A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 10 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 12 is activated by pro-apoptotic factors that are released during cell stress and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
A short pro-domain caspase that is almost exclusively expressed in the EPIDERMIS and may play a role in the differentiation of epidermal KERATINOCYTES.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A subtype of caspases that contain long pro-domain regions that regulate the activation of the enzyme. The pro-domain regions contain protein-protein interaction motifs that can interact with specific signaling adaptor proteins such as DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS; DED SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS; and CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Once activated, the initiator caspases can activate other caspases such as the EFFECTOR CASPASES.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.
A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.
A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
A subclass of caspases that contain short pro-domain regions. They are activated by the proteolytic action of INITIATOR CASPASES. Once activated they cleave a variety of substrates that cause APOPTOSIS.
Multimeric protein complexes formed in the CYTOSOL that play a role in the activation of APOPTOSIS. They can occur when MITOCHONDRIA become damaged due to cell stress and release CYTOCHROME C. Cytosolic cytochrome C associates with APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1 to form the apoptosomal protein complex. The apoptosome signals apoptosis by binding to and activating specific INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.
Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A RIP serine-theonine kinase that contains a C-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain. It can signal by associating with other CARD-signaling adaptor proteins and INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.
A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.
An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.

Bcl-2 regulates amplification of caspase activation by cytochrome c. (1/8107)

Caspases, a family of specific proteases, have central roles in apoptosis [1]. Caspase activation in response to diverse apoptotic stimuli involves the relocalisation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytoplasm where it stimulates the proteolytic processing of caspase precursors. Cytochrome c release is controlled by members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulators [2] [3]. The anti-apoptotic members Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL may also control caspase activation independently of cytochrome c relocalisation or may inhibit a positive feedback mechanism [4] [5] [6] [7]. Here, we investigate the role of Bcl-2 family proteins in the regulation of caspase activation using a model cell-free system. We found that Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL set a threshold in the amount of cytochrome c required to activate caspases, even in soluble extracts lacking mitochondria. Addition of dATP (which stimulates the procaspase-processing factor Apaf-1 [8] [9]) overcame inhibition of caspase activation by Bcl-2, but did not prevent the control of cytochrome c release from mitochondria by Bcl-2. Cytochrome c release was accelerated by active caspase-3 and this positive feedback was negatively regulated by Bcl-2. These results provide evidence for a mechanism to amplify caspase activation that is suppressed at several distinct steps by Bcl-2, even after cytochrome c is released from mitochondria.  (+info)

Caspase-mediated cleavage of p21Waf1/Cip1 converts cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis. (2/8107)

The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21waf1/Cip1 is a downstream effector of the p53-dependent cell growth arrest. We report herein that p21 was cleaved by caspase-3/CPP32 at the site of DHVD112L during the DNA damage-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. The cleaved p21 fragment could no more arrest the cells in G1 phase nor suppress the cells undergoing apoptosis because it failed to bind to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and lost its capability to localize in the nucleus. Thus, caspase-3-mediated cleavage and inactivation of p21 protein may convert cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis, leading to the acceleration of chemotherapy-induced apoptotic process in cancer cells.  (+info)

Caspase 3 inactivation to suppress Fas-mediated apoptosis: identification of binding domain with p21 and ILP and inactivation machinery by p21. (3/8107)

The death mediator caspase acts as the dominant regulator during cell death induction. The CPP32 subfamily, including caspase 3 (CPP32/Yama/Apopain), is essential for the cell death signaling. We recently reported that activation of caspase 3 is regulated by complex formation with p21 or ILP. In the present study, we investigated the binding domain with p21 and ILP to further characterize the caspase 3 inactivation machinery. Our results show that caspase 3 contains p21 binding domain in the N-terminus and ILP binding domain in the active site. Further, the caspase 3 binding domain in p21 was independent of the Cdk- or PCNA-binding domain. We also found caspase 3 protection by p21 from the p3-site cleavage serineproteinase contributes to the suppression machinery. Here, we propose the caspase 3 inactivation system by p21 and ILP as new essential system in the regulation of cell death.  (+info)

Activation of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38 kinase in calphostin C-induced apoptosis requires caspase-3-like proteases but is dispensable for cell death. (4/8107)

Apoptosis was induced in human glioma cell lines by exposure to 100 nM calphostin C, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C. Calphostin C-induced apoptosis was associated with synchronous down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as well as activation of caspase-3 but not caspase-1. The exposure to calphostin C led to activation of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) and p38 kinase and concurrent inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Upstream of ERK, Shc was shown to be activated, but its downstream Raf1 and ERK were inhibited. The pretreatment with acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-aldehyde, a relatively selective inhibitor of caspase-3, or benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD.fmk), a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor, similarly inhibited calphostin C-induced activation of SAPK/JNK and p38 kinase as well as apoptotic nuclear damages (chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation) and cell shrinkage, suggesting that caspase-3 functions upstream of SAPK/JNK and p38 kinase, but did not block calphostin C-induced surface blebbing and cell death. On the other hand, the inhibition of SAPK/JNK by transfection of dominant negative SAPK/JNK and that of p38 kinase by SB203580 induced similar effects on the calphostin C-induced apoptotic phenotypes and cell death as did z-VAD.fmk and acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-aldehyde, but the calphostin C-induced PARP cleavage was not changed, suggesting that SAPK/JNK and p38 kinase are involved in the DNA fragmentation pathway downstream of caspase-3. The present findings suggest, therefore, that the activation of SAPK/JNK and p38 kinase is dispensable for calphostin C-mediated and z-VAD.fmk-resistant cell death.  (+info)

Role of hypoxia-induced Bax translocation and cytochrome c release in reoxygenation injury. (5/8107)

We investigated mechanisms of cell death during hypoxia/reoxygenation of cultured kidney cells. During glucose-free hypoxia, cell ATP levels declined steeply resulting in the translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria. Concurrently, there was cytochrome c release and caspase activation. Cells that leaked cytochrome c underwent apoptosis after reoxygenation. ATP depletion induced by a mitochondrial uncoupler resulted in similar alterations even in the presence of oxygen. Moreover, inclusion of glucose during hypoxia prevented protein translocations and reoxygenation injury by maintaining intracellular ATP. Thus, ATP depletion, rather than hypoxia per se, was the cause of protein translocations. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented cytochrome c release and reoxygenation injury without ameliorating ATP depletion or Bax translocation. On the other hand, caspase inhibitors did not prevent protein translocations, but inhibited apoptosis during reoxygenation. Nevertheless, they could not confer long-term viability, since mitochondria had been damaged. Omission of glucose during reoxygenation resulted in continued failure of ATP production, and cell death with necrotic morphology. In contrast, cells expressing Bcl-2 had functional mitochondria and remained viable during reoxygenation even without glucose. Therefore, Bax translocation during hypoxia is a molecular trigger for cell death during reoxygenation. If ATP is available during reoxygenation, apoptosis develops; otherwise, death occurs by necrosis. By preserving mitochondrial integrity, BCL-2 prevents both forms of cell death and ensures cell viability.  (+info)

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C are required for the inhibition of caspase activity by epidermal growth factor. (6/8107)

The mechanism by which growth factors exert an anti-apoptotic function on many cell types is not well understood. This issue is addressed in relation to epidermal growth factor (EGF) which inhibits apoptosis induced by staurosporine or wortmannin in an epithelial tumour cell line (CNE-2). The presence of EGF substantially reduced the in vitro Ac-DEVD-AMC hydrolytic activity and almost completely suppressed the intracellular cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in staurosporine- or wortmannin-treated cells. Staurosporine but not wortmannin caused the intracellular proteolytic processing of pro-caspase-3 and this event was transiently inhibited by EGF. Staurosporine-induced apoptosis was not inhibited by EGF in the presence of wortmannin or LY294002. Similarly, EGF failed to inhibit wortmannin-induced apoptosis in the presence of staurosporine, chelerythrine chloride or Go6850. These results suggest that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C play a role in the survival function of EGF but the reduction of cellular caspase activity cannot be satisfactorily explained by a lack of pro-caspase-3 activation.  (+info)

p27Kip1 induces drug resistance by preventing apoptosis upstream of cytochrome c release and procaspase-3 activation in leukemic cells. (7/8107)

The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 has been implicated as a drug resistance factor in tumor cells grown as spheroids or confluent monolayers. Here, we show that p27Kip1 overexpression also induces resistance to drug-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity in human leukemic cells growing in suspension. The anti-apoptotic effect of p27Kip1 is not restricted to DNA-damaging agents but extends to the tubulin poison vinblastin, agonistic anti-Fas antibodies and macromolecule synthesis inhibitors. To further identify at which level this protein interferes with the cell death pathway, we investigated its influence on caspase activation and mitochondrial changes. Exposure of mock-transfected U937 cells to 50 microm etoposide activates procaspase-3 and the long isoform of procaspase-2 and induces mitochondrial potential decrease and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol. All these events are prevented by p27Kip1 overexpression. p27Kip1 does not modulate Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), Mcl-1 and Bax protein level in leukemic cells but suppresses Mcl-1 expression decrease observed in mock-transfected U937 cells undergoing etoposide-induced cell death. We conclude that p27Kip1 prevents cell death upstream of the final pathway common to many apoptotic stimuli that involves cytochrome c release from mitochondria and activation of downstream caspases.  (+info)

MycN sensitizes neuroblastoma cells for drug-induced apoptosis. (8/8107)

Amplification of the MYCN gene is found in a large proportion of neuroblastoma and considered as an adverse prognostic factor. To investigate the effect of ectopic MycN expression on the susceptibility of neuroblastoma cells to cytotoxic drugs we used a human neuroblastoma cell line harboring tetracycline-controlled expression of MycN. Neither conditional expression of MycN alone nor low drug concentrations triggered apoptosis. However, when acting in concert, MycN and cytotoxic drugs efficiently induced cell death. Apoptosis depended on mitochondrial permeability transition and activation of caspases, since the mitochondrion-specific inhibitor bongkrekic acid and the caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk almost completely abrogated apoptosis. Loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria preceded activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. CD95 expression was upregulated by treatment with cytotoxic drugs, while MycN cooperated with cytotoxic drugs to increase sensitivity to CD95-induced apoptosis and enhancing CD95-L expression. MycN overexpression and cytotoxic drugs also synergized to induce p53 and Bax protein expression, while Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) protein levels remained unchanged. Since amplification of MYCN is usually associated with a poor prognosis, these findings suggest that dysfunctions in apoptosis pathways may be a mechanism by which MycN-induced apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells is inhibited.  (+info)

Necrosis is a type of cell death that occurs when cells are exposed to excessive stress, injury, or inflammation, leading to damage to the cell membrane and the release of cellular contents into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to the formation of gangrene, which is the death of body tissue due to lack of blood supply.

There are several types of necrosis, including:

1. Coagulative necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is a lack of blood supply to the tissues, leading to the formation of a firm, white plaque on the surface of the affected area.
2. Liquefactive necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is an infection or inflammation that causes the death of cells and the formation of pus.
3. Caseous necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is a chronic infection, such as tuberculosis, and the affected tissue becomes soft and cheese-like.
4. Fat necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is trauma to fatty tissue, leading to the formation of firm, yellowish nodules.
5. Necrotizing fasciitis: This is a severe and life-threatening form of necrosis that affects the skin and underlying tissues, often as a result of bacterial infection.

The diagnosis of necrosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests such as biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the necrosis and may include antibiotics, surgical debridement, or amputation in severe cases.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Neuroblastoma is caused by a genetic mutation that affects the development and growth of nerve cells. The cancerous cells are often sensitive to chemotherapy, but they can be difficult to remove surgically because they are deeply embedded in the nervous system.

There are several different types of neuroblastoma, including:

1. Infantile neuroblastoma: This type of neuroblastoma occurs in children under the age of one and is often more aggressive than other types of the cancer.
2. Juvenile neuroblastoma: This type of neuroblastoma occurs in children between the ages of one and five and tends to be less aggressive than infantile neuroblastoma.
3. Adult neuroblastoma: This type of neuroblastoma occurs in adults and is rare.
4. Metastatic neuroblastoma: This type of neuroblastoma has spread to other parts of the body, such as the bones or liver.

Symptoms of neuroblastoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include:

* Abdominal pain
* Fever
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Bone pain
* Swelling in the abdomen or neck
* Constipation
* Increased heart rate

Diagnosis of neuroblastoma typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans and MRI scans, and biopsies to confirm the presence of cancerous cells. Treatment for neuroblastoma usually involves a combination of chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. The prognosis for neuroblastoma varies depending on the type of cancer, the age of the child, and the stage of the disease. In general, the younger the child and the more aggressive the treatment, the better the prognosis.

Caspase substrate specificity has been widely used in caspase based inhibitor and drug design. Caspase-3, in particular, (also ... caspase activity would kill cells indiscriminately. As an executioner caspase, the caspase-3 zymogen has virtually no activity ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... This protein cleaves and activates caspases 6 and 7; and the protein itself is processed and activated by caspases 8, 9, and 10 ...
Caspase-8 has been shown to interact with: BCAP31, BID, Bcl-2, CFLAR, Caspase-10, Caspase-2, Caspase-3, Caspase-6, Caspase-7, ... Caspase-8 is a caspase protein, encoded by the CASP8 gene. It most likely acts upon caspase-3. CASP8 orthologs have been ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... For the death pathway, the caspase-8 zymogen is cleaved into subunits that assemble to form the mature, highly active caspase ...
October 2005). "The contribution of apoptosis-inducing factor, caspase-activated DNase, and inhibitor of caspase-activated ... "Entrez Gene: DFFB DNA fragmentation factor, 40kDa, beta polypeptide (caspase-activated DNase)". Davidson College. "Caspase ... "Specific chaperone-like activity of inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase for caspase-activated DNase". The Journal of ... "Apoptosis initiated by Bcl-2-regulated caspase activation independently of the cytochrome c/Apaf-1/caspase-9 apoptosome". ...
... has been shown to interact with: Caspase 8, Survivin and XIAP. The Proteolysis Map Caspase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes that undergo proteolytic processing by upstream caspases (caspase-8, -9) at conserved ... Caspase-7 is a member of the caspase (cysteine aspartate protease) family of proteins, and has been shown to be an executioner ... The precursor of this caspase is cleaved by caspase 3, caspase 10, and caspase 9. It is activated upon cell death stimuli and ...
Apoptopic caspases are subcategorised as: Initiator Caspases (Caspase 2, Caspase 8, Caspase 9, Caspase 10) Executioner Caspases ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4, Caspase-5 and Caspase-11 are considered 'Inflammatory Caspases'. Caspase-1 is key in activating pro- ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4 and Caspase-5 in humans, and Caspase-1 and Caspase-11 in mice play important roles in inducing cell death ... Pyroptosis by Caspase-4 and Caspase-5 in humans and Caspase-11 in mice These caspases have the ability to induce direct ...
Active caspase-9 works as an initiating caspase by cleaving, thus activating downstream executioner caspases, initiating ... Different protein isoforms of caspase-9 are produced due to alternative splicing. Similar to other caspases, caspase-9 has ... Previously activated caspases can cleave caspase-9, causing its dimerization. Caspase-9 has a preferred cleavage sequence of ... Caspase 8, NLRP1, and XIAP. The Proteolysis Map Caspase Caspase-3 Apoptosome Apaf-1 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000132906 ...
In humans, initiator caspases such as Caspase-2 and Caspase-9 have a prodomain that cleaves caspases to a holoenzyme complex in ... Just as caspase 9 in mammals, caspase Dronc is a protein that has a caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD). It is the ... Although most human caspases are considered orthologs of caspase Dronc, the one that resembles it the most is Caspase-2. ... In Drosophila melanogaster cells, caspase Dronc is ubiquitylated by Diap-1. Similarly, effector caspases Caspase-3 and Caspase- ...
... has been shown to interact with Caspase 8. The Proteolysis Map Caspase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138794 - ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... Caspase 6 can also undergo self-processing without other members of the caspase family. Alternative splicing of this gene ... "Entrez Gene: CASP6 caspase 6, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase". Cowling V, Downward J (Oct 2002). "Caspase-6 is the direct ...
Murine caspase-11, and its human homologs caspase-4 and caspase-5, are mammalian intracellular receptor proteases activated by ... Caspase-11 activation by direct binding to LPS represents a novel and unprecedented mechanism for caspase activation. Caspase- ... "Dual role of caspase-11 in mediating activation of caspase-1 and caspase-3 under pathological conditions". The Journal of Cell ... an inactive precursor to active caspase-11) expression and caspase-11-mediated pyroptosis. Once expressed, caspase-11 is only ...
Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... Caspase 10 has been shown to interact with FADD, CFLAR, Caspase 8, Fas receptor, RYBP, TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF10B. The Proteolysis ... Wang, J; Chun H J; Wong W; Spencer D M; Lenardo M J (November 2001). "Caspase-10 is an initiator caspase in death receptor ... Caspase-10 is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the CASP10 gene. This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the ...
... which resembles that of the animal caspases. Similarly to the animal caspases, the phytaspase is a cell death promoting ... In contrast with the animal caspases, that exist in the cytoplasm in a form of pre-synthesized precursors, the activation of ... Porter, A. G.; Jänicke, R. U. (1999-02-01). "Emerging roles of caspase-3 in apoptosis". Cell Death and Differentiation. 6 (2): ... The phytaspase displays a strict substrate specificity, which resembles that of the animal caspase-3. It recognizes a ...
2003 nomenclature IA - Fas IB - Fas ligand IIA - Caspase 10 IIB - Caspase 8 III - unknown IV - Neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene ... Caspase 10. Germline CASP10 mutation. 2% of patients ALPS-U: Undefined. 20% of patients CEDS: Caspase 8 deficiency state. No ... Fas and Fas-ligand interact to trigger the caspase cascade, leading to cell apoptosis. Patients with ALPS have a defect in this ... 9 (3): 233-5. PMID 21475130. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26.[unreliable medical source?] Van Der Werff Ten Bosch, ...
Caspase proteins are crucial mediators of apoptosis, with caspase-3 and caspase-8 being death proteases. Considering ... RU, Porter AG and Jänicke (1999). "Emerging roles of caspase-3 in apoptosis. - PubMed - NCBI". Cell Death and Differentiation. ... This is due to an increased expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8. ... 77 (3): 182-185. doi:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2015.01.006. ISSN 0923-1811. PMID 25680854. Lee, Chang Seok; Joo, Yung Hyup; Baek, ...
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In caspase-3 the 'hook' and 'sinker' attach. Both the BIR2 and BIR3 have a groove that is predominately negatively charged. ... This is done through the binding to caspases directly. Similar to the functionality of NAIP, the BIR3 domain of XIAP binds to ... This is unexpected because, in nerve growth factor withdrawal, caspase-3 and -9 are activated, causing cell death, which are ... When overexpressed, XIAP is able to block caspases extremely well and prevents cell death of sympathetic neurons when nerve ...
... has a similar amino acid sequence to initiator caspases, including caspase 1, caspase 4, caspase 5, and caspase 9. It ... Overall, caspase 2 appears to be a very versatile caspase with multiple functions beyond cell death induction. Caspase 2 has ... Within this family, caspase 2 is part of the Ich-1 subfamily. It is one of the most conserved caspases in different species of ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ...
Instead, it is thought to inhibit Caspase-1 activation by interfering with the interaction of Caspase-1 with other important ... and a caspase, in this case Caspase-1. In some cases, where the signaling proteins contain their own CARDs, like in NLRP1 and ... Caspase-1 is produced as a zymogen that can then be cleaved into 20 kDa (p20) and 10 kDa (p10) subunits that become part of the ... Active Caspase 1 contains two heterodimers of p20 and p10. It contains a catalytic domain with an active site that spans both ...
Rho inactivation can activate caspase-3 and caspase-9; two key components of the apoptotic pathway. TcdA has been linked to ... 56 (3): 582-8. doi:10.1128/IAI.56.3.582-588.1988. PMC 259330. PMID 3343050. Lyras D, O'Connor JR, Howarth PM, Sambol SP, Carter ... 93 (3): 1257-65. doi:10.1172/JCI117080. PMC 294078. PMID 7907603. Flegel WA, Müller F, Däubener W, Fischer HG, Hadding U, ... 35 (3): 1032-40. doi:10.1128/IAI.35.3.1032-1040.1982. PMC 351151. PMID 7068210. von Eichel-Streiber C, Laufenberg-Feldmann R, ...
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Caspase 3 is reported to be involved in the proteolytic processing of this protein. Two alternatively spliced transcript ... This cytokine is produced as a precursor peptide (pro-IL-16) that requires processing by an enzyme called caspase-3 to become ... "Processing and activation of pro-interleukin-16 by caspase-3". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (2): 1144-1149. doi: ... doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Zhang Y, Center DM, Wu DM, Cruikshank WW, Yuan J, Andrews DW, Kornfeld H ( ...
In residue 321, the change of aspartic acid (D) to Asparagine (N) reveals as loss of proteolytic cleavage by caspases. Those ... STK24 operates on serine and threonine residues and, as a response to oxidative stress and caspase activity, develops cell ... "Caspase activation of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 3 (Mst3). Nuclear translocation and induction of apoptosis". The Journal ... "Caspase activation of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 3 (Mst3). Nuclear translocation and induction of apoptosis". The Journal ...
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Caspases are the enzymes primarily responsible for cell death. XIAP binds to and inhibits caspase 3, 7 and 9. The BIR2 domain ... This allows normal caspase activity to proceed. The binding process of Smac/DIABLO to XIAP and caspase release requires a ... 2 region that is thought to contain the only element that comes into contact with the caspase molecule to form the XIAP/Caspase ... Caspase 7, Caspase-9, Diablo homolog HtrA serine peptidase 2, MAGED1, MAP3K2, TAB1, and XAF1. GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... induces apoptosis by increasing caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. These proteins induce programmed cell death when ... This can be done via the Koenigs-Knorr method, in which strophanthidin is glycosylated with 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-α-L- ... However, it has been demonstrated that convallatoxin induces apoptosis and autophagy at a dose of 10 nM per 3 days. It was also ... 9 (3): e91094. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...991094Y. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091094. PMC 3963847. PMID 24663328. Cheng, CJ; Lin, CS; ...
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Src (gene) has been shown to interact with the following signaling pathways: PI3K Akt IKK NFkB Caspase 9 STAT3 p38 MAPK VEGF IL ... 10 (3): 1000-9. doi:10.1128/mcb.10.3.1000. PMC 360952. PMID 1689455. Zan L, Wu H, Jiang J, Zhao S, Song Y, Teng G, Li H, Jia Y ... 262 (3): 118-128. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.12.060. PMC 3943922. PMID 24412374. Zhao X, Wu T, Chang CF, et al. (2015). " ... 3 (11): 61. doi:10.1038/s41408-021-00450-2. PMC 7973815. PMID 33737511. src+Gene at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ...
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... called Inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD). In order for apoptosis to begin, an enzyme called caspase 3 cleaves ICAD so ... "Caspase-activated DNase Is Required for Maintenance of Tolerance to Lupus Nuclear Autoantigens." Arthritis and Rheumatism 64.4 ... Apoptotic DNA fragmentation relies on an enzyme called Caspase-Activated DNase (CAD). CAD is usually inhibited by another ... "Identification of ICAD-derived Peptides Capable of Inhibiting Caspase-activated DNase." FEBS Journal 279.16 (2012): 2917-928. ...
"Relationship between Caspase Activity and Apoptotic Markers in Human Sperm in Response to Hydrogen Peroxide and Progesterone". ... 3 (1): 1-7. Lozano GM, Bejarano I, Espino J, González D, Ortiz A, García JF, Rodríguez AB, Pariente JA (2009). " ... 44 (3): 250-254. doi:10.1016/j.ymeth.2007.11.008. PMC 2295206. PMID 18314056. Grasl-Kraupp B, Ruttkay-Nedecky B, Koudelka H, ... 119 (3): 493-501. doi:10.1083/jcb.119.3.493. PMC 2289665. PMID 1400587.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors ...
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If cells receive multiple apoptotic stimuli, caspase-3 activates the Mst1 kinase, which phosphorylates the serine at position ... All of these genes are located in histone cluster 1 on chromosome 6 and cluster 2 and cluster 3 on chromosome 1. In each gene ... 5 (3): 179-89. doi:10.1093/bfgp/ell022. PMID 16772277. Golebiowski F, Kasprzak KS (November 2005). "Inhibition of core histones ...
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... activate inflammatory caspases (e.g. caspase 1) causing cleavage and activation of important inflammatory cytokines such as IL- ... Other NLRs such as IPAF and NAIP5/Birc1e have also been shown to activate caspase-1 in response to Salmonella and Legionella. ... 68 (3): 193-209. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00649.x. PMC 7169806. PMID 16948640. Bahar O, Pruitt R, Luu DD, Schwessinger B, ... 94 (3): 439-448. doi:10.1189/jlb.0313130. PMID 23794711. S2CID 38567645. Caruso R, Warner N, Inohara N, Núñez G (December 2014 ...
In cells, Bcl-rambo is localized to the mitochondria, and its overexpression induces apoptosis that is blocked by caspase ... 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. Banga S, Gao P, Shen X, Fiscus V, Zong WX, Chen ... 534 (1-3): 61-8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03778-X. PMID 12527362. S2CID 7018829. Human BCL2L13 genome location and BCL2L13 ... completely lacking the BH domains 1 through 3 due to an in-frame stop codon inserted by an Alu element. Without the TM domain, ...
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It has also been suggested that S1P kinase 2 (SphK2) is a target of caspase 1, and that a cleaved fragment of SphK2 is what is ... In other forms of apoptosis, caspase-1 is not normally induced, meaning the formation of S1P needs to be further studied. S1P ... S1P generation involved caspase-1-dependent release of sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) fragments. CX3CL1 release is mediated ... Release is dependent upon caspase activity. Less than 2% of ATP released from the beginning stages of cell death is released ...
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... the apoptotic effector caspase, caspase 3, cleaves ICAD and thus causes CAD to become activated. CAD cleaves the DNA at the ... The enzyme responsible for apoptotic DNA fragmentation is the Caspase-activated DNase. CAD is normally inhibited by another ... "A caspase-activated DNase that degrades DNA during apoptosis, and its inhibitor ICAD". Nature. 391 (6662): 43-50. Bibcode: ... doi:10.1007/s10815-014-0194-3. PMC 4016368. PMID 24566945. Simon L, Brunborg G, Stevenson M, Lutton D, McManus J, Lewis SE (May ...
The function of caspase 4 is not fully known, but it is believed to be an inflammatory caspase, along with caspase 1, caspase 5 ... The Proteolysis Map Caspase Martinon F, Tschopp J (2007). "Inflammatory caspases and inflammasomes: master switches of ... Caspase 4 is an enzyme that proteolytically cleaves other proteins at an aspartic acid residue (LEVD-), and belongs to a family ... Smith C, Soti S, Jones Torey A, Nakagawa A, Xue D, and Yin H (2017). "NSAIDs are Caspase Inhibitors". Cell Chem Biol. 24 (3): ...
2005). "Caspase-dependent and independent activation of acid sphingomyelinase signaling". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (28): 26425-26434 ... 2004). "Cathepsin D links TNF-induced acid sphingomyelinase to Bid-mediated caspase-9 and -3 activation". Cell Death Differ. 11 ... 307 (3): 589-594. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)01070-2. PMID 12893264. Smith, E. R.; Merrill, A. H.; Obeid, L. M.; Hannun, Y. A. ( ... 45 (3): 496-506. doi:10.1194/jlr.M300347-JLR200. PMID 14657198. Dbaibo, G.; et al. (1995). "Rb as a downstream target for a ...
"Induction of Caspase-9, Biochemical Assessment and Morphological Changes Caused by Apoptosis in Cancer Cells Treated with ... It has 3 greenish-red to purple, oval to triangular sepals that are 6-30 by 4-12.5 millimeters. The margins of the sepals can ... Its carpels have ovaries that are 1-3 by 0.3-0.8 millimeter and densely covered in gold to red-brown hairs arranged in rows, ... 142 (3): 321-339. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.00177.x. ISSN 1095-8339. Alabsi, Aied Mohammed; Ali, Rola; Ali, Abdul Manaf; ...
Caspase-3, human recombinant proteinase. Catalogue Numbre : E1003. From APExBIO. Distributed by Gentaur in UK & Europe. You can ... Caspase-3, human recombinant proteinase Caspase-3, human recombinant proteinase. APExBIO (No reviews yet) Write a Review Write ...
Category: caspase 3. Influence of basal media composition on barrier fidelity within human pluripotent stem cell-derived blood- ... The synergistic antitumor activity of 3-(2-nitrophenyl) propionic acid-paclitaxel nanoparticles (NPPA-PTX NPs) and anti-PD-L1 ... On this research, we present proof that 3-(2-nitrophenyl) propionic acid-paclitaxel nanoparticles ... antibody inducing immunogenic cell deathThe synergistic antitumor activity of 3-(2-nitrophenyl) propionic acid-paclitaxel ...
Caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK MBL International 4800-510 Inhibitors & Activators ... Caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK. Article. Caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK. Product Number. 4800-510. Supplier. MBL International ...
Caspase-3 promotes genetic instability and carcinogenesis.. Liu, Xinjian; He, Yujun; Li, Fang; Huang, Qian; Kato, Takamitsu A; ... Caspase 3/metabolismo Genoma/efeitos da radiação Instabilidade Genômica Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética Neoplasias Cutâneas/ ... We report that a central effector of apoptosis, caspase-3, facilitates rather than suppresses chemical- and radiation-induced ... Our findings suggest that rather than acting as a broad inhibitor of carcinogenesis, caspase-3 activation may contribute to ...
Caspase-3. Caspase-3 is a caspase protein encoded by the CASP3 gene that interacts with caspase-9 and caspase-8. CASP3 handles ... Buy Caspase-3 DEVD-R110 Fluorometric HTS Assay Kit at gentaur.com Shipping. 2-day ... Human and some mouse caspases are active in apoptosis and cell death and even in necrosis and inflammation. CASP Gene and ...
... deficiency in caspases essential for this pathway, caspase-9 or caspase-3, unexpectedly resulted in rapid activation of ... Animals Antibodies Antigens, CD95 Apoptosis Caspase 1 Caspase 3 Caspase 9 Caspases Cells, Cultured Enzyme Activation Hemorrhage ... Deficiency in caspase-9 or caspase-3 induces compensatory caspase activation. Nature Medicine, 6 (11). pp. 1241-1247. ISSN 1078 ... we demonstrate here that elimination of certain caspases was compensated in vivo by the activation of other caspases. ...
La Caspase-3 est-elle impliquée dans la différenciation des cellules souches adultes ?. 3ème Journée Cancéropôle Grand Ouest, ... La Caspase-3 est-elle impliquée dans la différenciation des cellules souches adultes ?. ...
... pretreatment with IL-1β induces increased caspase-3 activity but keeps cells alive. We now report that IL-1β and TNFα ... pretreatment with IL-1β induces increased caspase-3 activity but keeps cells alive. We now report that IL-1β and TNFα ... sensitized to FasL-induced caspase-3 activation and cell death. However, when TNFα action was blocked by neutralizing ... sensitized to FasL-induced caspase-3 activation and cell death. However, when TNFα action was blocked by neutralizing ...
In addition, hydrogen-rich saline treatment reduced caspase-3 activity in cortex and hippocampus after cardiac arrest/ ...
Chen, J., Nagayama, T., Jin, K., Anne Stetler, R., Zhu, R. L., Graham, S. H., & Simon, R. P. (1998). Induction of caspase-3- ... Chen, J, Nagayama, T, Jin, K, Anne Stetler, R, Zhu, RL, Graham, SH & Simon, RP 1998, Induction of caspase-3-like protease may ... Induction of caspase-3-like protease may mediate delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia. ... To determine whether caspase-3 serves to regulate neuronal death after cerebral ischemia, we have (1) cloned a cDNA encoding ...
Carelli Alinovi C. Protein kinase C mediates caspase 3 activation: A role for erythrocyte morphology changes. Clinical ... Carelli Alinovi, C. (2015). Protein kinase C mediates caspase 3 activation: A role for erythrocyte morphology changes. Clinical ... Carelli Alinovi, C 2015, Protein kinase C mediates caspase 3 activation: A role for erythrocyte morphology changes., Clinical ... These data demonstrate that PKC-mediated activation of caspase 3 is an integral and essential part of signaling pathway in RBCs ...
Cross-talk between calpain and caspase-3/-7 in cisplatin-induced apoptosis of melanoma cells: a major role of calpain ... Del Bello, B., Moretti, D., Gamberucci, A., Maellaro, E. (2007). Cross-talk between calpain and caspase-3/-7 in cisplatin- ... Del Bello, B., Moretti, D., Gamberucci, A., Maellaro, E. (2007). Cross-talk between calpain and caspase-3/-7 in cisplatin- ... The contribution of different proteolytic systems, in particular calpains and effector caspases, in apoptotic cell death is ...
Return to Article Details The bcl-2 and caspase-3 expression after purple sweet potato treatment on isoniazid and rifampicin- ...
Anti-4-1BB Ligand antibody(DM68), Rabbit mAb,DM68,4-1BB Ligand,TNFSF9,CD137L
... and activation of caspase-3, biomarkers indicative of apoptotic cell death. Our findings show that TMT is exclusively ... neurotoxicity in rat cochlear organotypic culture and that TMT-induced auditory neuron death occurs through a caspase-mediated ...
F) Examples of cleaved caspase 3-positive cystic epithelial cells in Kif3aΔ / Δ and Kif3aΔ / Δ;VhlΔ / Δ kidneys. The arrowhead ... cleaved caspase 3 (9661; Cell Signaling Technology), α-Glut1 (Ab14683; Abcam, Inc.), α-HIF1α (NB100-105; Novus Biologicals ), α ... these cleaved caspase 3-positive cells were observed above the layer of the cystic epithelium, consistent with our model. ... Δ cysts more frequently displayed one or more cells that stained positively for cleaved caspase 3, a marker of apoptosis, than ...
caspase 1. multiple interactions. decreases activity. decreases expression. EXP. ISO. Minocycline inhibits the reaction [HTT ... caspase 3. decreases activity. multiple interactions. decreases expression. ISO. EXP. Minocycline results in decreased activity ... caspase 8. multiple interactions. decreases expression. EXP. Minocycline inhibits the reaction [HTT protein mutant form results ... caspase 9. decreases activity. multiple interactions. decreases expression. ISO. EXP. Minocycline results in decreased activity ...
... of A431 human epithelial carcinoma cell line following incubation with 3 µg Rabbit Anti-Human Bcl‑x Antigen Affinity-purified ...
Caspase 9 (1) Cathepsin B (1) Cathepsin L (1) Complement factor (1) ...
The activation of PARP-1, caspase-3, and caspase-7 was only partially diminished after a recovery of 6h from the exposure to ... The increase in apoptosis was associated with activation of caspase-3, caspase-7, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). ... caspase-7, and PARP-1. Furthermore, the mechanism of AP-1 and NF-kB activation is through MAPK. This bioactivity of raw SWCNT ... A short recovery period of 6h of cells from SWCNT exposure resulted in reversal of caspase-3 and caspase-7, and a partial ...
Assay of caspase 3/7 in cells treated with NPrCAP or TRAIL. Cells were cultured in the presence of NPrCAP, TRAIL, or propylene ... NIH3T3, RMA, and TXM18 cells treated with TRAIL showed 10.6-, 7.1-, and 5.8-fold increases of caspase 3/7 activation compared ... caspase 3 assay, and TUNEL staining [46]. The sub-G1 fraction was increased in the NPrCAP-treated B16F1 cells, comparable to ... It was also shown to induce cell death without activating the caspase cascade or DNA fragmentation, indicating that the death ...
Within the first 3 h of infection with influenza virus, significant down-regulation of hsa-miRNA-4276 (miRNA-4276) is followed ... Expression of caspase-9 also increased within the first 3 h of infection, but subsequently decreased. Modulation of miR-4276 ... Within the first 3 h of infection with influenza virus, significant down-regulation of hsa-miRNA-4276 (miRNA-4276) is followed ... COX6C mRNA expression through silencing miR-4276 and repressed viral replication by inducing the apoptotic protein caspase-9. ...
Dual Apoptosis Assay with NucView® 488 Caspase-3 Substrate & Annexin V These kits provides two apoptosis markers, our novel ... 488 Caspase-3 Substrate and Annexin V conjugate for detecting caspase-3 activation and phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation. ... 2009) 1790(3), 208-212. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2008.12.005. 3. J Biol Chem (2012) 287(47), 39776-39788. DOI 10.1074/jbc. ... Glow-type firefly luciferase assay with signal half-life of about 3 hours for high-throughput screening in multi-well plates.. ...
Specifically, the XIAP protein inhibits caspase enzymes 3, 7, and 9. The XIAP protein also plays a role in several other ... the action of certain enzymes called caspases, which are necessary for apoptosis. ...
  • A constitutively active and uninhibitable caspase-3 zymogen efficiently induces apoptosis. (ncsu.edu)
  • The caspase-3 zymogen has essentially zero activity until it is cleaved by initiator caspases during apoptosis. (ncsu.edu)
  • Apoptosis is typically considered an anti-oncogenic process since caspase activation can promote the elimination of genetically unstable or damaged cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • We report that a central effector of apoptosis , caspase-3 , facilitates rather than suppresses chemical- and radiation -induced genetic instability and carcinogenesis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Human and some mouse caspases are active in apoptosis and cell death and even in necrosis and inflammation. (caspase-3.com)
  • Using an established in vivo model of Fas-mediated apoptosis, we demonstrate here that elimination of certain caspases was compensated in vivo by the activation of other caspases. (cshl.edu)
  • In this paper, we show that during cisplatin-induced apoptosis of human metastatic melanoma cells, calpain activation, as measured in intact cells by two different fluorescent substrates, is an early event, taking place well before caspase-3/-7 activation, and progressively increasing during 48 h of treatment. (unisi.it)
  • The increase in apoptosis was associated with activation of caspase-3, caspase-7, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). (cdc.gov)
  • It helps protect these cells from self-destructing (undergoing apoptosis) by blocking (inhibiting) the action of certain enzymes called caspases, which are necessary for apoptosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Caspasa de prodominio corto con papel efector en la APOPTOSIS. (bvsalud.org)
  • A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. (bvsalud.org)
  • Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) facilitates neural apoptosis through caspase-3 activation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Whereas TNFα preincubation leads to elevated levels of caspase-3 activity and cell death, pretreatment with IL-1β induces increased caspase-3 activity but keeps cells alive. (frontiersin.org)
  • Caspase-3 is a caspase protein encoded by the CASP3 gene that interacts with caspase-9 and caspase-8. (caspase-3.com)
  • At 8-72 hr after ischemia, caspase-3 mRNA and protein were induced in the hippocampus and caudate-putamen (CPu), accompanied by increased caspase-3-like protease activity. (unthsc.edu)
  • In the hippocampus, caspase-3 mRNA and protein were predominantly increased in degenerating CA1 pyramidal neurons. (unthsc.edu)
  • Protein kinase C mediates caspase 3 activation: A role for erythrocyte morphology changes. (unicatt.it)
  • Here we extend our previous observations, reporting that RBC morphology is regulated by a series of specific cell signaling events linked to Protein Kinase C (PKC)-mediated activation of caspase 3. (unicatt.it)
  • Our data suggests that on initial exposure to influenza virus, host cells upregulate COX6C mRNA expression through silencing miR-4276 and repressed viral replication by inducing the apoptotic protein caspase-9. (cdc.gov)
  • Our findings suggest that rather than acting as a broad inhibitor of carcinogenesis , caspase-3 activation may contribute to genome instability and play a pivotal role in tumor formation following damage. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, ventricular infusion of Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor, decreased caspase-3 activity in the hippocampus and significantly reduced cell death and DNA fragmentation in the CA1 sector up to 7 d after ischemia. (unthsc.edu)
  • The contribution of different proteolytic systems, in particular calpains and effector caspases, in apoptotic cell death is still controversial. (unisi.it)
  • TMT-induced damage to auditory neurons was associated with significant soma shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and activation of caspase-3, biomarkers indicative of apoptotic cell death. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, attenuation of EndoG activity significantly reduced radiation -induced DNA damage and oncogenic transformation, identifying EndoG as a downstream effector of caspase-3 in this pathway. (bvsalud.org)
  • deficiency in caspases essential for this pathway, caspase-9 or caspase-3, unexpectedly resulted in rapid activation of alternate caspases after injection of Jo2, and therefore failed to protect mice against Jo2 toxicity. (cshl.edu)
  • Moreover, both ultraviolet and gamma irradiation, two established inducers of the mitochondrial caspase-activation pathway, also elicited compensatory activation of caspases in cultured caspase-3(-/-) hepatocytes, indicating that the compensatory caspase activation was mediated through the mitochondria. (cshl.edu)
  • These data demonstrate that PKC-mediated activation of caspase 3 is an integral and essential part of signaling pathway in RBCs, that may be a regulatory factor of RBC mechanical properties, through regulation of NO metabolism. (unicatt.it)
  • Our findings show that TMT is exclusively neurotoxicity in rat cochlear organotypic culture and that TMT-induced auditory neuron death occurs through a caspase-mediated apoptotic pathway. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhibition of PKC also completely inhibits PMA mediated caspase-3 activation. (unicatt.it)
  • We found that a significant fraction of mammalian cells treated with ionizing radiation can survive despite caspase-3 activation. (bvsalud.org)
  • A short recovery period of 6h of cells from SWCNT exposure resulted in reversal of caspase-3 and caspase-7, and a partial reversal of PARP-1 activation. (cdc.gov)
  • The results of this study show that the molecular mechanism for raw SWCNT-mediated toxicity in BEAS-2B cells is through the activation of caspase-3, caspase-7, and PARP-1. (cdc.gov)
  • Within the first 3 h of infection with influenza virus, significant down-regulation of hsa-miRNA-4276 (miRNA-4276) is followed by a 2-fold increase in cytochrome c oxidase VIC (COX6C) mRNA was found to occur in human alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Double-label experiments detected DNA fragmentation in the majority of CA1 neurons and selective CPu neurons that overexpressed caspase-3. (unthsc.edu)
  • The direct activation of procaspase-3 through a conformational switch rather than by chain cleavage may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for inducing cell death. (ncsu.edu)
  • Moreover, this sublethal activation of caspase-3 promoted persistent DNA damage and oncogenic transformation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our findings provide direct experimental evidence for compensatory pathways of caspase activation. (cshl.edu)
  • The treatment of hepatocytes with the BMDM supernatant, which contains both IL-1β and TNFα, sensitized to FasL-induced caspase-3 activation and cell death. (frontiersin.org)
  • Proteolytic activation of the caspase-3 precursor was detected in hippocampus and CPu but not in cortex at 4-72 hr after ischemia. (unthsc.edu)
  • Calpain activation proves to be an early and crucial event in the apoptotic machinery, as demonstrated by the significant protection of cell death in samples co-treated with the calpain inhibitors, MDL 28170, calpeptin and PD 150606, where a variable but significant reduction of both caspase-3/-7 activity and cell detachment is observed. (unisi.it)
  • Organic solvent-induced proximal tubular cell toxicity via caspase-3 activation. (cdc.gov)
  • The activation of PARP-1, caspase-3, and caspase-7 was only partially diminished after a recovery of 6h from the exposure to crocidolite. (cdc.gov)
  • Cell viability, cell morphology, chromatin condensation, cPARP - 1 level, and caspase - 3 activation, and the expression of p21 WAF1/Cip1 were analyzed. (who.int)
  • A mutation in the allosteric site of the caspase 3 dimer interface of Val266 to histidine abolishes activity of the enzyme, and models predict that the mutation mimics the action of small molecule allosteric inhibitors by preventing formation of the active site. (ncsu.edu)
  • This issue should therefore be considered in developing caspase inhibitors for therapeutic applications. (cshl.edu)
  • Caspase-3, cysteine proteinase, expressed in E.Coli. (immunoportal.com)
  • Caspase-3 is a newly characterized mammalian cysteine protease that promotes cell death during brain development, in neuronal cultures, and in other cell types under many different conditions. (unthsc.edu)
  • the expression of specific CNS enzyme (enolase), proinflammatory cytokines MIF and apoptotic marker caspase-3 in the umbilical blood of infants delivered for Covid positive mothers. (who.int)
  • Association of death receptor 4, Caspase 3 and 5 gene polymorphism with increased risk to bladder cancer in North Indians. (cdc.gov)
  • Association between main Caspase gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility and prognosis of colorectal cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • The results demonstrate that considering allosteric inhibition of caspase 3 as a shift between discrete ‘off-state’ or ‘on-state’ conformations is insufficient. (ncsu.edu)
  • and (4) studied the effect of caspase-3 inhibition on cell survival and DNA fragmentation in the hippocarnpus in a rat model of transient global ischemia. (unthsc.edu)
  • On the other hand, caspase 3 inhibition, lessens the PMA induced-effects on the appearance of RBC morphology alterations, although it enhances PMA-mediated effects on nitric oxide (NO) derived metabolites levels. (unicatt.it)
  • XN significantly increased the level of cPARP - 1, active caspase - 3, and the expression of p21WAF/CIP mRNA. (who.int)
  • In addition, hydrogen-rich saline treatment reduced caspase-3 activity in cortex and hippocampus after cardiac arrest/resuscitation. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of caspase-9 also increased within the first 3 h of infection, but subsequently decreased. (cdc.gov)
  • Transcript expression and genetic variability analysis of caspases in breast carcinomas suggests CASP9 as the most interesting target. (cdc.gov)
  • Prognostic Impact of Polymorphisms in the CASPASE Genes on Survival of Patients with Colorectal Cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Less than 10% with metastatic melanoma patients survive currently for five years because of the lack of effective therapies [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Phototherapy is used as a first-line therapy in itiligo is an acquired depigmenting skin patients with extensive disease 3 . (who.int)
  • Stability measurements show that only the K242A single mutant decreases stability of the dimer, whereas both single mutants and the double mutant demonstrate much lower activity compared to wild-type caspase-3. (ncsu.edu)
  • On average, dengue becomes symptomatic after a 4- to 10-day incubation period (range, 3-14 days). (medscape.com)
  • After the There is plasma leakage into the serous cavities bite, there is an incubation period of 3 to 14 also and hepatomegaly with raised liver enzymes days (average 4 to 7 days) followed by the onset is not uncommon. (who.int)
  • Caspase-3 promotes genetic instability and carcinogenesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, chemically induced skin carcinogenesis was significantly reduced in mice genetically deficient in caspase-3 . (bvsalud.org)
  • This study is limited as blood lead was present at background environmental levels and reflected exposure in recent past (3 months). (who.int)
  • Conversely, formation of the K242–E246 salt bridge in caspase-3 is needed for an accurate, stable conformation of loop L4 and proper active site formation in the mature enzyme. (ncsu.edu)
  • The 1.63 Å (1 Å = 0.1 nm) structure of the variant demonstrates that the mutation is accommodated at the dimer interface to generate an enzyme with substantially the same activity and specificity as wild-type caspase-3. (ncsu.edu)
  • These data strongly suggest that caspase-3 activity contributes to delayed neuronal death after transient ischemia. (unthsc.edu)
  • Interactions between loops 2, 2′ and 4, known as the loop bundle, stabilize the active site of caspase-3. (ncsu.edu)
  • as a single species, A . phagocytophilum (Figure 2) (1,3). (cdc.gov)
  • Overall, the results suggest E246 and K242 are important in procaspase-3 for their interaction with neighboring residues, not with one another. (ncsu.edu)
  • Intracellular hyperthermia using magnetite nanoparticles (10-100 nm-sized Fe 3 O 4 ) may be another choice to overcome the difficult challenges for melanoma treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • Structural studies of the caspase-3 variants show the involvement of K242 in hydrophobic interactions that stabilize helix 5, near the dimer interface, and the role of E246 appears to be to neutralize the positive charge of K242 within the hydrophobic cluster. (ncsu.edu)
  • Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 2011 Jun 28 (3): 318-22. (cdc.gov)
  • Journal of biomedical research 2013 May 27 (3): 231-8. (cdc.gov)
  • A more comprehensive view of allosteric regulation of caspase 3 requires the representation of an ensemble of inactive states and shows that subtle structural changes lead to the population of the inactive ensemble. (ncsu.edu)
  • 17% of subjects were exposed to inorganic lead, while 3% were exposed to organic lead. (who.int)
  • Shortly after the fever breaks (3-7 days after symptom onset or sometimes within 24 hours before), signs of plasma leakage appear, along with the development of hemorrhagic symptoms such as bleeding from sites of trauma, gastrointestinal bleeding, and hematuria. (medscape.com)
  • Renal excretion of excess dietary phosphate intake ensures maintenance of phosphate homeostasis, maintaining serum phosphate at a level of approximately 3-4 mg/dL in the serum. (medscape.com)
  • Over the last three years The Ottawa Hospital held an average rank of #3 among hospitals for CIHR funding. (ohri.ca)