Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Intussusception: A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Reoviridae Infections: Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Reoviridae: A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Astroviridae Infections: Infections with ASTROVIRUS, causing gastroenteritis in human infants, calves, lambs, and piglets.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mamastrovirus: A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.NicaraguaParental Leave: The authorized absence from work of either parent prior to and after the birth of their child. It includes also absence because of the illness of a child or at the time of the adoption of a child. It does not include leave for care of siblings, parents, or other family members: for this FAMILY LEAVE is available.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Venous Cutdown: Creation of a small incised opening in a vein to permit the passage of a needle or cannula for withdrawal of blood, administration of medication, or in diagnostic or therapeutic catheterization. (Dorland, 28th ed.; Stedman, 26th ed.)Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.BangladeshSweet Syndrome: Condition characterized by large, rapidly extending, erythematous, tender plaques on the upper body usually accompanied by fever and dermal infiltration of neutrophilic leukocytes. It occurs mostly in middle-aged women, is often preceded by an upper respiratory infection, and clinically resembles ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME. Sweet syndrome is associated with LEUKEMIA.ArchivesPyoderma Gangrenosum: An idiopathic, rapidly evolving, and severely debilitating disease occurring most commonly in association with chronic ulcerative colitis. It is characterized by the presence of boggy, purplish ulcers with undermined borders, appearing mostly on the legs. The majority of cases are in people between 40 and 60 years old. Its etiology is unknown.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
  • Rotavirus antigen was detected in the stool specimen by the ABON* immunochromatographic test (Abon Biopharm Ltd). (who.int)
  • Although in some reports rotavirus antigen and/or RNA was detected in the central nervous systems, lungs, kidneys, spleens, heart, testes, bladders, and pancreases of selected severely ill children ( 19 , 20 ), homologous rotavirus replication has generally been considered to be restricted to the terminally differentiated epithelial cells of the small intestinal villi. (asm.org)
  • Rotavirus antigen was detected by ELISA in 15.3% of the stool samples examined, as compared to 1.1% in a group of healthy controls. (who.int)
  • The majority of rotaviruses known to infect humans and animals share a common-group antigen and are termed group A rotaviruses . (who.int)
  • A commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Behring, Marburg, Germany) was used to test the faeces of patients and control group for the presence of rotavirus antigen, according to the manufacturer's instructions. (who.int)
  • The lab findings, including a CSF exam, were normal, but a stool antigen test for rotavirus was positive. (neo-med.org)
  • In general, the pattern of spread of rotavirus outbreaks from the southwest to the northeast is not consistent with any climatic factors," explained Pitzer, whose findings appear today (July 17) in Science. (medindia.net)
  • Haze is an important medium for the spread of rotavirus. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • demonstrated that the extraintestinal spread of rotavirus, as measured by antigenemia, was a frequent event in otherwise-healthy mice, rats, calves, and humans ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • This article published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 26, No 4, December 2002 contains the annual report of the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, which has conducted rotavirus surveillance since June 1999. (health.gov.au)
  • Each 1-mL dose contains a suspension of at least 10 6.0 median Cell Culture Infective Dose (CCID 50 ) of live, attenuated human G1P rotavirus after reconstitution. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we extend these observations and compare the intestinal and extraintestinal spread of wild-type homologous murine rotavirus EC and a heterologous strain, rhesus rotavirus (RRV), in newborn mice. (asm.org)
  • This spread was not demonstrated, however, with a homologous murine rotavirus ( 30 ), and it was generally felt that the ability to spread systemically was a relatively unique characteristic of the heterologous RRV strain. (asm.org)
  • We have shown previously that the porcine strain of rotavirus, OSU, induced an increase in the permeability to Na + , K + , and Ca 2+ during replication in MA104 cells. (asm.org)
  • Overall, G1P1A is the most common serotype causing human disease throughout the world, but outbreaks in which G3, G9, or G2 rotaviruses were atypically prominent have been seen in Philadelphia during the last 14 years ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, you can get outbreaks of rotavirus happening a lot sooner when and where there are more infants being born. (medindia.net)
  • The objective of this letter is to briefly comment on the presentation of intra-hospital outbreaks of rotavirus at the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria, from February 7 to 28, 2007. (scielosp.org)
  • Rapid implementation of measures for isolation from contact in a rotavirus outbreak is recommended, as well as reinforcement of standard precautions by indicating the use of gel with alcohol for hand asepsis in the affected units, in addition to continued education of personnel to modify their conduct and remind them of the importance of following the standard and specific precautions to prevent new outbreaks, as happened in our study. (scielosp.org)
  • Among 242 case patients and 368 controls, 82% (199/242) and 92% (339/368), respectively, had received ≥1 doses of RV1. (cdc.gov)
  • Results were pooled using the random-effect model.Six cohort studies involving 4506265 total first doses and five case-control studies involving a total sample of 9643 children were included in this analysis. (usda.gov)
  • A commercial immunoassay (test) may be used to detect group A rotavirus and enteric adenovirus. (healthcentral.com)
  • A total of 114 water samples and 110 oyster samples were collected and tested for group A rotavirus using RT-nested PCR. (mdpi.com)
  • Group A rotavirus (RVA) has a binary classification system based on nucleotide sequence similarities of VP7 and VP4 genes, which determine the G- and P-genotype (i.e., glycoprotein, G protein and protease-cleaved spike protein, P protein, respectively). (biomedcentral.com)
  • While the association between temperature and the presence of rotavirus in water was known prior to the team's systematic review and meta-analysis, the extent of water-borne transmission was less clear. (healthcanal.com)
  • A mathematical model using information on the epidemiology of rotavirus and birth rates from states confirmed the statistical correlation and predicted that given the declining birth rate in California, rotavirus epidemics in the state would gradually shift from December to February. (medindia.net)
  • Our research shows water can both disseminate rotavirus between communities and amplify within-community transmission cycles," said Alicia Kraay, research fellow in epidemiology at the U-M School of Public Health and first author of a study appearing in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (healthcanal.com)
  • Our study provides mechanistic understanding of the potential role that temperature plays in rotavirus waterborne transmission in the tropics and has implications for climate change," said Joseph Eisenberg, senior author of the study and chair of the School of Public Health's Department of Epidemiology. (healthcanal.com)
  • Rotavirus positive specimens detected by quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme immunoassay (EIA), or latex agglutination in collaborating laboratories across Australia were collected, stored frozen and forwarded to the Australian National Rotavirus Reference Centre Melbourne, together with relevant age and gender details. (health.gov.au)
  • We examined 754 rotavirus samples using a combination of monoclonal antibody immunoassay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Northern hybridisation. (health.gov.au)
  • Out of 45 necropscid calves, three (6.66%) cases were positive for BRoV and four (8.88%) cases were found positive for BCoV, screened by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (bvsalud.org)
  • Participants 215 children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and 276 age and hospital matched controls. (uantwerpen.be)