable medications may be necessary. It is important to identify and remove the source of the irritant to prevent further damage and promote healing.
Chronobiology disorders can result when the body's natural circadian rhythm is disrupted or altered, leading to problems with sleep timing, duration, and quality, as well as other physiological and behavioral issues. Examples of chronobiology disorders include:
1. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: These are conditions that affect the body's natural sleep-wake cycle, such as delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) and advanced sleep phase disorder (ASPD).
2. Jet lag: This occurs when traveling across time zones, causing a mismatch between the body's internal clock and the local environment.
3. Shift work sleep disorder: This affects people who work outside of traditional daytime hours and experience difficulty adjusting to irregular sleep schedules.
4. Irregular sleep-wake patterns: This can be caused by factors such as working night shifts, rotating shifts, or having an irregular sleep schedule.
5. Sleep apnea: A sleep disorder in which a person's breathing is interrupted during sleep, often causing them to wake up frequently throughout the night.
6. Insomnia: Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, often caused by stress, anxiety, or other factors that disrupt the body's natural sleep-wake cycle.
7. Depression: A mood disorder that can affect the body's circadian rhythm, leading to changes in sleep patterns and other physiological functions.
8. Bipolar disorder: A mood disorder that can cause changes in sleep patterns, energy levels, and other physiological functions.
9. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD): A type of depression that occurs during the winter months when there is less sunlight.
10. Hypersomnia: Excessive sleepiness or prolonged periods of sleep, often caused by factors such as medication side effects, sleep disorders, or other medical conditions.
It's important to note that these are just a few examples of the many potential causes of irregular sleep patterns, and there may be other underlying factors that contribute to this symptom. If you are experiencing persistent changes in your sleep patterns, it is important to speak with a healthcare professional to determine the cause and find appropriate treatment.
There are several types of biliary tract diseases, including:
1. Gallstones: Small, pebble-like deposits that form in the gallbladder and can cause pain and blockages.
2. Cholangitis: An infection of the bile ducts that can cause fever, chills, and abdominal pain.
3. Biliary cirrhosis: Scarring of the liver and bile ducts that can lead to liver failure.
4. Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas that can cause abdominal pain and digestive problems.
5. Cancer of the biliary tract: Cancer that affects the liver, gallbladder, or bile ducts.
Biliary tract diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, obesity, alcohol consumption, and certain medications. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans and endoscopic ultrasound, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests and liver function tests.
Treatment for biliary tract diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, treatment may involve medications to dissolve gallstones or treat infections. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the gallbladder or repair damaged bile ducts.
Prevention is key in avoiding biliary tract diseases, and this includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, managing risk factors such as obesity and alcohol consumption, and getting regular medical check-ups. Early detection and treatment of biliary tract diseases can help to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.
Examples of acquired foot deformities include:
1. Arthritis-related deformities: Arthritis can cause degenerative changes in the joints of the foot, leading to deformity and pain.
2. Bunion deformities: Bunions are bony growths that form on the side of the big toe joint, causing pain and discomfort.
3. Hammertoe deformities: Hammertoes are abnormal curvatures of the toe joints, which can cause pain and stiffness.
4. Clubfoot: Clubfoot is a congenital deformity in which the foot is twisted inward and downward, causing difficulty walking or standing.
5. Charcot foot: Charcot foot is a degenerative condition that affects the bones of the foot and ankle, leading to deformity and pain.
6. Plantar fasciitis: Plantar fasciitis is inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot, causing heel pain and stiffness.
7. Achilles tendinitis: Achilles tendinitis is inflammation of the Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscle to the heel bone, causing pain and stiffness in the ankle and foot.
8. Sesamoiditis: Sesamoiditis is inflammation of the sesamoid bones, small bones located under the first metatarsal bone, causing pain and swelling under the big toe.
9. Gout: Gout is a type of arthritis that causes sudden and severe pain in the foot, particularly in the big toe.
10. Pneumaticulitis: Pneumaticulitis is inflammation of the small air sacs (pneumatocysts) in the bones of the foot, causing pain and swelling.
These are just a few of the many conditions that can cause foot pain. If you are experiencing persistent or severe foot pain, it is important to see a doctor for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Acute bronchitis is a short-term infection that is usually caused by a virus or bacteria, and can be treated with antibiotics and supportive care such as rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relievers. Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that is often associated with smoking and can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Bronchitis can cause a range of symptoms including:
* Persistent cough, which may be dry or produce mucus
* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Fatigue and fever
* Headache and body aches
The diagnosis of bronchitis is usually made based on a physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays and pulmonary function tests. Treatment for bronchitis typically focuses on relieving symptoms and managing the underlying cause, such as a bacterial infection or smoking cessation.
Bronchitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Viral infections, such as the common cold or flu
* Bacterial infections, such as pneumonia
* Smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants
* Asthma and other allergic conditions
* Chronic lung diseases, such as COPD
Preventive measures for bronchitis include:
* Quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to secondhand smoke
* Getting vaccinated against flu and pneumonia
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently
* Avoiding exposure to environmental pollutants
* Managing underlying conditions such as asthma and allergies.
Note: A malunited fracture is sometimes also referred to as a "nonunion fracture" or "fracture nonunion".
In this definition, we have used the following medical terms:
* Anodontia: This term refers to the absence of teeth. It is derived from the Greek words 'ano' meaning without, and 'dont' meaning tooth.
* Genetic: This term refers to something that is inherited or passed down through genes.
* Environmental: This term refers to factors that are external to the body, such as exposure to radiation or certain drugs during pregnancy.
Overall, anodontia is a rare condition that can be caused by a variety of factors, and it can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life.
Overbite can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, poor oral hygiene, and certain habits such as thumb-sucking or tongue-thrusting. Treatment for an overbite may involve orthodontic braces or other appliances to move the teeth into a more proper position, as well as changes to diet and oral hygiene habits.
In extreme cases, an overbite can lead to more serious problems such as gum disease, tooth wear, and jaw pain. Therefore, it is important to address any issues with an overbite as soon as possible to prevent these complications from developing.
Etymology: [O.E. mund, mouth + L. dentatus, toothed.]
Synonyms: Toothless mouth.
Source: Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, 1913
In layman's terms, this definition is saying that a mouth, edentulous refers to a mouth without teeth. This can be due to various reasons such as tooth loss due to decay, injury, or other factors. The term is used in the medical field, specifically in dentistry, to describe a patient who requires dentures or other prosthetic devices to replace missing teeth.
In conclusion, mouth, edentulous is a medical term used to describe a toothless mouth, and it is commonly used in dentistry to identify patients who require dentures or other prosthetic devices to restore their dental health.
Some common types of neurogenic arthropathy include:
1. Charcot joint: A condition characterized by progressive destruction of the joint and deformity due to nerve damage, often seen in people with diabetes or peripheral neuropathy.
2. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS): A chronic pain condition that typically affects one limb after an injury or trauma, causing discoloration, swelling, and stiffness in the affected area.
3. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD): A chronic pain condition that develops after an injury or trauma, characterized by swelling, stiffness, and pain in the affected limb.
4. Post-polio syndrome: A condition that affects people who had polio as children, causing muscle weakness, joint pain, and limited mobility.
The symptoms of neurogenic arthropathy can vary depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the nerve damage. Common symptoms include:
1. Pain: Joint pain is a primary symptom of neurogenic arthropathy, which can range from mild to severe and may be exacerbated by movement or activity.
2. Stiffness: The affected joints may become stiff and lose their normal range of motion, making it difficult to perform daily activities.
3. Swelling: Joint swelling is common in neurogenic arthropathy, especially in the early stages of the condition.
4. Limited mobility: As the condition progresses, people with neurogenic arthropathy may experience limited mobility in the affected joints, making it difficult to perform daily activities.
5. Muscle weakness: Weakness in the muscles surrounding the affected joint can contribute to joint instability and pain.
Treatment for neurogenic arthropathy depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Common treatments include:
1. Medications: Pain relievers, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or opioids, can help manage joint pain and inflammation. Muscle relaxants may also be prescribed to reduce muscle spasms and stiffness.
2. Physical therapy: A physical therapist can work with individuals to develop an exercise program that helps maintain joint mobility and strength.
3. Orthotics or assistive devices: In some cases, orthotics or assistive devices such as canes, walkers, or wheelchairs may be necessary to help improve mobility and support the affected joints.
4. Surgery: In severe cases of neurogenic arthropathy, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged tissue or realign bones and joints.
5. Alternative therapies: Some people with neurogenic arthropathy may find relief from alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage.
It's important to note that each individual's treatment plan will be unique and may involve a combination of these options. It's best to work closely with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate course of treatment for each person.
The presence of blood in urine is typically detected during a urinalysis, which is a routine test performed during a physical examination or when a patient is admitted to the hospital. The amount and color of blood can vary depending on the cause of hematuria, ranging from microscopic (not visible to the naked eye) to gross (visible).
Hematuria can be classified into two main types:
1. Gross hematuria: This type of hematuria is characterized by visible blood in urine, which can range from pink to bright red. It is usually caused by trauma, kidney stones, or tumors.
2. Microscopic hematuria: This type of hematuria is characterized by the presence of red blood cells in urine that are not visible to the naked eye. It can be caused by various factors, including infections, inflammation, and kidney damage.
Hematuria can be a sign of an underlying medical condition, and it is important to consult a healthcare professional if blood is present in urine. A proper diagnosis is essential to determine the cause of hematuria and provide appropriate treatment.
The symptoms of the common cold can vary depending on the individual and the virus that is causing the infection. Some of the most typical symptoms include:
Fever (less than 102°F)
Runny or stuffy nose
The common cold is usually diagnosed based on symptoms and medical history. There is no cure for the common cold, but over-the-counter medications can help alleviate some of the symptoms. Antiviral medications are not effective against the common cold because it is caused by a virus, not bacteria.
Preventive measures for the common cold include:
Washing your hands frequently
Avoiding close contact with people who have colds
Not touching your eyes, nose, or mouth
Getting enough sleep
Eating a healthy diet
There are many myths and misconceptions about the common cold that can lead to confusion and inappropriate treatment. Some of these include:
Chicken soup is not an effective treatment for colds.
Antibiotics do not work against viral infections such as the common cold.
Over-the-counter medications such as decongestants and antihistamines can have side effects and are not always effective.
Drinking plenty of fluids does help to thin out mucus and keep your body hydrated, but it will not cure a cold.
The common cold is usually a self-limiting illness that resolves on its own within one week. However, people with weakened immune systems or other underlying health conditions may experience more severe symptoms or complications such as bronchitis, pneumonia, or sinusitis. In these cases, medical attention may be necessary.
1. Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis): A fungal infection that causes itching, burning, and cracking on the soles of the feet and between the toes.
2. Bunions: Bony growths on the side or base of the big toe, causing pain, redness, and swelling.
3. Corns and Calluses: Thickened areas of skin on the feet, often caused by poorly fitting shoes or repeated friction.
4. Plantar Fasciitis: Inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot, causing heel pain and stiffness.
5. Gout: A type of arthritis that causes sudden, severe pain in the feet and ankles, often accompanied by swelling and redness.
6. Hammertoes: Deformed toe joints, caused by poorly fitting shoes or muscle imbalance, leading to pain, corns, and calluses.
7. Ingrown toenails: Nails that grow into the skin, causing pain, redness, and swelling.
8. Osteoarthritis: Wear and tear on the joints of the feet, leading to pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
9. Peripheral Neuropathy: Damage to the nerves in the feet, causing numbness, tingling, and pain.
10. Ulcers: Open sores on the skin of the feet, often caused by diabetes, poor circulation, or injury.
Foot diseases can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to determine the cause of the condition. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease, but may include medications, footwear modifications, orthotics, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.
Symptoms of monkeypox typically begin within 7-14 days of exposure to the virus and may include:
* Muscle aches
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Rash, which may be accompanied by pus-filled blisters
In severe cases, monkeypox can lead to complications such as respiratory failure, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and death.
Monkeypox is typically diagnosed based on symptoms and laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). There is no specific treatment for monkeypox, but symptoms can be managed with antiviral medications, antibiotics, and supportive care. Vaccination against smallpox has been shown to provide some protection against monkeypox, and public health authorities may recommend vaccination for individuals who have been exposed to the virus.
Prevention of monkeypox primarily involves avoiding contact with infected animals or humans, as well as following good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing. In areas where monkeypox is common, it is important to avoid eating bushmeat (wild animals) and to cook all meat thoroughly before consumption.
Overall, while monkeypox is a rare and potentially serious disease, early diagnosis and proper treatment can significantly improve outcomes for infected individuals.
A sprain is a stretch or tear of a ligament, which is a fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones and provides stability to joints. Sprains often occur when the joint is subjected to excessive stress or movement, such as during a fall or sudden twisting motion. The most common sprains are those that affect the wrist, knee, and ankle joints.
A strain, on the other hand, is a stretch or tear of a muscle or a tendon, which is a fibrous cord that connects muscles to bones. Strains can occur due to overuse, sudden movement, or injury. The most common strains are those that affect the hamstring, calf, and back muscles.
The main difference between sprains and strains is the location of the injury. Sprains affect the ligaments, while strains affect the muscles or tendons. Additionally, sprains often cause joint instability and swelling, while strains may cause pain, bruising, and limited mobility.
Treatment for sprains and strains is similar and may include rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to reduce inflammation and relieve pain. Physical therapy exercises may also be recommended to improve strength and range of motion. In severe cases, surgery may be required to repair the damaged tissue.
Prevention is key in avoiding sprains and strains. This can be achieved by maintaining proper posture, warming up before physical activity, wearing appropriate protective gear during sports, and gradually increasing exercise intensity and duration. Proper training and technique can also help reduce the risk of injury.
Overall, while sprains and strains share some similarities, they are distinct injuries that require different approaches to treatment and prevention. Understanding the differences between these two conditions is essential for proper diagnosis, treatment, and recovery.
Rhabdomyolysis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Physical trauma or injury to the muscles
2. Overuse or strain of muscles
3. Poor physical conditioning or training
4. Infections such as viral or bacterial infections that affect the muscles
5. Certain medications or drugs, such as statins and antibiotics
6. Alcohol or drug poisoning
7. Heat stroke or other forms of extreme heat exposure
8. Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
9. Genetic disorders that affect muscle function.
Symptoms of rhabdomyolysis can include:
1. Muscle weakness or paralysis
2. Muscle pain or cramping
3. Confusion or disorientation
4. Dark urine or decreased urine output
5. Fever, nausea, and vomiting
6. Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
7. Abnormal heart rhythms or cardiac arrest.
If you suspect that someone has rhabdomyolysis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and electrolyte replacement, as well as addressing any underlying causes of the condition. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications such as kidney failure or cardiac problems.
Example Sentence: "The patient was diagnosed with retrognathia and required orthodontic treatment to correct the issue."
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
Also known as nonunion or malunion.
Note: This term is not intended to be used as a substitute for proper medical advice. Do you have a specific question about your condition? Please ask your healthcare provider for more information.
Types of Urinary Calculi:
1. Calcium oxalate stones: These are the most common type of kidney stone and are often caused by excess calcium and oxalate in the urine.
2. Uric acid stones: These stones are often associated with gout or a diet high in meat and seafood.
3. Cystine stones: These stones are rare and usually occur in people with a genetic disorder that affects the transport of cystine in the kidneys.
4. Struvite stones: These stones are often associated with urinary tract infections.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Dehydration: Not drinking enough water can cause a decrease in urine production, which can increase the concentration of minerals in the urine and increase the risk of stone formation.
2. Diet: A diet high in animal protein, sodium, and sugar can increase the risk of stone formation.
3. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as gout, kidney disease, and inflammatory bowel disease can increase the risk of developing urinary calculi.
4. Genetics: A family history of kidney stones can increase an individual's risk.
5. Other factors: Other factors that can increase the risk of developing urinary calculi include a high body mass index (BMI), a sedentary lifestyle, and certain medications such as certain antibiotics and diuretics.
1. Severe pain in the side or back, below the ribs
2. Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen or groin
3. Nausea and vomiting
4. Blood in the urine (hematuria)
5. Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
6. Frequent urination or a burning sensation during urination
1. Medical history and physical examination
2. Urinalysis to check for blood, protein, and white blood cells in the urine
3. Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or ultrasound to confirm the presence of calculi
4. Laboratory tests to check for underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease or infection
1. Drinking plenty of water to help flush out small calculi
2. Pain management with medication
3. Medical expulsive therapy with medication to help pass larger calculi
4. Shock wave lithotripsy to break down larger calculi into smaller pieces that can be passed more easily
5. Surgery to remove large or unbreakable calculi
1. Drinking plenty of water to stay hydrated and help prevent the formation of calculi
2. Limiting the intake of animal protein, sodium, and sugar
3. Managing underlying medical conditions such as gout, kidney disease, and inflammatory bowel disease
4. Maintaining a healthy weight and exercise regularly
5. Avoiding certain medications that can increase the risk of calculus formation.
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- Our findings should encourage practitioners to carefully consider the indications for surgical treatment for these patients,' says Mr Lawson. (edu.au)
- We use pediatric-specific surgical methods to treat your child without affecting his or her growth. (childrensnational.org)
- We work with other members of the orthopaedic team, as well as pediatric surgical subspecialists, to seamlessly deliver every phase of your child's treatment. (childrensnational.org)
- An exploratory, descriptive, qualita- tive study carried out in the surgical center (SC) of a pediatric hospital in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with seven mothers present during anes- thetic induction and awakening of the child. (bvsalud.org)
- Unna Boots, casts and other bulky dressings. (algeos.com)
- As gun technology and the war wounds it inflicted changed, so too did the technology behind the surgical procedures, such as amputation, that were performed by physicians. (stryker.com)
- DARCO Med-Surg Shoe, Post op Shoes for Broken Toe, Medical Walking shoes, Cast Foot Brace for. (macvideo.tv)
- Or try out the cast shoe which lets you keep a normal walking motion and balance and its ripple sole helps prevent slipping. (rehab-store.com)
- A walking cast and cast shoe allow children to walk during the period of casting. (baycare.org)
- BraceAbility Closed Toe Medical Walking Shoe - Lightweight Surgical Foot Protection Cast Boot. (macvideo.tv)
- DMI Post Op Shoe, Surgical Walking Shoe or Walking Boot for Plantar Fasciitis, Foot Pain, Broken. (macvideo.tv)
- SUPVOX Post Op Shoe Lightweight Medical Walking Boot Post Injury Surgical Foot Cast Toe. (macvideo.tv)
- The aim of this research was to investigate the set of instrumental assessment applied in studies of body image in obese within the context of surgical intervention for weight loss. (bvsalud.org)
- THURSDAY, May 11, 2023 (HealthDay News) - While the U.S. Veterans Affairs health system has been criticized for long appointment wait times and limited access to specialists, the quality of care and access to a range of surgical services is as good as or better than at non-VA health centers on several measures, new research reveals. (thehealthcast.com)
- The database continues to drive statistically reliable research that can help VA hospitals better assess its surgical outcomes and develop quality improvement programs," said Dr. Clifford Ko , director of the ACS Division of Research and Optimal Patient Care. (thehealthcast.com)
- They found 18 nationally representative studies that evaluated the same four quality measures: quality of care, access to care, cost and efficiency, and patient satisfaction across a range of surgical specialties. (thehealthcast.com)
- Eleven of the 13 studies focused on quality and safety outcomes showed that the quality and safety of surgical care provided in VA health centers was the same as, if not better than, care received in non-VA health centers. (thehealthcast.com)
- Instruction about care of the cast and precautions will be reviewed with the family and patient. (baycare.org)
- Med-Vet International is proud to work with BSN Medical, one of the world's leading suppliers in the product segments of casting, bandaging, wound care, and compression stockings. (shopmedvet.com)
- This is a severe injury and usually requires medical or surgical care. (medlineplus.gov)
- The burden of injury and costs of wrist fractures globally are substantial, with surgical treatment the popular treatment choice without strong supporting evidence. (edu.au)
- Wrist fractures are very common in older patients and there is considerable variation in treatment with a rise in the use of surgical treatment in the last two decades - it's possible these common injuries are being over treated with unnecessary surgery,' says Andrew Lawson, lead researcher from Whitlam Orthopaedic Research Centre and PhD candidate at the Southwest Sydney Clinical School, UNSW. (edu.au)
- The definitive surgical therapy for compartment syndrome is emergent fasciotomy (compartment release), with subsequent fracture reduction or stabilization and vascular repair, if needed. (medscape.com)
- The CROSSFIRE study has shown that surgical treatment for wrist fracture (volar-locking plates) does not offer clinical advantages in pain and function after 12 months compared to non-surgical treatment (cast immobilisation). (edu.au)
- The study compared the two most common treatments for wrist fracture - non-surgical treatment with cast immobilisation and surgical treatment by using a volar-locking plate. (edu.au)
- Serial casting is a noninvasive procedure that helps children improve their range of motion so they can perform daily activities with less difficulty. (baycare.org)
- Predicting the number of casting sessions is difficult, as each individual responds to the casting procedure at different rates. (baycare.org)
- Typically, the casting procedure is completed in 4-6 weeks. (baycare.org)
- If, as the article implies, alien abductions can be explained by the accidental awareness and a flashback to it, where is the evidence that so-called 'abductees' have all had some type of surgical procedure under anesthesia? (theblaze.com)
- Also, findings from some surgical procedures may not be generalized to all procedures, the authors noted. (thehealthcast.com)
- VA NSQIP has helped track millions of surgical cases and improve outcomes, including improved rates of postoperative death and infection, according to the researchers. (thehealthcast.com)
- After the success of VA NSQIP in improving outcomes in VA hospitals, the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was launched in 2001 for private sector hospitals. (thehealthcast.com)
- Collecting this clinical data makes it possible to compare surgical outcomes among all participating hospitals. (thehealthcast.com)
- A surgical table which improves outcomes with advanced surgical workflows in orthopedics, traumatology and neurology. (getinge.com)
- Doctors refer patients for serial casting to help improve overall quality of life. (baycare.org)
- Our team specializes in protecting children from pain and discomfort during and shortly after surgical procedures. (childrensnational.org)
- Even as recently as the 1800s, bladed surgical instruments could be considered rudimentary at best, and were mainly used for radical, traumatic procedures. (stryker.com)
- This was the first indication of blades being used for proper surgical procedures. (stryker.com)
- A well-padded cast, used to immobilize a joint that is lacking full range of motion, will be applied and removed on a weekly basis. (baycare.org)
- Each cast gradually increases the range of motion in the affected joint. (baycare.org)
- Muscle strength and range of motion of the affected joint will be assessed prior to application of the cast. (baycare.org)
- A team of specially trained therapists will apply the cast in the joint's optimal position and range. (baycare.org)
- Casts will be changed on a weekly basis until a target range-of-motion goal is achieved. (baycare.org)
- No absolute contraindications for surgical treatment exist. (medscape.com)
- Surgical treatment consists of excision of the duplicated digit and reconstruction of any associated abnormalities in the remaining rays (eg, longitudinal epiphyseal bracket). (medscape.com)
- The surgical treatment is estimated to cost 10 times more. (edu.au)
- The Global Cast saw devices Market study report will provide a valuable insight with an emphasis on global market including some of the major players such as McArthur Medical Sales Inc., Prime Medical Inc., Hanshin Medical Co Ltd., Shanghai Bojin Medical Instrument Co Ltd., Essity Aktiebolag, Smith & Nephew Plc. (bccresearch.com)
- The National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is conducting a research study, C yanotoxins in A ir ST udy (CAST) . (cdc.gov)
- If you are interested in participating in the Cyanotoxins in Air STudy, please email [email protected] or call 561-297-4631. (cdc.gov)
- Recently an interpreter I know who is working with his/her non-dominant arm in a cast told me of an experience interpreting in a medical setting where the doctor asked in all seriousness if he/she only had to pay half the normal interpreting fee since the interpreter had full use of only one arm. (theinterpretersfriend.com)
- Quality improvement, through the VA National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VA NSQIP), has been the focus of the VA for several decades and I think this effort is paying off," Blegen said in a news release from the American College of Surgeons. (thehealthcast.com)
- Surgical quality horns. (avantgarde-acoustic.de)
- CDC team members will be monitored twice daily for fever and any COVID-19-related symptoms, and will wear surgical masks and gloves to ensure the protection of participants. (cdc.gov)
- Accompanying a child in the anesthetic-surgical process trig- gered more positive than negative impressions on mothers. (bvsalud.org)
- The company casted precision metal parts including castings for pumps, compressors, turbochargers, and devices for surgical bone repair and replacement. (cdc.gov)
- Our casting tools are made of steel. (avantgarde-acoustic.de)
- Cases that require surgical correction should be referred to a subspecialist with expertise in correcting lower extremity deformities in children. (aafp.org)
- During the process ceramic shells for casting the metal part were prepared by immersing a wax replica in a ceramic slurry which contained about 10 percent 2EE by volume. (cdc.gov)
- How does Serial Casting affect the patient and family? (baycare.org)
- A short accommodation period will be required, as the cast has added weight and the joint is now immobile. (baycare.org)
- Cast Saw Devices Market was valued at USD 156.2 Million in 2019 and is projected to reach USD 210 Million by 2027, growing at a CAGR of 4.1% from 2020 to 2027. (bccresearch.com)
- The Global Cast saw devices Market is mainly bifurcated into sub-segments which can provide a classified data regarding latest trends in the market. (bccresearch.com)
- Maquet Yuno II surgical table ensures the positioning and access needed to achieve optimum results in open or minimally invasive interventions. (getinge.com)
- Compatibility with our existing surgical accessories maximizes your existing investment, reduces your upfront costs, and minimizes the need for training. (getinge.com)
- the cast may be left on from 6 to 12 weeks postoperatively. (aaos.org)