Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Caspase 9: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Caspase Inhibitors: Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.Caspase 8: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Caspase 7: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Caspase 1: A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.Caspase 10: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 10 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Caspase 12: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 12 is activated by pro-apoptotic factors that are released during cell stress and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.Caspase 14: A short pro-domain caspase that is almost exclusively expressed in the EPIDERMIS and may play a role in the differentiation of epidermal KERATINOCYTES.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein: An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1: A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.bcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins: A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Caspases, Initiator: A subtype of caspases that contain long pro-domain regions that regulate the activation of the enzyme. The pro-domain regions contain protein-protein interaction motifs that can interact with specific signaling adaptor proteins such as DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS; DED SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS; and CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Once activated, the initiator caspases can activate other caspases such as the EFFECTOR CASPASES.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein: A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.bcl-X Protein: A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.Apoptosis Inducing Factor: A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein: An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Caspases, Effector: A subclass of caspases that contain short pro-domain regions. They are activated by the proteolytic action of INITIATOR CASPASES. Once activated they cleave a variety of substrates that cause APOPTOSIS.Apoptosomes: Multimeric protein complexes formed in the CYTOSOL that play a role in the activation of APOPTOSIS. They can occur when MITOCHONDRIA become damaged due to cell stress and release CYTOCHROME C. Cytosolic cytochrome C associates with APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1 to form the apoptosomal protein complex. The apoptosome signals apoptosis by binding to and activating specific INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.CRADD Signaling Adaptor Protein: A death domain receptor signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in signaling the activation of INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 2. It contains a death domain that is specific for RIP SERINE-THEONINE KINASES and a caspase-binding domain that binds to and activates CASPASES such as CASPASE 2.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins: Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein: A multi-domain mitochondrial membrane protein and member of the bcl-2 Protein family. Bak protein interacts with TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and promotes APOPTOSIS.Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.Granzymes: A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.bcl-Associated Death Protein: A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Genes, bcl-2: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesMitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, Inbred C57BLCeramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinase 2: A RIP serine-theonine kinase that contains a C-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain. It can signal by associating with other CARD-signaling adaptor proteins and INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein: A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Receptors, Death Domain: A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Lamins: Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.FlavoproteinsCathepsin B: A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Bongkrekic Acid: An antibiotic produced by Pseudomonas cocovenenans. It is an inhibitor of MITOCHONDRIAL ADP, ATP TRANSLOCASES. Specifically, it blocks adenine nucleotide efflux from mitochondria by enhancing membrane binding.Pentanoic AcidsHepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Lamin Type B: A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.Isatin: An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.Keratin-18: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Leupeptins: A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Identification of a new caspase homologue: caspase-14. (1/27)

Caspases are cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinases, many of which play a central role in apoptosis. Here, we report the identification of a new murine caspase homologue, viz. caspase-14. It is most related to human/murine caspase-2 and human caspase-9, possesses all the typical amino acid residues of the caspases involved in catalysis, including the QACRG box, and contains no or only a very short prodomain. Murine caspase-14 shows 83% similarity to human caspase-14. Human caspase-14 is assigned to chromosome 19p13.1. Northern blot analysis revealed that mRNA expression of caspase-14 is undetectable in all mouse adult tissues examined except for skin, while it is abundantly expressed in mouse embryos. In contrast to many other caspase family members, murine caspase-14 is not cleaved by granzyme B, caspase-1, caspase-2, caspase-3, caspase-6, caspase-7 or caspase-11, but is weakly processed into p18 and p11 subunits by murine caspase-8. No aspartase activity of murine caspase-14 could be generated by bacterial or yeast expression. Transient overexpression of murine caspase-14 in mammalian cells did not elicit cell death and did not interfere with caspase-8-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, caspase-14 is a member of the caspase family but no proteolytic or biological activities have been identified so far. The high constitutive expression levels in embryos and specific expression in adult skin suggest a role in ontogenesis and skin physiology.  (+info)

Terminal differentiation of human keratinocytes and stratum corneum formation is associated with caspase-14 activation. (2/27)

Programmed cell death of epidermal keratinocytes (KC) results in the formation of cornified cells, which constitute the outermost skin layer, the stratum corneum. Here we show by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry that epidermal KC express caspase-14, a member of the caspase family of pro-apoptotic proteases, in a tissue-specific manner. Caspase-14 protein abundance strongly increases during terminal differentiation of KC in vivo and in vitro. Under conditions that lead to stratum corneum formation caspase-14 cleavage products, which indicate proenzyme activation, appeared in the KC lysates. Cleavage of the enzyme was also detected in lysates from normal human epidermis and in extracts of stratum corneum. Our findings demonstrate that caspase-14 is activated during KC differentiation and strongly suggest that it is involved in the formation of the human skin barrier.J Invest Dermatol 115:1148-1151 2000  (+info)

Epidermal differentiation does not involve the pro-apoptotic executioner caspases, but is associated with caspase-14 induction and processing. (3/27)

The epidermis is a stratified squamous epithelium in which keratinocytes progressively undergo terminal differentiation towards the skin surface leading to programmed cell death. In this respect we studied the role of caspases. Here, we show that caspase-14 synthesis in the skin is restricted to differentiating keratinocytes and that caspase-14 processing is associated with terminal epidermal differentiation. The pro-apoptotic executioner caspases-3, -6, and -7 are not activated during epidermal differentiation. Caspase-14 does not participate in apoptotic pathways elicited by treatment of differentiated keratinocytes with various death-inducing stimuli, in contrast to caspase-3. In addition, we show that non-cornifying oral keratinocyte epithelium does not express caspase-14 and that the parakeratotic regions of psoriatic skin lesions contain very low levels of caspase-14 as compared to normal stratum corneum. These observations strongly suggest that caspase-14 is involved in the keratinocyte terminal differentiation program leading to normal skin cornification, while the executioner caspases are not implicated. Cell Death and Differentiation (2000) 7, 1218 - 1224  (+info)

Expression and transcriptional regulation of caspase-14 in simple and complex epithelia. (4/27)

Caspase-14 is a recent addition to the caspase family of aspartate proteases involved in apoptotic processes. Human caspase-14 appears to be only weakly processed during apoptosis, and it does not cleave classical caspase substrates. Post partum, caspase-14 is prominently expressed by human keratinocytes and reportedly participates in terminal differentiation of complex epithelia. Here we provide evidence challenging the view that caspase-14 expression or processing is linked exclusively to terminal keratinocyte differentiation. We demonstrate that caspase-14 expression extended to multiple cell lines derived from simple epithelia of the breast, prostate, and stomach. In keratinocytes and breast epithelial cells, caspase-14 expression was upregulated in high-density cultures and during forced suspension culture. These effects were primarily due to transcriptional activation as indicated by reporter gene assays using a 2 kb caspase-14 promoter fragment. Importantly, caspase-14 was not cleaved during forced suspension culture of either cell type although this treatment induced caspase-dependent apoptosis (anoikis). Forced expression of caspase-14 in immortalized human keratinocytes had no effect on cell death in forced suspension nor was the transfected caspase-14 processed in this setting. In contrast to postconfluent and forced suspension culture, terminal differentiation of keratinocytes induced in vitro by Ca2+ treatment was not associated with increased caspase-14 expression or promoter activity. Our results indicate that (1) caspase-14 is expressed not only in complex but also simple epithelia; (2) cells derived from complex and simple epithelia upregulate caspase-14 expression in conditions of high cell density or lack of matrix interaction and; (3) in both cell types this phenomenon is due to transcriptional regulation.  (+info)

Caspase-14 expression by epidermal keratinocytes is regulated by retinoids in a differentiation-associated manner. (5/27)

Caspase-14 is the only member of the caspase family that shows a restricted tissue expression. It is mainly confined to epidermal keratinocytes and in contrast to other caspases, is not activated during apoptosis induced by ultraviolet irradiation or cytotoxic substances. As it is cleaved under conditions leading to terminal differentiation of keratinocytes we suggested that caspase-14 plays a part in the physiologic cell death of keratinocytes leading to skin barrier formation. Here we show that retinoic acid, at concentrations inhibiting terminal differentiation of keratinocytes, strongly suppressed caspase-14 mRNA and protein expression by keratinocytes in monolayer culture and in a three-dimensional in vitro model of differentiating human epidermis (skin equivalent). By contrast, the expression of the caspases 3 and 8, which are both activated during conventional apoptosis, was increased and unchanged, respectively, after retinoic acid treatment. In addition to inhibition of differentiation in skin equivalents, retinoic acid treatment led to keratinocyte apoptosis and activation of caspase-3, both of which were undetectable in differentiated control skin equivalents. As this occurred in the absence of detectable caspase-14, our data demonstrate that caspase-14 is dispensable for keratinocyte apoptosis. The fact that in contrast to caspase-3 and caspase-8, caspase-14, similarly to other keratinocyte differentiation-associated proteins, is downregulated by retinoids, strongly suggests that this caspase, but not caspase-3 and -8, plays a part in terminal keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier formation.  (+info)

Vitamin D3 induces caspase-14 expression in psoriatic lesions and enhances caspase-14 processing in organotypic skin cultures. (6/27)

Caspase-14 is a nonapoptotic caspase family member whose expression in the epidermis is confined to the suprabasal layers, which consist of differentiating keratinocytes. Proteolytic activation of this caspase is observed in the later stages of epidermal differentiation. In psoriatic skin, a dramatic decrease in caspase-14 expression in the parakeratotic plugs was observed. Topical treatment of psoriatic lesions with a vitamin D3 analogue resulted in a decrease of the psoriatic phenotype and an increase in caspase-14 expression in the parakeratotic plugs. To investigate whether vitamin D3 directly affects caspase-14 expression levels, we used keratinocyte cell cultures. 1alpha,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol, the biologically active form of vitamin D3, increased caspase-14 expression, whereas retinoic acid inhibited it. Moreover, retinoic acid repressed the vitamin D3-induced caspase-14 expression level. In addition, the use of organotypic skin cultures demonstrated that 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol enhanced epidermal differentiation and caspase-14 activation, whereas retinoic acid completely blocked caspase-14 processing. Our data indicate that caspase-14 plays an important role in terminal epidermal differentiation, and its absence may contribute to the psoriatic phenotype.  (+info)

Green tea polyphenol-induced epidermal keratinocyte differentiation is associated with coordinated expression of p57/KIP2 and caspase 14. (7/27)

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenol in green tea, exerts chemopreventive effects by selectively inducing apoptosis in tumor cells. In contrast, EGCG accelerates terminal differentiation in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) mediated partially by up-regulation of p57/KIP2, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that confers growth arrest and differentiation. However, it is unclear if EGCG modulates caspase 14, a unique regulator of epithelial cell terminal differentiation associated with cornification. Here, we examined the effect of EGCG on caspase 14 expression in NHEK and correlated the protein and mRNA expression of p57/KIP2 with those of caspase 14 in either normal keratinocytes or p57/KIP2-expressing tumor cells (OSC2, an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line). Additionally, paraffin-embedded normal and untreated psoriatic (aberrant keratinization) skin sections from humans were assessed for caspase 14 by immunohistochemistry. In NHEK, EGCG induced the expression of caspase 14 mRNA and protein levels within a 24-h period. The expression of p57/KIP2 in OSC2 cells was adequate to induce caspase 14 in the absence of EGCG; this induction of caspase 14 was down-regulated by transforming growth factor-beta1. In human psoriatic skin samples, caspase 14 staining in the upper epidermis was reduced, especially in nuclear areas. These results suggest that, in addition to p57/KIP2, EGCG-induced terminal differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes involves up-regulation of caspase 14. Further understanding of how EGCG modulates cellular differentiation may be useful in developing green tea preparations for selected clinical applications.  (+info)

Stratum corneum-derived caspase-14 is catalytically active. (8/27)

Caspase-14, a cysteine protease with restricted tissue distribution, is highly expressed in differentiated epidermal keratinocytes. Here, we extracted soluble proteins from stratum corneum (SC) of human epidermis and demonstrate that the extract cleaves tetrapeptide caspase substrates. The activity decreased to below 10% when caspase-14 was removed by immunodepletion showing that caspase-14 is the predominant caspase in SC. In contrast to normal SC, where caspase-14 was present exclusively in its processed form, incompletely matured SC of parakeratotic skin from psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis contained both procaspase-14 and caspase-14 subunits. Fractionation of extract from parakeratotic SC revealed that the peak caspase activity coeluted with processed caspase-14 but not with procaspase-14. Our results suggest that during regular terminal keratinocyte differentiation, endogenous procaspase-14 is converted to caspase-14 subunits that are catalytically active in the outermost layers of normal human skin.  (+info)

*Caspase 14

This caspase has been shown to be processed and activated by caspase 8 and caspase 10 in vitro, and by anti-Fas agonist ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... 2001). "Epidermal differentiation does not involve the pro-apoptotic executioner caspases, but is associated with caspase-14 ... "Identification of a new caspase homologue: caspase-14". Cell Death Differ. 5 (10): 838-46. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400444. PMID ...

*Caspase 10

Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... Caspase 10 has been shown to interact with FADD, CFLAR, Caspase 8, Fas receptor, RYBP, TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF10B. The Proteolysis ... Wang, J; Chun H J; Wong W; Spencer D M; Lenardo M J (November 2001). "Caspase-10 is an initiator caspase in death receptor ... This protein cleaves and activates caspases 3 and 7, and the protein itself is processed by caspase 8. Mutations in this gene ...

*Galactomyces

"Effects of galactomyces ferment filtrate on epidermal barrier marker caspase-14 in human skin cells". Journal of the American ...

*Caspase

... 2, Caspase 8, Caspase-9, Caspase 10) Executioner Caspases (Caspase 3, Caspase 6 and Caspase 7) Once initiator caspases ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4, Caspase-5 and Caspase-11 are considered 'Inflammatory Caspases'. Caspase-1 is key in activating pro- ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4 and Caspase-5 in humans, and Caspase-1 and Caspase-11 in mice play important roles in inducing cell death ... Pyroptosis by Caspase -4 and Caspase-5 in humans and Caspase-11 in mice These caspases have the ability to induce direct ...

*DNASE1L2

"Terminal differentiation of nail matrix keratinocytes involves up-regulation of DNase1L2 but is independent of caspase-14 ... 14 (10B): 2121-7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC 528928 . PMID 15489334. Shiokawa D, Matsushita T, Kobayashi T, et al. (2005). " ...

*Keratinocyte

... and caspase 14. In humans, it is estimated that keratinocytes turnover from stem cells to desquamation every 40-56 days. ... 86 (1): 14-9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1972.tb01886.x. PMID 4551262. Potten CS, Saffhill R, Maibach HI (September 1987). " ... and keratin 14, but also other markers such as involucrin, loricrin, transglutaminase, filaggrin, ...

*Xenopus

Recently, oocytes were used recently to study the biochemical mechanisms of caspase-2 activation; importantly, this mechanism ... Wang, Fengqin; Shi, Zhaoying; Cui, Yan; Guo, Xiaogang; Shi, Yun-Bo; Chen, Yonglong (2015-04-14). "Targeted gene disruption in ... Dean, S; Marchetti, R; Kirk, K; Matthews, KR (May 14, 2009). "A surface transporter family conveys the trypanosome ... "Metabolic control of oocyte apoptosis mediated by 14-3-3zeta-regulated dephosphorylation of caspase-2". Developmental Cell. 16 ...

*CARD14

Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 14, also known as CARD-containing MAGUK protein 2 (Carma 2), is a protein that in ... This protein is also a member of the CARD protein family, which is defined by carrying a characteristic caspase-associated ... 2001). "Card10 is a novel caspase recruitment domain/membrane-associated guanylate kinase family member that interacts with ... caspase recruitment domain family". Bertin J, Wang L, Guo Y, Jacobson MD, Poyet JL, Srinivasula SM, Merriam S, DiStefano PS, ...

*Ced-3

... caspase 9. Its name is derived from the term "cell death". Structurally, ced-3 has two protein domains: CARD domain (Caspase ... thus becoming a functional caspase. Ced-3 is an executioner caspase (cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed protease) that must ... The caspase domain is the main domain of the protein, where the cleavage activity of the protease takes place. The active ... EGL-1 will then bind to and inhibit ced-9 which is an inhibitor caspase that recognizes and binds to ced-4 so that it can no ...

*Caspase 4

The function of caspase 4 is not fully known, but it is believed to be an inflammatory caspase, along with caspase 1, caspase 5 ... The Proteolysis Map Caspase Martinon F, Tschopp J (2007). "Inflammatory caspases and inflammasomes: master switches of ... Caspase 4 is an enzyme that proteolytically cleaves other proteins at an aspartic acid residue (LEVD-), and belongs to a family ... and the murine homolog caspase 11), with a role in the immune system. ...

*Caspase-2

... is an initiator caspase, as are caspase-8 (EC 3.4.22.61), caspase-9 (EC 3.4.22.62) and caspase-10 (EC 3.4.22.63). ... Caspase-2 (EC 3.4.22.55, ICH-1, NEDD-2, caspase-2L, caspase-2S, neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated ... Caspase-2 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... Mancini, M.; Machamer, C.E.; Roy, S.; Nicholson, D.W.; Thornberry, N.A.; Casciola-Rosen, L.A.; Rosen, A. (2000). "Caspase-2 is ...

*Caspase 1

Instead, it is thought to inhibit Caspase-1 activation by interfering with the interaction of Caspase-1 with other important ... and a caspase, in this case Caspase-1. In some cases, where the signaling proteins contain their own CARDs, like in NLRP1 and ... Caspase-1 is produced as a zymogen that can then be cleaved into 20 kDa (p20) and 10 kDa (p10) subunits that become part of the ... Active Caspase 1 contains two heterodimers of p20 and p10. It contains a catalytic domain with an active site that spans both ...

*Caspase 5

It is an inflammatory caspase, along with caspase 1, caspase 4 and the murine caspase 4 homolog caspase 11, and has a role in ... The Proteolysis Map Caspase Martinon F, Tschopp J (2007). "Inflammatory caspases and inflammasomes: master switches of ... Caspase 5 is an enzyme that proteolytically cleaves other proteins at an aspartic acid residue, and belongs to a family of ... 14 (1): 10-22. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4402038. PMID 16977329. The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: ...

*Caspase-9

Once activated, caspase-9 goes on to cleave caspase-3, -6, and -7, initiating the caspase cascade as they cleave several other ... Active caspase-9 works as an initiating caspase by cleaving, thus activating downstream executioner caspases, initiating ... Different protein isoforms of caspase-9 are produced due to alternative splicing. Similar to other caspases, caspase-9 has ... Previously activated caspases can cleave caspase-9, causing its dimerization. Caspase-9 has a preferred cleavage sequence of ...

*Caspase activity and apoptosis inhibitor 1

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAAP1 gene. Caspase Apoptosis GRCh38: ... 14 (10B): 2121-7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC 528928 . PMID 15489334. Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, et al. (2004 ...

*Bufotalin

... induces apoptosis in vitro in human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B cells and might involve caspases and apoptosis ... "Involvement of Caspases and Apoptosis-Inducing Factor in Bufotalin-Induced Apoptosis of Hep 3B Cells". Journal of Agricultural ... 72 (14-15): 1779-85. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.05.004. PMID 21636103. Müller-Schwarze, D (2006). Chemical ecology of ... Su, CL; Lin, TY; Lin, CN; Won, SJ (14 January 2009). " ...

*BCL10

The protein encoded by this gene contains a caspase recruitment domain (CARD), and has been shown to induce apoptosis and to ... Costanzo A, Guiet C, Vito P (1999). "c-E10 is a caspase-recruiting domain-containing protein that interacts with components of ... Srinivasula SM, Ahmad M, Lin JH, Poyet JL, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Tsichlis PN, Alnemri ES (1999). "CLAP, a novel caspase ... Yan M, Lee J, Schilbach S, Goddard A, Dixit V (1999). "mE10, a novel caspase recruitment domain-containing proapoptotic ...

*Early 35 kDa protein

P35 has been shown to be a caspase inhibitor with a very wide spectrum of activity both in regard to inhibited caspase types ... However, unlike other caspase substrate proteins, the fragments of P35 do not dissociate from the caspase after cleavage. ... "Mutational analyses of the p35-caspase interaction. A bowstring kinetic model of caspase inhibition by p35". Journal of ... The mechanism of caspase inhibition was discovered by Guozhou Xu in the team of Hao Wu at the Department of Biochemistry at ...

*Hippocalcin

2000). "NAIP interacts with hippocalcin and protects neurons against calcium-induced cell death through caspase-3-dependent and ... 14 (10B): 2121-7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC 528928 . PMID 15489334. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2002). " ... independent pathways". EMBO J. 19 (14): 3597-607. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.14.3597. PMC 313967 . PMID 10899114. Ivings L, ...

*NAIP (gene)

2004). "Neuronal apoptosis-inhibitory protein does not interact with Smac and requires ATP to bind caspase-9". J. Biol. Chem. ... 2000). "NAIP interacts with hippocalcin and protects neurons against calcium-induced cell death through caspase-3-dependent and ... 2002). "IAP suppression of apoptosis involves distinct mechanisms: the TAK1/JNK1 signaling cascade and caspase inhibition". Mol ... independent pathways". EMBO J. 19 (14): 3597-607. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.14.3597. PMC 313967 . PMID 10899114. Sanna MG, da Silva ...

*Trypan blue

"Detection of Caspase Activation Combined with Other Probes of Apoptosis", Eurekah Bioscience Collection, NCBI bookshelf ... Azidine blue 3B Benzamine blue 3B Benzo Blue bB Chlorazol blue 3B Diamine blue 3B Dianil blue H3G Direct blue 14 Niagara blue ...

*Inhibitor of apoptosis

Caspase 8 initiates apoptosis by activating "executioner" caspases, numbered 3, 6, and 7. By inhibiting caspase 8, crmA ... The best characterized IAP is XIAP, which binds caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase-7, thereby inhibiting their activation and ... Inhibition of caspase 8 also prevents cell death signals by ligation of a TNF super family member known as death receptors, ... Bcl-2 Caspase cIAP1 cIAP2 Inhibitor of apoptosis domain Survivin XIAP Schwerk C, Schulze-Osthoff K (July 2005). "Regulation of ...

*HIPK2

p53 binds to the third intron of the caspase 6 gene, and promotes the activation of the gene. Caspase 6 in turn activates HIPK2 ... MacLachlan TK, El-Deiry WS (July 2002). "Apoptotic threshold is lowered by p53 transactivation of caspase-6". Proceedings of ... Caspase 6 cleaves HIPK2 at residue D916 and D977. As a result, the auto-inhibitory domain is removed and the activity of HIPK2 ... CREB binding protein p53 p300 SKI protein TP53INP1 ATM kinase PIN1 HMGA1 SIAH1 WSB1 caspase 6 Tachykinin receptor 3 Mdm2 CtBP ...

*Super-spreader

Revisiting Caspase-II Function in Host Defense. Cell Host & Microbe. 17 July 2013. 14(1). pp. 9-14. JS Cox, L.Lam, L. Mukundan ... 14 August 2013. 14(2) pp. 171-182. Geoffrey Mohan (August 14, 2013). "Typhoid Mary case may be cracked, a century later". Los ... N. infected more than 200 people over 14 years from 1901 to 1915. At the request of health officials, Mr. N. gave up working in ...

*Mitochondrial permeability transition pore

Büki, A.; Okonkwo, D. O.; Wang, K. K.; Povlishock, J. T. (2000). "Cytochrome c release and caspase activation in traumatic ... and caspase activation". FASEB Journal. 14 (7): 847-858. PMID 10783138. Nicholls, D. G.; Brand, M. D. (1980). "The nature of ...

*Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src

Src (gene) has been shown to interact with the following signaling pathways: PI3K Akt IKK NFkB Caspase 9 STAT3 p38 MAPK VEGF IL ... 14 (7): 667-78. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2009-0009. PMC 3303596 . PMID 19581523. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine ...
Mouse anti Human caspase-14, clone 4C9 recognizes human caspase-14, a 242 amino acid ~28 kDa non-apoptotic caspase which exists as a
BioAssay record AID 513048 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human caspase-3-mediated apoptosis assessed as Ac-DEVD-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin cleavage product at 100 uM by fluorescence assay.
|p|Although the precise biological role of lysosomal membrane-associated glycoproteins (LAMPs) and ABH histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) remains somewhat unclear, they are thought to be related to cell differentiation, cellular adhesion, and tumorigenesis. Here, we present the first comparative immunohistochemical study of both LAMPs and HBGAs in normal and neoplastic skin. Their localization is compared to that of high molecular weight cytokeratin and cytokeratin MNF 116. LAMPs and HBGA were differentially expressed in the normal stratified squamous epithelium, suggesting that they are involved in the initial steps of the differentiation process, whereas HBGAs are characteristic of terminal keratinocyte differentiation. No change in the reactivity for HBGA was detected in the stratified epithelium overlying squamous cell or basal cell carcinomas, whereas a considerable loss of LAMPs was detected. LAMPs were overexpressed in tumor cells, whereas HBGAs were lost in tumor zones of
Define filaggrin. filaggrin synonyms, filaggrin pronunciation, filaggrin translation, English dictionary definition of filaggrin. n a protein found in skin cells Noun 1. filaggrin - the main protein of the keratohyalin granules; the specific target of the immune response in rheumatoid...
(a) Nuclear suprabasal beta-catenin (β-catenin) staining expression in all layers of epidermis except the parakeratotic and cornified layers of a psoriasis les
Kit Component:- KN219792G1, FLG gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN219792G2, FLG gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN219792D, donor vector…
BACKGROUND: Filaggrin, coded by FLG, is the main source of several major components of natural moisturizing factor (NMF) in the stratum corneum (SC), including pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA) and urocanic acid (UCA). Loss-offunction mutations in FLG lead to reduced levels of filaggrin degradation products in the SC. It has recently been suggested that expression of filaggrin may additionally be influenced by the atopic inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the levels of several breakdown products of filaggrin in the SC in healthy controls (CTRL) and patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) in relation to FLG null allele status. We examined the relationship between NMF (defined here as the sum of PCA and UCA) and AD severity. METHODS: The SC levels of filaggrin degradation products including PCA, UCA, histidine (HIS) and tyrosine were determined in 24 CTRL and 96 patients with moderate-to-severe AD. All subjects were screened for 11 FLG mutations relevant for the study population. ...
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Disorder of Cornification 12 (Neutral Lipid Storage Type) information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Neuromi \ Filaggrin, monoclonal antibody, mouse, 100 ul. \ MO20041-100 for more molecular products just contact us
Patients with by systemic rheumatic diseases (SRDs) are at significantly greater risk of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, CV events, and mortality than the general population. Although CV involvement in such patients is highly heterogeneous and may affect various structures of the heart, it can now be diagnosed earlier and promptly treated.The examinations used include transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) to investigate valve abnormalities, pericardial disease and ventricular wall motion defects. Coronary arteries can be investigated invasively using quantitative coronarography or intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to assess coronary diameter, or non-invasively using transthoracic or transesophageal ultrasonography (US), MRI, positron emission tomography (PET) after endothelium-dependent vasodilatory provocation, or CT to assess coronary flow reserve. Finally, peripheral circulation can be measured invasively by means of the
caspase-3 Antibody (E-8) is a mouse monoclonal IgG2a that detects human caspase-3 and full length procaspase-3 by WB and Staining. 488 citations

Anti-Caspase-14 antibody (ab26991) | AbcamAnti-Caspase-14 antibody (ab26991) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal Caspase-14 antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Human. Cited in 1 publication(s). Immunogen corresponding ... Believed to be a non-apoptotic caspase which is involved in epidermal differentiation. Seems to play a role in keratinocyte ... Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Caspase-14 (N terminal).. Database link: P31944 ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/caspase-14-antibody-ab26991.html

Caspase-14 reveals its secrets | JCBCaspase-14 reveals its secrets | JCB

Caspase-14 reveals its secrets. Geertrui Denecker, Petra Ovaere, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim Declercq ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/180/3/451/tab-article-info

Caspase 14, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase (CASP14) AntikörperCaspase 14, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase (CASP14) Antikörper

This caspase has been shown to be processed and activated by caspase 8 and caspase 10 in vitro, and by anti-Fas agonist ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... anti-Caspase Recruitment Domain Family, Member 9 Antikörper * anti-Caspase Recruitment Domain-Containing Protein 18 (ICEBERG) ... anti-Caspase 2, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase Antikörper * anti-Caspase 3, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase ...
more infohttp://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/Caspase+14%2C+ApoptosisRelated+Cysteine+Peptidase+

Caspase 14 - WikipediaCaspase 14 - Wikipedia

This caspase has been shown to be processed and activated by caspase 8 and caspase 10 in vitro, and by anti-Fas agonist ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... 2001). "Epidermal differentiation does not involve the pro-apoptotic executioner caspases, but is associated with caspase-14 ... "Identification of a new caspase homologue: caspase-14". Cell Death Differ. 5 (10): 838-46. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400444. PMID ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspase_14

Caspase 14, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase (CASP14) ELISA KitsCaspase 14, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase (CASP14) ELISA Kits

This caspase has been shown to be processed and activated by caspase 8 and caspase 10 in vitro, and by anti-Fas agonist ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... CASP14 encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Caspase 14, ... Show all Caspase 14, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase (CASP14) ELISA Kits with Pubmed References. * Human CASP14 ELISA Kit ...
more infohttp://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/Caspase+14%2C+Apoptosis-Related+Cysteine+Peptidase+

Caspase-14, an apoptotic protease, nucleic acids encoding and methods of     use - Patent # 6432628 - PatentGeniusCaspase-14, an apoptotic protease, nucleic acids encoding and methods of use - Patent # 6432628 - PatentGenius

Isolated caspase-14 polypeptides or functional fragments thereof are also provided, as are antibodies that specifically bind ... The invention also relates to an isolated gene encoding caspase-14, as well as functional fragments thereof. The gene or ... In addition, the invention relates to methods of identifying compounds that modulate caspase-14 activity. ... caspase-14 polypeptide or functional fragment thereof, a vector that contains the nucleic acid molecule and a host cell that ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/patent/6432628.html

Nine procaspases are expressed in normal human epidermis, but only caspase-14 is fully processedNine procaspases are expressed in normal human epidermis, but only caspase-14 is fully processed

Caspases are cysteine proteases that play a central role in apoptosis. Therefore they may also be involved in the terminal ... To identify the caspases expressed in normal human epidermis and to define their pattern of expression and activation. ... The mRNAs encoding caspase-1, -2, -3, -4, -6, -7, -8, -9, -10 and -14 were detected by RT-PCR. Accordingly, the ... However, only procaspase-1 and the processed caspase-14 were detected in extracts of superficial SC. In addition to these two ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/bjdr/200703000/00002300-200703000-00004

ELISA Kit for Caspase 14 (CASP14) - Rat - BioTecNika PrimeELISA Kit for Caspase 14 (CASP14) - Rat - BioTecNika Prime

Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Caspase 14 (CASP14) were tested 20 ... Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Caspase 14 (CASP14) were tested on ... This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Caspase 14 (CASP14). No significant cross-reactivity ...
more infohttps://labs.biotecnika.org/products/elisa-kit-for-caspase-14-casp14-rat

Rabbit Polyclonal to Caspase 14 (p10 - Sirtuin inhibitors as anticancer agentsRabbit Polyclonal to Caspase 14 (p10 - Sirtuin inhibitors as anticancer agents

by bioentryplusPosted in GPR119Tagged Bibf1120 inhibition, Cleaved-Lys222), Rabbit Polyclonal to Caspase 14 (p10 ... Tag: Rabbit Polyclonal to Caspase 14 (p10. Objectives: The 2015 Workshop of the Society for Hematopathology/European ... similarities among T-cell lymphomas with this phenotype20 have in fact prompted Rabbit Polyclonal to Caspase 14 (p10, Cleaved- ... Dysfunction AITL prototypically causes autoimmunity and immune dysregulation with frequent secondary B-cell proliferations.14 ...
more infohttp://www.bioentryplus.com/?tag=rabbit-polyclonal-to-caspase-14-p10

Homo sapiens caspase recruitment domain family member 14 (CARD14), tra - Nucleotide - NCBIHomo sapiens caspase recruitment domain family member 14 (CARD14), tra - Nucleotide - NCBI

Homo sapiens caspase recruitment domain family member 14 (CARD14), transcript variant 1, mRNA. NCBI Reference Sequence: NM_ ... Homo sapiens caspase recruitment domain family member 14 (CARD14), transcript va... Homo sapiens caspase recruitment domain ... This gene encodes a caspase recruitment domain-containing protein that is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase ... See the reference protein sequence for caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 14 isoform 1 (NP_077015.2). ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NM_024110.4

apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase tag -...'apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase' tag -...

caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase. Allen339, member , July 11th, 2019 CASP3 caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine ... caspase 14, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase. Allen339, member , July 11th, 2019 CASP14 caspase 14, apoptosis-related ... peptidase BackgroundThis gene encodes a protein which is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. ...
more infohttp://www.craftstylish.com/tag/apoptosis-related-cysteine-peptidase

Caspase-recruitment-Domain-enthaltendes Protein 14Caspase-recruitment-Domain-enthaltendes Protein 14

Bertin J et al. (2001) CARD11 and CARD14 are novel caspase recruitment domain (CARD)/membrane-associated guanylate kinase ( ... Caspase-recruitment-Domain-enthaltendes Protein 14. Das CARD14-Gen kodiert ein Protein das mit verschiedenen Proteinen bei der ...
more infohttp://www.moldiag.com/de/id/G0791

Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 14Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 14

This gene encodes a caspase recruitment domain-containing protein that is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/CARD14

Caspase - WikipediaCaspase - Wikipedia

Executioner Caspases (Caspase 3, Caspase 6 and Caspase 7). Once initiator caspases are activated, they produce a chain reaction ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4, Caspase-5 and Caspase-11 are considered Inflammatory Caspases.[7] ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4 and Caspase-5 in humans, and Caspase-1 and Caspase-11 in mice play important roles in inducing cell death ... or direct activation of Executioner Caspases (Caspase 3, Caspase 6 and Caspase 7) to degrade cellular components as shown in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspase

Caspase - WikipediaCaspase - Wikipedia

Executioner Caspases (Caspase 3, Caspase 6 and Caspase 7). Once initiator caspases are activated, they produce a chain reaction ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4, Caspase-5 and Caspase-11 are considered Inflammatory Caspases.[7] ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4 and Caspase-5 in humans, and Caspase-1 and Caspase-11 in mice play important roles in inducing cell death ... or direct activation of Executioner Caspases (Caspase 3, Caspase 6 and Caspase 7) to degrade cellular components as shown in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspases

Caspase - WikipediaCaspase - Wikipedia

Executioner Caspases (Caspase 3, Caspase 6 and Caspase 7). Once initiator caspases are activated, they produce a chain reaction ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4, Caspase-5 and Caspase-11 are considered Inflammatory Caspases.[7] ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4 and Caspase-5 in humans, and Caspase-1 and Caspase-11 in mice play important roles in inducing cell death ... or direct activation of Executioner Caspases (Caspase 3, Caspase 6 and Caspase 7) to degrade cellular components as shown in ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspase

Autosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis - GeneReviews® - NCBI BookshelfAutosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis - GeneReviews® - NCBI Bookshelf

Caspase-14. CASP14. CASP14. CERS3. 15q26. ​.3. Ceramide synthase 3. CERS3. CERS3. ... 14. Grall et al [2012], Fachal et al [2014], Pigg et al [2016], Vahidnezhad et al [2017], Zimmer et al [2017] ... Pathogenic variants. Lefèvre et al [2004] identified six homozygous NIPAL4 pathogenic variants in 14 consanguineous families ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1420/

Ghent University Academic BibliographyGhent University Academic Bibliography

The skin microbiome of caspase-14-deficient mice shows mild dysbiosis Malgorzata Kubica (UGent) , Falk Hildebrand, Brigitta ...
more infohttps://biblio.ugent.be/publication?q=author%3D%22Hildebrand%2C+Falk%22+or+

Ria RoelandtRia Roelandt

Caspase-14 is required for filaggrin degradation to natural moisturizing factors in the skin Esther Hoste (UGent) , Patrick ... Caspase-mediated cleavage of Beclin-1 inactivates Beclin-1-induced autophagy and enhances apoptosis by promoting the release of ...
more infohttps://biblio.ugent.be/person/802000397433

Patent Picksmdash; Natural and Sensory-Enhanced Hair Straightening, Skin Actives, Device-guided Regimens and MorePatent Picksmdash; Natural and Sensory-Enhanced Hair Straightening, Skin Actives, Device-guided Regimens and More

Caspase-14 controls maturation of the epidermis.. Imaging to recommend products based on skin color. European Patent EP2131697 ... Cosmetically treating caspase-14 deficiency. WIPO Patent Application WO/2012/122091. Publication date: Sept. 13, 2012. ... has been found to generally have decreased levels of caspase-14 activity, compared with Caucasian skin. ... The present invention involves activating capsase-14 in skin deficient in its expression by applying, on at least one skin zone ...
more infohttp://www.cosmeticsandtoiletries.com/research/patents/172372281.html?page=4

Dr. Thomas J Knobloch - Cancer Researcher at OSUCCC - JamesDr. Thomas J Knobloch - Cancer Researcher at OSUCCC - James

Comprehensive evaluation of caspase-14 in vulvar neoplasia: an opportunity for treatment with black raspberry extract.. Joehlin ...
more infohttps://cancer.osu.edu/research-and-education/find-a-researcher/search-researcher-directory/thomas-j-knobloch

5  11214:Caspase - 12097??????55 11214:Caspase - 12097??????5

Caspase-14 research reagents are researched and produced in house with premium quality at affordable price. Bulk in stock. ... Unlike the other short prodomain caspases(caspase-3, caspase-6, and caspase-7), Caspase 14 was not processed by multiple death ... Marc Van De Craen, et al. (1998) Identification of a new caspase homologue: caspase-14. Cell death differ. 5(10): 838-46. ... Caspase 14 is a member of the caspase family. Caspases are a kind of cysteine proteinase consisting of a prodomain plus large ...
more infohttp://www.ixpcv.com/Caspase-14-CASP14-Protein-a-1408.html

CASP14 - ddPCR Primer Pair - EvaGreen - Digital PCR | PrimePCR | Bio-RadCASP14 - ddPCR Primer Pair - EvaGreen - Digital PCR | PrimePCR | Bio-Rad

This caspase has been shown to be processed and activated by caspase 8 and caspase 10 in vitro and by anti-Fas agonist antibody ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... The expression and processing of this caspase may be involved in keratinocyte terminal differentiation which is important for ... This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. ...
more infohttp://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/assay/dhsaeg5022186-primepcr-ddpcr-expression-evagreen-assay-casp14-human

Frontiers | A Perspective on the Interplay of Ultraviolet-Radiation, Skin Microbiome and Skin Resident Memory TCRαβ+ Cells |...Frontiers | A Perspective on the Interplay of Ultraviolet-Radiation, Skin Microbiome and Skin Resident Memory TCRαβ+ Cells |...

28) used caspase-14 deficient mice which are known to have reduced levels of UCA and observed significant alterations in the ... It is intriguing that caspase-14 is involved in proteolysis of filaggrin which is the major source of UCA in the skin and ... The skin microbiome of caspase-14-deficient mice shows mild dysbiosis. Exp Dermatol. (2014) 23:561-7. doi: 10.1111/exd.12458 ... 14. Nakatsuji T, Chiang HI, Jiang SB, Nagarajan H, Zengler K, Gallo RL. The microbiome extends to subepidermal compartments of ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2018.00166/full

Caspase 10 - WikipediaCaspase 10 - Wikipedia

Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... Caspase 10 has been shown to interact with FADD, CFLAR, Caspase 8, Fas receptor, RYBP, TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF10B. The Proteolysis ... Wang, J; Chun H J; Wong W; Spencer D M; Lenardo M J (November 2001). "Caspase-10 is an initiator caspase in death receptor ... This protein cleaves and activates caspases 3 and 7, and the protein itself is processed by caspase 8. Mutations in this gene ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspase_10
  • CASP14 encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Caspase 14 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CASP14 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Caspase 14 (CASP14). (biotecnika.org)
  • No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Caspase 14 (CASP14) and analogues was observed. (biotecnika.org)
  • Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Caspase 14 (CASP14) were tested 20 times on one plate, respectively. (biotecnika.org)
  • Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Caspase 14 (CASP14) were tested on 3 different plates, 8 replicates in each plate. (biotecnika.org)
  • Jung, Choi, Lee, Kim, Hwang, Choi: Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid levels or caspase-14 expression in the corneocytes of lesional skin correlates with clinical severity, skin barrier function and lesional inflammation in atopic dermatitis. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Mere impairment of filaggrin (zeige FLG ELISA Kits ) degradation by loss of caspase 14 does not influence the inflammatory threshold of atopic dermatitis. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • This study, the first exhaustive description of caspase expression and processing in normal human epidermis, indicates that in vivo granular keratinocytes express nine procaspases, and in addition the activated form of caspase-14. (ovid.com)
  • Flice Is Predominantly Expressed as Two Functionally Active Isoforms, Caspase-8/a and Caspase-8/b," The Journal of Biological Chemistry 272(43): 26953-26958, 1997. (patentgenius.com)
  • The large and small subunit associate with each other to form an active heterodimer caspase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspases also have a role in inflammation, whereby it directly processes pro-inflammatory cytokines such as pro-IL1β. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspases involved with processing inflammatory signals are also implicated in disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the other short prodomain caspases(caspase-3, caspase-6, and caspase-7), Caspase 14 was not processed by multiple death stimuli including activation of members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and expression of proapaptotic members of the bcl-2 family. (ixpcv.com)
  • However, only procaspase-1 and the processed caspase-14 were detected in extracts of superficial SC. (ovid.com)
  • According to the inventors, Asian, and particularly Japanese skin, has been found to generally have decreased levels of caspase-14 activity, compared with Caucasian skin. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Caspase 14 possesses an unusually short prodomain and is highly expressed in embryonic tissues but absent from most of the adult tissues except for the skin, which suggests a role in ontogenesis and skin physiology. (ixpcv.com)
  • However, it is intriguing that myriads of microbes reside on the skin surface (Figure 1 ) as well as in sub-epidermal compartments ( 14 ), despite the robust nature of the skin's immune system to rapidly detect and neutralize any foreign intruders ( 15 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Structure of caspase-1 (CASP1), originally called interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE), the first human caspase to be identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active enzyme often exists as a heterotetramer in the biological environment, where a pro-caspase dimer is cleaved together to form a heterotetramer. (wikipedia.org)