Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Flutamide: An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.Anxiety, Castration: Anxiety due to fantasized injuries to or loss of the genitals.Clonixin: Anti-inflammatory analgesic.Cyproterone: An anti-androgen that, in the form of its acetate (CYPROTERONE ACETATE), also has progestational properties. It is used in the treatment of hypersexuality in males, as a palliative in prostatic carcinoma, and, in combination with estrogen, for the therapy of severe acne and hirsutism in females.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Tosyl CompoundsEpididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Ketoprofen: An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.Zeranol: A non-steroidal estrogen analog.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Androgen Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and inhibit the activation of ANDROGEN RECEPTORS.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.HornsOvariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.AnilidesSexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Leuprolide: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.Testosterone Propionate: An ester of TESTOSTERONE with a propionate substitution at the 17-beta position.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE. They are commonly used to reduce the production of DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Azasteroids: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with nitrogen atoms.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Anesthesia, Caudal: Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.Finasteride: An orally active 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE inhibitor. It is used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.ThiazinesShrewsDiagnostic Techniques, Radioisotope: Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Feminization: Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Androgen-Binding Protein: Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cyproterone Acetate: An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Buserelin: A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.ResorcinolsGenitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Clusterin: A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Phenylthiohydantoin: Thiohydantoin benzene derivative.Androstane-3,17-diol: The unspecified form of the steroid, normally a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE with androgenic activity. It has been implicated as a regulator of gonadotropin secretion.Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)Goserelin: A synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE. Goserelin is used in treatments of malignant NEOPLASMS of the prostate, uterine fibromas, and metastatic breast cancer.Penile Erection: The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Androstenols: Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE which can grow in the presence of low or residual amount of androgen hormones such as TESTOSTERONE.Prostatic Secretory Proteins: Proteins secreted by the prostate gland. The major secretory proteins from the human prostate gland include PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and prostate-specific protein-94.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Transcortin: A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Nuclease Protection Assays: Techniques for measuring specific nucleic acid interaction with another nucleic acid or with a protein by digestion of the non-interacting nucleic acid by various nucleases. After all non-interacting regions are eliminated by nuclease digestion, the protected nucleic acid that remains is analyzed. DNA FOOTPRINTING utilizes this technique to analyze the DNA contact sites of DNA-BINDING PROTEINS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Hypothalamus, Anterior: The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular GRAY MATTER of the rostral portion of the THIRD VENTRICLE and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.Thyrotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Coercion: The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.Mice, Inbred C57BLTriptorelin Pamoate: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Prostatic Hyperplasia: Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome: A disorder of sexual development transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. These patients have a karyotype of 46,XY with end-organ resistance to androgen due to mutations in the androgen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANDROGEN) gene. Severity of the defect in receptor quantity or quality correlates with their phenotypes. In these genetic males, the phenotypic spectrum ranges from those with normal female external genitalia, through those with genital ambiguity as in Reifenstein Syndrome, to that of a normal male with INFERTILITY.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Criminals: Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Biomphalaria: A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.

Cooperative therapeutic effects of androgen ablation and adenovirus-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene and ganciclovir therapy in experimental prostate cancer. (1/1479)

Adenovirus-mediated transduction of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene (HSV-tk) in conjunction with ganciclovir (GCV) has been shown to result in significant growth suppression and to enhance survival in a model of mouse prostate cancer. However, this therapeutic activity is not sustained, because in most cases tumors eventually regrow and ultimately cause the death of the host. Androgen ablation, an inducer of apoptosis in prostate cells which is used widely as palliative therapy in patients with prostate cancer, was combined with HSV-tk plus GCV using an androgen-sensitive mouse prostate cancer cell line. The combination of castration and HSV-tk plus GCV led to markedly enhanced tumor growth suppression in both subcutaneous and orthotopic models compared with either treatment alone and resulted in an enhanced survival in which combination-treated animals lived twice as long as controls in the subcutaneous model and over 50% longer than controls in the orthotopic model. Further analysis of apoptotic activity demonstrated high levels of apoptosis only in combined androgen ablation and HSV-tk plus GCV-treated tumors after 14 days of growth in an androgen-depleted environment and 8 days after HSV-tk plus GCV therapy. At this time, the apoptotic index, but not the percent of necrotic tissue, was significantly higher for combination therapy-treated tumors relative to control-treated tumors or either treatment alone. These data indicate that the therapeutic effects of androgen ablation and HSV-tk plus GCV are cooperative and that increased apoptosis may, in part, underlie these activities.  (+info)

The relationship between adrogen receptors and the hormonally controlled responses of rat ventral prostate. (2/1479)

1. The administration of dihydrotestosterone to rats orchidectomized 7 days previously stimulated the synthesis of nuclear receptor in prostatic cells several hours in advance of DNA synthesis and mitosis. 2. The synthesis of nuclear receptor is tightly coupled to cell proliferation; consequently, in resting cells, there is no further net synthesis of nuclear receptor above the maximum of approx. 8000 molecules/cell. 3. After orchidectomy a rapid decline in the concentration of free androgen in the nuceus and a slower decline in the concentration of nuclear receptor are observed. 4. Owing to the apparent scarcity of receptor-inactivating factors in the nucleus, and the inverse relationship between amounts of nuclear and cytoplasmic receptors, it is concluded that the nuclear receptor is discharged into the cytoplasm after orchidectomy. 5. The formation of the cytoplasmic receptor is an early event preceding the onset of cellular autolysis. 6. Regressing prostate develops the capacity to eliminate cytoplasmic receptor, and this capacity is retained by the regenerating prostate for at least 14 days. 7. The synthesis of nuclear receptor in early G1 phase may control the entry of cells into the cell cycle and the prolonged retention of receptor in the nucleus may prevent the activation of autophagic processes.  (+info)

Testosterone control of nucleic acid content and proliferation of epithelium and stroma in rat seminal vesicles. (3/1479)

Tissue wet weight, nucleic acid content and epithelial and stromal cell numbers were measured in the seminal vesicles of sexually mature male rats. After castration, tissue weight and RNA decreased rapidly and in aprallel to reach, after 14 days, values only 15-20% of those in control (not castrated) animals. During this period, DNA decreased to a much lesser extent (by about 40%), but this change in DNA correlates well with the observed loss of cells from the epithelium. Testosterone in vivo promoted an immediate resynthesis of RNA, the value characteristic of control animals being reached within 80h. Delays occurred in the hormone-induced regain of tissue weight (30h) and DNA (40h), each of which preceded proliferation of the epithelium (40--50h). The cells of the stroma were unaffected by these changes in the androgenic statls of the animal. It is suggested that these proliferative changes in the epithelium cannot account for the previously reported induction by testosterone of basic secretory proteins in this tissue.  (+info)

Kinetic analysis of hormone-induced mitoses in epithelial cells of mouse uterus and vagina. (4/1479)

The intracellular localization of 3H-estradiol-17beta and 3H-progesterone to the different types of cells in the mouse uterus was investigated using autoradiographic techniques. The kinetics of cell proliferation in the surface epithelium of the uterus and in the vaginal epithelium (basal layer) are analysed by means of cumulative labeling method and mitosis chase method using 3H-thymidine autoradiographic procedures. The results are as follows, (1) Epithelial cell population of the uterine lumen and basal cell population of the vaginal epithelium in the ovariectomized mouse are divided into a major subpopulation of GO cells and a minor subpopulation of proliferating cells. (2) Proliferative potencies of uterine surface epithelial cells and vaginal basal cells in the ovariectomized mouse are regulated by a steroid-independent mechanisms through which the proportion of the GO cell-compartment and Tc value of the proliferating cell-compartment are determined according to their age; as the castrated mouse grows older, Tc value becomes longer and the proportion of the Go cell-compartment becomes larger. (3) If the dose levels of estrogen administered exceed the threshold value, estrogen-dependent cell proliferation will be provoked by transferring the cells in the GO cell-compartment to the proliferating cell-compartment in all or none fashion, and by reducing the Tc value of proliferating cell to 1/2-1/3 of that in the castrated mouse. (4) It is suggested that proliferating cells in the uterine surface epithelium and in the vaginal epithelium turn the cell cycle at a constant Tc value during estrous cycle, and that the tissue growth during estrous cycle is dependent on the size of the proliferating cell-compartment but not on the Tc value. (5) The results obtained from autoradiography of tritiated steroids in the mouse uterus gave a supporting clue to the kinetic data.  (+info)

An elevated bax/bcl-2 ratio corresponds with the onset of prostate epithelial cell apoptosis. (5/1479)

The prostate gland in adult male rats is highly dependent on androgenic steroids. Castration initiates the regression of this tissue through a process involving the loss of the vast majority of cells by means of apoptosis. We studied this well characterized in vivo model of apoptosis to evaluate how the expression of two particular gene products, bcl-2 and bax, known to be important for the regulation of apoptosis were affected by castration. An RNase protection assay designed to quantify the levels of bax mRNA showed that this transcript was transiently elevated after castration, reaching a peak in expression at 3 days and declining thereafter. In contrast, bcl-2 mRNA expression was continuously elevated over a period of up to 7 days after castration. The distinct changes in the expression of the mRNAs encoding these two genes were confirmed by an in situ hybridization analysis of regressing rat ventral prostate tissues. The elevation in mRNAs were apparently restricted to the secretory epithelial cells of the gland, the cellular compartment of the tissue most affected by castration. Finally, SDS - PAGE/Western blot analysis of bax and bcl-2 protein expression in the regressing rat prostate gland with bax and bcl-2-specific antibodies showed that the changes in the bax and bcl-2 protein levels were similar and consistent to that found for the mRNAs. In summary, the expression of both bax and bcl-2 gene products are uniquely modulated during castration-induced regression of the rat ventral prostate gland. The changes we observed identify a transient but marked increase in the bax/bcl-2 expression ratio of the tissue that peaks on the second and third days after castration, coinciding with the peak periods of prostate cell apoptosis. These data support previous studies done on in vitro systems wherein it was shown that the bax/bcl-2 ratio determines the apoptotic potential of a cell.  (+info)

Occurrence of permanent changes in vaginal and uterine epithelia in mice treated neonatally with progestin, estrogen and aromatizable or non-aromatizable androgens. (6/1479)

Female mice of the C57 Black/Tw strain were injected daily with 100 microng testosterone, 50 microng testosterone propionate (TP), 100 microng 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or 50 microng 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP), for 10 days from the day of birth. Two other groups of female mice were given neonatal injections with 20 microng estradiol-17 beta and 100 microng progesterone for 10 days, respectively. All mice were ovariectomized at 60 days of age and killed at 90 days. In 100% of neonatally estrogenized or androgenized, ovariectomized mice, the cranial part of the vagina was lined with stratified epithelium with either cornification or parakeratosis or mucification. Stratification only or stratification with superficial squamous metaplasia or cornification took place in the uterine epithelia of 18% of the TP-treated, 75% of the DHT-treated and 50% of the DHTP-treated, ovariectomized mice. In contrast, neonatally estrogenized, ovariectomized mice did not show the estrogen-independent, persistent uterine changes. Neonatal progesterone treatment failed to induce the permanent changes in the vaginal and uterine epithelia.  (+info)

Development of the vaginal epithelium showing estrogen-independent proliferation and cornification in neonatally androgenized mice. (7/1479)

Female mice of the C57 Black/Tw strain given 5 daily injections with 100 microng testosterone (T) or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from the day of birth showed estrogen-independent persistent proliferation and cornification of the vaginal epithelium in adulthood. The vaginal epithelium of the mice was essentially similar to that of the controls in histological structure during or shortly after neonatal injections of the androgens. In T- and DHT-mice aged over 20 days, however, a marked proliferation with or without superficial cornification took place in the epithelium lining the proximal and middle parts of the vagina (Mullerian vagina), while neither proliferation nor cornification occurred in the epithelium of the distal vagina (urogenital sinus vagina). On the second day of postnatal life in mice given a single injection with T on the day of birth, the mitotic activity in the epithelium of the middle vagina was heightened, but it dropped to the control level on the third day and remained low until 20 days. By contrast, the mitotic rates in the epithelium of the rest of the vagina in T-mice and of all parts of the vagina in DHT-mice were approximately the same as in the controls until 20 or 30 days. The mitotic rates in the epithelium of the Mullerian vagina were markedly elevated in T-mice at 20 days of age and DHT-mice at 30 days, and thereafter remained almost unchanged until 60 days of age. These results were different from the findings in mice given neonatal injections with the dose of estradiol-17 beta (E) capable of estrogen-independent vaginal cornification (Iguchi et al., 1976). The present finding seem to indicate that the mechanism involved in the induction of estrogen-independent vaginal changes by neonatal administration of androgen (T, DHT) is different from that following neonatal treatment with estrogen (E), although androgen and estrogen act directly on the vaginal epithelium of neonates.  (+info)

Ultrastructural characteristics of the vaginal epithelium of neonatally estrogenized mice in response to subsequent estrogen treatment. (8/1479)

Adult mice which had received 10 daily injections of 20 microng estradiol beginning with the day of birth were in a "persistent-estrous" state, showing ovary-independent proliferation and cornification of the vaginal epithelium. Ultrastructural changes of the vaginal epithelium in neonatally estrogenized mice was examined after a single postpuberal injection of 10 microng estradiol and compared with those seen in normal mice to estrogen. In ovariectomized normal mice, the basal cells were round. The nucleus was polygonal and contained peripheral condensed chromatin. After estradiol treatment, the basal cells became columnar. The nucleus was round to oval, containing dispersed chromatin. In neonatally estrogenized ovariectomized mice, the basal layer of vaginal epithelium consisted of round cells with polygonal nuclei, much as in normal ovariectomized mice. The nucleus occupied a large area of the cytoplasm and contained prominent nucleoli. Intercellular spaces were moderately distended. Late estradiol treatment resulted in distended intercellular spaces and in the appearance of the other cell type along with round cells in the basal layers: the columnar cells containing an oval nucleus with dispersed chromatin, resembled the basal cells in normal ovariectomized mice receiving postpuberal estrogen injection. The intercellular spaces between the columnar cells were narrow compared with those between round cells. However, the nuclei of round cells still had prominent nucleoli and peripheral condensed chromatin regardless of subsequent estrogen treatment. This fact suggests that these nuclei do not respond to estrogen. These results clearly show that the vaginal epithelium of neonatally estrogenized mice with ovary-independent persistent cornification consists of a mixed population of cells.  (+info)

  • It's possible that testosterone reduction therapy extends male lifespan, but Korean eunuchs were usually castrated before adolescence, so we don't know the effects of castration on lifespan in older men," says Min. (
  • Speaking to ISN, Tummel's Reinhard Daldrup explains how the impending ban on castration without anaesthesia has opened up a world of opportunities for working with Improvac-vaccinated, uncastrated male pigs. (
  • The court said that the punishment of castration for child rapists would lead to 'magical results', according to the Times of India report. (
  • Analysis of records of court eunuchs in Korea suggest that castration prolongs life. (
  • The Madras High Court has called for a consideration of the castration of people convicted for child sex abuse. (
  • It's possible that testosterone reduction therapy extends male lifespan, but Korean eunuchs were usually castrated before adolescence, so we don't know the effects of castration on lifespan in older men," says Min. (
  • The major events in Farinelli's life are well-known, but Belcastro and colleagues have added their anthropological expertise to explore to more mundane parts of his life and to contribute to osteological knowledge of the effects of castration on the skeleton. (
  • London, Aug 27 (IANS) Using drugs to simulate effects of castration is the British government's latest initiative to check paedophilia.The government has offered what is called chemical castration to convicted paedophiles after research showed that the use of drugs can reduce further risk of offending. (
  • Prostate cancer patients are distressed by the side effects of androgen deprivation and typically strive to hide or deny the effects of castration. (
  • An experimental molecular radiopharmaceutical, 177 Lu-PSMA-617 (LuPSMA), appeared to be more active than the chemotherapy drug Jevtana (cabazitaxel) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) whose disease progressed after receiving treatment with the chemotherapy docetaxel, according to data from the TheraP trial presented at the 2020 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Virtual Scientific Program. (
  • The term "castration" may also be sometimes used to refer to emasculation where both the testicles and the penis are removed together. (
  • Wim Deetman was criticized by the Dutch parliament for excluding evidence of castration in his report on sexual abuse by the Roman Catholic Church, where ten children were allegedly "punished" by castration in the 1950s for reporting sexual abuse by Roman Catholic priests. (
  • In May 2016, The New York Times reported that a number of countries use chemical castration on rapists and pedophiles , often in return for reduced sentences. (
  • South Carolina Judge C. Victor Pyle gave three convicted rapists a choice between jail time and castration. (
  • There should be maximum punishment to the rapists, death penalty or emasculation (chemical castration of the rapist)," senior BJP leader Venkiah Naidu told reporters here. (
  • His suggestions come close on the heels of Congress proposing castration for rapists. (
  • Close on the heels of the government promulgating an ordinance that provides for death penalty for those convicted of raping girls below the age of 12, the Supreme Court Women Lawyers Association (SCWLA) has made a representation to the Prime Minister's Office, seeking chemical castration as additional punishment for child rapists. (
  • In the 1980s-90s, critics, including the American Civil Liberties Union, have variously argued that chemical castration violates Fourteenth Amendment rights to privacy and Eighth Amendment protections from cruel and unusual punishment. (
  • In this same period, Dr. Kellogg and others in America and English-speaking countries offered to Victorian parents circumcision and in grave instances, castration of their boys and girls as a terminal cure and punishment for a wide variety of misbehaviours (notably masturbation) and ills, becoming very popular over time. (
  • As a federal judge more dramatically, if less pertinently, wrote: "No one can doubt but that under our present civilization if castration were to be adopted as a mode of punishment for any crime, all minds would so revolt that all courts without hesitation would declare it to be (constitutionally prohibited) cruel and unusual punishment. (
  • Castration in humans is sometimes necessary for some cancer prevention or as a punishment or deterrent to sex crimes. (
  • The Alabama American Civil Liberties Union said ordering chemical castration could violate the Constitution's Eighth Amendment, which forbids cruel and unusual punishment. (
  • Against the backdrop of the Delhi gang rape incident, BJP today suggested maximum punishment to the accused in rape cases-- either death penalty or chemical castration. (
  • Naidu said a similar suggestion for deterrent punishment of chemical castration had been made by the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs chaired by him. (
  • Mahalakshmi Pavani, senior advocate and SCWLA president said, "Though, following the ordinance, courts can pronounce death penalty on those convicted of raping girls below the age of 12, an additional punishment of chemical castration will act as a deterrent. (
  • A total of 41 patients with metastatic castration-resistant PCa (mCRPC) and 20 healthy volunteers were analysed on the Epic CTC platform, via high-throughput imaging of DAPI expression and CD45/cytokeratin (CK) immunofluorescence (IF) on all circulating nucleated cells plated on glass slides. (
  • Castration is the removal of male testes, resulting in sterility, decreased sexual desire and inhibition of secondary sex characteristics such as hair growth and deepening of the voice. (
  • Chemical castration" is a misnomer, since the process leaves the testes intact, can be reversed, and does not prevent a man from reproducing. (
  • People can be said to be chemically castrated or undergo chemical castration . (
  • A bill in Alabama awaiting the governor's signature would require people convicted of certain sex offenses to undergo "chemical castration" as a condition of parole - a requirement meant to keep perpetrators from committing similar crimes. (
  • Alabama Gov. Kay Ivey (R) has signed a bill that will require people convicted of certain sex offenses to undergo "chemical castration" as a condition of parole - a requirement meant to keep perpetrators from committing similar crimes. (
  • MONTGOMERY, Ala. (WSFA) - The Alabama legislature passed the bill that would require anyone convicted of a sex crime with a child younger than 13 to undergo chemical castration as a condition of their parole. (
  • As for reindeer castration, well, one man pins the creature to the ground and another, easing the hind legs apart, takes one testicle at a time firmly in the mouth and bites. (
  • In Freudian psychoanalysis, castration anxiety (Kastrationsangst) refers to an unconscious fear of penile loss originating during the phallic stage of psychosexual development and lasting a lifetime. (
  • The counterpart of castration anxiety for females is penis envy. (
  • Psychoanalytically, castration complex means penis envy of the female (Freud). (
  • Castration Anxiety literally means the fear that one's penis will be cut off, but more profoundly it may symbolize the child's fear that he will, like Oedipus (see Oedipus Complex ) lose his power (and his love object as well - ie. (
  • Voluntary castration for homosexuality was also state policy in Netherlands at that point, as well against Catholic canon law, and there has been no evidence suggesting the Church had a part in organizing the procedures. (
  • A work of tremendous insight and extraordinary intellectual energy, The Castration of Oedipus will provoke strong reactions in all readers regardless of ideology. (
  • Where tail docking and castration are unavoidable for welfare reasons, we believe pain relief should be provided if a practical method is available. (
  • Melches S, Mellema SC, Doherr MG, Wechsler B, Steiner A. Castration of lambs: a welfare comparison of different castration techniques in lambs over 10 weeks of age. (
  • Equine welfare advocates' interest in castration to curb the unwanted horse population surfaced last year when some rescues and other institutions established clinics for area horse owners. (
  • Therefore, reducing pain during and after castration may improve performance, welfare, food safety and world market access. (
  • The research group headed by Dr. Karen Schwartzkopf-Genswein of the Lethbridge Research Centre is continuing to search for easy-to-use and effective pain mitigation strategies (acute and chronic) for knife and band castration of beef cattle. (
  • Involuntary castration appears in the history of warfare, sometimes used by one side to torture or demoralize their enemies. (
  • In the literal sense, castration anxiety refers to the fear of having one's genitalia disfigured or removed to punish sexual desires of a child. (
  • But while castration-for-entertainment's-sake seems barbaric today, it was quite commonplace at the time, and its victims were celebrated. (
  • Usually the behavior does not escalate to suicide and major self-mutilation (including such things as castration , amputation of limbs, enucleation of eyes). (
  • A. Castration is a mutilation and should be carried out only after much thought. (
  • In the years following, a little more than half a dozen other states, including Florida and Texas, legalized chemical castration in some capacity, as did a handful of countries, such as Argentina, Denmark, Russia, and South Korea. (
  • An elderly Florida man with a bizarre castration obsession was busted by cops for allegedly performing a botched, at-home surgery on another man whom he met through a site on the dark web for those with eunuch fetishes, police said. (
  • In ancient times, castration often involved the total removal of all the male genitalia . (
  • Although typically associated with males, castration anxiety is theorized to be experienced in differing ways for both the male and female sexes. (
  • And while castration has been linked to longer lifespans in male lab animals, evidence from castrated people is limited. (
  • Speaking to ISN, Tummel's Reinhard Daldrup explains how the impending ban on castration without anaesthesia has opened up a world of opportunities for working with Improvac-vaccinated, uncastrated male pigs. (
  • Previous studies have shown that castration -- which removes the source of male sex hormones -- increases lifespan in animals. (
  • The behaviour of the adult entire male horse is often undesirable and the vastly eased management of the more biddable gelding means that clients often request castration of their horses. (
  • Anyway with that said, yes castration is SUPPOSED to provide the same results & yes it is DEFINATELY a MALE thing, but I'd say put that out of your mind & don't tell anyone. (
  • Castration of male and female dogs and cats is important for the animals themselves, the animals that surround them, for their caregivers, and for the whole community, as the best way to prevent unwanted kittens and puppies. (
  • In a draft bill for a tougher law to check crimes against women which could also include chemical castration in rare cases, the Congress has proposed imprisonment up to 30 years for rape convicts. (
  • Counter arguments, though, state that not all sexual desire diminishes with castration, nor does it necessarily deter other criminal choices. (
  • One hypothesis is that men who accept the negative effects of hormonal treatment in exchange for shorter prison sentence are distinct in that they value freedom from incarceration higher than men who rather stay in prison for a longer time than face the side effects of chemical castration. (
  • These may also be related to the abnormal hormonal changes caused by castration. (
  • ABVP, head of the College of Veterinary Medicine's equine ambulatory section, learned the Unwanted Horse Coalition (UHC) would lend financial support to establish a castration clinic at the university, she recognized the program as a way to deliver a valuable veterinary service to cash-strapped horse owners at no cost and to help reduce the number of horses whose owners are unable or unwilling to care for them. (
  • In April 2009, a cooperative involving the Minnesota Horse Council, Mineesota Association of Equine Practitioners, and rescues and humane societies in Minnesota established the Gelding Project to provide no-cost castration clinics to horse owners in that state. (
  • d) treated for infection prevention at least around the time of castration. (
  • Chemical castration involves a man being injected with drugs that effectively blunt his sex drive for a period of time, and does not involve any surgery. (
  • This is not the first time Hurst has proposed some version of a castration law. (
  • An Indiana man with a history of sexually abusing dogs, guinea fowl and chickens is requesting chemical castration instead of prison time! (
  • A recent study has shown that caudal epidural anaesthesia plus an intravenous painkiller at the time of castration reduced fecal E. coli shedding, whereas a subcutaneous painkiller plus intratesticular anaesthesia improved feed intake and body weight. (
  • No,.... the resolution of the dillema, IN MY OPINION, involves a combination of actions to be totally effective - to wit: Castration - however achieved (and I have several suggestions! (
  • Our partner organisation ARPA carried out another castration campaign on 23 and 24 November 2019 in the Portuguese city of Grandola on the Troy peninsula: 90 cats could be castrated, vaccinated, dewormed and released back into their colonies. (