A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 10 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones
Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Cytochrome c Group
X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein
Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1
bcl-2-Associated X Protein
Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
A subtype of caspases that contain long pro-domain regions that regulate the activation of the enzyme. The pro-domain regions contain protein-protein interaction motifs that can interact with specific signaling adaptor proteins such as DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS; DED SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS; and CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Once activated, the initiator caspases can activate other caspases such as the EFFECTOR CASPASES.
In Situ Nick-End Labeling
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Apoptosis Inducing Factor
A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
Tumor Cells, Cultured
CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein
An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.
Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Multimeric protein complexes formed in the CYTOSOL that play a role in the activation of APOPTOSIS. They can occur when MITOCHONDRIA become damaged due to cell stress and release CYTOCHROME C. Cytosolic cytochrome C associates with APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1 to form the apoptosomal protein complex. The apoptosome signals apoptosis by binding to and activating specific INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
Reactive Oxygen Species
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
CRADD Signaling Adaptor Protein
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein
Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 22.214.171.124.
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases
A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
RNA, Small Interfering
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Amino Acid Sequence
Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
bcl-Associated Death Protein
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinase 2
Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein
A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Protein Processing, Post-Translational
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Receptors, Death Domain
A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Disease Models, Animal
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
Gene Expression Regulation
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Cell Line, Transformed
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Gene Knockdown Techniques
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
Protein Kinase C-delta
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
Lamin Type B
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
MAP Kinase Signaling System
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Identification of a new caspase homologue: caspase-14. (1/27)Caspases are cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinases, many of which play a central role in apoptosis. Here, we report the identification of a new murine caspase homologue, viz. caspase-14. It is most related to human/murine caspase-2 and human caspase-9, possesses all the typical amino acid residues of the caspases involved in catalysis, including the QACRG box, and contains no or only a very short prodomain. Murine caspase-14 shows 83% similarity to human caspase-14. Human caspase-14 is assigned to chromosome 19p13.1. Northern blot analysis revealed that mRNA expression of caspase-14 is undetectable in all mouse adult tissues examined except for skin, while it is abundantly expressed in mouse embryos. In contrast to many other caspase family members, murine caspase-14 is not cleaved by granzyme B, caspase-1, caspase-2, caspase-3, caspase-6, caspase-7 or caspase-11, but is weakly processed into p18 and p11 subunits by murine caspase-8. No aspartase activity of murine caspase-14 could be generated by bacterial or yeast expression. Transient overexpression of murine caspase-14 in mammalian cells did not elicit cell death and did not interfere with caspase-8-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, caspase-14 is a member of the caspase family but no proteolytic or biological activities have been identified so far. The high constitutive expression levels in embryos and specific expression in adult skin suggest a role in ontogenesis and skin physiology. (+info)
Terminal differentiation of human keratinocytes and stratum corneum formation is associated with caspase-14 activation. (2/27)Programmed cell death of epidermal keratinocytes (KC) results in the formation of cornified cells, which constitute the outermost skin layer, the stratum corneum. Here we show by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry that epidermal KC express caspase-14, a member of the caspase family of pro-apoptotic proteases, in a tissue-specific manner. Caspase-14 protein abundance strongly increases during terminal differentiation of KC in vivo and in vitro. Under conditions that lead to stratum corneum formation caspase-14 cleavage products, which indicate proenzyme activation, appeared in the KC lysates. Cleavage of the enzyme was also detected in lysates from normal human epidermis and in extracts of stratum corneum. Our findings demonstrate that caspase-14 is activated during KC differentiation and strongly suggest that it is involved in the formation of the human skin barrier.J Invest Dermatol 115:1148-1151 2000 (+info)
Epidermal differentiation does not involve the pro-apoptotic executioner caspases, but is associated with caspase-14 induction and processing. (3/27)The epidermis is a stratified squamous epithelium in which keratinocytes progressively undergo terminal differentiation towards the skin surface leading to programmed cell death. In this respect we studied the role of caspases. Here, we show that caspase-14 synthesis in the skin is restricted to differentiating keratinocytes and that caspase-14 processing is associated with terminal epidermal differentiation. The pro-apoptotic executioner caspases-3, -6, and -7 are not activated during epidermal differentiation. Caspase-14 does not participate in apoptotic pathways elicited by treatment of differentiated keratinocytes with various death-inducing stimuli, in contrast to caspase-3. In addition, we show that non-cornifying oral keratinocyte epithelium does not express caspase-14 and that the parakeratotic regions of psoriatic skin lesions contain very low levels of caspase-14 as compared to normal stratum corneum. These observations strongly suggest that caspase-14 is involved in the keratinocyte terminal differentiation program leading to normal skin cornification, while the executioner caspases are not implicated. Cell Death and Differentiation (2000) 7, 1218 - 1224 (+info)
Expression and transcriptional regulation of caspase-14 in simple and complex epithelia. (4/27)Caspase-14 is a recent addition to the caspase family of aspartate proteases involved in apoptotic processes. Human caspase-14 appears to be only weakly processed during apoptosis, and it does not cleave classical caspase substrates. Post partum, caspase-14 is prominently expressed by human keratinocytes and reportedly participates in terminal differentiation of complex epithelia. Here we provide evidence challenging the view that caspase-14 expression or processing is linked exclusively to terminal keratinocyte differentiation. We demonstrate that caspase-14 expression extended to multiple cell lines derived from simple epithelia of the breast, prostate, and stomach. In keratinocytes and breast epithelial cells, caspase-14 expression was upregulated in high-density cultures and during forced suspension culture. These effects were primarily due to transcriptional activation as indicated by reporter gene assays using a 2 kb caspase-14 promoter fragment. Importantly, caspase-14 was not cleaved during forced suspension culture of either cell type although this treatment induced caspase-dependent apoptosis (anoikis). Forced expression of caspase-14 in immortalized human keratinocytes had no effect on cell death in forced suspension nor was the transfected caspase-14 processed in this setting. In contrast to postconfluent and forced suspension culture, terminal differentiation of keratinocytes induced in vitro by Ca2+ treatment was not associated with increased caspase-14 expression or promoter activity. Our results indicate that (1) caspase-14 is expressed not only in complex but also simple epithelia; (2) cells derived from complex and simple epithelia upregulate caspase-14 expression in conditions of high cell density or lack of matrix interaction and; (3) in both cell types this phenomenon is due to transcriptional regulation. (+info)
Caspase-14 expression by epidermal keratinocytes is regulated by retinoids in a differentiation-associated manner. (5/27)Caspase-14 is the only member of the caspase family that shows a restricted tissue expression. It is mainly confined to epidermal keratinocytes and in contrast to other caspases, is not activated during apoptosis induced by ultraviolet irradiation or cytotoxic substances. As it is cleaved under conditions leading to terminal differentiation of keratinocytes we suggested that caspase-14 plays a part in the physiologic cell death of keratinocytes leading to skin barrier formation. Here we show that retinoic acid, at concentrations inhibiting terminal differentiation of keratinocytes, strongly suppressed caspase-14 mRNA and protein expression by keratinocytes in monolayer culture and in a three-dimensional in vitro model of differentiating human epidermis (skin equivalent). By contrast, the expression of the caspases 3 and 8, which are both activated during conventional apoptosis, was increased and unchanged, respectively, after retinoic acid treatment. In addition to inhibition of differentiation in skin equivalents, retinoic acid treatment led to keratinocyte apoptosis and activation of caspase-3, both of which were undetectable in differentiated control skin equivalents. As this occurred in the absence of detectable caspase-14, our data demonstrate that caspase-14 is dispensable for keratinocyte apoptosis. The fact that in contrast to caspase-3 and caspase-8, caspase-14, similarly to other keratinocyte differentiation-associated proteins, is downregulated by retinoids, strongly suggests that this caspase, but not caspase-3 and -8, plays a part in terminal keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier formation. (+info)
Vitamin D3 induces caspase-14 expression in psoriatic lesions and enhances caspase-14 processing in organotypic skin cultures. (6/27)Caspase-14 is a nonapoptotic caspase family member whose expression in the epidermis is confined to the suprabasal layers, which consist of differentiating keratinocytes. Proteolytic activation of this caspase is observed in the later stages of epidermal differentiation. In psoriatic skin, a dramatic decrease in caspase-14 expression in the parakeratotic plugs was observed. Topical treatment of psoriatic lesions with a vitamin D3 analogue resulted in a decrease of the psoriatic phenotype and an increase in caspase-14 expression in the parakeratotic plugs. To investigate whether vitamin D3 directly affects caspase-14 expression levels, we used keratinocyte cell cultures. 1alpha,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol, the biologically active form of vitamin D3, increased caspase-14 expression, whereas retinoic acid inhibited it. Moreover, retinoic acid repressed the vitamin D3-induced caspase-14 expression level. In addition, the use of organotypic skin cultures demonstrated that 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol enhanced epidermal differentiation and caspase-14 activation, whereas retinoic acid completely blocked caspase-14 processing. Our data indicate that caspase-14 plays an important role in terminal epidermal differentiation, and its absence may contribute to the psoriatic phenotype. (+info)
Green tea polyphenol-induced epidermal keratinocyte differentiation is associated with coordinated expression of p57/KIP2 and caspase 14. (7/27)Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenol in green tea, exerts chemopreventive effects by selectively inducing apoptosis in tumor cells. In contrast, EGCG accelerates terminal differentiation in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) mediated partially by up-regulation of p57/KIP2, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that confers growth arrest and differentiation. However, it is unclear if EGCG modulates caspase 14, a unique regulator of epithelial cell terminal differentiation associated with cornification. Here, we examined the effect of EGCG on caspase 14 expression in NHEK and correlated the protein and mRNA expression of p57/KIP2 with those of caspase 14 in either normal keratinocytes or p57/KIP2-expressing tumor cells (OSC2, an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line). Additionally, paraffin-embedded normal and untreated psoriatic (aberrant keratinization) skin sections from humans were assessed for caspase 14 by immunohistochemistry. In NHEK, EGCG induced the expression of caspase 14 mRNA and protein levels within a 24-h period. The expression of p57/KIP2 in OSC2 cells was adequate to induce caspase 14 in the absence of EGCG; this induction of caspase 14 was down-regulated by transforming growth factor-beta1. In human psoriatic skin samples, caspase 14 staining in the upper epidermis was reduced, especially in nuclear areas. These results suggest that, in addition to p57/KIP2, EGCG-induced terminal differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes involves up-regulation of caspase 14. Further understanding of how EGCG modulates cellular differentiation may be useful in developing green tea preparations for selected clinical applications. (+info)
Stratum corneum-derived caspase-14 is catalytically active. (8/27)Caspase-14, a cysteine protease with restricted tissue distribution, is highly expressed in differentiated epidermal keratinocytes. Here, we extracted soluble proteins from stratum corneum (SC) of human epidermis and demonstrate that the extract cleaves tetrapeptide caspase substrates. The activity decreased to below 10% when caspase-14 was removed by immunodepletion showing that caspase-14 is the predominant caspase in SC. In contrast to normal SC, where caspase-14 was present exclusively in its processed form, incompletely matured SC of parakeratotic skin from psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis contained both procaspase-14 and caspase-14 subunits. Fractionation of extract from parakeratotic SC revealed that the peak caspase activity coeluted with processed caspase-14 but not with procaspase-14. Our results suggest that during regular terminal keratinocyte differentiation, endogenous procaspase-14 is converted to caspase-14 subunits that are catalytically active in the outermost layers of normal human skin. (+info)
Anti Human Caspase-14 Antibody, clone 4C9 | Bio-Rad Antibodies (formerly AbD Serotec)
Mouse anti Human caspase-14, clone 4C9 recognizes human caspase-14, a 242 amino acid ~28 kDa non-apoptotic caspase which exists as a
Cornification | definition of cornification by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of cornification in the Medical Dictionary? cornification explanation free. What is cornification? Meaning of cornification medical term. What does cornification mean?
AID 513048 - Inhibition of human caspase-3-mediated apoptosis assessed as Ac-DEVD-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin cleavage product at...
BioAssay record AID 513048 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human caspase-3-mediated apoptosis assessed as Ac-DEVD-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin cleavage product at 100 uM by fluorescence assay.
Modulating expression of LAMPs and ABH histo-blood group antigens in normal and neoplastic human skin
|p|Although the precise biological role of lysosomal membrane-associated glycoproteins (LAMPs) and ABH histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) remains somewhat unclear, they are thought to be related to cell differentiation, cellular adhesion, and tumorigenesis. Here, we present the first comparative immunohistochemical study of both LAMPs and HBGAs in normal and neoplastic skin. Their localization is compared to that of high molecular weight cytokeratin and cytokeratin MNF 116. LAMPs and HBGA were differentially expressed in the normal stratified squamous epithelium, suggesting that they are involved in the initial steps of the differentiation process, whereas HBGAs are characteristic of terminal keratinocyte differentiation. No change in the reactivity for HBGA was detected in the stratified epithelium overlying squamous cell or basal cell carcinomas, whereas a considerable loss of LAMPs was detected. LAMPs were overexpressed in tumor cells, whereas HBGAs were lost in tumor zones of
Filaggrin - definition of filaggrin by The Free Dictionary
Define filaggrin. filaggrin synonyms, filaggrin pronunciation, filaggrin translation, English dictionary definition of filaggrin. n a protein found in skin cells Noun 1. filaggrin - the main protein of the keratohyalin granules; the specific target of the immune response in rheumatoid...
a) Nuclear suprabasal beta-catenin (β-catenin) staini | Open-i
(a) Nuclear suprabasal beta-catenin (β-catenin) staining expression in all layers of epidermis except the parakeratotic and cornified layers of a psoriasis les
Filaggrin antibody | acris-antibodies.com
Kit Component:- KN219792G1, FLG gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN219792G2, FLG gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN219792D, donor vector…
September 2013 Altered barrier integrity and enhanced sensitization by filaggrin deficiency « Experimental Animal Division ...
Filaggrin is a structural protein in the stratum corneum (SC) that is produced as the ~500-kDa precursor protein profilaggrin. Profilaggrin is the major component of keratohyalin granules within the granular layer. Individual filaggrin monomers are released proteolytically during epidermal differentiation, and they contribute to macrofibril generation and the mechanical strength and integrity of the SC. Filaggrin monomers are finally degraded into natural moisturizing factors, which are believed to maintain hydration of the upper SC.Mutations in the filaggrin gene were reported to cause ichthyosis vulgaris  and were also identified as a major predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis (AD) . Disruption of the SC barrier caused by filaggrin deficiency may lead to percutaneous allergenic sensitization, a primary event in the pathogenesis of AD [3, 4]. Although various reports have suggested a role for filaggrin in SC barrier formation, the absence of mice specifically lacking filaggrin has ...
Levels of filaggrin degradation products are influenced by both filaggrin genotype and atopic dermatitis severity.
BACKGROUND: Filaggrin, coded by FLG, is the main source of several major components of natural moisturizing factor (NMF) in the stratum corneum (SC), including pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA) and urocanic acid (UCA). Loss-offunction mutations in FLG lead to reduced levels of filaggrin degradation products in the SC. It has recently been suggested that expression of filaggrin may additionally be influenced by the atopic inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the levels of several breakdown products of filaggrin in the SC in healthy controls (CTRL) and patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) in relation to FLG null allele status. We examined the relationship between NMF (defined here as the sum of PCA and UCA) and AD severity. METHODS: The SC levels of filaggrin degradation products including PCA, UCA, histidine (HIS) and tyrosine were determined in 24 CTRL and 96 patients with moderate-to-severe AD. All subjects were screened for 11 FLG mutations relevant for the study population. ...
Cytoplasmic processing of human profilaggrin by active mu-calpain
The differentiation of keratinocytes involves numerous steps including the formation of the cornified envelope and the aggregation of keratin filaments by filaggrin monomer molecules. In this study, we investigated whether mu-calpain is involved in the processing of profilaggrin to filaggrin monomer …
Ni(II) assisted hydrolysis of filaggrin protein - Radcliffe Department of Medicine
Disorder of Cornification 12 (Neutral Lipid Storage Type) Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - RightDiagnosis.com
Disorder of Cornification 12 (Neutral Lipid Storage Type) information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
Gentaur Molecular :Neuromi \ Filaggrin, monoclonal antibody, mouse, 100 ul. \ MO20041-100
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Neuromi \ Filaggrin, monoclonal antibody, mouse, 100 ul. \ MO20041-100 for more molecular products just contact us
Frontiers | Cardiovascular Imaging Techniques in Systemic Rheumatic Diseases | Medicine
Patients with by systemic rheumatic diseases (SRDs) are at significantly greater risk of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, CV events, and mortality than the general population. Although CV involvement in such patients is highly heterogeneous and may affect various structures of the heart, it can now be diagnosed earlier and promptly treated.The examinations used include transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) to investigate valve abnormalities, pericardial disease and ventricular wall motion defects. Coronary arteries can be investigated invasively using quantitative coronarography or intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to assess coronary diameter, or non-invasively using transthoracic or transesophageal ultrasonography (US), MRI, positron emission tomography (PET) after endothelium-dependent vasodilatory provocation, or CT to assess coronary flow reserve. Finally, peripheral circulation can be measured invasively by means of the
1rwk.1 | SWISS-MODEL Template Library
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1rwk.1. Crystal structure of human caspase-1 in complex with 3-(2-mercapto-acetylamino)-4-oxo-pentanoic acid
caspase-3 Antibody (E-8) | SCBT - Santa Cruz Biotechnology
caspase-3 Antibody (E-8) is a mouse monoclonal IgG2a that detects human caspase-3 and full length procaspase-3 by WB and Staining. 488 citations