Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Casein Kinase I: A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Casein Kinase Iepsilon: A casein kinase I isoenzyme with specificity for proteins involved the regulation of the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Casein Kinase Idelta: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a regulatory role in a variety of cellular functions including vesicular transport, CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION; CYTOKINESIS, developmental processes, and the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Casein Kinase Ialpha: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways including the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY, the CELL CYCLE, membrane trafficking, and RNA processing. Multiple isoforms of casein kinase I alpha exist and are due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.PhosphoproteinsPeptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole: An RNA polymerase II transcriptional inhibitor. This compound terminates transcription prematurely by selective inhibition of RNA synthesis. It is used in research to study underlying mechanisms of cellular regulation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.PhosphopeptidesCreatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Phosvitin: An egg yolk phosphoglycoprotein which contains about 90% of the yolk protein phosphorus. It is synthesized in the liver of the hen and transferred to the developing oocyte, where it is bound to lipoproteins within the yolk granules.Phosphothreonine: The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Glycogen Synthase Kinases: A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.Phloroglucinol: A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesCyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32: A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Axin Protein: A scaffolding protein that is a critical component of the axin signaling complex which binds to ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI PROTEIN; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE 3; and CASEIN KINASE I.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Pyrvinium CompoundsMembrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.MAP Kinase Kinase 2: A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phosphorylase Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Protein HydrolysatesRNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Phosphoglycerate Kinase: An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.ChromonesProtein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Arginine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC 2.7.3.3.Okadaic Acid: A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.MAP Kinase Kinase 6: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Milk Proteins: The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)MorpholinesDrosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.MAP Kinase Kinase 3: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for a subset of P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES that includes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 12; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 13; and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 14.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Aurora Kinase A: An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases: Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).Focal Adhesion Kinase 2: A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.2,3-Diphosphoglycerate: A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase: A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol into 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate.

Optimal sequences for non-phosphate-directed phosphorylation by protein kinase CK1 (casein kinase-1)--a re-evaluation. (1/481)

A variety of synthetic peptides derived from either the inhibitor-2 (I-2) phosphoacceptor sites or the optimal sequences selected in an oriented peptide library have been compared for their susceptibility to phosphorylation by protein kinase CK1 (also termed casein kinase-1). The I-2-derived peptides are by far preferred over the library peptides by both rat liver CK1 (and by the alpha/beta, gamma and delta/epsilon isoforms immunoprecipitated from it) and recombinant Xenopus laevis CK1 alpha. The superiority of the I-2-derived peptides over the library ones is reflected by Vmax values one to two orders of magnitude higher while the Km values are comparable. Individual substitutions of any of the aspartic acids with alanine in the I-2-derived peptide RRKHAAIGDDDDAYSITA is detrimental, producing both a fall in Vmax and an increase in Km which are more pronounced at position n -3, but also quite significant at positions n -4, n -5 and, to a lesser extent, n -6. The unfavourable effect of these substitutions is more evident with rat liver CK1 than with recombinant Xenopus laevis CK1 alpha. The chimeric peptide IGDDDDAY-S-IIIFFA, resulting from the combination of the N-terminal acidic sequence of the I-2 (Ser86) site and the C-terminal hydrophobic cluster selected in the library peptides (MAEFDTG-S-IIIFFAKKK and MAYYDAA-S-IIIFFAKKK) is phosphorylated as efficiently as the I-2-derived peptide in terms of both Km and Vmax. These combined data strongly support the conclusion that, at variance with the optimal sequences selected in the library, optimal non-phosphate-directed phosphorylation of peptide substrates by CK1 critically relies on the presence of a cluster of acidic residues (preferably aspartic acid) upstream from position n -2, while the highly hydrophobic region downstream from serine selected in the library appears to be dispensable. The reason for these discrepancies remains unclear. The possibility that the library data are biased by the invariant elements forming its scaffold (MA-x-x-x-x-x-SI-x-x-x-x-AKKK) would be consistent with the observation that the library-selected peptides, despite their low Km values, fail to compete against the phosphorylation of protein and peptide substrates by CK1, suggesting that they bind to elements partially distinct from those responsible for substrate recognition.  (+info)

The Yck2 yeast casein kinase 1 isoform shows cell cycle-specific localization to sites of polarized growth and is required for proper septin organization. (2/481)

Casein kinase 1 protein kinases are ubiquitous and abundant Ser/Thr-specific protein kinases with activity on acidic substrates. In yeast, the products of the redundant YCK1 and YCK2 genes are together essential for cell viability. Mutants deficient for these proteins display defects in cellular morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and endocytosis. Yck1p and Yck2p are peripheral plasma membrane proteins, and we report here that the localization of Yck2p within the membrane is dynamic through the cell cycle. Using a functional green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion, we have observed that Yck2p is concentrated at sites of polarized growth during bud morphogenesis. At cytokinesis, GFP-Yck2p becomes associated with a ring at the bud neck and then appears as a patch of fluorescence, apparently coincident with the dividing membranes. The bud neck association of Yck2p at cytokinesis does not require an intact septin ring, and septin assembly is altered in a Yck-deficient mutant. The sites of GFP-Yck2p concentration and the defects observed for Yck-deficient cells together suggest that Yck plays distinct roles in morphogenesis and cytokinesis that are effected by differential localization.  (+info)

A casein kinase I motif present in the cytoplasmic domain of members of the tumour necrosis factor ligand family is implicated in 'reverse signalling'. (3/481)

We have identified a putative signalling feature of the cytoplasmic domains of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family members based on available amino acid sequence data. A casein kinase I (CKI) consensus sequence is conserved in the cytoplasmic domain of six of 15 members of the type II integral membrane TNF ligand family. We examined the phosphorylation state of transmembrane tumour necrosis factor-alpha (mTNF) with [32P]orthophosphate labelling and in vitro kinase assays, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. A dimeric form of the type I soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR) was found to dephosphorylate mTNF. This effect could be prevented by treatment with phosphatase inhibitors. Recombinant CKI was able to phosphorylate mTNF that had been dephosphorylated by sTNFR ligation in vivo, and this was less effective if phosphatase inhibitors had been used to prevent mTNF dephosphorylation. A mutated form of mTNF, lacking the CKI recognition site, cannot be phosphorylated by the enzyme. Binding of sTNFR to mTNF induced an increase in intracellular calcium levels in RAW264.7 cells, implying the presence of an associated signalling pathway. We predict that this CKI motif is phosphorylated in other TNF ligand members, and that it represents a new insight into the mechanism of 'reverse signalling' in this cytokine family.  (+info)

Insertion of a casein kinase recognition sequence induces phosphorylation of ovine beta-lactoglobulin in transgenic mice. (4/481)

We have shown that the cellular mechanisms of the mammary gland can be used to produce a phosphorylated form of a normally unphosphorylated milk protein. This was achieved by the insertion of a beta-casein DNA sequence coding for a group of mammary gland casein kinase recognition sites into ovine beta-lactoglobulin. Transgenic mice carrying this modified gene were generated and lactating females were shown to produce a novel beta-lactoglobulin in their milk. The infrared spectrum, reactivity to antiphosphoserine antibody and reduction of electrophoretic mobility on treatment with alkaline phosphatase showed that the novel protein recovered from the milk whey (serum) was phosphorylated and molecular mass determination by mass spectrometry was consistent with the phosphorylation of one or two residues. A similar level of phosphorylation was measured by quantitative infrared spectroscopy. Centrifugation of the milk to pellet the casein micelles showed that most of the phosphorylated beta-lactoglobulin was in the whey and hence not incorporated into casein micelles.  (+info)

Alterations in C3 activation and binding caused by phosphorylation by a casein kinase released from activated human platelets. (5/481)

A casein kinase released from activated human platelets phosphorylates a number of plasma proteins extracellularly, and that activation of platelets in systemic lupus erythematosus patients parallels an increase in the phosphate content of plasma proteins, including C3. The present study was undertaken to characterize this platelet protein kinase and to further elucidate the effect(s) on C3 function of phosphorylation by platelet casein kinase. The phosphate content of human plasma C3 was increased from 0.15 to 0.60 mol phosphate/mol of C3 after platelet activation in whole blood or platelet-rich plasma. The platelet casein kinase was distinct from other casein kinases in terms of its dependence on cations, inhibition by specific protein kinase inhibitors, and immunological reactivity. C3 that had been phosphorylated with platelet casein kinase was tested for its susceptibility to cleavage by trypsin or the classical and alternative pathway convertases and its binding to EAC and IgG. Phosphorylation did not affect the cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b, but the binding of fragments from phosphorylated C3 to EAC14oxy2 cells and to IgG in purified systems and in serum was increased by 1.6-4.5 times over that of unphosphorylated C3. A covariation was seen between the enhanced binding of C3 fragments to IgG after phosphorylation and an increased ratio of glycerol/glycine binding, from 2.0 for unphosphorylated C3 to 4.9 for phosphorylated C3. The present study suggests that an overall effect of phosphorylation of C3 by platelet casein kinase is to enhance the opsonization of immune complexes.  (+info)

Angiotensin II stimulates serine phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Nck: physical association with the serine/threonine kinases Pak1 and casein kinase I. (6/481)

Nck is a small adaptor protein consisting exclusively of three SH3 domains and one SH2 domain. Nck is thought to have an important role in cell signalling by coupling receptor tyrosine kinases, via its SH2 domain, to downstream SH3-binding effectors. We report here that angiotensin II, working through the AT1 receptor subtype, stimulates the phosphorylation of Nck in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis revealed that Nck is phosphorylated on four peptides containing exclusively phosphoserine in quiescent cells. Treatment with angiotensin II resulted in increased phosphorylation of these four peptides, without the appearance of new phosphopeptides. We show that Nck, via its SH3 domains, specifically binds three major phosphoproteins of 95, 82 and 66 kDa both in vitro and in intact cells. Notably, the phosphorylation of these Nck-binding proteins was found to increase in parallel with that of Nck on stimulation by angiotensin II. One candidate for the 66 kDa phosphoprotein is the serine/threonine kinase p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), which was found to form a stable complex with Nck in aortic smooth muscle cells. We have also identified the gamma2 isoform of casein kinase I as another protein kinase that associates with Nck in these cells. These findings indicate that Nck is a target of G-protein-coupled receptors and suggest a role for Pak1 and casein kinase I-gamma2 in downstream signalling or regulation of the AT1 receptor.  (+info)

Serine phosphorylation of the ligand-activated beta-platelet-derived growth factor receptor by casein kinase I-gamma2 inhibits the receptor's autophosphorylating activity. (7/481)

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors (PDGFRs) are membrane protein-tyrosine kinases that, upon activation, become tyrosine-phosphorylated and associate with numerous SH2 domain-containing molecules involved in mediating signal transduction. In Rat-2 fibroblasts, we have characterized the phosphorylation of the beta-PDGFR following its activation by PDGF. In contrast to tyrosine phosphorylation, which was transient and returned to near basal levels by 30 min, PDGF-stimulated Ser/Thr phosphorylation of the beta-PDGFR was increased by 5 min and remained elevated after 30 min. In vivo, after 5 min of PDGF stimulation, serine phosphorylation of the beta-PDGFR was greatly reduced by CKI-7, a specific inhibitor of casein kinase I (CKI). In vitro, recombinant CKI-gamma2 phosphorylated the ligand-activated beta-PDGFR on serine residues in a CKI-7-sensitive manner and resulted in a marked inhibition of the receptor's autophosphorylating activity. Furthermore, in Rat-2 fibroblasts, expression of hemagglutinin epitope-tagged active CKI-gamma2 resulted in a dramatic decrease in the tyrosine phosphorylation state of the beta-PDGFR in response to PDGF, consistent with receptor inactivation. Our data suggest that upon PDGF stimulation, CKI-gamma2 is activated and/or translocated in proximity to the beta-PDGFR, whereby it phosphorylates the beta-PDGFR on serine residues and negatively regulates its tyrosine kinase activity, leading to receptor inactivation.  (+info)

The casein kinase Ialpha isoform is both physically positioned and functionally competent to regulate multiple events of mRNA metabolism. (8/481)

Casein kinase I is a highly conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases present in every organism tested from yeast to humans. To date, little is known about the function of the higher eukaryotic isoforms in this family. The CKI isoforms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, however, have been genetically linked to the regulation of DNA repair, cell cycle progression and cytokinesis. It has also been established that the nuclear localization of two of these isoforms is essential for their function. The work presented here demonstrates that the higher eukaryotic CKIalpha isoform is also present within nuclei of certain established cell lines and associated with discrete nuclear structures. The nature of its nuclear localization was characterized. In this regard, CKIalpha was shown to colocalize with factors involved in pre-mRNA splicing at nuclear speckles and that its association with these structures exhibited several biochemical properties in common with known splicing factors. The kinase was also shown to be associated with a complex that contained certain splicing factors. Finally, in vitro, CKIalpha was shown to be capable of phosphorylating particular splicing factors within a region rich in serine/arginine dipeptide repeat motifs suggesting that it has both the opportunity and the capacity to regulate one or more steps of mRNA metabolism.  (+info)

Casein Kinase I Isoform Delta (Tau Protein Kinase CSNK1D or CKI Delta or CSNK1D or EC 2.7.11.1 or EC 2.7.11.26) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016 - Market research report and industry analysis - 10293155
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The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of the casein kinase I protein family, whose members have been implicated in the control of cytoplasmic and nuclear processes, including DNA replication and repair. The encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm as a monomer and can phosphorylate a variety of proteins, including itself. This protein has been shown to phosphorylate period, a circadian rhythm protein. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014 ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Casein kinase 2 (CK-2) is a ubiquitous messenger-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in growth control. We have studied the activity and subcellular location of CK-2 in adult rat ventral prostate in relation to androgen withdrawal and administration. Androgen deprivation by castration results in a faster decline in CK-2 activity associated with prostatic nuclei than that in the cytosol. Nuclear CK-2 associated with chromatin is reduced at an even greater rate than that in the total nucleus. Reversal of these events by administration of a single dose of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone to adult rats castrated 144 hr previously was accompanied by a differential early enhancement of chromatin-associated CK-2 activity, with a concomitant decrease in the CK-2 activity present in the cytosol. Changes in the nuclear CK-2 activity correlated with the immunostainable enzyme protein in the nucleus. We propose that androgens evoke translocation of CK-2 from the cytoplasm to the ...
anti-CK2alpha | casein kinase 2 subunit alpha antibodies, UniProt: Q08467, Q08466, O64817, O64816, At5g67380, At3g50000, At2g23080, At2g23070, anti-CKA, CKA, CK2 alpha, AS16 3212
anti-CK2beta | casein kinase 2 subunit beta antibodies, UniProt: P40228, P40229, O81275, O80507, At5g47080, At4g17640, At3g60250, At2g44680, anti-CKB, CKB, CK2 beta, AS16 3213
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Jena Bio \ anti-hCK2, beta-subunit anti-human casein kinase 2, beta-subunitmurine, monoclonal \ ABD-020 for more molecular products just contact us
5 products from 4 suppliers. Compare and order Casein Kinase 1 delta ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products for the most popular species. Our scientists will help you find the right ELISA kit for your needs.
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Xinran Li, Hesheng Hu, Ye Wang, Mei Xue, Xiaolu Li, Wenjuan Cheng, Yongli Xuan, Jie Yin, Na Yang, Suhua Yan].
Function: Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. It can phosphorylate a large number of proteins. Participates in Wnt signaling (By similarity ...
Rabbit polyclonal Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2 antibody validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Referenced in 4 publications and 1 independent review…
The synthetic peptide RRKDLHDDEEDEAMSITA can be used as a substrate for casein kinase 1 (CK1) in in vitro kinase assays. It is phosphorylated by CK1 with a Km of 172 �M
AMG-548 hydrochloride, an orally active and selective p38α inhibitor (Ki=0.5 nM), shows slightly selective over p38β (Ki=36 nM) and >1000 fold selective against p38γ and p38δ. AMG-548 hydrochloride is also extremely potent in the inhibition of whole blood LPS stimulated TNFα (IC50=3 nM). AMG-548 hydrochloride inhibits Wnt signaling by directly inhibiting Casein kinase 1 isoforms δ and ε. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Harnos, J; Canizal, MCA; Jurasek, M; Kumar, J; Holler, C; Schambony, A; Hanakova, K; Bernatik, O; Zdrahal, Z; Gomoryova, K; Gybel, T; Radaszkiewicz, TW; Kravec, M; Trantirek, L; Rynes, J; Dave, Z; Fernandez-Llamazares, AI; Vacha, R; Tripsianes, K; Hoffmann, C; Bryja, V, 2019: Dishevelled-3 conformation dynamics analyzed by FRET-based biosensors reveals a key role of casein kinase 1. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 10, doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-09651-7 ...
Read independent reviews on Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta) from AMS Biotechnology (Archived Products) on SelectScience
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. casein kinase II inhibitor III ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epigenetic regulation of gene expression by Ikaros, HDAC1 and Casein Kinase II in leukemia. AU - Song, Chunhua. AU - Pan, X.. AU - Ge, Z.. AU - Gowda, Chandrika. AU - Ding, Y.. AU - Li, H.. AU - Li, Z.. AU - Yochum, Gregory. AU - Muschen, M.. AU - Li, Q.. AU - Payne, K. J.. AU - Dovat, Sinisa. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84955311527&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84955311527&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1038/leu.2015.331. DO - 10.1038/leu.2015.331. M3 - Letter. VL - 30. SP - 1436. EP - 1440. JO - Leukemia. JF - Leukemia. SN - 0887-6924. IS - 6. ER - ...
Pacsin2 (untagged) - Mouse protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2 (Pacsin2), transcript variant 3, (10ug), 10 µg.
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The dramatic events of chromosome segregation and cell division are initiated by the activity of Cdk1 (Morgan, 2006). Activation of Cdk1 requires binding of mitotic cyclins, which are synthesized anew each cell cycle and accumulate gradually during G2/M. Cdk1 activation is delayed by the Wee1 kinase, which phosphorylates and inhibits Cdk1 (Russell and Nurse, 1987; Gould and Nurse, 1989). The Cdc25 phosphatase promotes entry into mitosis by removing the inhibitory phosphorylation placed on Cdk1 by Wee1 (Russell and Nurse, 1986; Dunphy and Kumagai, 1991; Gautier et al., 1991; Kumagai and Dunphy, 1991; Strausfeld et al., 1991).. In yeast cells, inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1 has been proposed to mediate a checkpoint that delays entry into mitosis until sufficient growth has occurred (Nurse, 1975; Fantes and Nurse, 1977; Rupes, 2002;Kellogg, 2003). Wee1 mutant cells enter mitosis prematurely and become abnormally small, whereas Cdc25 mutant cells undergo delayed entry into mitosis and become ...
Songyang Z, Lu KP, Kwon YT, Tsai LH, Filhol O, Cochet C, Brickey DA, Soderling TR, Bartleson C, Graves DJ, Demaggio AJ, Hoekstra MF, Blenis J, Hunter T, Cantley LC. A structural basis for substrate specificities of protein ser/thr kinases-primary sequence preference of casein kinases I and II, NIMA, phosphorylase kinase, calmodulin-dependent kinase II, Cdk5 and ERK1. Mol Cell Biol 1996;16:6486-93 ...
Ellagic acid is a natural antioxidant, and acts as a potent and ATP-competitive CK2 inhibitor, with an IC50 of 40 nM and a Ki of 20 nM. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Then I was just touching up a frame here and the light bulb flashed on in my brain: casein! You seem to be pleased with the medium as a full-service plein air sketch medium. Ive never used it except on frames. But I have a full array of tube colors. Have you taken casein on a trip as your prime medium? When you travel with casein, do you work on watercolor paper? Or just in a sketchbook? And what have you used for a travel palette for casein? I guess the big issue Id be concerned with is losing quantity of dry paint on the palette. (whereas gouache can kind of be re-wet ...
RefSeq Summary (NM_001320): This gene encodes the beta subunit of casein kinase II, a ubiquitous protein kinase which regulates metabolic pathways, signal transduction, transcription, translation, and replication. The enzyme is composed of three subunits, alpha, alpha prime and beta, which form a tetrameric holoenzyme. The alpha and alpha prime subunits are catalytic, while the beta subunit serves regulatory functions. The enzyme localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013 ...
Muscle Pharm Casein will give you gains around the clock. With high quality ingredients, Casein by Muscle Pharm is designed to be the purest and most effective casein protein ever formulated.
Casein and Publication1/2 kinase 1 are essential effectors of Sox4 function in progenitor N cells. holding theme. Our integrated gene network and useful evaluation indicated that Sox4 features as a bimodular transcription aspect and guarantees N family tree precursor difference through 2 specific systems. It favorably induce gene rearrangements at immunoglobulin large string gene loci by transcriptionally triggering the Publication1 and Publication2 genetics and adversely adjusts Wnt signaling, which can be important for self-renewal, by causing the phrase of casein kinase 1 . Our results demonstrate that Sox4 mediates important fine-tuning of the 2 rival pushes in early B-cell advancement and also established on a model for portrayal of important genetics whose insufficiency, like Sox4 insufficiency, can be harmful to this procedure. Launch People of the Sry-related high flexibility group container (Sox) transcriptional regulator family members control important developing procedures in ...
Casein Protein list and information including what is Casein Protein, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Casein Protein list and information including what is Casein Protein, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Beware of cheap casein proteins being passed off as micellar casein. For example, calcium caseinate is NOT micellar casein. To get MICELLAR casein results, use only MICELLAR casein, not plain casein or caseinates. You fight hard in the gym to get result
Nusobee Casein information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Wockhardt, Nusobee Casein indications, usages and related health products lists
Small-molecule inhibition of Wnt signaling through activation of casein kinase 1α., Thorne CA, Hanson AJ, Schneider J, Tahinci E, Orton D, Cselenyi CS, Jernigan KK, Meyers KC, Hang BI, Waterson AG, Kim K, Melancon B, Ghidu VP, Sulikowski GA, LaFleur B, Salic A, Lee LA, Miller DM, Lee E., Nat Chem Biol. November 1, 2010; 6 (11): 829-36. ...
Im not the biggest on buying casein because I get enough protein from my diet and my normal whey shakes but every once in a while I like to pick some
I would like to get tested for casein intolerance. I know I can go through Enterolab and its only $100 so Id do that if I had to, but out of principle I ...
I know you guys are all great problem solvers and always come up with excellent suggestions, so heres my problem. I thought I was casein intolerant, but...
Casein Kinase Ialpha: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways including the CELL CYCLE, membrane trafficking, and RNA processing. In DROSOPHILA casein kinase Ialpha has been in regulation of Hedghog and Wingless signaling pathways. Multiple isoforms of casein kinase Ialpha exist and are due ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) is an integral membrane protein subjected to constitutive and regulated proteolytic processing. We have previously demonstrated that protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) plays a key role in the regulation of AbetaPP metabolism via cholinergic receptors. The purpose of the present work is to clarify whether other putative signaling systems are involved in the same pharmacological pathway. We focused particularly on casein kinase 2 (CK2), demonstrating a direct interaction between PKCepsilon and CK2 following cholinergic stimulation. Treatment of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with a selective inhibitor of CK2 reduced the effect of carbachol on the release of sAbetaPPalpha. This treatment did not influence the activation and translocation of PKCepsilon suggesting that the latter is located upstream of CK2. On the basis of our results, we add another player to the complex cellular mechanisms regulating non-amyloidogenic processing of AbetaPP. ...
Save 28% Optimum Nutrition - Gold Standard 100% Casein Chocolate Peanut Butter 2 Pounds 100% Casein Gold Standard Premium Micellar Casein Protein 100% Protein from Micellar Casein Slow Digesting 24g Protein 9g Essential Amino Acids 1g Sugar The True Strength of Casein Faster digesting protein is desirable immediately before and after exercise to help refuel recovering muscles, but slow digestion and absorption may be more beneficial at other times -- including bedtime when your body typically goes for hours without food Casein proteins are acid sensitive and thicken in the stomach. Compared to some other proteins, it can take more than twice as long for our Gold Standard 100% Casein to be broken down into its amino acid subcomponents. By using only premium micellar casein as a protein source, weve created a formula that sets the standard for slow digesting protein support. Beyond The Basics Best Selling Micellar Casein Nearly 73% Protein by Weight (24g of Protein per 34g Serving Size) 24g of Slow
Casein micelle image from Dalgleish, D. G., P. Spagnuolo and H. D. Goff. 2004. A possible structure of the casein micelle based on high-resolution field-emission scanning electron microscopy. International Dairy Journal. 14: 1025-1031. This micelle is 120 nm in diameter.. There have been many models developed over the years to explain the structure of the casein micelle, based on all of the information available about its composition and reactivity. The casein sub-micelle model was prominent for many years, but there is sufficient evidence now to conclude that there is not a defined sub-micellar structure to the micelle at all. More recent models suggest a more open structure comprised of aggregates of protein around calcium phosphate nanoclusters. Each of the casein proteins has unique abilitites to either bind with CaP or with other caseins, which gie rise to the aggregates. The nanoclusters provide regions of more or less density. The structure is sufficiently porous to hold a considrable ...
What are the different types of casein and what do they do? We take a look at casein isolates, casein concentrates, micellar casein, casein hydrolysate...
Using a mouse model they created, scientists at Rockefeller University and collaborating institutions have identified a gene (CK1 delta) that they believe merits investigation as a possible cause of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Currently, the cause of ADHD is unknown, but there is increasing evidence that dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in the brains reward-motivation system, is involved. Scientists have previously found that the levels of dopamine, and of the D2 receptor it binds to, are involved in the progression of ADHD, as are four connected regions in the frontal region of the brain, two of which are directly linked to reward and motivation. In their work, the scientists focused on an enzyme called casein kinase I (CK1), which is involved in regulating the dopamine signaling pathway. They created a line of mice genetically modified to overexpress a form of CK1 called CK1 delta, specifically in the forebrain of the mouse. Under normal conditions and in response to ...
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Sometimes slower is better - especially when it comes to the rate of protein digestion. While rapid protein absorption is desirable immediately before or after exercise, delayed release is probably more beneficial throughout the remainder of the day.. Casein proteins are pH sensitive and gel in the acidic environment of the stomach. As a result, it can take more than twice as long for caseins to be broken-down into their amino acid subcomponents than whey and other proteins. Because of their unique time-released qualities, caseins are aptly described as anti-catabolic or muscle-protecting proteins.. Features. ...
Middle East And Africa Casein Protein Market By Application (Food And Beverages, Pharmaceuticals, Cosmetics, Industrial And Other Applications), By Product (Industrial Casein And Edible Casein) And By Region - Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecasts (2016-2021)
Casein Baue deine Muskeln im Schlaf auf✐Welche Vorteile hat Casein? Welches Protein wird vom Körper besser aufgenommen? Wann soll Casein eingenommen werden | Whey Protein
Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard 100% Casein is the Worlds No. 1 and the industrys first all-micellar Casein. Recommended for use in the evening, each great tasting, Gold Standard 100% Casein shake contains 24g of the purest protein, only 3g of carbohydrates, but just 0.5g of fat and no sugar. Its also instantised to mix up easily, every time. ...
Similar to Extracellular serine/threonine protein kinase FAM20C; EC=2.7.11.1; Dentin matrix protein 4; DMP-4; Golgi-enriched fraction casein kinase; GEF-CK; Protein FAM20C; Precursor ...
Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard 100% Casein reviews, ratings and product feedback. Get unbiased opinions on Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard 100% Casein
... is a procedure intended for quantitative measurement of bovine casein in food (such as bread crumbs, chocolate, cookies, soy products, sausage,
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|h4|Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard 100% Natural Casein|/h4| |p|Whey is the main choice of protein powders. Whey also digests very quickly and doesnt provide long lasting nutrition. Casein is the far superior choice for consuming protein for meal replac
Gene target information for Csnk1g3 - casein kinase 1, gamma 3 (house mouse). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Csnk1g3 - Csnk1g3 (untagged) - Mouse casein kinase 1, gamma 3 (cDNA clone MGC:40777 IMAGE:5366964), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
SLOW-ACTING PROTEIN|br|While rapid protein digestion is desirable immediately before or after exercise, slower digestion is more appropriate for between meals and right before bed. Compared to whey, it can take significantly longer for micellar casein to
Buy Casein online from ROS Nutrition. Formulated in Ireland and produced at our licensed GMP plant. Find nutritional info, instructions and reviews here.
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FCASG : Draw blood in a plain, red-top tube(s), serum gel tube(s) is acceptable. Spin down and send 0.5 mL of serum refrigerated in a plastic vial.
Sometimes slower is better - especially when it comes to the rate of protein digestion. While rapid protein absorption is desirable immediately before or
Save 27% Optimum Nutrition - Gold Standard 100% Casein Creamy Vanilla 2 Pounds 100% Casein Gold Standard Premium Micellar Casein Protein 100% Protein from Micellar Casein Slow Digesting 24g Protein 9g Essential Amino Acids 1g Sugar The True Strength of Casein Faster digesting protein is desirable immediately before and after exercise to help refuel recovering muscles, but slow digestion and absorption may be more beneficial at other times -- including bedtime when your body typically goes for hours without food Casein proteins are acid sensitive and thicken in the stomach. Compared to some other proteins, it can take more than twice as long for our Gold Standard 100% Casein to be broken down into its amino acid subcomponents. By using only premium micellar casein as a protein source, weve created a formula that sets the standard for slow digesting protein support. Beyond The Basics Best Selling Micellar Casein Nearly 73% Protein by Weight (24g of Protein per 33g Serving Size) 24g of Slow-Digesting
Genetic mutations that cause an inherited sleep disorder also appear to be linked to migraine, scientists have found.. The mutations are rare, but lead researcher Louis Ptáček, professor of neurology at the University of California, San Francisco, says the study moves scientists one step closer to understanding the molecular pathway to pain in migraine. Migraine is common, affecting one in four women and one in 12 men in the UK. Yet the condition is not well understood and, Professor Ptáček says, the need for better treatments is huge.. The mutations are in a gene called casein kinase I delta (CKIdelta), which has many functions, including helping control the bodys internal clock. CKIdelta mutations cause an unusual sleep pattern of early sleep times and early rising. Work on two families with this sleep disorder suggested to researchers that CKIdelta mutations were also associated with migraines.. They investigated this link using mice carrying one of the CKIdelta mutations. ...
Protein kinase casein kinase II (CK2) is a heterotetrameric serine/threonine kinase involved in proliferation, apoptosis and embryonic development. It is expressed at elevated levels in proliferating tissue, human cancer cell lines and virtually all forms of solid cancers. Recently it has been shown that CK2 inhibition induces apoptosis in cell models of acquired anti-estrogen resistance. These findings suggest that there may be tumor phenotype specific effects of CK2 in breast cancer and consequently phenotype specific sensitivity to CK2 inhibition. As such we sought to determine if luminal and basal cell types display differential sensitivity to selective CK2 inhibitors. Utilizing crystal violet and alamar blue assays, it was found that CK2 inhibition decreased viability of both luminal and basal breast cancer cell lines, with basal-like ER(−) MDA MB 231 cells showing notable sensitivity. Hypertrophic morphologic changes consistent with cellular senescence were noted upon inhibition of CK2. ...
Wnt is a secreted protein that binds to receptors of the Frizzled family. This interaction activates a signaling cascade that controls gene expression during cell growth and developmental processes. The known components of this cascade include the proteins dishevelled, glycogen synthase kinase-3, and β-catenin. Peters et al. reveal that in the developing frog and worm, a serine-threonine kinase called casein kinase I (CKI) functions in the Wnt signaling pathway. In Xenopus laevis, overexpression of CKI mimicked the effects of Wnt overexpression in producing a secondary dorsal axis, stabilizing β-catenin, and inducing the expression of Wnt-target genes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, inhibition of CKI produced the same mesoderm phenotype as loss of Wnt-signaling. The authors demonstrate that CKI is positioned downstream of dishevelled, and upstream of β-catenin. CKI also interacted with and phosphorylated dishevelled. It is possible that phosphorylation of dishevelled by CKI modulates downstream ...
Here we have examined the role of CK2α in regulating MRP1 function via phosphorylation of Thr249. CK2 kinase plays a major role in cell death/survival decisions; consequently, CK2α subunit knockout mice die in midembryogenesis, whereas CK2α knockdown in cell culture is associated with decreased cell survival (Di Maira et al., 2007; Seldin et al., 2008), and even modest reduction in its expression has a large impact on cancer cell homeostasis (Wang et al., 2001; Seeber et al., 2005; Duncan and Litchfield, 2008; Trembley et al., 2010). Thus, it was not surprising that 50% reduction in CK2α expression in our cells was reflected by increased doxorubicin sensitivity (Fig. 3, A and C; Table 1), significant changes in cells ability to efflux doxorubicin (Fig. 4), and reduced MRP1 transport ability (Fig. 3, E and F).. Cell survival when exposed to a known MRP1 substrate, doxorubicin, was assessed by MTT assay; IC50 and IC90 values were extrapolated from this plot (Fig. 3, A and B; Table 1). Although ...
Looking for Casein protein? Find out information about Casein protein. well-defined group of proteins found in milk, constituting about 80% of the proteins in cows milk, but only 40% in human milk. Casein is a remarkably... Explanation of Casein protein
Lipid-binding protein that is able to promote the tubulation of the phosphatidic acid-containing membranes it preferentially binds. Plays a role in intracellular vesicle-mediated transport. Involved in the endocytosis of cell-surface receptors like the EGF receptor, contributing to its internalization in the absence of EGF stimulus. May also play a role in the formation of caveolae at the cell membrane. Recruits DNM2 to caveolae, and thereby plays a role in caveola-mediated endocytosis ...
Casein kinase II is a protein serinethreonine kinase that is thought to be present in all eukarotic cells, implying that it has fundamental cellular functions. The holoenzyme is a tetramer containing 2 alpha or alpha-prime subunits (or one of each) and 2 beta subunits. The function of beta subunit
Ebbesen, P, "Amyloid induction with casein in mice of different ages and investigation for casein antibodies using the single radial diffusion technique." (1971). Subject Strain Bibliography 1971. 857 ...
What is Casein? The USN Casein Night Time Protein is ideal for anyone looking to maximise their recovery periods with a premium, great tasting, slow digesting shake. The maximum recovery periods for...
CKII alpha antibody [N1C3] (casein kinase 2, alpha prime polypeptide) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-CKII alpha pAb (GTX110726) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Gene target information for CSNK1A1 - casein kinase 1 alpha 1 (cattle). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
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Build muscle and increase protein with the best protein from milk, choose from our milk protein range including whey protein powder and casein.
The slow absorption feature gives the ability to provide the body with protein for up to 8 hours and alkaline optimum protein. Casein protein for weight loss? yes, it is very helpful to lose your weight ...
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100% Casein Gold Standard, 1800 g, de la Optimum Nutrition este un concentrat proteic cu asimilare lenta ce poate fi folosit ca si proteina de noapte.
AMIX Micellar Casein 1000g, Amix, : Kaseiny, Koncentrace: 76-90%, Micel rn kasein je ml n proteinov koncentr t s obsahem micel rn ho kaseinu a syrov tkov ho proteinu ve stejn m pom ru jako v odst ed n m ml ce 80:20. Pomal a dlouhodob uvol ov n aminokyselin ... - V e pro fitness, kulturistiku a aerobik. Posilovac stroje a sportovn v iva pro dom c a komer n posilovny.
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Proteins contained in milk are a common cause of food allergies, particularly in infants. It is believed that casein proteins in the milk are the...
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Bioactive peptides derived from casein especially casein phosphopeptides (chromatography, analysis, preparation, purification ...
Understanding the link between the structure and function of a particular muscle will help you to make the right decision, put together an intelligent program and start adding some high quality muscle mass.
Disperse fat, casein, carrageenan and salts in water. Heat and mix to 80C to dissolve casein. Add cheese and stir until molten. Cast into blocks while still hot. ...
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본 연구는 나이를 달리하여 4개월과 12개월 된 흰쥐에게 casein, gluten, 북어를 식이의 40% 수준으로 공급하여 5주간 사육하였을 때 체내 Ca 및 단백질 대사에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 계획되었다. 혈청, 간과 근육의 단백질함량과 뇨, 변의 질소배설량을 측정하였으며 실험식이를 먹인 후 제 2일, 9일, 23일, 35일에 수집한 뇨와 변중의 Ca 배설량을 측정하여 시간에 따른 변화를 살펴보았다. 5주간의 실험기간이 끝난 후 식이 섭취량, 체중증가량은 나이와 단백질급원에 따른 차이가 없었으며 혈청. 간, 장총지신근(E,D.L.), 가자미근(soleus), 족지근(plantaris)의 단백질 함량 역시 차이가 없었다. 그러나 뇨 중의 질소 배설량은 4개월된 쥐에서는 gluten군이 높은 경향을 보였고, 따라서 질소 보유율은 낮았으나 12개월된 쥐는 이런 경향이 나타나지 않았다. 혈청 Ca함량은 나이와 ...
The presence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in Northern Australia poses an ongoing threat for animal health and although clinical disease has not been detected in livestock, it limits export of livestock from the infected areas. BTV presence is governed by variable environmental conditions, which influence vector and host habitats. The National Arbovirus Monitoring Program (NAMP) was established to determine the extent of virus activity and control the risk of infection spread. Groups of young cattle, previously unexposed to infection, are regularly tested to detect evidence of transmission. This approach is labour and cost intensive and difficult to operate in the remote areas of Northern Australia. The resulting data are therefore characterised by spatial and temporal gaps. The aim of this research is to assess the use of remotely sensed environmental and climatic data as a means of predicting the distribution of BTV seroprevalence throughout Northern Australia to complement conventional ...
Moreover, the UHT treatment of milk causes structural changes in its protein system. The main change is the denaturation of whey proteins and their interaction with casein micelles. Consequently, it was expected that the behavior of the UHT milk would be similar to that of casein micelles, as observed with native casein. However, it has been shown that the interaction between casein micelles and whey proteins is also accompanied by a large increase in number of very small, soluble particles resulting from the desegregation of casein micelles. Consequently, by weakening the interaction forces between caseins, heat treatment provokes both a loss of the micelle framework and the formation of small aggregates. Correlatively, an increase in the amount of nonsedimentable casein has been observed in UHT milk following high-speed centrifugation (33). Two effects of these changes on milk properties may be softer coagulation and a higher susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis due to loosening of the ...
What is Casein?The USN Casein Night Time Protein is ideal for anyone looking to maximise their recovery periods with a premium, great tasting, slow digesting shake.The maximum recovery periods for your body are during your sleep, the USN Casein provides you with shake which is the slowest digesting protein available. Our premium formula offers great tasting ultra-premium micellar casein with Aiminogen.What are the benefits?Containing an ultra-premium slow digesting micellar casein, our tasty supplement makes the most out of your optimised recovery time (whilst you sleep) to feed your muscles throughout the night.Whilst being noted for its great taste, the USN Casein is formulated specifically to provide your challenge with a premium night time supplement.
Introduction. Determination of isoelectric point of protein (casein). Introduction: Casein is a globular colloidal protein. Globular proteins are hydrophobic proteins which in certain external condition are soluble in eater. The ph at which the protein is electrically neutral is known as the isoelectric point. A globular protein such as a casein becomes increasingly insoluble as it approaches its isoelectric point. Objectives The object of this experiment is to determine the isoelectric point of casein (protein), which can be precipitated from the solution. Apparatus 9 test tubes pipettes - 1ml - 5ml - 10ml colorimeter Materials Distilled water Acetic acid - 0.01 M - 0.1M - 1.0 M casein - 0.5g/1 in 0.1 M sodium acetate Method 1. The calorimeter is switched ON to allow it to warm up. 2. In order to distinguish between the different acidity levels contained in each test tube, the 9 test tubes were labelled from 1-9. This is important because all solution are a similar colour. 3. Following the ...
Often, people equate protein supplements - whether they are whey or casein protein - with gaining weight. The truth, however, is that when theyre used correctly, these products can also help you to lose body fat while preserving muscle mass.. Whether youre a bodybuilder on a cut or just looking to get ripped for the summer, protein powders can help. Specifically, though, casein appears to have some unique benefits. But how exactly does casein protein improve body composition?. The Science. Fairly convincing evidence - and some explanations - can be found in a 2009 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The study gave 24 healthy subjects two diets, consisting of either 25 percent or 10 percent protein. Both diets used casein as the sole protein source.. For 36 hours, while following these diets, the subjects stayed in respiration chambers so that the team could measure their energy expenditure, hunger levels and macronutrient use.. Increasing the casein to 25 percent ...
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Casein and Publication1/2 kinase 1 are essential effectors of Sox4 function in progenitor N cells. holding theme. Our integrated gene network and useful evaluation indicated that Sox4 features as a bimodular transcription aspect and guarantees N family tree precursor difference through 2 specific systems. It favorably induce gene rearrangements at immunoglobulin large string gene loci by transcriptionally triggering the Publication1 and Publication2 genetics and adversely adjusts Wnt signaling, which can be important for self-renewal, by causing the phrase of casein kinase 1 . Our results demonstrate that Sox4 mediates important fine-tuning of the 2 rival pushes in early B-cell advancement and also established on a model for portrayal of important genetics whose insufficiency, like Sox4 insufficiency, can be harmful to this procedure. Launch People of the Sry-related high flexibility group container (Sox) transcriptional regulator family members control important developing procedures in ...
In vitro phosphorylation by casein kinase II". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (49): 31034-40. PMID 7983041. Mansour I ...
"Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II". The EMBO Journal. 8 (4): 1111-9. PMC 400922 . PMID 2663470.. ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proceedings of the National ... Gupta S, Davis RJ (October 1994). "MAP kinase binds to the NH2-terminal activation domain of c-Myc". FEBS Letters. 353 (3): 281 ... Iijima S, Teraoka H, Date T, Tsukada K (June 1992). "DNA-activated protein kinase in Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells. ...
Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (Apr 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". ... "Regulated exocytosis contributes to protein kinase C potentiation of vanilloid receptor activity". The Journal of Biological ... "Regulated exocytosis contributes to protein kinase C potentiation of vanilloid receptor activity". The Journal of Biological ...
Phosphorylation by casein kinase II". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1264 (3): 303-11. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(95)00166-2. PMID ... Sheu GT, Traugh JA (Jan 1999). "A structural model for elongation factor 1 (EF-1) and phosphorylation by protein kinase CKII". ... Subunit interactions, elongation activity, and phosphorylation by protein kinase CKII". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
Apel ED, Litchfield DW, Clark RH, Krebs EG, Storm DR (Jun 1991). "Phosphorylation of neuromodulin (GAP-43) by casein kinase II ... protein kinase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • response to wounding. • regulation of growth. • ... It is a major protein kinase C (PKC) substrate and is considered to play a key role in neurite formation, regeneration, and ... However, F1 was not cAMP kinase dependent. B-50 was regulated by the pituitary peptide ACTH and was associated with grooming ...
1992). "Prothymosin alpha is phosphorylated by casein kinase-2". FEBS Lett. 312 (2-3): 152-6. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(92)80924-6 ...
Li D, Dobrowolska G, Krebs EG (Jun 1996). "The physical association of casein kinase 2 with nucleolin". The Journal of ... Li D, Dobrowolska G, Krebs EG (Jun 1996). "The physical association of casein kinase 2 with nucleolin". The Journal of ... Jordan P, Heid H, Kinzel V, Kübler D (Dec 1994). "Major cell surface-located protein substrates of an ecto-protein kinase are ... Zhou G, Seibenhener ML, Wooten MW (Dec 1997). "Nucleolin is a protein kinase C-zeta substrate. Connection between cell surface ...
Kim YM, Barak LS, Caron MG, Benovic JL (2002). "Regulation of arrestin-3 phosphorylation by casein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem. ...
Cooper CD, Lampe PD (Nov 2002). "Casein kinase 1 regulates connexin-43 gap junction assembly". The Journal of Biological ... factor-induced connexin 43 gap junction communication by big mitogen-activated protein kinase1/ERK5 but not ERK1/2 kinase ...
O'Brien, K A; Lemke S J, Cocke K S, Rao R N, Beckmann R P (1999). «Casein kinase 2 binds to and phosphorylates BRCA1». Biochem ... BRCA1 interacts with and is required for paclitaxel-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3». ... kinase and ATM and Rad3 related kinase mediate phosphorylation of Brca1 at distinct and overlapping sites. In vivo assessment ... cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases». Oncogene. 15 (2): 143-57. PMID 9244350. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201252. !CS1 manut: Nomes ...
The CSNK1D gene encodes the casein kinase I isoform delta enzyme in humans. This gene is a member of the casein kinase I (CKI) ... "Entrez Gene: CSNK1D casein kinase 1, delta". Cooper, Cynthia D; Lampe Paul D (Nov 2002). "Casein kinase 1 regulates connexin-43 ... "Isolation and characterization of human casein kinase I epsilon (CKI), a novel member of the CKI gene family". J Biol Chem. 270 ...
"Casein Kinase II (CK2) as a Therapeutic Target for Hematological Malignancies". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 23 (1): 95-107. ... Brachyury, Axl, MEK, and Aurora kinase A are molecular drivers of these programs, and inhibitors are currently in clinical ... kinase (PI3K)/AKT axis, Hedgehog signaling pathway, nuclear factor-kappaB and Activating Transcription Factor 2 have also been ... is a potent TGF-β type I receptor kinase inhibitor that was demonstrated to reduce the size, the growth rate of tumors, and the ...
2004). "Regulation of casein kinase I epsilon activity by Wnt signaling". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (13): 13011-7. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Hino S, Michiue T, Asashima M, Kikuchi A (2003). "Casein kinase I epsilon enhances the binding of Dvl-1 to Frat-1 and is ...
Gao ZH, Seeling JM, Hill V, Yochum A, Virshup DM (2002). "Casein kinase I phosphorylates and destabilizes the beta-catenin ... "Axin-dependent phosphorylation of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein mediated by casein kinase 1epsilon". J. Biol. Chem. ... Song DH, Sussman DJ, Seldin DC (2000). "Endogenous protein kinase CK2 participates in Wnt signaling in mammary epithelial cells ...
... (INN), codenamed CX-4945, is a small-molecule inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase II), a ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Chon HJ, Bae KJ, Lee Y, Kim J (2015). "The casein kinase 2 inhibitor, CX-4945, as an ... "Casein Kinase II (CK2) as a Therapeutic Target for Hematological Malignancies". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 23 (1): 95-107. ... the first clinical stage inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 for the treatment of cancer". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 54 (2): ...
Xu, X.; Toselli, P. A.; Russell, L. D.; Seldin, D. C. (1999-09-01). "Globozoospermia in mice lacking the casein kinase II alpha ...
Casein kinase 1, alpha 1 Nucleolin, P110α, PRKCI, Protein kinase D1, and Protein kinase Mζ. Model organisms have been used in ... "Casein kinase I associates with members of the centaurin-alpha family of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-binding ... "Casein kinase I associates with members of the centaurin-alpha family of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-binding ... "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". FEBS Letters. 517 (1-3): 167-71. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793( ...
Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (April 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners ... "Transcriptional repressor ERF is a Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase target that regulates cellular proliferation". ...
O'Brien KA, Lemke SJ, Cocke KS, Rao RN, Beckmann RP (July 1999). "Casein kinase 2 binds to and phosphorylates BRCA1". Biochem. ... "BRCA1 interacts with and is required for paclitaxel-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3". ... kinase and ATM and Rad3 related kinase mediate phosphorylation of Brca1 at distinct and overlapping sites. In vivo assessment ... ATM/ATR are kinases activated by DNA damage. Mutation of serine residues may affect localization of BRCA1 to sites of DNA ...
"Association of CPI-17 with protein kinase C and casein kinase I". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 316 (1): 39-47. doi:10.1016/j. ... Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". FEBS ... Multiple kinases are identified to phosphorylate CPI-17, such as PKC, ROCK, PKN, ZIPK, ILK, and PAK. Agonist stimulation of ... Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 14A also known as CPI-17 (C-kinase potentiated Protein phosphatase-1 Inhibitor Mr = 17 ...
Kim YM, Barak LS, Caron MG, Benovic JL (May 2002). "Regulation of arrestin-3 phosphorylation by casein kinase II". The Journal ... Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (Apr 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". ...
Lüscher B, Kuenzel EA, Krebs EG, Eisenman RN (April 1989). "Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II". The EMBO ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proceedings of the National ... Gupta S, Davis RJ (October 1994). "MAP kinase binds to the NH2-terminal activation domain of c-Myc". FEBS Letters. 353 (3): 281 ... Iijima S, Teraoka H, Date T, Tsukada K (June 1992). "DNA-activated protein kinase in Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells. ...
Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (Apr 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". ... "High mobility group proteins 1 and 2 can function as DNA-binding regulatory components for DNA-dependent protein kinase in ...
Cala SE, Jones LR (January 1991). "Phosphorylation of cardiac and skeletal muscle calsequestrin isoforms by casein kinase II. ... Both forms of calsequestrin are phosphorylated by casein kinase 2, but the cardiac form is phosphorylated more rapidly and to a ...
Casein kinase II phosphorylates the protein on its serine at position 184. The function of StarD10 in the cell is not yet ... "Phosphorylation of StarD10 on serine 284 by casein kinase II modulates its lipid transfer activity". The Journal of Biological ... "Phosphorylation of StarD10 on serine 284 by casein kinase II modulates its lipid transfer activity". The Journal of Biological ...
In vitro phosphorylation by casein kinase II". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (49): 31034-40. PMID 7983041.. ...
In DROSOPHILA casein kinase Ialpha has been in regulation of Hedghog and Wingless signaling pathways. Multiple isoforms of ... A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways including the CELL CYCLE, membrane ... casein kinase Ialpha exist and are due ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. ... Casein Kinase I alpha; Casein Kinase IalphaL; Casein Kinase ... Protein Kinases: 9706*Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: 1353*Casein Kinases: 99*Casein Kinase I: 50*Casein Kinase Ialpha ...
Read independent reviews on Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta) from AMS Biotechnology (Archived ... Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta). Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta) by ... Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta). Manufacturer AMS Biotechnology (Archived Products). Be the first ...
Casein kinases may refer to: Casein kinase 1, serine/threonine-selective protein kinase family Casein kinase 2, a serine/ ...
Casein kinase 2 (EC 2.7.11.1)(CK2/CSNK2) is a serine/threonine-selective protein kinase that has been implicated in cell cycle ... CSNK2A1 CSNK2A2 Casein kinase 1 - a distinct protein kinase family Ahmad KA, Wang G, Unger G, Slaton J, Ahmed K (2008). " ... Casein kinase 2 activity has been reported to be activated following Wnt signaling pathway activation. A Pertussis toxin- ... Gao Y, Wang HY (2006). "Casein kinase 2 Is activated and essential for Wnt/beta-catenin signaling". The Journal of Biological ...
Casein kinase II, regulatory subunit (IPR000704). Short name: Casein_kinase_II_reg-sub ... Casein kinase, a ubiquitous well-conserved protein kinase involved in cell metabolism and differentiation, is characterised by ... Human phosvitin/casein kinase type II. Molecular cloning and sequencing of full-length cDNA encoding subunit beta.. Eur. J. ... Cloning and disruption of CKB1, the gene encoding the 38-kDa beta subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae casein kinase II (CKII). ...
Casein kinase I isoform alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CSNK1A1 gene. Casein kinase 1, alpha 1 has been ... Zhang Y, Qiu WJ, Chan SC, Han J, He X, Lin SC (May 2002). "Casein kinase I and casein kinase II differentially regulate axin ... Casein kinase 1 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000113712 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024576 ... Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (Apr 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". ...
Casein kinase II (CK-II) is a ubiquitous protein kinase, localized to both nucleus and cytoplasm, with strong specificity for ... Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II.. Lüscher B1, Kuenzel EA, Krebs EG, Eisenman RN. ... Our results, along with previous studies on myc deletion mutants, show that Myc is phosphorylated by CK-II, or a kinase with ...
... "casein kinase 1 alpha" and "casein kinase 1 epsilon". Casein kinase 1 epsilon has been suggested to play a role in ... Casein kinase 2 - a distinct protein kinase family Eide EJ, Virshup DM (2001). "Casein kinase I: Another cog in the circadian ... In plants the phosphorylation of protein Jade-1 is regulated by casein kinase 1. In humans there are three casein kinase 1 ... A noncanonical sequence phosphorylated by casein kinase 1 in -catenin may play a role in casein kinase 1 targeting of important ...
Casein kinase 1 family proteins promote Slimb-dependent Expanded degradation.. Fulford AD#1,2, Holder MV#3, Frith D4, Snijders ... Kinase-deficient (KD) GishisoI was unable to promote Ex1-468 CAAX phosphorylation and depletion. (C) CKI kinases promote Ex ... Here, we show that the Casein Kinase 1 (CKI) family is required for Expanded phosphorylation. CKI expression promotes Expanded ... D. melanogaster; casein kinase 1; cell biology; developmental biology; expanded; hippo signalling; tissue growth ...
Constitutive phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha by casein kinase II. C F Barroga, J K Stevenson, E M Schwarz, and I M Verma ... Constitutive phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha by casein kinase II Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... There are several consensus sites for casein kinase II (CKII) in the C-terminal region of I kappa B alpha. Additionally, the ... We report the identification and partial purification of a cellular kinase from unstimulated or stimulated murine cells, which ...
casein kinase I isoform delta; casein kinase I. Names. tau-protein kinase CSNK1D. NP_001350678.1. *EC 2.7.11.1 ... CSNK1D casein kinase 1 delta [Homo sapiens] CSNK1D casein kinase 1 delta [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:1453 ... STKc_CK1_delta_epsilon; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine protein kinases, Casein Kinase 1 delta and epsilon. ... STKc_CK1_delta_epsilon; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine protein kinases, Casein Kinase 1 delta and epsilon. ...
Casein kinase II is a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins such as casein. The kinase exists as ... Casein kinase 2, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with: APC, ATF1, ATF2, C-Fos, C-jun, CDC25B, CHEK1, CREBBP, CSNK2B, DDIT3, ... "Entrez Gene: CSNK2A1 casein kinase 2, alpha 1 polypeptide". Homma MK, Li D, Krebs EG, Yuasa Y, Homma Y (April 2002). " ... Casein kinase II subunit alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CSNK2A1 gene. ...
Casein kinase 1 epsilon, and related casein kinase 1 delta, is dephosphorylated in this pathway. Dephospho rylation of casein ... The protein encoded by the casein kinase 1 epsilon gene is a serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of the casein kinase ... The current theory for how casein kinase 1 epsilon and/or casein kinase 1 delta function in this pathway is that both casein ... After priming through phosphorylation by the serine/threonine kinase LATS, both casein kinase 1 epsilon and casein kinase 1 ...
Casein Kinase 2. pfam00069. Location:40 → 274. Pkinase; Protein kinase domain. * XM_006530643.3 → XP_006530706.1 casein kinase ... casein kinase II subunit alpha. Names. CK II alpha. casein kinase II, alpha 2, polypeptide. NP_034104.1. *EC 2.7.11.1 ... Csnk2a2 casein kinase 2, alpha prime polypeptide [Mus musculus] Csnk2a2 casein kinase 2, alpha prime polypeptide [Mus musculus] ... STKc_CK2_alpha; Catalytic subunit (alpha) of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Casein Kinase 2. ...
Alfa Aesar Casein Kinase II Substrate 1mg Electrophoresis, Western Blotting and ELISA:Western Blotting Reagents, Membranes, ...
Compare casein kinase 1 epsilon ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... casein kinase 1 epsilon ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool for ... Your search returned 24 casein kinase 1 epsilon ELISA ELISA Kit across 5 suppliers. ...
References for Abcams Anti-Casein Kinase 1 delta antibody (ab123684). Please let us know if you have used this product in your ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Casein Kinase 1 alpha antibody (ab63373) : Immunohistochemistry protocols, ...
... family members in vitro at low nanomolar concentrations and pyrvinium selectively potentiates casein kinase 1α (CK1α) kinase ... Small-molecule inhibition of Wnt signaling through activation of casein kinase 1α.. Thorne CA1, Hanson AJ, Schneider J, Tahinci ... Small-molecule inhibition of Wnt signaling through activation of casein kinase 1α ... Small-molecule inhibition of Wnt signaling through activation of casein kinase 1α ...
Catalytic subunit of a constitutively active serine/threonine-protein kinase complex that phosphorylates a large number of ...
... Daniel Martel,1 Tom Beneke,2 Eva ... M. D. Urbaniak, "Casein kinase 1 isoform 2 is essential for bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei," Molecular and Biochemical ... U. Knippschild, A. Gocht, S. Wolff, N. Huber, J. Löhler, and M. Stöter, "The casein kinase 1 family: Participation in multiple ... M. Dan-Goor, A. Nasereddin, H. Jaber, and C. L. Jaffe, "Identification of a secreted casein kinase 1 in Leishmania donovani: ...
Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2 antibody validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Referenced in 4 publications ... Lanes 3 - 4 : Anti-Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2 antibody - C-terminal (ab70862). Lanes 5 - 6 : Anti-Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2 antibody ... Anti-Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2 antibody. See all Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2 primary antibodies. ... Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CK1 Ser/Thr protein kinase family. Casein kinase I subfamily.. Contains 1 protein ...
  • While serine/threonine kinases all phosphorylate serine or threonine residues in their substrates, they select specific residues to phosphorylate on the basis of residues that flank the phosphoacceptor site, which together comprise the consensus sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the catalytic domain of these kinases is highly conserved, the sequence variation that is observed in the kinome (the subset of genes in the genome that encode kinases) provides for recognition of distinct substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. (umassmed.edu)
  • PF-670462 is a potent (IC50 = 7.7 ± 2.2 nM) and selective (>30-fold with respect to 42 additional kinases) inhibitor of CK1ε in isolated enzyme preparations. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Protein kinases are also found in bacteria and plants, and include the pseudokinase sub-family, which exhibit unusual features including atypical nucleotide binding and weak, or no, catalytic activity and are part of a much larger pseudoenzyme group of 'degraded' enzyme relatives that are found throughout life, where they take an active participation in mechanistic cellular signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • these include the master energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the O-GlcNAc transferase enzyme (OGT), and the pro-apoptotic kinase ROCK1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FERM protein Expanded is one of the main upstream Hippo signalling regulators in Drosophila as it promotes Hippo kinase signalling and directly inhibits Yorkie. (nih.gov)
  • Title: Lipopolysaccharide inhibits colonic biotin uptake via interference with membrane expression of its transporter: a role for a casein kinase 2-mediated pathway. (nih.gov)
  • This autophosphorylation occurs in the protein's C-Terminal domain, a region believed to behave as a pseudosubstrate, and inhibits kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • CX-4945 is selective for CK2, as it only inhibits 7 of the 238 kinases by more than 90% at concentration of 0.5 μM, which is 500-fold greater than the IC50 of CK2. (selleckchem.com)
  • The present study evaluated the function of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) in the Drosophila circadian system. (jneurosci.org)
  • We propose that the two kinases cooperate within clock neurons to fine-tune circadian period, improving the precision of the clock mechanism. (jneurosci.org)
  • Given the ubiquitous requirement for post-translational mechanisms in circadian clock systems, it is of interest to identify additional kinases that might regulate oscillator function. (jneurosci.org)
  • Lee HM, Chen R, Kim H, Etchegaray JP, Weaver DR, Lee C. The period of the circadian oscillator is primarily determined by the balance between casein kinase 1 and protein phosphatase 1. (umassmed.edu)
  • The CK1 protein kinases are involved in several important cellular processes, such as cell division, DNA repair, circadian rhythms, nuclear import, chromosome segregation, spindle formation, and the development of neurodegenerative diseases ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Drosophila and certain vertebrate Casein Kinase Id shows circadian function that has been evolutionary conserved over long time spans. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is specifically interested in the role of protein kinases in clock function, and using forward genetics screens Price has contributed to the identification and characterization of many critical elements of the Drosophila circadian clock. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, other noncanonical Wnt pathways have been described and shown to control planar cell polarity in Drosophila and convergent extension movements in vertebrates, and several investigators have reported that the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK [ 6 ]) and small Rho-GTPases (RhoA, Rac1, or Cdc42 [ 35 , 44 ]) are involved in these cascades ( 63 ). (asm.org)
  • Components of the lysosomal membrane fulfil a number of important Torin 1 small molecule kinase inhibitor functions, including acidification of the lysosomal lumen, membrane fusion with additional organelles, and transport events that facilitate the transfer of macromolecules and degradation products (12, 24). (casein-kinase.info)
  • Casein kinase 1 is responsible for most of the hyperphosphorylation of Mih1, whereas protein phosphatase 2A associated with Cdc55 dephosphorylates Mih1. (rupress.org)