Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.
Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.
Anxiety due to fantasized injuries to or loss of the genitals.
Anti-inflammatory analgesic.
An anti-androgen that, in the form of its acetate (CYPROTERONE ACETATE), also has progestational properties. It is used in the treatment of hypersexuality in males, as a palliative in prostatic carcinoma, and, in combination with estrogen, for the therapy of severe acne and hirsutism in females.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.
A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
A non-steroidal estrogen analog.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit the activation of ANDROGEN RECEPTORS.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
An ester of TESTOSTERONE with a propionate substitution at the 17-beta position.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
Drugs that inhibit 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE. They are commonly used to reduce the production of DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with nitrogen atoms.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.
Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.
An orally active 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE inhibitor. It is used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.
The consumption of edible substances.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
Thiohydantoin benzene derivative.
The unspecified form of the steroid, normally a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE with androgenic activity. It has been implicated as a regulator of gonadotropin secretion.
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)
A synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE. Goserelin is used in treatments of malignant NEOPLASMS of the prostate, uterine fibromas, and metastatic breast cancer.
The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE which can grow in the presence of low or residual amount of androgen hormones such as TESTOSTERONE.
Proteins secreted by the prostate gland. The major secretory proteins from the human prostate gland include PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and prostate-specific protein-94.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.
An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Sexual activities of animals.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Techniques for measuring specific nucleic acid interaction with another nucleic acid or with a protein by digestion of the non-interacting nucleic acid by various nucleases. After all non-interacting regions are eliminated by nuclease digestion, the protected nucleic acid that remains is analyzed. DNA FOOTPRINTING utilizes this technique to analyze the DNA contact sites of DNA-BINDING PROTEINS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular GRAY MATTER of the rostral portion of the THIRD VENTRICLE and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.
A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
A disorder of sexual development transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. These patients have a karyotype of 46,XY with end-organ resistance to androgen due to mutations in the androgen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANDROGEN) gene. Severity of the defect in receptor quantity or quality correlates with their phenotypes. In these genetic males, the phenotypic spectrum ranges from those with normal female external genitalia, through those with genital ambiguity as in Reifenstein Syndrome, to that of a normal male with INFERTILITY.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.

Cooperative therapeutic effects of androgen ablation and adenovirus-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene and ganciclovir therapy in experimental prostate cancer. (1/1479)

Adenovirus-mediated transduction of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene (HSV-tk) in conjunction with ganciclovir (GCV) has been shown to result in significant growth suppression and to enhance survival in a model of mouse prostate cancer. However, this therapeutic activity is not sustained, because in most cases tumors eventually regrow and ultimately cause the death of the host. Androgen ablation, an inducer of apoptosis in prostate cells which is used widely as palliative therapy in patients with prostate cancer, was combined with HSV-tk plus GCV using an androgen-sensitive mouse prostate cancer cell line. The combination of castration and HSV-tk plus GCV led to markedly enhanced tumor growth suppression in both subcutaneous and orthotopic models compared with either treatment alone and resulted in an enhanced survival in which combination-treated animals lived twice as long as controls in the subcutaneous model and over 50% longer than controls in the orthotopic model. Further analysis of apoptotic activity demonstrated high levels of apoptosis only in combined androgen ablation and HSV-tk plus GCV-treated tumors after 14 days of growth in an androgen-depleted environment and 8 days after HSV-tk plus GCV therapy. At this time, the apoptotic index, but not the percent of necrotic tissue, was significantly higher for combination therapy-treated tumors relative to control-treated tumors or either treatment alone. These data indicate that the therapeutic effects of androgen ablation and HSV-tk plus GCV are cooperative and that increased apoptosis may, in part, underlie these activities.  (+info)

The relationship between adrogen receptors and the hormonally controlled responses of rat ventral prostate. (2/1479)

1. The administration of dihydrotestosterone to rats orchidectomized 7 days previously stimulated the synthesis of nuclear receptor in prostatic cells several hours in advance of DNA synthesis and mitosis. 2. The synthesis of nuclear receptor is tightly coupled to cell proliferation; consequently, in resting cells, there is no further net synthesis of nuclear receptor above the maximum of approx. 8000 molecules/cell. 3. After orchidectomy a rapid decline in the concentration of free androgen in the nuceus and a slower decline in the concentration of nuclear receptor are observed. 4. Owing to the apparent scarcity of receptor-inactivating factors in the nucleus, and the inverse relationship between amounts of nuclear and cytoplasmic receptors, it is concluded that the nuclear receptor is discharged into the cytoplasm after orchidectomy. 5. The formation of the cytoplasmic receptor is an early event preceding the onset of cellular autolysis. 6. Regressing prostate develops the capacity to eliminate cytoplasmic receptor, and this capacity is retained by the regenerating prostate for at least 14 days. 7. The synthesis of nuclear receptor in early G1 phase may control the entry of cells into the cell cycle and the prolonged retention of receptor in the nucleus may prevent the activation of autophagic processes.  (+info)

Testosterone control of nucleic acid content and proliferation of epithelium and stroma in rat seminal vesicles. (3/1479)

Tissue wet weight, nucleic acid content and epithelial and stromal cell numbers were measured in the seminal vesicles of sexually mature male rats. After castration, tissue weight and RNA decreased rapidly and in aprallel to reach, after 14 days, values only 15-20% of those in control (not castrated) animals. During this period, DNA decreased to a much lesser extent (by about 40%), but this change in DNA correlates well with the observed loss of cells from the epithelium. Testosterone in vivo promoted an immediate resynthesis of RNA, the value characteristic of control animals being reached within 80h. Delays occurred in the hormone-induced regain of tissue weight (30h) and DNA (40h), each of which preceded proliferation of the epithelium (40--50h). The cells of the stroma were unaffected by these changes in the androgenic statls of the animal. It is suggested that these proliferative changes in the epithelium cannot account for the previously reported induction by testosterone of basic secretory proteins in this tissue.  (+info)

Kinetic analysis of hormone-induced mitoses in epithelial cells of mouse uterus and vagina. (4/1479)

The intracellular localization of 3H-estradiol-17beta and 3H-progesterone to the different types of cells in the mouse uterus was investigated using autoradiographic techniques. The kinetics of cell proliferation in the surface epithelium of the uterus and in the vaginal epithelium (basal layer) are analysed by means of cumulative labeling method and mitosis chase method using 3H-thymidine autoradiographic procedures. The results are as follows, (1) Epithelial cell population of the uterine lumen and basal cell population of the vaginal epithelium in the ovariectomized mouse are divided into a major subpopulation of GO cells and a minor subpopulation of proliferating cells. (2) Proliferative potencies of uterine surface epithelial cells and vaginal basal cells in the ovariectomized mouse are regulated by a steroid-independent mechanisms through which the proportion of the GO cell-compartment and Tc value of the proliferating cell-compartment are determined according to their age; as the castrated mouse grows older, Tc value becomes longer and the proportion of the Go cell-compartment becomes larger. (3) If the dose levels of estrogen administered exceed the threshold value, estrogen-dependent cell proliferation will be provoked by transferring the cells in the GO cell-compartment to the proliferating cell-compartment in all or none fashion, and by reducing the Tc value of proliferating cell to 1/2-1/3 of that in the castrated mouse. (4) It is suggested that proliferating cells in the uterine surface epithelium and in the vaginal epithelium turn the cell cycle at a constant Tc value during estrous cycle, and that the tissue growth during estrous cycle is dependent on the size of the proliferating cell-compartment but not on the Tc value. (5) The results obtained from autoradiography of tritiated steroids in the mouse uterus gave a supporting clue to the kinetic data.  (+info)

An elevated bax/bcl-2 ratio corresponds with the onset of prostate epithelial cell apoptosis. (5/1479)

The prostate gland in adult male rats is highly dependent on androgenic steroids. Castration initiates the regression of this tissue through a process involving the loss of the vast majority of cells by means of apoptosis. We studied this well characterized in vivo model of apoptosis to evaluate how the expression of two particular gene products, bcl-2 and bax, known to be important for the regulation of apoptosis were affected by castration. An RNase protection assay designed to quantify the levels of bax mRNA showed that this transcript was transiently elevated after castration, reaching a peak in expression at 3 days and declining thereafter. In contrast, bcl-2 mRNA expression was continuously elevated over a period of up to 7 days after castration. The distinct changes in the expression of the mRNAs encoding these two genes were confirmed by an in situ hybridization analysis of regressing rat ventral prostate tissues. The elevation in mRNAs were apparently restricted to the secretory epithelial cells of the gland, the cellular compartment of the tissue most affected by castration. Finally, SDS - PAGE/Western blot analysis of bax and bcl-2 protein expression in the regressing rat prostate gland with bax and bcl-2-specific antibodies showed that the changes in the bax and bcl-2 protein levels were similar and consistent to that found for the mRNAs. In summary, the expression of both bax and bcl-2 gene products are uniquely modulated during castration-induced regression of the rat ventral prostate gland. The changes we observed identify a transient but marked increase in the bax/bcl-2 expression ratio of the tissue that peaks on the second and third days after castration, coinciding with the peak periods of prostate cell apoptosis. These data support previous studies done on in vitro systems wherein it was shown that the bax/bcl-2 ratio determines the apoptotic potential of a cell.  (+info)

Occurrence of permanent changes in vaginal and uterine epithelia in mice treated neonatally with progestin, estrogen and aromatizable or non-aromatizable androgens. (6/1479)

Female mice of the C57 Black/Tw strain were injected daily with 100 microng testosterone, 50 microng testosterone propionate (TP), 100 microng 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or 50 microng 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP), for 10 days from the day of birth. Two other groups of female mice were given neonatal injections with 20 microng estradiol-17 beta and 100 microng progesterone for 10 days, respectively. All mice were ovariectomized at 60 days of age and killed at 90 days. In 100% of neonatally estrogenized or androgenized, ovariectomized mice, the cranial part of the vagina was lined with stratified epithelium with either cornification or parakeratosis or mucification. Stratification only or stratification with superficial squamous metaplasia or cornification took place in the uterine epithelia of 18% of the TP-treated, 75% of the DHT-treated and 50% of the DHTP-treated, ovariectomized mice. In contrast, neonatally estrogenized, ovariectomized mice did not show the estrogen-independent, persistent uterine changes. Neonatal progesterone treatment failed to induce the permanent changes in the vaginal and uterine epithelia.  (+info)

Development of the vaginal epithelium showing estrogen-independent proliferation and cornification in neonatally androgenized mice. (7/1479)

Female mice of the C57 Black/Tw strain given 5 daily injections with 100 microng testosterone (T) or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from the day of birth showed estrogen-independent persistent proliferation and cornification of the vaginal epithelium in adulthood. The vaginal epithelium of the mice was essentially similar to that of the controls in histological structure during or shortly after neonatal injections of the androgens. In T- and DHT-mice aged over 20 days, however, a marked proliferation with or without superficial cornification took place in the epithelium lining the proximal and middle parts of the vagina (Mullerian vagina), while neither proliferation nor cornification occurred in the epithelium of the distal vagina (urogenital sinus vagina). On the second day of postnatal life in mice given a single injection with T on the day of birth, the mitotic activity in the epithelium of the middle vagina was heightened, but it dropped to the control level on the third day and remained low until 20 days. By contrast, the mitotic rates in the epithelium of the rest of the vagina in T-mice and of all parts of the vagina in DHT-mice were approximately the same as in the controls until 20 or 30 days. The mitotic rates in the epithelium of the Mullerian vagina were markedly elevated in T-mice at 20 days of age and DHT-mice at 30 days, and thereafter remained almost unchanged until 60 days of age. These results were different from the findings in mice given neonatal injections with the dose of estradiol-17 beta (E) capable of estrogen-independent vaginal cornification (Iguchi et al., 1976). The present finding seem to indicate that the mechanism involved in the induction of estrogen-independent vaginal changes by neonatal administration of androgen (T, DHT) is different from that following neonatal treatment with estrogen (E), although androgen and estrogen act directly on the vaginal epithelium of neonates.  (+info)

Ultrastructural characteristics of the vaginal epithelium of neonatally estrogenized mice in response to subsequent estrogen treatment. (8/1479)

Adult mice which had received 10 daily injections of 20 microng estradiol beginning with the day of birth were in a "persistent-estrous" state, showing ovary-independent proliferation and cornification of the vaginal epithelium. Ultrastructural changes of the vaginal epithelium in neonatally estrogenized mice was examined after a single postpuberal injection of 10 microng estradiol and compared with those seen in normal mice to estrogen. In ovariectomized normal mice, the basal cells were round. The nucleus was polygonal and contained peripheral condensed chromatin. After estradiol treatment, the basal cells became columnar. The nucleus was round to oval, containing dispersed chromatin. In neonatally estrogenized ovariectomized mice, the basal layer of vaginal epithelium consisted of round cells with polygonal nuclei, much as in normal ovariectomized mice. The nucleus occupied a large area of the cytoplasm and contained prominent nucleoli. Intercellular spaces were moderately distended. Late estradiol treatment resulted in distended intercellular spaces and in the appearance of the other cell type along with round cells in the basal layers: the columnar cells containing an oval nucleus with dispersed chromatin, resembled the basal cells in normal ovariectomized mice receiving postpuberal estrogen injection. The intercellular spaces between the columnar cells were narrow compared with those between round cells. However, the nuclei of round cells still had prominent nucleoli and peripheral condensed chromatin regardless of subsequent estrogen treatment. This fact suggests that these nuclei do not respond to estrogen. These results clearly show that the vaginal epithelium of neonatally estrogenized mice with ovary-independent persistent cornification consists of a mixed population of cells.  (+info)

Examples of hormone-dependent neoplasms include:

1. Breast cancer: Many breast cancers are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), meaning that they grow in response to estrogen. These cancers can be treated with selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) or aromatase inhibitors, which block the effects of estrogen on cancer growth.
2. Prostate cancer: Some prostate cancers are androgen-dependent, meaning that they grow in response to androgens such as testosterone. These cancers can be treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), which reduces the levels of androgens in the body to slow or stop cancer growth.
3. Uterine cancer: Some uterine cancers are estrogen-dependent, meaning that they grow in response to estrogen. These cancers can be treated with hormone therapy to reduce estrogen levels.

Hormone-dependent neoplasms are often characterized by the presence of hormone receptors on the surface of the cancer cells. These receptors can bind to specific hormones and trigger signals that promote cancer growth and progression. Targeting these hormone receptors with hormone therapy can be an effective way to slow or stop the growth of these cancers.

In the medical field, the term is often used to describe various conditions that affect gender development or sexual differentiation in individuals with variations in sex chromosomes, hormones, or genitalia. Feminization can occur in individuals assigned male at birth but who exhibit female physical characteristics, such as those with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) or other intersex traits.

The term is also used to describe the effects of estrogen on the male body, particularly during puberty. For example, boys taking estrogen medication for hormone therapy may experience feminization of their physical features, such as breast tissue growth and a softer voice.

It's important to note that the term feminization is sometimes used in medical contexts to describe a process or outcome that is perceived as negative or undesirable, particularly when it comes to gender identity or expression. However, it's essential to recognize that all individuals, regardless of their gender identity or expression, deserve respect and support in their healthcare needs.

In summary, feminization within the medical field refers to a process or condition whereby male characteristics are acquired by an individual or group, often as a result of hormonal or genetic factors. The term is used to describe various conditions affecting gender development or sexual differentiation and the effects of estrogen on the male body. However, it's important to recognize that the term can be perceived as negative, and healthcare providers should approach patients with respect and sensitivity regardless of their gender identity or expression.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

Synonyms: Castration-resistant prostatic neoplasm, Hormone-refractory prostate cancer, Androgen-independent prostate cancer

Example sentence: "The patient's prostate cancer had progressed to castration-resistant prostatic neoplasms, and he was experiencing severe bone pain despite undergoing multiple treatments."

There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

Cryptorchidism can be classified into two types:

1. Abdomenal cryptorchidism: In this type, the testis is located in the abdominal cavity above the inguinal ring and is not covered by any skin or membrane.
2. Inguinoscrotal cryptorchidism: In this type, the testis is located in the inguinal canal and may be covered by a thin layer of skin or membrane.

Cryptorchidism is usually diagnosed at birth or during childhood, and it can occur as an isolated condition or as part of other congenital anomalies. Treatment options for cryptorchidism include:

1. Watchful waiting: In mild cases, doctors may choose to monitor the child's development and delay any treatment until they are older.
2. Surgical repair: In more severe cases or those that cause discomfort or other complications, surgery may be recommended to move the testes into the scrotum.
3. Hormone therapy: In some cases, hormone therapy may be used to stimulate the descent of the testes.
4. Assisted reproductive technology (ART): In cases where fertility is a concern, ART such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) may be recommended.

It's important to note that cryptorchidism can increase the risk of complications such as testicular cancer, infertility, and twisting or inflammation of the testes (torsion). Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are essential for monitoring and managing this condition.

Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.

Types of Cattle Diseases

There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:

1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.

Symptoms of Cattle Diseases

The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:

1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy

Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases

Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.

Prevention of Cattle Diseases

Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:

1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.

It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.

Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.

By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.

Adenocarcinoma is a term used to describe a variety of different types of cancer that arise in glandular tissue, including:

1. Colorectal adenocarcinoma (cancer of the colon or rectum)
2. Breast adenocarcinoma (cancer of the breast)
3. Prostate adenocarcinoma (cancer of the prostate gland)
4. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (cancer of the pancreas)
5. Lung adenocarcinoma (cancer of the lung)
6. Thyroid adenocarcinoma (cancer of the thyroid gland)
7. Skin adenocarcinoma (cancer of the skin)

The symptoms of adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Blood in the stool or urine
2. Abdominal pain or discomfort
3. Changes in bowel habits
4. Unusual vaginal bleeding (in the case of endometrial adenocarcinoma)
5. A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere
6. Weight loss
7. Fatigue
8. Coughing up blood (in the case of lung adenocarcinoma)

The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

Treatment options for adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Surgery to remove the tumor
2. Chemotherapy, which involves using drugs to kill cancer cells
3. Radiation therapy, which involves using high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells
4. Targeted therapy, which involves using drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells to kill them
5. Immunotherapy, which involves using drugs that stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells.

The prognosis for adenocarcinoma is generally good if the cancer is detected and treated early, but it can be more challenging to treat if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Treatment options include medications such as alpha-blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, minimally invasive therapies such as transurethral microwave therapy or laser therapy, and surgical intervention such as a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery.

There are also lifestyle changes that can help manage Prostatic Hyperplasia, including limiting fluid intake before bedtime, avoiding caffeine and alcohol, and following a healthy diet. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

In simpler terms, Prostatic Hyperplasia is an enlargement of the prostate gland which can cause urinary problems and discomfort. Treatment options include medication, minimally invasive therapies, and surgery, and lifestyle changes can also help manage the condition.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

There are several types of atrophy that can occur in different parts of the body. For example:

1. Muscular atrophy: This occurs when muscles weaken and shrink due to disuse or injury.
2. Neuronal atrophy: This occurs when nerve cells degenerate, leading to a loss of cognitive function and memory.
3. Cardiac atrophy: This occurs when the heart muscle weakens and becomes less efficient, leading to decreased cardiac output.
4. Atrophic gastritis: This is a type of stomach inflammation that can lead to the wasting away of the stomach lining.
5. Atrophy of the testes: This occurs when the testes shrink due to a lack of use or disorder, leading to decreased fertility.

Atrophy can be diagnosed through various medical tests and imaging studies, such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment for atrophy depends on the underlying cause and may involve physical therapy, medication, or surgery. In some cases, atrophy can be prevented or reversed with proper treatment and care.

In summary, atrophy is a degenerative process that can occur in various parts of the body due to injury, disease, or disuse. It can lead to a loss of function and decreased quality of life, but with proper diagnosis and treatment, it may be possible to prevent or reverse some forms of atrophy.

People with AIS typically have female physical characteristics, such as a lack of facial and body hair, a narrow pelvis, and underdeveloped genitalia. They may also experience infertility and heightened risk of certain medical conditions, such as gonadal dysgenesis and cardiovascular disease.

AIS is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, hormone level testing, and genetic analysis. Treatment options for the condition include hormone replacement therapy to promote masculinization and address any associated medical issues, as well as psychological support and counseling to address any gender identity or expression concerns.

It is important to note that AIS is a rare condition, and its prevalence is estimated to be around 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 20,000 male births. However, the condition is often misdiagnosed or undiagnosed, and some individuals may not receive an accurate diagnosis until later in life.

Overall, Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome is a complex and rare genetic disorder that can have significant implications for the physical and psychological well-being of affected individuals. It is important to provide appropriate medical care and support to those with AIS to help them live healthy and fulfilling lives.

Neoplastic metastasis can occur in any type of cancer but are more common in solid tumors such as carcinomas (breast, lung, colon). It is important for cancer diagnosis and prognosis because metastasis indicates that the cancer has spread beyond its original site and may be more difficult to treat.

Metastases can appear at any distant location but commonly found sites include the liver, lungs, bones, brain, and lymph nodes. The presence of metastases indicates a higher stage of cancer which is associated with lower survival rates compared to localized cancer.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

... castration refers to a castration in which the inguinal tunic is incised and not sutured. A "closed" castration refers to when ... Surgical castration in animals is often called neutering. The term castration is sometimes also used to refer to the removal of ... Castration also figured in a number of religious castration cults. Other religions, such as Judaism, were strongly opposed to ... Castration of cattle has historically been done without pain medications. All methods of castration cause pain and distress, ...
... is the fear of emasculation in both the literal and metaphorical sense. Castration anxiety is an ... Castration anxiety can also refer to being castrated symbolically. In the metaphorical sense, castration anxiety refers to the ... surmised that men differ in their degree of castration anxiety through the castration threat they experienced in childhood. ... female dreamers will report more dreams containing fear of castration wish and penis envy than dreams including castration ...
... is a common law criminal offense consisting of the intentional maiming of another person's genitalia. It ... In 2006 Rebecca Arnold Dawson was charged with malicious castration for maiming the genitals of a man with her hands. The man ... Malicious castration". North Carolina General Assembly. Retrieved 11 January 2020. "Woman charged with malicious ... Bennett, Abbie (9 April 2018). "NC woman accused of 'malicious castration,' rape and a list of other crimes, cops say". The ...
A castration cell is a basophilic cell with a large vacuole found in the anterior pituitary after castration, effective (drug) ... castration, or long-term use of alcohol. Severinghaus, Aura Edward (23 April 1932). "The effect of castration in the guinea pig ... Reese, John D.; McQueen-Williams, Morvyth (28 March 1932). "Prevention of "Castration Cells" in the anterior pituitary of the ...
This entails a legacy of castration anxiety for the boy and penis envy for the girl. Freud argued that the castration complex ... The castration complex is a concept developed by Sigmund Freud, first presented in 1908, initially as part of his theorisation ... Accordingly the girl's castration complex effects the redirection of her libidinal desires toward the father and away from the ... Once the castration complex is initiated with the child's discovery and puzzlement over the anatomical difference between the ...
Unlike surgical castration, where the gonads are removed through an incision in the body, chemical castration does not remove ... Chemical castration is castration via anaphrodisiac drugs, whether to reduce libido and sexual activity, to treat cancer, or ... "Chemical Castration". Cochrane, Joe (May 25, 2016). "Indonesia Approves Castration for Sex Offenders Who Prey ... "Poland okays forcible castration for pedophiles". Reuters. 2009-09-25. "Poland approves chemical castration for paedophiles". ...
... is the strategy, by a parasite, of blocking reproduction by its host, completely or in part, to its own ... The parasitic castration strategy, which results in the reproductive death of the host, can be compared with the parasitoid ... The parasitic castration strategy is used by some larval trematode parasites of snails and some isopod and barnacle parasites ... Parasitic castration may be direct, as in Hemioniscus balani, a parasite of hermaphroditic barnacles which feeds on ovarian ...
"Review: Castration Celebration". Horn Book Guide. Retrieved 27 March 2013. "Castration Celebration". Kirkus Reviews. May 20, ... "Castration Celebration (Review)". Common Sense Media. 3 July 2009. Retrieved 19 March 2013. Coats, Karen (2009). "Castration ... Review: Castration Celebration. Booklist. Retrieved 27 March 2013. "Review: Castration Celebration". School Library Journal ( ... Castration Celebration is a 2009 young adult novel by Jake Wizner. The book was released on May 26, 2009, through Random House ...
... is a 1991 album by Zeni Geva. It was produced by Steve Albini. It was rereleased in 2012. Trouser Press called ... "Total Castration" - 3:28 "Bigman Death" - 3:42 "Shoot Me With Your Blood" - 7:16 "Godflesh" - 4:40 "Bloodsex" - 4:51 "New Flesh ...
The Castration serial murders were a series of murders of young men committed in between two and at least five American states ... Castration, Serial murders in the United States, Unidentified serial killers, Unsolved murders in the United States, Violence ...
... is a six-track EP by American rock band A Very Loud Death, released independently by the group on ... From there we just wrote out a story of a human being losing the self, hence the symbolism of castration, and that human ... In an odd way, that's how this album views love, or any such tendency." According to Bryan Peel, "it [The Castration of the ... At their core The Castration of The Idiot is about the domestication of the self into human mores and tendencies and traditions ...
... is the first live album by American experimental rock band Swans. It was originally released ... "Swans - Public Castration Is A Good Idea". Retrieved December 20, 2020. "Swans - A Long Slow Screw". Retrieved ... "Public Castration Is a Good Idea". Allmusic. Retrieved March 2, 2013. columnist (November 1999). "Foetus: Blow". Alternative ... Mirov, Nick (July 20, 1999). "Swans: Public Castration is a Good Idea". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved March 2, 2013. " ...
Pryvillia On July 28, 2022, during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, a video was posted on Russian social media, which showed a Russian soldier torturing and castrating a Ukrainian prisoner of war with a box cutter. The Ukrainian prisoner is bound and gagged. On the following day, a continuation video was posted with possibly the same soldiers. They taped the Ukrainian prisoner's mouth with black tape, placed his head in front of his cut genitals, and shot him in the head. After that, the Russian soldiers started grabbing the POW's corpse with ropes connected to his legs. On 5 August, the Bellingcat group reported that the videos were geolocated to the Pryvillia Sanatorium, located in Pryvillia, Luhansk Oblast, and interviewed the apparent perpetrator by telephone. A white car marked with a Z - a designation marking Russian military vehicles and a militarist symbol used in Russian propaganda - can also be seen in the video; the same car can also be seen in earlier, official videos released ...
She describes her love as "innocent" yet paradoxically "guilty" of having caused a punishment (Abelard's castration). She ... After castration, filled with shame at his situation, Abélard became a monk in the Abbey of St Denis in Paris. At the convent ... castration." It is important in investigating these allegations of abuse or harassment on Abelard's part to consider the crude ...
"Castration; The eunuchs of Qing dynasty China; A Medical and Historical Review". De Historia Urologie Europace. 15: 39-47. ... "Castration secrets of China's last eunuch revealed". ABC Online. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2009-03-16. Retrieved ...
Throughout history, castration often served a specific social function. The earliest records for intentional castration to ... The 18th-century Russian Skoptzy (скопцы) sect was an example of a castration cult, where its members regarded castration as a ... The same source reports later adult castrations as having a survival rate of 98%. Consequently, the accounts of castration by ... Maekawa, Kazuya (1980). Animal and human castration in Sumer, Part II: Human castration in the Ur III period. Zinbun [Journal ...
It differs from castration, which is the removal of the testicles only, although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. ... Castration, by comparison, was called the Lesser Seal. Emasculation was preferable because it rendered a recipient physically ... Engelstein, L (1999). Castration and the Heavenly Kingdom: A Russian Folktale. Ithaca, London: Cornell University Press. Evens ... Money, John (16 June 1988). "The Skoptic Syndrome: Castration and Genital Self-Mutilation as an Example of Sexual Body-Image ...
A Castration! A Typhoon!" Roger Ebert called it "the embodiment of those old movie posters where the title is hewn from solid ...
Castration awaits." Another of her most well-known pieces features Jesus about to get run over, standing with his back turned ...
The idea of castration is derived from Freud's concepts of sexual difference, believing that women are substantially different ... "Castration Complex ,". Retrieved 17 October 2018. Chanter, Tina (2010). "Abjection, or ... The Monstrous Feminine discusses the psychoanalysis theories of Sigmund Freud, primarily ideas of castration and the female ... as Creed explains that Freud's compares the female genitalia to Medusa as men fear castration from the sight of her. Barbara ...
As the castration of pigs has also become an animal welfare issue across Europe, non-castration is considered a double ... Castration is carried out across most of Europe as male pigs are generally brought to heavier carcase weights and, without ... "Castration of Pigs". The Pig Site. 25 January 2008. Archived from the original on 24 February 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2015 ... castration, 'boar taint' may become an issue. Boar taint refers to the unpleasant odour and flavour characteristics noted in ...
"Upside to castration? Eunuchs lived longer, study finds". Reuters via NBC. 24 September 2012. Archived from the original on 27 ...
"Castration of Piglets". Archived from the original on 2016-11-21. Retrieved 2016-11-21. Swiss Agriculture Pocket Statistics ... and piglet castration are banned. In 2014, Switzerland received a grade A out of possible grades A, B, C, D, E, F or G on World ...
"L'Isle-Verte seniors' home fire raises ire over sprinkler regulation". Canadian Broadcorping Castration. Retrieved 2014-01-25. ...
Castration in males. The testicles are surgically removed. This is frequently used for the sterilization of animals, but rarely ...
Carpenter-McMillan is an advocate of chemical castration and played a major role in the passage of the 1996 chemical castration ... "Campaigning for Castration". SFGATE. 1998-05-04. Retrieved 2022-09-29. Dowd, Maureen (1998-05-03). "Opinion , Liberties; What, ...
How Castration Works. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 2016-03-17. How Maglev Trains Work. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 2016-03-17. How ...
The most common form of sterilization in dogs and cats is surgical, spaying in females and castration in males. Non-surgical ... When given as long-acting implants, these cause "medical castration," that is, the complete suppression of reproductive ... Several organizations, including the Parsemus Foundation, SpayFIRST!, and Calcium Chloride Castration advocate for the use of ... "Statement and Recommendations Regarding Calcium Chloride-Ethyl Alcohol Injection for Chemical Castration" (PDF). ...
Benedict, Dirk (May 2004). "Lost in Castration". Dirk Benedict Central. Archived from the original on December 20, 2013. ...
"Hullabaloo-It's Not Enough to be Loud, You Have To Suck To". Chemical Castration (4). 1988. "Hullabaloo - Regurgitator (1993, ... Chemical Castration "Real moments of musical entropy here..." -- XXX Fanzine "As much as I hate doing this to someone as good ... Chemical Castration (4). 1988. "Hullabaloo-It's Not Enough to be Loud, You Have To Suck To". XXX Fanzine (20). 1988. Maximum ...
Melches S, Mellema SC, Doherr MG, Wechsler B, Steiner A. Castration of lambs: a welfare comparison of different castration ... Notes from the Field: Campylobacter jejuni Infections Associated with Sheep Castration Wyoming, 2011. On June 29, 2011, the ... Ranch owners and employees were advised to use standardized, age-specific techniques for lamb castration (e.g., Burdizzo, ... jejuni infection with exposure during castration of lambs (2). The PFGE pattern identified in these cases had not been ...
Commuters rejoice as the newly constructed Wajitpur road brings relief and smoother travel. Thank you @RCD_Bihar @BiharRuralWorks @arwal_dm #GroundReport from #Arwal #Bihar highlighting the impact of development on peoples lives.…. ...
Wakefield Child Sex Abuse Suspect Proposes Castration In Exchange For Reduced Sentence. ... "physical castration" in exchange for a reduced sentence, but prosecutors arent interested in a deal. ...
Zookeeper Online™ 3.0.0-rc.1. Copyright © 1997-2023 J Mason ,[email protected],.. Zookeeper Online is free and open source software (FOSS) that assists in the management of various radio station functions such as music library, playlists, and charting.. You may redistribute and/or modify this software under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) version 3 or later.. Visit the Zookeeper Online project homepage for more information.. ...
Castration-for-hire suspect goes on trial for murder. 10/28/2021. October 28, 2021 ... Horst B. last lived in Markt Schwaben and admitted to the castration offenses as the trial got underway on Thursday. ...
... can re-enter their communities and provide for chemical castration of sex offenders. ... "I didnt want people to call it [castration] because its not . . . Its not castration by any means." ... The bill would give offenders a choice: agree to something called "chemical castration" as a condition of release, or stay in ... More recently, in 2019, Alabama became the seventh state to approve chemical castration for use in a similar manner to ...
Hysterectomy and Castration: the Enablers. Hysterectomy and Female Castration: Who are the enablers?Part I-University of ...
Impact of DNA Repair Pathway Alterations on Sensitivity to Radium-223 in Bone Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer. ... Castration-Resistant Prostate Carcinoma Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Bone Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma Stage IV ... This study investigates how well radium-223 works in treating patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer than has ... DNA Repair Pathway Alterations Identified by Circulating Tumor DNA on Sensitivity to Radium-223 in Bone Metastatic Castration- ...
A Phase 2 Study of Nivolumab in Combination With Either Rucaparib, Docetaxel, or Enzalutamide in Men With Castration-resistant ... Nivolumab plus rucaparib for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: results from the phase 2 CheckMate 9KD trial. J ... Nivolumab plus docetaxel in patients with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: results from the ... or Enzalutamide in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer (CheckMate 9KD). The safety and scientific validity of this ...
In just two months, governments around the world have seen it within their power to place its citizens under virtual house arrest. In some places, given all the extra time since you have no job to go...
New combination therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer. *Lawrence, Mitchell (Primary Chief Investigator (PCI)) ...
Interestingly, the apparent benefit was diminished among those who had received docetaxel in the castration-sensitive disease ... Eligible patients had asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate without previous treatment in ... including metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). It was in this disease space that change first began in ... Phase III Study of Ipatasertib plus Abiraterone vs Placebo plus Abiraterone in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer ...
The LORD is my portion," says my soul, "therefore I will hope in him." The LORD is good to those who wait for him, to the soul who seeks him. It is good that one should wait quietly for the salvation of the LORD. It is good for a man that he bear the yoke in his youth. Let him sit alone in silence when it is laid on him; let him put his mouth in the dust--there may yet be hope; let him give his cheek to the one who strikes, and let him be filled with insults. For the LORD will not cast off forever, but, though he cause grief, he will have compassion according to the abundance of his steadfast love; for he does not willingly afflict or grieve the children of men ...
Give us your email and you will be daily updated with the latest events, in detail!. ...
... and efficacy of mifepristone combined with enzalutamide in a castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) phase I/II trial. ... Enzalutamide & Mifepristone, a Glucocorticoid Receptor Antagonist, in Phase I/II Trial for Metastatic Castration-Resistant ... antagonist mifepristone combined with enzalutamide in a castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) phase I/II trial. A total ...
3 more authors) (2017) Adjusting Overall Survival Estimates after Treatment Switching: a Case Study in Metastatic Castration- ... Adjusting Overall Survival Estimates after Treatment Switching: a Case Study in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer ... for potential confounding from switching to antineoplastic therapies that are not part of standard metastatic castration- ...
Some Factors That Might Be Predictors of the Duration of Abiraterone Acetate in Men with Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. ... Some Factors That Might Be Predictors of the Duration of Abiraterone Acetate in Men with Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. ...
... castration of a member who tried to surrender and cut his f**king balls off ... ... Home Business News Wagner mercenary group confirms a castration of a member who tried to surrender and cut his f**king balls ... Wagner mercenary group confirms a castration of a member who tried to surrender and cut his f**king balls off. by LLB staff ...
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T1 - Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus placebo plus prednisone in chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration- ... Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus placebo plus prednisone in chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration- ... Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus placebo plus prednisone in chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration- ... Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus placebo plus prednisone in chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration- ...
Tag Archives: castration Local Socialists Leading Trans Protest At Florida Board Of Health Meeting In Broward 1 Reply ... This entry was posted in Latest News and tagged affirming care, Board of Health, castration, Dania Beach, Democrat Socialist, ... Posts about castration written by Tom Lauder ...
Mais la castration est-elle efficace dans chaque cas ?. Les chevauchements. Votre chien sest peut-être déjà frotté à votre ... Les comportements indésirables du chien mâle : la castration, une solution ?. Irène , 24 avril 2018 ... La castration contribue à réduire le marquage urinaire à lintérieur dans 69% des cas et à lextérieur dans 23% des cas. ... Ainsi la castration améliore dans 57% des cas le chevauchement sur les humains, dans 26% des cas le chevauchement sur les ...
Test sql injection query string, taux de testostérone castration - Acheter des stéroïdes anabolisants légaux Test sql injection ... La castration réduit lactivité sexuelle. La testostérone augmente celle-ci. Une fois le taux de castration atteint à la fin du ... Inférieur à la castration ; plus dinterruptions pour effets secondaires. Contrôle de castration simple ou avec test à lhcg. ... Evolution des taux de testostérone après castration. Castration (50 ng/dl ou 1,735 nmol/l) quatre semaines après linjection ( ...
The Sounds of Sónar by Day·Sónar FestivalThe Sounds of Sónar by Day·Sónar Festival ...
... during castration, the hours immediately after and the first seven days after castration. Chronic pain and scrotal swelling and ... How Castration Method and Age Affect Pain in Young Calves. March 19, 2018. This article written by Dr. Reynold Bergen, BCRC ... Rubber rings were used for band castration in the 1-week and 2-month calves and a Callicrate bander was used in 4-month calves ... Chronic pain beyond the first week of castration was not observed in calves castrated at 1-week or 2-months of age. Standing ...
Thirty-Five Castration Fantasies. My eBook: click the image above to purchase it on Amazon.. ...
Keywords : Anxiety; Castration; Neurosis; Joy; Death instinct. · abstract in Portuguese , French · text in Portuguese · ... JORGE, Marco Antonio Coutinho. Anxiety and castration. Reverso [online]. 2007, vol.29, n.54, pp. 37-42. ISSN 0102-7395. ... Freud emphasized the relation between anxiety and castration, whereas Lacan highlighted the dimension of joy, stemming from the ...
So now it was time to call the vet…castration required for the remaining four.. The vet arrived Monday. Four rams patiently ...
Surgical castration of sex offenders went out about 100 years ago, but it has been a dream of many doctors, police and prison ... More than 100 British sex offenders have volunteered for chemical castration. But do the drugs really make them harmless? ... may not appreciate any glib link to chemical castration. What used to be known as the worlds favourite happy pill does not end ...
Patient Management and Operationalizing Lutetium-177-PSMA-617 for Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate [...] ...
  • Despite initially responding to castration, most metastatic prostate cancer patients eventually experience progression. (
  • The bill would give offenders a choice: agree to something called "chemical castration" as a condition of release, or stay in jail. (
  • According to Cleveland Clinic, "chemical castration" refers to the use of chemicals or drugs to stop sex hormone production. (
  • They call it chemical castration, that's basically Depo-Provera [a hormonal contraceptive] injections. (
  • Research over the last 50 years suggests that drugs like medroxyprogesterone acetate, which can be used for chemical castration, are associated with a decline in male libido. (
  • This type of treatment is sometimes called "chemical castration. (
  • The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and efficacy of nivolumab in combination with rucaparib, docetaxel, or enzalutamide in participants with castration-resistant prostate cancer that has spread. (
  • For a study, researchers investigated the safety, pharmacokinetic impact, and efficacy of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone combined with enzalutamide in a castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) phase I/II trial. (
  • In this context, a post-hoc analysis of the phase 3 PREVAIL study was performed with the aim to compare enzalutamide with placebo in terms of OS, adjusting for potential confounding from switching to antineoplastic therapies that are not part of standard metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treatment pathways in some jurisdictions. (
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the oral PARP inhibitor talazoparib (Talzenna, Pfizer) plus enzalutamide (Xtandi) to treat homologous recombination repair (HRR) gene-mutated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer . (
  • Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer harboring HRR genetic alterations have even worse outcomes, and thus the FDA's approval of the talazoparib and enzalutamide combination "represents a treatment option deserving of excitement and attention. (
  • 2. Ríos González E, Martínez-Piñeiro L. Enzalutamide in castration resistant prostate cancer. (
  • Randomization was stratified according to PTEN-loss by immunohistochemical assay, receipt of prior docetaxel in the castration-sensitive disease space, progression by PSA alone, presence of visceral metastases, and geographic region. (
  • Salvage therapy for castration-refractory prostate cancer resistant to docetaxel]. (
  • BACKGROUND: Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone significantly improved radiographic progression-free survival compared with placebo plus prednisone in men with chemotherapy-naive castration-resistant prostate cancer at the interim analyses of the COU-AA-302 trial. (
  • These results further support the favourable safety profile of abiraterone acetate in patients with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. (
  • This study investigates how well radium-223 works in treating patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer than has spread to the bones (bone metastases). (
  • There has been a rapid change in the past few years for patients with advanced prostate cancer, including metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). (
  • Eligible patients had asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate without previous treatment in this disease space. (
  • Une fois le taux de castration atteint à la fin du premier mois, ce taux de testostérone est ensuite maintenu aussi longtemps que les patients. (
  • All patients maintained castration status. (
  • Despite treatment advancement in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, the disease can progress quickly, and many patients may only receive one line of therapy," lead investigator Neeraj Agarwal, MD, of the Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, said in a statement . (
  • Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), who have not received previous a.2. (
  • Some endocrine facts, such as the sequelae coined the term "hormone" for this internal of castration, are deeply rooted in the past. (
  • this is the first reported association of C. jejuni infection with exposure during castration of lambs ( 2 ). (
  • Infection with HIV is the effects of male castration on longevi- men, which is similar to patterns of strongest known risk factor for dis- ty (3). (
  • Surgery to remove the testicles (castration) stops the production of most androgens in the body. (
  • Rubber rings were used for band castration in the 1-week and 2-month calves and a Callicrate bander was used in 4-month calves. (
  • Ranch owners and employees were advised to use standardized, age-specific techniques for lamb castration (e.g. (
  • Melches S, Mellema SC, Doherr MG, Wechsler B, Steiner A. Castration of lambs: a welfare comparison of different castration techniques in lambs over 10 weeks of age. (
  • Canada's Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle requires that castration be performed by an experienced person who uses proper, clean, well-maintained equipment and accepted techniques. (
  • Strictly speaking, the effect of castrating at different ages couldn't be compared statistically, because the calves were castrated in different months, and because handling and castration techniques varied slightly between the age groups. (
  • I read several accounts where people went for actual castration because they could not stop themselves from being attracted to young boys - usually that's the case - and so, I presented it as: This is compassionate. (
  • Standing and lying behavior was significantly altered in the six to nine weeks following castration in calves banded at 4-months of age compared to control or surgically castrated calves. (
  • Regarding children with or without disabilities, 2) State University of Campinas to despise equity is a gesture similar to castration. (
  • The lawyer for a Wakefield man charged with sexually abusing multiple children at his wife's unlicensed day care center says his client is willing to undergo "physical castration" in exchange for a reduced sentence, but prosecutors aren't interested in a deal. (
  • Horst B. last lived in Markt Schwaben and admitted to the castration offenses as the trial got underway on Thursday. (
  • The treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has seen stepwise improvement since 2002, when it was shown that zoledronic acid could reduce skeletal-related event incidence. (
  • Non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC) is only seen in about 4% to 7% of patients with prostate cancer. (
  • Characterization of the prostate cancer transcriptome and genome has identified chromosomal rearrangements and copy number gains and losses, including ETS gene family fusions, PTEN loss and androgen receptor (AR) amplification, which drive prostate cancer development and progression to lethal, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). (
  • non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC). (
  • These metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers (mCRPC) have a spectrum of molecular aberrations. (
  • In spite of early responses to treatment with androgen deprivation therapy , most patients eventually progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). (
  • Until recently, patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) had limited therapeutic options once they became refractory to docetaxel chemotherapy, and no treatments improved survival. (
  • The mutational landscape of lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer. (
  • Even after castration, dogs may still serve as a source of infection because the bacteria can persist in the prostate and lymphoid tissues ( 13 , 14 ). (
  • The presence of SPOP mutation (SPOP-mutant [SPOP-mut]) may therefore impact therapeutic outcomes with AR-directed therapies and docetaxel in metastatic castration-resistant (mCRPC). (
  • Surgery to remove the testicles (castration) stops the production of most androgens in the body. (
  • Stemming from Freud's clinical report on a child's animal phobia, a careful study is done on the process of building a chain of signifiers which points to the equation castration-anxiety-repression. (