A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Caspase 10 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones
Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Cytochrome c Group
X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein
Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1
bcl-2-Associated X Protein
Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
A subtype of caspases that contain long pro-domain regions that regulate the activation of the enzyme. The pro-domain regions contain protein-protein interaction motifs that can interact with specific signaling adaptor proteins such as DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS; DED SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS; and CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. Once activated, the initiator caspases can activate other caspases such as the EFFECTOR CASPASES.
In Situ Nick-End Labeling
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein
A signal-transducing adaptor protein that associates with TNF RECEPTOR complexes. It contains a death effector domain that can interact with death effector domains found on INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 8 and CASPASE 10. Activation of CASPASES via interaction with this protein plays a role in the signaling cascade that leads to APOPTOSIS.
Apoptosis Inducing Factor
A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
Tumor Cells, Cultured
CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein
An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.
Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Multimeric protein complexes formed in the CYTOSOL that play a role in the activation of APOPTOSIS. They can occur when MITOCHONDRIA become damaged due to cell stress and release CYTOCHROME C. Cytosolic cytochrome C associates with APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1 to form the apoptosomal protein complex. The apoptosome signals apoptosis by binding to and activating specific INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
Reactive Oxygen Species
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
CRADD Signaling Adaptor Protein
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins
A family of intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that contain caspase activation and recruitment domains. Proteins that contain this domain play a role in APOPTOSIS-related signal transduction by associating with other CARD domain-containing members and in activating INITIATOR CASPASES that contain CARD domains within their N-terminal pro-domain region.
bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein
Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases
A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
RNA, Small Interfering
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Amino Acid Sequence
Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
bcl-Associated Death Protein
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinase 2
Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein
A member of the myeloid leukemia factor (MLF) protein family with multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. In hematopoietic cells, it is located mainly in the nucleus, and in non-hematopoietic cells, primarily in the cytoplasm with a punctate nuclear localization. MLF1 plays a role in cell cycle differentiation.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Protein Processing, Post-Translational
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Receptors, Death Domain
A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Disease Models, Animal
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
Gene Expression Regulation
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Cell Line, Transformed
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Gene Knockdown Techniques
A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.
Protein Kinase C-delta
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
Lamin Type B
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
MAP Kinase Signaling System
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cross-talk between two cysteine protease families. Activation of caspase-12 by calpain in apoptosis. (1/149)Calpains and caspases are two cysteine protease families that play important roles in regulating pathological cell death. Here, we report that m-calpain may be responsible for cleaving procaspase-12, a caspase localized in the ER, to generate active caspase-12. In addition, calpain may be responsible for cleaving the loop region in Bcl-xL and, therefore, turning an antiapoptotic molecule into a proapoptotic molecule. We propose that disturbance to intracellular calcium storage as a result of ischemic injury or amyloid beta peptide cytotoxicity may induce apoptosis through calpain- mediated caspase-12 activation and Bcl-xL inactivation. These data suggest a novel apoptotic pathway involving calcium-mediated calpain activation and cross-talks between calpain and caspase families. (+info)
Activation of caspase-12, an endoplastic reticulum (ER) resident caspase, through tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2-dependent mechanism in response to the ER stress. (2/149)When accumulation of a malfolded protein in the endoplastic reticulum (ER) is induced by various adverse conditions, such as hypoxia, glucose starvation, and perturbation of calcium homeostasis, cells respond to the stress by increasing transcription of genes encoding ER molecular chaperones, a process known as unfolded protein response. The signaling is initiated by IRE1s, ER stress sensors. Alternatively, excessive stress to the ER results in apoptosis. Caspase-12 is known to be essential for this ER stress-induced apoptosis. In this study, we analyzed the detailed regulatory mechanisms of IRE1s during ER stress. We identified c-Jun N-terminal inhibitory kinase (JIK) as a binding partner of IRE1alpha, and JIK was seen to modulate IRE1alpha-TRAF2 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2) complex formation and the resultant alteration to c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling from IRE1s in response to ER stress. We also demonstrated that TRAF2 interacts with procaspase-12 and promotes the clustering of procaspase-12 and its activation by cleavage in response to ER stress. These results indicate that TRAF2 plays crucial roles not only in the signaling of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway but also in activation of caspase-12 to transduce signals from IRE1s. Thus, we provide a missing link in the ER stress-induced apoptosis-signaling pathway, one which connects the stress sensor molecule IRE1 and the activation of caspase-12. (+info)
Coupling endoplasmic reticulum stress to the cell death program. Mechanism of caspase activation. (3/149)The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of assembly of polypeptide chains destined for secretion or routing into various subcellular compartments. It also regulates cellular responses to stress and intracellular Ca(2+) levels. A variety of toxic insults can result in ER stress that ultimately leads to apoptosis. Apoptosis is initiated by the activation of members of the caspase family and serves as a central mechanism in the cell death process. The present study was carried out to determine the role of caspases in triggering ER stress-induced cell death. Treatment of cells with ER stress inducers such as brefeldin-A or thapsigargin induces the expression of caspase-12 protein and also leads to translocation of cytosolic caspase-7 to the ER surface. Caspase-12, like most other members of the caspase family, requires cleavage of the prodomain to activate its proapoptotic form. Caspase-7 associates with caspase-12 and cleaves the prodomain to generate active caspase-12, resulting in increased cell death. We propose that any cellular insult that causes prolonged ER stress may induce apoptosis through caspase-7-mediated caspase-12 activation. The data underscore the involvement of ER and caspases associated with it in the ER stress-induced apoptotic process. (+info)
Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cysteine protease activation in cortical neurons: effect of an Alzheimer's disease-linked presenilin-1 knock-in mutation. (4/149)Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elicits protective responses of chaperone induction and translational suppression and, when unimpeded, leads to caspase-mediated apoptosis. Alzheimer's disease-linked mutations in presenilin-1 (PS-1) reportedly impair ER stress-mediated protective responses and enhance vulnerability to degeneration. We used cleavage site-specific antibodies to characterize the cysteine protease activation responses of primary mouse cortical neurons to ER stress and evaluate the influence of a PS-1 knock-in mutation on these and other stress responses. Two different ER stressors lead to processing of the ER-resident protease procaspase-12, activation of calpain, caspase-3, and caspase-6, and degradation of ER and non-ER protein substrates. Immunocytochemical localization of activated caspase-3 and a cleaved substrate of caspase-6 confirms that caspase activation extends into the cytosol and nucleus. ER stress-induced proteolysis is unchanged in cortical neurons derived from the PS-1 P264L knock-in mouse. Furthermore, the PS-1 genotype does not influence stress-induced increases in chaperones Grp78/BiP and Grp94 or apoptotic neurodegeneration. A similar lack of effect of the PS-1 P264L mutation on the activation of caspases and induction of chaperones is observed in fibroblasts. Finally, the PS-1 knock-in mutation does not alter activation of the protein kinase PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), a trigger for stress-induced translational suppression. These data demonstrate that ER stress in cortical neurons leads to activation of several cysteine proteases within diverse neuronal compartments and indicate that Alzheimer's disease-linked PS-1 mutations do not invariably alter the proteolytic, chaperone induction, translational suppression, and apoptotic responses to ER stress. (+info)
Wild-type, mitochondrial and ER-restricted Bcl-2 inhibit DNA damage-induced apoptosis but do not affect death receptor-induced apoptosis. (5/149)The proto-oncogene Bcl-2 is expressed in membranes of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and mediates resistance against a broad range of apoptotic stimuli. Although several mechanisms of Bcl-2 action have been proposed, its role in different cellular organelles remains elusive. Here, we analyzed the function of Bcl-2 targeted specifically to certain subcellular compartments in Jurkat cells. Bcl-2 expression was restricted to the outer mitochondrial membrane by replacing its membrane anchor with the mitochondrial insertion sequence of ActA (Bcl-2/MT) or the ER-specific sequence of cytochrome b5 (Bcl-2/ER). Additionally, cells expressing wild-type Bcl-2 (Bcl-2/WT) or a transmembrane domain-lacking mutant (Bcl-2/DeltaTM) were employed. Apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation or by the death receptors for CD95L or TRAIL was analyzed by determination of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) and activation of different caspases. Bcl-2/WT and Bcl-2/MT strongly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis and caspase activation, whereas Bcl-2/DeltaTM had completely lost its anti-apoptotic effect. Interestingly, Bcl-2/ER conferred protection against radiation-induced mitochondrial damage and apoptosis similarly to Bcl-2/MT. The finding that ER-targeted Bcl-2 interfered with mitochondrial DeltaPsi(m) breakdown and caspase-9 activation indicates the presence of a crosstalk between both organelles in radiation-induced apoptosis. By contrast, Bcl-2 in either subcellular position did not influence CD95- or TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. (+info)
Formation of noncanonical high molecular weight caspase-3 and -6 complexes and activation of caspase-12 during serum starvation induced apoptosis in AKR-2B mouse fibroblasts. (6/149)Apoptosis is mainly brought about by the activation of caspases, a protease family with unique substrate selectivity. In mammals, different complexes like the DISC complex or the apoptosome complexes have been delineated leading to the cleavage and thus activation of the executioner caspases. Although caspase-3 is the main executioner caspase in apoptosis induced by serum starvation in AKR-2B fibroblasts as demonstrated by affinity labeling with YVK(-bio)D.aomk and partial purification of cytosolic extracts by high performance ion exchange chromatography, its activation is apparently caused by a noncanonical pathway: (1) Expression of CrmA, an inhibitor of caspase-8, failed to suppress apoptosis; (2) There was no formation of high molecular weight complexes of Apaf-1 indicative for its activation. Furthermore no cleavage of caspase-9 was observed. But surprisingly, gelfiltration experiments revealed the distribution of caspase-3 and -6 into differently sized high molecular weight complexes during apoptosis. Though the apparent molecular weights of the complexes containing caspase-3 (600 kD for apoptosome and 250 kD for microapoptosome) are in accordance with recently published data, the activity profiles differ strikingly. In AKR-2B cells caspase-3 is mainly recovered as uncomplexed enzyme and in much lower levels in the apoptosomes. Remarkably, the 600 kD and 250 kD complexes containing activated caspase-3 were devoid of Apaf-1 and cytochrome c. In addition a new 450 kD complex containing activated caspase-6 was found that is clearly separated from the caspase-3 containing complexes. Furthermore, we disclose for the first time the activation of caspase-12 in response to serum starvation. Activated caspase-12 is detectable as non-complexed free enzyme in the cytosol. (+info)
Coupling endoplasmic reticulum stress to the cell death program. An Apaf-1-independent intrinsic pathway. (7/149)Accumulation of misfolded proteins and alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and leads to cell death. However, the signal-transducing events that connect ER stress to cell death pathways are incompletely understood. To discern the pathway by which ER stress-induced cell death proceeds, we performed studies on Apaf-1(-/-) (null) fibroblasts that are known to be relatively resistant to apoptotic insults that induce the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. While these cells were resistant to cell death initiated by proapoptotic stimuli such as tamoxifen, they were susceptible to apoptosis induced by thapsigargin and brefeldin-A, both of which induce ER stress. This pathway was inhibited by catalytic mutants of caspase-12 and caspase-9 and by a peptide inhibitor of caspase-9 but not by caspase-8 inhibitors. Cleavage of caspases and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase was observed in cell-free extracts lacking cytochrome c that were isolated from thapsigargin or brefeldin-treated cells. To define the molecular requirements for this Apaf-1 and cytochrome c-independent apoptosis pathway further, we developed a cell-free system of ER stress-induced apoptosis; the addition of microsomes prepared from ER stress-induced cells to a normal cell extract lacking mitochondria or cytochrome c resulted in processing of caspases. Immunodepletion experiments suggested that caspase-12 was one of the microsomal components required to activate downstream caspases. Thus, ER stress-induced programmed cell death defines a novel, mitochondrial and Apaf-1-independent, intrinsic apoptotic pathway. (+info)
Coupling endoplasmic reticulum stress to the cell death program: role of the ER chaperone GRP78. (8/149)Alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis and accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lead to an ER stress response. Prolonged ER stress may lead to cell death. Glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78 (Bip) is an ER lumen protein whose expression is induced during ER stress. GRP78 is involved in polypeptide translocation across the ER membrane, and also acts as an apoptotic regulator by protecting the host cell against ER stress-induced cell death, although the mechanism by which GRP78 exerts its cytoprotective effect is not understood. The present study was carried out to determine whether one of the mechanisms of cell death inhibition by GRP78 involves inhibition of caspase activation. Our studies indicate that treatment of cells with ER stress inducers causes GRP78 to redistribute from the ER lumen with subpopulations existing in the cytosol and as an ER transmembrane protein. GRP78 inhibits cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation in a cell-free system, and expression of GRP78 blocks both caspase activation and caspase-mediated cell death. GRP78 forms a complex with caspase-7 and -12 and prevents release of caspase-12 from the ER. Addition of (d)ATP dissociates this complex and may facilitate movement of caspase-12 into the cytoplasm to set in motion the cytosolic component of the ER stress-induced apoptotic cascade. These results define a novel protective role for GRP78 in preventing ER stress-induced cell death. (+info)
E2-25K/Hip-2 regulates caspase-12 in ER stress-mediated Aβ neurotoxicity | JCB
Although caspase-12 is a proximal caspase and is an important mediator of apoptosis triggered by ER stress, we believe its accumulation may not, itself, be sufficient to induce cell death. When we overexpressed caspase-12 in various cell types, including fibroblasts and neuronal cells, it was much less effective in inducing cell death than other proximal caspases, such as caspase-8, -9, and -10 (unpublished data). To be effective, apparently, caspase-12 needs to interact with one or more activators. In our study, E2-25K/Hip-2 was able to induce both calpainlike activity and efficient proteolytic processing of caspase-12. One possible explanation is that the inhibition of proteasome activity by E2-25K/Hip-2 leads to an accumulation of misfolded proteins within cells, which in turn induces ER stress, including the activation of calpain. Consistent with that idea, it has been shown that the inhibition of proteasome activity by aggregation-prone proteins or proteasome inhibitors does indeed induce ...
Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in pancreatic beta-cells. - PubMed - NCBI
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Involvement of caspase-4 in endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis and Aβ-induced cell death | JCB
It has been known that apoptotic morphological changes are observed in cell death caused by ER stress (Imaizumi et al., 2001). Caspases are activated to transmit apoptotic signals transcending the difference in species (Alnemri et al., 1996). In rodents, caspase-12 mediates apoptosis specifically in response to ER stress (Nakagawa et al., 2000). Although human caspase-12 gene is transcribed into mRNA, mature caspase-12 protein would not be produced, because the gene is interrupted by frame shift and premature stop codon (Fischer et al., 2002). Furthermore, it contains amino acid substitution in the critical site, which leads to loss of function in several caspases (Fischer et al., 2002). Thus, human caspase-12 does not seem to function in ER stress-induced apoptosis, and some other caspases with similar structure might substitute functionally for caspase-12 in humans. The caspase-12 gene is located within a region where caspase-1/ICE subfamily genes cluster (caspases 1, 4, 5, 12 in human and ...
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Apoptosis Involved in Indirect Recognition Pathway Blockade Induces Long-Term Heart...
Implementation of dendritic cell- (DC-) based therapies in organ transplantation can reduce dependency on nonspecific immunosuppression. Despite extensive research, mechanisms of equipped DCs inducing transplant tolerance remain incomplete. Here, we applied RNA interference technique to inhibit CD80 and CD86 expression in host bone marrow-derived DCs. This approach could specifically and effectively knock down CD80 and CD86 expression. T cells primed by these DCs inhibited allogeneic responses. Administration of recipient DCs loaded with alloantigen after CD80 and CD86 blockade prolonged cardiac allograft survival. We also found a higher percentage of apoptotic T cells in lymph tissues and grafts than that detected in control group. In addition, these T cells expressed high expression of GRP78 than controls, indicating activation of unfolded protein responses. Upregulation of CHOP expression among these cells suggested that the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) response switched to a proapoptotic
Heme Oxygenase (HO)-1 Induction Prevents Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Endothelial Cell Death and Dysfunction |...
Diabetes is intimately associated with cardiovascular complications. Much evidence highlighted the complex interplay between Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction was shown to protect against oxidative stress in diabetes; however the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. We aim in this project to test the hypothesis that HO-1 induction will protect against high glucose-mediated ER stress and oxidative stress in endothelial cells and will enhance cell survival. Endothelial cells were cultured in physiological or high concentrations of glucose in the presence of cobalt protoporphyrin 1X (CoPP, HO-1 inducer), 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA, chemical chaperone to inhibit ER stress) or vehicle. Then, ER stress response was assessed (PCR, western blot). The productions of ROS (flow cytometer) and NO (Griess assay) were analysed. Also, apoptosis and caspase 3/7 activity were assessed. High glucose treatment
XAF1 and ZNF313 complex stimulates ER stress-induced apoptosis via direct GRP78 inhibition. | OncologyPRO
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ER stress-induced processing and nuclear translocation | Open-i
ER stress-induced processing and nuclear translocation of GFP-ATF6. (a) Twenty-four hours after transfection with pCMVshort-EGFP-ATF6 (WT), 293T cells were left
Frontiers | Transcription Factor C/EBP Homologous Protein in Health and Diseases | Immunology
C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), known also as DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 and as growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 153 (GADD153), is induced in response to certain stressors. CHOP is universally acknowledged as a main conduit to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis. Ongoing research established the existence of CHOP-mediated apoptosis signaling networks, for which novel downstream targets are still being determined. However, there are studies that contradict this notion and assert that apoptosis is not the only mechanism by which CHOP plays in the development of pathologies. In this review, insights into the roles of CHOP in pathophysiology are summarized at the molecular and cellular levels. We further focus on the newest advances that implicate CHOP in human diseases including cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and notably, fibrosis.
KEGG ORTHOLOGY: K04426
Physiological roles of ASK1-mediated signal transduction in oxidative stress- and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis: advanced findings from ASK1 knockout mice ...
Items where Academic/Research unit is Theses - Surrey Research Insight Open Access
Maamoun, Hatem, Agouni, Abdelali and McVey, John (2017) Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated endothelial cell death and impaired angiogenic capacity induced by high glucose. Doctoral thesis, University of Surrey. Mac Crosain, Alison (2017) Evaluating RE-ID : an acceptance and commitment therapy group intervention exploring identity after acquired brain injury. Doctoral thesis, University of Surrey. Maheshwarappa, Mamatha R. (2017) Software defined radio (SDR) architecture for concurrent multi-satellite communications. Doctoral thesis, University of Surrey. Mai, Anna (2017) Oxidative stress in high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Doctoral thesis, University of Surrey. Maldonado, Elaina Marie (2017) An investigation of the role of glucose and fructose in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease using systems approaches. Doctoral thesis, University of Surrey. Mallikarachchi, Thanuja (2017) HEVC encoder optimization ...
CCDC88B - Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 88B - Homo sapiens (Human) - CCDC88B gene & protein
Acts as a positive regulator of T-cell maturation and inflammatory function. Required for several functions of T-cells, in both the CD4(+) and the CD8(+) compartments and this includes expression of cell surface markers of activation, proliferation, and cytokine production in response to specific or non-specific stimulation (By similarity). Enhances NK cell cytotoxicity by positively regulating polarization of microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) to cytotoxic synapse, lytic granule transport along microtubules, and dynein-mediated clustering to MTOC (PubMed:25762780). Interacts with HSPA5 and stabilizes the interaction between HSPA5 and ERN1, leading to suppression of ERN1-induced JNK activation and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis (PubMed:21289099).
AID 513048 - Inhibition of human caspase-3-mediated apoptosis assessed as Ac-DEVD-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin cleavage product at...
BioAssay record AID 513048 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human caspase-3-mediated apoptosis assessed as Ac-DEVD-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin cleavage product at 100 uM by fluorescence assay.
Endoplasmic reticulum stress and intestinal inflammation - Richard Blumberg
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an ancient conserved mechanism that allows cells, especially those with significant secretory function such as intestinal e...
Frontiers | Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced PCD and caspase-like activities involved | Plant Science
Plant cells, like cells from other kingdoms, have the ability to self-destruct in a genetically controlled manner. This process is defined as Programmed Cell Death (PCD). PCD can be triggered by various stimuli in plants including by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Research in the past two decades discovered that disruption of protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) could cause ER stress, which when prolonged/unresolved leads cells into PCD. ER stress-induced PCD is part of several plant processes, for instance, drought and heat stress have been found to elicit ER stress-induced PCD. Despite the importance of ER stress-induced PCD in plants, its regulation remains largely unknown, when compared with its counterpart in animal cells. In mammalian cells, several pro-apoptotic proteases called caspases were found to play a crucial role in ER stress-induced PCD. Over the past decade, several key proteases with caspase-like enzymatic activity have been discovered in plants and implicated in
The herbicide dinitramine affects the proliferation of murine testicular cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced calcium...
The hazardous effects of herbicides are well known; however, their effects on the reproductive system remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated the anti-proliferative effects of dinitramine (DN) on immature murine testicular cell lines (Leydig and Sertoli cells) mediated via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced calcium dysregulation in the cytosol and mitochondria. The results demonstrated that the viability and proliferation of DN-treated TM3 and TM4 cells decreased significantly, eve
Cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum stress: a matter of life or death
The proper functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is critical for numerous aspects of cell physiology. Accordingly, all eukaryotes react rapidly to ER dysfunction through a set of adaptive pathways known collectively as the ER stress response (ESR). Normally, this suite of responses succeeds …
Aging | Impaired autophagic activity and ATG4B deficiency are associated with increased endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced...
Aging is the main risk factor for the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive and usually lethal lung disorder. Although the pathogenic mechanisms are uncertain, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and impaired proteostasis that have been linked with aging are strongly associated with the pathogenesis of IPF. Using the Atg4b-deficient mice as a model, that partially reproduces the autophagy deficient conditions reported in aging and IPF lungs, we show for the first time how autophagy impairment and ER stress induction, contribute simultaneously to development of lung fibrosis in vivo. Increased expression of ER stress markers, inflammation and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells were observed in Atg4b-deficient mice compared to WT mice, when treated with the ER stress inducer tunicamycin. After tunicamycin treatment, Atg4b null lungs showed accumulation of its substrate LC3-I, demonstrating that these mice failed to induce autophagy despite the ER stress conditions. We also
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Heart | Circulation Research
Several studies have correlated ER stress with myocardial damage. For example, the ER stress response is activated in the hearts of transgenic mice that overexpress monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and develop heart failure,36 suggesting that in this model, the proapoptotic phase of ER stress contributes to the loss of myocardium associated with failure. In further support of a role for ER stress in heart failure is the finding that transgenic overexpression of a mutant KDEL receptor, an ER protein that facilitates ER protein targeting, activates the ER stress response in mouse hearts and causes dilated cardiomyopathy.69 Also, overexpression of the ER stress response gene product p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) contributes to ER stress-mediated apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes70 and targeted deletion of PUMA in mouse hearts attenuates cardiomyocyte death during ex vivo I/R.71. In contrast to the studies cited above, other studies suggest that ER stress might protect the ...
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Resistance to Doxorubicin Is Reversed by Mulberry Leaf Polyphenol Extract in...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Endoplasmic reticulum stress with low-dose cyclosporine in fre...
Endoplasmic reticulum stress with low-dose cyclosporine in frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome.: An unfolded protein response due to ER stress induced by Cs
Peroxiredoxin II Is Essential for Maintaining Stemness by Redox Regulation in Liver Cancer Cells | Stem Cells Portal - Stem...
Association of Prx II with cancer stem cell in HCC cells. (A): Representative image of EpCAM(+)/K19(+) HCC showing Prx II expression in contrast to EpCAM(−)/K19(−) HCC without expression of Prx II (magnification, × 200). (B): Comparison of proportions of Prx II expressing in EpCAM(+)/K19(+) HCCs and EpCAM(−)/K19(−) HCCs. (C): Expression levels of Sox2 in Huh7 cells transfected with siPrx II.
Human evolutionary genetics
CASPASE12, a cysteinyl aspartate proteinase. The loss of this gene is speculated to have reduced the lethality of bacterial ... Of these 12 supported the Homo-Pan clade, 3 the Homo-Gorilla clade, 4 the Pan-Gorilla clade and 16 gave no resolution. ... Retrieved 2010-12-31. Tishkoff, SA.; Reed, FA.; Friedlaender, FR.; Ehret, C.; Ranciaro, A.; Froment, A.; Hirbo, JB.; Awomoyi, ... Usually the molecular clock is calibrated assuming that the orangutan split from the African apes (including humans) 12-16 MYA ...
"AID and Caspase 8 Shape the Germinal Center Response through Apoptosis". The Journal of Immunology. 191 (12): 5840-5847. doi: ... 172 (12): 7432-7441. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.172.12.7432. ISSN 0022-1767. PMID 15187121. Allen, Christopher D. C.; Okada, Takaharu ... A centroblast generally refers to an activated B cell that is enlarged (12-18 micrometer) and is rapidly proliferating in the ...
Another more recent example of a disabled gene links the deactivation of the caspase 12 gene (through a nonsense mutation) to ... "Spread of an inactive form of caspase-12 in humans is due to recent positive selection". American Journal of Human Genetics. 78 ... 12 (4): 246-58. doi:10.1038/nrm3089. PMID 21427766. S2CID 5710813. Karreth FA, Reschke M, Ruocco A, Ng C, Chapuy B, Léopold V, ... 13 (12): 2559-67. doi:10.1101/gr.1455503. PMC 403797. PMID 14656963. Bischof JM, Chiang AP, Scheetz TE, Stone EM, Casavant TL, ...
"Gender differences in expression of the human caspase-12 long variant determines susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes ... Alleyne, Richard (12 May 2009). "Men succumb to manflu because women have stronger immune systems, claim scientists". The Daily ... Retrieved 12 September 2011. "NZ Herald - Breaking news, latest news, business, sport and entertainment". Archived from the ...
Involvement of Apoptosis Inducing Factor and Caspase-12". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 52 (16): 5176-5187. doi:10.1021/ ... compound induces the death of cancer cells by an original mechanism that involves the apoptosis-inducing factor and caspase 12 ...
... caspase-8 and caspase-10. In some types of cells (type I), processed caspase-8 directly activates other members of the caspase ... Caspase-independent apoptosis. The characterization of the caspases allowed the development of caspase inhibitors, which ... Caspases. Caspases play the central role in the transduction of ER apoptotic signals. Caspases are proteins that are highly ... The apoptosome cleaves the pro-caspase to its active form of caspase-9, which in turn cleaves and activates pro-caspase into ...
"Mylabris phalerata induces apoptosis by caspase activation following cytochrome c release and Bid cleavage". Life Sciences. 73 ... Huh, JE; Kang, KS; Ahn, KS; Kim, DH; Saiki, I; Kim, SH (12 September 2003). " ...
Chimpanzee genome project
Humans appear to have lost a functional Caspase 12 gene, which in other primates codes for an enzyme that may protect against ... 12, 15, 16, 17, and 18. After the completion of the Human genome project, a common chimpanzee genome project was initiated. In ...
Unfolded protein response
May 2012). "Influenza induces endoplasmic reticulum stress, caspase-12-dependent apoptosis, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase- ... at which point human procaspase 4 is believed to cause apoptosis by activating downstream caspases. Although PERK is recognised ... cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activation. Diseases Diseases amenable to UPR inhibition include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, ... 43 (12): e13076. doi:10.1111/jfbc.13076. ISSN 1745-4514. Kitamura,M Datan E, Roy SG, Germain G, Zali N, McLean JE, Golshan G, ...
Envelope glycoprotein GP120
gp120 induces mitochondrial-death proteins like caspases which may influence the upregulation of the death receptor Fas leading ... "Tubular cell HIV-1 gp120 expression induces caspase 8 activation and apoptosis". Ren Fail. 31 (4): 303-12. doi:10.1080/ ... "Tubular Cell HIV-1 gp120 Expression Induces Caspase 8 Activation and Apoptosis". Renal Failure. 31 (4): 303-312. doi:10.1080/ ... 14 (12): 1229-46. doi:10.1093/glycob/cwh106. PMID 15175256. Liu Y, Curlin ME, Diem K, Zhao H, Ghosh AK, Zhu H, Woodward AS, ...
"Effects of galactomyces ferment filtrate on epidermal barrier marker caspase-14 in human skin cells". Journal of the American ... Retrieved 2017-12-03. "The Effects of Essence-Formed Cosmetic Ingredients Containing the Galactomyces Ferment Filtrate on Skin ...
2001). "Activation of caspase-12, an endoplastic reticulum (ER) resident caspase, through tumor necrosis factor receptor- ... 8 (12): 982-9. doi:10.1038/nchembio.1094. PMC 3508346. PMID 23086298. Katayama T, Imaizumi K, Sato N, et al. (2000). " ... 12 (12): 1812-24. doi:10.1101/gad.12.12.1812. PMC 316900. PMID 9637683. "Entrez Gene: ERN1 endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus ...
2001). "Activation of caspase-12, an endoplastic reticulum (ER) resident caspase, through tumor necrosis factor receptor- ...
Kanneganti's lab showed compensatory roles for NLRP3/caspase-1 and caspase-8 in the regulation of IL-1β production in ... Her lab identified caspase-8 and FADD as expression and activation regulators of both the canonical and non-canonical NLRP3 ... This finding went against the dogma that existed at that time that caspase-8 and FADD were involved only in the apoptotic ... This study demonstrated that the NLRP3 inflammasome/pyroptotic pathway is closely connected to the caspase-8-mediated ...
... the Smac mimetic promotes formation of a RIPK1-dependent caspase-8-activating complex, leading to apoptosis. ... 117 (12): 3988-4002. doi:10.1172/JCI32533. PMC 2096439. PMID 18060036.. *^ a b c Weigand, Melanie; Hantel, Pia; Kreienberg, ... 117 (12): 3846-56. doi:10.1172/JCI31871. PMC 2096430. PMID 18060032.. *^ a b Hartman, Zachary C.; Yang, Xiao-Yi; Glass, Oliver ... STAT3 and RANTES contribute to the maintenance of drug resistance by upregulating anti-apoptotic signals and inhibiting caspase ...
McDonald ER, El-Deiry WS (2004). "Suppression of caspase-8- and -10-associated RING proteins results in sensitization to death ... 2005). "Crystal structure of a FYVE-type zinc finger domain from the caspase regulator CARP2". Structure. 12 (12): 2257-63. doi ...
... 2, Caspase 8, Caspase 9, Caspase 10) Executioner Caspases (Caspase 3, Caspase 6 and Caspase 7) Once initiator caspases ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4, Caspase-5 and Caspase-11 are considered 'Inflammatory Caspases'. Caspase-1 is key in activating pro- ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4 and Caspase-5 in humans, and Caspase-1 and Caspase-11 in mice play important roles in inducing cell death ... Pyroptosis by Caspase-4 and Caspase-5 in humans and Caspase-11 in mice These caspases have the ability to induce direct ...
... is an initiator caspase, as are caspase-8 (EC 220.127.116.11), caspase-9 (EC 18.104.22.168) and caspase-10 (EC 22.214.171.124). ... Caspase-2 (EC 126.96.36.199, ICH-1, NEDD-2, caspase-2L, caspase-2S, neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated ... Li H, Bergeron L, Cryns V, Pasternack MS, Zhu H, Shi L, Greenberg A, Yuan J (August 1997). "Activation of caspase-2 in ... Mancini M, Machamer CE, Roy S, Nicholson DW, Thornberry NA, Casciola-Rosen LA, Rosen A (May 2000). "Caspase-2 is localized at ...
Once activated, caspase-9 goes on to cleave caspase-3, -6, and -7, initiating the caspase cascade as they cleave several other ... Active caspase-9 works as an initiating caspase by cleaving, thus activating downstream executioner caspases, initiating ... Different protein isoforms of caspase-9 are produced due to alternative splicing. Similar to other caspases, caspase-9 has ... Previously activated caspases can cleave caspase-9, causing its dimerization. Caspase-9 has a preferred cleavage sequence of ...
Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... Caspase 10 has been shown to interact with FADD, CFLAR, Caspase 8, Fas receptor, RYBP, TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF10B. The Proteolysis ... Wang, J; Chun H J; Wong W; Spencer D M; Lenardo M J (November 2001). "Caspase-10 is an initiator caspase in death receptor ... This protein cleaves and activates caspases 3 and 7, and the protein itself is processed by caspase 8. Mutations in this gene ...
The precursor of this caspase is cleaved by caspase 3, caspase 10, and caspase 9. It is activated upon cell death stimuli and ... Caspase 7 has been shown to interact with: Caspase 8, Survivin and XIAP. The Proteolysis Map Caspase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes that undergo proteolytic processing by upstream caspases (caspase-8, -9) at conserved ... Caspase-7 is a member of the caspase (cysteine aspartate protease) family of proteins, and has been shown to be an executioner ...
... has been shown to interact with Caspase 8. The Proteolysis Map Caspase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138794 - ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... Caspase 6 can also undergo self-processing without other members of the caspase family. Alternative splicing of this gene ... "Entrez Gene: CASP6 caspase 6, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase". Cowling V, Downward J (Oct 2002). "Caspase-6 is the direct ...
This caspase has been shown to be processed and activated by caspase 8 and caspase 10 in vitro, and by anti-Fas agonist ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... 1998). "Identification and characterization of murine caspase-14, a new member of the caspase family". Cancer Res. 58 (22): ... 2004). "Vitamin D3 induces caspase-14 expression in psoriatic lesions and enhances caspase-14 processing in organotypic skin ...
Instead, it is thought to inhibit Caspase-1 activation by interfering with the interaction of Caspase-1 with other important ... and a caspase, in this case Caspase-1. In some cases, where the signaling proteins contain their own CARDs, like in NLRP1 and ... Caspase-1 is produced as a zymogen that can then be cleaved into 20 kDa (p20) and 10 kDa (p10) subunits that become part of the ... Active Caspase 1 contains two heterodimers of p20 and p10. It contains a catalytic domain with an active site that spans both ...
It is closely related to caspase 1 and other members of the caspase family, known as inflammatory caspases, which process and ... Caspase 12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASP12 gene. The protein belongs to a family of enzymes called ... It is found on chromosome 11 in humans in a locus with other inflammatory caspases.CASP12 orthologs have been identified in ... The trials were carried out on laboratory mice which had been implanted with the human caspase-12 gene. The inactive truncated ...
Caspase-3 is a caspase protein that interacts with caspase-8 and caspase-9. It is encoded by the CASP3 gene. CASP3 orthologs ... As an executioner caspase, the caspase-3 zymogen has virtually no activity until it is cleaved by an initiator caspase after ... Caspase substrate specificity has been widely used in caspase based inhibitor and drug design. Caspase-3, in particular, (also ... During the caspase cascade, however, caspase-3 functions to inhibit XIAP activity by cleaving caspase-9 at a specific site, ...
Caspase-8 has been shown to interact with: BCAP31, BID, Bcl-2, CFLAR, Caspase-10, Caspase-2, Caspase-3, Caspase-6, Caspase-7, ... Caspase-8 is a caspase protein, encoded by the CASP8 gene. It most likely acts upon caspase-3. CASP8 orthologs have been ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... For the death pathway, the caspase-8 zymogen is cleaved into subunits that assemble to form the mature, highly active caspase ...
CAD release from ICAD inhibition is achieved by cleavage of ICAD at these Asp residues by the caspase-3. Caspase-3 is activated ... Larsen BD, Rampalli S, Burns LE, Brunette S, Dilworth FJ, Megeney LA (March 2010). "Caspase 3/caspase-activated DNase promote ... October 2005). "The contribution of apoptosis-inducing factor, caspase-activated DNase, and inhibitor of caspase-activated ... "Entrez Gene: DFFB DNA fragmentation factor, 40kDa, beta polypeptide (caspase-activated DNase)". Davidson College. "Caspase ...
CEDS is caused by homozygous mutations in caspase-8. Caspase-8 is a 51 kb gene with 13 exons encoding for a 496 amino acid ... For the death pathway, the caspase-8 zymogen is cleaved into subunits that assemble to form the mature, highly active caspase ... The mutations lead to functional caspase-8 deficiency by destabilizing the caspase-8 protein and inactivating its enzymatic ... Caspase-8 deficiency (CEDS) is a very rare genetic disorder of the immune system. It is caused by mutations in the CASP8 gene ...
... of the presenilin 1/beta-catenin interaction and preservation of the heterodimeric presenilin 1 complex following caspase ... 95 (14): 8108-12. Bibcode:1998PNAS...95.8108L. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.14.8108. PMC 20937. PMID 9653148.. ... This page was last edited on 12 February 2019, at 18:47 (UTC). ... 12 D1,12 38.84 cM. Start. 83,688,152 bp. End. 83,735,199 bp[ ...
CASP16P: encoding protein Caspase 16, pseudogene. *CCDC113: encoding protein Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 113 ... 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2017-03-04.. *^ a b "Search results - 16[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND ("has ccds"[Properties] ... 2017-05-12. Retrieved 2017-05-19.. *^ "Chromosome 16: Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". Ensembl Release 88. 2017-03-29. ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
... condensed apoptotic nuclei and a 2-4 fold increase in cortical precursors that stained immunopositive for cleaved caspase-3.[30 ... 12] BDNF is also expressed in the retina, kidneys, prostate, motor neurons and skeletal muscle and it is also found in saliva.[ ... 33 (8): 1508-12. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2009.08.011. PMID 19720106. S2CID 43300334.. ...
... the Smac mimetic promotes formation of a RIPK1-dependent caspase-8-activating complex, leading to apoptosis. Recent studies ... 117 (12): 3846-56. doi:10.1172/JCI31871. PMC 2096430 . PMID 18060032. Hartman, Zachary C.; Yang, Xiao-Yi; Glass, Oliver; Lei, ... 12 (5): 445-56. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2007.08.029. PMC 3431210 . PMID 17996648. Marek, Lindsay; Ware, Kathryn E.; Fritzsche, Alexa ... 117 (12): 3988-4002. doi:10.1172/JCI32533. PMC 2096439 . PMID 18060036. Weigand, Melanie; Hantel, Pia; Kreienberg, Rolf; ...
The resulting deconstruction of cellular components is primarily carried out by specialized proteases known as caspases, but ... 12 (9): 1158-61. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401709. PMID 16094391.. *^ Kopp F, Steiner R, Dahlmann B, Kuehn L, Reinauer H (August 1986 ... 12 (1): 85-98. doi:10.1006/smim.2000.0210. PMID 10723801.. *^ Ermolaeva MA, Dakhovnik A, Schumacher B (January 2015). "Quality ... 12 (9): 1167-77. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401691. PMID 16094393.. *^ Wilk S, Orlowski M (November 1980). "Cation-sensitive neutral ...
Innate immune system
HR has some similarities to animal pyroptosis, such as a requirement of caspase-1-like proteolytic activity of VPEγ, a cysteine ... November 2004). "VPEgamma exhibits a caspase-like activity that contributes to defense against pathogens". Current Biology. 14 ... When the cytoplasmic receptors MDA5 and RIG-I recognize a virus the conformation between the caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) ... The NK-92 cell line does not express KIR and is developed for tumor therapy. ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
Nevertheless, TRADD binds FADD, which then recruits the cysteine protease caspase-8. A high concentration of caspase-8 induces ... On the other hand, activated caspases cleave several components of the NF-κB pathway, including RIP, IKK, and the subunits of ... its autoproteolytic activation and subsequent cleaving of effector caspases, leading to cell apoptosis. ... 12] Credit for this discovery is shared by Nancy H. Ruddle from Yale University, who reported the same activity in a series of ...
Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases
"Critical loss of CBP/p300 histone acetylase activity by caspase-6 during neurodegeneration". primary. The EMBO Journal. 22 (24 ... H (ys) 12 MC 20; H (v) 21, 22 Valproic acid M (y) 2; H (ni) 3 M (y) 9; H (ny) D (y) 11 R (y) 17; H (ny) MC 23, 24; M (y) 25; H ... 12 (1): 59-65. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201102. PMID 14560316.. *^ a b c Mercuri E, Bertini E, Messina S, Solari A, D'Amico A, ... 12 (19): 2481-9. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddg256. PMID 12915451.. *^ a b Tsai LK, Tsai MS, Lin TB, Hwu WL, Li H (November 2006). " ...
Development of analogs of thalidomide
... to upregulate the activity of caspase-8. This causes cross talking of apoptotic signaling between caspase-8 and caspase-9 ... 83 (12): 1583-1590. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2012.01.001. Schafer, PH; Parton, A; Gandhi, AK; Capone, L; Adams, M; Wu, L; Bartlett, JB ... IL-12 is another cytokine both suppressed and enhanced by thalidomide and its analogs. When monocytes are stimulated by ... Richardson, P. G. (12 July 2002). "Immunomodulatory drug CC-5013 overcomes drug resistance and is well tolerated in patients ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
... condensed apoptotic nuclei and a 2-4 fold increase in cortical precursors that stained immunopositive for cleaved caspase-3.[27 ... BDNF itself is important for long-term memory. Although the vast majority of neurons in the mammalian brain are formed ... BDNF has been found within many areas of the brain and plays an important role is supporting the formation of memories. It ...
Caspase 9 can then go on to activate caspase 3 and caspase 7, which are responsible for destroying the cell from within. ... Caspase 3. Pro-apoptotic:. BAX. BAK1/Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer. Bcl-2-associated death promoter. Anti-apoptotic:. Bcl- ... Apoptosis & Caspase 3 - PMAP The Proteolysis Map-animation. *UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes families/superfamily-78 ... This release of cytochrome c in turn activates caspase 9, a cysteine protease. ...
Piruvat dehidrogenase bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Angiotensinogen · Caspase · F12 · Kimotripsinogen · Pepsinogen · Proelastase · Prokarboksipolipeptidase · Prolipase · ... 3 HSD · .4 · .5 · .6 · .7 · .8 · .9 · .10 · .11 · .12 · .13 · .14 · .15 · .16 · .17 · .18 · .19 · .20 · .21 · .22 · .23 · .24 · ... 1 PA · .2 · .3 · .4 · .5 · .6 · .7 · .8 · .9 · .10 · .11 · .12 · .13 · .14 · .15 · .16 · .17 · .18 · .19 · .20 · .21 · .22 α- ... 1 Rsk · .2 PDK · .3 · .4 · .5 · .6 · .7 · .8 · .9 · .10 · .11 · .12 · .13 · .14 · .15 · .16 · DAPK · .18 · .19 · .20 · .21 · . ...
This protein was reported to be specifically cleaved by CASP3-like caspases, which thus leads to a dramatic activation of CDK2 ... and may be instrumental in the execution of apoptosis following caspase activation. However p21 may inhibit apoptosis and does ... This page was last edited on 3 June 2019, at 12:47 (UTC). ... 12] The binding of p21 to CDK complexes occurs through ... 18 Suppl 3 (90003): iii9-12. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfg1003. PMID 12771291.. ...
"Crocetin prevents retinal degeneration induced by oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses via inhibition of caspase ... 2E,4E,6E,8E,10E,12E,14E)-2,6,11,15-Tetramethylhexadeca-2,4,6,8,10,12,14-heptaenedioic acid ... InChI=1S/C20H24O4/c1-15(11-7-13-17(3)19(21)22)9-5-6-10-16(2)12-8-14-18(4)20(23)24/h5-14H,1-4H3,(H,21,22)(H,23,24)/b6-5+,11-7+, ... InChI=1/C20H24O4/c1-15(11-7-13-17(3)19(21)22)9-5-6-10-16(2)12-8-14-18(4)20(23)24/h5-14H,1-4H3,(H,21,22)(H,23,24)/b6-5+,11-7+,12 ...
"A novel form of DAP5 protein accumulates in apoptotic cells as a result of caspase cleavage and internal ribosome entry site- ... 12 (13): 1591-608. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddg162. PMID 12812986.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j Mayeur GL, Fraser CS, Peiretti F, Block KL, ...
Factor de necrose tumoral alfa, a enciclopedia libre
Non obstante, a TRADD únese a FADD, o cal despois recruta a cisteína protease caspase-8. Unha alta concentración de caspase-8 ... Por outra parte, as caspases activadas clivan varios compoñentes da vía NF-κB, incluíndo a RIP, IKK, e as propias subunidades ... Os ADNc que codificaban a LT e o TNF foron clonados en 1984 o que puxo de manifesto que eran similares. A unión do TNF ao ... induce a súa activación autoproteolítica e a subseguinte clivaxe de caspases efectoras, que levan a célula á apoptose. ...
Programmed cell death
Excess progenitor cell proliferation that leads to gross brain abnormalities is often lethal, as seen in caspase-3 or caspase-9 ... Kuida, K (1998). "Reduced apoptosis and cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation in mice lacking caspase 9". Cell. 94: 325-337 ... to cells (such as feedback from neighbors, stress or DNA damage), mitochondria release caspase activators that trigger the cell ... Kroemer G, Martin SJ (2005). "Caspase-independent cell death". Nature Medicine. 11 (7): 725-30. doi:10.1038/nm1263. PMID ...
망막색소상피세포 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
Martinon F, Burns K, Tschopp J (2002). "The inflammasome: a molecular platform triggering activation of inflammatory caspases ... last 12=. (도움말); 지원되지 않는 변수 무시됨: ,last 11=. (도움말); 지원되지 않는 변수 무시됨: ,last 14=. (도움말); 지원되지 않는 변수 무시됨: ,first 18=. (도움말); 지원되지 않는 ... first 12=. (도움말); 지원되지 않는 변수 무시됨: ,first 15=. (도움말); 지원되지 않는 변수 무시됨: ,first 9=. (도움말); 지원되지 않는 변수 무시됨: ,last 10=. (도움말); 지원되지 ... 12] 시각회로 조절(visual cycle)[편집]. 망막색소상피세포는 광 변환(phototransduction)을 통한 외부 시각 회로의 작용을 일정하게 유지하는 역할을 한다. 광변환은 망막에 존재하는 광수용세포의 광색소( ...
It is an energy dependent process mediated by proteolytic enzymes called caspases, which trigger cell death through the ... Fibroblasts, immune cells, pericytes, and inflammatory cells are the most common types of stromal cells. ...
Executioner Caspases (Caspase 3, Caspase 6 and Caspase 7). Once initiator caspases are activated, they produce a chain reaction ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4, Caspase-5 and Caspase-11 are considered 'Inflammatory Caspases'. ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4 and Caspase-5 in humans, and Caspase-1 and Caspase-11 in mice play important roles in inducing cell death ... or direct activation of Executioner Caspases (Caspase 3, Caspase 6 and Caspase 7) to degrade cellular components as shown in ...
Interferencia de ARN, a enciclopedia libre
"Caspase 8 small interfering RNA prevents acute liver failure in mice". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100 (13): 7797-802. PMC 164667 ... Biosci. 12: 3975-82. PMID 17485351.. *↑ Zhao Y, Srivastava D (2007). "A developmental view of microRNA function". Trends ... 12,0 12,1 Parker G, Eckert D, Bass B (2006). "RDE-4 preferentially binds long dsRNA and its dimerization is necessary for ... "Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7 (12): 919-31. PMC 2953463. PMID 17139332. doi:10.1038/nrm2061.. ...
This complex then cleaves procaspase-9, activating caspase-9 and eventually inducing apoptosis via caspase-3 activation. Hsp70 ... 18 (12): 571-573. doi:10.1007/BF02172188.. *^ Ritossa F (June 1996). "Discovery of the heat shock response". Cell Stress & ... It is also known to be phosphorylated which regulates several of its functions. ...
Alzheimers sygdom, den frie encyklopædi
a b Nikolaev A. APP Binds DR6 to Cause Axon Pruning and Neuron Death via Distinct Caspases. Nature. 19. februar 2009;457(7232): ... Det omfatter A-vitamin, C, E, selen, zink, og folsyre med eller uden vitamin B12.[ ... 12: CD006489. PMID 24302466. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006489.pub3.. *^ National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. " ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0.. *^ a b c Evolution in the Conceptualization of Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease: Greco- ...
Ubiquitin ligases transfer ubiquitin to its pendant, proteins, and caspases, which engage in proteolysis in the apoptotic cycle ... Archived from the original on 2009-05-12. Retrieved 2009-09-06. .[dead link] ... The enzyme O-acetylserine (thiol)-lyase, using sulfide sources, converts this ester into cysteine, releasing acetate. ...
Farnesoid X receptor
Stegh AH, Barnhart BC, Volkland J, Algeciras-Schimnich A, Ke N, Reed JC, Peter ME (Feb 2002). "Inactivation of caspase-8 on ... 12 (6): 605-24. doi:10.2174/156802612799436678. PMID 22242859.. *^ Fiorucci S, Mencarelli A, Distrutti E, Zampella A (May 2012 ... A number of ligands for FXR are known, of both natural and synthetic origin. ...
Caspase. *Caspase 1. *Caspase 2. *Caspase 3. *Caspase 4. *Caspase 5. *Caspase 6 ...
Also, it is extensively used in research for the detection of DNA damage, caspase cleavage and apoptosis. In ... Apoptosis (quantification, measurement of DNA degradation, mitochondrial membrane potential, permeability changes, caspase ... ISBN 978-0-12-375045-7. *′′Ormerod, M.G. (ed.) (2000) Flow Cytometry - A practical approach. 3rd edition. Oxford University ... ISBN 978-0-12-374912-3.. *′′Recent Advances in Cytometry. PART B′′ by Z. Darzynkiewicz et al., Methods in Cell Biology, Vol. ...
Liosta Bithmhóilíní - Vicipéid
Tiaimín Thiamine (Vitamin B1) - C12H17ClN4OS·HCl ... Caspase. *Ceallaláis Cellulase. *Ceallalós Cellulose. * ...
"Reduced apoptosis and cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation in mice lacking caspase 9". Cell. 94 (3): 325-37. doi:10.1016/ ... This page was last edited on 22 June 2020, at 12:43 (UTC). ... 12] This model has been criticised: A numerical computer ...
Caspase 12 - Wikipedia
It is closely related to caspase 1 and other members of the caspase family, known as inflammatory caspases, which process and ... Caspase 12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASP12 gene. The protein belongs to a family of enzymes called ... It is found on chromosome 11 in humans in a locus with other inflammatory caspases.CASP12 orthologs have been identified in ... The trials were carried out on laboratory mice which had been implanted with the human caspase-12 gene. The inactive truncated ...
Anti-Caspase-12 antibody (ab62484) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal Caspase-12 antibody. Validated in WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 55 ... Because I want to checkwhether caspase 9 and caspase 3 are activated by cleaved forms of caspase 12 in my cell signalling, the ... Lane 1 : Anti-Caspase-12 antibody (ab62484) at 0.5 µg/ml. Lane 2 : Anti-Caspase-12 antibody (ab62484) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 3 : Anti ... All lanes : Anti-Caspase-12 antibody (ab62484) at 1/2000 dilution. Lane 1 : rat dorsal root ganglion. Lane 2 : treated rat ...
Mouse Caspase-12 peptide (ab8374) | Abcam
Addgene: pcDNA-Caspase 12
Junying Yuans lab contains the insert Caspase 12 and is published in Nature. 2000 Jan 6. 403(6765):98-103. This plasmid is ... Caspase-12 mediates endoplasmic-reticulum-specific apoptosis and cytotoxicity by amyloid-beta. Nakagawa T, Zhu H, Morishima N, ... pcDNA-Caspase 12 was a gift from Junying Yuan (Addgene plasmid # 35574 ; http://n2t.net/addgene:35574 ; RRID:Addgene_35574) ...
Addgene: pcDNA-Caspase 12 Sequences
Caspase 12 Antibody
Caspase 12 Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Immunocytochemistry and ... Cite Caspase 12 Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Caspase 12 Polyclonal Antibody from ... Caspase-12 is localized to the ER but not to cytoplasm or mitochondrion. Caspase-12 is activated by ER stress, including ... Caspase-12 is co-localized to the ER with several proteins that are involved in Alzheimers disease including -gamma-secretase ...
Produktübersicht anti-Caspase 12 Antikörper
Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Caspase 12 Antikörper. Hier bestellen. ... Monoklonale und polyklonale Caspase 12 Antikörper für viele Methoden. ... anti-Caspase Recruitment Domain Family, Member 9 Antikörper * anti-Caspase Recruitment Domain-Containing Protein 18 (ICEBERG) ... anti-Caspase 14, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase Antikörper * anti-Caspase 2, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase ...
BioVision develops and offers a wide variety of products including assay kits, antibodies, recombinant proteins & enzymes, and other innovative research tools for studying Apoptosis, Metabolism, Cell Proliferation, Cellular Stress, Cell Damage and Repair, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, Stem Cell Biology, Gene Regulation, Signal Transduction, etc. BioVisions products are currently being sold in more than 60 countries worldwide.
caspase-12 Activators | SCBT - Santa Cruz Biotechnology
These activate caspase-12 and may affect a variety of other apoptosis and tumor related proteins. ... caspase-12 Activators. Caspase family members function as key components of the apoptotic machinery and act to destroy specific ... Caspase-12 Activators offered by Santa Cruz activate caspase-12 and, in some cases, other apoptosis and tumor related proteins ... An HDAC inhibitor and caspase activator. 1716-12-7. sc-200652. sc-200652A. sc-200652B. sc-200652C. sc-200652D. 1 g. 10 g. 100 g ...
anti-Caspase 12 antibody | GeneTex
Anti-Caspase 12 pAb (GTX28117) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... caspase 12. Background. Three distinct signaling pathways lead to programmed cell death (apoptosis). The death receptor and ... Caspase-12 is colocalized to the ER with several proteins that are involved in Alzheimers disease including g-secretase ... Caspase-12 is activated by ER stress, including disruption of ER calcium homeostasis, and mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis ...
anti-Caspase 12 antibody [14F7] | GeneTex
Anti-Caspase 12 mAb (GTX10455) is tested in Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Caspase 12 antibody [14F7] (caspase 12) for ICC/IF, IHC, IP, WB. ... Caspase-12 is localized to the ER but not to cytoplasm or ... Casp12, Caspase12, CASP12P1, Q6UXS9, caspase-12, 12364, 608633, 120329, Caspase 12. Specificity. Recognizes full length and ... Caspase-12 is colocalized to the ER with several proteins that are involved in Alzheimer s disease including g-secretase ...
Caspase-12 Inhibitor Z-ATAD-FMK | PromoCell
CASP12 / Caspase 12 - LSBio
CASP12 / Caspase 12. caspase 12. Caspases are cysteine proteases that cleave C-terminal aspartic acid residues on their ... This gene is most highly related to members of the ICE subfamily of caspases that process inflammatory cytokines. In rodents, ... CASP12, Caspase 12 pseudogene 1, Caspase 12, CASP-12, Caspase 12 (gene/pseudogene), Inactive caspase-12, CASP12P1. ... Rat Monoclonal [clone G1/G1-4] (IgG2a) to Mouse CASP12 / Caspase 12 ...
E2-25K/Hip-2 regulates caspase-12 in ER stress-mediated Aβ neurotoxicity | JCB
Wild-type MEFs, caspase-11 (−/−) MEFs, and caspase-12 (−/−) MEFs were provided by J. Yuan (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ... Western analysis showed that in contrast to caspase-3 and -8, there was substantial dose-dependant accumulation of caspase-12 ... but not caspase-3 (Fig. 4 D, middle and right) or IκBα (not depicted). The stability of caspase-12 protein thus appears to ... Among the 14 caspase isoforms known to be expressed in mammals, the ER-resident caspase-12 was initially identified as a ...
Calpain and Caspase-12 Activation Mediates Apoptosis in Transgenic Mouse Lens Expressing a Dominant-Negative Mutant of FGFR |...
A low level of cleaved caspase-12 was present in the WT lens. In comparison, the level was significantly increased in the DN- ... In contrast to the WT lens, caspase-12 immunofluorescence in the DN-FGFR lens did not co-localize with the cell nuclear ... Calpain and Caspase-12 Activation Mediates Apoptosis in Transgenic Mouse Lens Expressing a Dominant-Negative Mutant of FGFR ... Calpain and Caspase-12 Activation Mediates Apoptosis in Transgenic Mouse Lens Expressing a Dominant-Negative Mutant of FGFR ...
ER stress-induced apoptosis and caspase-12 activation occurs downstream of mitochondrial apoptosis involving Apaf-1 | Journal...
... pro-caspase-9, dATP, and cytochrome c. Apoptosome formation results in the activation of executioner caspases including caspase ... Caspase-3 mixed with Cleaved caspase-3 or caspase-12 (Cell Signaling). Optimal antibody concentrations were determined in pilot ... C3, caspase-3. (B) MEFs were introduced with wild or mutated caspase-12 and analyzed for caspase-12 processing by western ... Furthermore, a caspase-3 specific inhibitor, Ac-DNLD-CHO, inhibited the activation of caspase-12 during ER stress. Taken ...
14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide inhibits apoptosis in influenza A(H5N1) virus-infected human lung epithelial cells via...
... cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9, and the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in H5N1-infected A549 cells were all ... Meanwhile, the efficacy of DAP in reducing the apoptotic cells was lost after using the inhibitor of caspase-3 or caspase-9 but ... However, DAP had no inhibitory effect on caspase-8 activity and cleaved caspase-8 production. ... Furthermore, the silencing of caspase-9 reduced the yield of nucleoprotein (NP) and disabled the inhibitory ability of DAP in ...
The Recruitment of Fas-associated Death Domain/Caspase-8 in Ras-induced Apoptosis -- Chen et al. 12 (6): 297 -- Cell Growth &...
... and JNK may be an upstream effector of caspase activation. This article has been cited by other articles: Z. Chen, L. W. Forman ... The Recruitment of Fas-associated Death Domain/Caspase-8 in Ras-induced Apoptosis1 Chang-Yan Chen2, Peter Juo, James S. Liou, ... Suppression of JNK by dn-JNK1 blocked the interaction of FADD and caspase-8 and partially protected Jurkat/ras and Jurkat/Fasm/ ... During this Ras-induced apoptotic process, caspase-8 was activated, possibly through its binding to Fas-associated death domain ...
Caspase-mediated Cleavage of the TIAM1 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor during Apoptosis -- Qi et al. 12 (12): 603 -- Cell...
B, consensus caspase motifs within TIAM1 and known caspase substrates. Three types of caspase recognition motifs have been ... TIAM1 Is Cleaved by a DEVD-inhibitable Caspase in Vitro.. To demonstrate that TIAM1 serves as a substrate for caspases, in ... 3. TIAM1 is cleaved by a caspase-3 family caspase in vitro. TIAM1 C1199 was in vitro transcribed and translated in the presence ... This result indicates that TIAM1 is a substrate for a caspase-3 family protease. Mapping of the Caspase Cleavage Site in TIAM1. ...
Caspase-12 compensates for lack of caspase-2 and caspase-3 in female germ cells - Semantic Scholar
However, when DNA damage is involved, and in the absence of caspase-2 and -3, caspase-12 becomes upregulated and mediates ... Those data also revealed dispensability of caspase-3, although we found this caspase critical for ovarian granulosa cell death ... require caspase-2 and caspase-3 as obligatory executioners of the ensuing cell death cascade. ... Because of the mutual interdependence of germ cells and granulosa cells, herein we generated caspase-2 and -3 double-mutant ( ...
Caspase-3 Activator, BETT - CAS 112853-12-0 - Calbiochem CAS 112853-12-0 | 235428
Caspase-3 Activator, BETT - CAS 112853-12-0 - Calbiochem CAS 112853-12-0 - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more ... A triazole that is shown to activate Caspase-3 (EC50 = 50 µM) from HeLa membrane extracts, by relieving the inhibitory effects ... A triazole that is shown to activate Caspase-3 (EC50 = 50 µM) from HeLa membrane extracts, by relieving the inhibitory effects ...
Caspase recruitment domain family member 12 (CARD12, CLAN) polyclonal antibody - Allele Biotech
Caspase 12 pseudogene 1 | definition of caspase 12 pseudogene 1 by Medical dictionary
What is caspase 12 pseudogene 1? Meaning of caspase 12 pseudogene 1 medical term. What does caspase 12 pseudogene 1 mean? ... Looking for online definition of caspase 12 pseudogene 1 in the Medical Dictionary? caspase 12 pseudogene 1 explanation free. ... redirected from caspase 12 pseudogene 1) CASP12. A pseudogene on chromosome 11q22.3 that encodes a protein which lacks protease ... Caspase 12 pseudogene 1 , definition of caspase 12 pseudogene 1 by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Gentaur Molecular :Biovis \ Caspase-12 Substrate ATAD-AFC; Appearance Liquid \ 1117-1000
Caspase-12 Substrate ATAD-AFC; Appearance Liquid \ 1117-1000 for more molecular products just contact us ... The ready-to-use caspase substrate provides an economic alternative for researchers who perform large amount of caspase assays ... 20640600] Calpain and caspase processing of caspase-12 contribute to the ER stress-induced cell death pathway in differentiated ... Ready-to-use fluorometric substrate for caspases that recognize the amino acid sequence ATAD. Caspase activity can be ...
Caspase-6 Inhibitor XII, pep419 - Calbiochem | 218833
Calbiochem The Caspase-6 Inhibitor XII, pep419 controls the biological activity of Caspase-6. This small molecule/inhibitor is ... The Caspase-6 Inhibitor XII, pep419 controls the biological activity of Caspase-6. This small molecule/inhibitor is primarily ... More,, The Caspase-6 Inhibitor XII, pep419 controls the biological activity of Caspase-6. This small molecule/inhibitor is ... Caspase-6 Inhibitor XII, pep419 - Calbiochem MSDS (material safety data sheet) or SDS, CoA and CoQ, dossiers, brochures and ...
Doxorubicin treatment in vivo activates caspase-12 mediated cardiac apoptosis in both male and female rats. - Semantic Scholar
Caspase-3 protein content and caspase-3 activity were significantly increased after day four of doxorubicin treatment in both ... Caspase-12, localized in the SR, is considered a central caspase, and its activation by cleavage via calpain indicates ... Cleaved caspase-12 content and calpain activity significantly increased after day four of doxorubicin treatment in both sexes. ... The receptor-mediated pathway (caspase-8 and c-FLIP) showed no evidence of being significantly activated by doxorubicin ...
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Caspase - Wikipedia
Executioner Caspases (Caspase 3, Caspase 6 and Caspase 7). Once initiator caspases are activated, they produce a chain reaction ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4, Caspase-5 and Caspase-11 are considered Inflammatory Caspases. ... Caspase-1, Caspase-4 and Caspase-5 in humans, and Caspase-1 and Caspase-11 in mice play important roles in inducing cell death ... or direct activation of Executioner Caspases (Caspase 3, Caspase 6 and Caspase 7) to degrade cellular components as shown in ...
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ApoptosisCASP12InhibitorAntibodyProteasesPathwayProteinCleavagePathwaysCHOPProteinsInactiveInhibitionInitiator caspasesGeneDownstreamGRP78Role of caspase-12PeptideSubstratesCalpainEFFECTOR CASPASESMouse caspase 12MediatesInducesModulatesProteolytic2017SignificantlyMitochondriaEnzymeCascadeInhibitsAmino Acid SeqCytochromeKnockdownDetected by western blotInflammatoryCytotoxicitySusceptibilityKnown as caspaseHumanCytokinesPyroptosisExecutionerActivation of CaspasesFluorometricZymogenHumans
- Cleavage of caspase-12 at Asp94, mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), contributes to stretch-induced apoptosis of myoblasts. (addgene.org)
- Caspase-12 is activated by ER stress, including disruption of ER calcium homeostasis, and mediates ER stress-induced apoptosis. (thermofisher.com)
- Caspase-12 Activators offered by Santa Cruz activate caspase-12 and, in some cases, other apoptosis and tumor related proteins. (scbt.com)
- We have identified a new calpain activated caspase-12 mediated apoptosis pathway in the lens fiber cells. (arvojournals.org)
- We propose that accumulation of folding-incompetent DN-FGFR proteins in the lens fiber cells can induce ER stress, disrupt calcium homeostasis, and result in the activation of calpain and caspase-12 which contributes to the mechanism of apoptosis. (arvojournals.org)
- 14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide inhibits apoptosis in influenza A(H5N1) virus-infected human lung epithelial cells via the caspase-9-dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathway which contributes to its antiviral activity. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Overall results suggest that DAP exerts its antiviral effects by inhibiting H5N1-induced apoptosis on the caspase-9-dependent intrinsic/mitochondrial pathway, which may be one of the anti-H5N1 mechanisms of DAP. (physiciansweekly.com)
- The Recruitment of Fas-associated Death Domain/Caspase-8 in Ras-induced Apoptosis -- Chen et al. (aacrjournals.org)
- Caspase-mediated Cleavage of the TIAM1 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor during Apoptosis -- Qi et al. (aacrjournals.org)
- Previously, we analyzed mice lacking either caspase-2 or caspase-3 and documented a role for caspase-2 in developmental and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis of oocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
- Caspases 3 and 7: key mediators of mitochondrial events of apoptosis. (semanticscholar.org)
- Involvement of caspase-2 and caspase-9 in endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis: a role for the IAPs. (semanticscholar.org)
- Doxorubicin treatment in vivo activates caspase-12 mediated cardiac apoptosis in both male and female rats. (semanticscholar.org)
- Caspases ( c ysteine- asp artic prote ases , c ysteine asp art ases or c ysteine-dependent asp artate-directed prote ases ) are a family of protease enzymes playing essential roles in programmed cell death (including apoptosis , pyroptosis and necroptosis ) and inflammation . (wikipedia.org)
- Note that in addition to apoptosis, Caspase-8 is also required for the inhibition of another form of programmed cell death called Necroptosis . (wikipedia.org)
- Inhibition of Autophagy Promotes Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis by Tunicamycin in HepG2 cells. (ptgcn.com)
- The pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, could reverse dicitrinone B-induced apoptosis, suggesting that it is a caspase-dependent pathway. (mdpi.com)
- Some activating multiprotein complexes includes: The death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) during extrinsic apoptosis The apoptosome during intrinsic apoptosis The inflammasome during pyroptosis Once appropriately dimerised, the Caspases cleave at inter domain linker regions, forming a large and small subunit. (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, we wanted to explore the role of caspase-12 in the mechanism of retinopathy in T17M mice and determine if inhibiting apoptosis in this way is a viable approach for halting retinal degeneration. (arvojournals.org)
- Caspase family of proteases are the central mediators of apoptosis in mammalian cells. (cephamls.com)
- It is involved in the activation cascade of caspases responsible for apoptosis execution. (medgadget.com)
- Ethanol induces apoptosis in cells via a caspase-dependent mechanism. (kzoo.edu)
- Control of caspase activity, and thus apoptosis, is directly modulated by the Bcl-2 family of proteins, which includes both pro- and anti-apoptotic members. (kzoo.edu)
- Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protects cells from apoptosis by inhibiting caspase activation. (kzoo.edu)
- Caspase-9 and caspase-12 are thought to be downstream of mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum respectively, however it is unknown which of these caspases is activated in ethanol-induced apoptosis. (kzoo.edu)
- This work suggests that ethanol-induced apoptosis does not occur via a mitochondrial stress pathway and caspase-9 activation, but rather through an ER-stress pathway and subsequent caspase-12 activation. (kzoo.edu)
- Myocardial apoptosis rate was measured by TUNEL staining, and expression of glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), caspase-12, total- and phospho-(Ser473)-Akt were assessed by Western blot analyses. (medsci.org)
- GRP78, caspase-12 and CHOP were highly expressed in ischemic myocardium, while NGF significantly inhibited the overexpression of these proteins which were involved in ER stress-induced myocardial apoptosis. (medsci.org)
- Thus, our results suggest that the cleavage of Beclin 1 by caspase-3 may contribute to inactivate autophagy leading towards augmented apoptosis . (bvsalud.org)
- Caspase-1 has been shown to induce cell necrosis, pyroptosis, or pyrop-apoptosis [ 4 ] and exerts functions in various developmental stages. (springer.com)
- ROS scavenger, N -acetyl cysteine, diminished the apoptotic effects of bortezomib/SAHA, whereas caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK significantly suppressed the apoptosis without decreasing the generation of ROS. (aacrjournals.org)
- The major mechanism of cell death is ROS-driven caspase-dependent apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Furthermore, TCDD was able to trigger BHV-1-induced apoptosis by up-regulating the activation of initiator caspases 8 and 9, as well as of effector caspase 3. (curehunter.com)
- gondii significantly reduced Fas/CD95-triggered apoptosis in HeLa cells by inhibiting the activities of initiator caspases 8 and 9 and effector caspase 3/7. (curehunter.com)
- P. sulcata inhibited the growth in a dose-dependent manner and induced caspase-independent apoptosis at low doses. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Although caspase-12 has been implicated in ER stress-induced apoptosis and amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced apoptosis in rodents, it is controversial whether similar mechanisms operate in humans. (rupress.org)
- Cleavage of caspase-4 is not affected by overexpression of Bcl-2, which prevents signal transduction on the mitochondria, suggesting that caspase-4 is primarily activated in ER stress-induced apoptosis. (rupress.org)
- Furthermore, a reduction of caspase-4 expression by small interfering RNA decreases ER stress-induced apoptosis in some cell lines, but not other ER stress-independent apoptosis. (rupress.org)
- Caspase-4 is also cleaved by administration of Aβ, and Aβ-induced apoptosis is reduced by small interfering RNAs to caspase-4. (rupress.org)
- The caspase family of proteins controls apoptosis induced by multiple stimuli such as Fas ligand and TNF ( 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
- We investigated whether NF-κB inhibits TNF-mediated apoptosis through modulation of the caspase cascade. (sciencemag.org)
- An in vitro substrate assay showed that DEVD-specific caspase activity was induced in the HT1080I line after TNF treatment, but not in the HT1080V line control ( Fig. 1 A). Thus, DEVD-specific caspases participate in TNF-mediated apoptosis when NF-κB is inhibited. (sciencemag.org)
- Freeze thaw will destroy a percentage in every cycle and should be avoided.Human and some mouse caspases are active in apoptosis and cell death and even in necrosis and inflammation. (gentaur.com)
- However, in cases of severe ERS, accumulation of a large number of unfolded proteins results in the dissociation of the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) from transmembrane proteins, and activation of the downstream signaling molecules C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase-12, eventually leading to apoptosis ( 17 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Caspase activity is due to a group of very complex enzymes that regulate programmed cell death, or apoptosis , in multicellular organisms. (wisegeek.com)
- There are several types of caspases that have different functions in causing apoptosis. (wisegeek.com)
- Alterations in the regulation of apoptosis can lead to cancer or autoimmune disease, so there is much interest in better understanding the biochemistry and genetics of caspase activation in human cells using more simple organisms. (wisegeek.com)
- There are two major classes of caspase activity that activate apoptosis. (wisegeek.com)
- The active initiator caspases cleave the inactive effector caspases, which then activate apoptosis. (wisegeek.com)
- Caspase activity detection may also involve function, such as the initiation or execution of apoptosis. (wisegeek.com)
- The central component of apoptosis is a proteolytic amplifying cascade involving specialised proteases called cysteinyl-aspartate-cleaving proteases (= caspases) which cleave a wide range of cellular substrates . (smw.ch)
- Caspases are a type of cysteine protease closely linked to the process of apoptosis (cell self-destruction). (agscientific.com)
- Existing in inactive forms within the cell, caspases are cleaved to become active enzymes upon the start of apoptosis. (agscientific.com)
- Many caspase substrates are cleaved during apoptosis and pertaining to their functional significance have yet to merge. (agscientific.com)
- The novel oleanane triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) induces apoptosis of human leukemia cells by activation of the extrinsic caspase-8 pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
- Apoptosis is induced by intrinsic and extrinsic pathways that activate the caspase family of cysteine proteases. (aacrjournals.org)
- The results also demonstrate that CDDO-induced redox-mediated signals are responsible for activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and induction of apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Predepletion of dopamine by using α-methyl- p -tyrosine (tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor) treatment partially prevented caspase-3 activation, denoting a significant dopamine and/or dopamine by-product contribution to initiation of apoptosis. (aspetjournals.org)
- Caspases are cysteine proteases that regulate apoptosis, and some are activated by proteolytic cleavage of their proenzyme form by other caspases. (sciencemag.org)
- Nakagawa, T., and Yuan, J. (2000) Cross-talk between two cysteine protease families: Activation of caspase-12 by calpain in apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
- However, when persistent or too intense, ERs will induce and activate ER proapoptosis fators such as CHOP, caspase-12, This study aimed to elucidate Ischaemic postconditioning (IPO) whether attenuates I/R injury by suppressing ER stress-induced apoptosis. (bmj.com)
- Consistent with the induction of apoptosis via the lipid compartment, we noted accumulation and aggregation of ceramide in treated cells and subsequent colocalization with caspase 8. (pnas.org)
- Although ScA initiates apoptosis via both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, the more sensitive pathway involves activation of caspase 8, which requires concentrations in the low nanomolar range and below, to initiate alterations in the cell membrane and apoptosis. (pnas.org)
- ScA Induces Apoptosis Selectively via Caspase 8. (pnas.org)
- Moreover, in the NRK-52E cell H/R model, IMD overexpression prevented the apoptosis induced by H/R. Furthermore, IMD ameliorated the ER structural changes and concomitantly decreased the levels of GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12. (biomedcentral.com)
- These findings suggest that FR901228 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway rather than the death receptor pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
- Apoptosis is mainly mediated by a family of caspases, with two pathways leading to caspase activation: the death receptor pathway and the mitochondrial pathway ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Here, we showed that FR901228 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway, accompanied by decreased BCL-2 and BCL-XL expression in SCLC cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
- Although effective in preventing apoptosis, caspase inhibitors may lead to necrotic cell death, according to a report in The American Journal of Pathology . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Caspase inhibitors have therapeutic potential to treat and prevent apoptosis-mediated liver injury, and some are currently in clinical trials. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Our data suggest that one should be cautious in treating apoptotic cell death just with caspase inhibitors as, despite their efficacy in preventing apoptosis, these inhibitors may trigger necrotic cell death," noted Wen-Xing Ding, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics of The University of Kansas Medical Center (Kansas City). (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A liver cell can die in many different ways, but caspase-dependent apoptosis and caspase-independent necrosis are the predominant cell death pathways that contribute to liver injury," explained Dr. Ding. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Although blocking caspase protected against endotoxin-induced liver injury at an early time point (six hours), this protection was lost after 24 hours due to the switch of liver cell apoptosis to necrosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- DFFA is the substrate for caspase-3 and triggers DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Caspase 3 is responsible for cellular differentiation, although it is unclear how this kind of protein can promote the cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Caspase 12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASP12 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- It is found on chromosome 11 in humans in a locus with other inflammatory caspases.CASP12 orthologs have been identified in numerous mammals for which complete genome data are available. (wikipedia.org)
- The CASP12 gene is subject to polymorphism, which can generate a full length caspase protein (Csp12L) or an inactive truncated form (Csp12S). (wikipedia.org)
- 103 Caspase 12 (Gene/pseudogene) (CASP12) Antikörper von 21 Herstellern verfügbar auf www.antikoerper-online.de. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Caspase-12 CASP12 modulates the susceptibility to sepsis. (duhnnae.com)
- We demonstrate that the loss of caspase-12 in Europe predates animal domestication and that consequently CASP12 loss is unlikely to be related to the impact of zoonotic infections transmitted by livestock. (duhnnae.com)
- The present study aims to find a differential protein-coding gene caspase 12 ( CASP12 ) in cervical cancer (CC) based on the (TCGA) database and verify its clinical diagnostic and prognostic values. (portlandpress.com)
- Meanwhile, the efficacy of DAP in reducing the apoptotic cells was lost after using the inhibitor of caspase-3 or caspase-9 but remained intact after the caspase-8 inhibitor treatment. (physiciansweekly.com)
- The Caspase-6 Inhibitor XII, pep419 controls the biological activity of Caspase-6. (emdmillipore.com)
- An 18-mer synthetic peptide that acts as a selective, non-competitive inhibitor of caspase-6 (IC 50 = 8.6 µM). (emdmillipore.com)
- Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO695) were treated with a pan-caspase inhibitor, a caspase-9 inhibitor or a caspase-12 inhibitor, and then treated with 1.5 M ethanol in order to determine the sub-cellular mechanism of rescue from ethanol toxicity. (kzoo.edu)
- As a specificity control, the inhibitor LEHD-FMK for caspase-9 was added to the reactions along with relevant substrate (d). (cdc.gov)
- A known inhibitor of caspase-3, -7, and -8, DEVD (Z-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethylketone), and a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor, VAD (Z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone), blocked TNF-induced histone-associated DNA fragmentation in the HT1080I line, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ( 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Activation of caspase-12 in glial cells, in response to ER stress agents, was blocked when cells were treated with a calpain inhibitor. (sciencemag.org)
- This is an Investigator Initiated, Phase I/II study, where Type 1 diabetic participants will receive a 14 day oral treatment of the investigational caspase inhibitor drug IDN-6556 following their first islet transplant. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The primary objective of this protocol is to assess the safety of the IDN-6556 caspase inhibitor in adult Type 1 diabetic participants receiving their first islet transplant. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 14 day oral treatment of the investigational caspase inhibitor drug IDN-6556 following first islet transplant at 50mg twice daily. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- FR901228 activated caspase-9 and caspase-3 but not caspase-8, and the caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-fmk blocked the cytotoxicity of FR901228. (aacrjournals.org)
- Adding the caspase inhibitor ZVAD blocked early apoptotic cell death but revealed the presence of necrotic cell death at 48 hours. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- According to Dr. Ding, "We still don't know the mechanism underlying caspase inhibitor-induced necrosis of the liver. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Per usual in non-apoptotic growing cells caspase activated dnase is held in check inactivated in the cytoplasm thanks to the association with its inhibitor, inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) also known as DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa (DFF45). (wikipedia.org)
- This antibody reacts with both the propeptide and cleaved forms of Caspase-12. (abcam.com)
- Caspase-12 Antibody is (Large)affinity chromatography purified via peptide column. (abcam.com)
- The following antibody was used in this experiment: Caspase 12 Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-19963, RRID AB_11153731. (thermofisher.com)
- Western blot analysis of Caspase-12 in mouse brain tissue lysate in the absence (A) or presence (B) of blocking peptide with Caspase-12 antibody (GTX28117)at 1μg/ml. (genetex.com)
- Caspase-12 Antibody detects endogenous levels of full-length caspase-12 protein (50 kDa) and its cleaved product (40-44 kDa). (ptgcn.com)
- This antibody does not cross-react with other caspases. (ptgcn.com)
- Caspase-3 was efficiently immunoprecipitated with its specific antibody, but not with control antibody ( Fig. 1 B). Silver stains revealed that associated proteins did not significantly contaminate the caspase immunoprecipitates. (sciencemag.org)
- Proteins were immunoprecipitated from 10C9 cell lysates using a caspase-3-specific monoclonal antibody (Caspase-3 IP), or with equal concentrations of an isotype-matched control antibody (Control IP). (sciencemag.org)
- Caspase-3 levels in the immunoprecipitates were visualized by protein immunoblot using a caspase-3-specific antibody ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
- The death receptor and mitochondrion pathways are the mains, in which the key apoptotic proteases capase-8 and caspase-9, respectively, are involved. (thermofisher.com)
- Caspases are cysteine proteases that cleave C-terminal aspartic acid residues on their substrate molecules. (lsbio.com)
- Caspases (cysteine-aspartic proteases, cysteine aspartases or cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases) are a family of protease enzymes playing essential roles in programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
- In mammalian cells, several pro-apoptotic proteases called caspases were found to play a crucial role in ER stress-induced PCD. (frontiersin.org)
- Over the past decade, several key proteases with caspase-like enzymatic activity have been discovered in plants and implicated in PCD regulation. (frontiersin.org)
- This review covers what is known about caspase-like enzymatic activities during plant ER stress-induced PCD and discusses possible regulation pathways leading to the activation of relevant proteases in plants. (frontiersin.org)
- Caspases are cysteine-dependent aspartate specific proteases. (frontiersin.org)
- Caspases belong to a particular class of proteases, known as cysteine proteases. (wisegeek.com)
- Recent studies suggest that this inhibition is achieved, at least in part, by S-nitrosylation of the active-site cysteine of caspases, a family of cysteine proteases that execute the death program ( 2-4 ). (sciencemag.org)
- The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is the third apoptotic pathway and caspase-12 is involved. (thermofisher.com)
- One is the extrinsic pathway, in which ligation of death receptors by death ligands is followed by recruitment of adaptor molecules and activation of caspase-8 or caspase-10. (biologists.org)
- The other is the intrinsic pathway, in which the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria triggers the formation of the apoptosome composed of Apaf-1, pro-caspase-9, dATP, and cytochrome c . (biologists.org)
- Further studies showed that knockdown of DEPTOR induced downregulation of Caspase-1 expression and reduction of Caspase-1 activation, thereby inhibiting the activation of the classical pathway of pyroptosis. (bvsalud.org)
- Thus, caspase-8 is at the apex of the caspase pathway and links death domain protein signaling and caspase activation. (sciencemag.org)
- The selective activation of the caspase 8 pathway by a small molecule is promising, because few currently used anticancer agents have this property. (pnas.org)
- Caspase-3 zymogens were found to be S-nitrosylated on their catalytic-site cysteine in unstimulated human cell lines and denitrosylated upon activation of the Fas apoptotic pathway. (sciencemag.org)
- The death receptor pathway is initiated by ligations of transmembrane death receptors such as the Fas receptor, which activates caspase-8 and subsequently effector caspase-3. (aacrjournals.org)
- The protein belongs to a family of enzymes called caspases which cleave their substrates at C-terminal aspartic acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
- Caspase 12 degrades IkappaBalpha protein and enhances MMP-9 expression in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell invasion. (addgene.org)
- Caspase-12 is co-localized to the ER with several proteins that are involved in Alzheimer's disease including -gamma-secretase presenilin and beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP). (thermofisher.com)
- Aβ increases expression of E2-25K/Hip-2, which then stabilizes caspase-12 protein by inhibiting proteasome activity. (rupress.org)
- After DAP treatment, the protein expression levels of cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9, and the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in H5N1-infected A549 cells were all obviously downregulated. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Caspase recruitment domain family member 12 (CARD12, CLAN) is a caspase-associated recruitment domain (CARD)-containing protein and is expressed at varying degrees in normal human tissues. (allelebiotech.com)
- Caspase_12 pAb;human, mouse, rat polyclonal antibodies polyclonal antobodies can be directed against a recombinant proteine, the natural protein or an epitope. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- They are named caspases due to their specific cysteine protease activity - a cysteine in its active site nucleophilically attacks and cleaves a target protein only after an aspartic acid residue. (wikipedia.org)
- The activation of initiator caspases and inflammatory caspases is initiated by dimerisation, which is facilitated by binding to adaptor proteins via protein-protein interaction motifs that are collectively referred to as death folds. (wikipedia.org)
- One, two-, and three-month-old C57BL6/J, caspase-12 −/− , T17M, and T17M caspase-12 −/− mice were analyzed by scotopic ERG, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), histology, quantitative (q)RT-PCR, and Western blot of retinal RNA and protein extracts. (arvojournals.org)
- For example, we found that full knockout of the UPR proapoptotic CHOP protein in degenerating retinas dramatically accelerated the rate of retinal degeneration 4 , 5 while full ablation of the UPR downstream marker, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated caspase (Csp)-7, significantly slowed the rate of retinal degeneration. (arvojournals.org)
- Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 184.108.40.206) - Caspase-7 (CASP7) is a human protein encoded by the CASP7 gene. (medgadget.com)
- Western blotting of whole retinal cell lysates revealed that addition of wolfberry lowered expression of ER stress biomarkers binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and caspase-12, and restored AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), thioredoxin, Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD) and forkhead O transcription factor 3 α (FOXO3α) activities. (nih.gov)
- ER stress-associated proapoptotic signals, including B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/lymphoma 2-associated × protein (BAX) expression, caspase-12 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, were activated in the UUO kidney. (springer.com)
- however, production of IL-12 protein was barely detectable. (aacrjournals.org)
- Since TCDD activates caspase 3 after 4 h of infection, we have hypothesized an involvement of BHV-1 infected cell protein 0 (bICP0) in this process. (curehunter.com)
- Parasitic infection dose dependently diminished cleavage of caspase 8, the BH3-only protein Bid, and the downstream caspases 9 and 3. (curehunter.com)
- The structure of FoxP2 is highly conserved during evolution as well ( 12 ), because the human FOXP2 protein differs at only 2 aa compared with its mouse homologue, along with one glutamine from the human protein that is absent in the polyQ tract in mouse Foxp2 ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
- also called MACH, Mort1-associated CED-3 homolog) with the death domain protein FADD on TNFR1 initiates the caspase cascade ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
- GRP78 mRNA and protein expression levels of GRP78, CAAT‑enhancer‑binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), phosphorylated‑c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (pJNK)1, and caspase‑12 were significantly increased in the liver of T2DM GK rats. (nih.gov)
- Furthermore, miR‑203a‑3p was upregulated following APS treatment, and the protein expression levels of GRP78, CHOP, pJNK1 and caspase‑12 were significantly decreased. (nih.gov)
- Furthermore, the expression levels of 78‑kDa glucose‑regulated protein, C/EBP homologous protein and caspase‑12, and the apoptotic rate in the kidney were decreased following Dex treatment. (spandidos-publications.com)
- On the other hand, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous transcription factor (CHOP/GADD153) and caspase-4 are critical executioners of the proapoptotic arm of the ESR ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Indeed, IMD down-regulated glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), C/EBP homologous protein(CHOP), and caspase 12 protein and mRNA levels. (biomedcentral.com)
- Caspase-activated DNase (CAD) or DNA fragmentation factor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DFFB gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Liver injury (ALT levels), lipid peroxidation (MDA), SIRT1 activity, and the protein expression of SIRT1 and SIRT3 and ERS parameters (IRE1 α , peIF2, caspase 12, and CHOP) were evaluated. (hindawi.com)
- Activation involves dimerization and often oligomerisation of pro-caspases, followed by cleavage into a small subunit and large subunit. (wikipedia.org)
- Caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated during the process, leading to PARP cleavage. (mdpi.com)
- upon cleavage of the substrate by Caspase-12 or related caspases, free AFC emits a yellow-green fluorescence (λmax = 505 nm), which can be quantified using a fluorometer or a fluorescence microtiter plate reader. (cephamls.com)
- In this study we found that Beclin 1 was a substrate of caspase-3 with two cleavage sites at positions 124 and 149, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
- As the name suggests, caspases cleave their substrates after an aspartate residue (in P1 position in the cleavage site). (frontiersin.org)
- Our results demonstrate the importance of caspase-mediated RIPK1 cleavage during embryonic development and show that caspase cleavage of RIPK1 not only inhibits necroptosis but also maintains inflammatory homeostasis throughout life. (nature.com)
- Fig. 1: Heterozygous mutations of the RIPK1 caspase-8 cleavage site cause autoinflammatory disease. (nature.com)
- Fig. 2: Homozygous mutation of the RIPK1 caspase-8 cleavage site in mice causes early embryonic lethality. (nature.com)
- and ( e ) cleavage of caspase-3 are blocked by pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl- l -cysteine and GSH but not with cysteine. (aacrjournals.org)
- Fas therefore activates caspase-3 not only by inducing the cleavage of the caspase zymogen to its active subunits, but also by stimulating the denitrosylation of its active-site thiol. (sciencemag.org)
- CAD release from ICAD inhibition is achieved by cleavage of ICAD at these Asp residues by the caspase-3. (wikipedia.org)
- and (5) The meta-analysis identified new cooperatively and non-cooperatively regulated genes in caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, and Sirt-1 pathways. (springer.com)
- Our findings suggest that caspase-1 regulates many new signaling pathways potentially via its known substrates and also via transcription factors and other proteins that are yet to be identified. (springer.com)
- Among PCD regulators, caspases are central components that mediate animal PCD pathways in response to various stimuli, including ER stress. (frontiersin.org)
- is induced by ER stress through CHOP and/or caspase-12 dependent pathways in diabetic kidney, which may contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy 14 . (nature.com)
- When combined, bortezomib and celecoxib triggered elevated expression of the ER stress markers GRP78/BiP and CHOP/GADD153, caused activation of c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase and ER stress-associated caspase-4, and greatly increased apoptotic cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
- In cases of intense or persistently high stress, the defensive functions (such as elevated levels of GRP78) are being overwhelmed, and the proapoptotic components (such as CHOP and caspase-4) will gain dominance and trigger cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
- Caspase family members function as key components of the apoptotic machinery and act to destroy specific target proteins which are critical to cellular longevity. (scbt.com)
- Caspase_12 pAb;human, mouse, rat mus musculus murine Caspase_12 pAb;human, mouse, rat detects proteins from variouse species most likely human. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- Tumour growth can occur by a combination of factors, including a mutation in a cell cycle gene which removes the restraints on cell growth, combined with mutations in apoptopic proteins such as Caspases that would respond by inducing cell death in abnormally growing cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Activation of caspase-12 in these cells generated proteolytic caspase-12 fragments that were also observed in vitro by using purified proteins. (sciencemag.org)
- Caspases are synthesised as inactive zymogens (pro-caspases) that are only activated following an appropriate stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
- Instead, the derived -T- allele encodes for an inactive caspase-12. (duhnnae.com)
- This marked structure has been explained as a function of the selective advantage that the inactive caspase-12 confers by increasing resistance to infection. (duhnnae.com)
- IL-18, like IL-1β, is synthesized as an inactive precursor (pro-IL-18, 24 kDa) and then cleaved by the IL-1β-converting enzyme, caspase-1, into an active 18-kDa mature form and secreted. (aacrjournals.org)
- To keep the cells from self-destructing, caspases are kept in an inactive state. (wisegeek.com)
- In this study, it was found out that minocycline reduces neurotoxicity induced by various C-terminal fragments of APP through inhibition of cytochrome c release and caspase-12 activation. (ac.ir)
- Although the inhibition of apoptotic activity alone was not sufficient to rescue T17M photoreceptors, in combination with other nonapoptotic targets, caspase-12 could be used to treat inherited retinopathy. (arvojournals.org)
- Caspase-12 inhibition conferred significant protection from ethanol toxicity to cells, while caspase-9 inhibition did not provide significant rescue. (kzoo.edu)
- Caspase-12 and pan-caspase inhibition were not statistically different. (kzoo.edu)
- Systemic treatment of zebrafish or local treatment of the chick chorioallantoic membrane with ScA resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of angiogenesis, whereas topical treatment blocked tumor growth among caspase-8-expressing tumors. (pnas.org)
- In particular, it has been shown that NO synthase (NOS) activity can lead to caspase inhibition by a mechanism independent of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, that caspases can be S-nitrosylated by NO donors in cellular and in vitro systems, that the S-nitrosylation takes place solely on the active-site cysteine, and that this modification inhibits caspase activity in a reversible manner ( 2-4 ). (sciencemag.org)
- The pro-domain of the intrinsic initiator caspases and the inflammatory caspases contains a single death fold known as caspase recruitment domain (CARD), while the pro-domain of the extrinsic initiator caspases contains two death folds known as death effector domains (DED). (wikipedia.org)
- Once activated, the initiator caspases can activate other caspases such as the EFFECTOR CASPASES. (curehunter.com)
- Several initiator caspases are known to be activated upstream of the mitochondrial dysfunction by specific apoptotic stimuli. (rupress.org)
- The first are initiator caspases, which are regulated by inhibitors. (wisegeek.com)
- The trials were carried out on laboratory mice which had been implanted with the human caspase-12 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- This gene is most highly related to members of the ICE subfamily of caspases that process inflammatory cytokines. (lsbio.com)
- Caspase-3 gene knockout defines cell lineage specificity for programmed cell death signaling in the ovary. (semanticscholar.org)
- To determine new global and tissue-specific gene regulatory effects of caspase-1, we took novel microarray data analysis approaches including Venn analysis, cooperation analysis, and meta-analysis methods. (springer.com)
- However, it remains unclear whether caspase-1 regulates gene transcription independent of the three well-characterized caspase-1 substrates IL-1β, IL-18, and Sirt-1. (springer.com)
- We also demonstrated that caspase-12 was processed downstream of Apaf-1 and caspase-3, and neither overexpression nor knockdown of caspase-12 affected susceptibility of the cells to ER stress-induced cell death. (biologists.org)
- It is well established that caspase-1 exerts its biological activities through its downstream targets such as IL-1β, IL-18, and Sirt-1. (springer.com)
- We used these statistical methods to integrate different microarray datasets conducted on different caspase-1 knockout tissues and datasets where caspase-1 downstream targets were manipulated. (springer.com)
- or calpain activates downstream caspase cascade ( Nakagawa and Yuan, 2000 ). (rupress.org)
- I/R induced upregulation of Grp78 mRNA, CRT expression and caspase-12 activation, and IPO were found to increase the upregulation of Grp78 mRNA, and relieve CRT over-expression and caspase-12 activation induced by I/R. (bmj.com)
- IPO can increase the upregulation of Grp78 mRNA, and relieve CRT over-expression and caspase-12 activation induced by I/R. (bmj.com)
Role of caspase-121
- However, the functional role of caspase-12 in humans remains to be further clarified. (rupress.org)
- Synthetic peptide corresponding to Mouse Caspase-12. (abcam.com)
- A peptide corresponding to amino acids 100 to 116 of murine caspase-12. (thermofisher.com)
- Caspase activity can be quantified by fluorescent detection of free AFC after cleaved from the peptide substrate ATAD-AFC at Ex/Em = 400/505 nm using a fluorometer or a fluorescence plate reader. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- 2008. Caspase-12 modulates NOD signaling and regulates antimicrobial peptide production and mucosal immunity. (mcgill.ca)
- However, it is not known whether all the effects exerted by caspase-1 on transcriptome are mediated only by its well-known substrates. (springer.com)
- AG Scientific provides various selection of caspase substrates and be able to ship FedEx directly to your lab, from small-scale to bulk orders. (agscientific.com)
- In contrast to the WT lens, caspase-12 immunofluorescence in the DN-FGFR lens did not co-localize with the cell nuclear staining, suggesting that caspase-12 released from the cell nuclei can be cleaved (activated) by the calpain in the cytoplasm in the presence of calcium. (arvojournals.org)
- Activated m-calpain cleaves Bcl-X L and proteolytically activates caspase-12 ( Nakagawa and Yuan, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
- Calpain and caspase-3/7 activity assays were measured in postnatal (P) day 30 retinal extracts. (arvojournals.org)
- The delay in photoreceptor cell death was due to significant decreases in the activity of caspase-3/7 and calpain, which correlated with an increase in calpastatin expression. (arvojournals.org)
- However, Nakagawa and Yuan report that procaspase-12, localized at the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is cleaved and activated by a noncaspase protease called calpain. (sciencemag.org)
- The authors propose that activation of calpain by an increase in intracellular calcium, a condition that also promotes calpain translocation from the cytosol to membranes, may promote activation of caspase-12 and may play an important role in mediating neuronal degeneration. (sciencemag.org)
- The effector caspases inhibit the enzymes that repair damaged DNA. (wisegeek.com)
Mouse caspase 122
- Caspase-12 mediates cytotoxicity induced by amyloid-beta. (thermofisher.com)
- Here, we report that E2-25K/Hip-2 modulates caspase-12 activity via the ubiquitin/proteasome system. (rupress.org)
- All these biological activities of caspase-1 occur at post-translational level (proteolytic processing). (springer.com)
- The latest report Caspase 7 - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 220.127.116.11) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (medgadget.com)
- Caspase-12 ablation significantly prevented a decline in the a- and b-wave ERG amplitudes in T17M mice during three months, increasing the amplitudes from 232% to 212% and from 160% to 138%, respectively, as compared to T17M retinas. (arvojournals.org)
- We validated caspase-12 as a therapeutic target, ablation of which significantly protects T17M photoreceptors from deterioration. (arvojournals.org)
- Plasma levels of IL-18 and its converting enzyme, caspase-1, were significantly elevated in CTCL. (aacrjournals.org)
- We propose that the high levels of IL-18 expression in lesional CTCL skin contribute to increased plasma levels of IL-18 and that this, in the face of significantly lower levels of IL-12, may contribute to the Th2 bias seen in this disease. (aacrjournals.org)
- The microarray datasets derived from various caspase-1 knockout tissues indicated that caspase-1 can significantly impact the transcriptome. (springer.com)
- Bcl-2-overexpressing cells were significantly refractory to MMT-induced ROS generation, caspase-3 activation, and loss of ΔΨm and were completely resistant to MMT-induced DNA fragmentation. (aspetjournals.org)
- Sensitivity to ScA was significantly increased among cells expressing caspase 8, whereas siRNA knockdown of caspase 8 increased survival after exposure to ScA. (pnas.org)
- Mitochondria transmembrane potential and caspase activities measurement. (cdc.gov)
- Levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident caspase-12 are strongly up-regulated in the brains of AD model mice, where the enzyme colocalizes with E2-25K/Hip-2. (rupress.org)
- Structure of caspase-1 (CASP1), originally called interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE), the first human caspase to be identified. (wikipedia.org)
- The active enzyme often exists as a heterotetramer in the biological environment, where a pro-caspase dimer is cleaved together to form a heterotetramer. (wikipedia.org)
- Caspase 12 is an enzyme known as a cysteine protease. (ptgcn.com)
- A subtype of caspases that contain long pro-domain regions that regulate the activation of the enzyme. (curehunter.com)
- Many acute and chronic liver diseases, including alcoholic hepatitis , result from apoptotic (programmed) cell death mediated by the enzyme caspase. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- and (5) activating cascade of caspases involving caspases 12 and 3. (mdpi.com)
- Catalytic activity of the caspase-8-FLIP L complex inhibits RIPK3-dependent necrosis. (nature.com)
Amino Acid Seq1
- Ready-to-use fluorometric substrate for caspases that recognize the amino acid sequence ATAD. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- Cytochrome c functions with Apaf-1 to activate caspase-9, thereby promoting the activation of effector caspase-3. (aacrjournals.org)
- Knockdown of E2-25K/Hip-2 expression suppresses neuronal cell death triggered by ER stress, and thus caspase-12 is required for the E2-25K/Hip-2-mediated cell death. (rupress.org)
Detected by western blot1
- Cleaved (active) caspase-12 in the lens homogenate was detected by western blot. (arvojournals.org)
- It is closely related to caspase 1 and other members of the caspase family, known as inflammatory caspases, which process and activate inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 and interleukin 18. (wikipedia.org)
- A study in May 2009 by McGill University Health Centre has suggested that estrogen may serve to block the production of caspase-12, resulting in a stronger inflammatory reaction to bacterial pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
- Caspases also have a role in inflammation, whereby it directly processes pro-inflammatory cytokines such as pro-IL1β. (wikipedia.org)
-  Caspases involved with processing inflammatory signals are also implicated in disease. (wikipedia.org)
- Activated caspase-1 is required for cleaving/processing of pro-interleukin-1β (pro-IL-1β) and pro-IL-18 into mature pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, respectively. (springer.com)
- In addition, the combination of bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides with FR901228 enhanced FR901228-induced caspase-3 activity and cytotoxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
- Insufficient activation of these caspases can increase an organism's susceptibility to infection, as an appropriate immune response may not be activated. (wikipedia.org)
- Active full-length caspase-12 (CASP12L), confined to the people of African descent, has been associated with increased susceptibility to and mortality from severe sepsis. (cdc.gov)
Known as caspase1
- It is also known as caspase activated nuclease (CPAN), dna fragmentation factor 40 (DFF-40), DFF2 and DFFB. (wikipedia.org)
- Caspase_12 pAb;human, mouse, rat Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- We found that human caspase-4, a member of caspase-1 subfamily that includes caspase-12, is localized to the ER membrane, and is cleaved when cells are treated with ER stress-inducing reagents, but not with other apoptotic reagents. (rupress.org)
- To address these issues, we immunoprecipitated caspase-3 from three different human B and T cell lines that express NOS ( Fig. 1 A) ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
- NOS and caspase-3 expression in human lymphocyte cell lines. (sciencemag.org)
- We examined plasma of 95 CTCL patients and skin of 20 CTCL patients for IL-18, caspase-1, IL-12, and other cytokines. (aacrjournals.org)
- In addition to these abnormalities, clonal T-cell populations in CTCL produce Th2 cytokines ( 9 - 11 ) and this may be associated with reduced T-cell-mediated cellular immune responses and diminished natural killer cell activity ( 12 ) that are also identified as features of the immunosuppression of this disease. (aacrjournals.org)
- Apoptosome formation results in the activation of executioner caspases including caspase-3, -6, and -7. (biologists.org)
Activation of Caspases2
- Activation of Caspases ensures that the cellular components are degraded in a controlled manner, carrying out cell death with minimal effect on surrounding tissues . (wikipedia.org)
- The activation of caspases is inhibited in HT1080I cells but not in HT1080V cells after TNF treatment. (sciencemag.org)
- The Caspase-12 Fluorometric Assay Kit provides a simple and convenient means for assaying the activity of caspases that recognize the sequence ATAD. (cephamls.com)
- Pep419 is shown to bind as a dimer to an allosteric site of caspase-6 zymogen resulting in its tetramerizaton and stabilization. (emdmillipore.com)