Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Flutamide: An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.Anxiety, Castration: Anxiety due to fantasized injuries to or loss of the genitals.Clonixin: Anti-inflammatory analgesic.Cyproterone: An anti-androgen that, in the form of its acetate (CYPROTERONE ACETATE), also has progestational properties. It is used in the treatment of hypersexuality in males, as a palliative in prostatic carcinoma, and, in combination with estrogen, for the therapy of severe acne and hirsutism in females.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Tosyl CompoundsEpididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Ketoprofen: An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.Zeranol: A non-steroidal estrogen analog.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Androgen Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and inhibit the activation of ANDROGEN RECEPTORS.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.HornsOvariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.AnilidesSexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Leuprolide: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.Testosterone Propionate: An ester of TESTOSTERONE with a propionate substitution at the 17-beta position.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE. They are commonly used to reduce the production of DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Azasteroids: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with nitrogen atoms.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Anesthesia, Caudal: Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.Finasteride: An orally active 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE inhibitor. It is used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.ThiazinesShrewsDiagnostic Techniques, Radioisotope: Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Feminization: Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Androgen-Binding Protein: Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cyproterone Acetate: An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Buserelin: A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.ResorcinolsGenitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Clusterin: A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Phenylthiohydantoin: Thiohydantoin benzene derivative.Androstane-3,17-diol: The unspecified form of the steroid, normally a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE with androgenic activity. It has been implicated as a regulator of gonadotropin secretion.Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)Goserelin: A synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE. Goserelin is used in treatments of malignant NEOPLASMS of the prostate, uterine fibromas, and metastatic breast cancer.Penile Erection: The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Androstenols: Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE which can grow in the presence of low or residual amount of androgen hormones such as TESTOSTERONE.Prostatic Secretory Proteins: Proteins secreted by the prostate gland. The major secretory proteins from the human prostate gland include PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and prostate-specific protein-94.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Transcortin: A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Nuclease Protection Assays: Techniques for measuring specific nucleic acid interaction with another nucleic acid or with a protein by digestion of the non-interacting nucleic acid by various nucleases. After all non-interacting regions are eliminated by nuclease digestion, the protected nucleic acid that remains is analyzed. DNA FOOTPRINTING utilizes this technique to analyze the DNA contact sites of DNA-BINDING PROTEINS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Hypothalamus, Anterior: The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular GRAY MATTER of the rostral portion of the THIRD VENTRICLE and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.Thyrotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Coercion: The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.Mice, Inbred C57BLTriptorelin Pamoate: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Prostatic Hyperplasia: Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome: A disorder of sexual development transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. These patients have a karyotype of 46,XY with end-organ resistance to androgen due to mutations in the androgen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANDROGEN) gene. Severity of the defect in receptor quantity or quality correlates with their phenotypes. In these genetic males, the phenotypic spectrum ranges from those with normal female external genitalia, through those with genital ambiguity as in Reifenstein Syndrome, to that of a normal male with INFERTILITY.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Criminals: Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Biomphalaria: A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.

Cooperative therapeutic effects of androgen ablation and adenovirus-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene and ganciclovir therapy in experimental prostate cancer. (1/1479)

Adenovirus-mediated transduction of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene (HSV-tk) in conjunction with ganciclovir (GCV) has been shown to result in significant growth suppression and to enhance survival in a model of mouse prostate cancer. However, this therapeutic activity is not sustained, because in most cases tumors eventually regrow and ultimately cause the death of the host. Androgen ablation, an inducer of apoptosis in prostate cells which is used widely as palliative therapy in patients with prostate cancer, was combined with HSV-tk plus GCV using an androgen-sensitive mouse prostate cancer cell line. The combination of castration and HSV-tk plus GCV led to markedly enhanced tumor growth suppression in both subcutaneous and orthotopic models compared with either treatment alone and resulted in an enhanced survival in which combination-treated animals lived twice as long as controls in the subcutaneous model and over 50% longer than controls in the orthotopic model. Further analysis of apoptotic activity demonstrated high levels of apoptosis only in combined androgen ablation and HSV-tk plus GCV-treated tumors after 14 days of growth in an androgen-depleted environment and 8 days after HSV-tk plus GCV therapy. At this time, the apoptotic index, but not the percent of necrotic tissue, was significantly higher for combination therapy-treated tumors relative to control-treated tumors or either treatment alone. These data indicate that the therapeutic effects of androgen ablation and HSV-tk plus GCV are cooperative and that increased apoptosis may, in part, underlie these activities.  (+info)

The relationship between adrogen receptors and the hormonally controlled responses of rat ventral prostate. (2/1479)

1. The administration of dihydrotestosterone to rats orchidectomized 7 days previously stimulated the synthesis of nuclear receptor in prostatic cells several hours in advance of DNA synthesis and mitosis. 2. The synthesis of nuclear receptor is tightly coupled to cell proliferation; consequently, in resting cells, there is no further net synthesis of nuclear receptor above the maximum of approx. 8000 molecules/cell. 3. After orchidectomy a rapid decline in the concentration of free androgen in the nuceus and a slower decline in the concentration of nuclear receptor are observed. 4. Owing to the apparent scarcity of receptor-inactivating factors in the nucleus, and the inverse relationship between amounts of nuclear and cytoplasmic receptors, it is concluded that the nuclear receptor is discharged into the cytoplasm after orchidectomy. 5. The formation of the cytoplasmic receptor is an early event preceding the onset of cellular autolysis. 6. Regressing prostate develops the capacity to eliminate cytoplasmic receptor, and this capacity is retained by the regenerating prostate for at least 14 days. 7. The synthesis of nuclear receptor in early G1 phase may control the entry of cells into the cell cycle and the prolonged retention of receptor in the nucleus may prevent the activation of autophagic processes.  (+info)

Testosterone control of nucleic acid content and proliferation of epithelium and stroma in rat seminal vesicles. (3/1479)

Tissue wet weight, nucleic acid content and epithelial and stromal cell numbers were measured in the seminal vesicles of sexually mature male rats. After castration, tissue weight and RNA decreased rapidly and in aprallel to reach, after 14 days, values only 15-20% of those in control (not castrated) animals. During this period, DNA decreased to a much lesser extent (by about 40%), but this change in DNA correlates well with the observed loss of cells from the epithelium. Testosterone in vivo promoted an immediate resynthesis of RNA, the value characteristic of control animals being reached within 80h. Delays occurred in the hormone-induced regain of tissue weight (30h) and DNA (40h), each of which preceded proliferation of the epithelium (40--50h). The cells of the stroma were unaffected by these changes in the androgenic statls of the animal. It is suggested that these proliferative changes in the epithelium cannot account for the previously reported induction by testosterone of basic secretory proteins in this tissue.  (+info)

Kinetic analysis of hormone-induced mitoses in epithelial cells of mouse uterus and vagina. (4/1479)

The intracellular localization of 3H-estradiol-17beta and 3H-progesterone to the different types of cells in the mouse uterus was investigated using autoradiographic techniques. The kinetics of cell proliferation in the surface epithelium of the uterus and in the vaginal epithelium (basal layer) are analysed by means of cumulative labeling method and mitosis chase method using 3H-thymidine autoradiographic procedures. The results are as follows, (1) Epithelial cell population of the uterine lumen and basal cell population of the vaginal epithelium in the ovariectomized mouse are divided into a major subpopulation of GO cells and a minor subpopulation of proliferating cells. (2) Proliferative potencies of uterine surface epithelial cells and vaginal basal cells in the ovariectomized mouse are regulated by a steroid-independent mechanisms through which the proportion of the GO cell-compartment and Tc value of the proliferating cell-compartment are determined according to their age; as the castrated mouse grows older, Tc value becomes longer and the proportion of the Go cell-compartment becomes larger. (3) If the dose levels of estrogen administered exceed the threshold value, estrogen-dependent cell proliferation will be provoked by transferring the cells in the GO cell-compartment to the proliferating cell-compartment in all or none fashion, and by reducing the Tc value of proliferating cell to 1/2-1/3 of that in the castrated mouse. (4) It is suggested that proliferating cells in the uterine surface epithelium and in the vaginal epithelium turn the cell cycle at a constant Tc value during estrous cycle, and that the tissue growth during estrous cycle is dependent on the size of the proliferating cell-compartment but not on the Tc value. (5) The results obtained from autoradiography of tritiated steroids in the mouse uterus gave a supporting clue to the kinetic data.  (+info)

An elevated bax/bcl-2 ratio corresponds with the onset of prostate epithelial cell apoptosis. (5/1479)

The prostate gland in adult male rats is highly dependent on androgenic steroids. Castration initiates the regression of this tissue through a process involving the loss of the vast majority of cells by means of apoptosis. We studied this well characterized in vivo model of apoptosis to evaluate how the expression of two particular gene products, bcl-2 and bax, known to be important for the regulation of apoptosis were affected by castration. An RNase protection assay designed to quantify the levels of bax mRNA showed that this transcript was transiently elevated after castration, reaching a peak in expression at 3 days and declining thereafter. In contrast, bcl-2 mRNA expression was continuously elevated over a period of up to 7 days after castration. The distinct changes in the expression of the mRNAs encoding these two genes were confirmed by an in situ hybridization analysis of regressing rat ventral prostate tissues. The elevation in mRNAs were apparently restricted to the secretory epithelial cells of the gland, the cellular compartment of the tissue most affected by castration. Finally, SDS - PAGE/Western blot analysis of bax and bcl-2 protein expression in the regressing rat prostate gland with bax and bcl-2-specific antibodies showed that the changes in the bax and bcl-2 protein levels were similar and consistent to that found for the mRNAs. In summary, the expression of both bax and bcl-2 gene products are uniquely modulated during castration-induced regression of the rat ventral prostate gland. The changes we observed identify a transient but marked increase in the bax/bcl-2 expression ratio of the tissue that peaks on the second and third days after castration, coinciding with the peak periods of prostate cell apoptosis. These data support previous studies done on in vitro systems wherein it was shown that the bax/bcl-2 ratio determines the apoptotic potential of a cell.  (+info)

Occurrence of permanent changes in vaginal and uterine epithelia in mice treated neonatally with progestin, estrogen and aromatizable or non-aromatizable androgens. (6/1479)

Female mice of the C57 Black/Tw strain were injected daily with 100 microng testosterone, 50 microng testosterone propionate (TP), 100 microng 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or 50 microng 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP), for 10 days from the day of birth. Two other groups of female mice were given neonatal injections with 20 microng estradiol-17 beta and 100 microng progesterone for 10 days, respectively. All mice were ovariectomized at 60 days of age and killed at 90 days. In 100% of neonatally estrogenized or androgenized, ovariectomized mice, the cranial part of the vagina was lined with stratified epithelium with either cornification or parakeratosis or mucification. Stratification only or stratification with superficial squamous metaplasia or cornification took place in the uterine epithelia of 18% of the TP-treated, 75% of the DHT-treated and 50% of the DHTP-treated, ovariectomized mice. In contrast, neonatally estrogenized, ovariectomized mice did not show the estrogen-independent, persistent uterine changes. Neonatal progesterone treatment failed to induce the permanent changes in the vaginal and uterine epithelia.  (+info)

Development of the vaginal epithelium showing estrogen-independent proliferation and cornification in neonatally androgenized mice. (7/1479)

Female mice of the C57 Black/Tw strain given 5 daily injections with 100 microng testosterone (T) or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from the day of birth showed estrogen-independent persistent proliferation and cornification of the vaginal epithelium in adulthood. The vaginal epithelium of the mice was essentially similar to that of the controls in histological structure during or shortly after neonatal injections of the androgens. In T- and DHT-mice aged over 20 days, however, a marked proliferation with or without superficial cornification took place in the epithelium lining the proximal and middle parts of the vagina (Mullerian vagina), while neither proliferation nor cornification occurred in the epithelium of the distal vagina (urogenital sinus vagina). On the second day of postnatal life in mice given a single injection with T on the day of birth, the mitotic activity in the epithelium of the middle vagina was heightened, but it dropped to the control level on the third day and remained low until 20 days. By contrast, the mitotic rates in the epithelium of the rest of the vagina in T-mice and of all parts of the vagina in DHT-mice were approximately the same as in the controls until 20 or 30 days. The mitotic rates in the epithelium of the Mullerian vagina were markedly elevated in T-mice at 20 days of age and DHT-mice at 30 days, and thereafter remained almost unchanged until 60 days of age. These results were different from the findings in mice given neonatal injections with the dose of estradiol-17 beta (E) capable of estrogen-independent vaginal cornification (Iguchi et al., 1976). The present finding seem to indicate that the mechanism involved in the induction of estrogen-independent vaginal changes by neonatal administration of androgen (T, DHT) is different from that following neonatal treatment with estrogen (E), although androgen and estrogen act directly on the vaginal epithelium of neonates.  (+info)

Ultrastructural characteristics of the vaginal epithelium of neonatally estrogenized mice in response to subsequent estrogen treatment. (8/1479)

Adult mice which had received 10 daily injections of 20 microng estradiol beginning with the day of birth were in a "persistent-estrous" state, showing ovary-independent proliferation and cornification of the vaginal epithelium. Ultrastructural changes of the vaginal epithelium in neonatally estrogenized mice was examined after a single postpuberal injection of 10 microng estradiol and compared with those seen in normal mice to estrogen. In ovariectomized normal mice, the basal cells were round. The nucleus was polygonal and contained peripheral condensed chromatin. After estradiol treatment, the basal cells became columnar. The nucleus was round to oval, containing dispersed chromatin. In neonatally estrogenized ovariectomized mice, the basal layer of vaginal epithelium consisted of round cells with polygonal nuclei, much as in normal ovariectomized mice. The nucleus occupied a large area of the cytoplasm and contained prominent nucleoli. Intercellular spaces were moderately distended. Late estradiol treatment resulted in distended intercellular spaces and in the appearance of the other cell type along with round cells in the basal layers: the columnar cells containing an oval nucleus with dispersed chromatin, resembled the basal cells in normal ovariectomized mice receiving postpuberal estrogen injection. The intercellular spaces between the columnar cells were narrow compared with those between round cells. However, the nuclei of round cells still had prominent nucleoli and peripheral condensed chromatin regardless of subsequent estrogen treatment. This fact suggests that these nuclei do not respond to estrogen. These results clearly show that the vaginal epithelium of neonatally estrogenized mice with ovary-independent persistent cornification consists of a mixed population of cells.  (+info)

Castration meaning in Hindi : Get meaning and translation of Castration in Hindi language with grammar,antonyms,synonyms and sentence usages. Know answer of question : what is meaning of Castration in Hindi dictionary? Castration ka matalab hindi me kya hai (Castration का हिंदी में मतलब ). Castration meaning in Hindi (हिन्दी मे मीनिंग ) is बंध्याकरण.English definition of Castration : neutering a male animal by removing the testicles
castration - MedHelps castration Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for castration. Find castration information, treatments for castration and castration symptoms.
What is castration? What are the side effects of castration? Does a person have to undergo surgery to be castrated? What complications can arise in a castration procedure? Find answers to these and other related questions on JustAnswer.
We show a reduction of the Ku70 protein in prostate cancer tissues after castration. The Ku70 protein is a major determinant of radiosensitivity. In several unbiased mutational screens in mammalian cells, the Ku70 mutant cells, defective in NHEJ (24), were isolated as the most radiosensitive (28). It is well established that the Ku70/Ku80 components of NHEJ are the most critical for effective DSB repair and they work in a DNA-PK-dependent manner after irradiation (19, 29). Hence, the severe depletion of Ku70 protein levels after castration is likely to impair NHEJ in the prostate cancer tissues and explain the increased sensitivity to radiotherapy. Several previous studies have shown that cells depleted with Ku70 are using an alternative backup pathway termed B-NHEJ in repairing irradiation-induced DSBs and PARP-1 is a major component of this alternative repair pathway (30). After castration, effective B-NHEJ mediated by PARP-1 would be expected to improve DSBs repair and reduce the efficacy of ...
HEALTH IS WEALTH. People may not be aware that one of the most frustrating interpersonal relationships is the presence of a perennial conflict irritant between couples or members of the family. This negative kind of a relationship is known as castration complex.. Psychoanalytically, castration complex means penis envy of the female (Freud). It is believed that the girls are envious of the boys because the latter (boys) have a powerful penile instrument (penis) while the former (girls) do not have. Hence, the girls are known to be castrated. Sigmond Freud signified castration as a psychologically like one whose head is being beheaded or cut-off. Hence, it is being applied to a wife, whose husband could not talk, decide, or offer any decision as a castrated husband. The same description is when a wife calls her husband as dumb and stupid. Some couples survive with this kind of one-sided relationship; the husband becomes so silent, timid and obeys his dominant wife who always castrates him.. What ...
The discussion about castration of piglets with anaesthetics is not confined to the Netherlands. In Switzerland, Norway and Belgium the topic is gaining ground again. The Dutch intend on lobbying the EU to completely ban the practice of castration altogether.
Analysis of records of court eunuchs in Korea suggest that castration prolongs life. Does it really, or are there other explanations?
Call it making the best of a potentially bad situation. Eunuchs -- castrated men -- live nearly 20 years longer than other men, a new study found.
Only 100 Million things to do today and I almost got them all done. I debated letting the flock out this morning because I had a 10:30 appointment for the Vet to stop by and castrate the 14 little boy lambs. I figured it might be easier to keep em in rather than attempting to round em all back up again when he got here. Trouble is attempting to feed the 40 some-odd grain crazed monsters without putting the grain in the feeders while they are trapped on the other side of a gate is perilous at best ...
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தேரா சச்சா அமைப்பைச் சேர்ந்த 400 பேர் ஆண்மையிழப்பு அறுவை சிகிச்சை செய்துகொண்ட வழக்கில், சி.பி.ஐ குர்மீத்திடம் நேற்று வாக்குமூலம் பெற்றது. CBI questions Ram Rahim on forced castration of his followers
What is castration?. Castration is the act of removing an individuals use of the testicles by means of surgery or the use of chemicals. Surgical castration is bilateral orchiectomy (excision of both testes), and chemical castration uses pharmaceutical drugs to deactivate the testes. Castration causes sterilization (preventing them from reproducing); it also greatly reduces the production of certain hormones, such as testosterone.. Types of castration. There are two types of approaches to castration. That is, chemical and surgical.. ...
Vaughan, M K.; Benson, B; Norris, J T.; and Vaughan, G M., "Inhibition of compensatory ovarian hypertrophy in mice by melatonin, 5-hydroxytryptamine and pineal powder." (1971). Subject Strain Bibliography 1971. 573 ...
By Sherry Lanina (a voluntarily castrated man). At http://sherrylanina.tripod.com/castration.htm (local copy Castration_Effects_By_Sherry_Lanina.txt) Castration is quite a fascinating idea. First of all, we learn immense ethological and ethnological info about the nature of males from the social and historical practices regarding castration; why it is done; how it is done. (by looking into cultures and time periods where castration is widely practiced. e.g. Chinese and Middle Eastern eunuchs, and European Castratos (castrated male for sing Church songs)). Castration is also fascinating from the scientific, biological aspects. Namely, what happens to a man with respect to physiology, when his penis, or balls, are cut off? We also learn from the practices and knowledge of castration on animals raised to be slaughtered by human animals. (i.e. ox, studs… how human societies practice castration to control the breeding of a range of other animals) We learn, that the balls and the penis, is what ...
Through the time, it has been observed that the castration, it can favor the reduction of serious problems in the dogs toward the humans, it is for it that at the moment is used in company dogs, like a technique to prevent undesirable behaviors (Stone, 2000; Wells and 2000). In this study, 7 dogs of different race were used, age, size and weight with the purpose of valuing the effect of the castration have more than enough non desirable behaviors in mature dogs with proprietor. The surgeries were carried out during one month, in a clinic of the city of Mexico. A questionnaire was applied before the surgery: Does it leave to the street their dog?: alone, with somebody, c/s belt. Does their dog behave aggressively with other dogs?: no, sometimes, very frequent; Is their dog alone or does he cohabit with other dogs?: is it alone, do I have more dogs; How does their dog behave when you see a female?: does he smell it, does he bark, does it mount it, does it attack her, doesnt he take it into ...
79 NCCN Guidelines for Patients ® Prostate Cancer, Version 1.2016 7 Treatment guide: Systemic treatment Castration-naïve prostate cancer Guide 19 lists options for advanced cancer that has never been treated with castration methods. Options are grouped by whether the cancer is staged M0 or M1. Orchiectomy When talking about prostate cancer, castration is a term that means the testicles are making little or no testosterone. It can be achieved by an operation or by medicines. Surgical castration that removes both testes is called a bilateral orchiectomy. This surgery is a type of ADT. Orchiectomy is a treatment option for both M0 and M1 cancers. LHRH agonist and antagonist Medical castration works equally as well as surgical castration. Medicines used to cause castration include an LHRH antagonist or agonist. They are a type of ADT. As discussed next, an antiandrogen may be added. The risk for side effects can be reduced by intermittent use of your medicine. Intermittent treatment improves ...
To determine the effect of age at castration on physiological and immunological stress indices, 60 Holstein-Friesian bull calves were sourced so that they were in one of five age groups for Burdizzo castration on day 0 (16 July 2002; no. = 10 per treatment) : 1·5, 2·5, 3·5, 4·5, and 5·5 months of age (mean body weight ± s.e. = 63 ± 2·5, 89 ± 3·7, 104 ± 3·7, 142 ± 3·6, 169 ± 8·1 kg, respectively), or were sham castrated at 5·5 months of age (171 ± 2·9 kg body weight) to serve as intact controls specific to this age group. Blood samples were collected at 15- to 30-min intervals from 2 h before until 8 h after treatment, with further samples collected at 10 and 12 h on day 0, and on days 1, 2 and 3, and weekly from days 7 to 35 after treatment. Following castration, peak plasma cortisol responses were significantly greater in 5·5-month-old castrates than intact calves, and all calves castrated at a younger age had reduced peak responses, with the greatest reduction in ...
Castration should take place at the youngest age possible since the stress of castration can adversely affect growth in older animals. Lambs/kids can be castrated as soon as the testicles descend into the scrotum (this can be from a few days of age to three weeks) and no sedation or pain killers are necessary if castration is done at this age. Castration becomes more difficult and painful with age and the chances of complications increase. Further, castration is accomplished more easily and the wound heals more quickly in very young animals. Castration should ideally be done at less than 3 weeks of age. Under Ethiopian conditions this is not usually the case. Many farmers prefer to castrate male sheep/goats at a later age; in most cases after sexual maturity is attained (yearling to 2 years old). The reason given for this is that early castration can cause stunted growth, resulting in a lack off desired muscling and conformation, leading to a low market price. In Ethiopia there is a niche market ...
Its our new favorite game show and this slave might just lose his nuts! The numbers on the wheel represent the amount of kicks to the balls he gets. But, if the wheel lands on castration Uh Oh bye bye balls! This slave is an ass kissing, foot licking excuse of a life so why does he need balls anyway??? He might as well lose them for our entertainment!. Category: BALLBUSTING. Related Categories: BALLBUSTING, FEMALE DOMINATION, FOOT FETISH, ASS FETISH, HUMILIATION Keywords: harley, mya. File Name : THE MEAN GIRLS - Wheel Of Castration. Starring Mistress Harley and Mistress ...
Our partner organisation ARPA carried out another castration campaign on 23 and 24 November 2019 in the Portuguese city of Grandola on the Troy peninsula: 90 cats could be castrated, vaccinated, dewormed and released back into their colonies. There , they are fed and cared for by volunteers, and in case of illness they are caught and taken to the vet. Castrations are the only way to reduce the overpopulation of street animals in a long-term and animal-friendly manner. Thousands of dogs,...
Ancient Origins articles related to castration in the sections of history, archaeology, human origins, unexplained, artifacts, ancient places and myths and legends. (Page 1 of tag castration)
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On the list of things I enjoy thinking about, one is castration. How would I castrate a man? Whats my ultimate castration fantasy? Would it be by sword a testicular slaying, by shoe a brutal thrashing, by knife with repeated stabbing, by burdizzo with shear force, by scalpel with precision, by hammer a sloppy smashing, or by shear animalistic brutality? …. ...
Castration of the guy. chelovchesky farm. Watch castration of the guy on ThisVid, the HD tube site with a largest gay BDSM collection.
I thought Id start a thread about castration in movies. Feel free to contribute any movie you know of. 1)The Ladies Club : I have never seen this one, but apparently it dates back to the mid 80s. And it is also suppose to be based on a book. From what I know, its about a group of women who track down the men who raped them and castrate them. As far as I know, we dont see any severed organs. 2)Sudden Impact : A Dirty Harry movie. Some chick who was raped tracks down her rapists and
Applies castration rings for calves, lambs, and goats. Can also be used for tail docking. Features Spring loaded Easy to use All metal construction Chrome Plated
Effects of castration and androgen-treatment on the expression of FSH-β and LH-β in the three-spine stickleback, gasterosteus aculeatus-Feedback differences mediating the photoperiodic maturation response? ...
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The German Farmers Association (Deutscher Bauernverband, DBV) has called for a postponement for the ban on castration of piglets without prior use of analgesia.
Lisas Castration Fantasy By ... I guess Id expected it to go soft immediately after Id ... But it would hold and I think once it healed it would not look too .... ...
When Alison LaCarrubba, DVM, Dipl. ABVP, head of the College of Veterinary Medicines equine ambulatory section, learned the Unwanted Horse Coalition would lend financial support to establish a castration
Robert Mugabe Advocates Castration For Rapists - gists While speaking at his 92nd birthday celebrations last Saturday, Mugabe said he was baffled by people who
Twenty-five patients with advanced metastatic breast cancer were treated with the combination of methotrexate 60 mg/M2 and 5-fluorouracil 700 mg/M2 intravenously on the first and eighth days, and cyclophosphamide 100 mg/M2 and prednisone 40 mg/M2 by mouth daily for the first 14 days of a 28-day cycle. The patients had had no previous chemotherapy or extensive radiotherapy and all but two had not responded to hormonal therapy or endocrine ablation. The major metastatic lesions were: lung (12 patients), liver (four patients), bone (four patients), soft tissue (three patients), nodes (two patients). Seventeen of the 25 patients (68%) responded to treatment with seven complete remissions; these included patients suffering metastatic lesions in the lung, nodes, and soft tissue. The overall median duration of response was nine months (range 6-26 months). Toxicity was primarily haematological, but the group received an average of at least 75% of their calculated dose for each monthly cycle. ...
Hi everyone, So my question is geared towards the folks that have been castrated, but still wish to live and function as men afterwards? More specifically, I was wondering what the HRT regimen was like at that point. Ive read a couple guys who felt that a pump a week of AndroGel was sufficient to keep them where they wanted to be. Are there any additional drugs or supplements that need to be taken long-term? Sorry if this has been answered elsewhere before.
As forage and range conditions improve, and with historically low cattle numbers, people will be saving more heifers as replacements and to replenish the herds
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Which one of the following is correct? (A) 12 As for those agitators, I wish they would go the whole way and emasculate themselves! Galatians 5:12 (NIV) (B) 12 I would they were even cut off which trouble you. Galatians 5:12 (KJV) Ive heard critics of the Bible refer to Paul as a merciless barbarian for wishing…
These Emasculators are designed for non-hemorrhaging castration, based on the Burdizzo technique. Purchase this castration tool in a variety of sizes from Praxisdienst-VET, today.
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Just an opinion, but I would stay away from the factory intake. It will work okay in a near stock build, but you will get quite a bit better results with a B&A (street or track boss, depending on your wants), Roush, or Weiand Tunnel Ram. I assume you dont want a TR, but... I have not yet tried the Edelbrock Clevor intake, but if it runs true to form, it should be a fine choice up to 6,500+. I just cant see using a dual-plane on a B302, for anything over a stock build. The factory used one for the same reason they used one on the B429 & B351; to tame the beast for emissions, driveability and warranty issues. The B351 worked well with the factory intake, I admit, but certainly not to its potential. And on the other two bosses, it was like a castration, almost. Opinions will vary, so take mine with whatever amount of salt you think appropriate ...
To test for carbonates you simply use lime water. When carbonates react with dilute hydrochloric acid, they for carbon dioxide and a salt and water. Luckily there is a test for carbon dioxide involving limewater and this helps you to identify if a carbonate is present in a substance.. THE REACTION:. CALCIUM CARBONATE + HYDROCHLORIC ACID -, CALCIUM CHLORIDE+ CARBON DIOXIDE+ WATER. This means that CO2 is always produced when a carbonate is reacted with hydrochloric acid and so if there is a carbonate present, CO2 will be produced. We can tell if CO2 has been produced by bubbling the gas given off through lime water. This turns the lime water milky and so you can tell if CO2 is produced and there for if there was a carbonate.. ...
The article entitled, "The Impact of Surgical Castration on Sexual Recidivism Risk Among Sexually Violent Predatory Offenders," which appears in this edition of the Journal, takes up several important subjects of both a psychiatric and a forensic nature.1 There are two fundamental questions: first, what does the scientific evidence have to say about the likely impact of surgical castration on sexual drive and the enactment of sexually motivated behavior-most specifically, sexual behavior that is criminal in nature? Second, how heavily should the impact of a testosterone-lowering intervention, such as surgical castration, be weighted when attempting to determine the likely risk of future sexual recidivism by a previously civilly committed sexual offender who is seeking possible release into the community? It should be emphasized that the authors have conducted a retrospective review that attempts to predict the possible effects of surgical castration on civilly committed sexual offenders, rather ...
Highlands County Deputies were called to Ryswyks home to find a severely bleeding, castrated man laying on a bed with a towel clinging to his groin.. In what appeared to be right out of a scary movie, Ryswyk had set up a room in his home to look like a surgical center, having medical equipment and painkillers inside, according to reports. He also had a camera set up to record his procedures.. Mr. Ryswyk admitted to deputies he had just performed a castration on the bleeding man, saying that he had encountered major problems. Ryswyk then told deputies that he and the victim had met on the dark web, on a site geared toward people with a "castration fetish".. Further investigation at the location turned up two body parts in a pink container, which deputies assumed to be from the victim. The victim was flown to a nearby hospital and is said to be in stable condition. ...
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found essential for tumorigenesis of prostate cancer (PC), but its role in the regulation of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is poorly identified.
An apparatus and method for use in raising cattle, and in particular bulls, wherein bulls are: (a) fed a particularly nutritious liquid having a distinctive odor prior to weaning; (b) fed a combination of this liquid and conventional feed after weaning in a feedlot; (c) castrated using a ligation tool that provides a ligating tension to endless elastomeric ligation bands wherein the tool indicates the tension applied to such ligation bands; and (d) treated for infection prevention at least around the time of castration. Accordingly, cattle growth is accelerated due to enhanced nutrition, reduction in disease and a reduction in the stress upon the cattle. Furthermore, late castration of bulls (at approximately 5 to 14 months) is employed, wherein the tool of (c) provides a substantially stress-free ligation technique. Moreover, the meat produced from the cattle processed using the present invention has superior cutability characteristics.
chemical castration definition: A medical treatment using a hormonal drug to prevent the event of a mans testes, meant to have a similar impact on the sexual interest as medical castration. It really…
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Its Monday, a day of beginnings as well as a day of ends, to weekend bliss for instance. Thus, the time is right to present the first of what may become many: CASTRATION ANXIETY, a webcomic with no fixed subject or schedule. Written by my co-pilot Ales Kot and drawn by yours truly, its sure to charm and inspire.. Do enjoy!. ...
Guide hygiénique et chirurgical pour la castration et le bistournage du cheval, du taureau, de la vache, du bélier, du verrat, etc., etc ...
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Transfer of foetal fluids- rubbing an orphan lamb in the foetal fluids of the new born lamb before the ewe licks her own lamb is the most successful fostering method. An idea drawn upon this theory is to place both the new born lamb and the foster lamb into a bag or small area in order for their odours and fluids to mix and increases chance of camouflaging the foster lamb. However, this may present problems in feeding intakes and also the ewe may choose to reject both ...
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Sow stalls - cause severe welfare problems as the sow is unable to turn around, take more than one or two steps forward or backward, and most have no access to bedding throughout the majority of their pregnancy. Sow stalls have been banned in the EU since January 2013, although their use is allowed for up to four weeks after mating. They have been completely banned in the UK since 1999 ...
Late king of Pop Michael Jackson had a chemical castration drug to suppress his sexual urges towards under-age boys, if reports are to be believed.
Maybe theres a less direct system which could work, whereby offenders can choose to take the drugs, which may then affect their ability to pass some psychological evaluation that contributes to an earlier release (which they could also take without having taken any drugs, so they have the option to try to change through other methods). I just dont think that a system where you can take a drug which takes a couple of years off your sentence works in favour of the public or the offenders (and, when it comes to controlling damaging sexual urges, working in favour of the offender is also, naturally, working in favour of the public ...
I often hear that farmers and ranchers are the nations original champions of animal welfare, and I believe it. But, if youre not weaning and castrating your calves before you sell them, you cant wear the animal welfare ribbon.
The Doctors discuss a proposed Alabama bill that calls for convicted sex offenders to not only be castrated, but also to pay for the medical bills...
I will admit that there are times when in my anger my first reaction is "hang em from the nearest tree!!", but once that anger dies down the rational part of me realizes that there are underlying reasons for why people do what they do, not that Im excusing it mind you, wrong is wrong, but I dont believe that there are unredeemable people. In the end, people, by virtue of their own choices determine whether or not they can be redeemed. Can they admit they did wrong and repent of it? Or do they harden their hearts and continue doing the same things as before? When faced with the stench of their own wrong doings, how do they respond? That is the determining factor in my eyes as to who is and isnt redeemable. Some people are just so hard, so selfish, so evil and perverse, that they dont care who they hurt. That attitude, that choice to keep hurting is what keeps them from finding and taking the redemption that is only a breath away ...
NHS West Kent is also ceasing referrals for gastric band surgery and couples seeking IVF but trans campaigners say people with these conditions do not have a high suicide rate, unlike trans people waiting for treatment. ...
Principal Investigator:TAKAHASHI Satoru, Project Period (FY):2012-04-01 - 2015-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Experimental pathology
In 1958, ABC lobbed an eight-year nightmare of emasculation onto the airwaves, cloaking it under an innocuous title: The Donna Reed Show. Less blatantly Freudian than the same years Attack of the 50 Foot Woman, this domestic situation comedy nevertheless postulated its housewife protagonist as a superwoman capable of rendering the male of the species…
Ive only used it for one rat but I noticed a change within a few days, enough for me to start (successful) intros with a rat hed taken a couple of nibbles out of previously. (But I had had nibbled rat castrated since their first intro if this makes a difference ...
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Hi ladies, hope that someone can advise me... my OB has prescribed progesterone 200mg/day for when I get my BFP. Is this enough? Or should I ask for a script for 400mg/day? TIA
Affiliation:福島県立医大,医学部,助教授, Research Field:Urology, Keywords:カルシウム非依存性収縮,筋収縮,雄ラット,前立腺腫大,calcium ion,収縮速度,Castration,カルシウムイオン,等尺性収縮実験,Detrusor contractile hyperplasia, # of Research Projects:2, # of Research Products:0
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Rats can be used as a model organism to teach physiological concepts in a laboratory setting. This article describes a two-part laboratory that introduces students to hypothesis testing, experimental design, the appropriate use of controls and surgical techniques. Students perform both a castration and sham-control surgery on male rats and test the effects of reduced testosterone due to castration on the weight and histology of seminal vesicles. After performing the surgeries and collecting the data, students learn histological techniques, as well as empirical data collection, analysis and interpretation. Demonstrating the effects of testosterone through castration surgery bridges concepts learned in a traditional physiology class setting with data gleaned from research in a laboratory. Overall, the male castration surgery provides students with hands-on skills and an understanding of the work done by scientific researchers and health care professionals.
Global Markets Directs, \Hormone Refractory (Castration Resistant, Androgen-Independent) Prostate Cancer Pipeline Review, H2 2012\, provides an overview of the indications therapeutic pipeline. This report provides information on the therapeutic development for Hormone Refractory (Castration Resistant, Androgen-Independent) Prostate Cancer, complete with latest updates, and special features on l
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REVERSAL type experiment was con- ducted in which measurements were made of plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone in six Holstein heifers dur- ing three estrous cycles when they were main- tained on either 100% or 62% of Morrisons TDN allowances. A progressive increase in plasma LH was noted from the first to third estrous cycle in heifers on the low energy in- take. This increase was first seen in the estrous peaks, but by the third cycle the basal mean for the low TDN group (2.7 ng/ml) was also significantly higher than that of the control heifers (1.9 ng/ml, P(0.005). During the first cycle, plasma progesterone was slightly higher in the low calorie group, but became progressively lower in the subsequent cycles (P,0.05 and P~0.01). Both total progester- one and progesterone concentration in corpora lutea taken on the 10th day of the third cycle were lower in the low-TDN heifers than in their normal counterparts, P,0.01 and ,0.05, respectivley. The results show that ...
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To conduct this study, Dr. Rocca and colleagues followed women who had undergone unilateral or bilateral ovariectomy between 1950 and 1987 while residing in Olmsted County, Minn., home of Mayo Clinic. All of these women had the surgery prior to menopause and for reasons other than cancer. The study evaluated 1,293 women with unilateral ovariectomy, 1,097 women with bilateral ovariectomy and, for comparison, 2,390 women who had not undergone ovariectomy. All women were followed until their deaths or until the end of the study, which was staggered between 2001 and 2006, via a combination of interviews with the women or a surviving relative, medical records and death certificates. A unique strength of this study, according to the investigators, was a 25- to 30-year median follow-up time. A total of 1,292 ...
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Society tends to see sex crimes as some of the most serious, often because it does irreparable mental harm to the victim. One type of punishment for sex offenders is chemical castration to prevent any further sexual urges.HistoryDuring the early part of the twentieth century, chemical castration was seen as an accepted practice for certain crimes, such as sexual deviancy, according to Florida State University. Chemical castration fell out of favor after World War II, but new drugs that could specifically target the male libido brought it back into the fold as a viable punishment during the 1980s.IdentificationChemical castration actually w...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimal sequencing of new drugs in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. T2 - Dream or reality?. AU - Caffo, Orazio. AU - Lunardi, Andrea. AU - Trentin, Chiara. AU - Maines, Francesca. AU - Veccia, Antonello. AU - Galligioni, Enzo. PY - 2016/9/1. Y1 - 2016/9/1. N2 - The availability of new drugs capable of improving the overall survival of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has led to the possibility of using them sequentially in the hope of obtaining a cumulative survival benefit. The new agents have already been administered as third-line treatments in patients who have previously received them as second line in everyday clinical practice, but the efficacy of this practice is not yet supported by clinical trial data, and evidence of possible cross-resistance has reinforced the debate concerning the best sequence to use in order to maximise the benefit. Furthermore, the situation is further complicated by the possibility of administering new ...
BERKELEY, CA (UroToday.com) - Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men in the United States with an estimated 220 800 new cases and 27 540 deaths in 2015.[1] In 2004, two landmark trials, TAX 327 and SWOG 99-16, revealed an overall survival (OS) benefit in men with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with docetaxel,[2, 3] however benefits remain limited. In recent years, agents such as abiraterone and enzalutamide have shown an OS benefit, similar to docetaxel, in the mCRPC population.[4, 5] Several agents that target angiogenesis have been combined with docetaxel in an attempt to improve OS, but unfortunately, the results of these trials have proved to be disappointing. Alternative approaches to targeting tumor vasculature and attempting combination therapies need further investigation. One such alternative approach is targeting CD105, which is involved in normal vascular development, is expressed on proliferating endothelial cells, and has ...
Abiraterone acetate is a steroidal irreversible inhibitor of CYP17 (17α hydroxylase/C17, 20-lyase), blocking 2 important enzymatic activities in the synthesis of testosterone. The goal of this study is to compare the clinical benefit of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone with placebo plus prednisone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) who have failed one or two chemotherapy regimens, one of which contains docetaxel. All patients involved in the study will be randomized (assigned by chance) into one of two arms and will not know what study drug is being given to them. Study drug randomization allocation will be 2:1 (abiraterone acetate: placebo). The study will be conducted in the United States, Canada, Australia, and the EU. The study will consist of screening, treatment, and follow-up. In this study, patients will receive study treatment (abiraterone acetate or placebo) plus prednisone until progression of clinical disease. Follow-up will continue until ...
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous malignancy of men in the United States and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men. Novel approaches are necessary to personalize and improve treatment. The androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in the normal development and function of the prostate and promotes growth in most prostate cancers. Most patients with advanced prostate cancer have cancer that will initially respond to androgen-targeting therapy (focusing on decreasing the circulating levels of testosterone which is the primary source of ligand for the AR receptor). However, castrate resistance usually develops within 18 to 24 months and the median survival of men with castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) ranges between 12 to 18 months. Current options are limited including: secondary hormonal manipulations, radiopharmaceuticals, and chemotherapy and only docetaxel, a taxane that targets microtubules, has been proven to prolong ...
The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has recommended darolutamide, an androgen receptor inhibitor (ARi), for marketing authorization in the European Union (EU).. The compound, which is developed jointly by Orion Corporation and Bayer, is recommended for the treatment of men with non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC), who are at high risk of developing metastatic disease. The final decision of the European Commission on the marketing authorisation is expected in the coming months. The androgen receptor inhibitor (ARi) is already approved in the in the U.S., Brazil and Japan and filings in other regions are underway or planned by Bayer.. Bayer is responsible for global commercialization of darolutamide, with a co-promotion of Bayer and Orion in certain European markets, e.g. in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK, Scandinavia and Finland.. The CHMP recommendation is based on the results of the Phase III ARAMIS ...
See also: Castration § Medical consequences. Advantages[edit]. Besides being a birth control method, and being convenient to ... "Immunohistochemical characterization of canine prostatic carcinoma and correlation with castration status and castration time ... Orthodox Judaism forbids the castration of both humans and non-human animals by Jews,[77] except in lifesaving situations.[78] ... The male-specific term is castration, while spaying is usually reserved for female animals. Colloquially, both terms are often ...
Chemical castration[edit]. Main article: Chemical castration. In the case of chemical castration, ongoing regular injections of ... "Upside to castration? Eunuchs lived longer, study finds".. *^ "Can Castration Be a Solution for Sex Offenders? Man Who ... castration refers to a castration in which the inguinal tunic is incised and not sutured. A "closed" castration refers to when ... Chemical castration seems to have a greater effect on bone density than physical castration.[citation needed] Since the ...
Castration? Lemon martini 12:09, 27 October 2006 (UTC). spread your legs farther.Lrpelkey 11:00, 28 October 2006 (UTC) ...
Veterinary medicine (assisted reproduction; chemical castration). Implant; Injection. 2005a. 9,190 Buserelin. Suprefact. Breast ... Veterinary medicine (assisted reproduction; chemical castration). Implant; Injection. 1994. 85,100 Fertirelin. Ovalyse. ... Novara G, Galfano A, Secco S, Ficarra V, Artibani W (2009). "Impact of surgical and medical castration on serum testosterone ... Chemical castration for paraphilias and sex offenders. ...
Parasites reduce host fitness by general or specialised pathology, from parasitic castration to modification of host behaviour ... There are six major parasitic strategies of exploitation of animal hosts, namely parasitic castration, directly transmitted ... Main article: Parasitic castration. Parasitic castrators partly or completely destroy their host's ability to reproduce, ... There are six major parasitic strategies, namely parasitic castration, directly transmitted parasitism, trophically transmitted ...
"Castration in the Horse". The Horse. Retrieved 2014-03-03.. *^ Schmid, Mark (February 20, 2010). "What is Castration / Spaying ... Modern surgical techniques allow castration to be performed on a horse of almost any age with relatively few risks.[24] ... One branch of the animal rights community maintains that castration is mutilation and damaging to the animal's psyche.[25] ...
"Castration, the HIV Scandal." Speech. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge, Mass: April 10, 1996. ...
Castration-resistant. Most hormone dependent cancers become resistant to treatment after one to three years and resume growth ... This discovery of "chemical castration" won Huggins the 1966 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.[170] The role of the ... Seruga B, Ocana A, Tannock IF (January 2011). "Drug resistance in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer". Nature ... Previously considered "hormone-refractory prostate cancer" or "androgen-independent prostate cancer", the term castration- ...
By type of procedure: Amputation involves cutting off a body part, usually a limb or digit; castration is also an example. ...
Capture, castration and servitudeEdit. Ma He was captured by the Ming armies at Yunnan in 1381.[11] General Fu Youde saw Ma He ... although another source indicates the castration occurred in 1385.[21] ...
CastrationEdit. Main article: Castration. Castration in the genital modification and mutilation context is the removal of the ... Hemi-castrationEdit. The removal of one testicle (sometimes referred to as unilateral castration) is usually done in the modern ... Castration has been performed in many cultures throughout history, but is now rare. In the 21st century, castration has been ... Also known as total castration or nullification, emasculation is the combination of castration and penectomy. ...
The 18th-century Russian Skoptzy (скопцы) sect was an example of a castration cult, where its members regarded castration as a ... Religious castrationEdit. Castration as part of religious practice, and eunuchs occupying religious roles, have been ... Maekawa, Kazuya (1980). Animal and human castration in Sumer, Part II: Human castration in the Ur III period. Zinbun [Journal ... Coptic castration of slaves was discussed by Peter Charles Remondino, in his book History of Circumcision from the Earliest ...
Castration was also practiced in the Middle Ages. A common pre-modern treatment of leprosy was chaulmoogra oil. The oil has ...
Removal of the ovaries of females is the biological equivalent of castration of males; the term castration is only occasionally ... "Alabama lawmaker proposes castration bill for sex offenders". salon.com. 7 March 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2018.. ... 1967). "Time interval from castration in premenopausal women to development of excessive coronary atherosclerosis". Am. J. ...
Castration awaits." Another of her most well-known pieces features Jesus about to get run over, standing with his back turned ...
One small study has shown that medical castration lowers the serum and prostate hormone levels unevenly, having less effect on ... In canine in vivo studies castration, which significantly reduced androgen levels but left estrogen levels unchanged, caused ... The average time since castration was 54 years (range, 41-65 years). On the other hand, some studies suggest that administering ... "Persistent Intraprostatic Androgen Concentrations after Medical Castration in Healthy Men". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology ...
"Upside to castration? Eunuchs lived longer, study finds". Reuters via NBC. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2012. ...
Castration in males. The testicles are surgically removed. This is frequently used for the sterilization of animals, but rarely ...
How Castration Works. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 2016-03-17. How Maglev Trains Work. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 2016-03-17. How ...
Chemical Castration "Real moments of musical entropy here..." -- XXX Fanzine "As much as I hate doing this to someone as good ... Chemical Castration (4). 1988. "Hullabaloo-It's Not Enough to be Loud, You Have To Suck To". XXX fanzine (20). 1988. Maximum ... "Hullabaloo-It's Not Enough to be Loud, You Have To Suck To". Chemical Castration (4). 1988. http://www.discogs.com/Hullabaloo- ...
Standing castrationEdit. Standing castration is a technique where a horse is sedated and local anaesthesia is administered, ... Although castrations generally have few complications, there are risks. Castration can have complication such as swelling, ... According to one in-depth study, for standing castration the complication rate is 22%, while for recumbent castration it is 6 ... For simple castration of normal animals, the advantages to recumbent castration are that the horse is prone, better asepsis ( ...
Marking' is the simultaneous mulesing, castration and tail docking of lambs.. *^ 'Mulesing' is the removal of strips of wool- ...
Although castrations generally have few complications, there are risks. Castration can have complication such as swelling, ... According to one in-depth study, for standing castration the complication rate is 22%, while for recumbent castration it is 6 ... For simple castration of normal animals, the advantages to recumbent castration are that the horse is prone, better asepsis ( ... With both castration techniques, the wound should be kept clean and allowed to drain freely to reduce the risk of hematoma ...
Modern surgical techniques allow castration to be performed on a horse of almost any age with relatively few risks. In most ... One branch of the animal rights community maintains that castration is mutilation and damaging to the animal's psyche. A ... Cable, Christina S. (April 1, 2001). "Castration in the Horse". The Horse. Retrieved 2014-03-03. Schmid, Mark (February 20, ... 2010). "What is Castration / Spaying / Neutering?". Organization for Animal Dignity. Retrieved 2011-11-06. "When is a gelding ...
Chemical castration Thermal sterilization. ...
However the subject of a son castrating his own father, or simply castration in general, was so repudiated by the Greek ... "castration" of the heavens by means of a sickle was part of a creation myth, in origin a cut creating an opening or gap between ... "The Castration of Uranus". Greek Myths. London: Penguin. p. 38. ISBN 0-14-001026-2. Walcot, "Five or Seven Recesses?" The ...
castration anxiety definition: (psychoanalysis) anxiety resulting from real or imagined threats towards sexual functions; ... Definition for "castration anxiety"*(psychoanalysis) anxiety resulting from real or imagined threats… ... How would you define castration anxiety?. All the definitions on AZdictionary were written by people just like you. Nows your ...
Thus, the time is right to present the first of what may become many: CASTRATION ANXIETY, a webcomic with no fixed subject or ...
Chemical castration[edit]. Main article: Chemical castration. In the case of chemical castration, ongoing regular injections of ... "Upside to castration? Eunuchs lived longer, study finds".. *^ "Can Castration Be a Solution for Sex Offenders? Man Who ... castration refers to a castration in which the inguinal tunic is incised and not sutured. A "closed" castration refers to when ... Chemical castration seems to have a greater effect on bone density than physical castration.[citation needed] Since the ...
"Poland okays forcible castration for pedophiles". Reuters.. *^ "Poland approves chemical castration for paedophiles". ABC News. ... "Russia introduces chemical castration for pedophiles". RT. 4 October 2011.. *^ "S. Korea enacts chemical castration law to ... Chemical castration is castration via anaphrodisiac drugs, whether to reduce libido and sexual activity, to treat cancer, or ... Unlike surgical castration, where the gonads are removed through an incision in the body,[1] chemical castration does not ...
So the Board of Supervisors is considering castration to punish mentally disordered sex offenders. Since men are not the only ... So the Board of Supervisors is considering castration to punish mentally disordered sex offenders. Since men are not the only ... Involuntary sterilization (let alone castration) of convicts is prohibited under the California Constitution. ... "No one can doubt but that under our present civilization if castration were to be adopted as a mode of punishment for any crime ...
A work of tremendous insight and extraordinary intellectual energy, The Castration of Oedipus will provoke strong reactions in ...
Castration for Prostatic Hypertrophy. Br Med J 1895; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.1777.171-d (Published 19 January 1895 ...
Analysis of records of court eunuchs in Korea suggest that castration prolongs life. Does it really, or are there other ... Isnt it a bit much to claim that castration is the key to long life?. Yes. Min says that many earlier studies show that ... Analysis of records of court eunuchs in Korea suggest that castration prolongs life. Does it really, or are there other ... so we dont know the effects of castration on lifespan in older men," says Min. ...
One morning I was called to the emergency room by the head ER nurse. She directed me to a patient who had refused to describe his problem other than to say that he "needed a doctor who took care of mens troubles." The patient, about 40, was pale, febrile, and obviously uncomfortable, and had little to say as he gingerly opened his trousers to expose a bit of angry red and black- and-blue scrotal skin.. After I asked the nurse to leave us, the patient permitted me to remove his trousers, shorts, and two or three yards of foul-smelling stained gauze wrapped about his scrotum, which was swollen to twice the size of a grapefruit and extremely tender. A jagged zig-zag laceration, oozing pus and blood, extended down the left scrotum.. Amid the matted hair, edematous skin, and various exudates, I saw some half- buried dark linear objects and asked the patient what they were. Several days earlier, he replied, he had injured himself in the machine shop where he worked, and had closed the laceration ...
Furthermore, late castration of bulls (at approximately 5 to 14 months) is employed, wherein the tool of (c) provides a ... treated for infection prevention at least around the time of castration. Accordingly, cattle growth is accelerated due to ... 16) for assisting in determining when an effective castration tensioning has been applied to a castration loop such as various ... which is substantially less stressful and more effective than other castration methods. Castration at such time achieves the ...
Anthropologists studying the bones of a famous castrato opera singer found evidence that castration affected his growth and ... Both Farinellis abnormal height and his lack of fused bones are likely related to growth delays caused by his castration. ... While overbites are certainly not rare, Belcastro and colleagues suggest it may be related to castration if the mandible did ... Both Farinellis abnormal height and his lack of fused bones are likely related to growth delays caused by his castration. ...
2019 The British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (BC SPCA). Privacy Policy. Our mission is to protect and enhance the quality of life for domestic, farm and wild animals in BC. BC SPCA is a registered charity, tax # BN 11881 9036 RR0001. ...
... The Doctors discuss a proposed Alabama bill that calls for convicted sex offenders to not only ...
Castration in humans is sometimes necessary for some cancer prevention or as a punishment or deterrent to sex crimes. ... Castration is the removal of male testes, resulting in sterility, decreased sexual desire and inhibition of secondary sex ... Surgical Castration. In surgical castration, a surgeon makes an incision in the scrotum and pulls out the vas deferens duct ... Burdizzo Castration. Used often by ranchers, a burdizzo is a pliers-like device that crushes the vas deferens and arteries to ...
Treatments and Tools for castration. Find castration information, treatments for castration and castration symptoms. ... castration - MedHelps castration Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ...
... plural castrations) 1. The act of removing the testicles. 2. (figuratively) Any act that removes power from a person ( ... Usually the behavior does not escalate to suicide and major self-mutilation (including such things as castration, amputation of ... The Basic plan covers the cost of hysterectomy or castration surgery, but the Primary plan does not. ... The " royal seal " is complete self-castration; partial mutilation is known as the " second purity." ...
The concept of castration plays an important role in psychoanalysis; see, for example, castration anxiety. Castration (as a ... castration refers to a castration in which the inguinal tunic is incised and not sutured. A "closed" castration refers to when ... Surgical castration in animals is often called neutering. The term "castration" is sometimes also used to refer to the removal ... Castration in humans has been proposed, and sometimes used, as a method of birth control in certain poorer regions. Castration ...
Indonesias health minister has proposed the introduction of chemical castration to punish pedophiles in the worlds most ... Chemical castration involves a man being injected with drugs that effectively blunt his sex drive for a period of time, and ... "Health Minister Nafsiah Mboi proposed chemical castration to deter pedophiles. But we cant comment because it is still being ... Indonesia is the latest Asian country to consider chemical castration, with India and Malaysia recently mulling similar ...
... chemical castration as a condition of parole - a requirement meant to keep perpetrators from committing similar crimes. ... Alabama Lawmakers Approve "Chemical Castration" For Sex Offenders. "Chemical castration" is a misnomer, since the process ... "Chemical castration" is a misnomer, since the process leaves the testes intact, can be reversed, and does not prevent a man ... Even if chemical castration is allowed, Stinneford said, it might fail to rehabilitate offenders because some of the side ...
... is the British governments latest initiative to check paedophilia.The government has offered what is called chemical castration ... Paedophilia: UK scientists recommend chemical castration. August 27th, 2008 - 11:15 am ICT by IANS Tweet. ... London, Aug 27 (IANS) Using drugs to simulate effects of castration is the British governments latest initiative to check ... paedophilia.The government has offered what is called chemical castration to convicted paedophiles after research showed that ...
Alabama approves chemical castration bill for some sex offenders. Alabama Gov. Kay Ivey signed a bill that requires people ... The "chemical castration" law says a judge must order anyone convicted of a sex offense involving a child under the age of 13 ... "Chemical castration" is a misnomer, as the process leaves the testes intact, can be reversed and does not prevent a man from ... Even if chemical castration is allowed, Stinneford said, it might fail at rehabilitating offenders because some of the side ...
Castration anxiety is the fear of emasculation in both the literal and metaphorical sense. Castration anxiety is an ... Castration anxiety can also refer to being castrated symbolically. In the metaphorical sense, castration anxiety refers to the ... surmised that men differ in their degree of castration anxiety through the castration threat they experienced in childhood. ... female dreamers will report more dreams containing fear of castration wish and penis envy than dreams including castration ...
I think a good place to start is to accept our own Castration (Lacan). ... Od dawna szukałem artykułu na temat The Castration Of God Faith Forward . Dzięki ... continue down the road of never-changing absolutes than we might have to accept that we have had a big hand in the castration ...
Schumacher, J. (1996), Complications of castration. Equine Veterinary Education, 8: 254-259. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3292.1996. ...
... including death and chemical castration, following an outcry over the gang rape and murder of a 14-year-old girl last month. ... Indonesia Allows Death Penalty, Chemical Castration for Child Sex Abuse. Harsher punishments follow public outcry over the gang ... allowing judges to opt for the death penalty and chemical castration in cases involving children. ...
  • It's possible that testosterone reduction therapy extends male lifespan, but Korean eunuchs were usually castrated before adolescence, so we don't know the effects of castration on lifespan in older men," says Min. (newscientist.com)
  • The major events in Farinelli's life are well-known, but Belcastro and colleagues have added their anthropological expertise to explore to more mundane parts of his life and to contribute to osteological knowledge of the effects of castration on the skeleton. (forbes.com)
  • London, Aug 27 (IANS) Using drugs to simulate effects of castration is the British government's latest initiative to check paedophilia.The government has offered what is called chemical castration to convicted paedophiles after research showed that the use of drugs can reduce further risk of offending. (thaindian.com)
  • Prostate cancer patients are distressed by the side effects of androgen deprivation and typically strive to hide or deny the effects of castration. (jhu.edu)
  • As large numbers of castrates are referenced in historical documents, the lack of castrate skeletons may be due to a lack of recognition of the physical effects of castration on the skeleton. (bl.uk)
  • Equine welfare advocates' interest in castration to curb the unwanted horse population surfaced last year when some rescues and other institutions established clinics for area horse owners. (thehorse.com)
  • Recent interest in gender and sexuality in the past has revived interest in castration as a topic, but few studies of castrate remains have occurred. (bl.uk)
  • For example, surgically castrated calves experienced negative effects between two to seven days after castration, while banded calves experienced similar effects between four to five weeks after castration. (gov.mb.ca)
  • Some cattle producers believe that delayed castration improves growth in nursing calves. (ufl.edu)
  • This belief is also endorsed by some castration tool manufacturers who claim that delayed castration creates significant weight gain advantages at weaning compared to calves castrated shortly after birth. (ufl.edu)
  • The general belief is that castration in young, sexually immature calves elicits less of a stress response and reduces the risk of castration-associated blood loss and potential for infections (King et al. (ufl.edu)
  • Usually the behavior does not escalate to suicide and major self-mutilation (including such things as castration , amputation of limbs, enucleation of eyes). (yourdictionary.com)
  • A. Castration is a mutilation and should be carried out only after much thought. (alternativevet.org)
  • BCAR4 activates GLI2 signaling in prostate cancer to contribute to castration resistance. (urotoday.com)
  • Together, our data suggest that BCAR4 may activate GLI2 signaling in PC to contribute to castration resistance. (urotoday.com)
  • Castration is the removal of male testes, resulting in sterility, decreased sexual desire and inhibition of secondary sex characteristics such as hair growth and deepening of the voice. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Chemical castration" is a misnomer, since the process leaves the testes intact, can be reversed, and does not prevent a man from reproducing. (ndtv.com)
  • Analysis of records of court eunuchs in Korea suggest that castration prolongs life. (newscientist.com)
  • Castration and castrati have always been facets of western culture, from myth and legend to law and theology, from eunuchs guarding harems to the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century castrati singers. (boydellandbrewer.com)
  • As for reindeer castration, well, one man pins the creature to the ground and another, easing the hind legs apart, takes one testicle at a time firmly in the mouth and bites. (jetsinsider.com)
  • In Freudian psychoanalysis, castration anxiety (Kastrationsangst) refers to an unconscious fear of penile loss originating during the phallic stage of psychosexual development and lasting a lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
  • The counterpart of castration anxiety for females is penis envy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Psychoanalytically, castration complex means penis envy of the female (Freud). (negroschronicle.com)
  • Castration Anxiety literally means the fear that one's penis will be cut off, but more profoundly it may symbolize the child's fear that he will, like Oedipus (see Oedipus Complex ) lose his power (and his love object as well - ie. (artandpopularculture.com)
  • A work of tremendous insight and extraordinary intellectual energy, The Castration of Oedipus will provoke strong reactions in all readers regardless of ideology. (jhu.edu)
  • Involuntary castration appears in the history of warfare, sometimes used by one side to torture or demoralize their enemies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Involuntary sterilization (let alone castration) of convicts is prohibited under the California Constitution. (latimes.com)
  • However, according to the American Veterinary Association, castration is one of the most painful experiences in a calf's life, producing both acute and chronic pain and stress. (gov.mb.ca)
  • A bill in Alabama awaiting the governor's signature would require people convicted of certain sex offenses to undergo "chemical castration" as a condition of parole - a requirement meant to keep perpetrators from committing similar crimes. (ndtv.com)
  • Alabama Gov. Kay Ivey (R) has signed a bill that will require people convicted of certain sex offenses to undergo "chemical castration" as a condition of parole - a requirement meant to keep perpetrators from committing similar crimes. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Melches S, Mellema SC, Doherr MG, Wechsler B, Steiner A. Castration of lambs: a welfare comparison of different castration techniques in lambs over 10 weeks of age. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, reducing pain during and after castration may improve performance, welfare, food safety and world market access. (gov.mb.ca)
  • Ideally you should get your vet to do the castration and disbudding so that local anaesthetic can be used, and from the animal welfare point of view this is the kindest option. (lifestyleblock.co.nz)
  • JAKARTA (Reuters) - Indonesia's health minister has proposed the introduction of chemical castration to punish pedophiles in the world's most populous Muslim nation, following a string of headline-grabbing child sex crimes. (reuters.com)
  • In the literal sense, castration anxiety refers to the fear of having one's genitalia disfigured or removed to punish sexual desires of a child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Voluntary castration for homosexuality was also state policy in Netherlands at that point, as well against Catholic canon law, and there has been no evidence suggesting the Church had a part in organizing the procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • and early-modern anxieties about punitive castration enacted on the Elizabethan stage. (boydellandbrewer.com)
  • Chemical castration involves a man being injected with drugs that effectively blunt his sex drive for a period of time, and does not involve any surgery. (reuters.com)
  • Chemical castration involves administering medication - via tablets or injection - to take away sexual interest and make it impossible for a person to perform sexual acts. (myfox8.com)
  • Castration has a long temporal and geographical span. (bl.uk)
  • Its wide temporal and geographical range, its sheaf of disciplinary approaches, make Castration and Culture a valuable collection and one that achieves a notable coherence. (boydellandbrewer.com)
  • The dosage would depend on the specific hormone-suppressing drug, Berlin said, but all chemical castration drugs would work for only as long as the person kept taking it. (ndtv.com)
  • GlobalData's clinical trial report, 'Hormone Refractory (Castration Resistant, Androgen-Independent) Prostate Cancer Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2014' provides data on the Hormone Refractory (Castration Resistant, Androgen-Independent) Prostate clinical trial scenario. (prnewswire.com)
  • This report provides elemental information and data relating to the clinical trials on Hormone Refractory (Castration Resistant, Androgen-Independent) Prostate. (prnewswire.com)
  • The databook offers a preliminary coverage of disease clinical trials by their phase, trial status, prominence of the sponsors and also provides briefing pertaining to the number of trials for the key drugs for treating Hormone Refractory (Castration Resistant, Androgen-Independent) Prostate. (prnewswire.com)
  • To understand systematically and thoroughly the androgen responsive program in the mouse prostate, we carried out microarray analysis to profile gene expression changes during prostate involution and re-growth triggered by castration and subsequent hormone replacement. (wiley.com)
  • South Carolina Judge C. Victor Pyle gave three convicted rapists a choice between jail time and castration. (wunc.org)
  • Counter arguments, though, state that not all sexual desire diminishes with castration, nor does it necessarily deter other criminal choices. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Sixty-four genes, including Nkx3.1 and probasin, and 65 other genes, including insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 and H-cadherin (H-Cad), were further identified respectively as androgen-responsive genes and genes inversely correlated with androgen, based on their down- or up-regulation following castration and up- or down-regulation following androgen replacement. (wiley.com)
  • One hypothesis is that men who accept the negative effects of hormonal treatment in exchange for shorter prison sentence are distinct in that they value freedom from incarceration higher than men who rather stay in prison for a longer time than face the side effects of chemical castration. (wikipedia.org)
  • These may also be related to the abnormal hormonal changes caused by castration. (forbes.com)
  • Castration anxiety is the fear of emasculation in both the literal and metaphorical sense. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can also tie in with literal castration anxiety in fearing the loss of virility or sexual dominance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metaphoric castration pervades a number of medieval literary genres, particularly the Old French fabliaux - exchanges of power predicated upon the exchange or absence of sexual desire signified by genitalia - but the plain, literal act of castration and its implications are often overlooked. (boydellandbrewer.com)
  • A man with AIDS convicted of sexually assaulting a young boy at Lake Tahoe was sentenced to 19 years in prison and ordered to undergo chemical castration before his release. (kolotv.com)
  • This is not the first time Hurst has proposed some version of a castration law. (ndtv.com)
  • d) treated for infection prevention at least around the time of castration. (google.ca)
  • A recent study has shown that caudal epidural anaesthesia plus an intravenous painkiller at the time of castration reduced fecal E. coli shedding, whereas a subcutaneous painkiller plus intratesticular anaesthesia improved feed intake and body weight. (gov.mb.ca)
  • No matter how much we love our goats, we have to subject them to some unpleasant procedures from time to time, like disbudding, castration and ear-tagging. (lifestyleblock.co.nz)
  • Researchers calculated that castration with anaesthetics costs €1 per piglet carried out by a vet and €13m for the total sector per year. (pigprogress.net)
  • Last year, researchers from the Dutch Animal Sciences Group, carried out a study into castration using a gas anaesthetic containing a mixture 70% CO² and 30% O². (pigprogress.net)