A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 10 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 12 is activated by pro-apoptotic factors that are released during cell stress and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
A short pro-domain caspase that is almost exclusively expressed in the EPIDERMIS and may play a role in the differentiation of epidermal KERATINOCYTES.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A subtype of caspases that contain long pro-domain regions that regulate the activation of the enzyme. The pro-domain regions contain protein-protein interaction motifs that can interact with specific signaling adaptor proteins such as DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS; DED SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS; and CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Once activated, the initiator caspases can activate other caspases such as the EFFECTOR CASPASES.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.
A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.
A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
A subclass of caspases that contain short pro-domain regions. They are activated by the proteolytic action of INITIATOR CASPASES. Once activated they cleave a variety of substrates that cause APOPTOSIS.
Multimeric protein complexes formed in the CYTOSOL that play a role in the activation of APOPTOSIS. They can occur when MITOCHONDRIA become damaged due to cell stress and release CYTOCHROME C. Cytosolic cytochrome C associates with APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1 to form the apoptosomal protein complex. The apoptosome signals apoptosis by binding to and activating specific INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.
Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.
A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A RIP serine-theonine kinase that contains a C-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain. It can signal by associating with other CARD-signaling adaptor proteins and INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.
A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.
An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.

Proteolytic cleavage of ras GTPase-activating protein during apoptosis. (1/647)

p120-ras GTPase-activating protein (rasGAP) associates with Ras and negatively regulates Ras signaling by stimulating the intrinsic rate of Ras GTPase activity. rasGAP also associates with other cellular signaling proteins which suggest that rasGAP may play a role in coordinating other signal transduction pathways. Disruption of rasGAP in vivo results in extensive apoptosis. Fas-mediated apoptosis results in the activation of caspases that cleave cellular substrates which are important for maintaining cytoplasmic and nuclear integrity. We show here that rasGAP is proteolytically cleaved by caspases early in Fas-induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells. rasGAP was also cleaved by DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents and TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), also known as Apo2L. Based on the size of the products generated by cleavage of deletion mutants of rasGAP we predict that cleavage of rasGAP occurs in the hydrophobic region and between the SH2(2) and ras-p21 interacting domain which would leave an intact ras-p21 interacting domain. Interestingly, cleavage of rasGAP in vitro enhanced rasGAP hydrolysis activity. Our results demonstrate that diverse apoptotic stimuli cause caspase-mediated cleavage of rasGAP early in apoptosis.  (+info)

Caspase activation by BCR cross-linking in immature B cells: differential effects on growth arrest and apoptosis. (2/647)

The B cell lymphoma WEHI-231 has been used as a model to study immature B cell tolerance, based on its capacity to undergo growth arrest and programmed cell death on B cell receptor (BCR) cross-linking. Using this model to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, we found that BCR cross-linking results in the selective activation of caspase 7/Mch3, but not of the other two members of the CPP32 family, caspase 2/Nedd2 and caspase 3/CPP32. This was evidenced by the induction of proteolytic activity against the substrate for the CPP32 subfamily of caspases (z-DVED-AMC) in vitro, as well as PARP proteolysis in vivo and by the processing of the 35 kDa Mch3 into a 32 kDa species, which was later further proteolyzed. The general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, but not the CPP32 family inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO, blocked anti- micro-induced apoptosis, indicating that a caspase not belonging to the CPP32-like family is also implicated in anti- micro-triggered apoptosis. In contrast, z-VAD-fmk was not able to counteract growth arrest induced by anti- micro treatment, suggesting that caspase activation is not necessary for induction of growth arrest. Neither of the inhibitors prevented Mch3 processing; however, z-VAD-fmk prevented proteolysis of the p32 subunit, suggesting that further processing of this subunit is associated with apoptosis. Bcl-2 overexpression prevented anti- micro induction of CPP32-like activity and apoptosis, and blocked further processing of the Mch3 p32 subunit. In contrast, CD40 stimulation completely blocked the appearance of the p32 subunit in addition to blocking CPP32-like activity and apoptosis induced by BCR cross-linking. Moreover, only CD40 stimulation was able to prevent anti- micro-induced growth arrest, which was correlated with inhibition of retinoblastoma and of cyclin A down-regulation. In splenic B cells, Mch3 is also specifically proteolyzed ex vivo after induction of apoptosis by BCR cross-linking, demonstrating the specific involvement of caspase-7/Mch3 in apoptosis induced in B cell tolerance.  (+info)

Activation of the apoptotic endonuclease DFF40 (caspase-activated DNase or nuclease). Oligomerization and direct interaction with histone H1. (3/647)

DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a heterodimeric protein composed of 45-kDa (DFF45) and 40-kDa (DFF40) subunits, a protein that mediates regulated DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation in response to apoptotic signals. DFF45 is a specific molecular chaperone and an inhibitor for the nuclease activity of DFF40. Previous studies have shown that upon cleavage of DFF45 by caspase-3, the nuclease activity of DFF40 is relieved of inhibition. Here we further investigate the mechanism of DFF40 activation. We demonstrate that DFF45 can also be cleaved and inactivated by caspase-7 but not by caspase-6 and caspase-8. The cleaved DFF45 fragments dissociate from DFF40, allowing DFF40 to oligomerize to form a large functional complex that cleaves DNA by introducing double strand breaks. Histone H1 directly interacts with DFF, confers DNA binding ability to DFF, and stimulates the nuclease activity of DFF40 by increasing its Kcat and decreasing its Km.  (+info)

Synthesis of procaspases-3 and -7 during apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. (4/647)

Cells differ in the time required to execute cell death after receipt of a death signal. One reason may be the requirement for de novo synthesis of components of the death pathway. TSU-Pr1 prostate cancer cells treated with okadaic acid demonstrated activation of caspase-3, PARP cleavage, and nuclear fragmentation by 24 h and apoptosis by 72 h. Levels of procaspase-3 and procaspase-7, the precursor molecules of two effector caspases, were not depleted during apoptosis. Levels of procaspase-3 and -7 mRNA increased steadily in TSU-Pr1 cells up to 72 h after exposure to okadaic acid. Nuclear run-off experiments showed that the increase in mRNA was not due to transcriptional activation of caspase-3 and -7 mRNA. Antisense caspase-3 and caspase-7 oligodeoxynucleotides caused a depletion of procaspases-3 and -7 and a delay in apoptosis of TSU-Pr1 cells. Caspase antisense oligodeoxynucleotides inhibited apoptosis to a similar extent as peptide inhibitors of cysteine proteases. Synthesis of procaspases-3 and -7 was necessary to sustain programmed cell death in TSU-Pr1 prostate cancer cells.  (+info)

Caspases-3 and -7 are activated in goniothalamin-induced apoptosis in human Jurkat T-cells. (5/647)

Goniothalamin, a plant styrylpyrone derivative isolated from Goniothalamus andersonii, induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-cells as assessed by the externalisation of phosphatidylserine. Immunoblotting showed processing of caspases-3 and -7 with the appearance of their catalytically active large subunits of 17 and 19 kDa, respectively. Activation of these caspases was further evidenced by detection of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage (PARP). Pre-treatment with the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD.FMK) blocked apoptosis and the resultant cleavage of these caspases and PARP. Our results demonstrate that activation of at least two effector caspases is a key feature of goniothalamin-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-cells.  (+info)

Implication of calpain in caspase activation during B cell clonal deletion. (6/647)

In the absence of costimulating signals, B cell receptor (BCR) crosslinking on immature B cells triggers the apoptotic cell death program. In the WEHI-231 B cell lymphoma model, anti-IgM crosslinking triggers activation of caspase-7 independently of caspase-8, followed by apoptosis. Two main mechanisms for caspase-7 activation have been proposed: (i) caspase-8 recruitment to death receptors (Fas or tumour necrosis factor); and (ii) changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release, which activate caspase-9. Here we report that caspase-7 activation induced by BCR crosslinking is independent of caspase-8 and cytochrome c translocation from mitochondria to the cytosol, as well as of mitochondrial depolarization. In addition, in a cell-free system, the S-100 fraction of anti-IgM-treated WEHI-231 cells induces a caspase activation pattern different from that activated by cytochrome c and dATP. We demonstrate that calpain specifically triggers activation and processing of caspase-7 both in vitro and in vivo, and that both processes are inhibited by calpain inhibitors. Furthermore, calpain activation is associated with decreased expression levels of calpastatin, which is upregulated by CD40 ligation. These data confirm a role for calpain during BCR crosslinking, which may be critical for cell deletion by apoptosis during B cell development and activation.  (+info)

Cleavage of automodified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase during apoptosis. Evidence for involvement of caspase-7. (7/647)

The abundant nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) synthesizes poly(ADP-ribose) in response to DNA strand breaks. During almost all forms of apoptosis, PARP is cleaved by caspases, suggesting the crucial role of its inactivation. A few studies have also reported a stimulation of PARP during apoptosis. However, the role of PARP stimulation and cleavage during this cell death process remains poorly understood. Here, we measured the stimulation of endogenous poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis during VP-16-induced apoptosis in HL60 cells and found that PARP was cleaved by caspases at the time of its poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. In vitro experiments showed that PARP cleavage by caspase-7, but not by caspase-3, was stimulated by its automodification by long and branched poly(ADP-ribose). Consistently, caspase-7 exhibited an affinity for poly(ADP-ribose), whereas caspase-3 did not. In addition, caspase-7 was activated and accumulated in the nucleus of HL60 cells in response to the VP-16 treatment. Furthermore, caspase-7 activation was concommitant with PARP cleavage in the caspase-3-deficient cell line MCF-7 in response to staurosporine treatment. These results strongly suggest that, in vivo, it is caspase-7 that is responsible for PARP cleavage and that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP accelerates its proteolysis. Cleavage of the active form of caspase substrates could be a general feature of the apoptotic process, ensuring the rapid inactivation of stress signaling proteins.  (+info)

Caspase-3 is the primary activator of apoptotic DNA fragmentation via DNA fragmentation factor-45/inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase inactivation. (8/647)

Caspase-3 initiates apoptotic DNA fragmentation by proteolytically inactivating DFF45 (DNA fragmentation factor-45)/ICAD (inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase), which releases active DFF40/CAD (caspase-activated DNase), the inhibitor's associated endonuclease. Here, we examined whether other apoptotic proteinases initiated DNA fragmentation via DFF45/ICAD inactivation. In a cell-free assay, caspases-3, -6, -7, -8, and granzyme B initiated benzoyloxycarbonyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVD) cleaving caspase activity, DFF45/ICAD inactivation, and DNA fragmentation, but calpain and cathepsin D failed to initiate these events. Strikingly, only the DEVD cleaving caspases, caspase-3 and caspase-7, inactivated DFF45/ICAD and promoted DNA fragmentation in an in vitro DFF40/CAD assay, suggesting that granzyme B, caspase-6, and caspase-8 promote DFF45/ICAD inactivation and DNA fragmentation indirectly by activating caspase-3 and/or caspase-7. In vitro, however, caspase-3 inactivated DFF45/ICAD and promoted DNA fragmentation more effectively than caspase-7 and endogenous levels of caspase-7 failed to inactivate DFF45/ICAD in caspase-3 null MCF7 cells and extracts. Together, these data suggest that caspase-3 is the primary inactivator of DFF45/ICAD and therefore the primary activator of apoptotic DNA fragmentation.  (+info)

本文综合比较胚胎学、抱粉学、形态性状分支分析和分子系统学等多学科手段和方法,对械树科的系统发育进行了重建,集中探讨了械树科两个属间及械属下组间的系统演化关系。并在已有资料的基础上,对械树科的生物地理学问题进行了总结和讨论。主要研究结果如下:1.比较胚胎学首次报道了金钱械属(Dipteronia)的胚胎学特征,并与械属的广布种青榨械(Acer ...
Caspases are a conserved family of cysteine proteases. They play diverse roles in inflammatory responses and apoptotic pathways. Among the caspases is a subgroup whose primary function is to initiate apoptosis. Within their long prodomains, caspases-2, -9 and -12 contain a caspase activation and recruitment domain while caspases-8 and -10 bear death effector domains. Activation follows the recruitment of the procaspase molecule via the prodomain to a high molecular mass complex. Despite sharing some common features, other aspects of the biochemistry, substrate specificity, regulation and signaling mechanisms differ between initiator apoptotic caspases. Defects in expression or activity of these caspases are related to certain pathological conditions including neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmune diseases and cancer ...
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Pain is a perceptive, unpleasant, multidimensional, sensory, emotional phenomenon that signals the possibility of physical harm. (Executioner) ...
India is preparing for its first executions in seven years, but the government could be forced to delay the hangings because of a lack of executioners.
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Summary of CASP7 (CMH-1, ICE-LAP3, MCH3) expression in human tissue. General cytoplasmic with additional nuclear expression, most abundant in gastrointestinal tract.
Caspases are key components of apoptotic pathways. Regulation of caspases occurs at several levels, including transcription, proteolytic processing, inhibition of enzymatic function, and protein degradation. In contrast, little is known about the extent of post-transcriptional control of caspases. Here, we describe four conserved RNA-binding proteins (RBPs)-PUF-8, MEX-3, GLD-1, and CGH-1-that sequentially repress the CED-3 caspase in distinct regions of the Caenorhabditis elegans germline. We demonstrate that GLD-1 represses ced-3 mRNA translation via two binding sites in its 3′ untranslated region (UTR), thereby ensuring a dual control of unwanted cell death: at the level of p53/CEP-1 and at the executioner caspase level. Moreover, we identified seven RBPs that regulate human caspase-3 expression and/or activation, including human PUF-8, GLD-1, and CGH-1 homologs PUM1, QKI, and DDX6. Given the presence of unusually long executioner caspase 3′ UTRs in many metazoans, translational control of ...
Down-regulated miRNAs Up-regulated target genes mmu-mir-148a ARL6IP1, ARPP19, ATP2A2, CCNA2, CSF1, EGR2, ERLIN1, ERRFI1, FIGF, GADD45A, GMFB, ITGA5, KLF4, KLF6, LIMD2, MAFB, NFYA, PDIA3, PHIP, PPP1R10, PPP1R12A, PTPN14, RAI14, RSBN1L, SERPINE1, SIK1, SLC2A1, TMEM127, TMSB10, TMSB4X mmu-mir-411 APOLD1, SPRY4 mmu-mir-136 RYBP, ARL10, GLIPR2, UGGT1 Up-regulated miRNAs Down-regulated target genes mmu-mir-34a/c DAB2IP, DMWD, EVI5L, FAM107A, MAZ, SPEG, TFRC, TTC19 mmu-mir-92b COL1A2, DAB2IP, G3BP2, HOXC11, LBX1, NFIX, PKDCC, PRKAB2 mmu-mir-132 ACTR3B, AMD1, GPD2, HBEGF, KBTBD13, KCNJ12, PRRT2, SREBF1, TLN2 mmu-mir-146a IRAK1, TLN2 mmu-mir-152 EML2, GPCPD1, NFIX, RPH3AL, SH3KBP1, TFRC, TRAK1, UCP3 mmu-mir-155 DUSP7, G3BP2 mmu-mir-185 DAB2IP, FAM134C, SYNM, TMEM233 mmu-mir-203 APBB2, CACNG7, FKBP5, GDAP1, HBEGF, KCNC1, SIX5, TMEM182 mmu-mir-206 DMPK, G3BP2, GPD2, KCTD13, MKL1, SLC16A3, SPEG mmu-mir-215 KLHL23 Figure 5The network displays the predicted interactions between age-related miRNAs and mRNAs ...
The present invention concerns methods and compositions for identifying genes or genetic pathways modulated by miR-15, miR-26, miR-31, miR-145, miR-147, miR-188, miR-215, miR-216, miR-331, mmu-miR-292-3p, and using nucleic acid comprising all or part of the miR-15, miR-26, miR-31, miR-145, miR-147, miR-188, miR-215, miR-216, miR-331, mmu-miR-292-3p sequences to modulate a gene or gene pathway, using this profile in assessing the condition of a patient and/or treating the patient with an appropriate miRNA.
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On the morning of Jan. 8, 1908, the murderer John Boyd managed six hours of broken sleep in his Don Jail cell and, at around 7, newspaper readers lear...
Antho 50 induces caspase 3 activation and UHRF1 down-regulation independently of p53 and p73.B CLL cells were incubated with Antho 50 at 75 μg/mL for the ind
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TABLE-US-00010 Ratios(Nasal polyps/Normal nasal miRNAs epithelial cells) mmu-let-7a 2.50557 mmu-let-7c 1.288195 hsa-let-7f-1 2.777389 hsa-miR-142-3p -2.39661 miR-15a -2.99313 miR-27a -1.24058 miR-29a 1.61698 miR-150 -1.25228 miR-198 -1.88815 miR-214 1.682037 miR-295 -6.49557 miR-301b 1.376651 miR-320 -1.18042 miR-370 1.181571 miR-470 -1.38755 miR-490 1.214341 miR-494 2.514489 miR-505 -1.18351 miR-515-3p -2.09964 miR-513 -2.08464 miR-584 -2.18634 miR-588 -1.34309 miR-671 -1.02926 miR-680 -1.52636 miR-690 -4.49503 miR-711 -1.23118 miR-759 -2.90936 miR-760 -1.25218 miR-765 3.831762 miR-hsa-miR-518c* -1.30962 miR-hsa-miR-363* -1.47036 hsa-miR-20a 1.62959 mmu-miR-25 1.826089 mmu-miR-30d 1.057096 mmu-miR-134 -1.30118 mmu-miR-185 1.269764 mmu-miR-191 2.030637 mmu-miR-206 -1.5731 mmu-miR-223 -1.01437 mmu-miR-298 1.374237 mmu-miR-325 -1.51755 mmu-miR-326 1.40507 mmu-miR-340-5p 1.091312 mmu-miR-381 1.306937 mmu-miR-466a-5p -3.77081 hsa-mm-493 1.244195 hsa-miR-527 1.172426 hsa-miR-542-5p -1.9287 ...
Last month, federal Judge Beth Phillips said in a ruling in a death penalty case that it weighed heavily on her that condemned inmate Herbert Smulls had no legal means to learn more about how Missouris execution drug is made.. Under a Missouri law enacted in 2007, information that could be used to identify Missouri executioners is exempt from the states open records law. Under one of the laws provisions, executioners can sue anyone who knowingly releases their identities. When Missouri hired a compounding pharmacy last fall to produce drugs for its lethal injections, the Department of Corrections said it considered the pharmacy, as part of the execution team, to be secret under the law.. By the time Smulls case got to Phillips, the 8th Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals had already ruled that he was not entitled to learn more about the pharmacists making Missouris drugs for executions. The issue was moot, the court said, because Smulls had not proposed a more humane way to die. Phillips denied ...
Medieval style executioner. Full over-the-head latex mask. Individually hand painted for the most realistic look possible. (MC-TB26363)
Caspase-7 is a member of the caspase (cysteine aspartate protease) family of proteins, and has been shown to be an executioner protein of apoptosis. Sequential activation
ISTANBUL (AP) - Turkey's official news agency says three men suspected of carrying out murders on behalf of the Islamic State group were arrested.Anadolu...
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4199-4207. The potential for best kratom strain to buy the use of cell proliferation and oncogene expression as intermediate markers during liver carcinogenesis. The p53-Mdm2 module and the ubiquitin system.. The fluorometric readings with SH-SY5Y cells which were treated with high doses Arena Ethnobotanicals Kratom Tincture ,iframe width=560″ height=315″ src=http://www.youtube.com/embed/to9joKDLAfM frameborder=0″ allowfullscreen,. of MSE as early as 4 hr failed to show any significant caspase 8 and 9 activities. A second incubation time point at 18 hr also showed negative results. The next step was investigating the possibility of involvement of executioner caspases such as caspase 3 and 7.. These effects kratom vendors reviews are noticeable after 5 to 10 minutes and can last for several hours. Kratom contains a number of active components so-called alkaloids of which mitragynine is believed to be responsible for most of its effects. Mitragynine is an opioid agonist meaning that it ...
The central executioner of apoptosis: multiple connections between protease activation and mitochondria in Fas/APO-1/CD95- and ceramide-induced apoptosis.: Acco
Caspase 8 enzymatic activity in rat retinas. A: The level of protein expression of caspase 8 in the rat retina was evaluated by western blotting. Diabetes incre
Active Caspase 2 FITC Staining Kit (ab65612). Active caspase 2 detection in living cells by flow, microscopy or fluorescent plate reader.
Chavoret Jaruboons memoirs in English and Thai Up until 1934, the official method of execution in Thailand was by decapitating (see The Last Public Be...
I am the wound and the knife! I am the slap and the cheek! I am the limbs and the rack, And the victim and the executioner! I am the vampire of my own heart. ~ Charles Baudelaire.
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48. Zavolan, M., Gerber, A.P. (2018) Mirroring the multifaceted role of RNA and its partners in gene expression. FEBS Lett. 592(17):2825-2827. doi: 10.1002/1873-3468.13230. 47. Albihlal, W.A., Gerber, A.P. (2018) Unconventional RNA-binding proteins: an uncharted zone in RNA biology. FEBS Lett. 592(17), 2917-2931. doi: 10.1002/1873-3468.13161. 46. Iadevaia, V. Matia-González, A.M, Gerber, A.P. (2018) An oligonucleotide-based tandem RNA isolation procedure to recover eukaryotic mRNA-protein complexes. J. Vis. Exp. 138. doi: 10.3791/58223. 45. King, H.A., El-Sharif, H.F., Matia-González, A.M., Iadevaia, V., Fowotade, A., Reddy, S.M., Gerber, A.P. (2017) Generation of ribosome imprinted polymers for sensitive detection of translational responses. Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6542. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-06970-x. 44. Matia-González, A.M., Iadevaia, V., Gerber, A.P. (2017) A versatile tandem RNA isolation procedure to capture in vivo formed mRNA-protein complexes. Methods, 118-119, 93-100. (epub Oct 13, 2016. ...
Caspase Substrate Assay Kit (Colorimetric) is used for assaying activities of members of caspase 1/2/3/5/6/8/9. (KA3698) - Products - Abnova
Generic Caspase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric - Green) (ab112130). Detect generic caspase activation in live cells with green TF2-VAD-FMK substrate.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. Caspase 1 - C14: Caspase. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
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A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE ...
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This video will show you how to perform an apoptosis assay using adherent cells on the Celigo image cytometer using caspase 3/7 and Hoechst reagents.
First, the up to date Ensembl IDs have been retrieved for the many genes with SD three between rapamycin and Ly294002 therapies. The Amuvatinib 溶解度 GO lessons
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and expression of rat caspase-6 and its localization in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. AU - Singh, Amar B.. AU - Kaushal, Varsha. AU - Megyesi, Judit K.. AU - Shah, Sudhir V.. AU - Kaushal, Gur P.. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - Background. Caspase-6 is an important member of the executioner caspases in the caspase family of cell death proteases. The executioner caspases are the major active caspases detected in apoptotic cells and are generally considered to mediate the execution of apoptosis by cleaving and inactivating intracellular proteins. However, the complete characterization of mRNA and protein of caspase-6 in rat and its expression in normal kidney and in disease state has not been previously elucidated. Methods. A rat kidney cortex λgt10 cDNA library was screened to isolate the full-length caspase-6 cDNA. The recombinant caspase-6 protein was characterized by expression in bacteria and by transient transfection in mammalian cells. The expression in ...
Assay Kits , Caspase Assay Kits , SensoLyte AFC Caspase Profiling Kit *Fluorimetric*; Caspases play important roles in apoptosis and cell signaling. They are also identified as drug-screening targets. AFC-based substrates yield blue fluorescence upon protease cleavage. They are widely used to monitor caspase activity. The SensoLyte Caspase Profiling Kit contains a series of AFC-based peptide substrates (Ex/Em=380 nm/500 nm) as fluorogenic indicators for assaying caspase protease activities. The kit contains a well-designed plate in which a series of AFC-based caspase substrates are coated with both positive and negative controls. It provides the best solution for profiling caspases or caspase inhibitors. The kit contains: A 96-well plate coated with a series of AFC-based caspase substrates along with various controls* Cell lysis buffer Assay buffer AFC (fluorescence reference standard for calibration) A detailed protocol A detailed protocol
Caspase-6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CASP6 gene. CASP6 orthologs have been identified in numerous mammals for which complete genome data are available. Unique orthologs are also present in birds, lizards, lissamphibians, and teleosts. Caspase-6 has known functions in apoptosis, early immune response and neurodegenration in Huntingtons and Alzheimers disease. This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes that undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein is processed by caspases 7, 8 and 10, and is thought to function as a downstream enzyme in the caspase activation cascade. Caspase 6 can also undergo self-processing without other members of the caspase family. Alternative ...
Caspase 12 is a protein that belongs to a family of enzymes called caspases which cleave their substrates at C-terminal aspartic acid residues. It is closely related to caspase 1 and other members of the caspase family, known as inflammatory caspases, which process and activate inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 and interleukin 18. It is found on chromosome 11 in humans in a locus with other inflammatory caspases. CASP12 orthologs have been identified in numerous mammals for which complete genome data are available. The CASP12 gene is subject to polymorphism, which can generate a full length caspase protein (Csp12L) or an inactive truncated form (Csp12S). The functional form appears to be confined to people of African descent and is linked with susceptibility to sepsis; people carrying the functional gene have decreased responses to bacterial molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A study in May 2009 by McGill University Health Centre has suggested that estrogen may serve to block ...
BioAssay record AID 364025 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of apoptosis in mouse TLT cells assessed as effect on caspase 3 activity at 100 ug/ml after 24 hrs by fluorometric assay in presence of 2 mM vitamin C.
Looking for the meaning of x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein? Find out what is the meaning of x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein on Phrases.net! The Webs largest and most authoritative phrases and idioms resource.
Caspase 3 antibody LS-C88630 is a biotin-conjugated rabbit polyclonal that binds human, mouse, rat, bovine, dog, hamster, pig, rabbit, and sheep caspase 3 (also known as CASP3). Caspase 3 antibody is validated for use in IHC-paraffin, immunoprecipitation, and western blot.
Caspase detection antibodies and assays are used to help detect and study caspase activation in Apoptotic cells via immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting techniques.
Supplementary MaterialsDataSheet_1. the additional four baseline strategies. Furthermore, we validated the predictions from the MDADTI in six drug-target connections reference databases, as well as the outcomes demonstrated that MDADTI can identify unknown DTIs effectively. = 1,……,? and a couple of goals T?= = 1,……,, where represents the real variety of medications and represents the amount of goals. We also described the connections between D and T being a binary matrix Y whose component beliefs are 0 or 1, where = 1 represents the medication and similarity matrices of goals in = to get the topology framework feature of medication nodes. The RWR strategy can be developed as the next recurrence relationship: is normally a row vector of medication and its techniques starting from 99011-02-6 medication may be the preliminary one-hot vector, is the probability of restart, and is the one-step probability transition matrix acquired by applying row-wise normalization of the similarity matrix ...
BioAssay record AID 306845 submitted by ChEMBL: Induction of apoptosis in U937 cells assessed as caspase 3 cleavage at 3 uM by Western blot.
Human caspase 2 ELISA kit can be used for detecting in vitro quantitative levels of caspase-2 (CASP2) in human serum, cell culture supernatant, plasma, tissue
Police investigating the murder of newlywed Catherine Mullany are probing possible links between her killing and a recent execution-style shooting in Antigua.
Only days after U.S. President Donald J. Trump spoke about the situation in Sweden, a live hand grenade was found in a park in the city. Police say they were looking for a weapon in connection with a shooting in the same area but dont believe the grenade had anything to do with the shooting leading to speculation from many of what the object was doing there ...
Z-VAD-FMK is a cell-permeable pan caspase inhibitor that irreversibly binds to the catalytic site of caspases and can inhibit induction of apoptosis.
This is a Phase 1 study during which patients with advanced cancer will receive investigational study drug ARRY-382. Patients will receive increasing do
Plasmid pcDNA-Caspase 12 from Dr. Junying Yuans lab contains the insert Caspase 12 and is published in Nature. 2000 Jan 6. 403(6765):98-103. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
  • A novel caspase-7 specific monoclonal antibody. (nih.gov)
  • The antibody does not cross-react with other Caspase family members. (abcam.com)
  • Caspase-7 antibody was raised against a 16 amino acid synthetic peptide from near the amino-terminus of human Caspase-7.The immunogen is located within amino acids 30 - 80 of Caspase-7. (genetex.com)
  • WB analysis of mouse skeletal muscle tissue lysate using GTX31705 Caspase 7 antibody. (genetex.com)
  • IHC-P analysis of rat skeletal muscle tissue using GTX31705 Caspase 7 antibody. (genetex.com)
  • AM20344PU-N Caspase-7 antibody staining of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Human Spleen followed by biotinylated anti-Mouse IgG secondary antibody, Alkaline Phosphatase-Streptavidin and Chromogen. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry analyzes of Caspase-7 antibody (Cat. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Western blot (WB) analysis of Caspase-7 antibody (Cat. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Western blot analysis of caspase-7 in human skeletal muscle cell lysate with caspase-7 antibody (AP22940PU-N) at (A) 0.5 and (B) 1 µg/ml. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Caspase 7 antibody LS-C12506 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to Caspase 7 (CASP7) (Cleavage Site) from human. (lsbio.com)
  • Caspase_7 Antibody antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of Caspase_7 Antibody. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • 50 ug blocking peptide for Caspase-7 polyclonal antibody (Cat. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Immunofluorescent analysis of (-20℃ Ethanol) fixed MCF-7 cells using 27155-1-AP (Caspase 7 antibody) at dilution of 1:50 and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated AffiniPure Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG(H+L). (ptgcn.com)
  • Caspase-7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase, also known as CASP7, is a human protein encoded by the CASP7 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase 7 (also known as CASP7, Mch3, ICE-LAP3, CMH-1) is a member of caspase family of cysteine proteases. (novusbio.com)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 308 Caspase 7, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase (CASP7) Antibodies from 36 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A new independent 54 page research with title 'Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017'guarantees you will remain better informed than your competition. (medgadget.com)
  • Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) pipeline Target constitutes close to 6 molecules. (medgadget.com)
  • The latest report Caspase 7 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (medgadget.com)
  • Furthermore, this report also reviews key players involved in Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (medgadget.com)
  • These cells rely on caspase-7 to execute the apoptotic program, yet binding with XIAP constitutively inhibits active caspase-7 (p19/p12-CASP7). (elsevier.com)
  • describe how a newly synthesized drug is able to disrupt the XIAP:p19/p12-CASP7 complex and induce apoptosis in caspase-3-deficient cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • The CellEvent™ Caspase-3/7 Green Flow Cytometry Assay Kit enables the flow cytometric detection of activated caspase-3 and caspase-7 in apoptotic cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Caspase activity detection in Jurkat cells using the CellEvent® Caspase-3/7 Green Flow Cytometry Assay Kit on the Attune® Flow Cytometer. (thermofisher.com)
  • Hello all, I recently purchased a Caspase 3/7 Glo assay kit from Promega for apoptosis detection.My assay was done with HEK293 cells which were stimulated with Etoposide.I performed the assay exactly described in the protocol,and detected the luminescence with our Luminoskan Ascent luminometer. (protocol-online.org)
  • I used etoposide to treat my cells for different time,and i also use different concentration.I also use the caspase 3/7 glo assay kit from promega. (protocol-online.org)
  • The EarlyTox ™ Caspase-3/7 R110 Assay Kit provides a single-step, homogenous assay that is specifically designed for microplate readers. (moleculardevices.com)
  • In this application note we report the use of the EarlyTox Caspase-3/7 R110 Assay Kit in combination with SpectraMax ® fluorescence microplate readers . (moleculardevices.com)
  • EarlyTox Caspase-3/7-D NucView 488 Assay Kit (Explorer Kit Cat. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Detect caspase-3/7 activity with the FLICA Caspase-3/7 Assay Kit. (lktlabs.com)
  • Caspase-3, 7 Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit can be used for assaying caspase-3, 7 activities in cell/tissue extracts in a 96-well plate format. (ubpbio.com)
  • We screened a library of 10,000 thiol-containing compounds against accessible cysteines of two members of the caspase family of proteases, caspase-3 and -7. (rcsb.org)
  • These morphological changes occur vi a signaling pathways that lead to the recruitment and activation of caspases, a family of cysteine-containing, as partate-specific proteases. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is mediated by the activation of caspases (Casp), a family of cysteine proteases present as proenzymes in all cells and activated by cleavage and reorganization of their subunits after an intracellular or extracellular apoptotic signal ( Nicholson, 1999 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The goals of this work were to establish a reproducible and effective model of apoptosis in a cell line derived from advanced prostate cancer and to study the role of the caspase family of proteases in mediating apoptosis in this system. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Originally identified among other family members of Caenorhabditis elegans death proteins ( 4 ), it is now known that caspases are key proteases that activate and mediate apoptotic cell death through a cascade of protein cleavage. (sciencemag.org)
  • Other caspases and non-specific proteases are not detected. (promokine.info)
  • As is common with other proteases, caspases are synthesized as precursors that undergo proteolytic maturation, either autocatalytically or in a cascade by enzymes with similar specificity (5). (celltechnology.com)
  • The caspase family of cysteine proteases plays a key role in apoptosis. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Prior to its subclassification within the caspase family of proteases, caspase-1 was originally described as the IL-converting enzyme. (jimmunol.org)
  • Caspase-7 is classified as a member of the subgroup of cysteine proteases most related to the Caenorhabditis elegans factor CED-3, which also includes caspase-3, -6, and -9(PMID:9426061). (ptgcn.com)
  • Caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, play a central role in apoptosis. (jci.org)
  • They trigger target cell death either through the death receptor pathway or through the cytotoxic granule pathway, which relies on perforin-dependent delivery of granzyme serine proteases into the cytosol of the target cell [ 7 - 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Caspase-7, also known as Mch3α , ICE/LAP3 and CMH1, is a 34 kDa protein that is activated during Fas- and TNF-induced apoptosis. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The precursor of this caspase is cleaved by caspase 3, caspase 10, and caspase 9. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspases have a precursor form composed of a prodomain, and large and small catalytic subunit, and are activated through a cleavage adjacent to an aspartate to liberate units and allow formation of an a2b2 tetramer. (novusbio.com)
  • The precursor of the encoded protein is cleaved by caspase 3 and 10, is activated upon cell death stimuli and induces apoptosis. (genetex.com)
  • Low levels of caspase-7 expression and activation correlate with lack of DNA fragmentation in 129- Casp3 -/- apoptotic precursor neurons, whereas B6- Casp3 -/- cells, which can fragment their DNA, show higher levels of caspase-7 expression and activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The amount of caspase-7 activation in apoptotic precursor neurons is independent of the presence of caspase-3. (jneurosci.org)
  • The Caspase-1 substrate sequence (NEAYVHDAPVRSLN) corresponds to the native cleavage site C-terminal to Asp-116 of the precursor IL-1β. (scbt.com)
  • The immunogen used for this product detects both caspase-7 precursor and small 105 aa C-terminal p12/12 kDa subunit in staurosporine (STS) treated cells. (abcam.co.jp)
  • It is the predominant caspase involved in the cleavage of amyloid-beta 4A precursor protein, which is associated with neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to other caspases, caspase-7 also exists in cells as an inactive proenzyme. (genetex.com)
  • Lysates from control (lanes 1-3) and camptothecin-treated Jurkat cells (lanes 4-6) were probed with anti-human caspase-7 (clone 8-1-47, ABIN967331) at the following concentrations: 0.25 (lanes 1,4), 0.125 (lanes 2,5) and 0.062 µg/ml (lanes 3,6). (antibodies-online.com)
  • Caspase-7 is identified as a band of 35 kDa (proform), and 32 kDa (intermediate), and 20 kDa (active) in treated cells and the 35 kDa band in control cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Lysates from control (lane 1) or camptothecin-treated Jurkat cells (lane 2) were each immunoprecipitated with anti-human caspase-7 (clone 8-1-47) and western blotted with anti-human caspase-7 (clone 8-1-47). (antibodies-online.com)
  • The 35 kDa full-length caspase-7 was identified in control cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Caspases exist as inactive pr oenzymes in cells and are activated through their processing into two subunits in response to apoptotic stimulation. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • We have used it in-house with Jurkat cells at 6 hrs and had good results, but other publications show caspase cleavage after 24 hours but not at 16 in HEK293. (protocol-online.org)
  • Activation of caspase-3 is an early indicator of apoptosis and CellEvent® Caspase-3/7 Green reagent allows rapid and sensitive detection of cells destined for cell death. (thermofisher.com)
  • Upon activation of caspase-3/7 in apoptotic cells, the DEVD peptide is cleaved and the free dye can bind DNA, generating a bright green fluorescence. (thermofisher.com)
  • Apoptotic cell death in TrkA-overexpressing cells: kinetic regulation of ERK phosphorylation and caspase-7 activation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Caspase activation was a necessary event for LNCaP cells to undergo apoptosis during treatment with lovastatin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We previously showed that RES alters the cell cycle and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 breast tumor cells by interfering with the estrogen receptor (ERaalpha)-dependent phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We have previously demonstrated its anti-neoplastic activity in Estrogen Receptor positive (ER+ve) MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells (HBCCs). (nih.gov)
  • Results demonstrate that CC induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cells irrespective of ER status similar to TAM in terms of anti-neoplastic activity. (nih.gov)
  • Caspase-3 and caspase-7 have been identified as key executors of apoptosis in mammalian cells and play a central role in the execution phase of apoptosis ( 14 , 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Single-cell microinjection assay indicates that 7-hydroxycoumarin induces rapid activation of caspase-3 in A549 cancer cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to determine whether 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HC) induces changes in caspase-3 (C-3) activity in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • By performing the single-cell microinjection of a specific fluorescent substrate of C-3 into previously 7-HC-exposed cells, a typical enzymatic kinetic profile of C-3 activation was identified a number of hours prior to the morphological and biochemical changes associated with apoptosis being observed. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To assess the complex interactions among caspases during apoptosis, we disrupted caspase-8, -9, -3, -7, or -6 and combinations thereof, using CRISPR-based genome editing in living human leukemia cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Caspase-3/7 double knockout cells exhibited almost complete inhibition of caspase-8 or -9 activation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Once inside apoptotic cells, the caspase 3/7 protein recognizes and cleaves the DEVD sequence and releases the DNA probe. (nexcelom.com)
  • The Celigo software automatically analyzes the captured images and reports the total number of green, caspase positive cells the total number of blue, Hoechst positive nucleated cells and the percent of apoptotic cells. (nexcelom.com)
  • We can zoom in to look at the cell morphology in the bright field image, examine the staining and counting of caspase and Hoechst positive cells. (nexcelom.com)
  • In this merged image, the blue outlines represent the Hoechst positive total cells, and the red outlines represent the caspase 3/7 positive cells. (nexcelom.com)
  • Each excel file contains the number of caspase 3/7 and Hoechst positive cells as well as percent of apoptosis. (nexcelom.com)
  • Generated bar graphs show an increased number of caspase 3/7 positive cells and percent apoptosis in the staurosporine treated samples. (nexcelom.com)
  • This in vitro assay employs the fluorescent inhibitor probe FAM-DEVD-FMK to label active caspase 3 and 7 enzymes in living cells. (lktlabs.com)
  • Detects both pro-caspase-7 (34 kDa) and the large subunit of cleaved caspase-7 (19 kDa) in apoptosis cells on SDS-PAGE immunoblots. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The Magic Red ™ Caspase 3 & 7 kit uses a quick and easy method to analyze intracellular active caspases in apoptotic cells. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Caspase Magic Red™ kits measure apoptosis by detecting active caspases in whole, living cells. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • The Caspase Magic Red™ kits are suitable for cells in suspension and adherent cells from many species including mammalian, insect and yeast. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • For this purpose, we examined the individual and combined effects of equol and tamoxifen on the estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells using viability assays, annexin-V/PI staining, cell cycle and western blot analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequent treatment of MCF-7 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK inhibited equol- and 4-OHT-mediated apoptosis, which was accompanied by PARP and α-fodrin cleavage, indicating that apoptosis is mainly caspase-mediated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As the role of equol in relation to breast cancer remains unclear, this study was designed to delineate the effect of equol on estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells using MCF-7 cells as a model system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found a heretofore unappreciated role for caspase-8 as a major pathway for IL-1β processing and release in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) costimulated with TLR4 agonists and proapoptotic chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin (Dox) or staurosporine (STS). (jimmunol.org)
  • Notably, Dox-induced production of mature IL-1β was temporally correlated with caspase-8 activation in WT cells and greatly suppressed in Casp8 −/− Rip3 −/− or Trif −/− BMDC, as well as in WT BMDC treated with the caspase-8 inhibitor, IETD. (jimmunol.org)
  • Tumour growth can occur by a combination of factors, including a mutation in a cell cycle gene which removes the restraints on cell growth, combined with mutations in apoptopic proteins such as Caspases that would respond by inducing cell death in abnormally growing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, scientists have used caspases as cancer therapy to kill unwanted cells in tumours. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gate will be used to report the percentage of Caspase positive cells in each well. (intellicyt.com)
  • We have further shown that down-regulation of SAF expression with siRNA treatment can activate effector caspase-3/7 specifically in virus-infected macrophages without affecting the uninfected and bystander cells. (pnas.org)
  • This induction of apoptotic caspases occurs exclusively in HIV-1-infected macrophages and not in bystander cells, leading to a significant reduction in HIV-1 replication and overall viral burden in the macrophage culture. (pnas.org)
  • The Caspase-3/7 Red assay reagent is specially formulated for use in the IncuCyte® live-cell analysis system and can be added directly to tissue culture wells using a no wash, mix and read protocol to acquire live cell images of cells undergoing caspase-3/7 mediated apoptosis. (essenbioscience.com)
  • In this study, I sought to characterize the downstream apoptotic genes targeted by CH in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CH effectively kills MCF-7 cells through induction of apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Beside this, we observed a significant increase in ROS production, a decrease in caspase-3/7 activity and normal percentage of apoptotic cells in this tissue. (mdpi.com)
  • Our previous studies demonstrated that radiotherapy-induced apoptotic cells significantly stimulate the proliferation of surviving tumor cells through the caspase 3-iPLA 2 -AA-PGE 2 pathway. (esmo.org)
  • MCF-7 cells were incubated with different concentrations of 20(S)-PPD and cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • 20(S)-PPD dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells, with an $IC_{50}$ value of $33.3{\mu}M$ at 24h. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • MCF-7 cells treated with 20(S)-PPD presented typical apoptosis, as observed by morphological analysis in cell stained with DAPI. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The percentages of annexin V-FITC positive cells were 8.92%, 17.8%, 24.5% and 30.5% in MCF-7 cells treated with 0, 15, 30 and $60{\mu}M$ of 20(S)-PPD, respectively. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Eudesmol isomers induce caspase-mediated apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • 20S-protopanaxadiolinduced programmed cell death in glioma cells through caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The recent evidence pointing to the role of caspases in activating DNA degradation suggests that in order for ovarian cells to complete the apoptotic program they must contain caspase-3, DFF, and an endogenous nuclear DNase. (armiart.com)
  • However, the present findings of endogenous caspase-3 in luteal but not granulosa cells suggests that the former might only require a signal to initiate DNA degradation, while the latter would require both caspase-3 expression and a signal for this to occur. (armiart.com)
  • Mitotic arrest is not permanent, but results in either death while cells are arrested in mitosis or exit from mitosis in the presence of misaligned chromosomes, a process known as adaptation or mitotic slippage, leading to multinucleated cells ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cells with active caspases can be detected. (fishersci.com)
  • Herein, we developed a new apoptosis imaging technology via a direct visualization of active caspase-3/-7 activity in living cells. (elsevier.com)
  • For this, we synthesized a caspase-3/-7-specific cleavable peptide (KGDEVD) conjugated triacetylated N-azidoacetyl-D-mannosamine (Apo-S-Ac3ManNAz), wherein the Apo-S-Ac3ManNAz can be cleaved by the active caspase-3/-7 in live apoptotic cells and the cleaved Ac3ManNAz molecules can further generate targetable azido groups (N3) on the living cell surface. (elsevier.com)
  • Hepcidin TH1-5 Induces Apoptosis and Activate Caspase-9 in MCF-7 Cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • The zymogen feature of caspase-3 is necessary because if unregulated, caspase activity would kill cells indiscriminately. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such signaling event is the introduction of granzyme B, which can activate initiator caspases, into cells targeted for apoptosis by killer T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) extract has been shown to inhibit the activation of caspase 3 in B-amyloid treated human neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A short recovery period of 6h of cells from SWCNT exposure resulted in reversal of caspase-3 and caspase-7, and a partial reversal of PARP-1 activation. (cdc.gov)
  • The results of this study show that the molecular mechanism for raw SWCNT-mediated toxicity in BEAS-2B cells is through the activation of caspase-3, caspase-7, and PARP-1. (cdc.gov)
  • 6 rodents per glioma linked cancer-initiating cells series) had been being injected in the best frontal lobes of 5C8-week-old naked rodents, the rodents created tumors that had been extremely infiltrative along white matter tracts-a quality Caspase-3/7 Inhibitor I manufacture of individual GBM (Fig. 1C). (world-of-links.com)
  • Amount 1 Portrayal of individual glioma linked cancer-initiating cells from GBM individuals Immunological phenotype of glioma linked cancer-initiating cells To define their immunological phenotype, the glioma linked cancer-initiating cells (d=5) had been evaluated for their reflection of MHC I, MHC II, Compact disc40, Compact disc80, Compact Caspase-3/7 Inhibitor I manufacture disc86, and C7-L1 by stream cytometry. (world-of-links.com)
  • a This graph represented the results of cell proliferation assay in 5 days, which showed that caspase 7 disruption interfered with the cell proliferation of CHO-KO cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Per usual in non-apoptotic growing cells caspase activated dnase is held in check inactivated in the cytoplasm thanks to the association with its inhibitor, inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) also known as DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa (DFF45). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the assays utilize caspase-3 or -7 specific antibodies to capture the activated caspase-3 or -7 in cell lysate. (promokine.info)
  • Caspases can be detected via immunoprecipitation, immuno-blotting techniques using caspase specific antibodies, or by employing fluorogenic substrates which become fluorescent upon cleavage by the caspase. (celltechnology.com)
  • Caspase-9 is involved in mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and is an initiator caspase. (novusbio.com)
  • We conclude that caspases 3 and 7 are critical mediators of mitochondrial events of apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recent study says that in Fas-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis, active caspase-7 is associated almost exclusivel y with the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, whereas active caspase-3 is confined primarily to the cytosol. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial events, caspase evaluation and nuclear morphology changes reveal initiation/progression of caspase-dependent apoptosis even at a dose of 1 microM which eventually leads to DNA fragmentation in both the cell types. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, deletion of caspase-3 and -7 decreased mitochondrial depolarization and cytochrome c release upon apoptosis activation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Apoptosis can be induced by either extrinsic stimulus through death receptors [such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) or FAS receptors] that specifically activate caspase-8 or intrinsic stimulus (such as expression of BCL2 family BH3-only proteins BIM or puma) that leads to mitochondrial depolarization and activation of caspase-9 ( 6 , 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • MitoCasp A simultaneous dual parameter Assay For: Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Detection & Caspase (poly, 3/7, 8, 9, 1) Activity. (celltechnology.com)
  • Simultaneous detection of mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase activity. (celltechnology.com)
  • Utilizing these two reagents in combination Caspase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential can be analyzed simultaneously. (celltechnology.com)
  • More specifically, it has been recently shown that daidzein induces MCF-7 breast cancer cell apoptosis via the intrinsic (mitochondrial) caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most intensively studied inflammasome comprises an oligomeric complex of procaspase-1 with the NLRP3 and ASC adapter proteins that rapidly assembles in response to diverse stress stimuli such as increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) ( 3 ), mitochondrial dysfunction ( 4 ), perturbation of intracellular ion homeostasis ( 5 - 7 ), disruption of lysosomal membrane integrity ( 8 ), and activation of deubiquitinases ( 9 - 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Caspase-3 is activated in the apoptotic cell both by extrinsic (death ligand) and intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a tightly regulated process consisting of complex biochemical cascades that involve the caspase activation through either extrinsic (death receptor), intrinsic (mitochondrial) or perforin/granzyme pathways [ 5 , 6 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Interestingly, granzyme A (GA), GB, and caspase 3 can all directly target the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I for ROS-dependent cell death. (hindawi.com)
  • GA cleaves its substrates after lysine or arginine residues to trigger a caspase-independent, B cell CLL/lymphoma 2- (Bcl2-) insensitive, and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization- (MOMP-) independent cell death pathway with the morphological feature of apoptosis [ 23 - 27 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Similarly, to initiator caspases, GB activates the proapoptotic Bcl-2 member BID to switch on the intrinsic mitochondrial death pathway [ 34 - 37 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Caspase-7 aa 1-16 (C terminal). (abcam.com)
  • Synthetic peptide within Human Caspase-7 aa 1-100 (N terminal). (abcam.com)
  • CellEvent® Caspase-3/7 Green Detection Reagent is a cell-permeant reagent that consists of a four-amino acid peptide (DEVD) conjugated to a nucleic acid-binding dye. (thermofisher.com)
  • During apoptosis, caspase-3 and caspase-7 proteins are activated and able to cleave the caspase 3/7 recognition sequence encoded in the DEVD peptide. (thermofisher.com)
  • CellEvent® Caspase-3/7 Green reagent is a four amino acid peptide (DEVD) conjugated to a nucleic acid-binding dye that is non-fluorescent when not bound to DNA. (thermofisher.com)
  • The CellEvent® Caspase-3/7 Green reagent is intrinsically non-fluorescent, as the DEVD peptide inhibits binding of the dye to DNA. (thermofisher.com)
  • Synthetic peptide (KLH coupled) corresponding to residues surrounding the cleavage site of human caspase-7. (lsbio.com)
  • The methodology is based on carboxyfluorescein (FAM) labeled fluoromethyl ketone (FMK)-peptide inhibitors of caspases. (celltechnology.com)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Caspase-7 aa 250 to the C-terminus conjugated to Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH). (abcam.co.jp)
  • CPP32 and related caspase activity can be quantified by fluorescent detection of free AFC after cleaved from the peptide substrate DEVD-AFC at Ex. (cephamls.com)
  • In continuation of our investigation into the cytotoxicity of the antimicrobial peptide , Hepcidin TH1-5 on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7), we further affirm the apoptosis -inducing effect of the cysteine -rich peptide in the present study. (bvsalud.org)
  • Based on the data from the luminescence test, Hepcidin TH1-5 activated caspases -3/7 and -9 which suggests that the apoptosis induced was due to the peptide treatment . (bvsalud.org)
  • Under normal circumstances, caspases recognize tetra-peptide sequences on their substrates and hydrolyze peptide bonds after aspartic acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase 3 and caspase 7 share similar substrate specificity by recognizing tetra-peptide motif Asp-x-x-Asp. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro, caspase-3 has been found to prefer the peptide sequence DEVDG (Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-Gly) with cleavage occurring on the carboxy side of the second aspartic acid residue (between D and G). Caspase-3 is active over a broad pH range that is slightly higher (more basic) than many of the other executioner caspases. (wikipedia.org)
  • One unit of the recombinant caspase-7 is the enzyme activity that cleaves 1 nmol of the caspase substrate DEVD-pNA (pNA: pnitroanaline) per hour at 37°C in a reaction solution containing 50 mM Hepes, pH 7.2, 50 mM NaCl, 0.1% Chaps, 10 mM EDTA, 5% Glycerol, and 10 mM DTT. (genetex.com)
  • Caspase-7 was the only detected interleukin 1β converting enzyme family protease with DEVD cleavage activity that exhibited lovastatin-induced mRNA up-regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lovastatin-induced apoptosis also was prevented when the caspase inhibitors Z-DEVD-CH 2 F or Z-VAD-CH 2 F (100 µ M ) where added to the medium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This substrate consists of a fluorogenic DNA dye coupled to the caspase-3/7 DEVD recognition sequence. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Since caspase-3 and -7 share the same target substrate sequence (DEVD), it is difficult to differentiate the cleavage activity attributed by these two caspases in vitro . (promokine.info)
  • Specific activity of caspase-3 or -7 can then be analyzed using the common caspase-3/7 substrate DEVD-AFC. (promokine.info)
  • DEVD is a caspase 3/7-specific sequence that is coupled with a DNA dye molecule. (nexcelom.com)
  • The Magic Red™ reagent contains a caspase inhibitor sequence (DEVD) 2 linked to a red (Cresyl Violet) fluorescent probe. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Ac-DEVD-AFC is a fluorogenic substrate of caspase-3/7. (ubpbio.com)
  • The IncuCyte® Caspase-3/7 Red apoptosis assay reagent couples the activated caspase-3/7 recognition motif (DEVD) to NucView™633, a DNA intercalating dye to enable quantification of apoptosis over time. (essenbioscience.com)
  • Caspase-7 Variant 4 (V4) with reprogrammed substrate specificity due to Y230V/W232Y/S234V/Q276D substitutions bound to DEVD inhibitor. (expasy.org)
  • This product is a ready-to-use fluorometric substrate for Caspase-3/CPP32 (Km = 9.7 µM) and related caspases that recognize the amino acid sequence DEVD. (cephamls.com)
  • The sequence DEVD is based on Caspase-3 cleavage site in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). (cephamls.com)
  • Active heterodimers between the small subunit of caspase-7 and the large subunit of caspase-3, and vice versa, also occur. (abcam.com)
  • Activation involves dimerization and often oligomerisation of pro-caspases, followed by cleavage into a small subunit and large subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large and small subunit associate with each other to form an active heterodimer caspase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspases, a family of c ysteinyl a spartate- s pecific p rote ases , are synthesized as zymogens with a prodomain of variable length followed by a large subunit (p20) and a small subunit (p10). (jci.org)
  • Caspase-activated DNase (CAD) or DNA fragmentation factor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DFFB gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • While loss of apical initiator caspase-8 or -9 partially blocked extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis, respectively, only combined loss of caspase-3 and -7 fully inhibited both apoptotic pathways, with no discernible effect of caspase-6 deficiency alone or in combination. (sciencemag.org)
  • The identification of noncanonical (caspase-1-independent) pathways for IL-1β production has unveiled an intricate interplay between inflammatory and death-inducing signaling platforms. (jimmunol.org)
  • Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes that undergo proteolytic processing by upstream caspases (caspase-8, -9) at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme in the form of a heterotetramer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-7, but not caspase-3, underwent proteolytic activation during lovastatin-induced apoptosis, an effect prevented by mevalonate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Of the caspases tested, only caspase-7 underwent proteolytic activation after stimulation with lovastatin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • During apoptosis in humans, initiator caspases integrate molecular signals into proteolytic activity ( 11 ) and subsequently activate the downstream effector caspases, thus transmitting and amplifying the apoptotic signal ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Apoptosis is a complex multi-step process driven by caspase-dependent proteolytic cleavage cascades. (sciencemag.org)
  • The central component of this process is a cascade of proteolytic enzymes called caspases. (celltechnology.com)
  • In apoptosis, caspases are responsible for proteolytic cleavages that lead to cell disassembly (effector caspases), and are involved in upstream regulatory events (initiator caspases). (celltechnology.com)
  • The responses were temporally correlated with downregulation of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1, suggesting suppressive roles for this and likely other inhibitor of apoptosis proteins on the stability and/or proteolytic activity of the caspase-8 platforms. (jimmunol.org)
  • Decreased Bcl-2 levels were not related to cytochrome c release, activation of caspases 3/8 or poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase proteolysis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These compounds also induced a marked reduction in the bcl-2:bax ratio, which was accompanied by caspase-9 and caspase-7 activation and cytochrome-c release to the cytosol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, we show that, in contrast to the human enzymes, mouse caspase-7 is as efficient as caspase-3 at cleaving and thus inactivating ICAD (inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase), the inhibitor of apoptotic DNA fragmentation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Caspase-7 is a member of the caspase (cysteine aspartate protease) family of proteins, and has been shown to be an executioner protein of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally we are shipping Caspase 7 Kits (60) and Caspase 7 Proteins (25) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Casp ase-7 (also known as Mch-3 / ICE-LAP3 / CMH-1) is a 35 kDa protein that has the highest similarity to caspase-3 (52% amino acid identity) among all caspase members. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Caspases orchestrate the organized death of the cell by cleaving a small but specific complement of protein substrates. (jneurosci.org)
  • Caspases were studied by catalytic activity, mRNA induction, and protein processing. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Apoptotic death by RES in MCF-7 was mediated by Bcl-2 downregulation since overexpression of this protein abolished apoptosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • They are named caspases due to their specific cysteine protease activity - a cysteine in its active site nucleophilically attacks and cleaves a target protein only after an aspartic acid residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is involved in the activation cascade of caspases responsible for apoptosis execution. (ptgcn.com)
  • A caspase is a type of protease that when activated cleaves protein substrates. (biocompare.com)
  • Caspase-3 is a caspase protein that interacts with caspase-8 and caspase-9. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CASP3 protein is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the protein itself is processed and activated by caspases 8, 9, and 10. (wikipedia.org)
  • This remodeling effect is mediated by the ubiquitination and degradation of XIAP (X-linked inhibitors of aptosis protein) by E6AP, which leads to activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of microtubules. (jneurosci.org)
  • This effect is mediated by the ubiquitination of XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of aptosis protein) by E6AP, subsequent activation of caspases, and the eventual cleavage of microtubules, leading to local degeneration and retraction at the tips of dendritic branches. (jneurosci.org)
  • Caspase 3 is responsible for cellular differentiation, although it is unclear how this kind of protein can promote the cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The processed active form of caspase-7 consists of large and small subunits which associate to form the active enzyme. (genetex.com)
  • Active caspase-7 has been shown involving in the proteolysis of PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase), an enzyme that is involved in DNA repair and genomic maintenance. (genetex.com)
  • We biochemically isolated caspase-7 from B6-caspase-3-null ( Casp3 -/- ) tissues as being the enzyme with caspase-3-like properties and capability of performing a caspase-3 surrogate function, apoptotic DNA fragmentation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Used to screen caspase inhibitors, study enzyme regulation, determine caspase substrate specificity, or as positive control in caspase activity assays. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Structure of caspase-1 (CASP1), originally called interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE), the first human caspase to be identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active enzyme often exists as a heterotetramer in the biological environment, where a pro-caspase dimer is cleaved together to form a heterotetramer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of Caspase 3 and 7 is detected by the use of NucView 488 Caspase-3/7 substrate, which upon cleavage by activated enzyme, results in an intracellular fluorescent signal. (intellicyt.com)
  • Apoptosis is one of the most important intracellular events in living cell, which is a programmed cell death interrelated with caspase enzyme activity for maintaining homeostasis in multicellular organisms. (elsevier.com)
  • The first irreversible step in the apoptosis cascade is activation of the "executioner" caspase-3 enzyme to commence cleavage of key structural proteins. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Activated caspases cleave a variety of important cellular proteins, other caspases, and Bcl-2 family members, leading to a commitment to cell death. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • It has been identified as one of the ''effector'' caspases (which include caspase 3, 6, 7) that are cleaved by ''initiator'' caspases (which include caspase 8, 9) into active form, and then, in turn, cleave various cellular proteins for apoptosis. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • A gene located on chromosome 17p13.2 that encodes a member of the Ced-4 family of apoptosis proteins, which contain a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) and are key mediators of apoptosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These molecules are sufficient to activate caspase-3 in vitro, but other regulatory proteins are necessary in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-8 are important caspases in the apoptosis pathway and play an important role in the development and progression of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The most studied are the steroid metabolism pathway genes ( 2 - 4 ), cell-cycle control pathway genes ( 5 - 7 ), and DNA repair pathway genes ( 8 , 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The canonical cleavage and processing of proIL-1β into mature IL-1β cytokine (17 kDa) are catalyzed by caspase-1, a pathway regulated by multiprotein inflammasome signaling complexes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Caspase 3/7 Detection Kit consists of a dye that fluoresces when cleaved by activated caspases 3 & 7 which play an important role in the apoptotic pathway. (intellicyt.com)
  • In conclusion, the 20(S)-PPD investigated is able to inhibit cell proliferation and to induce cancer cell death by a caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • In the determination of caspase activity and pathway of apoptosis , luminescent assay was also performed where caspase-3 /7, caspase-8 and caspase-9 were evaluated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hepcidin TH1-5 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 via the activation of caspase-9 of the intrinsic pathway. (bvsalud.org)
  • This extrinsic activation then triggers the hallmark caspase cascade characteristic of the apoptotic pathway, in which caspase-3 plays a dominant role. (wikipedia.org)
  • This video will show you how to perform an apoptosis assay on the Celigo image cytometer using caspase 3/7 and Hoechst reagents. (nexcelom.com)
  • Caspase-3, 7 cleave the supplied fluorogenic substrate. (ubpbio.com)
  • Reprogramming Caspase-7 Specificity by Regio-Specific Mutations and Selection Provides Alternate Solutions for Substrate Recognition. (expasy.org)
  • This specificity allows caspases to be incredibly selective, with a 20,000-fold preference for aspartic acid over glutamic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase substrate specificity has been widely used in caspase based inhibitor and drug design. (wikipedia.org)
  • This Review gives an overview of caspases and their classification, structure, and substrate specificity. (jci.org)
  • During apoptosis procaspase-7 is processed at aspartate residues by self-proteolysis and/or cleavage by another caspase. (genetex.com)
  • GB cleaves its substrates after aspartic acid residues to induce cell death either in a caspase-dependent or caspase-independent manner [ 22 , 28 - 31 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • DFFA is encoded by an alternatively encrypted mRNAs originating two distinct forms: short (ICAD-S) and long (ICAD-L), which act like a specific chaperone ensuring the correct CAD's folding Besides, it contains two aspartic acid residues (Asp117 and Asp224) where CAD is identified and, consequently, it stays bounded until Caspase-3 splits this union. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAD release from ICAD inhibition is achieved by cleavage of ICAD at these Asp residues by the caspase-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell death via apoptosis is a basic cellular function occurring through the cell death receptor family and their ligands which signal through downstream adaptor molecules and the caspase protease family. (novusbio.com)
  • Caspase 9 (also termed ICE-LAP6, Mch6, Apaf-3) is a member of cysteine protease family of caspases and is encoded by the CASP9 gene in humans. (novusbio.com)
  • The caspases are a group of cysteine protease enzymes essential to apoptosis, inflammation and necrosis. (novusbio.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. (genetex.com)
  • These data suggest that RES-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 could involve an oxidative, caspase-independent mechanism, whereby inhibition of PI3K signaling converges to Bcl-2 through NF-kappaB and calpain protease activity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Caspase-8 is a cysteine protease, which cleaves downstream substrates such as effector caspases, to initiate the apoptotic cascade and transmit apoptotic signals downstream of death receptors ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Caspases ( c ysteine- asp artic prote ases , c ysteine asp art ases or c ysteine-dependent asp artate-directed prote ases ) are a family of protease enzymes playing essential roles in programmed cell death (including apoptosis , pyroptosis and necroptosis ) and inflammation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to Caspase 3 , Caspase-7 is an effector caspase and plays a key role in apoptotic execution. (novusbio.com)
  • Thus, activation of effector caspase-3 or -7 sets off explosive feedback amplification of upstream apoptotic events, which is a key feature of apoptotic signaling essential for efficient apoptotic cell death. (sciencemag.org)
  • Numerous solid tumors and hematologic malignancies acquire resistance to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapeutic drugs by downregulating the key effector caspase-3. (elsevier.com)
  • 95% by SDS-PAGE, MW=20 + 12 kDa Storage: -80°C Caspase -7 1,2 is an effector caspase 3,4 in apoptosis with similar substrate preferences to caspase-3. (thomassci.com)
  • Note that in addition to apoptosis, Caspase-8 is also required for the inhibition of another form of programmed cell death called Necroptosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • A good correlation exists between relative cell-based activities of the compound with its in vitro isolated caspase 3 or 7 inhibition activites. (apexbt.com)
  • Interestingly, TrkA overexpression induced substantial cell death even in the absence of NGF, by stimulating ERK phosphorylation and caspase-7 activation leading to PARP cleavage. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These events paralleled activation of caspase-9, -3 and PARP cleavage. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The increase in apoptosis was associated with activation of caspase-3, caspase-7, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). (cdc.gov)
  • The activation of PARP-1, caspase-3, and caspase-7 was only partially diminished after a recovery of 6h from the exposure to crocidolite. (cdc.gov)
  • Eron, Scott J., Raghupathi, Kishore, and Hardy, Jeanne A.. Dual Site Phosphorylation of Caspase-7 by PAK2 Blocks Apoptotic Activity by Two Distinct Mechanisms . (osti.gov)
  • Unfortunately, in my assay I observed no induction of caspase activity and that the highest reading was equal to the 'vehicle control'.To rule out the problems with the system I also tested the same kit with purified caspase 3 in different amounts and observed the same outcome.I use Corning Costar 3610 96 well plates and seal the bottom of my wells with white opaque vinyl sealing tapes. (protocol-online.org)
  • Meanwhile I was in contact with the tech support and I was suggested to let the Glo buffer be at room temp for half an hour before using it.I did so and used the buffer for measuring purified Caspase 3 activity and it looks much better than my previous experiment (see attached). (protocol-online.org)
  • The anti-apoptosis effect of Ag-NPs on the MCF-7 cell line was investigated by MTT assay, DAPI and acridine orange staining and caspase activity. (mdpi.com)
  • Together, our findings demonstrate for the first time a strong correlation between caspase-7 activity, normal brain development, and apoptotic DNA fragmentation in Casp3 -/- mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • We now present the basis for anti-neoplastic activity of CC, mediated through apoptosis in both ER+ve/-ve MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 HBCCs respectively, compared to Tamoxifen (TAM) as a positive control. (nih.gov)
  • A 24-h exposure to 1.85 mM 7-HC induced a 65% increase in C-3 activity, and a notable conversion of procaspase-3 to C-3, in addition to poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase cleavage. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Caspase-Glo 3/7 Assay System - Apoptosis Assays and Systems, Promega - Model PAG8090 - Each : Apo-ONE Homogeneous Caspase-3/7 Assay: Use for fast, sensitive, fluorescent measurement of caspase-3 and -7 activity in a homogenous format. (egeneralmedical.com)
  • PromoKine's Caspase-3 and Caspase-7 Immunoassay Kits allow quantification of the specific activity of caspase-3 and -7, respectively. (promokine.info)
  • The assay system ensures absolute specific detection of only caspase-3 or caspase-7 activity in apoptotic samples. (promokine.info)
  • Specifically detect Caspase-3 activity in microtiter plate. (promokine.info)
  • The Caspase-9 Inhibitor III, also referenced under CAS 403848-57-7, controls the biological activity of Caspase-9. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Down-regulation of SAF with siRNA treatment increases caspase-3/7 activity levels in virus-infected MDMs. (pnas.org)
  • Caspase activity was measured by colorimetric assay. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • At the end of treatment, cell extracts were prepared for caspase-7 activity assay. (apexbt.com)
  • As an executioner caspase, the caspase-3 zymogen has virtually no activity until it is cleaved by an initiator caspase after apoptotic signaling events have occurred. (wikipedia.org)
  • The caspase-3/7 activity and capacity of high glucose to increase mRNA levels of several genes that regulate RMEC activation and apoptosis were knocked down by FOXO1 siRNA. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Development of [18F]ICMT-11 for Imaging Caspase-3/7 Activity during Therapy-Induced Apoptosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • One strategy to measure caspase-3 activity is Positron Emission Tomography using isatin-5-sulfonamide radiotracers. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Hoechst and Giemsa staining assays, transmission electron microscopy, caspase-3/7 activity test and histone methylation test were performed to determine DC phenotyping, apoptosis and methylation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cell apoptosis was analyzed by Annexin-V/PI staining, Hoechst 33,342 staining and caspase 3/7 activity assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequently, active caspases specifically process various substrates that are implicated in apoptosis and inflammation. (jci.org)
  • In intrinsic activation, cytochrome c from the mitochondria works in combination with caspase-9, apoptosis-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), and ATP to process procaspase-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • An active caspase consists of two large (~20 kD) and two small (~10 kD) sub units to form two heterodimers, which associate in a tetramer (2-4). (celltechnology.com)
  • Once inside the cell, the inhibitor binds covalently to the active caspase (10). (celltechnology.com)
  • Fluorochrome-labeled caspase inhibitors have three functional domains: fluorochrome , 3-amino acid sequence (VAD) that binds to the active site of the activated caspase, and fluoromethyl ketone (FMK) moiety that allows the probe to irreversibly bind the active caspase. (fishersci.com)
  • Of 35 selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms, four in the caspase-7 gene were in high linkage disequilibrium (rs11593766, rs3124740, rs11196445, and rs11196418) and associated with the risk for endometrial cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • No association was observed between polymorphisms of the caspase-8 gene and risk for endometrial cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The kit includes the novel fluorogenic substrate CellEvent® Caspase-3/7 Green Detection Reagent, as well as SYTOX® AADvanced™ Dead Cell Stain. (thermofisher.com)
  • Each of the supplied fluorogenic substrate and the pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK is sufficient for 250 x 100 µl reactions. (ubpbio.com)
  • Apoptosis induced by 20(S)-PPD was blocked by z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, suggesting induction of caspase-mediated apoptotic cell death. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • CellEvent® Caspase-3/7 Green ReadyProbes® Reagent is a fluorogenic, no-wash indicator of activated caspase-3/7 for live- and fixed-cell applications. (thermofisher.com)
  • Instead, their methodology is based on a cell-permeable and non-cytotoxic reagent which is cleaved in the presence of caspases to produce a fluorescent product. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • In addition, the Caspase-3/7 Red assay reagent is non-perturbing to cell growth and morphology. (essenbioscience.com)
  • The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: C14.004 Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P55210 (Human Caspase-7) at the PDBe-KB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase enzymes specifically recognize a 4 amino acid sequence (on their substrate) which necessarily includes an aspartic acid residue. (celltechnology.com)
  • These data suggest that TLR4 induces assembly of caspase-8-based signaling complexes that become licensed as IL-1β-converting enzymes in response to Dox and STS. (jimmunol.org)
  • A range of analytical techniques, including colorimetric and fluorometric assays, western blotting, single-cell microinjection, fluorescence microscopy and image analysis were conducted to elucidate the effects of 7-HC. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The most common caspase assays come in kits and use fluorometric, colorimetric, or flow cytometry-based methods. (biocompare.com)
  • When added to tissue culture medium, this inert, non- fluorescent substrate crosses the cell membrane where it is cleaved by activated caspase-3/7 resulting in the release of the DNA dye and red fluorescent staining of nuclear DNA. (essenbioscience.com)
  • The x-ray crystal structures of caspase-7 bound by either compound demonstrates that they inhibit caspase-7 by trapping a zymogen-like conformation. (rcsb.org)
  • Z-VAD-FMK is a pan caspase inhibitor, used to inhibit caspases in reactions to obtain background signals. (ubpbio.com)
  • Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wolf, Green: Suicidal tendencies: apoptotic cell death by caspase family proteinases. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Abstract: Caspase-independent, non-apoptotic cell death in ischemic heart disease is considered to be one of the important therapeutic targets, however, the detailed mechanisms of this cell death process are not clear. (osti.gov)
  • The Ag-NPs caused a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, fragmentation in nucleic acid, inhibited the proliferation and induction of apoptosis on MCF-7 by suppressing specific cell cycle genes, and simulation programmed cell dead genes. (mdpi.com)
  • Identification of caspase-7 as a potential mediator of lovastatin-induced apoptosis broadens our knowledge of the molecular events associated with programmed cell death in a cell line derived from prostatic epithelium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The EarlyTox™ Caspase-3/7 NucView 488 Assay Kits enable detection of apoptosis within intact cell populations through use of the NucView 488 Caspase-3 substrate. (moleculardevices.com)
  • If the cell is apoptotic the substrate is cleaved by caspase-3/7, releasing a dye that enters the nucleus and binds to DNA, resulting in bright green fluorescence. (moleculardevices.com)
  • 100 nM) significantly reduced the MCF-7 cell viability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 25 μg cell lysates were incubated with (open circles) or without (solid circles) 20 μM Z-VAD-FMK (a pan caspase inhibitor) for 10 min at 37 0C. (ubpbio.com)
  • TRAIL-treated HCT116 cell lysates contain activated caspase-8/9/3/7, used as a positive control. (ubpbio.com)
  • Activation of Caspases ensures that the cellular components are degraded in a controlled manner, carrying out cell death with minimal effect on surrounding tissues . (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspases have other identified roles in programmed cell death such as pyroptosis and necroptosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • There are other identified roles of caspases such as cell proliferation, tumour suppression, cell differentiation, neural development and axon guidance and ageing. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] Conversely, over-activation of some caspases such as caspase -3 can lead to excessive programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] The integral role caspases play in cell death and disease has led to research on using caspases as a drug target. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most caspases play a role in programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-14 plays a role in epithelial cell keratinocyte differentiation and can form an epidermal barrier that protects against dehydration and UVB radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major mechanism of cell death is ROS-driven caspase-dependent apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Your search returned 768 Apoptosis Caspase Assay Cell Viability and Proliferation across 19 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Here, we have identified the impact of the lncRNA SAF in regulating apoptotic effector caspases in macrophages, a long-lived cellular reservoir of HIV-1, that are largely immune to virus-induced cell death. (pnas.org)
  • Kinetic activation of caspase-3/7 can be monitored morphologically using live cell imaging, and quantified using the IncuCyte® basic analyzer. (essenbioscience.com)
  • Kinetic activation of caspase-3/7 can be monitored morphologically using live cell imaging, and quantified using the Incucyte® integrated software analysis tools. (essenbioscience.com)
  • A potent, cell-permeable, and specific, reversible inhibitor of caspase-3 (Ki = 60 nM) and caspase-7 (Ki = 170 nM). (apexbt.com)
  • BD Pharmingen™ Violet Live Cell Caspase Probe contains a fluorochrome-labeled caspase inhibitor. (fishersci.com)
  • A key feature of caspases in the cell is that they are present as zymogens, termed procaspases, which are inactive until a biochemical change causes their activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This broad range indicates that caspase-3 will be fully active under normal and apoptotic cell conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next, we investigated the mechanism by which niclosamide inhibited ACC cell proliferation, and found that it induced caspase-dependent apoptosis and G 1 cell-cycle arrest. (aacrjournals.org)
  • b The assessment of CHO-K1 and CHO-KO cell viability using MTT assay (NABu was applied as an apoptosis inducer in concentrations of 5, 7, 9, and 11 mM). a MTT assay after 24 h exposure with NaBu. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also describe the current knowledge of how interference with caspase signaling can be used to pharmacologically manipulate cell death. (jci.org)
  • Caspase-3 is activated in the apoptotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-3 activation is a cell requirement during early stages of the skeletal myoblast differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase signals resulting from the activation of nuclease CAD indicate that the cell differentiation is due to a CAD modification in chromatin structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribosome display selections against two human caspases and membrane transporter AcrB yielded highly enriched pools of unique and strong DARPin binders which were mainly monomeric. (rcsb.org)
  • Recognizes endogenous levels of both full length human caspase-7 (35kD) and the large fragment of cleaved caspase-7 following cleavage at Asp198 (20kD). (lsbio.com)
  • drugs blocking the activation of Caspase-1 have been used to improve the health of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potent and selective nonpeptide inhibitors of caspases 3 and 7. (apexbt.com)

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