A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 10 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 12 is activated by pro-apoptotic factors that are released during cell stress and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
A short pro-domain caspase that is almost exclusively expressed in the EPIDERMIS and may play a role in the differentiation of epidermal KERATINOCYTES.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A subtype of caspases that contain long pro-domain regions that regulate the activation of the enzyme. The pro-domain regions contain protein-protein interaction motifs that can interact with specific signaling adaptor proteins such as DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS; DED SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS; and CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Once activated, the initiator caspases can activate other caspases such as the EFFECTOR CASPASES.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.
A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.
A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
A subclass of caspases that contain short pro-domain regions. They are activated by the proteolytic action of INITIATOR CASPASES. Once activated they cleave a variety of substrates that cause APOPTOSIS.
Multimeric protein complexes formed in the CYTOSOL that play a role in the activation of APOPTOSIS. They can occur when MITOCHONDRIA become damaged due to cell stress and release CYTOCHROME C. Cytosolic cytochrome C associates with APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1 to form the apoptosomal protein complex. The apoptosome signals apoptosis by binding to and activating specific INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.
Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A RIP serine-theonine kinase that contains a C-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain. It can signal by associating with other CARD-signaling adaptor proteins and INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.
A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.
An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.

p27Kip1 induces drug resistance by preventing apoptosis upstream of cytochrome c release and procaspase-3 activation in leukemic cells. (1/311)

The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 has been implicated as a drug resistance factor in tumor cells grown as spheroids or confluent monolayers. Here, we show that p27Kip1 overexpression also induces resistance to drug-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity in human leukemic cells growing in suspension. The anti-apoptotic effect of p27Kip1 is not restricted to DNA-damaging agents but extends to the tubulin poison vinblastin, agonistic anti-Fas antibodies and macromolecule synthesis inhibitors. To further identify at which level this protein interferes with the cell death pathway, we investigated its influence on caspase activation and mitochondrial changes. Exposure of mock-transfected U937 cells to 50 microm etoposide activates procaspase-3 and the long isoform of procaspase-2 and induces mitochondrial potential decrease and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol. All these events are prevented by p27Kip1 overexpression. p27Kip1 does not modulate Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), Mcl-1 and Bax protein level in leukemic cells but suppresses Mcl-1 expression decrease observed in mock-transfected U937 cells undergoing etoposide-induced cell death. We conclude that p27Kip1 prevents cell death upstream of the final pathway common to many apoptotic stimuli that involves cytochrome c release from mitochondria and activation of downstream caspases.  (+info)

Bcl-2 regulates a caspase-3/caspase-2 apoptotic cascade in cytosolic extracts. (2/311)

Apoptosis is accompanied by the activation of a number of apoptotic proteases (caspases) which selectively cleave specific cellular substrates. Caspases themselves are zymogens which are activated by proteolysis. It is widely believed that 'initiator' caspases are recruited to and activated within apoptotic signalling complexes, and then cleave and activate downstream 'effector' caspases. While activation of the effector caspase, caspase-3, has indeed been observed as distal to activation of several different initiator caspases, evidence for a further downstream proteolytic cascade is limited. In particular, there is little evidence that cellular levels of caspase-3 that are activated via one pathway are sufficient to cleave and activate other initiator caspases. To address this issue, the ability of caspase-3, activated upon addition to cytosolic extracts of cytochrome c, to cause cleavage of caspase-2 was investigated. It was demonstrated that cleavage of caspase-2 follows, and is dependent upon, activation of caspase-3. Moreover, the activation of both caspases was inhibited by Bcl-2. Together, these data indicate that Bcl-2 can protect cells from apoptosis by acting at a point downstream from release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, thereby preventing a caspase-3 dependent proteolytic cascade.  (+info)

Targeted disruption of caspase genes in mice: what they tell us about the functions of individual caspases in apoptosis. (3/311)

Cysteine proteases of the caspase family are crucial mediators of apoptosis. All mammalian cells contain a large number of caspases. Although many caspases are activated in a cell committed to apoptosis, recent data from caspase gene knockout mice suggest that individual caspases may be involved in the cell and stimulus-specific pathways of cell death. The gene disruption studies also establish the functional hierarchy between two structurally distinct classes of caspases. The present review discusses these recent findings and elaborates on how these mutant mouse models have helped the understanding of the mechanisms that govern programmed cell death in the immune and other systems.  (+info)

CIPER, a novel NF kappaB-activating protein containing a caspase recruitment domain with homology to Herpesvirus-2 protein E10. (4/311)

We have identified and characterized CIPER, a novel protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) in its N terminus and a C-terminal region rich in serine and threonine residues. The CARD of CIPER showed striking similarity to E10, a product of the equine herpesvirus-2. CIPER formed homodimers via its CARD and interacted with viral E10 but not with several apoptosis regulators containing CARDs including ARC, RAIDD, RICK, caspase-2, caspase-9, or Apaf-1. Expression of CIPER induced NF-kappaB activation, which was inhibited by dominant-negative NIK and a nonphosphorylable IkappaB-alpha mutant but not by dominant-negative RIP. Mutational analysis revealed that the N-terminal region of CIPER containing the CARD was sufficient and necessary for NF-kappaB-inducing activity. Point mutations in highly conserved residues in the CARD of CIPER disrupted the ability of CIPER to activate NF-kappaB and to form homodimers, indicating that the CARD is essential for NF-kappaB activation and dimerization. We propose that CIPER acts in a NIK-dependent pathway of NF-kappaB activation.  (+info)

DRONC, an ecdysone-inducible Drosophila caspase. (5/311)

Caspases play an essential role in the execution of programmed cell death in metazoans. Although 14 caspases are known in mammals, only a few have been described in other organisms. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a Drosophila caspase, DRONC, that contains an amino terminal caspase recruitment domain. Ectopic expression of DRONC in cultured cells resulted in apoptosis, which was inhibited by the caspase inhibitors p35 and MIHA. DRONC exhibited a substrate specificity similar to mammalian caspase-2. DRONC is ubiquitously expressed in Drosophila embryos during early stages of development. In late third instar larvae, dronc mRNA is dramatically up-regulated in salivary glands and midgut before histolysis of these tissues. Exposure of salivary glands and midgut isolated from second instar larvae to ecdysone resulted in a massive increase in dronc mRNA levels. These results suggest that DRONC is an effector of steroid-mediated apoptosis during insect metamorphosis.  (+info)

Analysis of apoptosis and expression of bcl-2 gene family members in the human and baboon ovary. (6/311)

Recent data support a role for apoptosis, under tight regulatory control by bcl-2, oxidative stress response, tumor suppressor, and CASP gene family members, in mediating granulosa cell demise during follicular atresia in the rodent and avian ovary. Herein we evaluated the occurrence of apoptosis in the human and baboon ovary relative to follicular health status, and analyzed expression of several cell death genes in these tissues. In situlocalization of DNA strand breaks in fixed human and baboon ovarian tissue sections indicated that apoptosis was essentially restricted to granulosa cells of atretic antral follicles. Biochemical analysis of DNA oligonucleosomes in individual follicles isolated from baboon ovaries during the ovulatory phase revealed the presence of apoptotic DNA fragments in subordinate but not dominant follicles, thus substantiating the in situ labeling studies. Messenger RNA transcripts encoded by the bax death susceptibility gene, the bcl-xlong survival gene, the bcl-xshort pro-apoptosis gene, the p53 tumor suppressor gene, and two members of the CASP gene family (CASP-2/Ich-1, CASP-3/CPP32), were detected by Northern blot analysis of total RNA prepared either from human ovaries or from Percoll-purified granulosa-lutein cells obtained from patients undergoing assisted reproductive technologies. Lastly, immunohistochemical localization of the BAX death-susceptibility protein in the human ovary revealed abundant expression in granulosa cells of early atretic follicles, whereas BAX protein was extremely low or non-detectable in healthy or grossly-atretic follicles. We conclude that apoptosis occurs during, and is probably responsible for, folicular atresia in the human and baboon ovary. Moreover, apoptosis in the human ovary is likely controlled by altered expression of the same cohort of cell death regulatory factors recently implicated as primary determinants of apoptosis induction or suppression in the rodent ovary.  (+info)

Extended therapeutic window for caspase inhibition and synergy with MK-801 in the treatment of cerebral histotoxic hypoxia. (7/311)

In rats, striatal histotoxic hypoxic lesions produced by the mitochondrial toxin malonate resemble those of focal cerebral ischemia. Intrastriatal injections of malonate induced cleavage of caspase-2 beginning at 6 h, and caspase-3-like activity as identified by DEVD biotin affinity-labeling within 12 h. DEVD affinity-labeling was prevented and lesion volume reduced in transgenic mice overexpressing BCL-2 in neuronal cells. Intrastriatal injection of the tripeptide, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk), a caspase inhibitor, at 3 h, 6 h, or 9 h after malonate injections reduced the lesion volume produced by malonate. A combination of pretreatment with the NMDA antagonist, dizocilpine (MK-801), and delayed treatment with zVAD-fmk provided synergistic protection compared with either treatment alone and extended the therapeutic window for caspase inhibition to 12 h. Treatment with cycloheximide and zVAD-fmk, but not with MK-801, blocked the malonate-induced cleavage of caspase-2. NMDA injections alone resulted in a weak caspase-2 cleavage. These results suggest that malonate toxicity induces neuronal death by more than one pathway. They strongly implicate early excitotoxicity and delayed caspase activation in neuronal loss after focal ischemic lesions and offer a new strategy for the treatment of stroke.  (+info)

Role of caspases and possible involvement of retinoblastoma protein during TGFbeta-mediated apoptosis of human B lymphocytes. (8/311)

In this study, we investigated the involvement of caspases in TGFbeta-induced apoptosis in human B cells. Our results show that TGFbeta-mediated nuclear fragmentation, observed in the Epstein-Barr virus-negative Burkitt's Lymphoma cell line BL41, was abolished in the presence of the tripeptide caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk or the specific caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD-fmk. Other apoptotic manifestations such as cell shrinkage, surface phosphatidylserine expression and chromatin condensation were strongly inhibited by zVAD-fmk but only partially by DEVD-fmk. This suggests that other caspases in addition to caspase-3 control these apoptotis-associated features. Specific activation of caspase-3 during TGFbeta-induced apoptosis was demonstrated by the DEVD-fmk-sensitive expression of the active p17 subunit of caspase-3 and by in vivo cleavage of PARP. In addition, TGFbeta treatment of BL41 promoted the expression of both dephosphorylated and truncated forms of the retinoblastoma protein. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity abolished both nuclear fragmentation and expression of the truncated retinoblastoma protein, without modifying the G1 cell cycle arrest induced by TGFbeta. Our data thus demonstrate that TGFbeta-induced apoptosis of lymphoma B lymphocytes is dependent on caspase activation and involves caspase-dependent cleavage of the retinoblastoma protein.  (+info)

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Book Apollon Hotel, Rust on TripAdvisor: See 49 traveler reviews, 273 candid photos, and great deals for Apollon Hotel, ranked #1 of 21 hotels in Rust and rated 4.5 of 5 at TripAdvisor.
Rabbit polyclonal BIRC6/APOLLON antibody. Validated in WB, IP, IHC and tested in Mouse, Human. Cited in 8 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 1 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to synthetic…
THE PUREST PROTEIN 50/50 Formula-X Protein BLEND FOR HARDCORE ATHLETES! Protein is the foundation of any athletes supplement regimen. For this reason, Apollon Nutrition created a pure blend with exactly 50% whey isolate and 50% micellar casein to create the ultimate fast/slow protein to use any time of the day. What ma
Looking for online definition of NEDD-3 in the Medical Dictionary? NEDD-3 explanation free. What is NEDD-3? Meaning of NEDD-3 medical term. What does NEDD-3 mean?
Caspase-4 (CASP-4, ICE(rel)-II, Protease ICH-2, Protease TX, CASP4, ICH2), C2087-23Y2 - Get the Best Quote/Price and read Reviews, Features and Research Applications
Clothos brain Apollon copies the purpose of Medulla in the human brain and the human hearts Sinoatrial Node and combines the features with the ability for interaction, programming, and functionality. The Apollon brain receives real-time signals from pressure, temperature, and displacement/Laser sensors. Apollon regulate by positive feedback control a set of proportional valves for the BpM, and the driving force and movement of the elastic Myocardium wall inside the Clio or Thalia SUPs.. The Apollon brain is a super compact PLC, which houses a 900 MHz quad-core ARM Cortex-A7 CPU and 16 GB Ram. A range of 15-bit high speed in/out analogue and digital channels corresponds with various sensors and actuators in real-time.. ...
Apollon on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including Entertainment, Music, Sports, Science and more, Sign up and share your playlists.
Susan Apollon Intuitive Psychologist, Psychotherapist, and Healer Susan Apollon is an intuitive psychologist, psychotherapist, and healer. For more than two…
Just as the Sun itself was perceived in the ancient world as the giver of light, Apollo as the representative of the Sun was perceived as the giver of inner light. Know thyself was the dictum carved in stone at his shrine at Delphi, and this emphasises the importance of Apollo as a symbol of consciousness.
Just as the Sun itself was perceived in the ancient world as the giver of light, Apollo as the representative of the Sun was perceived as the giver of inner light. Know thyself was the dictum carved in stone at his shrine at Delphi, and this emphasises the importance of Apollo as a symbol of consciousness.
09:39, 30 April 2015 Homo sapiens:Apoptosis Modulation and Signaling‎ (Corrected ID for AIFM1,CASP4,CASP2,CASP1,HSPA1A,PIDD,TP53,PRKD1,NAIP,XIAP,AIFM2,RIPK1 and PEA15 genes) ...
Use and dose of Nolvadex. To treat breast cancer, patients are recommended to take a tablet of Nolvadex 20 mg 1-2 times per day. If the side effects are absent, a one-time dose of Nolvadex may be increased up to 40 mg.. To treat cancer of kidneys or endometrium, patients are also prescribed a tablet of Nolvadex 20-30 mg 1-2 times per day.. A therapeutic effect is kept only during the prolonged treatment. The action of a tablet of Nolvadex 20 mg lasts for 12 to 20 hours, and therefore if you forgot to take a dose, there is an expectancy of the restored activity of the estrogenic receptors and a reduction of the treatment efficiency.. The treatment of tumors may take 1 to 5 years depending on the sensitivity to Nolvadex. In case of the prolonged treatment, a tolerance of Nolvadex may be developed. If a growth of the cancerous cells is restored during the medical study because of the use of Nolvadex, the treatment is terminated.. Recommendations for the use. ...
Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation without bacterial or viral infection, but the triggers and molecular mechanisms that lead to obesity-associated metabolic inflammation remain to be further explored. Although recent studies demonstrated palmitate triggered thioglycollate-elicited macrophage death under the stimulation of Gram-negative bacteria-derived LPS (39, 40), it did not explain the sterile inflammation associated with obesity, and it also raised concerns regarding physiology and activated status of these thioglycollate-activated macrophages (41). In this article, we report that when various dietary FAs were uptaken by stable macrophage cell lines or primary BMMs, only sFAs (e.g., PA, SA) were metabolized to produce Cers to induce macrophage cell death. Most importantly, we identified A-FABP as a new molecular sensor in mediating excess sFA-induced Cer production and in promoting macrophage cell death, thus contributing to the sterile chronic inflammation in ...
Apollon, also called Baculoviral IAP Repeat-Containing Protein 6 (BIRC6) or Baculoviral IAP Repeat-containing Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme (BRUCE), is an anti-apoptotic protein belonging to the IAP family, which consists of eight members. The genes of this family render cancer cells insensitive to apoptotic stimulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate and assess the role of small interference RNA (siRNA) in the regulation of Apollon gene expression in four different human cancerous cell lines; breast cancer (MCF-7), cervical cancer (HeLa), colon cancer (CaCo-2) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2). Lipofection was carried out to introduce the Apollon-specific siRNA into the cancerous cells and the Apollon expression levels were determined using RT-PCR. Trypan blue assay was conducted to assess the integrity of the cell membranes after being transfected. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5- Diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was also implemented to assess the cell viability ...
Caspase-3 plays a key role in initiation of cellular events during the apoptotic process. PromoKines Caspase-3 and Caspase-7 Immunoassay Kits allow quantification of the specific activity of caspase-3 and -7, respectively. Since caspase-3 and -7 share the same target substrate sequence (DEVD), it is difficult to differentiate the cleavage activity attributed by these two caspases in vitro. Thus, the assays utilize caspase-3 or -7 specific antibodies to capture the activated caspase-3 or -7 in cell lysate. Specific activity of caspase-3 or -7 can then be analyzed using the common caspase-3/7 substrate DEVD-AFC. The assay system ensures absolute specific detection of only caspase-3 or caspase-7 activity in apoptotic samples. Other caspases and non-specific proteases are not detected.. ...
CARD8 (caspase recruitment domain family, member 8), Authors: Frank A. Kruyt. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Effects of ponicidin on the activity of caspase-3 in MKN28 cells. After treatment, the activity of caspase-3 in MKN28 cells was analyzed by the caspase-3 assay
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Neurodegenerative diseases pose one of the most pressing unmet medical needs today. It has long been recognized that caspase-6 may play a role in several neurodegenerative diseases for which there are currently no disease-modifying therapies. Thus it is a potential target for neurodegenerative drug development. In the present study we report on the biochemistry and structure of caspase-6. As an effector caspase, caspase-6 is a constitutive dimer independent of the maturation state of the enzyme. The ligand-free structure shows caspase-6 in a partially mature but latent conformation. The cleaved inter-domain linker remains partially inserted in the central groove of the dimer, as observed in other caspases. However, in contrast with the structures of other caspases, not only is the catalytic machinery misaligned, but several structural elements required for substrate recognition are missing. Most importantly, residues forming a short anti-parallel β-sheet abutting the substrate in other caspase ...
Carol Miletti has primary immune deficiency disorder (PIDD) and lives in Mound, Minnesota. She is very active in the PIDD community and the Immune Deficiency Foundation (IDF), and has become a vocal advocate for others who want to live life fully with PIDD. After a successful career in marketing and sales, she currently writes Carols Corner for BioTek reMEDys and actively participates in PIDD related organizations and educational conferences ...
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The Loss of Functional Caspase-12 in Europe Is a Pre-Neolithic Event. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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For manuals from past collections, please contact our concierge who can provide you with the appropriate documents.. Send us a message through our online form.. ...
Salmonella induces programmed cell death in macrophages by complex mechanisms that involve distinct pathways and require the bacterial TTSS encoded in the pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1 TTSS). One death pathway, which results in rapid macrophage death with features of necrosis, is dependent on caspase-1 and the SPI-1 TTSS-secreted protein SipB (Hersh et al., 1999; Brennan and Cookson, 2000; Jesenberger et al., 2000). However, macrophages from caspase-1−/− mice also undergo programmed cell death, although with delayed kinetics and different morphological features. Here, we have described another death pathway induced by Salmonella that is independent of caspase-1. A systematic bacterial genetic analysis led us to conclude that this cell death pathway is also dependent on SipB, a protein with membrane fusion activity that is delivered into host cells by the SPI-1 TTSS. This analysis was complicated by the known dual function of SipB, which acts both as an effector of virulence within cells and ...
AAAAI experts talk about what they would do if faced with a particular problem concerning allergies, asthma or primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD).. Watch these videos to get tips on how to better manage your condition.. Read More. ...
Progression of the cell cycle and control of apoptosis are crucial and intimately linked processes that occur in all multicellular organisms during development, normal cellular differentiation and tissue homeostasis. Survivin (TIAP, BIRC5), a 16 kDa protein, is a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP)/BIRP gene family, which includes XIAP, c-IAP-1, c-IAP-2, ILP-2, NAIP, Livin and Apollon.
Hertz LD, Owzar K, Lessans S, Wing C, Jiang C, Kelly WK, Patel JN, Halabi S, Furukawa Y, Wheeler HE, Sibley A, Lassiter C, Weisman LS, Watson D, Krens SD, Mulkey F, Renn CN, Small EJ, Febbo PG, Shterev I, Kroetz D, Friedman PN, Mahoney JF, Carducci MA, Kelley MJ, Nakamura Y, Kubo M, Dorsey SG, Dolan ME, Morris MJ, Ratain MJ and McLeod HL. Pharmacogenetic Discovery in CALGB (Alliance) 90401 and Mechanistic Validation of a VAC14Polymorphism that Increases Risk of Docetaxel-Induced Neuropathy. Clin Cancer Res. 2016 Oct 1. PMID: 27143689 ...
In order to implement search with assistance from the Android system (to deliver search queries to an activity and provide search suggestions), your application must provide a search configuration in the form of an XML file. This page describes the search…
... as are caspase-8 (EC, caspase-9 (EC and caspase-10 (EC Kumar S, Kinoshita M, Noda M, Copeland ... caspase-2L, caspase-2S, neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 2, CASP-2, NEDD2 protein) is an ... Caspase-2 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC 3.4.22). ... Li H, Bergeron L, Cryns V, Pasternack MS, Zhu H, Shi L, Greenberg A, Yuan J (August 1997). "Activation of caspase-2 in ...
... including caspase 1, caspase 4, caspase 5, and caspase 9. It is produced as a zymogen, which contains a long pro-domain that is ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... It is one of the most conserved caspases in different species of animal. Caspase 2 has a similar amino acid sequence to ... and Caspase 8. The Proteolysis Map Caspase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000106144 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ...
In Drosophila melanogaster cells, caspase Dronc is ubiquitylated by Diap-1. Similarly, effector caspases Caspase-3 and Caspase- ... Just as caspase 9 in mammals, caspase Dronc is a protein that has a caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD). It is the ... Although most human caspases are considered orthologs of caspase Dronc, the one that resembles it the most is Caspase-2. ... Nedd2-like caspase is responsible for the activation of effector caspases. On the other hand, as a caspase, Dronc is fully ...
Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... Caspase 10 has been shown to interact with FADD, CFLAR, Caspase 8, Fas receptor, RYBP, TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF10B. The Proteolysis ... Wang, J; Chun H J; Wong W; Spencer D M; Lenardo M J (November 2001). "Caspase-10 is an initiator caspase in death receptor ... This protein cleaves and activates caspases 3 and 7, and the protein itself is processed by caspase 8. Mutations in this gene ...
The precursor of this caspase is cleaved by caspase 3, caspase 10, and caspase 9. It is activated upon cell death stimuli and ... Caspase 7 has been shown to interact with: Caspase 8, Survivin and XIAP. The Proteolysis Map Caspase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes that undergo proteolytic processing by upstream caspases (caspase-8, -9) at conserved ... Caspase-7 is a member of the caspase (cysteine aspartate protease) family of proteins, and has been shown to be an executioner ...
... has been shown to interact with Caspase 8. The Proteolysis Map Caspase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138794 - ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... Caspase 6 can also undergo self-processing without other members of the caspase family. Alternative splicing of this gene ... "Entrez Gene: CASP6 caspase 6, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase". Cowling V, Downward J (Oct 2002). "Caspase-6 is the direct ...
Caspase-3 is a caspase protein that interacts with caspase-8 and caspase-9. It is encoded by the CASP3 gene. CASP3 orthologs ... As an executioner caspase, the caspase-3 zymogen has virtually no activity until it is cleaved by an initiator caspase after ... Caspase substrate specificity has been widely used in caspase based inhibitor and drug design. Caspase-3, in particular, (also ... During the caspase cascade, however, caspase-3 functions to inhibit XIAP activity by cleaving caspase-9 at a specific site, ...
Caspase-3, Caspase-6, Caspase-7, Caspase-9, DEDD, FADD, FasL, FasR, IFT57, NOL3, PEA15, RIPK1, TNFRSF10B, and TRAF1. Biology ... Caspase-8 is a caspase protein, encoded by the CASP8 gene. It most likely acts upon caspase-3. CASP8 orthologs have been ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... For the death pathway, the caspase-8 zymogen is cleaved into subunits that assemble to form the mature, highly active caspase ...
Once activated, caspase-9 goes on to cleave caspase-3, -6, and -7, initiating the caspase cascade as they cleave several other ... Active caspase-9 works as an initiating caspase by cleaving, thus activating downstream executioner caspases, initiating ... Different protein isoforms of caspase-9 are produced due to alternative splicing. Similar to other caspases, caspase-9 has ... Previously activated caspases can cleave caspase-9, causing its dimerization. Caspase-9 has a preferred cleavage sequence of ...
CAD release from ICAD inhibition is achieved by cleavage of ICAD at these Asp residues by the caspase-3. Caspase-3 is activated ... Larsen BD, Rampalli S, Burns LE, Brunette S, Dilworth FJ, Megeney LA (March 2010). "Caspase 3/caspase-activated DNase promote ... October 2005). "The contribution of apoptosis-inducing factor, caspase-activated DNase, and inhibitor of caspase-activated ... "Entrez Gene: DFFB DNA fragmentation factor, 40kDa, beta polypeptide (caspase-activated DNase)". Davidson College. "Caspase ...
This trial will test the use of a synthetic siRNA that blocks caspase 2, an important enzyme in the apoptosis cycle. In ... "Ocular neuroprotection by siRNA targeting caspase-2". Cell Death & Disease. 2 (6): e173. doi:10.1038/cddis.2011.54. PMC 3168996 ... 18 (2): 191-221. doi:10.1016/S1350-9462(98)00016-0. PMID 9932283. S2CID 24248680. Hayreh SS, Zimmerman MB (July 2008). "Non- ... 118 (2): 291-2. PMID 10676804. Pomeranz HD, Smith KH, Hart WM, Egan RA (March 2002). "Sildenafil-associated nonarteritic ...
Zhao X, Kotilinek LA, Smith B, Hlynialuk C, Zahs K, Ramsden M, Cleary J, Ashe KH (November 2016). "Caspase-2 cleavage of tau ... Type 2 is entrapped in amyloid plaques and does not impair memory. In 2020, she published a review summarizing this work, ... 2 (3): 271-276. doi:10.1038/6374. PMID 10195221. Westerman MA, Cooper-Blacketer D, Mariash A, Kotilinek L, Kawarabayashi T, ... type 1 and type 2, that have different effects on memory function in mice. Type 1 is dispersed in the brain and associated with ...
But in contrast, the caspase-2, which is acetylated by NatA, can interact with the adaptor protein RIP associated Ich-1/Ced-3 ... This could activate caspase-2 and induce cell apoptosis. Ribosome proteins play an important role in the protein synthesis, ... 2 (6): 456-462. doi:10.1007/s13238-011-1063-9. PMC 3690542. PMID 21748595. Tang Y, Zhao W, Chen Y, Zhao Y, Gu W (2008). " ... Table 2. Overview of the expression of NatA subunits in various cancer tissues Proteins are typically acetylated on lysine ...
Chaudhary PM, Eby MT, Jasmin A, Kumar A, Liu L, Hood L (2000). "Activation of the NF-kappaB pathway by caspase 8 and its ... Through its CARD domain, this protein interacts with, and thus recruits, caspase 2/ICH1 to the cell death signal transduction ... Droin N, Beauchemin M, Solary E, Bertrand R (December 2000). "Identification of a caspase-2 isoform that behaves as an ... Droin N, Beauchemin M, Solary E, Bertrand R (2000). "Identification of a caspase-2 isoform that behaves as an endogenous ...
Guo Y, Srinivasula SM, Druilhe A, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES (April 2002). "Caspase-2 induces apoptosis by releasing ... Caspases Noxa Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor Protein mimetic p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) ... Qin W, Hu J, Guo M, Xu J, Li J, Yao G, Zhou X, Jiang H, Zhang P, Shen L, Wan D, Gu J (August 2003). "BNIPL-2, a novel homologue ... Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), encoded in humans by the BCL2 gene, is the founding member of the Bcl-2 family of regulator proteins ...
... initiating the caspase cascade. The activated caspases can go on to cleave intracellular proteins such as inhibitor of caspase- ... Activated caspase 8 cleaves these kinases, inhibiting necroptosis. Since activation of caspase 8 requires FADD in order to ... "Death receptor recruitment of endogenous caspase-10 and apoptosis initiation in the absence of caspase-8". Journal of ... Caspase 8 then cleaves RIPK1, leading to inhibition of this signalling, inhibiting cell death. FADD knockout in mouse embryos ...
Caspases are part of the apoptosis pathway. When BCl-2 decreases, the expression of caspases increases. As a result, apoptosis ... 17 (2): 181-185. doi:10.1007/s10811-005-6418-2. S2CID 548831. Guan X, Qin S, Su Z, Zhao F, Ge B, Li F, Tang X (July 2007). " ... 10 (2): 248-55. doi:10.1039/b714238b. PMID 18246219. Wang XQ, Li LN, Chang WR, Zhang JP, Gui LL, Guo BJ, Liang DC (June 2001 ... 249 (2): 428-431. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.9149. PMID 9712713. Basha OM, Hafez RA, El-Ayouty YM, Mahrous KF, Bareedy MH, Salama AM ...
In addition, this gene product induces mitochondria to release the apoptogenic proteins cytochrome c and caspase-9. AIFM1 also ... a novel caspase-independent death effector released from mitochondria". Biochimie. 84 (2-3): 215-22. doi:10.1016/S0300-9084(02) ... "Mitochondrial release of caspase-2 and -9 during the apoptotic process". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 189 (2): 381-94 ... "The C-terminal moiety of HIV-1 Vpr induces cell death via a caspase-independent mitochondrial pathway". Cell Death and ...
Murine caspase-11, and its human homologs caspase-4 and caspase-5, are mammalian intracellular receptor proteases activated by ... Caspase-11 activation by direct binding to LPS represents a novel and unprecedented mechanism for caspase activation. Caspase- ... "Dual role of caspase-11 in mediating activation of caspase-1 and caspase-3 under pathological conditions". The Journal of Cell ... an inactive precursor to active caspase-11) expression and caspase-11-mediated pyroptosis. Once expressed, caspase-11 is only ...
Bonfoco E, Li E, Kolbinger F, Cooper NR (August 2001). "Characterization of a novel proapoptotic caspase-2- and caspase-9- ... Proteomics-based identification of proapoptotic caspase adapter protein as a novel serum marker of non-small cell lung cancer ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the THBS2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ... 263 (2): 389-91. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1999.1380. PMID 10491303. Bein K, Simons M (Oct 2000). "Thrombospondin type 1 repeats ... 140 (2): 419-30. doi:10.1083/jcb.140.2.419. PMC 2132586. PMID 9442117. Adolph KW (May 1999). "Relative abundance of ... Hawighorst T, Velasco P, Streit M, Hong YK, Kyriakides TR, Brown LF, Bornstein P, Detmar M (Jun 2001). "Thrombospondin-2 plays ...
Qin W, Hu J, Guo M, Xu J, Li J, Yao G, Zhou X, Jiang H, Zhang P, Shen L, Wan D, Gu J (Aug 2003). "BNIPL-2, a novel homologue of ... 308 (2): 379-85. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)01387-1. PMID 12901880. Xie L, Qin WX, He XH, Shu HQ, Yao GF, Wan DF, Gu JR (May ... Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 2-like protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BNIPL gene. BNIPL ... Zhou YT, Soh UJ, Shang X, Guy GR, Low BC (Mar 2002). "The BNIP-2 and Cdc42GAP homology/Sec14p-like domain of BNIP-Salpha is a ...
This caspase has been shown to be processed and activated by caspase 8 and caspase 10 in vitro, and by anti-Fas agonist ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... 1998). "Identification and characterization of murine caspase-14, a new member of the caspase family". Cancer Res. 58 (22): ... 2004). "Vitamin D3 induces caspase-14 expression in psoriatic lesions and enhances caspase-14 processing in organotypic skin ...
Instead, it is thought to inhibit Caspase-1 activation by interfering with the interaction of Caspase-1 with other important ... and a caspase, in this case Caspase-1. In some cases, where the signaling proteins contain their own CARDs, like in NLRP1 and ... Caspase-1 is produced as a zymogen that can then be cleaved into 20 kDa (p20) and 10 kDa (p10) subunits that become part of the ... Active Caspase 1 contains two heterodimers of p20 and p10. It contains a catalytic domain with an active site that spans both ...
It is closely related to caspase 1 and other members of the caspase family, known as inflammatory caspases, which process and ... Caspase 12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASP12 gene. The protein belongs to a family of enzymes called ... It is found on chromosome 11 in humans in a locus with other inflammatory caspases.CASP12 orthologs have been identified in ... The trials were carried out on laboratory mice which had been implanted with the human caspase-12 gene. The inactive truncated ...
In other forms of apoptosis, caspase-1 is not normally induced, meaning the formation of S1P needs to be further studied. S1P ... S1P generation involved caspase-1-dependent release of sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) fragments. CX3CL1 release is mediated ... Release is dependent upon caspase activity. Less than 2% of ATP released from the beginning stages of cell death is released ... Mutants that could not carry out normal caspase-mediated apoptosis were used to demonstrate that cells in the beginning stages ...
Mukerjee N, McGinnis KM, Gnegy ME, Wang KK (August 2001). "Caspase-mediated calcineurin activation contributes to IL-2 release ... 503 (2-3): 201-5. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)02730-2. PMID 11513882. S2CID 44432580. Esau C, Boes M, Youn HD, Tatterson L, Liu ... JO, Chen J (November 2001). "Deletion of calcineurin and myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) binding domain of Cabin1 results in ...
... responsible for the recruitment and activation of pro-caspase-1 in the active form of caspase-1. Human NLRP1 activation can be ... NLRP1 has been shown to interact with caspase 9 and APAF1. Via its FIIND domain, NLRP1 interacts directly with DPP9 and DPP8 ... Ced-family members contain a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) and are known to be key mediators of programmed cell death. The ... The NLRP1 protein interacts strongly with caspase 2 and weakly with caspase 9. Overexpression of this gene was demonstrated to ...
Gly Caspase-10 is an initiator caspase, as are caspase-2 (EC, caspase-8 (EC and caspase-9 (EC ... Shikama Y, Yamada M, Miyashita T (July 2003). "Caspase-8 and caspase-10 activate NF-kappaB through RIP, NIK and IKKalpha ... Fischer U, Stroh C, Schulze-Osthoff K (January 2006). "Unique and overlapping substrate specificities of caspase-8 and caspase- ... Caspase-10 (EC, FLICE2, Mch4, CASP-10, ICE-like apoptotic protease 4, apoptotic protease Mch-4, FAS-associated death ...
... in a mechanism regulated by caspase-2. She received the Basic Science Research Mentoring Award from the Duke School of Medicine ... "Metabolic regulation of oocyte cell death through the CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of caspase-2". Cell. 123 (1): 89-103. doi ...
Src (gene) has been shown to interact with the following signaling pathways: PI3K Akt IKK NFkB Caspase 9 STAT3 p38 MAPK VEGF IL ... 3.0.CO;2-N. PMID 9014858. S2CID 26892937. Slamon DJ, Clark GM, Wong SG, Levin WJ, Ullrich A, McGuire WL (January 1987). "Human ... 209 (2): 582-9. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1995.1540. PMID 7733928. Arbesú M, Maffei M, Cordeiro TN, Teixeira JM, Pérez Y, Bernadó P, ... 138 (1-2): 247-51. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90817-6. PMID 7510261. Oberg-Welsh C, Welsh M (January 1995). "Cloning of BSK, a ...
Wang M, Qanungo S, Crow MT, Watanabe M, Nieminen AL (2005). "Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) is ... NOL3 has been shown to interact with SFRS9 and Caspase 8. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000140939 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... Ekhterae D, Platoshyn O, Zhang S, Remillard CV, Yuan JX (2003). "Apoptosis repressor with caspase domain inhibits cardiomyocyte ... "Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain is required for cardioprotection in response to biomechanical and ischemic ...
Granzymes usually cause apoptosis of the infected cell through initiation of the caspase cascade. However, apoptosis can also ... GNLY gene is located on human chromosome 2 and has 5 exons, which code for a 15 kDa protein. The path to transcription has not ... 37 (2): 102-107. doi:10.1007/BF00216832. PMID 8423048. S2CID 24229734. Peña SV, Hanson DA, Carr BA, Goralski TJ, Krensky AM ( ... 325 (2): 355-365. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(02)01234-2. PMID 12488100. Gansert JL, Kiessler V, Engele M ...
In brief, 20S sub complex presents three types proteolytic activities, including caspase-like, trypsin-like, and chymotrypsin- ... 18 (2): 569-80. doi:10.1091/mbc.E06-07-0635. PMC 1783769. PMID 17135287. Fukunaga K, Kudo T, Toh-e A, Tanaka K, Saeki Y (Jun ... 165 (2): 357-74. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(83)80261-7. PMID 6188845. Seeger M, Ferrell K, Frank R, Dubiel W (Mar 1997). "HIV-1 tat ... 21 (2): 215-26. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2015.01.016. PMC 4317573. PMID 25651176. Karin, M; Delhase, M (2000). "The I kappa B kinase ...
... and caspase-dependent ATF5 degradation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 287 (23): 19599 ... 39 (2): 272-285. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2013.08.006. PMC 3817295. PMID 23973223. Seo JH, Park JH, Lee EJ, Vo TT, Choi H, Kim JY, ... 87 (2): 87-98. doi:10.1097/MD.0b013e31816be95c. PMID 18344806. S2CID 26906991. Liu X, Liu D, Qian D, Dai J, An Y, Jiang S, et ... 353 (2): 280-285. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.12.013. PMID 17182002. Hammond CM, Bao H, Hendriks IA, Carraro M, García-Nieto A, Liu ...
... called Inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD). In order for apoptosis to begin, an enzyme called caspase 3 cleaves ICAD so ... "Caspase-activated DNase Is Required for Maintenance of Tolerance to Lupus Nuclear Autoantigens." Arthritis and Rheumatism 64.4 ... Apoptotic DNA fragmentation relies on an enzyme called Caspase-Activated DNase (CAD). CAD is usually inhibited by another ... "Identification of ICAD-derived Peptides Capable of Inhibiting Caspase-activated DNase." FEBS Journal 279.16 (2012): 2917-928. ...
1999). "Identification of caspases that cleave presenilin-1 and presenilin-2. Five presenilin-1 (PS1) mutations do not alter ... 3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 10508479. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than ... 18 (2): 676-84. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.2.676. PMC 108778. PMID 9447963. "Entrez Gene: SFRS2IP splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich ... the sensitivity of PS1 to caspases" (PDF). FEBS Lett. 445 (1): 149-54. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)00108-8. hdl:10067/ ...
"Galectin-9 induces apoptosis through the calcium-calpain-caspase-1 pathway". Journal of Immunology. 170 (7): 3631-6. doi: ... 16 (2): 269-73. doi:10.3892/ijmm.16.2.269. PMID 16012760. Dai SY, Nakagawa R, Itoh A, Murakami H, Kashio Y, Abe H, Katoh S, ... 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Matsumoto R, Matsumoto H, Seki M, Hata M, Asano Y, ... 351 (2): 571-6. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.10.079. PMID 17069754. Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB ...
If cells receive multiple apoptotic stimuli, caspase-3 activates the Mst1 kinase, which phosphorylates the serine at position ... 575 (2 Pt 1): 276-84. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2015.09.005. PMID 26343795. "Histone H2B (53H3) Mouse mAb #2934". Cell Signaling ... 279 (1-2): 133-9. doi:10.1007/s11010-005-8285-1. PMID 16283522. S2CID 25071586. R, Fujiki; W, Hashiba; H, Sekine; A, Yokoyama; ... All of these genes are located in histone cluster 1 on chromosome 6 and cluster 2 and cluster 3 on chromosome 1. In each gene ...
Hayashi Y, Arakaki R, Ishimaru N (2003). "The role of caspase cascade on the development of primary Sjögren's syndrome". J. Med ... 318 (2): 236-46. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2008.03.011. PMC 2496890. PMID 18455713. Bennett PM, Maggs AM, Baines AJ, Pinder JC (Apr ... 33 (1-2): 41-6. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1681.2006.04321.x. PMID 16445697. S2CID 21008341. Weiss ES, Wang KK, Allen JG, Blue ME, ... 185 (1-2): 190-4. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2007.01.022. PMID 17367871. S2CID 28987593. Ziemnicka-Kotula D, Xu J, Gu H, Potempska ...
Costanzo A, Guiet C, Vito P (1999). "c-E10 is a caspase-recruiting domain-containing protein that interacts with components of ... 162 (2): 1042-8. PMID 9916731. Schütze S, Machleidt T, Adam D, Schwandner R, Wiegmann K, Kruse ML, Heinrich M, Wickel M, Krönke ... 84 (2): 299-308. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80984-8. PMID 8565075. S2CID 13171355. Hsu H, Huang J, Shu HB, Baichwal V, Goeddel ... 8 (2): 113-6. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(98)70042-9. PMID 9427646. S2CID 6269984. Chaudhary PM, Eby M, Jasmin A, Bookwalter A, ...
... activate inflammatory caspases (e.g. caspase 1) causing cleavage and activation of important inflammatory cytokines such as IL- ... Other NLRs such as IPAF and NAIP5/Birc1e have also been shown to activate caspase-1 in response to Salmonella and Legionella. ... 28 (2): 246-257. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2007.12.012. PMID 18261938. Ip WK, Medzhitov R (May 2015). "Macrophages monitor tissue ... 2: e242. doi:10.7717/peerj.242. PMC 3897388. PMID 24482761. Boller T, Felix G (2009). "A renaissance of elicitors: perception ...
In cells, Bcl-rambo is localized to the mitochondria, and its overexpression induces apoptosis that is blocked by caspase ... Kataoka T, Holler N, Micheau O, Martinon F, Tinel A, Hofmann K, Tschopp J (Jun 2001). "Bcl-rambo, a novel Bcl-2 homologue that ... In addition to these domains, it has conserved B-cell lymphoma 2 homology motifs, as well as an extension at its c-terminal, ... As a member of the Bcl-2 protein family, Bcl-rambo comprises four conserved BH domains and a transmembrane (TM) domain. However ...
In one such pathway, caspase-independent apoptosis, the E3 ligase C-terminal of Hsc-70 interacting protein (CHIP), a regulator ... Lemarié A, Lagadic-Gossmann D, Morzadec C, Allain N, Fardel O, Vernhet L (Jun 2004). "Cadmium induces caspase-independent ... This protein primarily participates in caspase-independent apoptosis via DNA degradation when translocating from the ... Differential involvement of caspase-3 and endonuclease G". Journal of Neurovirology. 10 (3): 141-51. doi:10.1080/ ...
Hsp70 member proteins, including Hsp72, inhibit apoptosis by acting on the caspase-dependent pathway and against apoptosis- ... 100 (2): 133-7. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2014.02.006. PMID 24548631. Brehme M, Voisine C, Rolland T, Wachi S, Soper JH, Zhu Y, Orton K ... 274 (2): 781-6. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.2.781. PMID 9873016. Takayama S, Bimston DN, Matsuzawa S, Freeman BC, Aime-Sempe C, Xie Z, ... 206 (2): 548-55. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1995.1078. PMID 7826371. Furlini G, Vignoli M, Re MC, Gibellini D, Ramazzotti E, Zauli G, La ...
2006). "Protein kinase WNK3 increases cell survival in a caspase-3-dependent pathway". Oncogene. 25 (30): 4172-82. doi:10.1038/ ... and it plays a role in the increase of cell survival in a caspase 3 dependent pathway. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 74 (2): 134-44. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0004.2008.01028.x. PMID 18498374. S2CID 22008997. Wilson FH, Disse-Nicodème S, Choate KA, et ... 318 (2): 263-72. PMID 7757816. Kahle KT, Ring AM, Lifton RP (2008). "Molecular physiology of the WNK kinases". Annu. Rev. ...
Such substrates have been used to detect caspase activity and cytochrome P450 activity, among others. Luciferase can also be ... 366 (2): 131-36. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2007.04.018. PMID 17540326. Greer LF, Szalay AA (2002). "Imaging of light emission from the ... 171 (2): 404-08. doi:10.1016/0003-2697(88)90505-2. PMID 3407940. Fan F, Wood KV (Feb 2007). "Bioluminescent assays for high- ... In this organism, the luciferase (Renilla-luciferin 2-monooxygenase) is closely associated with a luciferin-binding protein as ...
Her demonstration that caspases are involved directly in ischaemic brain damage in vivo stimulated the development of caspase ... Dame Nancy Jane Rothwell DBE DL FRS FMedSci FRSB FBPhS MAE (born 2 October 1955) is a British physiologist. She has served as ... 18 (2): 83-88. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(95)93881-W. PMID 7537419. Rothwell, N.; Hopkins, S. (1995). "Cytokines and the nervous ... 29 (2): 243-246. doi:10.1016/0361-9230(92)90033-T. PMID 1388088. S2CID 39761279. Allan, S. M.; Rothwell, N. J. (2001). " ...
... mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase-3-dependent signaling pathways". International Journal of Oncology. 39 (1): 217-224. doi: ... 574 (2-3): 112-9. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.07.011. PMID 17692312. v t e (Articles with changed EBI identifier, Articles with ... "Wogonin triggers apoptosis in human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells through the endoplasmic reticulum stress, ...
... encoding protein Caspase 16, pseudogene CCDC113: encoding protein Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 113 Ccdc78: encoding ... 3 (2): 243-54. doi:10.1089/gte.1999.3.243. PMID 10464676. Martin J, et al. (2004). "The sequence and analysis of duplication- ... ISBN 978-1-136-84407-2. Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last ... Tom Strachan; Andrew Read (2 April 2010). Human Molecular Genetics. Garland Science. p. 45. ...
The long NALP, NALP1 (MIM 606636), also has a C-terminal extension containing a function to find domain (FIIND) and a caspase ... 2002). "Functional screening of five PYPAF family members identifies PYPAF5 as a novel regulator of NF-kappaB and caspase-1". ... a novel PYRIN-containing Apaf1-like protein that regulates activation of NF-kappa B and caspase-1-dependent cytokine processing ... 4 (2): 95-104. doi:10.1038/nrm1019. PMID 12563287. S2CID 31417018. Wang L, Manji GA, Grenier JM, Al-Garawi A, Merriam S, Lora ...
... the apoptotic effector caspase, caspase 3, cleaves ICAD and thus causes CAD to become activated. CAD cleaves the DNA at the ... The enzyme responsible for apoptotic DNA fragmentation is the Caspase-activated DNase. CAD is normally inhibited by another ... "A caspase-activated DNase that degrades DNA during apoptosis, and its inhibitor ICAD". Nature. 391 (6662): 43-50. Bibcode: ... Retrieved 2 April 2013. Sambrook, Joseph; Russell, David W. (2006). "Fragmentation of DNA by Nebulization". Cold Spring Harbor ...
2005). "Caspase-dependent and independent activation of acid sphingomyelinase signaling". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (28): 26425-26434 ... 2004). "Cathepsin D links TNF-induced acid sphingomyelinase to Bid-mediated caspase-9 and -3 activation". Cell Death Differ. 11 ... 9 (2): 139-150. doi:10.1038/nrm2329. PMID 18216770. S2CID 8692993. Hait, N. C.; Oskeritzian, C. A.; Paugh, S. W.; Milstien, S ... 2-AG can also activate both cannabinoid receptors and is inactivated by monoacylglycerol lipase. It is present at approximately ...
"Induction of Caspase-9, Biochemical Assessment and Morphological Changes Caused by Apoptosis in Cancer Cells Treated with ... The smooth, elliptical, yellow to red fruit are 8-15 by 7.5-10 millimeters and have 1-2 seeds. The base of the fruit are wedge- ...
The long NALP, NALP1 (MIM 606636), also has a C-terminal extension containing a function to find domain (FIIND) and a caspase ... a novel PYRIN-containing Apaf1-like protein that regulates activation of NF-kappa B and caspase-1-dependent cytokine processing ... 4 (2): 95-104. doi:10.1038/nrm1019. PMID 12563287. S2CID 31417018. Wang L, Manji GA, Grenier JM, Al-Garawi A, Merriam S, Lora ... recruitment domain (CARD). NALPs are implicated in the activation of proinflammatory caspases (e.g., CASP1; MIM 147678) via ...
2003). "HIV-1 protease processes procaspase 8 to cause mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, caspase cleavage and nuclear ... 64 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1016/S0006-2952(02)01075-4. PMID 12123754. Liu TJ, Lin SY, Chau YP (2002). "Inhibition of poly(ADP- ... 92 (2): 195-202. doi:10.1002/1097-0215(200102)9999:9999<::AID-IJC1168>3.0.CO;2-7. PMID 11291045. van Zon A, Mossink MH, ... 182 (2): 116-25. doi:10.1006/taap.2002.9438. PMID 12140175. Nie Z, Phenix BN, Lum JJ, et al. ( ...
Induction of Inflammation by West Nile virus Capsid through the Caspase-9 Apoptotic Pathway Joo-Sung Yang*1, Mathura P. ... Induction of Inflammation by West Nile virus Capsid through the Caspase-9 Apoptotic Pathway. ... Figure 2. Figure 2. Construction and subcellular expression of West Nile virus (WNV)-NY1999 capsid (Cp) gene-expressing plasmid ...
BioVision develops and offers a wide variety of products including assay kits, antibodies, recombinant proteins & enzymes, and other innovative research tools for studying Apoptosis, Metabolism, Cell Proliferation, Cellular Stress, Cell Damage and Repair, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, Stem Cell Biology, Gene Regulation, Signal Transduction, etc. BioVisions products are currently being sold in more than 60 countries worldwide.
e) Increased γ-secretase activity was independent of caspase-3 activity. CHO-C99 cells were pretreated with a caspase-3- ... The treated caspase inhibitors effectively blocked the caspase-3 activities, as expected. However, DDIA-dependent stimulation ... 18 We treated CHO-C99 cells with a potent cell-permeable caspase-3 inhibitor, z-DEVD-fmk (100 μM), or a pan-caspase inhibitor, ... Luciferase activity was measured as described in (a). Caspase-3 activity in 100 μg of cytosolic protein was measured using a ...
Particularly, activation of caspase-1 during fast Salmonella-induced apoptosis partially relies on caspase-2. The ability of ... Caspase-1 is not involved in most apoptotic processes but plays a major role in cytokine maturation. We show that caspase-1- ... the caspase-1-independent pathway involves the activation of caspase-3, -6, and -8 and the release of cytochrome c from ... By using caspase-2 knockout macrophages and chemical inhibition, we establish a role for caspase-2 in both caspase-1-dependent ...
Age-related proteostasis and metabolic alterations in Caspase-2-deficient mice. C. H. Wilson, S. Shalini, A. Filipovska, T. R. ... Age-related proteostasis and metabolic alterations in Caspase-2-deficient mice. Cell Death & Disease. 2015 Jan 22;6(1). e1615. ... Age-related proteostasis and metabolic alterations in Caspase-2-deficient mice. In: Cell Death & Disease. 2015 ; Vol. 6, No. 1. ... Age-related proteostasis and metabolic alterations in Caspase-2-deficient mice. / Wilson, C. H.; Shalini, S.; Filipovska, A. et ...
Design Caspase-2 was localised in liver biopsies from patients with NASH. Its expression was evaluated in different mouse ... Caspase-2 is localised in injured hepatocytes and its expression was markedly upregulated in patients and animal models of NASH ... Objective Caspase-2 is an initiator caspase involved in multiple apoptotic pathways, particularly in response to specific ... Conclusions These data point to a critical role for caspase-2 in lipid-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in vivo for the production ...
CIPER, a novel NF κB-activating protein containing a caspase recruitment domain with homology to Herpesvirus-2 protein E10. ... CIPER, a novel NF κB-activating protein containing a caspase recruitment domain with homology to Herpesvirus-2 protein E10. / ... CIPER, a novel NF κB-activating protein containing a caspase recruitment domain with homology to Herpesvirus-2 protein E10. In ... Dive into the research topics of CIPER, a novel NF κB-activating protein containing a caspase recruitment domain with homology ...
Caspase-9+Caspase-8+Caspase-7+Caspase-1+Caspase-4+Caspase-6/CASP-6+Caspase-5+Caspase-10+Ca (1). ... Caspase-9+Caspase-8+Caspase-7+Caspase-1+Caspase-6+Caspase-10+Caspase 3 (1). ... Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 Multiplex Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric) (ab219915) Specific References (16) ... Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 Multiplex Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric) ...
em>Gale Academic OneFile includes TRAIL receptor-2 signals apoptosis through FADD and cas by Jean-Luc Bodmer, Nils Holler ... Activation of caspase-8 was rapidly followed by the appearance of caspase-3 activity in the cytoplasm ( Fig. 1a). ... We provide evidence that FADD and caspase-8, but not caspase-10, are recruited to the receptor. Moreover, mutant cell lines ... indicates the possible involvement of a FADD-like molecule and caspase-10 rather than of FADD itself and caspase-8. Here we ...
Induction of Inflammation by West Nile virus Capsid through the Caspase-9 Apoptotic Pathway Joo-Sung Yang*1, Mathura P. ... Induction of Inflammation by West Nile virus Capsid through the Caspase-9 Apoptotic Pathway. ... Figure 2. Figure 2. Construction and subcellular expression of West Nile virus (WNV)-NY1999 capsid (Cp) gene-expressing plasmid ...
The substrate for caspase-3 was DEVD (Asp-Glu-Val-Asp), for caspase-6 - VEID (Val-Glu-Ile-Asp), for caspase-9 - LEНD (Leu-Glu- ... Note that the activity of caspase-6 in the cells (р,0.05) (Figure 5 b) treated with 4-NQO rose much less than that of caspases- ... Such are caspases. They are synthesized in the cell as precursors (procaspases). Caspase precursors consist of a prodomain and ... Some caspases contain a short linker sequence (around 10 amino acids) between the subunits. Caspases can activate one another: ...
Highly specific and rigorously validated in-house, Caspase-7 Antibody (CST #9492) is ready to ship. ... Caspase-7 Antibody detects endogenous levels of both full length caspase-7 (35 kDa) and the large fragment of cleaved caspase-7 ... Caspase-7, like caspase-3, is an effector caspase that is responsible for cleaving downstream substrates such as (ADP-ribose) ... caspase-7 is activated through proteolytic processing by upstream caspases at Asp23, Asp198, and Asp206 to produce the mature ...
... including caspases, could not restore p21 protein levels following knockdown of caspase-2. As, however, silencing of caspase-2 ... Caspase-2 is required for DNA damage-induced expression of the CDK inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1. Available from:. October 1, 2011 ... Academic paper: Caspase-2 is required for DNA damage-induced expression of the CDK inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1. Available from: ... Caspase-2 is required for DNA damage-induced expression of the CDK inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1. Available from:. ...
Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2, ACE-2/Caspase-1 Substrate. Home/Catalog peptide/Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2, ACE-2/ ... Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2, ACE-2/Caspase-1 SubstrateAdmin2021-01-04T11:12:17+00:00 ...
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibody(DM41), Rabbit mAb,DM41,SARS-CoV-2 Spike S2 ... Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibody(DM41), Rabbit mAb. Product code: 12-9031. *specify in mg or ml ... Figure 1. Elisa plate pre-coated by 2 µg/ml(100µl/well) SARS-CoV-2 Spike S2 protein can bind Rabbit Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike S2 ... SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) also known as Covid19 (2019 Novel Coronavirus) is a virus that ...
Ation of Bcl-2. The lower in Bcl-2 increases caspase-9 activation and promotes pro-apoptotic oxidative stress. As a result, a ... Lesional apoptosis was also assayed working with activated-caspase-3 immunofluorescence microscopy20. In situ efferocytosis ... Ation of Bcl-2. The lower in Bcl-2 increases caspase-9 activation and promotes pro-apoptotic oxidative stress. As a result, a ... Ation of Bcl-2. The lower in Bcl-2 increases caspase-9 activation and promotes pro-apoptotic oxidative stress. ...
caspase regulator CARP2. caspases-8 and -10-associated RING finger protein 2. ring finger and FYVE-like domain containing 1. NP ... FYVE_CARP2; FYVE-like domain found in caspase regulator CARP2 and similar proteins. cd16500. Location:315 → 353. RING-HC_CARP; ... Crystal structure of a FYVE-type zinc finger domain from the caspase regulator CARP2. Tibbetts MD, et al. Structure, 2004 Dec. ... data indicate AE induces caspase-8-mediated activation of mitochondrial death pathways by decreasing the stability of CARP ...
Synonyms: Ich-1, Caspase-2, Nedd2. Type: Gene. Species: Mus musculus (mouse) ... 2 An aliquot contains a sufficient number of embryos (in one or more vials or straws and based on the transfer success rate of ... Name: solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 2 ...
... elicited Caspase 1 and 3 activation. UC exposure to SAECs triggered mitochondrial depolarization while CC showed no effect. UC ... Advanced Search Search Help About NIOSHTIC-2 Feedback Terms: asthma OR allerg* OR immune* 637 - 637 of 3837 Bibliographic ... with little evidence for Caspase 1 activation. Incinerated nanoclays (>/= 2 microg/ cm2) ... 2 microg/cm2) caused a robust, dose-dependent necrosis, ... NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search. Search Results. New Search. ...
We also found increased expressions of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP-1 in PSN-A treated prostate cancer cells which are the ... cleaved caspases-3 and PARP-1. β-actin was used as loading control. (B) LNCaP and DU145 cells were treated with 0, 25 and 50 nM ... cleaved caspase-3 (1:1000), PARP (1:1000), β-actin(1:1000) SHP-1(1:500), SHP-2 (1:500), PTEN (1:500), p-Jak2 (1:1000), Jak2 (1: ... Caspase- and Mitochondria-Dependent Signaling Pathways. Molecules. 2017 doi: 10.3390/molecules22030437 ...
Inhibition of caspase-2 by a designed ankyrin repeat protein (DARPin). 2pnn. Crystal Structure of the Ankyrin Repeat Domain of ... Caspase-7 in Complex with DARPin C7_16. 4k5a. Co-crystallization with conformation-specific designed ankyrin repeat proteins ... Crystal structure of ARC4 from human Tankyrase 2 (apo form). 3twr. Crystal structure of ARC4 from human Tankyrase 2 in complex ... EuHMT1 (Glp) Ankyrin Repeat Domain (Structure 2). 3c5r. Crystal Structure of the BARD1 Ankyrin Repeat Domain and Its Functional ...
... caspase-3, NLRP3, caspase-1, GSDMD and IL-1β, but also increase the secretion of IL-1β, IL-18, caspase-1 and LDH in ... Caspase-1 is activated by upstream inflammasome NLRP3 (Liu et al., 2018; Miao et al., 2011). Once activated, caspase-1 ... Pyroptosis is a caspase-1-dependent form of programmed inflammatory cell death. Apoptosis is a caspase-3-dependent and non- ... Noticeably, the mRNA levels of caspase-1 and IL-1β were changed differently in the two cell lines: the level of caspase-1 mRNA ...
... role of mitochondrial changes and caspase activation. International journal of hyperthermia; vol. 22 , 687-698 ... Bax-mediated mitochondrial membrane permeabilization after heat treatment in caspase-2 dependent. International journal of ... Journal of controlled release, 126(2), 166-174. DOI *Lin, C., Zhong, Z., Lok, M.C., Wolf, H.K. de, Hennink, W.E., Feijen, J. & ... Journal of biomedical materials research, 66B(2), 559-566.. *Zweers, M.L.T., Grijpma, D.W., Engbers, G.H.M. and Feijen, J. ( ...
Caspase Cascade (2) CD4 and CD8 T-Cell Lineage (19) CD28 Signaling in T-Helper Cell (12) CD40 Signaling (2) Cellular Apoptosis ... 15-2 17A2 19F2 29E.2A3 30-F11 53-6.7 53-7.3 63D3 93 104 201A 581 A019D5 A20 A15153G AD2 AFS98 B1 B3 B6 BC96 BJ40 BM8 BNI3 ... M5/114.15.2 M5E2 MI15 ML5 MOPC-21 MOPC-173 MPC-11 N418 O323 PK136 QA17A04 QA17A16 RM4-5 RMP1-30 RMT3-23 RPA-T4 RPA-T8 S15046E S ... H-2/CD45 HLA-DR I-A/I-E Integrin beta7 Ly-6A/E Ly-6C Ly-6G Ly-6G Ly-6C Mac-2 NK-1.1 TCR alpha/beta TCR beta chain TCR gamma/ ...
Caspase 9 (2) Cathepsin (3) Cathepsin B (1) Cathepsin D (1) Cathepsin E (1) ... 390 MMP FRET Substrate 2 - 5 mg *Mca-PLGL-Dap(Dnp)-AR ...
Caspases are part of the apoptosis pathway. When BCl-2 decreases, the expression of caspases increases. As a result, apoptosis ... 2 (11): 1165-70. PMID 14617790.. *^ a b Martelli G, Folli C, Visai L, Daglia M, Ferrari D (January 2014). "Thermal stability ... 10 (2): 248-55. doi:10.1039/b714238b. PMID 18246219.. *^ Wang XQ, Li LN, Chang WR, Zhang JP, Gui LL, Guo BJ, Liang DC (June ... 10 (2): 67-77. doi:10.1093/dnares/10.2.67. PMID 12755171.. *^ Tooley AJ, Cai YA, Glazer AN (September 2001). "Biosynthesis of a ...
... we separated cell death into caspase-dependent and caspase-independent forms. We pretreated cells with the pan-caspase ... using the CellEvent caspase 3/7 detection reagent. We found that caspase 3/7 activity was not increased in FAIM-deficient HeLa ... is largely caspase independent. In sum, there is no evidence that ROS/caspase-dependent apoptosis plays any role in the ... Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis and ROS Production Are Normal in FAIM KO Cells Under Stress Conditions. Oxidative stress and heat ...
Gentamicin-induced hair cell death was initiated through the caspase-9 intrinsic apoptotic pathway followed by activation of ... Support cell death was initiated through the caspase-8 extrinsic apoptotic pathway followed later by downstream activation of ... downstream executioner caspase-3. In contrast, cisplatin, mefloquine, and cadmium initially damaged the support cells and only ... caspase-3. Cisplatin, mefloquine, and cadmium significantly reduced the expression of actin and laminin, in the extracellular ...
Caspase-2 impacts lung tumorigenesis and chemotherapy response in vivo. Cell Death and Differentiation 2015;22(5):719-30. ... Journal of Clinical Immunology 2015;35(2):125-34.. de Dios A, Jacob S, Tayal A, Fisher MA, Dingle TC, Hamula CL.. First Report ... Kei Journal 2015;Vol 2, No 2.. Sant DW, Margraf RL, Stevenson DA, Grossmann AH, Viskochil DH, Hanson H, Everitt MD, Rios JJ, ... Leukemia and Lymphoma 2015;56(2):426-33.. Qi Q, Li DY, Luo HR, Guan KL, Ye K. Netrin-1 exerts oncogenic activities through ...
  • We show that caspase-1-deficient macrophages undergo apoptosis within 4-6 h of infection with invasive bacteria. (harvard.edu)
  • Besides caspase-2, the caspase-1-independent pathway involves the activation of caspase-3, -6, and -8 and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, none of a which occurs during caspase-1-dependent apoptosis. (harvard.edu)
  • By using caspase-2 knockout macrophages and chemical inhibition, we establish a role for caspase-2 in both caspase-1-dependent and -independent apoptosis. (harvard.edu)
  • Particularly, activation of caspase-1 during fast Salmonella-induced apoptosis partially relies on caspase-2. (harvard.edu)
  • The ability of Salmonella to induce caspase-1-independent macrophage apoptosis may play a role in situations in which activation of this protease is either prevented or uncoupled from the induction of apoptosis. (harvard.edu)
  • During lipotoxic stress, caspase-2 deficiency reduced apoptosis, inhibited induction of profibrogenic hedgehog target genes in mice and blocked production of hedgehog ligands in cultured hepatocytes. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions These data point to a critical role for caspase-2 in lipid-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in vivo for the production of apoptosis-associated fibrogenic factors and in the progression of lipid-induced liver fibrosis. (bmj.com)
  • CIPER formed homodimers via its CARD and interacted with viral E10 but not with several apoptosis regulators containing CARDs including ARC, RAIDD, RICK, caspase-2, caspase-9, or Apaf-1. (elsevier.com)
  • TRAIL, the most recently identified member of the TNF family of death ligands, can induce apoptosis in a wide variety of tumour cells but not in normal cells [2]. (gale.com)
  • Caspases play an essential role in the apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation processes. (intechopen.com)
  • In contrast to apoptosis, necrosis is a pathological form of cell death caused by acute damage, rupture of the membrane, release of the cytoplasm content, and the inflammatory process induced thereby [ 1 , 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • As of now, at lease 14 caspases have been described from mammals: 8 caspases are involved in apoptosis, 5 activate anti-inflammatory cytokines, and one acts in keratinocyte differentiation. (intechopen.com)
  • During apoptosis, different caspases perform different functions. (intechopen.com)
  • Intriguingly, unlike depletion of caspase-2, which prevented p21 expression and thereby reverted the γ-IR-induced senescent phenotype of wild-type HCT116 colon carcinoma cells into apoptosis, knockdown of none of the caspase-2-interacting components RAIDD, RIP or DNA-PKcs was able to mimic these processes. (xstrahl.com)
  • Lesional apoptosis was also assayed working with activated-caspase-3 immunofluorescence microscopy20. (c-mycinhibitor.com)
  • As mediated by the estrogen receptor, BPA may induce the pyroptosis of neuroblastoma cells through NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD signaling pathway, and caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis may be involved in BPA-induced apoptosis, which is alleviated by EGCG, an anti-oxidation agent. (researchsquare.com)
  • The relationships between apoptosis index (AI) and silica exposure history, soluble Fas (sFas)/membrane-bound Fas (mFas), and caspase-3/caspase-8 were analyzed. (cdc.gov)
  • Induction of apoptosis via death receptors typically results in the activation of an initiator caspase such as caspase 8 or caspase 10. (reading.ac.uk)
  • These caspases are responsible for the cleavage of the key cellular proteins, such as cytoskeletal proteins, that leads to the typical morphological changes observed in cells undergoing apoptosis. (reading.ac.uk)
  • The mitochondria are also key regulators of the caspase cascade and apoptosis. (reading.ac.uk)
  • During apoptosis, ICAD is cleaved by caspases, such as caspase 3, to release CAD. (reading.ac.uk)
  • TUNEL assay revealed that resveratrol induced cell apoptosis by increasing HCC apoptosis rate from 3±0.78% to 16±1.12% with upregulation of B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑2 associated X, apoptosis regulator and cleaved‑poly (ADP‑Ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP), and downregulation of Bcl‑2, caspase‑3, caspase‑7 and PARP. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberry anthocyanin (BBA) on Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and its regulation mechanisms involving Bax and Caspase 3. (medscimonit.com)
  • BBA increased cell viability and reduced apoptosis rate of HUVECs induced by Ang II through Bax- and Caspase 3-dependent pathways. (medscimonit.com)
  • Caspase-3 Inhibitors offered by Santa Cruz inhibit caspase-3 and, in some cases, other apoptosis and tumor related proteins. (scbt.com)
  • Long-term depression, a proposed physiological correlate of synapse elimination, requires caspase-3 and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, pharmacological inhibition of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins or proteasome function led to neuronal death, suggesting that caspase activation is spatially restricted by these "molecular brakes" on apoptosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Activation of caspase-3, an executioner caspase that lies downstream of both extrinsic and intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathways of apoptosis, plays a central role in programmed cell death of many cell types, including neurons ( Fuchs and Steller, 2011 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Recent studies, however, have established that the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis, including caspases, are also involved in nonapoptotic functions ( Hyman and Yuan, 2012 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Until now, there has been no direct demonstration that local activation of caspase-3 can alter synapse function and morphology without causing apoptosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Local activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in dendrites is sufficient to cause elimination of spines and dendrite branches that are localized in the vicinity of Mito-KillerRed photostimulation in a manner dependent on caspase-3 activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • We present evidence that the restriction of caspase-3 activation to the region of photostimulation-and hence protection against cell death-is mediated by the action of proteasomes and the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). (jneurosci.org)
  • La caspasa 2 interviene en la APOPTOSIS mediante la escisión y activación de procaspasas efectoras. (bvsalud.org)
  • Caspase 2 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating effector pro-caspases. (bvsalud.org)
  • Lobaplatin induces apoptosis by increasing expressions of caspase and Bax, decreasing expression of Bcl-2. (medchemexpress.com)
  • ABL-N administration induced apoptosis of PC3 cells in a dose-dependent manner, along with the enhanced activity of caspases and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. (cusabio.com)
  • Caspase-8 activity is regulated by CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator. (smpdb.ca)
  • CASP3_HUMAN ] Involved in the activation cascade of caspases responsible for apoptosis execution. (proteopedia.org)
  • Caspase 3, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase (aa 176-277) Protein, tagged with His tag. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Podoptosis is caspase-independent and, therefore, different from apoptosis. (mdmsignaling.com)
  • Caspase-2 is required for DNA damage-induced expression of the CDK inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1. (xstrahl.com)
  • Academic paper: Caspase-2 is required for DNA damage-induced expression of the CDK inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1. (xstrahl.com)
  • https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51034476_Caspase-2_is_required_for_DNA_damage-induced_expression_of_the_CDK_inhibitor_p21WAF1CIP1 [accessed May 2, 2017]. (xstrahl.com)
  • A Phase II, double-blind, randomized, parallel group, dose-finding study of the safety and tolerability of darexaban compared with warfarin in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: the oral factor Xa inhibitor for prophylaxis of stroke in atrial fibrillation study 2 (OPAL-2). (aruplab.com)
  • View detailed caspase-3 Inhibitor specifications, including caspase-3 Inhibitor CAS number, molecular weight, molecular formula and chemical structure, by clicking on the product name. (scbt.com)
  • Q-VD-OPH is a low toxicity broad-spectrum inhibitor of caspase-3, caspase-1, caspase-8 and caspase-9. (scbt.com)
  • PKR Inhibitor inhibits RNA-induced PKR autophosphorylation, as well as caspase-3 and caspase-8, and prevents increases in pT(451)-PKR and pS(194)-FADD levels in SH-SY5Y nuclei. (scbt.com)
  • the BMP-2 inhibitor Noggin represses Sox9 expression in limb bud chondrogenic precursors while inducing the ligament/tendon-specific transcription factor Scx" "the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of p300 has the potential to facilitate transcriptional activity by modulating the chromatin structure. (heightquest.com)
  • AT-101 is an oral inhibitor of the antiapoptotic Bcl proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-W, and Mcl-1) and an inducer of the pro-apoptotic proteins noxa and puma. (jto.org)
  • We further validate 2 downstream candidates (oxidative stress-induced growth inhibitor 1) and (X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 5) and evaluate their functional relationship with PEL cell survival/proliferation and chemoresistance respectively. (biotech2012.org)
  • This process requires SipB, implying that this protein can initiate the apoptotic machinery by regulating components distinct from caspase-1. (harvard.edu)
  • We have identified and characterized CIPER, a novel protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) in its N terminus and a C-terminal region rich in serine and threonine residues. (elsevier.com)
  • Initiator caspase activation is more sophisticated - by special protein complexes: apoptosomes, PIDDosomes, DISC ( death-inducing signalling complexes ) [ 7 , 8 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • moreover, various inhibitors targeting proteasomal or non-proteasomal proteases, including caspases, could not restore p21 protein levels following knockdown of caspase-2. (xstrahl.com)
  • Elisa plate pre-coated by 2 µg/ml(100µl/well) SARS-CoV-2 Spike S2 protein can bind Rabbit Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike S2 monoclonal antibody (clone:DM41) in a linear range of 0.32-40 ng/ml. (abeomics.com)
  • The phycobiliproteins are made of two subunits (alpha and beta) having a protein backbone to which 1-2 linear tetrapyrrole chromophores are covalently bound. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Salmonella effector protein SipA has amino acid motifs that are recognized by caspase-3, which cleaves the bacterial protein into active virulence effectors: one stimulates actin polymerization to help cell entry and the other induces inflammation. (umassmed.edu)
  • This effect is mediated through the formation of an apoptosome, a multi-protein complex consisting of cytochrome C, Apaf-1, pro-caspase 9 and ATP. (reading.ac.uk)
  • The anti proliferative properties of the C. morifolia petroleum ether extract turned out to be attributable to the induction of cell death as the apoptotic executioner protein caspase 3 was already activated within 2 hours of incubation. (univie.ac.at)
  • Fas ligand binds to the receptor and forms the death-inducing signalling complex, including the Fas-associated death domain, death-domain associated protein, and caspase-10. (smpdb.ca)
  • Intracellular amyloid-like inclusions formed by mutant proteins result from polyglutamine expansions in Huntington's disease (HD) and polyalanine expansions in polyadenine binding protein 2 (PABP2) in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). (bmj.com)
  • The top 2 scored pathway maps and protein networks Edivoxetine HCl based on the enrichment analysis of "common" gene set were listed in Figures ?Figures33 and S1 respectively. (biotech2012.org)
  • 5 , 6 Moreover, two other membrane proteins, anterior pharynx-defective phenotype 1 (APH-1) and PS enhancer 2 (PEN-2) were identified as components of γ -secretase by two independent studies using genetic screening in Caenorhabditis elegans . (nature.com)
  • BJAB cells express TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 complementary DNA [14], and both TRAIL-receptor proteins were incorporated into the DISC, along with FADD and caspase-8, after 5 min of stimulation (Fig. 1). (gale.com)
  • Maximal recruitment of all proteins was observed after 30 min, at which time caspase-8 was converted from its precursor into the active processed form, as shown by the appearance of the p43 fragment [12] in the DISC. (gale.com)
  • Depending on the phase at which those proteins enter the apoptotic cascade one distinguishes initiator (apical) and effector (executioner) caspases. (intechopen.com)
  • Further mechanistic study have shown that anticancer activity of PSN-A in prostate cancer cells is associated with ROS generation, Bcl-2 family proteins modulation, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and ultimately activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. (medsci.org)
  • The results showed that BPA nonlinearly upregulated the levels of IL-18, ASC, GSDMD and NLRP3 mRNAs and that of NLRP3, caspase-1, GSDMD and IL-1β proteins in IMR-32 and SK-N-SH cells. (researchsquare.com)
  • Meanwhile, Z-YVAD-FMK and ICI182.780 abruptly reduced the levels of Bak1, Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 proteins induced by BPA. (researchsquare.com)
  • Mitochondria contain a single 16 kb circular DNA genome, which codes for 13 proteins (mostly subunits of respiratory chains I, II, IV, and V), 22 mitochondrial tRNAs and 2 rRNAs [ 25 , 26 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Other proteins that are injected by Salmonella, such as SopA (see crystal structure) and those from other gut bacteria like E. coli and Shigella flexneri , also carry targets for caspase-3, demonstrating the broad significance of this finding. (umassmed.edu)
  • The caspases are a family of proteins that are one of the main executors of the apoptotic process. (reading.ac.uk)
  • The caspases play an important role in this process by activating DNases, inhibiting DNA repair enzymes and breaking down structural proteins in the nucleus. (reading.ac.uk)
  • The enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, or PARP, was one of the first proteins identified as a substrate for caspases. (reading.ac.uk)
  • 2) Breakdown of structural nuclear proteins. (reading.ac.uk)
  • In the new work, the authors showed that caspase-1 inhibition reduced secretion of IL-1α and almost 80 other inflammatory response proteins, many of which lack secretion signal peptides, including FGF-2. (rupress.org)
  • Many of the transported proteins were not caspase-1 substrates, yet catalytic activity of the enzyme was required for their secretion, for reasons that are not yet clear. (rupress.org)
  • The proteins involved trigger detoxification, tissue repair, and cell survival, suggesting caspase-1 is helping to regulate the entire inflammatory response. (rupress.org)
  • Caspase family members function as key components of the apoptotic machinery and act to destroy specific target proteins which are critical to cellular longevity. (scbt.com)
  • Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its caspase recruitment domain with CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. (bvsalud.org)
  • Once activated, caspases -3 and -7 cleave downstream proteins. (smpdb.ca)
  • Caspases are a family of cysteine-dependent aspartate specific proteases. (intechopen.com)
  • Caspases are are proteases that cleave their substrates. (smpdb.ca)
  • Caspases are cysteine proteases involved in the signalling cascades of programmed cell death in which caspase-3 plays a central role, since it propagates death signals from intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli to downstream targets. (proteopedia.org)
  • Salmonella tricks the host into synthesizing and secreting the apoptotic enzyme caspase-3, diverting this host enzyme to its own use. (umassmed.edu)
  • The fragmentation of DNA into nucleosomal units - as seen in DNA laddering assays - is caused by an enzyme known as CAD, or caspase activated DNase. (reading.ac.uk)
  • Both IL-1α and FGF-2 bound to caspase-1, suggesting that the enzyme may carry them directly. (rupress.org)
  • One of the major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neurodegeneration is NADPH oxidase, a multimeric enzyme that generates both superoxide O 2 − (O 2 and H 2 O 2 [ 8 ]. (springer.com)
  • the expression of specific CNS enzyme (enolase), proinflammatory cytokines MIF and apoptotic marker caspase-3 in the umbilical blood of infants delivered for Covid positive mothers. (who.int)
  • Under certain conditions effector caspases may act as initiator ones to accelerate apoptotic reactions. (intechopen.com)
  • This cascade eventually leads to the activation of the effector caspases, such as caspase 3 and caspase 6. (reading.ac.uk)
  • Caspase-8 is an initiator caspase that is activated in response to pro-apoptotic stimulus and causes a cascade of further caspase activity by cleaving and activating effector caspases, like caspases -3 and -7. (smpdb.ca)
  • Gentamicin-induced hair cell death was initiated through the caspase-9 intrinsic apoptotic pathway followed by activation of downstream executioner caspase-3. (cdc.gov)
  • Support cell death was initiated through the caspase-8 extrinsic apoptotic pathway followed later by downstream activation of caspase-3. (cdc.gov)
  • To investigate the effects of Banxia Houpo decoction on the renal NLRP3/Caspase-1/IL-1β signaling pathway in chronic intermittent hypoxia mice. (magtech.com.cn)
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology now offers a broad range of caspase-3 Inhibitors. (scbt.com)
  • All caspases are originally inactive, but activated when needed by cleavage of a small fragment by initiator caspases. (intechopen.com)
  • The ability of PARP to repair DNA damage is prevented following cleavage of PARP by caspase-3. (reading.ac.uk)
  • Cabrera JR, Bouzas-Rodriguez J, Tauszig-Delamasure S, Mehlen P. RET modulates cell adhesion via its cleavage by caspase in sympathetic neurons. (proteopedia.org)
  • It inhibits urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissues plasminogen activator (tPA) to avoid plasminogen cleavage into energetic plasmin and blocks fibrinolysis [1, 2]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • 2000. "Salmonella-Induced Caspase-2 Activation in Macrophages. (harvard.edu)
  • Activation of caspase-8 was rapidly followed by the appearance of caspase-3 activity in the cytoplasm ( Fig. 1a). (gale.com)
  • The lower in Bcl-2 increases caspase-9 activation and promotes pro-apoptotic oxidative stress. (c-mycinhibitor.com)
  • 2 microg/cm2) caused a robust, dose-dependent necrosis, with little evidence for Caspase 1 activation. (cdc.gov)
  • 2 microg/ cm2) elicited Caspase 1 and 3 activation. (cdc.gov)
  • AI was related to silica exposure, upregulation of mFas, and activation of caspase-3 and -8, as well as influenced by smoking status after adjusting for confounding factors. (cdc.gov)
  • There are a number of other mechanisms, aside from activation of the death receptors, through which the caspase cascade can be activated. (reading.ac.uk)
  • Release of cytochrome C from mitochondria can lead to the activation of caspase 9, and then of caspase 3. (reading.ac.uk)
  • Previous studies have used genetic or pharmacologic manipulations to investigate the functions of caspases in neurons and synapses but, by their nature, such approaches cannot address local actions of caspases within specific neuronal compartments or longitudinally follow the changes in the same neuron after caspase activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Rochat-Steiner V, Becker K, Micheau O, Schneider P, Burns K, Tschopp J: FIST/HIPK3: a Fas/FADD-interacting serine/threonine kinase that induces FADD phosphorylation and inhibits fas-mediated Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation. (smpdb.ca)
  • Organic solvent-induced proximal tubular cell toxicity via caspase-3 activation. (cdc.gov)
  • A highly fluorescent substrate for caspase 1. (bestbiochem.com)
  • IL-1α is also not a substrate for caspase-1, but its secretion is reduced in macrophages that do not express the protease. (rupress.org)
  • The atomic resolution (1.06 Angstroms) crystal structure of the caspase-3 DEVD-cmk complex reveals the structural basis for substrate selectivity in the S4 pocket. (proteopedia.org)
  • Ganesan R, Mittl PR, Jelakovic S, Grutter MG. Extended substrate recognition in caspase-3 revealed by high resolution X-ray structure analysis. (proteopedia.org)
  • Objective Caspase-2 is an initiator caspase involved in multiple apoptotic pathways, particularly in response to specific intracellular stressors (eg, DNA damage, ER stress). (bmj.com)
  • Western blot analysis of extracts from Jurkat cells, untreated or etoposide-treated (25 µM), and HeLa cells, untreated or staurosporine-treated (1 µM), using Caspase-7 Antibody. (cellsignal.com)
  • Invasive Salmonella typhimurium targets caspase-2 simultaneously with, but independently of, caspase-1. (harvard.edu)
  • Resveratrol (RES, trans-3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenol compound derived from grapes, berries, peanuts and other sources, and it has inhibitory effects on several types of cancer cell lines such as colon, lung and prostate and affects diverse molecular targets ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Outcomes HHT and ETP display synergistic cytotoxicity in AML cells ETP and HHT are cytotoxic reagents for AML cells.21,22 To check whether ETP and HHT possess synergistic cytotoxicity in AML cells, the chemosensitive AML super model tiffany livingston cell lines (THP1 MK-8776 inhibition and HL60) were treated with HHT and ETP alone or in combination (10/1 and 20/2, nM/M) for 48 hours. (ecologicalsgardens.com)
  • We performed comparative profiling of the cellular proteome and metabolome to understand the molecular basis of ageing in Caspase-2-deficient (Casp2-/-) mice that are a model of premature ageing in the absence of overt disease. (monash.edu)
  • Here, we show that caspase-3 activity is essential-and can act locally within neurons-for regulation of spine density and dendrite morphology. (jneurosci.org)
  • By photostimulation of Mito-KillerRed, we induced caspase-3 activity in defined dendritic regions of cultured neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Caspase-3-deficient neurons in culture fail to show spine shrinkage in response to NMDA stimulation (chemical LTD). Finally, we show that caspase-3 knock-out (KO) mice have increased spine density and synaptic strength, which is consistent with an essential role of caspase-3 in spine elimination in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • BMP-2 induces histone hyperacetylation on Chromatin in Sox9. (heightquest.com)
  • Together, our data suggest that this novel role of caspase-2 as a translational regulator of p21 expression occurs not only independently of its enzymatic activity but also does not require known caspase-2-activating platforms. (xstrahl.com)
  • Crystal structure of a FYVE-type zinc finger domain from the caspase regulator CARP2. (nih.gov)
  • Role of bcl-2 family, caspases, and cell cycle regulator genes. (antonucci.eu)
  • These caspases can then activate other caspases in a cascade. (reading.ac.uk)
  • We recently reported that caspase-2 was pivotal for the induction of cell death triggered by excessive intracellular accumulation of long-chain fatty acids, a response known as lipoapoptosis. (bmj.com)
  • Moreover, mutant cell lines that lack FADD or caspase-8 are resistant to TRAIL-induced death. (gale.com)
  • In several cell types we show that knockdown of caspase-2 specifically impaired DNA damage-induced p21 expression, whereas overexpression of a caspase-2 mutant increased p21 levels. (xstrahl.com)
  • Noticeably, the mRNA levels of caspase-1 and IL-1β were changed differently in the two cell lines: the level of caspase-1 mRNA was enhanced in IMR-32 cells but suppressed in SK-N-SH cells, and that of IL-1β was suppressed in IMR-32 cells but enhanced in SK-N-SH cells. (researchsquare.com)
  • Within the photostimulated region, local elimination of dendritic spines and dendrite retraction occurred in a caspase-3-dependent manner without inducing cell death. (jneurosci.org)
  • Such findings suggest that caspase-3 can have a localized effect on the modification of synapses and spines in the absence of cell death. (jneurosci.org)
  • This concept also implies the existence of mechanisms that limit the activity of caspase-3 and prevent complete destruction of the cell. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using an optogenetic approach (Mito-KillerRed photostimulation), we demonstrate here that caspase-3 can be activated within the neuronal cell body to induce neuronal death or locally within distal dendritic branches to "sculpt" spines and dendrites in the absence of cell death. (jneurosci.org)
  • Hearing tests continued at 1, 2, and 3 weeks post-noise, and immediately after the last hearing test, animals' cochleae were stained for hair cell counts. (noiseandhealth.org)
  • [ 2 ] For example, the entity now referred to as Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was initially divided into eosinophilic granuloma, Hand-Schüller-Christian disease, and Abt-Letterer-Siwe disease, depending on the sites and severity. (medscape.com)
  • Within the common gene set the top 20 upregulated or downregulated candidate genes in SASP-treated BCP-1 BC-1 and BCBL-1 cell-lines are listed in Table ?Table11 and Table ?Table2 2 respectively including gene description and the altered level of transcription in these cell-lines. (biotech2012.org)
  • Table2)2) is closely associated with breast cancer cell proliferation [22]. (biotech2012.org)
  • Caspase 3/7 activity assay Cells had been plated as referred to for cell viability and treated with raising concentrations of TM5275 or TM5441 for 48 hours. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Immunohistochemical identification of molecular genetic events in the progression of preneoplastic lesions to spindle cell squamous-cell carcinoma enables early detection of lesions with the potential for malignant progression, thus permitting timely intervention 1,2 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Assessment of a quadrivalent nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine that protects against group 2 influenza viruses. (amedeo.com)
  • Granzyme B can be delivered into cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and is able to directly activate caspases 3, 7, 8 and 10. (reading.ac.uk)
  • Degradation of lamins by caspase 6 results in the chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation commonly observed in apoptotic cells. (reading.ac.uk)
  • For calculating ROS level, cells had been treated with 10 M H2DCFH-DA for thirty minutes at night, followed by 2 times cleaning with PBS. (ecologicalsgardens.com)
  • Its expression was evaluated in different mouse models of NASH, and outcomes of diet-induced NASH were compared in wild-type (WT) and caspase-2-deficient mice. (bmj.com)
  • Caspase-2 is localised in injured hepatocytes and its expression was markedly upregulated in patients and animal models of NASH. (bmj.com)
  • As, however, silencing of caspase-2 impaired exogenous expression of p21 constructs containing 3′-UTR sequences, our results strongly indicate that caspase-2 regulates p21 expression at the translational level. (xstrahl.com)
  • The level of GSDMD expression in situ was along with the increase in the release of IL-1β, IL-18, caspase-1 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). (researchsquare.com)
  • Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of Bax and Caspase 3 in these 2 groups. (medscimonit.com)
  • This forest is the Syk information, helping to carrier( by region model) of PLC expression( 2). (erik-mill.de)
  • Genetic evidence [10, 11] indicates the possible involvement of a FADD-like molecule and caspase-10 rather than of FADD itself and caspase-8. (gale.com)
  • We provide evidence that FADD and caspase-8, but not caspase-10, are recruited to the receptor. (gale.com)
  • Salmonella pathogenesis and processing of secreted effectors by caspase-3. (umassmed.edu)
  • Los experimentos in Vivo de Lai y Singh (1995, 1996) ameritan especial atención, teniendo en cuenta el interés que despertaron. (rfcom.ca)
  • The 2019 novel coronavirus, or "SARS-CoV-2", was discovered because of Wuhan virus pneumonia cases in 2019, and was named by the World Health Organization on January 12, 2020. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Results We showed that caspase-2 is integral to the pathogenesis of NASH-related cirrhosis. (bmj.com)
  • Lipotoxicity was modelled in vitro using hepatocytes derived from WT and caspase-2-deficient mice. (bmj.com)
  • Caspase-3 knock-out mice have increased spine density and altered miniature EPSCs, confirming a physiological involvement of caspase-3 in the regulation of spines in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) also known as Covid19 (2019 Novel Coronavirus) is a virus that causes illnesses ranging from the common cold to severe diseases. (abeomics.com)
  • Recent common human coronavirus infection protects against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection: A Veterans Affairs cohort study. (amedeo.com)
  • As the COVID-19 pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread around the globe, effective vaccination protocols are under deployment. (bvsalud.org)
  • A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. (bvsalud.org)
  • These bacteria use a specialized type III secretion system to export a virulence factor, SipB, which directly activates the host's apoptotic machinery by targeting caspase-1. (harvard.edu)
  • AI, mFas, and caspase-3 were significantly higher in lung lavage fluids from silicosis patients than those of observers or healthy volunteers, but the level of sFas demonstrated a decreasing trend. (cdc.gov)
  • The median favipiravir trough concentration (C0-trough) on Day-2 was 21.26 µg/mL whereas it decreased significantly to 1.61 µg/mL on Day-4, the area under the concentration versus time curve decreased from 345.6 µg.h/mL to 108.6 µg.h/mL, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Day-2-C0-trough of female patients was significantly higher than male patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • CHIR99021 (2 mg/kg) given once, 4 h before irradiation, significantly improves survival after 14.5 Gy abdominal irradiation (ABI). (dcchemicals.com)
  • Caspase-1 is not involved in most apoptotic processes but plays a major role in cytokine maturation. (harvard.edu)
  • These results demonstrate an important role for caspase-2 in regulating proteome and metabolome remodelling during ageing. (monash.edu)
  • CHIR 99021 is a small organic molecule that inhibits GSK3α and GSK3β by competing for their ATP-binding sites.In vitro kinase assays reveal that CHIR 99021 specifically inhibits GSK3β (IC50=~5 nM) and GSK3α (IC50=~10 nM), with little effect on other kinases[2]. (dcchemicals.com)
  • Caspases are synthesized as inactive pro-caspases. (smpdb.ca)
  • Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 2015;72(2):349-56. (aruplab.com)
  • [2] Phycobiliproteins have fluorescent properties that are used in immunoassay kits. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) Genes implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders are active in human fetal brain, yet difficult to study in a longitudinal fashion. (jcbose.ac.in)
  • Sequences of ARF-GAP domains show no recognizable similarity to those of other GAPs, and contain a characteristic Cys-X(2)-Cys-X(16-17)-Cys-X(2)-Cys motif. (embl.de)
  • If the caspase motif contains a single-point mutation, then virulence is lost in mouse models of infection. (umassmed.edu)
  • In contrast, the substantial amounts of caspase-10 detected in the cytoplasm were neither processed nor recruited to the DISC. (gale.com)