Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Dental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Inlay Casting Wax: A mixture of several dental waxes, usually containing paraffin wax, ceresin, beeswax, resins, and other natural and synthetic waxes. It is used for making patterns to determine the shape of the metallic framework and other parts of removable partial dentures. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p868)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Differential Thermal Analysis: Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Haversian System: A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Gold Alloys: Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Metal Ceramic Alloys: The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Dental Casting Investment: Material from which the casting mold is made in the fabrication of gold or cobalt-chromium castings. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p168)Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Tenotomy: Surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity that is caused by congenital or acquired shortening of a muscle (Stedman, 27th ed). Tenotomy is performed in order to lengthen a muscle that has developed improperly, or become shortened and is resistant to stretching.Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic: The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Clubfoot: A deformed foot in which the foot is plantarflexed, inverted and adducted.Dental Clasps: Metal devices for fastening together two or more parts of dental prostheses for stabilizing or retaining them by attachment to abutment teeth. For a precision attachment for a partial denture DENTURE PRECISION ATTACHMENT is available.Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Corrosion: The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Hardness Tests: A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)HornsSplints: Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Denture Design: The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.Muscle Hypertonia: Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Dental Impression Materials: Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Ulna Fractures: Fractures of the larger bone of the forearm.Denture, Partial, Removable: A partial denture designed and constructed to be removed readily from the mouth.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Bowhead Whale: The species Balaena mysticetus, in the family Balaenidae, found in the colder waters of the Northern Hemisphere. The common name is derived from the extreme arching of the lower jaw.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Denture, Partial: A denture replacing one or more (but not all) natural teeth. It is supported and retained by underlying tissue and some or all of the remaining teeth.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Administration, Buccal: Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Denture, Partial, Fixed: A partial denture attached to prepared natural teeth, roots, or implants by cementation.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Dental Soldering: The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Inlays: Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.Radius FracturesBiomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Dental Prosthesis Retention: Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Denture Retention: The retention of a denture in place by design, device, or adhesion.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Fraxinus: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported: A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Manipulation, Orthopedic: The planned and carefully managed manual movement of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, and spine to produce increased motion. The term is sometimes used to denote a precise sequence of movements of a joint to determine the presence of disease or to reduce a dislocation. In the case of fractures, orthopedic manipulation can produce better position and alignment of the fracture. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p264)Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Niobium: Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Physicochemical Processes: Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.De Quervain Disease: Stenosing tenosynovitis of the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons in the first dorsal wrist compartment. The presenting symptoms are usually pain and tenderness at the radial styloid. The cause is almost always related to OVERUSE INJURY or is associated with RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Ursidae: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.Equinus Deformity: Plantar declination of the foot.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Biofouling: Process by which unwanted microbial, plant or animal materials or organisms accumulate on man-made surfaces.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Fractures, Closed: Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Sophora: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Reducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Polycarboxylate Cement: Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Occlusal Adjustment: Selective grinding of occlusal surfaces of the teeth in an effort to eliminate premature contacts and occlusal interferences; to establish optimal masticatory effectiveness, stable occlusal relationships, direction of main occlusal forces, and efficient multidirectional patterns, to improve functional relations and to induce physiologic stimulation of the masticatory system; to eliminate occlusal trauma; to eliminate abnormal muscle tension; to aid in the stabilization of orthodontic results; to treat periodontal and temporomandibular joint problems; and in restorative procedures. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Zinc Phosphate Cement: A material used for cementation of inlays, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances and occasionally as a temporary restoration. It is prepared by mixing zinc oxide and magnesium oxide powders with a liquid consisting principally of phosphoric acid, water, and buffers. (From Bouchers' Clinical Dental Terminology, 3d ed)Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Cementation: The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.Prosthesis Fitting: The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Acrylic ResinsGlycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Decanoates: Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Traction: The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Platinum: Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Rhamnaceae: The buckthorn plant family, of the order Rhamnales, includes some species with edible fruits and some that are medicinal.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Foot Diseases: Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.Dental Articulators: Mechanical devices that simulate the temporomandibular joints and jaws to which maxillary and mandibular casts are attached. The entire assembly attempts to reproduce the movements of the mandible and the various tooth-to-tooth relationships that accompany those movements.Air Abrasion, Dental: A technique using a pneumatic, high-pressure stream of aluminum oxide to remove DENTAL ENAMEL; DENTIN; and restorative materials from teeth. In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. It is used primarily for routine DENTAL CAVITY PREPARATION.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bixaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Bixa contains bixin. Cochlospermum contains arjunolic acid and gum kondagogu (POLYSACCHARIDES).Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Tantalum: Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Hibernation: The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.West VirginiaTibial Fractures
Buick Gran Sport
"Casting Analysis - 2. Solidification and cooling. Surface tension. Gas solubility and porosity" (PDF). Georgia Institute of ... V is the volume of the casting, A is the surface area of the casting that contacts the mold, n is a constant, and B is the mold ... the casting with large surface area and small volume will cool more rapidly than a casting with small surface area and a large ... that relates the solidification time for a simple casting to the volume and surface area of the casting. In simple terms the ...
... casting is a modified die casting process that reduces or eliminates the residual porosity present in most die castings. Rather ... Sand casting. Main article: Sand casting. Sand casting is one of the most popular and simplest types of casting, and has ... Lost-foam casting. Main article: Lost-foam casting. Lost-foam casting is a type of evaporative-pattern casting process ... Full-mold casting. Main article: Full-mold casting. Full-mold casting is an evaporative-pattern casting process which is ...
Solvent casting and particulate leaching (SCPL) allows for the preparation of structures with regular porosity, but with ... The porosity can be tailored using algorithms within the software. The scaffold is then realized by using ink-jet printing of ... A high porosity and an adequate pore size are necessary to facilitate cell seeding and diffusion throughout the whole structure ... Because most of the above techniques are limited when it comes to the control of porosity and pore size, computer assisted ...
A fluid will penetrate through the pores in the casting and eventually soak through, like a sponge. This is because at porosity ... In terms of being simply a process by which powder can be made into a monolith, freeze casting could be as old as the earth. A ... The process is similar to freeze-casting. The process is simple, but the science is, as of 2005, not well understood. The most ... Recently there was a flurry of interest in freeze-casting at the University of Bath, UK, which led most significantly to two ...
This removes any possible porosity, and also pushes the alloy grains together tighter than can be achieved by simple casting ... In the forging process, the rough casting is placed in a die set while it is still hot and semi-solid. A hydraulic press is ... After the alloy cools and solidifies it is removed from the mould and the rough casting is machined to its final shape. For ... casting, and cooling techniques are required to obtain uniformly dispersed silicon particles throughout the piston material. ...
Previous information apply only for ingot casting which is now mostly obsolete with continuous casting and strip-casting ... but the carbon monoxide leaves blowhole type porosity distributed throughout the ingot. The porosity eliminates the pipe found ... It is also used for any steel castings. Note that as the carbon content decreases the greater the problems with non-metallic ... They are characterized by a high degree of chemical homogeneity and freedom from gas porosity. The steel is said to be "killed ...
A disadvantage is a tendency for porosity in the casting, i.e. the casting can become foam-like. This can be avoided by casting ... makes it a very good casting alloy. Silumin with good castability may give a stronger finished casting than a potentially ... Usable for large castings, which can operate under heavy load conditions. Considered to not be a heat-treatable alloy, but the ... Casting is the primary use of aluminum-silicon alloys, but they can also be utilized in rapid solidification processes and ...
Fusible core injection molding
One key in casting metal cores is to make sure they do not contain any porosity as it will induce flaws into the molded part. ... Another system slowly rocks the casting dies as the molding cavity fills to "shake" the air bubbles out. The metal cores can be ... The process consists of three major steps: casting or molding a core, inserting the core into the mold and shooting the mold, ... The tooling also lasts longer than metal casting tooling due to the lack of chemical corrosion and wear. Other advantages ...
LS based GM small-block engine
The head casting (which can be viewed from the passenger side of the vehicle just in front of the valve cover) was 706. Some ... The failure was due to undetected porosity around the oil drains in the head. In 2011, Chevrolet Performance began to offer the ... The casting number, located on the top rear edge of the block, is 12561168. Applications: 2001-2004 Corvette Z06 2004-2005 ... It also uses 799 cylinder heads, which are identical to the 243 casting found on the LS6 and LS2 with the exception to the ...
Shell mold casting is a metal casting process similar to sand casting, in that molten metal is poured into an expendable mold. ... High porosity possible. Secondary machining often required. High labor cost if done manually. the advantages ok but there also ... Casting removal - After the molten metal has cooled, the mold can be broken and the casting removed. Trimming and cleaning ... The process, in general, produces very consistent castings from one casting to the next. The sand-resin mix can be recycled by ...
A mold for casting an oxhide ingot was discovered in the LBA north palace at Ras Ibn Hani in Syria. It is made of fine-grained ... The porosity of the copper ingots and the natural brittleness of tin suggest that both metal ingots were easy to break. As Bass ... Some of these marks-resembling fish, oars, and boats-relate to the sea, and they were probably incised after casting, when the ... proposes, a metalsmith could simply break off a piece of the ingot whenever he liked for a new casting. Controversy has swirled ...
Buick V8 engine
The engine had an abnormally high scrap ratio due to hidden block-casting porosity problems, which caused serious oil leaks. ... Casting-sealing technology was not advanced enough at that time to prevent the high scrap rates. The Buick 215's very high ... The 455 was one of the first "thin-wall casting" engine blocks (at GM), and because of this advance in production technology it ... was said that one of the major problems was because the factory had to make extensive use of air gauging to check for casting ...
Industrial computed tomography
Metal casting and moulded plastic components are typically prone to porosity because of cooling processes, transitions between ... Industrial CT scanning (3D X-ray) is used to detect flaws inside a part such as porosity, an inclusion, or a crack. In some ... software programs the porosity within a part is categorized by colour based on their respective sizes. ...
Cold trap (astronomy)
Silicon organic water repellent
Rule based DFM analysis for forging
... and less porosity, making such parts much stronger than a casting. All metals and alloys are forge-able, but each will have a ... One method incorporates casting a forging preform from liquid metal. The casting this then removed after it is cooled to a ... The forging process is superior to casting in that the parts formed have denser microstructures, more defined grain patterns, ...
... porosity sealing can be accomplished through a process called metal impregnating. Diagrams of two pattern types In the casting ... size of the casting, and complexity of the casting. These mold processes include: Sand casting - Green or resin bonded sand ... The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. Casting is ... V-process casting - Vacuum with thermoformed plastic to form sand molds. No moisture, clay or resin required. Die casting - ...
Foundry engineers can quickly import a 3D model of cast part, create methods elements, simulate the casting, predict internal ... Part wall thickness Solidification feed paths Minimizing porosity in cast junctions A holistic approach to zero defects ... The database includes all major metal families and casting processes; which can be customised to accommodate new alloys and ... Fast and intelligent simulation technology is employed to visualize mold filling and casting solidification in near-real time. ...
Weatherby Mark V
Due to the investment casting process and issues with porosity of metal, PFI manufactured actions did not easily accept the ... At this time it was decided that receiver and bolt would be made from forgings instead of the investment casting process as ... It was decided that all major parts would use the investment casting process. Another firm, Gardner Machine Co. of Hollywood, ...
GM Family II engine
One of the most prominently recognized qualities of the Coscast head is its inherent lack of porosity; this was achieved by ... minimizing the presence of tiny air bubbles that usually form during the standard casting process. The Coscast head can be ... Reportedly, a small number of total GM C20XE cylinder heads ever exhibited significant symptoms of porosity. The C20XE has seen ... depending on the degree of porosity, symptoms of a porous head have a tendency to vary. Many C20XE operators have described the ...
... in ingots and castings) produces hydrogen gas porosity. By far, the most damaging effect of hydrogen in structural materials is ... Hydrogen may be picked up by metals during melting, casting, shaping and fabrication. They are also exposed to hydrogen during ... Many steps can be taken to reduce the entry of hydrogen into metals during critical operations like melting, casting, working ( ... Hydrogen picked up during melting and casting segregates at internal voids and discontinuities and produces these defects ...
Dye penetrant inspection
The oxide forms blackened areas called burns on the surface of the casting, and the liberated hydrogen may cause porosity. ... Sand, permanent mold and die casting methods are used, but plaster-of-Paris casting has not yet been perfected. Sand casting in ... Permanent mold castings are made from the same alloys and have about the same physical properties as sand castings. Since the ... Sand permanent-mold, and die casting are all well developed for magnesium alloys, die casting being the most popular. Although ...
... is found to have almost the same level of porosity as Dolos with a layer coefficient of 1. The random placement of the ... De-moulding is usually carried out after 24 hours of concrete casting. A single KOLOS unit can weigh from 1.5 tons to 12 tons. ... The units are transferred from the casting bed to the stacking yard. Lifting of the units is done by slinging and hoisting with ...
Slate or "engineering bricks" with a low porosity were often used for the first few courses above ground level, and these can ... casting doubt upon the validity of the test methods employed, arguing that trials are usually conducted using "specially built ... These have a minimum porosity of 40% of total volume. Salts crystallise in these pores rather than on the plaster surface, ... for these types of mortars are based on German WTA specification 2-2-91 but without the requirement for a minimum porosity of ...
The steam bubbles exert high pressure in the metal structure, leading to cracks and joint porosity. Oxygen-free copper is not ... This is extremely important in the repair of large castings. The disadvantages are the loss of strength when subjected to high ... Manganese in some alloys may tend to cause porosity in fillets. Tends to react with graphite molds and jigs. Oxidizes easily, ...
Ceramic forming techniques include throwing, slipcasting, tape casting, freeze-casting, injection moulding, dry pressing, ... Because there is usually no pressing and sintering, glass-ceramics do not contain the volume fraction of porosity typically ... Tape casting or forming processes are also of increasing interest for other applications, ranging from open structures such as ... The most widely used speciality form is layered structures, with tape casting for electronic substrates and packages being pre- ...
In the standard die casting process the final casting will have a small amount of porosity. This prevents any heat treating or ... which is why die casting produces more castings than any other casting process. Die castings are characterized by a very ... Heated-manifold direct-injection die casting, also known as direct-injection die casting or runnerless die casting, is a zinc ... Casting of low fluidity metals.. The main disadvantage to die casting is the very high capital cost. Both the casting equipment ...
Potential applications of carbon nanotubes
The sulfur and iron increases sponge size to around 2 centimetres (0.79 in). It also increases porosity due to beneficial ... "Development of Surface-Engineered Tape-Casting Method for Fabricating Freestanding Carbon Nanotube Sheets Containing Fe2 O3 ... structured pores and the porosity can be tailored for specific applications. These 3D all-carbon scaffolds/architectures may be ... "A surface-engineered tape-casting fabrication technique toward the commercialisation of freestanding carbon nanotube sheets". ...
Non-frost-susceptible soils may be too dense to promote water flow (low hydraulic conductivity) or too open in porosity to ... About the soil and the landscape in general) of his book, Hiärne mentions the phenomenon of "earth casting" or "earth heaving ... "Om ett "jordkast" vid Glumstorp i Värmland och om dylika företeelser beskrivna av Urban Hiärne" (On an "earth casting" at ...
The glass is shaped when either fully molten, by casting, or when in a state of toffee-like viscosity, by methods such as ... Later ceramics were glazed and fired to create smooth, colored surfaces, decreasing porosity through the use of glassy, ... Ceramic forming techniques include shaping by hand (sometimes including a rotation process called "throwing"), slip casting, ... type of porosity and second-phase content, which can all be correlated with ceramic properties such as mechanical strength σ by ...
Glossary of geology
casting. The process which occurs when a liquid fills a cavity and then solidifies. If the cavity originated from the ... A volume of sedimentary rock in which a mineral cement fills the porosity (i.e. the spaces between the sediment grains).. ... decomposition of dead organisms, casting may result in the formation of fossils.. Cenozoic Era. The most recent of the ...
Gas tungsten arc welding
Due to porosity problems in ferritic steels and limited benefits, however, it is not a popular shielding gas additive. ... For GTAW of carbon and stainless steels, the selection of a filler material is important to prevent excessive porosity. Oxides ... Additionally, if the welding torch is too far from the workpiece the shielding gas becomes ineffective, causing porosity within ... porosity, and weld metal embrittlement if they come in contact with the electrode, the arc, or the welding metal. The gas also ...
Friction stir welding
The key to this method is to keep porosity intergranular during pre-sintering, so that it can be removed subsequently by HIP ... and slip casting. ... In addition to porosity, most of the interfaces or internal ... The use of evacuated glass capsules to perform HIP treatment allowed samples that showed open porosity after vacuum sintering ... It has been observed that the total volume fraction of these nanoscale pores (both intergranular and intragranular porosity) ...
First to mention "... the casting up of sands that made a bar stopping the River Cober from flowing out to Sea". 1602: Richard ... In the mid-19th century tin-waste (leavings) from mines on Porkellis Moor was reducing the porosity of the bar. From Trenear to ... circa 1850: Tin waste from the mines at Porkellis Moor begin to block the inner face of the Bar reducing the porosity. 1865: ...
This may be pure enough for galvanization, but not enough for die casting alloys, which requires special high-grade zinc ( ... to allow adequate porosity for the passage of reduced zinc vapour to the top of the retort. The reduced zinc vapour that is ... The electrolysis process consists of 4 steps: leaching, purification, electrolysis, and melting and casting. The basic leaching ... Zinc Casting: A Systems Approach (PDF), Interzinc, 1992 . Our Facilities - Monaca, retrieved 2008-04-13 . Noranda's zinc ...
PBXs are normally used for explosive materials that are not easily melted into a casting, or are otherwise difficult to form. ... The changes can also significantly alter the porosity of the material, whether by increasing it (fracturing of crystals, ... PBX powders can be pressed into a particular shape at room temperature, when casting normally requires hazardous melting of the ...
MIDAS Technical Analysis
The curves can also address price porosity and price suspension problems associated with rapidly changing volume conditions. ... a popular software trading platform which became a subscription-based utility in 2001 through Financial Data Casting. Until Dr ... frequently create more accurate forecasts while also avoiding porosity problems. Developed by Andrew Coles,PhD, Gen-4 curves ... are two drawbacks in the timing of asset price moves in MIDAS technical analysis centering on the problems of price porosity ...
Minimum Porosity Formation in Pressure Die Casting by Taguchi Method
The final MVLR model equation for porosity after substituting regression coefficients is as follows: ... The die casting part product of this study is provided through aluminium die casting factory, so the casting body no changes. A ... However, with large structural castings, defect analysis of this study focuses on maximum porosity in the selection casting, ... Maximum Porosity. The maximum porosity analysis using the Shrinkage Porosity function of the Visual-Viewer comes defined in the ...
Understanding Porosity to Prevent Defective Castings : Production Machining
Porosity can affect the structural integrity and functionality of castings, but performing vacuum impregnation at the right ... Machining can affect the porosity of a casting. Blind porosity can be opened on the opposite side to create through porosity, ... In metal castings, porosity is considered to be any void in the casting. Porosity comes in three types: blind, which is open in ... Machining can affect porosity by opening blind porosity to create through porosity and exposing enclosed porosity to become ...
Effect of shrinkage porosity on mechanical properties of steel casting sections by G. K. Turnbull | LibraryThing
Die casting simulation for shrinkage porosity prediction
... which makes possible to produce castings with specific features, suitable for the manufacturing of automotive parts, large and ... In zinc alloy a faster casting method has been developed, ... Using die casting simulation programs for shrinkage porosity ... WHAT IS SHRINKAGE POROSITY The term porosity is generally used to describe cavities produced within a solidified casting, due ... In high pressure die casting process, castings and moulds geometry design, as well as casting parameters, gating and cooling ...
CR4 - Thread: Aluminium Die Casting Porosity
Apply casting simulation with porosity prediction and adapt the injection point and part design to improve, not forgetting all ... 6 "Re: Aluminium Die Casting Porosity" by Gwen.Stouthuysen on 12/09/2016 2:22 AM (score 1) ... 6 "Re: Aluminium Die Casting Porosity" by Gwen.Stouthuysen on 12/09/2016 2:22 AM (score 1) ... Batch vacuum impregnation is a fairly normal way to solve porosity issues in cheap. problem castings. ...
Improvement of Strain at Fracture and Porosity Levels in Magnesium Die Castings Using the Taguchi Design of Experiments and...
Optimization of process parameters is critical to minimize the porosity, as well as to maximize the strain at fracture ... Improvement of Strain at Fracture and Porosity Levels in Magnesium Die Castings Using the Taguchi Design of Experiments and ... "Improvement of Strain at Fracture and Porosity Levels in Magnesium Die Castings Using the Taguchi Design of Experiments and ... Optimization of process parameters is critical to minimize the porosity, as well as to maximize the strain at fracture ...
Materials | Free Full-Text | The Production of Porous Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds with Graded Porosity by Sequential Freeze-Casting
The porosities of the inner and outer layers of the graded HA scaffolds were controlled by adjusting the initial HA contents of ... the casting slurries. The interface between the dense and porous parts was compact and tightly adherent. The porosity and ... scaffolds with porosity-graded structures were fabricated by sequential freeze-casting. The pore structures, compressive ... Keywords: freeze-casting; porous materials; porosity; graded structure; compressive strengths freeze-casting; porous materials ...
Porosity and mould filling of titanium castings | NIOM
Porosity and mould filling of titanium castings.. Herø H, M. Syverud M, Waarli M. Journal of materials Science: Materials in ... Porosity and mould filling of titanium castings. Håkon Herø, Morten Syverud and Morten Waarli , May 3rd 1993 ... A vacuum/Ar pressure casting machine was used to study porosity and mould filling of cast bridges of Ti. Two series of ... Without a Ti foil (second series) all castings contained little porosity, but the mould filling was adequate only for the high ...
Understanding Porosity in Die Casting | Die Cast Tool Design | Dynacast
Click here to learn more about controlling and preventing porosity. ... In order to control porosity in die casting one must first understand the process. ... Porosity In order to understand how to control porosity in die casting, one must first understand the basics of the process. To ... While it is not possible to achieve zero porosity in the die casting process, with well-planned tool design and a carefully ...
US Patent # 7,281,569. Casting steel strip with low surface roughness and low porosity - Patents.com
A method of producing cast steel strip having low surface roughness and low porosity by casting with molten steel having a ... Casting steel strip with low surface roughness and low porosity Abstract. A method of producing cast steel strip having low ... 2. The method of making a steel strip with low surface roughness and low porosity by continuous casting as claimed in claim 1 ... 3. The method of making a steel strip with low surface roughness and low porosity by continuous casting as claimed in claim 1 ...
Reducing Shrinkage Porosity in High-Performance Steel Castings: Case of an ASME B16.34 Gate Valve Body: Part 1-Analysis,...
Reducing Shrinkage Porosity in High-Performance Steel Castings: Case of an ASME B16.34 Gate Valve Body: Part 1-Analysis, ... K.D. Carlson, Z. Lin, R.A. Hardin, C. Beckermann, Modelling of Porosity Formation and Feeding Flow in Steel Casting, in 56th ... This study is a precursor to the development of a systematic approach for reducing shrinkage porosity in castings based on the ... shrinkage porosity X-ray computed tomography scanning electron microscopy This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ...
Forging Condition for Removing Porosities in the Hybrid Casting and Forging Process of 7075 Aluminum Alloy Casting
The casting defects such as shrinkage porosity can be eliminated by forging and the number of forging steps can also be reduced ... For the casting section of 10 mm in thickness, it requires 41% of compression ratio to eliminate all the porosities and a ... For the casting section of 15 mm in thickness, it requires 52% of compression ratio to eliminate all the porosities and a ... Keywords: hybrid casting and forging process, 7075 aluminum alloy, compression ratio, porosity ...
Porosity | in solids | Britannica.com
Porosity: A major problem in castings, porosity is principally caused by the shrinkage that accompanies solidification. Molds ... are designed to feed metal to the casting in order to keep it full as solidification proceeds, but, if this feeding is ... In metallurgy: Porosity. A major problem in castings, porosity is principally caused by the shrinkage that accompanies ... Porosity is the fraction of the volume of an apparent solid that is actually empty space. Owing to porosity, the surface area ...
ZPC Blog | Zero Porosity Casting
Vacuum & Casting Impregnation | Porosity Sealing | Ultraseal Int
We are the ultimate solution to sealing porosity. ... The global leader in porosity sealing Ultraseal offer the ... Worldwide approvals - 40 years experience of solving porosity. We enjoy approvals from all leading automotive manufacturers and ... ultimate choice of porosity sealing solutions which can be customised precisely to your process needs, giving your business ...
die casting porosity - die casting porosity online Wholesalers
... die casting porosity online Wholesalers - choose die casting porosity from 592 list of China die casting porosity Manufacturers ... die casting porosity. All die casting porosity wholesalers & die casting porosity manufacturers come from members. We doesnt ... casting Parts, OEM / ODM High Precision Rust-Proof Die Cast Molding Die casting parts, Zinc die casting parts, die casting ... of die casting: Reduces die shift Reduces gas porosity Makes insert casting easy Allows effective alloy modification Improves ...
Engineering News | Features | Foundries, Forges and Die-Casting - Page 2
... forges and die-casting sector in South Africa and Africa, focusing on skills development, research and development, new ... Quality control essential for reducing porosity. 10th April 2009 One of the most effective ways for foundries to counteract the ... in a merger of two of the most respected names in investment casting, Rely Precision Castings and IntraCast Precision Castings ... Foundry supplies large castings for export By: Sylvester Haskins 11th April 2008 The body-and-disc castings for a large order ...
Case Study: Aluminum Casting Porosity Forces the Need for Vacuum Impregnation
This facility needed to seal the aluminum casting porosity. ... The casting standards of an aluminum casting facility forced ... Case Study: Aluminum Casting Porosity Forces the Need for Vacuum Impregnation. Posted by Andy Marin on Thu, Feb 01, 2018 @ 11: ... The casting standards and aluminum characteristics forced the need for vacuum impregnation. The program was launched with a ... Improve Recovery-The DVP process pushes the sealant deep into the micro porosity, which delivers near 100% recovery in a single ...
Nausea Bracelets Merge Medical Devices with 3D Printed Wearables | Zero Porosity Casting
Influence of casting speed on centerline porosity formation in continuously cast round steel billets
Thus, occurrence of centerline porosity decreases with decrease of casting speed.. Keywords: steel, continuous casting, ... To avoid the centerline porosity formation, a description of casting parameters connection with centerline porosity is ... Centerline porosity formation is closely related with solidification of billet which can be affected by casting speed change. ... With relation of casting speed changes, the attention was paid also on metallurgical length which effects centerline porosity ...
"Some causes for porosity and leakage in non-ferrous castings" by Alfred H. Hesse
It is with a view to determine the causes for leakage in pressure castings and to devise methods for its prevention that the ... In many foundries the percentage of rejections due to leakage or porosity is quite high. This is obviously very costly since ... and by delving still farther one finds pressure castings as one of their important applications. ... Hesse, Alfred H., "Some causes for porosity and leakage in non-ferrous castings" (1941). Professional Degree Theses. 283. https ...
Porosity Metal, Porosity Metal Suppliers and Manufacturers at Alibaba.com
Wholesale Various High Quality Porosity Metal Products from Global Porosity Metal Suppliers and Porosity Metal Factory,Importer ... High Porosity Alumina Foam Ceramic Filter for foundry/iron casting/molten metal/ alloy ... Tags: Porosity Metal , Multi Porosity Metal , Microns Porosity Metal , View larger image ... Tags: 4 High Porosity Grinding Wheel , 4 High Porosity Grinding Wheel For Metal And Stainless Steel , View larger image ...
Case Studies on Integrating 3D Sand-Printing Technology into the Production Portfolio of a Sand-Casting Foundry | SpringerLink
Metal casting foundries all across USA are increasingly adopting the recent development in additive manufacturing including 3D ... J. Campbell, Complete Casting Handbook: Metal Casting Processes, Metallurgy, Techniques and Design (Butterworth-Heinemann, ... R.W. Ruddle, The Running and Gating of Sand Casting. Inst. Met. Monogr. Rep. Ser. 19 (1956) ... J. Kor, X. Chen, H. Hu, Multi-objective optimal gating and riser design for metal-casting, in Control Applications (CCA) & ...
Effect of Casting Porosity on Compressive Mechanical Property of As-Quenched Al-Cu-Mn Alloy - Internet Bookstore Pro
Abstract: The porosity, as one of common defects in casting parts, has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of as- ... Effect of Casting Porosity on Compressive Mechanical Property of As-Quenched Al-Cu-Mn Alloy. $25.00. ... Effect of Casting Porosity on Compressive Mechanical Property of As-Quenched Al-Cu-Mn Alloy quantity. ... Home / PDF Download / Effect of Casting Porosity on Compressive Mechanical Property of As-Quenched Al-Cu-Mn Alloy. ...
Prediction of Shrinkage Porosity in Femoral Stem of Titanium Investment Casting - Archives of Foundry Engineering - PAN...
Prediction of Shrinkage Porosity in Femoral Stem of Titanium Investment Casting - Archives of Foundry Engineering ... Prediction of Shrinkage Porosity in Femoral Stem of Titanium Investment Casting Journal title. Archives of Foundry Engineering ... Prediction of Shrinkage Porosity in Femoral Stem of Titanium Investment Casting. null null; Muslim Mahardika; Syamsudin, A. ... Femoral stem ; Shrinkage porosity ; Commercially pure titanium ; Investment casting Divisions of PAS. Nauki Techniczne ...
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Category:Computed tomography - Wikimedia Commons
China Adhesives & Sealants, China Adhesives & Sealants Manufacturers and Suppliers on Alibaba.com
Porosity and Measure of Casting Part with CT Scanning Video. December 15, 2015. by Andrew Larson ... Porosity and Measure Plastic Connector with 3D Scanning Video. December 15, 2015. by Andrew Larson ... Determine and evaluate the size of porosities within a cast part with CT Scanning. Watch it in action! ... Porosity and Measure Plastic Connector with the exciting technology of Computed Tomography Scanning. ...
Shrinkage porosityDefectsAlloySeal porosityPredictionAluminiumTypes of porosityCracksDensityUnderstanding PorosityEffects of porosityZincFoundryCenterline porosityOpen porosityDefectMouldPorousInclusionsMoldsAluminum die castingsSurfaceSimulationThicknessesHighLeakageNorth AmericaSteel castingsOccurVacuum impregnationFormationPermeabilityCastSuppliersPoreVoidsAffect the structural integrityManufactureComplex geometriesCharacteristicFatigueParametersTemperatureFoundries2016RejectionsStructuralMicroporosityFerrousCharacterizationAdditiveProcess is subdivided
- The appropriate multivariable linear model is a useful and efficient method to find the optimal process conditions in pressure die casting associated with the minimum shrinkage porosity percent. (hindawi.com)
- This study focused on analysis of shrinkage porosity defect with mold design and put into production casting by foundry factory conditions. (hindawi.com)
- Shrinkage porosity is one of the most common defects leading to rejection of aluminium die casting, often only showing up after much value has been added to the casting via operations such as machining, polishing, and coating. (hindawi.com)
- In die casting processes, the mould filling phase is highly critical because defects such as air entrapment and shrinkage porosity might occur. (comunicati.net)
- To predict shrinkage porosity and other defects, simulation has been increasingly used nowadays, as these software require less development cost and time than experiments. (comunicati.net)
- If the shrinkage porosity is small in diameter and limited to the very centre of thick sections it won't cause massive problems. (comunicati.net)
- The general technique for eliminating shrinkage porosity is to ensure that liquid metal under pressure continues to flow into the voids as they form. (comunicati.net)
- Using die casting simulation programs for shrinkage porosity prediction can lead to significant costs reduction thanks to major improvements in material and energy consumption, labour resources, and scraps reduction. (comunicati.net)
- This study is a precursor to the development of a systematic approach for reducing shrinkage porosity in castings based on the optimisation of design and process parameters that influence porosity formation during solidification. (springer.com)
- The casting defects such as shrinkage porosity can be eliminated by forging and the number of forging steps can also be reduced. (go.jp)
- One multi-objective optimization case with conflicting objectives was considered in which minimization of the riser volume together with minimization of shrinkage porosity and limitation of centerline porosity were performed. (dtu.dk)
- Shrinkage porosity is readily addressed by the standard solver. (esi-group.com)
- If you find out the causes and how to reduce the defects of castings will be of great significance in reducing the production cost of die casting. (hindawi.com)
- Through porosity creates leak paths that enable gas and liquids to escape, while blind porosity can cause internal corrosion and defects if cleaning solutions leech out of the voids after surface finishing. (productionmachining.com)
- Choosing the proper die casting method is the best way to avoid such defects due to pressure and air entrapment. (comunicati.net)
- For a customer knowing the factors that are going to contribute to the various defects means to be able to co-design with the casting supplier to avoid production problems. (comunicati.net)
- The porosity, as one of common defects in casting parts, has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of as-quenched Al-Cu-Mn alloy. (internetbookstorepro.com)
- I have personally modeled the filling, solidification, and cooling of countless castings, with the goal being to maximize metal cleanliness and soundness, and to control grain structure, segregation and stress related defects. (flow3d.com)
- Since most defects in lost foam castings can be traced back to the filling profile, FLOW-3D CAST 's extraordinary accuracy in simulating metal flow and foam burning provides invaluable insights for producing high quality lost foam castings. (flow3d.com)
- Filling defects such as foam residue formation are accurately tracked and located in the final casting. (flow3d.com)
- To minimize the risk of these defects, computer simulation can be used to analyze the filling sequences and optimize the casting and gating design. (thefreelibrary.com)
- But with the V-process, a more detailed analysis of the filling calculations must be carried out to minimize the risk of the casting defects that might occur due to uncontrolled filling. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Our certified and experienced technicians evaluate fabricated components for cracking, porosity, incomplete penetration, inclusions, lack of sidewall fusions and similar defects. (acuren.com)
- However, a disadvantage of castings is the inevitable presence of defects, particularly porosity. (fraunhofer.de)
- To discuss the defects in the casting and challenges to be faced while using the selected process and the methods to overcome these. (ukessays.com)
- However, the study to optimize aluminum alloy casting process in the condition of production casting factory is essential. (hindawi.com)
- In zinc alloy a faster casting method has been developed, which makes possible to produce castings with specific features, suitable for the manufacturing of automotive parts, large and small household appliances components, and hydrothermal systems. (comunicati.net)
- In this paper, a two step design of experiments, derived from the Taguchi method, was used to determine the optimum parameter settings for AM60B magnesium die casting alloy. (sae.org)
- When the molten alloy is injected into the die at high speeds, the air in the die cavity creates pressure and resistance, which in turn creates porosity. (dynacast.com)
- If your die casting company is using recycled metals, it is important to mix the pot often to create a homogeneous mixture and temperature before casting, while continuously monitoring the integrity and composition of the alloy. (dynacast.com)
- M. El-Bealy, B.G. Thomas, Prediction of dendrite arm spacing for low alloy steel casting processes. (springer.com)
- In this study, the ranges of compression ratio for the successful implementation of hybrid casting and forging process for 7075 aluminum alloy are investigated. (go.jp)
- In this study, castings with stepwise cross section are die cast with 7075 aluminum alloy. (go.jp)
- The experimental results show that for 7075 aluminum alloy, it requires a compression ratio of 30% to eliminate all the porosities in the casting section of 5 mm in thickness and a maximum compression ratio of 44% can be tolerated. (go.jp)
- In this paper, the low-pressure casting and quenching processes were conducted to prepare Al-Cu-Mn alloy specimens with various porosity values. (internetbookstorepro.com)
- Type metal, an alloy of lead, tin and antimony (with sometimes traces of copper) is used for casting hand-set type in letterpress printing and hot foil blocking. (wikipedia.org)
- Acicular morphology of silicon and intermetallic phases together with high porosity greatly reduce the fracture toughness of Al-Si alloy. (springer.com)
- Eternal Bliss Alloy Casting & Forging Co.,LTD. (hfcletter.com)
- Proudly American, Kinetic Die works with alloy die castings, cold chamber die castings, aluminum casting and more. (iqsdirectory.com)
- As a full-service custom caster, they offer aluminum castings and zinc die casting capabilities with a variety of alloy options best suited for individual applications. (iqsdirectory.com)
- A high silicon alloy is used in automotive engines for cylinder castings, AA 390 (UNS A03900) with 17% Silicon for high wear resistance. (efunda.com)
- 6. The process of claim 1 wherein the casting material is a metal or metal alloy. (google.es)
- In conventional die-casting tools, molten alloy is forced into the cavity until it flashes out between adjoining tool surfaces. (machinedesign.com)
- The reasons for choosing sand casting as the manufacturing process and gray cast iron as the alloy will be discussed further in the report. (ukessays.com)
- Vacuum impregnation is an effective way to seal porosity in castings, but companies need to choose whether to perform this operation before or after machining the casting. (productionmachining.com)
- Dry Vacuum (DV): Dry vacuum impregnation is an effective method to seal porosity and leak paths. (wikipedia.org)
- This product is also used to seal porosity in welds, castings, and powdered metal parts. (ellsworth.com)
- In the current study of die casting for Automobile starter motor casing, the following issues are focused: shot piston simulation, defect analysis, and, finally, the use of the Taguchi multiquality analytical method to find the optimal parameters and factors to increase the aluminium ADC10 die casting quality and efficiency. (hindawi.com)
- However, optimizing the conditions to render aluminium die castings of minimum porosity percent is costly and time consuming, because many experiments are necessary to find the optimal parameters. (hindawi.com)
- I am producing die casting of an aluminium component in which oil is supposed to be filled after machining the component. (globalspec.com)
- Have you considered sealing the aluminium component afterwards to cope with the porosity issue? (globalspec.com)
- Aluminum Die Casting Parts , Automotive Die - Cast Parts Quick Detail: Aluminium / Zinc Die - casting Parts, OEM / ODM High Precision Rust-Proof Die Cast Molding Die casting parts, Zinc die casting parts, die casting products, casting handle, Aluminium casting . (peerflix.com)
- Sylvester Haskins 11th April 2008 A nine-year old relationship between Cape Town-based aluminium foundry Ajax Manufacturing and Worcester-based aluminium castings company Victoria & Albert (V&A) has resulted in a thriving manufacturing business for the international market, reports V&A. (engineeringnews.co.za)
- Maximum weight limits for aluminium, brass , magnesium, and zinc castings are approximately 70 pounds (32 kg), 10 lb (4.5 kg), 44 lb (20 kg), and 75 lb (34 kg), respectively. (wikipedia.org)
- Porosity is found in many cast metal components, but it commonly found in aluminium and magnesium die castings. (wikipedia.org)
Types of porosity2
- The porosity was studied by x-ray radiography and density measurements. (niom.no)
- The density of particulate reinforced AMCs decreases from 2.69 to 2.55 g/cm 3 , while the porosity increases from 0.37 to 2.45% with an increase in the fraction of reinforcing particles in the aluminum matrix from 0 to 15 wt. (chemweb.com)
- Our nuclear lead pours consist of low porosity, high density poured lead into a customer''s supplied, fabricated weldment. (arcat.com)
Effects of porosity2
- Our aluminum castings and zinc castings have been produced since 1954. (iqsdirectory.com)
- For more than 30 years, ABCO Diecasters has served numerous industries throughout North America with quality zinc die castings weighing fractions of an ounce to eight pounds. (iqsdirectory.com)
- AccuCast specializes in precision miniature zinc die castings, handling even the most demanding specifications and limited tolerances. (iqsdirectory.com)
- This is a hot chamber die casting machine that is located in our zinc department. (cwmdiecast.com)
- Lindsey Berry 10th April 2009 Foundry company Lenreco has undergone several plant upgrades in the past two years in an effort to transform the predominantly cast-iron foundry into a foundry capable of working with complex materials and producing specialised castings. (engineeringnews.co.za)
- Sylvester Haskins 11th April 2008 The body-and-disc castings for a large order of valves destined for Saudi Arabia has been manufactured and supplied to Gunric Valves by foundry and engineering works company KEW Foundries. (engineeringnews.co.za)
- This study demonstrates how the adoption of 3DSP technology has contributed to a conventional ferrous metal casting foundry that specializes in manufacturing impellers, turbine housings and other mining equipment. (springer.com)
- Since 1980, Svedala-Arbra's steel foundry, located in southern Sweden, has been developing methods to produce heavy steel castings using the vacuum molding method - the V-process. (thefreelibrary.com)
- The steel foundry produces about 6500 metric tons (7150 tons) annually - mainly machine and wear castings for crushers. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Compared to conventional sand molding, there are several benefits to using the V-process that result in a lower total production cost for the foundry and a high quality casting. (thefreelibrary.com)
- We are the right resource for your information requirement whether its for a manufacturer of aluminum foundry, cold casting aluminum, die casting aluminum. (iqsdirectory.com)
- A material dusted or sprayed on foundry (casting) patterns to prevent adherence of sand and to promote easy separation of cope and drag parting surfaces when the cope is lifted from the drag. (vacaero.com)
- Foundry sand casting has been used in many aspects. (dongruncasting.com)
- During continuous casting of steel, a centerline porosity formation frequently occurs and participates on decrease of internal quality of continuously cast billets. (confer.cz)
- To avoid the centerline porosity formation, a description of casting parameters connection with centerline porosity is necessary. (confer.cz)
- This paper is focused on study of casting speed influence on centerline porosity formation in continuously cast round steel billets through a numerical modelling. (confer.cz)
- Centerline porosity formation is closely related with solidification of billet which can be affected by casting speed change. (confer.cz)
- With relation of casting speed changes, the attention was paid also on metallurgical length which effects centerline porosity formation. (confer.cz)
- Metallurgical length shortening should lead to reduction of centerline porosity formation. (confer.cz)
- Centerline porosity was evaluated by liquid pressure in centerline region of billet. (confer.cz)
- Thus, occurrence of centerline porosity decreases with decrease of casting speed. (confer.cz)
- A vacuum/Ar pressure casting machine was used to study porosity and mould filling of cast bridges of Ti. (niom.no)
- In the first series mould filling was satisfactory in all cases, while the porosity was substantial for high Ar pressures. (niom.no)
- Without a Ti foil (second series) all castings contained little porosity, but the mould filling was adequate only for the high permeability investment. (niom.no)
- Rhodium is often used to give a good white colour to white gold jewellery (which is often not a good white colour) or is used selectively on yellow gold jewellery to give local areas of whiteness, often around gem stone settings, and also to plate the master model made in silver used for making the rubber mould in investment casting. (ganoksin.com)
- Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds with porosity-graded structures were fabricated by sequential freeze-casting. (mdpi.com)
- The porosity and compressive strengths of the scaffold were controlled by the relative thicknesses of the dense/porous parts. (mdpi.com)
- Jung, H.-D. The Production of Porous Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds with Graded Porosity by Sequential Freeze-Casting. (mdpi.com)
- Porosity sealing, is the process of filling a porous substrate to make it airtight. (wikipedia.org)
- 80%) and a more detailed work describing the microstructural effects on compressive strength of unidirectional porous ceramics in a broader porosity range is still lacking. (nature.com)
- Porosity: Low fire bodies are porous, up to 15% air space! (digitalfire.com)
- A method of producing cast steel strip having low surface roughness and low porosity by casting with molten steel having a total oxygen content of at least about 70 ppm and a free oxygen content between 20 and 60 ppm, and a temperature that allows a majority of any oxide inclusions to be in a liquidus state. (patents.com)
- Metal casting foundries all across USA are increasingly adopting the recent development in additive manufacturing including 3D sand printing (3DSP) due to its unique ability to fabricate molds and cores without any tooling requirement such as patterns, cores, core boxes, flasks among others. (springer.com)
- Sand casting also allows most metals to be cast depending on the type of sand used for the molds. (wikipedia.org)
- Die casting molds (called dies in the industry) tend to be expensive as they are made from hardened steel-also the cycle time for building these tend to be long. (efunda.com)
- They date back to the period around 3,000 B.C.E. It is possible that metal casting technology , using molds originated in the Middle East. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- permanent molds were of great importance for the serial casting of lead and tin materials. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
Aluminum die castings1
- In the worst case porosity appear to the surface and impair the aesthetical quality. (comunicati.net)
- Owing to porosity, the surface area inside a coal particle is far higher than the external surface area. (britannica.com)
- die castings 3)surface. (peerflix.com)
- Die castings are characterized by a very good surface finish (by casting standards) and dimensional consistency. (wikipedia.org)
- Surface of the Castings. (ufl.edu)
- Reducing Agents -added to reduce surface oxidation on castings. (ganoksin.com)
- This results in a more uniform part, generally good surface finish and good dimensional accuracy, as good as 0.2 % of casting dimension. (efunda.com)
- The integral, as-cast macrotextured surface is able to be formed on the implantable articles by a modified casting process. (google.es)
- filling the shell with a molten casting material such that the molten casting material fills the cavities in the shell to form, upon cooling, solid implantable articles having on at least a portion of their exterior surfaces a macroporous textured surface including macropores wherein at least some of the macropores have undercut edge profiles. (google.es)
- 2) A raised line or projection on the surface of a casting, plastic part, or forging that corresponds to said intersection. (vacaero.com)
- Good technique while casting delivers a wheel that is devoid of porosities or surface flaws. (hubcap-tire-wheel.com)
- Engineers use computer simulation to have an analysis instrument for casting solidification study. (comunicati.net)
- In high pressure die casting process, castings and moulds geometry design, as well as casting parameters, gating and cooling systems, die layout and the heat flow paths can be optimized by using simulation programs . (comunicati.net)
- In the computer simulation it is possible to identify shape and location of porosities and to predict air entrapment by tracking its flow. (comunicati.net)
- Computer simulation aids V-process steel casting. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Fluid flow simulation results predicted low fluid flow velocities within the casting and the in-gate. (yudu.com)
- A velocity profile line had been inserted into the simulation geometry to determine the ve- locity profile across the in-gate where it entered the casting at each simulation time step. (yudu.com)
- This was accomplished by coupling a casting simulation software package with an optimization module. (dtu.dk)
- First, analyses of filling and solidification of the original casting design were conducted in the standard simulation environment to determine potential flaws and inadequacies. (dtu.dk)
- The aim of this study is to obtain how high compression ratio is required to eliminate the porosities inside the preform castings with various thicknesses, where porosity contents are different, and what are the maximum compression ratios that can be tolerated before these preform castings fail. (go.jp)
- Die casting process is significantly used in the industry for its high productivity and less postmachining requirement. (hindawi.com)
- High pressure die casting for nonferrous casting applications is increasingly used in the foundries today as an economically viable casting process. (hindawi.com)
- High pressure die casting (HPDC) process has been widely used to manufacture a large variety of products with high dimensional accuracy and productivities. (hindawi.com)
- High Pressure Die Casting process is rapid and depends on many factors. (hindawi.com)
- The added value of the casting at the point of rejection can be very high. (hindawi.com)
- X-ray computed tomography (CT), in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), has been successfully used to evaluate shrinkage macro- and microporosity levels in a high-performance steel casting. (springer.com)
- is attributable to their high porosity and permeability. (britannica.com)
- High Quantity Die Casting Production. (peerflix.com)
- In many foundries the percentage of rejections due to leakage or porosity is quite high. (mst.edu)
- The porosity distributions of the sample blocks were characterized by using high precision densimeter. (internetbookstorepro.com)
- NORITAKE's ceramic cores for precision casting offer excellent stability at high temperatures. (noritake.co.jp)
- Dimensional accuracy and high-temperature stability contribute to advanced precision casting. (noritake.co.jp)
- Other applications grew rapidly, with die casting facilitating the growth of consumer goods and appliances by making affordable the production of intricate parts in high volumes. (wikipedia.org)
- Cylindrical meshing delivers the greatest flow modeling accuracy possible, while multi-block meshing provides an efficient method for even more accuracy in high shear and high temperature gradient regions of the casting. (flow3d.com)
- In general, welding of high-pressure die casting (DC) parts has been difficult due to gases trapped in the castings. (sae.org)
- The Transition Flow Filling Method(TFFM) has been developed, that can not only reduce the amount of trapped gases but also is applicable to standard high pressure die casting equipment. (sae.org)
- With over 16 years of experience in precision die casting, Kinetic Die Casting is well qualified to provide high quality and timely solutions to a diverse customer base. (iqsdirectory.com)
- Denison Industries is a leading die caster of high-quality permanent aluminum castings. (iqsdirectory.com)
- It possess high strength , porosity , refracteriness. (scribd.com)
- Our extremely high-quality castings create aerodynamically smoother surfaces to improve overall airflow and cooling. (aircraftspruce.com)
- High pressure casting is what we usually call die casting. (dongruncasting.com)
- In this presentation fatigue test results and models for a ductile cast iron and a high pressure die casting (HPDC) aluminum will be presented. (fraunhofer.de)
- This net-shape ability comes from a combination of the alloy's properties, tooling techniques, and high-pressure casting technology. (machinedesign.com)
- Porosity can affect the structural integrity and functionality of castings, but performing vacuum impregnation at the right point in the part production process can prevent these issues. (productionmachining.com)
- Therefore, the best way to ensure leak-free castings is to perform vacuum impregnation on all of them after final machining. (productionmachining.com)
- Manufacturers can also increase the amount of material removed during cubing to maximize porosity exposure and perform vacuum impregnation after. (productionmachining.com)
- The casting standards and aluminum characteristics forced the need for vacuum impregnation. (godfreywing.com)
- Porosity is sealed through the process of vacuum impregnation. (wikipedia.org)
- Vacuum impregnation seals porosity and leak paths that form during the casting or molding process. (wikipedia.org)
- Porosity is the volume percentage of "void" (actually fluid- or air-filled) space in a rock, whereas permeability is defined as the rate of flow of water at a given pressure gradient through a unit volume. (britannica.com)
- The porosity (volume of pore spaces) and permeability (capacity for transmitting fluids) of carrier and reservoir beds are important factors in the migration and accumulation of oil. (britannica.com)
- Cast material takes up less space when solid than when liquid and this space will appear where there is a hot spot in the casting. (comunicati.net)
- Optimization of process parameters is critical to minimize the porosity, as well as to maximize the strain at fracture performance of die cast components. (sae.org)
- R.A. Hardin, C. Beckermann, Effect of porosity on the stiffness of cast steel. (springer.com)
- K. Sigl, R.A. Hardin, R. Stephens, C. Beckermann, Fatigue of 8630 cast steel in the presence of porosity. (springer.com)
- In this process, a near net shape preform is first cast and the casting is subsequently forged. (go.jp)
- In-House die cast toolmaker to modify or make die casting tools less expensively. (peerflix.com)
- After that, it was cast onto a glass plate using a stainless-steel knife to get a casting film of 300 μ m thickness, exposed to the atmosphere for 40 s, and then immersed into a coagulation bath of pure water. (hindawi.com)
- We have had a great deal of success using FLOW-3D CAST to predict casting performance, to optimize quality, and to reduce cost by reducing rework, scrap, and lead-time. (flow3d.com)
- Exhibition catalogue, Botero en Buenos Aires , Buenos Aires, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, 1994, p. 142-143 (another cast illustrated in color). (christies.com)
- Exhibition catalogue, Botero en Madrid, exposición de escultura monumental en el Paseo de Recoletos , Madrid, Caja de Madrid in collaboration with Galería Marlborough, 1994, p. 53 (Adam) and p. 51 (Eve) (another cast illustrated in color). (christies.com)
- This work summarizes the findings of multi-objective optimization of a gravity sand-cast steel part for which an increase of the casting yield via riser optimization was considered. (dtu.dk)
- Used for non-ferrous casting and gray cast iron castings. (scribd.com)
- As part of a casting process, positive models of the articles to be cast, or parts thereof, are formed by stereolithographic techniques. (google.es)
- Cast aluminum has the advantages that other castings can not match in the process of use. (dongruncasting.com)
- The earliest casting was a copper frog dating back to 3200 B.C.E. , cast in Mesopotamia. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- New excavations proved that they succeeded in the mass production of cast tools and farm equipment after the development of iron casting. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- There are several factors involved in choosing a suitable casting process for manufacturing cast engine blocks. (ukessays.com)
- Some of these factors include the type of material that can be used in the casting process, the type of part that can be cast, the finish of the product, the amount of time it takes for the process, and the cost involved. (ukessays.com)
- Suppliers can use software like MAGMA to simulate the casting process to optimize the die beforehand. (dynacast.com)
- Additionally, suppliers should use sophisticated process control and advanced product quality planning (APQP) to evaluate the overall tool design and die casting process. (dynacast.com)
- IQS Directory is a top industrial directory listing of leading industrial aluminum casting manufacturers and suppliers. (iqsdirectory.com)
- A quick and easy to use request for quote form is provided for you to contact these aluminum casting manufacturers and suppliers. (iqsdirectory.com)
- The results have shown that the modification of polymer membranes by the use of different amounts of the pore forming agent in their syntheses leads to significant changes in porosity and has beneficial effect on equilibrium water content. (hindawi.com)
- Our objective is to characterize the compressive strength of ice-templated ceramics in a broad porosity range and link their mechanical behavior to the pore architecture. (nature.com)
Affect the structural integrity1
- Manufacture of parts using die casting is relatively simple, involving only four main steps, which keeps the incremental cost per item low. (wikipedia.org)
- Foundries were asked to manufacture the samples as though they are "commercial" castings (Level 2-3),with an absence of significant porosity on the two machined surfaces. (thefreelibrary.com)
- These aluminum casting companies can design, engineer and manufacture aluminum castings to your specifications and application need. (iqsdirectory.com)
- For the dyeing process, an important characteristic of fibres is their porosity. (britannica.com)
- In the interim, forest management plans can include strategies to minimize vector exposure: eliminate fishing bait refuse, minimize movement of horticultural materials andinspect all nursery species before planting for the presence of worms or signs, such as their characteristic castings. (uvm.edu)
- For determination of influence of technological parameter on observed quantitative parameters of billet, only casting speed was changed during numerical modelling while keeping cooling intensity. (confer.cz)
- With the new Centrifugal Casting Workspace, users will find all the tools needed to model their process and optimize design parameters. (flow3d.com)