Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Caspase Inhibitors: Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.Caspase 8: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Caspase 7: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Caspase 10: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 10 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Caspase 12: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 12 is activated by pro-apoptotic factors that are released during cell stress and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Caspase 14: A short pro-domain caspase that is almost exclusively expressed in the EPIDERMIS and may play a role in the differentiation of epidermal KERATINOCYTES.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Dirofilaria immitis: A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Salivary Gland Fistula: A fistula between a salivary duct or gland and the cutaneous surface of the oral cavity.Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 3-phosphoglycerate to 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate. It takes part in the L-SERINE biosynthesis pathway.Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1: A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins: A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic Acid: A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).Caspases, Initiator: A subtype of caspases that contain long pro-domain regions that regulate the activation of the enzyme. The pro-domain regions contain protein-protein interaction motifs that can interact with specific signaling adaptor proteins such as DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS; DED SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS; and CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Once activated, the initiator caspases can activate other caspases such as the EFFECTOR CASPASES.Coffea: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein: A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.bcl-X Protein: A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.Apoptosis Inducing Factor: A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Radionuclide Generators: Separation systems containing a relatively long-lived parent radionuclide which produces a short-lived daughter in its decay scheme. The daughter can be periodically extracted (milked) by means of an appropriate eluting agent.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein: An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.Complement C5a: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Propyliodone: Radiopaque medium usually in oil; used in bronchography.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Caspases, Effector: A subclass of caspases that contain short pro-domain regions. They are activated by the proteolytic action of INITIATOR CASPASES. Once activated they cleave a variety of substrates that cause APOPTOSIS.Apoptosomes: Multimeric protein complexes formed in the CYTOSOL that play a role in the activation of APOPTOSIS. They can occur when MITOCHONDRIA become damaged due to cell stress and release CYTOCHROME C. Cytosolic cytochrome C associates with APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1 to form the apoptosomal protein complex. The apoptosome signals apoptosis by binding to and activating specific INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Psychosomatic Medicine: A system of medicine which aims at discovering the exact nature of the relationship between the emotions and bodily function, affirming the principle that the mind and body are one.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.CRADD Signaling Adaptor Protein: A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein: A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.bcl-Associated Death Protein: A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.Duodenal Diseases: Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Afferent Loop Syndrome: A complication of gastrojejunostomy (BILLROTH II PROCEDURE), a reconstructive GASTROENTEROSTOMY. It is caused by acute (complete) or chronic (intermittent) obstruction of the afferent jejunal loop due to HERNIA, intussusception, kinking, VOLVULUS, etc. It is characterized by PAIN and VOMITING of BILE-stained fluid.U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Genes, bcl-2: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesDisinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits: Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.Receptors, Interleukin-7: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-7. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors. The receptors are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Ubiquitin C: A single protein comprised of tandem repeats of the UBIQUITIN 78-amino acid sequence. It is a product of the polyubiquitin gene which contains multiple copies of the ubiquitin coding sequence. Proteolytic processing of ubiquitin C results in the formation of individual ubiquitin molecules. This protein is distinct from POLYUBIQUITIN, which is a protein formed through isopeptide linkage of multiple ubiquitin species.Devazepide: A derivative of benzodiazepine that acts on the cholecystokinin A (CCKA) receptor to antagonize CCK-8's (SINCALIDE) physiological and behavioral effects, such as pancreatic stimulation and inhibition of feeding.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinase 2: A RIP serine-theonine kinase that contains a C-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain. It can signal by associating with other CARD-signaling adaptor proteins and INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein: A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, Mating Type, Fungal: Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Malta: An independent state consisting of three islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. Its capital is Valetta. The major island is Malta, the two smaller islands are Comino and Gozo. It was a Phoenician and Carthaginian colony, captured by the Romans in 218 B.C. It was overrun by Saracens in 870, taken by the Normans in 1090, and subsequently held by the French and later the British who allotted them a dominion government in 1921. It became a crown colony in 1933, achieving independence in 1964. The name possibly comes from a pre-Indoeuropean root mel, high, referring to its rocks, but a more picturesque origin derives the name from the Greek melitta or melissa, honey, with reference to its early fame for its honey production. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p719 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p330)Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, Glucagon: Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Receptors, Death Domain: A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.Rectus Abdominis: A long flat muscle that extends along the whole length of both sides of the abdomen. It flexes the vertebral column, particularly the lumbar portion; it also tenses the anterior abdominal wall and assists in compressing the abdominal contents. It is frequently the site of hematomas. In reconstructive surgery it is often used for the creation of myocutaneous flaps. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p491)Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Macrocephaly: A congenital abnormality in which the occipitofrontal circumference is greater than two standard deviations above the mean for a given age. It is associated with HYDROCEPHALUS; SUBDURAL EFFUSION; ARACHNOID CYSTS; or is part of a genetic condition (e.g., ALEXANDER DISEASE; SOTOS SYNDROME).Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Humoralism: An ancient Greek medical theory that health and illness result from a balance or imbalance of body fluids or "humors". The humors are blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Receptors, Purinergic P2X5: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor found at high levels in the BRAIN and IMMUNE SYSTEM.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Olea: A plant genus of the family Oleaceae. The olive fruit is the source of olive oil.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Retrograde Degeneration: Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor: A rare, aggressive soft tissue sarcoma that primarily affects adolescents and young adults. It is most commonly found in the abdomen.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Lamins: Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Nail Biting: Common form of habitual body manipulation which is an expression of tension.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.FlavoproteinsCathepsin B: A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Bongkrekic Acid: An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.Pentanoic AcidsHepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Alstrom Syndrome: Rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by multiple organ dysfunction. The key clinical features include retinal degeneration (NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; and eventual blindness), childhood obesity, sensorineural hearing loss, and normal mental development. Endocrinologic complications include TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPERINSULINEMIA; ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS; HYPOTHYROIDISM; and progressive renal and hepatic failures. The disease is caused by mutations in the ALMS1 gene.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Isatin: An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Proteolytic cleavage of ras GTPase-activating protein during apoptosis. (1/647)

p120-ras GTPase-activating protein (rasGAP) associates with Ras and negatively regulates Ras signaling by stimulating the intrinsic rate of Ras GTPase activity. rasGAP also associates with other cellular signaling proteins which suggest that rasGAP may play a role in coordinating other signal transduction pathways. Disruption of rasGAP in vivo results in extensive apoptosis. Fas-mediated apoptosis results in the activation of caspases that cleave cellular substrates which are important for maintaining cytoplasmic and nuclear integrity. We show here that rasGAP is proteolytically cleaved by caspases early in Fas-induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells. rasGAP was also cleaved by DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents and TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), also known as Apo2L. Based on the size of the products generated by cleavage of deletion mutants of rasGAP we predict that cleavage of rasGAP occurs in the hydrophobic region and between the SH2(2) and ras-p21 interacting domain which would leave an intact ras-p21 interacting domain. Interestingly, cleavage of rasGAP in vitro enhanced rasGAP hydrolysis activity. Our results demonstrate that diverse apoptotic stimuli cause caspase-mediated cleavage of rasGAP early in apoptosis.  (+info)

Caspase activation by BCR cross-linking in immature B cells: differential effects on growth arrest and apoptosis. (2/647)

The B cell lymphoma WEHI-231 has been used as a model to study immature B cell tolerance, based on its capacity to undergo growth arrest and programmed cell death on B cell receptor (BCR) cross-linking. Using this model to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, we found that BCR cross-linking results in the selective activation of caspase 7/Mch3, but not of the other two members of the CPP32 family, caspase 2/Nedd2 and caspase 3/CPP32. This was evidenced by the induction of proteolytic activity against the substrate for the CPP32 subfamily of caspases (z-DVED-AMC) in vitro, as well as PARP proteolysis in vivo and by the processing of the 35 kDa Mch3 into a 32 kDa species, which was later further proteolyzed. The general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, but not the CPP32 family inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO, blocked anti- micro-induced apoptosis, indicating that a caspase not belonging to the CPP32-like family is also implicated in anti- micro-triggered apoptosis. In contrast, z-VAD-fmk was not able to counteract growth arrest induced by anti- micro treatment, suggesting that caspase activation is not necessary for induction of growth arrest. Neither of the inhibitors prevented Mch3 processing; however, z-VAD-fmk prevented proteolysis of the p32 subunit, suggesting that further processing of this subunit is associated with apoptosis. Bcl-2 overexpression prevented anti- micro induction of CPP32-like activity and apoptosis, and blocked further processing of the Mch3 p32 subunit. In contrast, CD40 stimulation completely blocked the appearance of the p32 subunit in addition to blocking CPP32-like activity and apoptosis induced by BCR cross-linking. Moreover, only CD40 stimulation was able to prevent anti- micro-induced growth arrest, which was correlated with inhibition of retinoblastoma and of cyclin A down-regulation. In splenic B cells, Mch3 is also specifically proteolyzed ex vivo after induction of apoptosis by BCR cross-linking, demonstrating the specific involvement of caspase-7/Mch3 in apoptosis induced in B cell tolerance.  (+info)

Activation of the apoptotic endonuclease DFF40 (caspase-activated DNase or nuclease). Oligomerization and direct interaction with histone H1. (3/647)

DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a heterodimeric protein composed of 45-kDa (DFF45) and 40-kDa (DFF40) subunits, a protein that mediates regulated DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation in response to apoptotic signals. DFF45 is a specific molecular chaperone and an inhibitor for the nuclease activity of DFF40. Previous studies have shown that upon cleavage of DFF45 by caspase-3, the nuclease activity of DFF40 is relieved of inhibition. Here we further investigate the mechanism of DFF40 activation. We demonstrate that DFF45 can also be cleaved and inactivated by caspase-7 but not by caspase-6 and caspase-8. The cleaved DFF45 fragments dissociate from DFF40, allowing DFF40 to oligomerize to form a large functional complex that cleaves DNA by introducing double strand breaks. Histone H1 directly interacts with DFF, confers DNA binding ability to DFF, and stimulates the nuclease activity of DFF40 by increasing its Kcat and decreasing its Km.  (+info)

Synthesis of procaspases-3 and -7 during apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. (4/647)

Cells differ in the time required to execute cell death after receipt of a death signal. One reason may be the requirement for de novo synthesis of components of the death pathway. TSU-Pr1 prostate cancer cells treated with okadaic acid demonstrated activation of caspase-3, PARP cleavage, and nuclear fragmentation by 24 h and apoptosis by 72 h. Levels of procaspase-3 and procaspase-7, the precursor molecules of two effector caspases, were not depleted during apoptosis. Levels of procaspase-3 and -7 mRNA increased steadily in TSU-Pr1 cells up to 72 h after exposure to okadaic acid. Nuclear run-off experiments showed that the increase in mRNA was not due to transcriptional activation of caspase-3 and -7 mRNA. Antisense caspase-3 and caspase-7 oligodeoxynucleotides caused a depletion of procaspases-3 and -7 and a delay in apoptosis of TSU-Pr1 cells. Caspase antisense oligodeoxynucleotides inhibited apoptosis to a similar extent as peptide inhibitors of cysteine proteases. Synthesis of procaspases-3 and -7 was necessary to sustain programmed cell death in TSU-Pr1 prostate cancer cells.  (+info)

Caspases-3 and -7 are activated in goniothalamin-induced apoptosis in human Jurkat T-cells. (5/647)

Goniothalamin, a plant styrylpyrone derivative isolated from Goniothalamus andersonii, induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-cells as assessed by the externalisation of phosphatidylserine. Immunoblotting showed processing of caspases-3 and -7 with the appearance of their catalytically active large subunits of 17 and 19 kDa, respectively. Activation of these caspases was further evidenced by detection of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage (PARP). Pre-treatment with the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD.FMK) blocked apoptosis and the resultant cleavage of these caspases and PARP. Our results demonstrate that activation of at least two effector caspases is a key feature of goniothalamin-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-cells.  (+info)

Implication of calpain in caspase activation during B cell clonal deletion. (6/647)

In the absence of costimulating signals, B cell receptor (BCR) crosslinking on immature B cells triggers the apoptotic cell death program. In the WEHI-231 B cell lymphoma model, anti-IgM crosslinking triggers activation of caspase-7 independently of caspase-8, followed by apoptosis. Two main mechanisms for caspase-7 activation have been proposed: (i) caspase-8 recruitment to death receptors (Fas or tumour necrosis factor); and (ii) changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release, which activate caspase-9. Here we report that caspase-7 activation induced by BCR crosslinking is independent of caspase-8 and cytochrome c translocation from mitochondria to the cytosol, as well as of mitochondrial depolarization. In addition, in a cell-free system, the S-100 fraction of anti-IgM-treated WEHI-231 cells induces a caspase activation pattern different from that activated by cytochrome c and dATP. We demonstrate that calpain specifically triggers activation and processing of caspase-7 both in vitro and in vivo, and that both processes are inhibited by calpain inhibitors. Furthermore, calpain activation is associated with decreased expression levels of calpastatin, which is upregulated by CD40 ligation. These data confirm a role for calpain during BCR crosslinking, which may be critical for cell deletion by apoptosis during B cell development and activation.  (+info)

Cleavage of automodified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase during apoptosis. Evidence for involvement of caspase-7. (7/647)

The abundant nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) synthesizes poly(ADP-ribose) in response to DNA strand breaks. During almost all forms of apoptosis, PARP is cleaved by caspases, suggesting the crucial role of its inactivation. A few studies have also reported a stimulation of PARP during apoptosis. However, the role of PARP stimulation and cleavage during this cell death process remains poorly understood. Here, we measured the stimulation of endogenous poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis during VP-16-induced apoptosis in HL60 cells and found that PARP was cleaved by caspases at the time of its poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. In vitro experiments showed that PARP cleavage by caspase-7, but not by caspase-3, was stimulated by its automodification by long and branched poly(ADP-ribose). Consistently, caspase-7 exhibited an affinity for poly(ADP-ribose), whereas caspase-3 did not. In addition, caspase-7 was activated and accumulated in the nucleus of HL60 cells in response to the VP-16 treatment. Furthermore, caspase-7 activation was concommitant with PARP cleavage in the caspase-3-deficient cell line MCF-7 in response to staurosporine treatment. These results strongly suggest that, in vivo, it is caspase-7 that is responsible for PARP cleavage and that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP accelerates its proteolysis. Cleavage of the active form of caspase substrates could be a general feature of the apoptotic process, ensuring the rapid inactivation of stress signaling proteins.  (+info)

Caspase-3 is the primary activator of apoptotic DNA fragmentation via DNA fragmentation factor-45/inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase inactivation. (8/647)

Caspase-3 initiates apoptotic DNA fragmentation by proteolytically inactivating DFF45 (DNA fragmentation factor-45)/ICAD (inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase), which releases active DFF40/CAD (caspase-activated DNase), the inhibitor's associated endonuclease. Here, we examined whether other apoptotic proteinases initiated DNA fragmentation via DFF45/ICAD inactivation. In a cell-free assay, caspases-3, -6, -7, -8, and granzyme B initiated benzoyloxycarbonyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVD) cleaving caspase activity, DFF45/ICAD inactivation, and DNA fragmentation, but calpain and cathepsin D failed to initiate these events. Strikingly, only the DEVD cleaving caspases, caspase-3 and caspase-7, inactivated DFF45/ICAD and promoted DNA fragmentation in an in vitro DFF40/CAD assay, suggesting that granzyme B, caspase-6, and caspase-8 promote DFF45/ICAD inactivation and DNA fragmentation indirectly by activating caspase-3 and/or caspase-7. In vitro, however, caspase-3 inactivated DFF45/ICAD and promoted DNA fragmentation more effectively than caspase-7 and endogenous levels of caspase-7 failed to inactivate DFF45/ICAD in caspase-3 null MCF7 cells and extracts. Together, these data suggest that caspase-3 is the primary inactivator of DFF45/ICAD and therefore the primary activator of apoptotic DNA fragmentation.  (+info)

*Caspase 7

The precursor of this caspase is cleaved by caspase 3, caspase 10, and caspase 9. It is activated upon cell death stimuli and ... Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes that undergo proteolytic processing by upstream caspases (caspase-8, -9) at conserved ... Caspase 8, Survivin and XIAP. The Proteolysis Map Caspase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000165806 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... "IAP-family protein survivin inhibits caspase activity and apoptosis induced by Fas (CD95), Bax, caspases, and anticancer drugs ...

*CLSPN

Clarke CA, Bennett LN, Clarke PR (2005). "Cleavage of claspin by caspase-7 during apoptosis inhibits the Chk1 pathway". J. Biol ... 3 (7): 941-5. doi:10.4161/cc.3.7.972. PMID 15190204. Sar F, Lindsey-Boltz LA, Subramanian D, et al. (2004). "Human claspin is a ... 14 (10B): 2121-7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC 528928 . PMID 15489334. Clarke CA, Clarke PR (2005). "DNA-dependent ... 1033-7. doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2004.03.001. PMID 15279790. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and ...

*BCL2L12

... and indirectly neutralizes caspase-3 (CASP3) by an indirect mechanism. Both caspase enzymes are known to play essential roles ... 14 (10B): 2121-7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC 528928 . PMID 15489334. Mathioudaki K, Scorilas A, Papadokostopoulou A, et al. ( ...

*TRAIL

... binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI) and DR5 (TRAIL-RII). The process of apoptosis is caspase-8-dependent. Caspase ... 1] Apoptosis, Trail & Caspase 8 - The Proteolysis Map-animation PDB: 1D2Q​ TRAIL Protein at the US National Library of Medicine ... Feb 2016 Song JJ, Lee YJ (May 2008). "Differential cleavage of Mst1 by caspase-7/-3 is responsible for TRAIL-induced activation ... activates downstream effector caspases including procaspase-3, -6, and -7, leading to activation of specific kinases. TRAIL ...

*Caspase 3

Caspase-3 is a caspase protein that interacts with caspase-8 and caspase-9. It is encoded by the CASP3 gene. CASP3 orthologs ... As an executioner caspase, the caspase-3 zymogen has virtually no activity until it is cleaved by an initiator caspase after ... Caspase substrate specificity has been widely used in caspase based inhibitor and drug design. Caspase-3, in particular, (also ... During the caspase cascade, however, caspase-3 functions to inhibit XIAP activity by cleaving caspase-9 at a specific site, ...

*Survivin

... which recruits activator caspases like caspase-8 upon binding TNF at the cell surface. The activation of the initiator caspases ... The immunoprecipitates were then run on SDS-PAGE and then immunoblotted for detection of the desired caspase. If the caspase of ... Survivin also does not bind to active caspase-8. Caspase-3 and -7 are effector proteases whereas caspase-8 is an initiator ... Although the details are not here, survivin was shown to also inhibit cytochrome c and caspase-8-induced activation of caspases ...

*Mensacarcin

... in melanoma cells activates apoptotic pathways related to caspase 3 and caspase 7, and thus induces cell death. ...

*Vitiligo

Among the inflammatory products of NALP1 are caspase 1 and caspase 7, which activate the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. ... Retrieved 7 May 2013. The autopsy apparently confirmed what Jackson told people who questioned why his skin tone became lighter ... 59 (4): 713-7. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2008.06.023. PMID 18793940. Anon. "Vitiligo -Treatment". Patient UK. NHS. Archived from the ... Duke, Alan (7 May 2013). "Autopsy reveals Michael Jackson's secrets". CNN Entertainment. CNN. Archived from the original on 7 ...

*GAS2

2000). "Caspase-3 and caspase-7 but not caspase-6 cleave Gas2 in vitro: implications for microfilament reorganization during ... The protein encoded by this gene is a caspase-3 substrate that plays a role in regulating microfilament and cell shape changes ... 14 (10B): 2121-7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC 528928 . PMID 15489334. Benetti R, Copetti T, Dell'Orso S, et al. (2005). "The ...

*PSME3

Araya R, Takahashi R, Nomura Y (2002). "Yeast two-hybrid screening using constitutive-active caspase-7 as bait in the ... 45 (2): 362-7. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4948. PMID 9344661. Knowlton JR, Johnston SC, Whitby FG, Realini C, Zhang Z, Rechsteiner M ... The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are ... 7 (4): 472-9. doi:10.1038/ng0894-472. PMID 7951316. "Entrez Gene: PSME3 proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 3 ( ...

*PAK2

The protein encoded by this gene is activated by proteolytic cleavage during caspase-mediated apoptosis, and may play a role in ... The protein encoded by this gene is activated by proteolytic cleavage during caspase-mediated apoptosis, and may play a role in ... PAK2 is cleaved through activated caspase-3 in fibroblast and cancer cells exposed to ultraviolet, hyperosmotic shock, and ... Bokoch GM (August 1998). "Caspase-mediated activation of PAK2 during apoptosis: proteolytic kinase activation as a general ...

*Cytochrome c

Caspase 9 can then go on to activate caspase 3 and caspase 7, which are responsible for destroying the cell from within. One of ... The release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria to the cytosol, where it activates the caspase family of proteases is believed to ... The Cytochrome c Protein Apoptosis & Caspase 3 - PMAP The Proteolysis Map-animation UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes ... This release of cytochrome c in turn activates caspase 9, a cysteine protease. ...

*Caspase 6

... has been shown to interact with Caspase 8. The Proteolysis Map Caspase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138794 - ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... Caspase 6 can also undergo self-processing without other members of the caspase family. Alternative splicing of this gene ... "Entrez Gene: CASP6 caspase 6, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase". Cowling V, Downward J (Oct 2002). "Caspase-6 is the direct ...

*Granzyme B

The caspase independent pathways of cell death are thought to have arisen to overcome viruses that can inhibit caspases and ... Once inside the target cell granzyme B can cleave and activate initiator caspases 8 and 10, and executioner caspases 3 and 7 ... Caspase 7 is the most sensitive to granzyme B and caspases 3, 8, and 10 are only cleaved to intermediate fragments and need ... into a 50 kDa fragment and then into an additional 60 kDa indirectly through the caspases it activates. Granzyme B can degrade ...

*XIAP

Caspases are the enzymes primarily responsible for cell death. XIAP binds to and inhibits caspase 3, 7 and 9. The BIR2 domain ... When inhibiting caspase-3 and caspase-7 activity, the BIR2 domain of XIAP binds to the active-site substrate groove, blocking ... This allows normal caspase activity to proceed. The binding process of Smac/DIABLO to XIAP and caspase release requires a ... XIAP has been shown to interact with: ALS2CR2, Caspase 3. Caspase 7, Caspase-9, Diablo homolog HtrA serine peptidase 2, MAGED1 ...

*Inhibitor of apoptosis

The best characterized IAP is XIAP, which binds caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase-7, thereby inhibiting their activation and ... By inhibiting caspase 8, crmA prevents the other caspases from ever being activated. Inhibition of caspase 8 also prevents cell ... Caspase 8 initiates apoptosis by activating "executioner" caspases, numbered 3, 6, and 7. ... Bcl-2 Caspase cIAP1 cIAP2 Inhibitor of apoptosis domain Survivin XIAP Schwerk C, Schulze-Osthoff K (July 2005). "Regulation of ...

*Caspase

Initiator Caspases (Caspase 2, Caspase 8, Caspase-9, Caspase 10) Executioner Caspases (Caspase 3, Caspase 6 and Caspase 7) Once ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4, Caspase-5 and Caspase-11 are considered 'Inflammatory Caspases'. Caspase-1 is key in activating pro- ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4 and Caspase-5 in humans, and Caspase-1 and Caspase-11 in mice play important roles in inducing cell death ... Pyroptosis by Caspase -4 and Caspase-5 in humans and Caspase-11 in mice These caspases have the ability to induce direct ...

*Hsp90 inhibitor

... induced caspase-dependent cleavage of p23. The cleavage could be catalyzed by either caspase-7 or caspase-3 and occurred at ... The Hsp90 inhibitor GA was found to enhance caspase activation, p23 cleavage and apoptosis induced by anthracyclines. Finally ... Gausdal G, Gjertsen BT, Fladmark KE, Demol H, Vandekerckhove J, Døskeland SO (December 2004). "Caspase-dependent, geldanamycin- ...

*HA-tag

The HA tag is not suitable for detection or purification of proteins from apoptotic cells since it is cleaved by Caspase-3 and ... or Caspase-7 after its sequence DVPD, causing it to lose its immunoreactivity. The actual HA tag is as follows: 5' TAC CCA TAC ...

*Molecular Inversion Probe

Xu HL, Xu WH, Cai Q, Feng M, Long J, Zheng W, Xiang YB, Shu XO (2009). "Polymorphisms and haplotypes in the caspase-3, caspase- ... In another study, the MIP was used to identify the association between the polymorphisms and haplotypes in the caspase-3, ... caspase-7, and caspase-8 genes and the risk for endometrial cancer. A recent study has demonstrated the success of MIP for copy ... and caspase-8 genes and risk for endometrial cancer: a population-based, case-control study in a Chinese population". Cancer ...

*Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase

While in vitro cleavage by caspase occurs throughout the caspase family, preliminary data suggest that caspase-3 and caspase-7 ... This mechanism appears to be caspase-independent. Cleavage of Parp, by enzymes such as caspases or cathepsins, typically ... PARP is composed of four domains of interest: a DNA-binding domain, a caspase-cleaved domain (see below), an auto-modification ... This is integral in a programmed cell death model based on caspase cleavage inhibition of PARP. The auto-modification domain is ...

*Apoptosis

There are two types of caspases: initiator caspases, caspase 2,8,9,10,11,12, and effector caspases, caspase 3,6,7. The ... caspase-8 and caspase-10. In some types of cells (type I), processed caspase-8 directly activates other members of the caspase ... Caspases Caspases play the central role in the transduction of ER apoptotic signals. Caspases are proteins that are highly ... The apoptosome cleaves the pro-caspase to its active form of caspase-9, which in turn activates the effector caspase-3. MAC ( ...

*Guy Salvesen

2005) XIAP inhibits caspase-3 and -7 using two binding sites: evolutionarily conserved mechanism of IAPs. EMBO J 24: 645-655 ... 2006) The human anti-apoptotic proteins cIAP1 and cIAP2 bind but do not inhibit caspases. J Biol Chem 281: 3254-3260 Pop C, ... His research focuses on proteases and their inhibitors in humans, with particular emphasis on the caspases of the apoptotic ... 2006) The apoptosome activates caspase-9 by dimerization. Mol Cell 22: 269-275 Eckelman BP, Salvesen GS. ( ...

*Caspase 10

Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... Caspase 10 has been shown to interact with FADD, CFLAR, Caspase 8, Fas receptor, RYBP, TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF10B. The Proteolysis ... Wang, J; Chun H J; Wong W; Spencer D M; Lenardo M J (November 2001). "Caspase-10 is an initiator caspase in death receptor ... Caspase-10 is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the CASP10 gene. This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the ...

*Z-FA-FMK

It also selectively inhibits effector caspases 2, 3, 6, and 7 but not caspases 8 and 10. This compound has been shown to block ...

*Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src

Src (gene) has been shown to interact with the following signaling pathways: PI3K Akt IKK NFkB Caspase 9 STAT3 p38 MAPK VEGF IL ... 14 (7): 667-78. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2009-0009. PMC 3303596 . PMID 19581523. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine ...
本文综合比较胚胎学、抱粉学、形态性状分支分析和分子系统学等多学科手段和方法,对械树科的系统发育进行了重建,集中探讨了械树科两个属间及械属下组间的系统演化关系。并在已有资料的基础上,对械树科的生物地理学问题进行了总结和讨论。主要研究结果如下:1.比较胚胎学首次报道了金钱械属(Dipteronia)的胚胎学特征,并与械属的广布种青榨械(Acer ...
Caspases are a conserved family of cysteine proteases. They play diverse roles in inflammatory responses and apoptotic pathways. Among the caspases is a subgroup whose primary function is to initiate apoptosis. Within their long prodomains, caspases-2, -9 and -12 contain a caspase activation and recruitment domain while caspases-8 and -10 bear death effector domains. Activation follows the recruitment of the procaspase molecule via the prodomain to a high molecular mass complex. Despite sharing some common features, other aspects of the biochemistry, substrate specificity, regulation and signaling mechanisms differ between initiator apoptotic caspases. Defects in expression or activity of these caspases are related to certain pathological conditions including neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmune diseases and cancer ...
Bandai Namco has released a new trailer for Code Vein that showcases the Invading Executioner boss. The Invading Executioner utilizes her scythe for swift attacks with rhythmic precision. She is…
ISIS butcher Jihadi John had a fearless and hate-filled "nothing to lose" mentality that catapulted him into his role as the bloodthirsty executioner in the...
Pain is a perceptive, unpleasant, multidimensional, sensory, emotional phenomenon that signals the possibility of physical harm. (Executioner) ...
India is preparing for its first executions in seven years, but the government could be forced to delay the hangings because of a lack of executioners.
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Summary of CASP7 (CMH-1, ICE-LAP3, MCH3) expression in human tissue. General cytoplasmic with additional nuclear expression, most abundant in gastrointestinal tract.
Caspases are key components of apoptotic pathways. Regulation of caspases occurs at several levels, including transcription, proteolytic processing, inhibition of enzymatic function, and protein degradation. In contrast, little is known about the extent of post-transcriptional control of caspases. Here, we describe four conserved RNA-binding proteins (RBPs)-PUF-8, MEX-3, GLD-1, and CGH-1-that sequentially repress the CED-3 caspase in distinct regions of the Caenorhabditis elegans germline. We demonstrate that GLD-1 represses ced-3 mRNA translation via two binding sites in its 3′ untranslated region (UTR), thereby ensuring a dual control of unwanted cell death: at the level of p53/CEP-1 and at the executioner caspase level. Moreover, we identified seven RBPs that regulate human caspase-3 expression and/or activation, including human PUF-8, GLD-1, and CGH-1 homologs PUM1, QKI, and DDX6. Given the presence of unusually long executioner caspase 3′ UTRs in many metazoans, translational control of ...
Down-regulated miRNAs Up-regulated target genes mmu-mir-148a ARL6IP1, ARPP19, ATP2A2, CCNA2, CSF1, EGR2, ERLIN1, ERRFI1, FIGF, GADD45A, GMFB, ITGA5, KLF4, KLF6, LIMD2, MAFB, NFYA, PDIA3, PHIP, PPP1R10, PPP1R12A, PTPN14, RAI14, RSBN1L, SERPINE1, SIK1, SLC2A1, TMEM127, TMSB10, TMSB4X mmu-mir-411 APOLD1, SPRY4 mmu-mir-136 RYBP, ARL10, GLIPR2, UGGT1 Up-regulated miRNAs Down-regulated target genes mmu-mir-34a/c DAB2IP, DMWD, EVI5L, FAM107A, MAZ, SPEG, TFRC, TTC19 mmu-mir-92b COL1A2, DAB2IP, G3BP2, HOXC11, LBX1, NFIX, PKDCC, PRKAB2 mmu-mir-132 ACTR3B, AMD1, GPD2, HBEGF, KBTBD13, KCNJ12, PRRT2, SREBF1, TLN2 mmu-mir-146a IRAK1, TLN2 mmu-mir-152 EML2, GPCPD1, NFIX, RPH3AL, SH3KBP1, TFRC, TRAK1, UCP3 mmu-mir-155 DUSP7, G3BP2 mmu-mir-185 DAB2IP, FAM134C, SYNM, TMEM233 mmu-mir-203 APBB2, CACNG7, FKBP5, GDAP1, HBEGF, KCNC1, SIX5, TMEM182 mmu-mir-206 DMPK, G3BP2, GPD2, KCTD13, MKL1, SLC16A3, SPEG mmu-mir-215 KLHL23 Figure 5The network displays the predicted interactions between age-related miRNAs and mRNAs ...
The present invention concerns methods and compositions for identifying genes or genetic pathways modulated by miR-15, miR-26, miR-31, miR-145, miR-147, miR-188, miR-215, miR-216, miR-331, mmu-miR-292-3p, and using nucleic acid comprising all or part of the miR-15, miR-26, miR-31, miR-145, miR-147, miR-188, miR-215, miR-216, miR-331, mmu-miR-292-3p sequences to modulate a gene or gene pathway, using this profile in assessing the condition of a patient and/or treating the patient with an appropriate miRNA.
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Antho 50 induces caspase 3 activation and UHRF1 down-regulation independently of p53 and p73.B CLL cells were incubated with Antho 50 at 75 μg/mL for the ind
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TABLE-US-00010 Ratios(Nasal polyps/Normal nasal miRNAs epithelial cells) mmu-let-7a 2.50557 mmu-let-7c 1.288195 hsa-let-7f-1 2.777389 hsa-miR-142-3p -2.39661 miR-15a -2.99313 miR-27a -1.24058 miR-29a 1.61698 miR-150 -1.25228 miR-198 -1.88815 miR-214 1.682037 miR-295 -6.49557 miR-301b 1.376651 miR-320 -1.18042 miR-370 1.181571 miR-470 -1.38755 miR-490 1.214341 miR-494 2.514489 miR-505 -1.18351 miR-515-3p -2.09964 miR-513 -2.08464 miR-584 -2.18634 miR-588 -1.34309 miR-671 -1.02926 miR-680 -1.52636 miR-690 -4.49503 miR-711 -1.23118 miR-759 -2.90936 miR-760 -1.25218 miR-765 3.831762 miR-hsa-miR-518c* -1.30962 miR-hsa-miR-363* -1.47036 hsa-miR-20a 1.62959 mmu-miR-25 1.826089 mmu-miR-30d 1.057096 mmu-miR-134 -1.30118 mmu-miR-185 1.269764 mmu-miR-191 2.030637 mmu-miR-206 -1.5731 mmu-miR-223 -1.01437 mmu-miR-298 1.374237 mmu-miR-325 -1.51755 mmu-miR-326 1.40507 mmu-miR-340-5p 1.091312 mmu-miR-381 1.306937 mmu-miR-466a-5p -3.77081 hsa-mm-493 1.244195 hsa-miR-527 1.172426 hsa-miR-542-5p -1.9287 ...
Last month, federal Judge Beth Phillips said in a ruling in a death penalty case that it weighed heavily on her that condemned inmate Herbert Smulls had no legal means to learn more about how Missouris execution drug is made.. Under a Missouri law enacted in 2007, information that could be used to identify Missouri executioners is exempt from the states open records law. Under one of the laws provisions, executioners can sue anyone who knowingly releases their identities. When Missouri hired a compounding pharmacy last fall to produce drugs for its lethal injections, the Department of Corrections said it considered the pharmacy, as part of the execution team, to be secret under the law.. By the time Smulls case got to Phillips, the 8th Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals had already ruled that he was not entitled to learn more about the pharmacists making Missouris drugs for executions. The issue was moot, the court said, because Smulls had not proposed a more humane way to die. Phillips denied ...
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ISTANBUL (AP) - Turkey's official news agency says three men suspected of carrying out murders on behalf of the Islamic State group were arrested.Anadolu...
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4199-4207. The potential for best kratom strain to buy the use of cell proliferation and oncogene expression as intermediate markers during liver carcinogenesis. The p53-Mdm2 module and the ubiquitin system.. The fluorometric readings with SH-SY5Y cells which were treated with high doses Arena Ethnobotanicals Kratom Tincture ,iframe width="560″ height="315″ src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/to9joKDLAfM" frameborder="0″ allowfullscreen,. of MSE as early as 4 hr failed to show any significant caspase 8 and 9 activities. A second incubation time point at 18 hr also showed negative results. The next step was investigating the possibility of involvement of executioner caspases such as caspase 3 and 7.. These effects kratom vendors reviews are noticeable after 5 to 10 minutes and can last for several hours. Kratom contains a number of active components so-called alkaloids of which mitragynine is believed to be responsible for most of its effects. Mitragynine is an opioid agonist meaning that it ...
Caspase 8 enzymatic activity in rat retinas. A: The level of protein expression of caspase 8 in the rat retina was evaluated by western blotting. Diabetes incre
Active Caspase 2 FITC Staining Kit (ab65612). Active caspase 2 detection in living cells by flow, microscopy or fluorescent plate reader.
Chavoret Jaruboons memoirs in English and Thai Up until 1934, the official method of execution in Thailand was by decapitating (see The Last Public Be...
I am the wound and the knife! I am the slap and the cheek! I am the limbs and the rack, And the victim and the executioner! I am the vampire of my own heart. ~ Charles Baudelaire.
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48. Zavolan, M., Gerber, A.P. (2018) Mirroring the multifaceted role of RNA and its partners in gene expression. FEBS Lett. 592(17):2825-2827. doi: 10.1002/1873-3468.13230. 47. Albihlal, W.A., Gerber, A.P. (2018) Unconventional RNA-binding proteins: an uncharted zone in RNA biology. FEBS Lett. 592(17), 2917-2931. doi: 10.1002/1873-3468.13161. 46. Iadevaia, V. Matia-González, A.M, Gerber, A.P. (2018) An oligonucleotide-based tandem RNA isolation procedure to recover eukaryotic mRNA-protein complexes. J. Vis. Exp. 138. doi: 10.3791/58223. 45. King, H.A., El-Sharif, H.F., Matia-González, A.M., Iadevaia, V., Fowotade, A., Reddy, S.M., Gerber, A.P. (2017) Generation of ribosome imprinted polymers for sensitive detection of translational responses. Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6542. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-06970-x. 44. Matia-González, A.M., Iadevaia, V., Gerber, A.P. (2017) A versatile tandem RNA isolation procedure to capture in vivo formed mRNA-protein complexes. Methods, 118-119, 93-100. (epub Oct 13, 2016. ...
Caspase Substrate Assay Kit (Colorimetric) is used for assaying activities of members of caspase 1/2/3/5/6/8/9. (KA3698) - Products - Abnova
Generic Caspase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric - Green) (ab112130). Detect generic caspase activation in live cells with green TF2-VAD-FMK substrate.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. Caspase 1 - C14: Caspase. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE ...
This video will show you how to perform an apoptosis assay using adherent cells on the Celigo image cytometer using caspase 3/7 and Hoechst reagents.
First, the up to date Ensembl IDs have been retrieved for the many genes with SD three between rapamycin and Ly294002 therapies. The Amuvatinib 溶解度 GO lessons
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and expression of rat caspase-6 and its localization in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. AU - Singh, Amar B.. AU - Kaushal, Varsha. AU - Megyesi, Judit K.. AU - Shah, Sudhir V.. AU - Kaushal, Gur P.. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Background. Caspase-6 is an important member of the executioner caspases in the caspase family of cell death proteases. The executioner caspases are the major active caspases detected in apoptotic cells and are generally considered to mediate the execution of apoptosis by cleaving and inactivating intracellular proteins. However, the complete characterization of mRNA and protein of caspase-6 in rat and its expression in normal kidney and in disease state has not been previously elucidated. Methods. A rat kidney cortex λgt10 cDNA library was screened to isolate the full-length caspase-6 cDNA. The recombinant caspase-6 protein was characterized by expression in bacteria and by transient transfection in mammalian cells. The expression in ...
Assay Kits , Caspase Assay Kits , SensoLyte AFC Caspase Profiling Kit *Fluorimetric*; Caspases play important roles in apoptosis and cell signaling. They are also identified as drug-screening targets. AFC-based substrates yield blue fluorescence upon protease cleavage. They are widely used to monitor caspase activity. The SensoLyte Caspase Profiling Kit contains a series of AFC-based peptide substrates (Ex/Em=380 nm/500 nm) as fluorogenic indicators for assaying caspase protease activities. The kit contains a well-designed plate in which a series of AFC-based caspase substrates are coated with both positive and negative controls. It provides the best solution for profiling caspases or caspase inhibitors. The kit contains: A 96-well plate coated with a series of AFC-based caspase substrates along with various controls* Cell lysis buffer Assay buffer AFC (fluorescence reference standard for calibration) A detailed protocol A detailed protocol
Caspase-6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CASP6 gene. CASP6 orthologs have been identified in numerous mammals for which complete genome data are available. Unique orthologs are also present in birds, lizards, lissamphibians, and teleosts. Caspase-6 has known functions in apoptosis, early immune response and neurodegenration in Huntingtons and Alzheimers disease. This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes that undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein is processed by caspases 7, 8 and 10, and is thought to function as a downstream enzyme in the caspase activation cascade. Caspase 6 can also undergo self-processing without other members of the caspase family. Alternative ...
Caspase 12 is a protein that belongs to a family of enzymes called caspases which cleave their substrates at C-terminal aspartic acid residues. It is closely related to caspase 1 and other members of the caspase family, known as inflammatory caspases, which process and activate inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 and interleukin 18. It is found on chromosome 11 in humans in a locus with other inflammatory caspases. CASP12 orthologs have been identified in numerous mammals for which complete genome data are available. The CASP12 gene is subject to polymorphism, which can generate a full length caspase protein (Csp12L) or an inactive truncated form (Csp12S). The functional form appears to be confined to people of African descent and is linked with susceptibility to sepsis; people carrying the functional gene have decreased responses to bacterial molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A study in May 2009 by McGill University Health Centre has suggested that estrogen may serve to block ...
BioAssay record AID 364025 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of apoptosis in mouse TLT cells assessed as effect on caspase 3 activity at 100 ug/ml after 24 hrs by fluorometric assay in presence of 2 mM vitamin C.
Looking for the meaning of x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein? Find out what is the meaning of x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein on Phrases.net! The Webs largest and most authoritative phrases and idioms resource.
Caspase 3 antibody LS-C88630 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal that binds human, mouse, rat, bovine, dog, hamster, pig, rabbit, and sheep caspase 3 (also known as CASP3). Caspase 3 antibody is validated for use in IHC-paraffin, immunoprecipitation, and western blot.
BioAssay record AID 306845 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of apoptosis in U937 cells assessed as caspase 3 cleavage at 3 uM by Western blot.
Human caspase 2 ELISA kit can be used for detecting in vitro quantitative levels of caspase-2 (CASP2) in human serum, cell culture supernatant, plasma, tissue
Police investigating the murder of newlywed Catherine Mullany are probing possible links between her killing and a recent execution-style shooting in Antigua.
Only days after U.S. President Donald J. Trump spoke about the situation in Sweden, a live hand grenade was found in a park in the city. Police say they were looking for a weapon in connection with a shooting in the same area but dont believe the grenade had anything to do with the shooting leading to speculation from many of what the object was doing there ...
This is a Phase 1 study during which patients with advanced cancer will receive investigational study drug ARRY-382. Patients will receive increasing do
Silibinin, a natural flavonolignan, induces apoptosis in human bladder transitional-cell papilloma RT4 cells both in vitro and in vivo; however, mechanisms of such efficacy are not completely identified. Here, we studied the mechanisms involved in silibinin-induced apoptosis of RT4 cells having intact p53. Silibinin increased p53 protein level together with its increased phosphorylation at serine 15, activated caspase cascade and caused Bid cleavage for apoptosis. Silibinin-caused p53 activation was mediated via ATM-Chk2 pathway, which in turn induced caspase 2-mediated apoptosis. Pifithrin-α, a p53 inhibitor, reversed silibinin-induced caspase activation including caspase 2; however, caspase 2 inhibitor also reversed p53 phosphorylation suggesting a bidirectional regulation between them. Further, silibinin caused a rapid translocation of p53 and Bid into mitochondria leading to increased permeabilization of mitochondrial membrane and cytochrome c release into the cytosol. JNK1/2 activation was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Caspase-mediated cleavage of HuR in the cytoplasm contributes to pp32/PHAP-I regulation of apoptosis. AU - Mazroui, Rachid. AU - Di Marco, Sergio. AU - Clair, Eveline. AU - Von Roretz, Christopher. AU - Tenenbaum, Scott A.. AU - Keene, Jack D.. AU - Saleh, Maya. AU - Gallouzi, Imed Eddine. PY - 2008/1/14. Y1 - 2008/1/14. N2 - The RNA-binding protein HuR affects cell fate by regulating the stability and/or the translation of messenger RNAs that encode cell stress response proteins. In this study, we delineate a novel regulatory mechanism by which HuR contributes to stress-induced cell death. Upon lethal stress, HuR translocates into the cytoplasm by a mechanism involving its association with the apoptosome activator pp32/PHAP-I. Depleting the expression of pp32/PHAP-I by RNA interference reduces both HuR cytoplasmic accumulation and the efficiency of caspase activation. In the cytoplasm, HuR undergoes caspase-mediated cleavage at aspartate 226. This cleavage activity is ...
Fluorescent Dyes , Enzyme Detection Reagents , Caspase 9 Substrate 1, chromogenic; pNA (4-nitroaniline)-derived caspase substrates are widely used for the colorimetric detection of various caspase activities. Cleavage of pNA peptides by caspases generates pNA that is monitored colorimetrically at ~405 nm. pNA has maximum absorption around 408 nm.; Caspase-9 substrate; Ac-LEHD-pNA; Ac-Leu-Glu-His-Asp-pNA
Caspases, aspartate-specific cysteine proteases, have fate-determining roles in many cellular processes including apoptosis, differentiation, neuronal remodeling, and inflammation (for review, see Yuan & Kroemer, 2010). There are a dozen caspases in humans alone, yet their individual contributions toward these phenotypes are not well understood. Thus, there has been considerable interest in activating individual caspases or using their activity to drive these processes in cells and animals. We envision that such experimental control of caspase activity can not only afford novel insights into fundamental biological problems but may also enable new models for disease and suggest possible routes to therapeutic intervention. In particular, localized, genetic, and small-molecule-controlled caspase activation has the potential to target the desired cell type in a tissue. Suppression of caspase activation is one of the hallmarks of cancer and thus there has been significant enthusiasm for generating ...
Severn Biotech, Limited SBP0058 - Caspase 1 Inhibitor Ac-YVAD aldehyde - SBP0058 - Caspase 1 Inhibitor Ac-YVAD aldehyde MW: 492.5 Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-CHO A specific reversible inhibitor of caspase 1 (ICE, Interleukin 1ß Converting Enzyme) Thornberry N.A. et al. (1992) Nature 356, 768; Molineaux S.M. et al. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 1809; Walker N.P.C. et al. (1994) Cell 78, 343; Wilson K.P. et al. (1994) Nature 370, 270;
As one of the Imperiums many staging grounds for the forces serving in the Great Crusade, the verdant world of Tallarn has long served as a transfer point for vast numbers of military personnel and their war machines. Now, destroyed by a deadly virus-bomb attack launched by the battered Iron Warriors fleet, the entire world is reduced to a toxic wasteland where the survivors must fight to defend what little remains of their home. The remnants of the once-mighty Jurnian 701st armoured regiment emerge from their underground shelters, and the opening movements of the Battle of Tallarn begin...[1] ...
72 products from 18 suppliers. Compare and order Caspase 8 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products for the most popular species. Our scientists will help you find the right ELISA kit for your needs.

Caspase 7: Novus BiologicalsCaspase 7: Novus Biologicals

Caspase 9 (also termed ICE-LAP6, Mch6, Apaf-3) is a member of cysteine protease family of caspases and is encoded by the CASP9 ... Caspase 3 is a cytoplasmic caspase with two isoforms (one acts as a dominant negative inhibitor), and is involved in the ... The Role of the Caspase 3 Antibody in Apoptosis Research. The caspases are a group of cysteine protease enzymes essential to ... Similar to Caspase 3, Caspase-7 is an effector caspase and plays a key role in apoptotic execution. ...
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Caspase 7 - WikipediaCaspase 7 - Wikipedia

The precursor of this caspase is cleaved by caspase 3, caspase 10, and caspase 9. It is activated upon cell death stimuli and ... Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes that undergo proteolytic processing by upstream caspases (caspase-8, -9) at conserved ... Caspase 8, Survivin and XIAP. The Proteolysis Map Caspase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000165806 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... "IAP-family protein survivin inhibits caspase activity and apoptosis induced by Fas (CD95), Bax, caspases, and anticancer drugs ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspase_7

A novel caspase-7 specific monoclonal antibody.  - PubMed - NCBIA novel caspase-7 specific monoclonal antibody. - PubMed - NCBI

A novel caspase-7 specific monoclonal antibody.. Gregorc U, Dobersek A, Salvesen GS, Turk V, Turk B, Kopitar-Jerala N. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15849872

Caspase-7 Activation  | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological ActionCaspase-7 Activation | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action

Pharmacological Actions : Antiproliferative , Apoptotic, Caspase-3 Activation, Caspase-7 Activation , Tumor Suppressor Protein ... Pharmacological Actions : Antiproliferative , Apoptotic, Caspase-3 Activation, Caspase-7 Activation , Cell cycle arrest ... Pharmacological Actions : Angiogenesis Inhibitors, Anticarcinogenic Agents, Apoptotic, Caspase-3 Activation, Caspase-7 ... Pharmacological Actions : Apoptotic, Caspase-3 Activation, Caspase-7 Activation , Caspase-9 Activation ...
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Anti-Caspase-7 antibody (ab25900) | AbcamAnti-Caspase-7 antibody (ab25900) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal Caspase-7 antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 2 publication(s). ... Propeptide domains can also be cleaved efficiently by caspase-3. Active heterodimers between the small subunit of caspase-7 and ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Caspase-7 antibody (ab25900) IHC-P, WB Secondary - Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205718) IHC-P, WB, ... Lane 3 : Anti-Caspase-7 antibody (ab25900) at 2 µg/ml. All lanes : Human skeletal. muscle cell lysate. Predicted band size: 34 ...
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anti-Caspase 7 antibody  | GeneTexanti-Caspase 7 antibody | GeneTex

Anti-Caspase 7 pAb (GTX31705) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase) for ELISA, IHC-P, WB. ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... Caspase-7 antibody was raised against a 16 amino acid synthetic peptide from near the amino-terminus of human Caspase-7.The ...
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anti-Caspase 7 antibody  | GeneTexanti-Caspase 7 antibody | GeneTex

Anti-Caspase 7 pAb (GTX123679) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase) for IHC-P, WB. ... The precursor of this caspase is cleaved by caspase 3 and 10. ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... Storage Conditions: Caspase 7 antibody. Storage Buffer. 0.1M Tris, 0.1M Glycine, 20% Glycerol (pH7). 0.01% Thimerosal was added ...
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Anti-Caspase-7 antibody [4D10B2] KO Tested (ab201959) | AbcamAnti-Caspase-7 antibody [4D10B2] KO Tested (ab201959) | Abcam

Knockout Tested Mouse monoclonal Caspase-7 antibody [4D10B2]. Validated in WB, IHC, Flow Cyt and tested in Rat, Human. Cited in ... Propeptide domains can also be cleaved efficiently by caspase-3. Active heterodimers between the small subunit of caspase-7 and ... All lanes : Anti-Caspase-7 antibody [4D10B2] (ab201959) at 1/500 dilution. Lane 1 : Jurkat cell lysate. Lane 2 : HEK293 cell ... All lanes : Anti-Caspase-7 antibody [4D10B2] (ab201959) at 1/500 dilution. Lane 1 : HEK293 cell lysate. Lane 2 : Caspase-7 ( ...
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Product Overview anti-Caspase 7 AntibodiesProduct Overview anti-Caspase 7 Antibodies

Order monoclonal and polyclonal Caspase 7 antibodies for many applications. Selected quality suppliers for anti-Caspase 7 ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... anti-Caspase Recruitment Domain Family, Member 9 Antibodies * anti-Caspase Recruitment Domain-Containing Protein 18 (ICEBERG) ... caspase-1 regulates dopaminergic neuronal death in the pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease in mice via caspase-7/PARP1/AIF ...
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CASP7 - Caspase-7 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CASP7 gene & proteinCASP7 - Caspase-7 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CASP7 gene & protein

Involved in the activation cascade of caspases responsible for apoptosis execution. Cleaves and activates sterol regulatory ... PS01122 CASPASE_CYS, 1 hit. PS01121 CASPASE_HIS, 1 hit. PS50207 CASPASE_P10, 1 hit. PS50208 CASPASE_P20, 1 hit. ... PS01122 CASPASE_CYS, 1 hit. PS01121 CASPASE_HIS, 1 hit. PS50207 CASPASE_P10, 1 hit. PS50208 CASPASE_P20, 1 hit. ... IPR029030 Caspase-like_dom_sf. IPR033139 Caspase_cys_AS. IPR016129 Caspase_his_AS. IPR002398 Pept_C14. IPR002138 Pept_C14_p10. ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P55210

Caspase-7 antibody | acris-antibodies.comCaspase-7 antibody | acris-antibodies.com

... among all caspase members. It has been identified as one of the effector caspases (which include caspase 3, 6, 7) that are ... Caspase-7 antibody. Not available. Mouse. IgG. 7-1-11. Purified. Can, Hst, Hu, Mky, Ms, Por, Rb, Rt, Sh. P, WB. 50 µg / €470.00 ... Activated caspases cleave a variety of important cellular proteins, other caspases, and Bcl-2 family members, leading to a ... Different subcellular distribution of Caspase-3 and Caspase-7 following. Fas-induced apoptosis in mouse liver. J. Bio. Chem. ...
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anti-Caspase 7 antibody (Caspase 7, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase) (full l...</span...anti-Caspase 7 antibody (Caspase 7, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase) (full l...</span...

Order this anti-Caspase 7 antibody. , Product number ABIN967333 ... Mouse Monoclonal Caspase 7 antibody full length for IP, WB. ... The caspase family of cysteine proteases plays a key role in apoptosis and inflammation. Caspases are synthesized as inactive ... anti-Caspase Recruitment Domain Family, Member 9 Antibodies * anti-Caspase Recruitment Domain-Containing Protein 18 (ICEBERG) ... anti-Caspase 6, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase Antibodies * anti-Caspase 5, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase ...
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PromoKine - Caspase-3 & Caspase-7 Immunoassay KitsPromoKine - Caspase-3 & Caspase-7 Immunoassay Kits

Caspase-3 plays a key role in initiation of cellular events during the apoptotic process. PromoKines Caspase-3 and Caspase-7 ... Caspase-3 Immunoassay Kit. Specifically detect Caspase-3 activity in microtiter plate.. 100 assays. PK-CA577-K163. ... The assay system ensures absolute specific detection of only caspase-3 or caspase-7 activity in apoptotic samples. Other ... Caspase-7 Immunoassay Kit. Specifically detect Caspase-7 activity in microtiter plate.. 100 assays. PK-CA577-K167. ...
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Apoptotic cell death in TrkA-overexpressing cells: kinetic regulation of ERK phosphorylation and caspase-7 activation.Apoptotic cell death in TrkA-overexpressing cells: kinetic regulation of ERK phosphorylation and caspase-7 activation.

Caspase 7 / metabolism*. Colony-Forming Units Assay. Enzyme Activation. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism ... by stimulating ERK phosphorylation and caspase-7 activation leading to PARP cleavage. TrkA-mediated cell death was shown by the ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Apoptotic-cell-death-in-TrkA/18511888.html

Dual Site Phosphorylation of Caspase-7 by PAK2 Blocks Apoptotic Activity by Two Distinct Mechanisms (Journal Article) | DOE...Dual Site Phosphorylation of Caspase-7 by PAK2 Blocks Apoptotic Activity by Two Distinct Mechanisms (Journal Article) | DOE...

Selective Detection of Caspase-3 versus Caspase-7 Using Activity-Based Probes with Key Unnatural Amino Acids ... Abstract: Caspase-independent, non-apoptotic cell death in ischemic heart disease is considered to be one of the important ... Eron, Scott J., Raghupathi, Kishore, and Hardy, Jeanne A.. Dual Site Phosphorylation of Caspase-7 by PAK2 Blocks Apoptotic ... Eron, Scott J., Raghupathi, Kishore, & Hardy, Jeanne A.. Dual Site Phosphorylation of Caspase-7 by PAK2 Blocks Apoptotic ...
more infohttps://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1415490-dual-site-phosphorylation-caspase-pak2-blocks-apoptotic-activity-two-distinct-mechanisms

Caspase-7 Expanded Function and Intrinsic Expression Level Underlies Strain-Specific Brain Phenotype of Caspase-3-Null Mice |...Caspase-7 Expanded Function and Intrinsic Expression Level Underlies Strain-Specific Brain Phenotype of Caspase-3-Null Mice |...

Deficiency in caspase-9 or caspase-3 induces compensatory caspase activation. Nat Med 6: 1241-1247. ... The caspase-3-like activity in B6-Casp3-/- tissues is caspase-7. We used anion-exchange chromatography to isolate this caspase- ... Caspase-3-like activity is detected in B6-Casp3-/- tissues. A, Human caspase-3 inhibitor M-791 structure. B, Splenocytes ... Human caspase-3 was more efficient than human caspase-7 at cleaving human ICAD, as shown by the proteolysis of the p45 full- ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/24/44/9977

Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) - Companies Involved...Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) - Companies Involved...

Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) - ... Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) - Caspase-7 (CASP7) is ... The report reviews Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) ... The report assesses Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) ...
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Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) - Pipeline Review, H1...Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) - Pipeline Review, H1...

Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) - Pipeline Review, H1 ... Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) - Caspase-7 (CASP7) is ... Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) - Drug Profiles. BaxB- ... Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) - Pipeline Review, H1 ...
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caspase 7 n term caspase 7 n term Gentaur Molecular Productscaspase 7 n term caspase 7 n term Gentaur Molecular Products

... order caspase 7 n term caspase 7 n term , How to use: caspase 7 n term caspase 7 n term , support help for caspase 7 n term ... Symbol : Caspase NIH gene. chromosome : Un. description : caspase-3. type of gene : protein-coding. Modification date : 2015-11 ...
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Gentaur Molecular :Biovis \ Caspase-7 Blocking Peptide \ 3135BP-50Gentaur Molecular :Biovis \ Caspase-7 Blocking Peptide \ 3135BP-50

Caspase-7 Blocking Peptide \ 3135BP-50 for more molecular products just contact us ... 27889207] Dual Site Phosphorylation of Caspase-7 by PAK2 Blocks Apoptotic Activity by Two Distinct Mechanisms.. [26651837] ... We have also other products like : Caspase-7 Blocking Peptide. Related products : Caspase-7 Blocking Peptide ... 26271098] Genetic ablation of caspase-7 promotes solar-simulated light-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis: the involvement of ...
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Caspase-7, human recombinant, BioVision | VWRCaspase-7, human recombinant, BioVision | VWR

Similar to other caspases, caspase-7 also exists in cells as an inactive proenzyme. During apoptosis procaspase-7 is processed ... Active caspase-7 has been shown involving in the proteolysis of PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase), an enzyme that is involved ... The active caspase-7 is routinely tested at BioVision for its ability to enzymatically cleave these two substrates Ac-DEVD-pNA ... Caspase-7 (also know as Mch3, ICE-LAP3, CMH-1) is a member of the caspase-family of cysteine proteases. ...
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Anti-Caspase-7 抗体 (ab92842) | アブカムAnti-Caspase-7 抗体 (ab92842) | アブカム

"ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab92842 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,ICC/IF…Caspase-7抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報 ... Propeptide domains can also be cleaved efficiently by caspase-3. Active heterodimers between the small subunit of caspase-7 and ... Lane 4: Caspase-7 knockout HAP1 treated with Staurosporin whole cell lysate (20 µg). Lane 5: HeLa whole cell lysate (20 µg). ... Wild-type and Caspase-7 knockout samples were subjected to SDS-PAGE. Ab92842 and ab18058 (Mouse anti
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Porcine CASP7 (Caspase 7) ELISA Kit Manufacturers in DelhiPorcine CASP7 (Caspase 7) ELISA Kit Manufacturers in Delhi

Caspase 7) ELISA Kit OSCAR DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES PVT. LTD.is an India based Company in Delhi. ... Porcine CASP7 (Caspase 7) ELISA Kit. Porcine CASP7 (Caspase 7) ELISA Kit. Porcine CASP7 (Caspase 7) ELISA Kit. ... Porcine CASP7 (Caspase 7) ELISA Kit » Porcine CASP7 (Caspase 7) ELISA Kit. Porcine CASP7 (Caspase 7) ELISA Kit. Porcine CASP7 ( ... Porcine CASP7 (Caspase 7) ELISA Kit. Porcine CASP7 (Caspase 7) ELISA Kit. Porcine CASP7 (Caspase 7) ELISA Kit. Porcine CASP7 ( ...
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Gentaur Molecular :Biovis \ Caspase 7 Antibody \ 3010-100Gentaur Molecular :Biovis \ Caspase 7 Antibody \ 3010-100

Caspase_7 Antibody \ 3010-100 for more molecular products just contact us ... The caspase family of cysteine proteases plays a key role in apoptosis. Caspase-7, also known as Mch3α , ICE/LAP3 and CMH1, is ... Caspase_7 Antibody antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to ... Caspase-7 is processed by caspase-3, -6, -8, -9, and -10 as well as by Granzyme B.. APPLICATIONS AND USAGE:. Western blot ...
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  • CellEvent® Caspase-3/7 Green reagent is a four amino acid peptide (DEVD) conjugated to a nucleic acid-binding dye that is non-fluorescent when not bound to DNA. (thermofisher.com)
  • Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes that undergo proteolytic processing by upstream caspases (caspase-8, -9) at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme in the form of a heterotetramer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CellEvent® Caspase-3/7 Green reagent is intrinsically non-fluorescent, as the DEVD peptide inhibits binding of the dye to DNA. (thermofisher.com)
  • DFFA is encoded by an alternatively encrypted mRNAs originating two distinct forms: short (ICAD-S) and long (ICAD-L), which act like a specific chaperone ensuring the correct CAD's folding Besides, it contains two aspartic acid residues (Asp117 and Asp224) where CAD is identified and, consequently, it stays bounded until Caspase-3 splits this union. (wikipedia.org)
  • The caspase-3 His-237 stabilizes the target Aspartate causing the break of the association of ICAD and CAD leaving the endonuclease CAD active allowing it to degrade chromosomal DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research highlights: {yields} Ischemia induces high level of iPLA{sub 2} resulting in caspase-independent myocyte death. (osti.gov)
  • Lysates from control (lanes 1-3) and camptothecin-treated Jurkat cells (lanes 4-6) were probed with anti-human caspase-7 (clone 8-1-47, ABIN967331) at the following concentrations: 0.25 (lanes 1,4), 0.125 (lanes 2,5) and 0.062 µg/ml (lanes 3,6). (antibodies-online.com)
  • Lysates from control (lane 1) or camptothecin-treated Jurkat cells (lane 2) were each immunoprecipitated with anti-human caspase-7 (clone 8-1-47) and western blotted with anti-human caspase-7 (clone 8-1-47). (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cleavages by granzyme B or caspase-10 generate the two active subunits. (abcam.com)