Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Dental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Inlay Casting Wax: A mixture of several dental waxes, usually containing paraffin wax, ceresin, beeswax, resins, and other natural and synthetic waxes. It is used for making patterns to determine the shape of the metallic framework and other parts of removable partial dentures. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p868)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Differential Thermal Analysis: Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Haversian System: A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Gold Alloys: Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Metal Ceramic Alloys: The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Dental Casting Investment: Material from which the casting mold is made in the fabrication of gold or cobalt-chromium castings. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p168)Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Tenotomy: Surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity that is caused by congenital or acquired shortening of a muscle (Stedman, 27th ed). Tenotomy is performed in order to lengthen a muscle that has developed improperly, or become shortened and is resistant to stretching.Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic: The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Clubfoot: A deformed foot in which the foot is plantarflexed, inverted and adducted.Dental Clasps: Metal devices for fastening together two or more parts of dental prostheses for stabilizing or retaining them by attachment to abutment teeth. For a precision attachment for a partial denture DENTURE PRECISION ATTACHMENT is available.Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Corrosion: The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Hardness Tests: A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)HornsSplints: Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Denture Design: The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.Muscle Hypertonia: Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Dental Impression Materials: Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Ulna Fractures: Fractures of the larger bone of the forearm.Denture, Partial, Removable: A partial denture designed and constructed to be removed readily from the mouth.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Bowhead Whale: The species Balaena mysticetus, in the family Balaenidae, found in the colder waters of the Northern Hemisphere. The common name is derived from the extreme arching of the lower jaw.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Denture, Partial: A denture replacing one or more (but not all) natural teeth. It is supported and retained by underlying tissue and some or all of the remaining teeth.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Administration, Buccal: Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Denture, Partial, Fixed: A partial denture attached to prepared natural teeth, roots, or implants by cementation.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Dental Soldering: The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Inlays: Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.Radius FracturesBiomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Dental Prosthesis Retention: Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Denture Retention: The retention of a denture in place by design, device, or adhesion.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Fraxinus: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported: A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Manipulation, Orthopedic: The planned and carefully managed manual movement of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, and spine to produce increased motion. The term is sometimes used to denote a precise sequence of movements of a joint to determine the presence of disease or to reduce a dislocation. In the case of fractures, orthopedic manipulation can produce better position and alignment of the fracture. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p264)Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Niobium: Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Physicochemical Processes: Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.De Quervain Disease: Stenosing tenosynovitis of the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons in the first dorsal wrist compartment. The presenting symptoms are usually pain and tenderness at the radial styloid. The cause is almost always related to OVERUSE INJURY or is associated with RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Ursidae: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.Equinus Deformity: Plantar declination of the foot.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Biofouling: Process by which unwanted microbial, plant or animal materials or organisms accumulate on man-made surfaces.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Fractures, Closed: Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Sophora: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Reducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Polycarboxylate Cement: Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Occlusal Adjustment: Selective grinding of occlusal surfaces of the teeth in an effort to eliminate premature contacts and occlusal interferences; to establish optimal masticatory effectiveness, stable occlusal relationships, direction of main occlusal forces, and efficient multidirectional patterns, to improve functional relations and to induce physiologic stimulation of the masticatory system; to eliminate occlusal trauma; to eliminate abnormal muscle tension; to aid in the stabilization of orthodontic results; to treat periodontal and temporomandibular joint problems; and in restorative procedures. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Zinc Phosphate Cement: A material used for cementation of inlays, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances and occasionally as a temporary restoration. It is prepared by mixing zinc oxide and magnesium oxide powders with a liquid consisting principally of phosphoric acid, water, and buffers. (From Bouchers' Clinical Dental Terminology, 3d ed)Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Cementation: The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.Prosthesis Fitting: The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Acrylic ResinsGlycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Decanoates: Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Traction: The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Platinum: Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Rhamnaceae: The buckthorn plant family, of the order Rhamnales, includes some species with edible fruits and some that are medicinal.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Foot Diseases: Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.Dental Articulators: Mechanical devices that simulate the temporomandibular joints and jaws to which maxillary and mandibular casts are attached. The entire assembly attempts to reproduce the movements of the mandible and the various tooth-to-tooth relationships that accompany those movements.Air Abrasion, Dental: A technique using a pneumatic, high-pressure stream of aluminum oxide to remove DENTAL ENAMEL; DENTIN; and restorative materials from teeth. In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. It is used primarily for routine DENTAL CAVITY PREPARATION.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bixaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Bixa contains bixin. Cochlospermum contains arjunolic acid and gum kondagogu (POLYSACCHARIDES).Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Tantalum: Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Hibernation: The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.West VirginiaTibial Fractures
  • The porosity was studied by x-ray radiography and density measurements. (niom.no)
  • The density of particulate reinforced AMCs decreases from 2.69 to 2.55 g/cm 3 , while the porosity increases from 0.37 to 2.45% with an increase in the fraction of reinforcing particles in the aluminum matrix from 0 to 15 wt. (chemweb.com)
  • Our nuclear lead pours consist of low porosity, high density poured lead into a customer''s supplied, fabricated weldment. (arcat.com)
  • Lindsey Berry 10th April 2009 Foundry company Lenreco has undergone several plant upgrades in the past two years in an effort to transform the predominantly cast-iron foundry into a foundry capable of working with complex materials and producing specialised castings. (engineeringnews.co.za)
  • Sylvester Haskins 11th April 2008 The body-and-disc castings for a large order of valves destined for Saudi Arabia has been manufactured and supplied to Gunric Valves by foundry and engineering works company KEW Foundries. (engineeringnews.co.za)
  • This study demonstrates how the adoption of 3DSP technology has contributed to a conventional ferrous metal casting foundry that specializes in manufacturing impellers, turbine housings and other mining equipment. (springer.com)
  • Since 1980, Svedala-Arbra's steel foundry, located in southern Sweden, has been developing methods to produce heavy steel castings using the vacuum molding method - the V-process. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The steel foundry produces about 6500 metric tons (7150 tons) annually - mainly machine and wear castings for crushers. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Compared to conventional sand molding, there are several benefits to using the V-process that result in a lower total production cost for the foundry and a high quality casting. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We are the right resource for your information requirement whether its for a manufacturer of aluminum foundry, cold casting aluminum, die casting aluminum. (iqsdirectory.com)
  • A material dusted or sprayed on foundry (casting) patterns to prevent adherence of sand and to promote easy separation of cope and drag parting surfaces when the cope is lifted from the drag. (vacaero.com)
  • Foundry sand casting has been used in many aspects. (dongruncasting.com)
  • A vacuum/Ar pressure casting machine was used to study porosity and mould filling of cast bridges of Ti. (niom.no)
  • In the first series mould filling was satisfactory in all cases, while the porosity was substantial for high Ar pressures. (niom.no)
  • Without a Ti foil (second series) all castings contained little porosity, but the mould filling was adequate only for the high permeability investment. (niom.no)
  • Rhodium is often used to give a good white colour to white gold jewellery (which is often not a good white colour) or is used selectively on yellow gold jewellery to give local areas of whiteness, often around gem stone settings, and also to plate the master model made in silver used for making the rubber mould in investment casting. (ganoksin.com)
  • A method of producing cast steel strip having low surface roughness and low porosity by casting with molten steel having a total oxygen content of at least about 70 ppm and a free oxygen content between 20 and 60 ppm, and a temperature that allows a majority of any oxide inclusions to be in a liquidus state. (patents.com)
  • Metal casting foundries all across USA are increasingly adopting the recent development in additive manufacturing including 3D sand printing (3DSP) due to its unique ability to fabricate molds and cores without any tooling requirement such as patterns, cores, core boxes, flasks among others. (springer.com)
  • Sand casting also allows most metals to be cast depending on the type of sand used for the molds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Die casting molds (called dies in the industry) tend to be expensive as they are made from hardened steel-also the cycle time for building these tend to be long. (efunda.com)
  • They date back to the period around 3,000 B.C.E. It is possible that metal casting technology , using molds originated in the Middle East. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • permanent molds were of great importance for the serial casting of lead and tin materials. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The aim of this study is to obtain how high compression ratio is required to eliminate the porosities inside the preform castings with various thicknesses, where porosity contents are different, and what are the maximum compression ratios that can be tolerated before these preform castings fail. (go.jp)
  • Porosity is the volume percentage of "void" (actually fluid- or air-filled) space in a rock, whereas permeability is defined as the rate of flow of water at a given pressure gradient through a unit volume. (britannica.com)
  • The porosity (volume of pore spaces) and permeability (capacity for transmitting fluids) of carrier and reservoir beds are important factors in the migration and accumulation of oil. (britannica.com)
  • Cast material takes up less space when solid than when liquid and this space will appear where there is a hot spot in the casting. (comunicati.net)
  • Optimization of process parameters is critical to minimize the porosity, as well as to maximize the strain at fracture performance of die cast components. (sae.org)
  • R.A. Hardin, C. Beckermann, Effect of porosity on the stiffness of cast steel. (springer.com)
  • K. Sigl, R.A. Hardin, R. Stephens, C. Beckermann, Fatigue of 8630 cast steel in the presence of porosity. (springer.com)
  • In this process, a near net shape preform is first cast and the casting is subsequently forged. (go.jp)
  • In-House die cast toolmaker to modify or make die casting tools less expensively. (peerflix.com)
  • After that, it was cast onto a glass plate using a stainless-steel knife to get a casting film of 300 μ m thickness, exposed to the atmosphere for 40 s, and then immersed into a coagulation bath of pure water. (hindawi.com)
  • We have had a great deal of success using FLOW-3D CAST to predict casting performance, to optimize quality, and to reduce cost by reducing rework, scrap, and lead-time. (flow3d.com)
  • Exhibition catalogue, Botero en Buenos Aires , Buenos Aires, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, 1994, p. 142-143 (another cast illustrated in color). (christies.com)
  • Exhibition catalogue, Botero en Madrid, exposición de escultura monumental en el Paseo de Recoletos , Madrid, Caja de Madrid in collaboration with Galería Marlborough, 1994, p. 53 (Adam) and p. 51 (Eve) (another cast illustrated in color). (christies.com)
  • This work summarizes the findings of multi-objective optimization of a gravity sand-cast steel part for which an increase of the casting yield via riser optimization was considered. (dtu.dk)
  • Used for non-ferrous casting and gray cast iron castings. (scribd.com)
  • As part of a casting process, positive models of the articles to be cast, or parts thereof, are formed by stereolithographic techniques. (google.es)
  • Cast aluminum has the advantages that other castings can not match in the process of use. (dongruncasting.com)
  • The earliest casting was a copper frog dating back to 3200 B.C.E. , cast in Mesopotamia. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • New excavations proved that they succeeded in the mass production of cast tools and farm equipment after the development of iron casting. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • There are several factors involved in choosing a suitable casting process for manufacturing cast engine blocks. (ukessays.com)
  • Some of these factors include the type of material that can be used in the casting process, the type of part that can be cast, the finish of the product, the amount of time it takes for the process, and the cost involved. (ukessays.com)
  • The results have shown that the modification of polymer membranes by the use of different amounts of the pore forming agent in their syntheses leads to significant changes in porosity and has beneficial effect on equilibrium water content. (hindawi.com)
  • Our objective is to characterize the compressive strength of ice-templated ceramics in a broad porosity range and link their mechanical behavior to the pore architecture. (nature.com)
  • Usually the ragged edged cavities are associated with the last areas to solidify in contrast to the smooth rounded voids resulting from gas porosity. (comunicati.net)
  • For the dyeing process, an important characteristic of fibres is their porosity. (britannica.com)
  • In the interim, forest management plans can include strategies to minimize vector exposure: eliminate fishing bait refuse, minimize movement of horticultural materials andinspect all nursery species before planting for the presence of worms or signs, such as their characteristic castings. (uvm.edu)
  • In single crystal specimens, casting porosity is the preferential fatigue crack initiation site, which is followed by crystallographic crack propagation along one or several octahedral slip planes. (mdpi.com)
  • For determination of influence of technological parameter on observed quantitative parameters of billet, only casting speed was changed during numerical modelling while keeping cooling intensity. (confer.cz)
  • With the new Centrifugal Casting Workspace, users will find all the tools needed to model their process and optimize design parameters. (flow3d.com)