A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
A casein kinase I isoenzyme with specificity for proteins involved the regulation of the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a regulatory role in a variety of cellular functions including vesicular transport, CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION; CYTOKINESIS, developmental processes, and the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways including the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY, the CELL CYCLE, membrane trafficking, and RNA processing. Multiple isoforms of casein kinase I alpha exist and are due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
An RNA polymerase II transcriptional inhibitor. This compound terminates transcription prematurely by selective inhibition of RNA synthesis. It is used in research to study underlying mechanisms of cellular regulation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
An egg yolk phosphoglycoprotein which contains about 90% of the yolk protein phosphorus. It is synthesized in the liver of the hen and transferred to the developing oocyte, where it is bound to lipoproteins within the yolk granules.
The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A scaffolding protein that is a critical component of the axin signaling complex which binds to ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI PROTEIN; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE 3; and CASEIN KINASE I.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC 2.7.3.3.
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for a subset of P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES that includes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 12; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 13; and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 14.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).
A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.
A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol into 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).

Optimal sequences for non-phosphate-directed phosphorylation by protein kinase CK1 (casein kinase-1)--a re-evaluation. (1/481)

A variety of synthetic peptides derived from either the inhibitor-2 (I-2) phosphoacceptor sites or the optimal sequences selected in an oriented peptide library have been compared for their susceptibility to phosphorylation by protein kinase CK1 (also termed casein kinase-1). The I-2-derived peptides are by far preferred over the library peptides by both rat liver CK1 (and by the alpha/beta, gamma and delta/epsilon isoforms immunoprecipitated from it) and recombinant Xenopus laevis CK1 alpha. The superiority of the I-2-derived peptides over the library ones is reflected by Vmax values one to two orders of magnitude higher while the Km values are comparable. Individual substitutions of any of the aspartic acids with alanine in the I-2-derived peptide RRKHAAIGDDDDAYSITA is detrimental, producing both a fall in Vmax and an increase in Km which are more pronounced at position n -3, but also quite significant at positions n -4, n -5 and, to a lesser extent, n -6. The unfavourable effect of these substitutions is more evident with rat liver CK1 than with recombinant Xenopus laevis CK1 alpha. The chimeric peptide IGDDDDAY-S-IIIFFA, resulting from the combination of the N-terminal acidic sequence of the I-2 (Ser86) site and the C-terminal hydrophobic cluster selected in the library peptides (MAEFDTG-S-IIIFFAKKK and MAYYDAA-S-IIIFFAKKK) is phosphorylated as efficiently as the I-2-derived peptide in terms of both Km and Vmax. These combined data strongly support the conclusion that, at variance with the optimal sequences selected in the library, optimal non-phosphate-directed phosphorylation of peptide substrates by CK1 critically relies on the presence of a cluster of acidic residues (preferably aspartic acid) upstream from position n -2, while the highly hydrophobic region downstream from serine selected in the library appears to be dispensable. The reason for these discrepancies remains unclear. The possibility that the library data are biased by the invariant elements forming its scaffold (MA-x-x-x-x-x-SI-x-x-x-x-AKKK) would be consistent with the observation that the library-selected peptides, despite their low Km values, fail to compete against the phosphorylation of protein and peptide substrates by CK1, suggesting that they bind to elements partially distinct from those responsible for substrate recognition.  (+info)

The Yck2 yeast casein kinase 1 isoform shows cell cycle-specific localization to sites of polarized growth and is required for proper septin organization. (2/481)

Casein kinase 1 protein kinases are ubiquitous and abundant Ser/Thr-specific protein kinases with activity on acidic substrates. In yeast, the products of the redundant YCK1 and YCK2 genes are together essential for cell viability. Mutants deficient for these proteins display defects in cellular morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and endocytosis. Yck1p and Yck2p are peripheral plasma membrane proteins, and we report here that the localization of Yck2p within the membrane is dynamic through the cell cycle. Using a functional green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion, we have observed that Yck2p is concentrated at sites of polarized growth during bud morphogenesis. At cytokinesis, GFP-Yck2p becomes associated with a ring at the bud neck and then appears as a patch of fluorescence, apparently coincident with the dividing membranes. The bud neck association of Yck2p at cytokinesis does not require an intact septin ring, and septin assembly is altered in a Yck-deficient mutant. The sites of GFP-Yck2p concentration and the defects observed for Yck-deficient cells together suggest that Yck plays distinct roles in morphogenesis and cytokinesis that are effected by differential localization.  (+info)

A casein kinase I motif present in the cytoplasmic domain of members of the tumour necrosis factor ligand family is implicated in 'reverse signalling'. (3/481)

We have identified a putative signalling feature of the cytoplasmic domains of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family members based on available amino acid sequence data. A casein kinase I (CKI) consensus sequence is conserved in the cytoplasmic domain of six of 15 members of the type II integral membrane TNF ligand family. We examined the phosphorylation state of transmembrane tumour necrosis factor-alpha (mTNF) with [32P]orthophosphate labelling and in vitro kinase assays, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. A dimeric form of the type I soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR) was found to dephosphorylate mTNF. This effect could be prevented by treatment with phosphatase inhibitors. Recombinant CKI was able to phosphorylate mTNF that had been dephosphorylated by sTNFR ligation in vivo, and this was less effective if phosphatase inhibitors had been used to prevent mTNF dephosphorylation. A mutated form of mTNF, lacking the CKI recognition site, cannot be phosphorylated by the enzyme. Binding of sTNFR to mTNF induced an increase in intracellular calcium levels in RAW264.7 cells, implying the presence of an associated signalling pathway. We predict that this CKI motif is phosphorylated in other TNF ligand members, and that it represents a new insight into the mechanism of 'reverse signalling' in this cytokine family.  (+info)

Insertion of a casein kinase recognition sequence induces phosphorylation of ovine beta-lactoglobulin in transgenic mice. (4/481)

We have shown that the cellular mechanisms of the mammary gland can be used to produce a phosphorylated form of a normally unphosphorylated milk protein. This was achieved by the insertion of a beta-casein DNA sequence coding for a group of mammary gland casein kinase recognition sites into ovine beta-lactoglobulin. Transgenic mice carrying this modified gene were generated and lactating females were shown to produce a novel beta-lactoglobulin in their milk. The infrared spectrum, reactivity to antiphosphoserine antibody and reduction of electrophoretic mobility on treatment with alkaline phosphatase showed that the novel protein recovered from the milk whey (serum) was phosphorylated and molecular mass determination by mass spectrometry was consistent with the phosphorylation of one or two residues. A similar level of phosphorylation was measured by quantitative infrared spectroscopy. Centrifugation of the milk to pellet the casein micelles showed that most of the phosphorylated beta-lactoglobulin was in the whey and hence not incorporated into casein micelles.  (+info)

Alterations in C3 activation and binding caused by phosphorylation by a casein kinase released from activated human platelets. (5/481)

A casein kinase released from activated human platelets phosphorylates a number of plasma proteins extracellularly, and that activation of platelets in systemic lupus erythematosus patients parallels an increase in the phosphate content of plasma proteins, including C3. The present study was undertaken to characterize this platelet protein kinase and to further elucidate the effect(s) on C3 function of phosphorylation by platelet casein kinase. The phosphate content of human plasma C3 was increased from 0.15 to 0.60 mol phosphate/mol of C3 after platelet activation in whole blood or platelet-rich plasma. The platelet casein kinase was distinct from other casein kinases in terms of its dependence on cations, inhibition by specific protein kinase inhibitors, and immunological reactivity. C3 that had been phosphorylated with platelet casein kinase was tested for its susceptibility to cleavage by trypsin or the classical and alternative pathway convertases and its binding to EAC and IgG. Phosphorylation did not affect the cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b, but the binding of fragments from phosphorylated C3 to EAC14oxy2 cells and to IgG in purified systems and in serum was increased by 1.6-4.5 times over that of unphosphorylated C3. A covariation was seen between the enhanced binding of C3 fragments to IgG after phosphorylation and an increased ratio of glycerol/glycine binding, from 2.0 for unphosphorylated C3 to 4.9 for phosphorylated C3. The present study suggests that an overall effect of phosphorylation of C3 by platelet casein kinase is to enhance the opsonization of immune complexes.  (+info)

Angiotensin II stimulates serine phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Nck: physical association with the serine/threonine kinases Pak1 and casein kinase I. (6/481)

Nck is a small adaptor protein consisting exclusively of three SH3 domains and one SH2 domain. Nck is thought to have an important role in cell signalling by coupling receptor tyrosine kinases, via its SH2 domain, to downstream SH3-binding effectors. We report here that angiotensin II, working through the AT1 receptor subtype, stimulates the phosphorylation of Nck in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis revealed that Nck is phosphorylated on four peptides containing exclusively phosphoserine in quiescent cells. Treatment with angiotensin II resulted in increased phosphorylation of these four peptides, without the appearance of new phosphopeptides. We show that Nck, via its SH3 domains, specifically binds three major phosphoproteins of 95, 82 and 66 kDa both in vitro and in intact cells. Notably, the phosphorylation of these Nck-binding proteins was found to increase in parallel with that of Nck on stimulation by angiotensin II. One candidate for the 66 kDa phosphoprotein is the serine/threonine kinase p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), which was found to form a stable complex with Nck in aortic smooth muscle cells. We have also identified the gamma2 isoform of casein kinase I as another protein kinase that associates with Nck in these cells. These findings indicate that Nck is a target of G-protein-coupled receptors and suggest a role for Pak1 and casein kinase I-gamma2 in downstream signalling or regulation of the AT1 receptor.  (+info)

Serine phosphorylation of the ligand-activated beta-platelet-derived growth factor receptor by casein kinase I-gamma2 inhibits the receptor's autophosphorylating activity. (7/481)

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors (PDGFRs) are membrane protein-tyrosine kinases that, upon activation, become tyrosine-phosphorylated and associate with numerous SH2 domain-containing molecules involved in mediating signal transduction. In Rat-2 fibroblasts, we have characterized the phosphorylation of the beta-PDGFR following its activation by PDGF. In contrast to tyrosine phosphorylation, which was transient and returned to near basal levels by 30 min, PDGF-stimulated Ser/Thr phosphorylation of the beta-PDGFR was increased by 5 min and remained elevated after 30 min. In vivo, after 5 min of PDGF stimulation, serine phosphorylation of the beta-PDGFR was greatly reduced by CKI-7, a specific inhibitor of casein kinase I (CKI). In vitro, recombinant CKI-gamma2 phosphorylated the ligand-activated beta-PDGFR on serine residues in a CKI-7-sensitive manner and resulted in a marked inhibition of the receptor's autophosphorylating activity. Furthermore, in Rat-2 fibroblasts, expression of hemagglutinin epitope-tagged active CKI-gamma2 resulted in a dramatic decrease in the tyrosine phosphorylation state of the beta-PDGFR in response to PDGF, consistent with receptor inactivation. Our data suggest that upon PDGF stimulation, CKI-gamma2 is activated and/or translocated in proximity to the beta-PDGFR, whereby it phosphorylates the beta-PDGFR on serine residues and negatively regulates its tyrosine kinase activity, leading to receptor inactivation.  (+info)

The casein kinase Ialpha isoform is both physically positioned and functionally competent to regulate multiple events of mRNA metabolism. (8/481)

Casein kinase I is a highly conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases present in every organism tested from yeast to humans. To date, little is known about the function of the higher eukaryotic isoforms in this family. The CKI isoforms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, however, have been genetically linked to the regulation of DNA repair, cell cycle progression and cytokinesis. It has also been established that the nuclear localization of two of these isoforms is essential for their function. The work presented here demonstrates that the higher eukaryotic CKIalpha isoform is also present within nuclei of certain established cell lines and associated with discrete nuclear structures. The nature of its nuclear localization was characterized. In this regard, CKIalpha was shown to colocalize with factors involved in pre-mRNA splicing at nuclear speckles and that its association with these structures exhibited several biochemical properties in common with known splicing factors. The kinase was also shown to be associated with a complex that contained certain splicing factors. Finally, in vitro, CKIalpha was shown to be capable of phosphorylating particular splicing factors within a region rich in serine/arginine dipeptide repeat motifs suggesting that it has both the opportunity and the capacity to regulate one or more steps of mRNA metabolism.  (+info)

Casein Kinase I Isoform Delta (Tau Protein Kinase CSNK1D or CKI Delta or CSNK1D or EC 2.7.11.1 or EC 2.7.11.26) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016 - Market research report and industry analysis - 10293155
ProSpecs Casein Kinases include: Casein Kinase 2 alpha Human Recombinant, Casein Kinase 2 alpha Human Recombinant His, Casein Kinase 2 beta Human Recombinant Active, Casein Kinase 2 Beta Human Recombinant, Casein Kinase 2 alpha Zea Mays Recombinant, Casein Kinase 2 Holoenzyme Human Recombinant
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The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of the casein kinase I protein family, whose members have been implicated in the control of cytoplasmic and nuclear processes, including DNA replication and repair. The encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm as a monomer and can phosphorylate a variety of proteins, including itself. This protein has been shown to phosphorylate period, a circadian rhythm protein. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Casein kinase 2 and protein substrates are released from rat liver cells nuclei by DNase or RNase digestion. AU - Bosser, Ramon. AU - Roig, Joan. AU - Itarte, Emilio. AU - Bachs, Oriol. PY - 1994/7/29. Y1 - 1994/7/29. N2 - Casein kinase 2 was released from rat liver cells nuclei by digestion with DNase 1 plus RNase A. This treatment also released three major substrates of 50, 40-42, and 37 kDa. Casein kinase 2 and substrates were also extracted by DNase or RNase separately. However, in DNase extracts only the 37 kDa protein was phosphorylated by casein kinase 2, whereas in RNase extracts all three substrates were phosphorylated. When the DNase extracts were subsequently treated with RNase the 40-42 substrates were then phosphorylated, indicating that their interaction with RNA prevents their phosphorylation by casein kinase 2. The ratio of β:α subunits of casein kinase 2 present in the nuclease extracts was higher than that of the purified enzyme, which is assumed to be 1:1. A ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Casein kinase (CK) are serine/threonine-selective enzymes that function as regulators of signal transduction pathways in most eukaryotic cell types. CK1 isoforms are involved in Wnt signaling, circadian rhythms, nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors, DNA repair, and DNA transcription. The CK1 family of monomeric serine-threonine protein kinases is found in eukaryotic organisms from yeast to humans. Mammals have 7 family members: alpha, beta 1, gamma 1, gamma 2, gamma 3, delta, and epsilon. Casein kinase 1 epsilon has been suggested to play a role in phosphorylation of Disheveled in the Wnt signaling pathway.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Casein kinase 2 (CK-2) is a ubiquitous messenger-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in growth control. We have studied the activity and subcellular location of CK-2 in adult rat ventral prostate in relation to androgen withdrawal and administration. Androgen deprivation by castration results in a faster decline in CK-2 activity associated with prostatic nuclei than that in the cytosol. Nuclear CK-2 associated with chromatin is reduced at an even greater rate than that in the total nucleus. Reversal of these events by administration of a single dose of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone to adult rats castrated 144 hr previously was accompanied by a differential early enhancement of chromatin-associated CK-2 activity, with a concomitant decrease in the CK-2 activity present in the cytosol. Changes in the nuclear CK-2 activity correlated with the immunostainable enzyme protein in the nucleus. We propose that androgens evoke translocation of CK-2 from the cytoplasm to the ...
Dishevelled (DVL) is the key component of the Wnt signaling pathway. Currently, DVL conformational dynamics under native conditions is unknown. To overcome this limitation, we develop the Fluorescein Arsenical Hairpin Binder- (FlAsH-) based FRET in vivo approach to study DVL conformation in living cells. Using this single-cell FRET approach, we demonstrate that (i) Wnt ligands induce open DVL conformation, (ii) DVL variants that are predominantly open, show more even subcellular localization and more efficient membrane recruitment by Frizzled (FZD) and (iii) Casein kinase 1 ɛ (CK1ɛ) has a key regulatory function in DVL conformational dynamics. In silico modeling and in vitro biophysical methods explain how CK1ɛ-specific phosphorylation events control DVL conformations via modulation of the PDZ domain and its interaction with DVL C-terminus. In summary, our study describes an experimental tool for DVL conformational sampling in living cells and elucidates the essential regulatory role of CK1ɛ ...
anti-CK2alpha | casein kinase 2 subunit alpha antibodies, UniProt: Q08467, Q08466, O64817, O64816, At5g67380, At3g50000, At2g23080, At2g23070, anti-CKA, CKA, CK2 alpha, AS16 3212
The members of the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family are highly conserved and are expressed in many eukaryotes ranging from yeast to humans. Mammalian CK1 isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon) and their splice variants are involved in diverse cellular processes including membrane trafficking, cir …
anti-CK2beta | casein kinase 2 subunit beta antibodies, UniProt: P40228, P40229, O81275, O80507, At5g47080, At4g17640, At3g60250, At2g44680, anti-CKB, CKB, CK2 beta, AS16 3213
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5 products from 4 suppliers. Compare and order Casein Kinase 1 delta ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products for the most popular species. Our scientists will help you find the right ELISA kit for your needs.
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Objective To evaluate displays for assessing vasomotor symptoms (VMS) in lab and ambulatory configurations prior to make use of in the MsFLASH network clinical studies assessment VMS therapies. groupings. During ambulatory monitoring, the mean variety of Bahr Monitor? VMS was 16.33 in midlife females with VMS, 9.61 in midlife females without VMS, and 14.63 in young females without VMS (software program version March, 2011). The Bahr Monitor? was even more acceptable compared Rabbit polyclonal to Receptor Estrogen beta.Nuclear hormone receptor.Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner.Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and ha. to the bigger Biolog?, but reviews shown annoyance at needing to wear a tool that was and itched noticeable under clothes. Conclusions The Bahr Monitor? and Biolog? show up suitable for make use of in controlled, lab conditions ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Xinran Li, Hesheng Hu, Ye Wang, Mei Xue, Xiaolu Li, Wenjuan Cheng, Yongli Xuan, Jie Yin, Na Yang, Suhua Yan].
Function: Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. It can phosphorylate a large number of proteins. Participates in Wnt signaling (By similarity ...
Rabbit polyclonal Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2 antibody validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Referenced in 4 publications and 1 independent review…
The synthetic peptide RRKDLHDDEEDEAMSITA can be used as a substrate for casein kinase 1 (CK1) in in vitro kinase assays. It is phosphorylated by CK1 with a Km of 172 �M
AMG-548 hydrochloride, an orally active and selective p38α inhibitor (Ki=0.5 nM), shows slightly selective over p38β (Ki=36 nM) and >1000 fold selective against p38γ and p38δ. AMG-548 hydrochloride is also extremely potent in the inhibition of whole blood LPS stimulated TNFα (IC50=3 nM). AMG-548 hydrochloride inhibits Wnt signaling by directly inhibiting Casein kinase 1 isoforms δ and ε. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Harnos, J; Canizal, MCA; Jurasek, M; Kumar, J; Holler, C; Schambony, A; Hanakova, K; Bernatik, O; Zdrahal, Z; Gomoryova, K; Gybel, T; Radaszkiewicz, TW; Kravec, M; Trantirek, L; Rynes, J; Dave, Z; Fernandez-Llamazares, AI; Vacha, R; Tripsianes, K; Hoffmann, C; Bryja, V, 2019: Dishevelled-3 conformation dynamics analyzed by FRET-based biosensors reveals a key role of casein kinase 1. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 10, doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-09651-7 ...
Read independent reviews on Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta) from AMS Biotechnology (Archived Products) on SelectScience
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
1. Gross, S.D. and Anderson, R.A., Casein kinase I: spatial organization and positioning of a multifunctional protein kinase family, Cell Signal., 1998, vol. 10, pp. 699 711.. 2. Schittek, B. and Sinnberg, T., Biological functions of casein kinase 1 isoforms and putative roles in tumorigenesis, Mol. Cancer, 2014, vol. 13, no. 231. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-4598-13-231 3. Robinson, L.C., Menold, M.M., Garrett, S., and Culbertson, M.R., Casein kinase I-like protein kinases encoded by YCK1 and YCK2 are required for yeast morphogenesis, Mol. Cell Biol., 1993, vol. 13, pp. 2870 2881.. 4. Kloss, B., Price, J.L., Saez, L., Blau, J., Rothenfluh, A., Wesley, C.S., and Young, M.W., The Drosophila clock gene double-time encodes a protein closely related to human casein kinase Ie, Cell, 1998, vol. 94, pp. 97 107.. 5. Peters, J.M., McKay, R.M., McKay, J.P., and Graff, J.M., Casein kinase I transduces Wnt signals, Nature, 1999, vol. 401, pp. 345 350.. 6. Dhillon, N. and Hoekstra, M.F., Characterization of ...
Casein Kinase II (CKII) is a constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase and the general recognition motif for phsophorylation is SXXE/D.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. casein kinase II inhibitor III ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epigenetic regulation of gene expression by Ikaros, HDAC1 and Casein Kinase II in leukemia. AU - Song, Chunhua. AU - Pan, X.. AU - Ge, Z.. AU - Gowda, Chandrika. AU - Ding, Y.. AU - Li, H.. AU - Li, Z.. AU - Yochum, Gregory. AU - Muschen, M.. AU - Li, Q.. AU - Payne, K. J.. AU - Dovat, Sinisa. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84955311527&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84955311527&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1038/leu.2015.331. DO - 10.1038/leu.2015.331. M3 - Letter. VL - 30. SP - 1436. EP - 1440. JO - Leukemia. JF - Leukemia. SN - 0887-6924. IS - 6. ER - ...
We discovered previously that NF-κB is aberrantly activated and promotes tumorigenesis in human HNSCC and murine SCC ( 4- 8, 10). NF-κB activation has been broadly shown and associated with progression in intraepithelial premalignant and malignant squamous neoplasms of the head and neck as well as uterine cervix ( 9, 33). We have shown that expression of an S32A/S36A IκBα mutant unresponsive to IKK phosphorylation strongly inhibited NF-κB activation in HNSCC and murine SCC ( 7, 10). Tamatani et al. ( 34) detected increased IKK-mediated phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB activation in three HNSCC cell lines relative to that observed in five primary gingival keratinocyte cultures, indicating that IKK and NF-κB are aberrantly activated together in HNSCC. Gapany et al. ( 19) showed that cytosolic CK2 expression and activity are also increased in HNSCC tumor specimens and cell lines. In the present study, we directly examined the hypothesis that CK2 promotes IKK-mediated aberrant activation ...
Casein Kinase 1 (CK1) family members are serine/threonine protein kinases ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic organisms. They are involved in a wide range of important cellular processes, such as membrane trafficking, or vesicular transport in organisms from yeast to humans. Due to its broad spectrum of action, CK1 activity and expression is tightly regulated by a number of mechanisms, including subcellular sequestration. Defects in CK1 regulation, localisation or the introduction of mutations in the CK1 coding sequence are often associated with important diseases such as cancer. Increasing evidence suggest that the manipulation of host cell CK1 signalling pathways by intracellular pathogens, either by exploiting the host CK1 or by exporting the CK1 of the pathogen into the host cell may play an important role in infectious diseases. Leishmania CK1.2 is essential for parasite survival and released into the host cell, playing an important role in host pathogen interactions. Although Leishmania CK1.2 has
Pacsin2 (untagged) - Mouse protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2 (Pacsin2), transcript variant 3, (10ug), 10 µg.
PACSIN2 (protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
PACSIN3 (protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Circadian rhythms are intrinsic ?24 hour cycles that regulate diverse aspects of physiology, and in turn are regulated by interactions with the external environment. Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1?, CSNK1D) is a key regulator of the clock, phosphorylating both stabilizing and destabilizing sites on the PER2 protein, in a mechanism known as the phosphoswitch. CK1? can itself be regulated by phosphorylation on its regulatory domain, but the specific sites involved, and the role this plays in control of circadian rhythms as well as other CK1-dependent processes is not well understood. Using a sensitized ...
The milk-derived protein human Casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) has recently been detected in blood cells and was shown to possess proinflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CSN1S1 on the differentiation of monocytes. Primary human monocytes were stimulated with recombinant CSN1S1 and compared to cells stimulated with GM-CSF/IL-4 or M-CSF/IFNγ. Morphological changes were assessed by microscopy and quantification of surface markers of differentiation by FACS analysis. Phagocytic activity of CSN1S1 stimulated cells was measured by quantification of zymosan labeled particle uptake. The role of mitogen activated protein kinases for CSN1S1-induced differentiation of monocytes and proinflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by supplementation of specific inhibitors. CSN1S1 at a concentration of 10 μg/ml resulted in morphological changes (irregular shape, pseudopodia) and aggregation of cells, comparable to changes observed in M-CSF/IFNγ differentiated macrophages. Surface
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
R1 CASEIN SLOW-RELEASE MICELLAR CASEIN FORMULAEven in our fast-paced world, there are times when it pays to slow down. Take between meals and bedtime for example. During these occasions, you want a protein that takes its time. Something to hold you over until your next meal. A protein that breaks down more slowly, delivering its amino acids over several hours. R1 Casein is what youre after. ZERO Non-Casein Proteins ZERO Creamers ZERO Spiking ZERO Fillers R1 CASEIN BETTER INPUTS SLOW-RELEASE MICELLAR CASEIN FORMULA 25 g slow-release protein. Premium micellar casein Amino acid delivery for up to 8 hours with thick satisfying texture. Naturally-rich in all essential amino acids (EAAs) carefully blended and packaged in an NSF GMP facility in the USA
Segmentation, by. The Casein Protein market report provides a detailed evaluation of the business vertical in question, alongside a brief overview of the industry segments. An exceptionally workable estimation of the present industry scenario has been delivered in the study, and the Casein Protein market size with regards to the revenue and volume have also been mentioned. In general, the research report is a compilation of key data with regards to the competitive landscape of this vertical and the multiple regions where the business has successfully established its position. Some important Questions Answered in Casein Protein Market Report are:. - What will be the market size of the Casein Protein showcase in 2029?. - What are the key trends in Casein Protein market?. - Who are the key manufacturer/players in this market space?. - What are the key factors driving the Global Casein Protein market?. - What are the challenges to market growth?. - Who are the distributors, traders and dealers of ...
Tumor necrosis element alpha (TNF-) is an integral mediator of web host immune system and inflammatory replies and inhibits herpesvirus replication by cytolytic and noncytolytic systems. saliva exchange and causes the symptoms infectious mononucleosis Rabbit polyclonal to CXCL10 (31). Additionally, EBV is normally associated with many B-cell and epithelial-cell malignancies. Pursuing initial an infection, EBV establishes a lifelong an infection from the sponsor by latently infecting B BG45 cells. Nevertheless, the virus goes through regular spontaneous reactivation, leading to lytic replication and launch of virus in to the saliva for transmitting to fresh hosts. EBV lytic contamination is initiated from the manifestation of two immediate-early (IE) genes, and (32). The gene item (known as BZLF1, Zta, ZEBRA, or EB1) is usually an associate of the essential leucine zipper category of DNA binding proteins that binds to AP-1-like sites, termed Z response components, within EBV IE and early gene ...
The dramatic events of chromosome segregation and cell division are initiated by the activity of Cdk1 (Morgan, 2006). Activation of Cdk1 requires binding of mitotic cyclins, which are synthesized anew each cell cycle and accumulate gradually during G2/M. Cdk1 activation is delayed by the Wee1 kinase, which phosphorylates and inhibits Cdk1 (Russell and Nurse, 1987; Gould and Nurse, 1989). The Cdc25 phosphatase promotes entry into mitosis by removing the inhibitory phosphorylation placed on Cdk1 by Wee1 (Russell and Nurse, 1986; Dunphy and Kumagai, 1991; Gautier et al., 1991; Kumagai and Dunphy, 1991; Strausfeld et al., 1991).. In yeast cells, inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1 has been proposed to mediate a checkpoint that delays entry into mitosis until sufficient growth has occurred (Nurse, 1975; Fantes and Nurse, 1977; Rupes, 2002;Kellogg, 2003). Wee1 mutant cells enter mitosis prematurely and become abnormally small, whereas Cdc25 mutant cells undergo delayed entry into mitosis and become ...
Songyang Z, Lu KP, Kwon YT, Tsai LH, Filhol O, Cochet C, Brickey DA, Soderling TR, Bartleson C, Graves DJ, Demaggio AJ, Hoekstra MF, Blenis J, Hunter T, Cantley LC. A structural basis for substrate specificities of protein ser/thr kinases-primary sequence preference of casein kinases I and II, NIMA, phosphorylase kinase, calmodulin-dependent kinase II, Cdk5 and ERK1. Mol Cell Biol 1996;16:6486-93 ...
Ellagic acid is a natural antioxidant, and acts as a potent and ATP-competitive CK2 inhibitor, with an IC50 of 40 nM and a Ki of 20 nM. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Then I was just touching up a frame here and the light bulb flashed on in my brain: casein! You seem to be pleased with the medium as a full-service plein air sketch medium. Ive never used it except on frames. But I have a full array of tube colors. Have you taken casein on a trip as your prime medium? When you travel with casein, do you work on watercolor paper? Or just in a sketchbook? And what have you used for a travel palette for casein? I guess the big issue Id be concerned with is losing quantity of dry paint on the palette. (whereas gouache can kind of be re-wet ...
RefSeq Summary (NM_001320): This gene encodes the beta subunit of casein kinase II, a ubiquitous protein kinase which regulates metabolic pathways, signal transduction, transcription, translation, and replication. The enzyme is composed of three subunits, alpha, alpha prime and beta, which form a tetrameric holoenzyme. The alpha and alpha prime subunits are catalytic, while the beta subunit serves regulatory functions. The enzyme localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013 ...
Muscle Pharm Casein will give you gains around the clock. With high quality ingredients, Casein by Muscle Pharm is designed to be the purest and most effective casein protein ever formulated.
Edgar MA, et al. (1997) Phosphorylation of the casein kinase II domain of B-50 (GAP-43) in rat cortical growth cones. J Neurochem 69, 2206-15 ...
Casein and Publication1/2 kinase 1 are essential effectors of Sox4 function in progenitor N cells. holding theme. Our integrated gene network and useful evaluation indicated that Sox4 features as a bimodular transcription aspect and guarantees N family tree precursor difference through 2 specific systems. It favorably induce gene rearrangements at immunoglobulin large string gene loci by transcriptionally triggering the Publication1 and Publication2 genetics and adversely adjusts Wnt signaling, which can be important for self-renewal, by causing the phrase of casein kinase 1 . Our results demonstrate that Sox4 mediates important fine-tuning of the 2 rival pushes in early B-cell advancement and also established on a model for portrayal of important genetics whose insufficiency, like Sox4 insufficiency, can be harmful to this procedure. Launch People of the Sry-related high flexibility group container (Sox) transcriptional regulator family members control important developing procedures in ...
Casein Protein list and information including what is Casein Protein, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Casein Protein list and information including what is Casein Protein, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Beware of cheap casein proteins being passed off as micellar casein. For example, calcium caseinate is NOT micellar casein. To get MICELLAR casein results, use only MICELLAR casein, not plain casein or caseinates. You fight hard in the gym to get result
Nusobee Casein information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Wockhardt, Nusobee Casein indications, usages and related health products lists
Casein protein aka slow digesting protein helps you build muscle even when you sleep. Casein has many benefits other than this. Want to know?
Energie, nutriční hodnoty, vitamíny a minerální látky v potravině Scitec Nutrition 100% casein complex marakuja, bílá čokoláda a v dalších více než 100 000 potravinách. Uložte si Scitec Nutrition 100% casein complex marakuja, bílá čokoláda do svého jídelníčku zdarma.
Casein, like whey protein derives from milk since 80% of milk is casein. This protein like any other animal proteins is a complete source of protein which
Extrifit Micelar Casein 30 g MICELAR CASEIN obsahuje micelárny kazeín sa sladidlom z rastliny stévie a pridanými siedmich tráviacimi enzýmam...
Small-molecule inhibition of Wnt signaling through activation of casein kinase 1α., Thorne CA, Hanson AJ, Schneider J, Tahinci E, Orton D, Cselenyi CS, Jernigan KK, Meyers KC, Hang BI, Waterson AG, Kim K, Melancon B, Ghidu VP, Sulikowski GA, LaFleur B, Salic A, Lee LA, Miller DM, Lee E., Nat Chem Biol. November 1, 2010; 6 (11): 829-36. ...
Micellear Casein (also referred to as a Nighttime Protein) is ideally consumed before bed due to its slow absorbtion into your blood stream which ensures your body stays in an anabolic (muscle building) state while you sleep.
Save today on 100 Percent CASEIN PROTEIN VAN 2LB 1 from OPTIMUM NUTRITION, VitaNet carries a large selection of OPTIMUM NUTRITION products and other brands at discount prices call today 1-800-877-8702.
Why does everyone talk about Forgotten sprouts casein? Is the effect really so convincing? Read our experience report => avoid these mistakes!
Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (Apr 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". ... "Regulated exocytosis contributes to protein kinase C potentiation of vanilloid receptor activity". The Journal of Biological ... "Regulated exocytosis contributes to protein kinase C potentiation of vanilloid receptor activity". The Journal of Biological ...
Phosphorylation by casein kinase II". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Structure and Expression. 1264 (3): 303-11. ... Sheu GT, Traugh JA (Jan 1999). "A structural model for elongation factor 1 (EF-1) and phosphorylation by protein kinase CKII". ... Subunit interactions, elongation activity, and phosphorylation by protein kinase CKII". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
... down-regulation of Casein kinase 2 can promote tumorigenesis. Protein kinase C is a protein-regulator and is highly involved in ... Casein kinase 2 can play a role in cell cycle regulation, DNA repair, and necessary for cell survival; ...
1992). "Prothymosin alpha is phosphorylated by casein kinase-2". FEBS Lett. 312 (2-3): 152-6. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(92)80924-6 ...
Li D, Dobrowolska G, Krebs EG (Jun 1996). "The physical association of casein kinase 2 with nucleolin". The Journal of ... Li D, Dobrowolska G, Krebs EG (Jun 1996). "The physical association of casein kinase 2 with nucleolin". The Journal of ... Jordan P, Heid H, Kinzel V, Kübler D (Dec 1994). "Major cell surface-located protein substrates of an ecto-protein kinase are ... Zhou G, Seibenhener ML, Wooten MW (Dec 1997). "Nucleolin is a protein kinase C-zeta substrate. Connection between cell surface ...
Apel ED, Litchfield DW, Clark RH, Krebs EG, Storm DR (Jun 1991). "Phosphorylation of neuromodulin (GAP-43) by casein kinase II ... It is a major protein kinase C (PKC) substrate and is considered to play a key role in neurite formation, regeneration, and ... However, F1 was not cAMP kinase dependent. B-50 was regulated by the pituitary peptide ACTH and was associated with grooming ... GAP-43 is also a protein kinase C (PKC) substrate. Phosphorylation of serine-41 on GAP-43 by PKC regulates neurite formation, ...
Kim YM, Barak LS, Caron MG, Benovic JL (2002). "Regulation of arrestin-3 phosphorylation by casein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem. ...
Cooper CD, Lampe PD (Nov 2002). "Casein kinase 1 regulates connexin-43 gap junction assembly". The Journal of Biological ... factor-induced connexin 43 gap junction communication by big mitogen-activated protein kinase1/ERK5 but not ERK1/2 kinase ...
Hino S, Michiue T, Asashima M, Kikuchi A (April 2003). "Casein kinase I epsilon enhances the binding of Dvl-1 to Frat-1 and is ... Swiatek W, Tsai IC, Klimowski L, Pepler A, Barnette J, Yost HJ, Virshup DM (March 2004). "Regulation of casein kinase I epsilon ...
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related kinase (PIKK) phosphorylation site at position 238-244 aa. Casein kinase (CK1) ... Polo-like kinase phosphosites 1 (Plk1) at positions 336-342 aa and 351-357 aa. Ser/Thr residues are phosphorylated by the ... Ser/Thr residues are phosphorylated by the kinase. Two NEK2 phosphorylation sites at positions 415-420 bp and 423-428 aa. Table ... Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) phosphorylation site at position 234-241 aa. ...
In vitro phosphorylation by casein kinase II". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (49): 31034-40. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258( ...
Gao ZH, Seeling JM, Hill V, Yochum A, Virshup DM (2002). "Casein kinase I phosphorylates and destabilizes the beta-catenin ... "Axin-dependent phosphorylation of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein mediated by casein kinase 1epsilon". J. Biol. Chem. ... Song DH, Sussman DJ, Seldin DC (2000). "Endogenous protein kinase CK2 participates in Wnt signaling in mammary epithelial cells ...
Xu, X.; Toselli, P. A.; Russell, L. D.; Seldin, D. C. (1999-09-01). "Globozoospermia in mice lacking the casein kinase II alpha ...
Shen C, Nayak A, Melendez RA, Robbins DJ (2020). "Casein Kinase 1α as a Regulator of Wnt-Driven Cancer". International Journal ... Pyrvinium was identified as a potent Wnt inhibitor, acting through activation of Casein kinase CK1α. Pyrvinium salts can also ...
Casein kinase 1, alpha 1 Nucleolin, P110α, PRKCI, Protein kinase D1, and Protein kinase Mζ. Model organisms have been used in ... "Casein kinase I associates with members of the centaurin-alpha family of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-binding ... "Casein kinase I associates with members of the centaurin-alpha family of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-binding ... "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". FEBS Letters. 517 (1-3): 167-71. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793( ...
Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (April 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners ... "Transcriptional repressor ERF is a Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase target that regulates cellular proliferation". ...
O'Brien KA, Lemke SJ, Cocke KS, Rao RN, Beckmann RP (July 1999). "Casein kinase 2 binds to and phosphorylates BRCA1". Biochem. ... "BRCA1 interacts with and is required for paclitaxel-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3". ... kinase and ATM and Rad3 related kinase mediate phosphorylation of Brca1 at distinct and overlapping sites. In vivo assessment ... ATM/ATR are kinases activated by DNA damage. Mutation of serine residues may affect localization of BRCA1 to sites of DNA ...
Zemlickova E, Johannes FJ, Aitken A, Dubois T (March 2004). "Association of CPI-17 with protein kinase C and casein kinase I". ... Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (April 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners ... Multiple kinases are identified to phosphorylate CPI-17, such as PKC, ROCK, PKN, ZIPK, ILK, and PAK. Agonist stimulation of ... Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 14A also known as CPI-17 (C-kinase potentiated Protein phosphatase-1 Inhibitor Mr = 17 ...
Kim YM, Barak LS, Caron MG, Benovic JL (May 2002). "Regulation of arrestin-3 phosphorylation by casein kinase II". The Journal ... Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (Apr 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". ...
Lüscher B, Kuenzel EA, Krebs EG, Eisenman RN (April 1989). "Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II". The EMBO ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proceedings of the National ... Gupta S, Davis RJ (October 1994). "MAP kinase binds to the NH2-terminal activation domain of c-Myc". FEBS Letters. 353 (3): 281 ... Iijima S, Teraoka H, Date T, Tsukada K (June 1992). "DNA-activated protein kinase in Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells. ...
Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (Apr 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". ... "High mobility group proteins 1 and 2 can function as DNA-binding regulatory components for DNA-dependent protein kinase in ...
Casein kinase II phosphorylates the protein on its serine at position 184. The function of StarD10 in the cell is not yet ... "Phosphorylation of StarD10 on serine 284 by casein kinase II modulates its lipid transfer activity". The Journal of Biological ... "Phosphorylation of StarD10 on serine 284 by casein kinase II modulates its lipid transfer activity". The Journal of Biological ...
... (INN), codenamed CX-4945, is a small-molecule inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase II), a ... 2017). "Casein Kinase II (CK2) as a Therapeutic Target for Hematological Malignancies". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 23 (1): ... In SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infected Caco-2 cells, the phosphorylase activity of casein kinase 2 (CK2) is increased resulting in ... "The casein kinase 2 inhibitor, CX-4945, as an anti-cancer drug in treatment of human hematological malignancies". Frontiers in ...
2017). "Casein Kinase II (CK2) as a Therapeutic Target for Hematological Malignancies". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 23 (1): ... Zou J, Luo H, Zeng Q, Dong Z, Wu D, Liu L (June 2011). "Protein kinase CK2α is overexpressed in colorectal cancer and modulates ... Silmitasertib (CX-4945) is a small molecule inhibitor of protein kinase CK2, which has been supported to be linked with TGF-β ... The phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3K)/AKT axis, Hedgehog signaling pathway, nuclear factor-kappaB and Activating ...
Block K, Boyer TG, Yew PR (November 2001). "Phosphorylation of the human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, CDC34, by casein kinase ... Block K, Boyer TG, Yew PR (November 2001). "Phosphorylation of the human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, CDC34, by casein kinase ... Cdc34 in yeast targets numerous substrates - notably the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 - for ubiquitin-mediated ... a novel protein that associates with serine/threonine kinase PRK1 in vivo". Gene. 256 (1-2): 113-21. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(00) ...
"Casein kinase iδ Mutations in Familial Migraine and Advanced Sleep Phase". Science Transitional Mag. 183 (5): 183ra56, 1-11. ...
In 2020, the lab published a paper describing how the mammalian circadian protein PERIOD and its cognate kinase Casein Kinase 1 ... "Casein kinase 1 dynamics underlie substrate selectivity and the PER2 circadian phosphoswitch". eLife. 9: e52343. doi:10.7554/ ...
The casein kinase 1 (CKI) family of kinases is a highly conserved group of proteins that are found in organisms from ... Sekine T, Yamaguchi T, Hamano K, Young MW, Shimoda M, Saez L (February 2008). "Casein kinase I epsilon does not rescue double- ... The mammalian homolog of doubletime is casein kinase I epsilon. Different mutations in the dbt gene have been shown to cause ... Fan JY, Preuss F, Muskus MJ, Bjes ES, Price JL (January 2009). "Drosophila and vertebrate casein kinase Idelta exhibits ...
He and his colleagues genetically increased the Casein Kinase 1 levels and found that the period was restored when Casein ... They concluded that the circadian period is dependent on Casein Kinase 1 levels. During Dunlap's time at Santa Cruz, one of the ... In his most recent work, Dunlap's lab examined regulators of the mRNAs encoding the Casein Kinase 1 protein; one such regulator ... namely Casein Kinase 2) on the temperature compensation mechanism. In 2009, Dunlap and colleagues showed that the FRQ protein ...
Protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PACSIN1 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: PACSIN1 protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 1". PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the ... structure information available in the PDB for Human Protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons protein 1 (PACSIN1 ...
Other protein kinase. Serine/threonine:. *Casein kinase *1. *2. *eIF-2 kinase *EIF2AK3 ... cAMP can then act as a second messenger that goes on to interact with and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA can ...
... at position 375 of VP16 is critical for complex assembly with Oct-1 and HCF and is a target of phosphorylation by casein kinase ...
... ribosomal protein S6 kinase - ribosome - RNA - RNA virus - RNA-binding protein - RNA-directed DNA polymerase - rod outer ... casein - catabolism - catalyst - catalytic domain - CCR5 receptor - CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein ... kinase - kinesin - kinetic energy - kinetic exclusion assay - kinetics - knock-out mouse - Krebs cycle lactalbumin - lactic ... src-family kinase - SSRI - starch - stem cell - stereochemistry - steroid 17alpha-monooxygenase - steroid 21-monooxygenase - ...
... is a drug developed by Pfizer which acts as a selective inhibitor of the enzyme Casein kinase 1 epsilon (CK1-ε), and ... Etchegaray JP, Yu EA, Indic P, Dallmann R, Weaver DR (April 2010). Yamazaki S (ed.). "Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1delta) ... August 2009). "Selective inhibition of casein kinase 1 epsilon minimally alters circadian clock period". The Journal of ... May 2009). "A role for casein kinase 1 epsilon in the locomotor stimulant response to methamphetamine". Psychopharmacology. 203 ...
NS1 specifically targets and degrades the microfilament tropomyosin using casein kinase II, actin filaments through activation ... interacts with kinases including serine/threonine protein kinase (PKR). Further studies will need to be performed to better ... E4orf4 partners mainly with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and Src kinases to induce cell death. Modeling of this protein ... as well as a place for Src kinases to bind. E4orf4 is an important regulator of adenoviruses. Additionally, outside of the ...
Russo GL, Vandenberg MT, Yu IJ, Bae YS, Franza BR, Marshak DR (1992). "Casein kinase II phosphorylates p34cdc2 kinase in G1 ... Cdk1 is comprised mostly by the bare protein kinase motif, which other protein kinases share. Cdk1, like other kinases, ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that ... In addition to this catalytic core, Cdk1, like other cyclin-dependent kinases, contains a T-loop, which, in the absence of an ...
"Casein kinase II phosphorylation of cyclin F at serine 621 regulates the Lys48-ubiquitylation E3 ligase activity of the SCF ( ... βTRCP recognizes these substrates after they are phosphorylated by Polo-like kinase 1 or Cyclin B-CDK1. Fbw7, which is the ... Schwob, E (1994-10-21). "The B-type cyclin kinase inhibitor p40SIC1 controls the G1 to S transition in S. cerevisiae". Cell. 79 ... p130 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs): p27Kip1, p21, Wee1 centriole proteins: Cep250, Ninein There are approximately ...
This PER/CRY complex moves into the nucleus upon phosphorylation by CK1-epsilon (casein kinase 1 epsilon) and inhibits the CLK/ ... "Nuclear entry of the circadian regulator mPER1 is controlled by mammalian casein kinase I epsilon". Molecular Cell Biology. 20 ...
In addition to tropomyosin, arginine kinase and hemocyanin seem to have a role in cross-reactivity to dust mites. Exercise can ... "Casein (milk)," or as an alternative, there must be a statement separate but adjacent to the ingredients list: "Contains milk ... Tropomyosin, arginine kinase, myosin light chain and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein are widely present across shellfish ... As of a 2016 review, only three (tropomyosin, arginine kinase and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein) were available for ...
Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". FEBS ... Spanner S, Ansell GB (1979). "Choline kinase and ethanolamine kinase activity in the cytosol of nerve endings from rat ... Choline kinase alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CHKA gene. The major pathway for the biosynthesis of ... 1999). "Increased choline kinase activity and elevated phosphocholine levels in human colon cancer". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 90 (4 ...
... by casein kinase II and protein kinase c, respectively. ERICH4 is not predicted to be undergo a methionine cleavage or ...
Ca2+-antagonized phosphorylation of calmodulin by casein kinase-2 and a spleen tyrosine protein kinase". FEBS Lett. 215 (2): ... Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase FER is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FER gene. Fer protein is a member of ... 2000). "FER kinase activation of Stat3 is determined by the N-terminal sequence". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (37): 28902-10. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: FER fer (fps/fes related) tyrosine kinase (phosphoprotein NCP94)". Schwartz, Y; Ben-Dor I; Navon A; Motro B; Nir U ...
Collagen XVII is extracellularly phosphorylated by ecto-casein kinase 2 within the NC16A domain, phosphorylation negatively ... "Extracellular phosphorylation of collagen XVII by ecto-casein kinase 2 inhibits ectodomain shedding". J Biol Chem. 282 (31): ...
Jin YJ, Burakoff SJ (1993). "The 25-kDa FK506-binding protein is localized in the nucleus and associates with casein kinase II ...
... casein kinase 2 (CK2), and protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation sites, O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine sites, and a ... a Tool to Predict Kinase-specific Phosphorylation Sites in Hierarchy". Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. 7 (9): 1598-1608. doi: ...
Casein kinase 1, a growth factor-activated protein kinase, also phosphorylates and potentiates FOXO1 and translocates FOXO1 to ... Guo S, Rena G, Cichy S, He X, Cohen P, Unterman T (June 1999). "Phosphorylation of serine 256 by protein kinase B disrupts ... The transcription and half- life of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIP1 rises when FOXO1 is active. A study detects that ... AKT, which is referred to as protein kinase B, phosphorylates FOXO1 and accumulates in the cytosol. ...
"Phosphorylation of C8 and C9 subunits of the multicatalytic proteinase by casein kinase II and identification of the C8 ... Karin M, Delhase M (February 2000). "The I kappa B kinase (IKK) and NF-kappa B: key elements of proinflammatory signalling". ... Feng Y, Longo DL, Ferris DK (January 2001). "Polo-like kinase interacts with proteasomes and regulates their activity". Cell ... Feng Y, Longo DL, Ferris DK (January 2001). "Polo-like kinase interacts with proteasomes and regulates their activity". Cell ...
... has been shown to interact with MAPK14, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CHEK1, MELK, Estrogen receptor alpha, YWHAB, YWHAZ, ... Booher RN, Holman PS, Fattaey A (1997). "Human Myt1 is a cell cycle-regulated kinase that inhibits Cdc2 but not Cdk2 activity ... CDC25B activates the cyclin dependent kinase CDC2 by removing two phosphate groups and it is required for entry into mitosis. ... 1993). "Dephosphorylation of human p34cdc2 kinase on both Thr-14 and Tyr-15 by human cdc25B phosphatase". FEBS Lett. 318 (3): ...
Casein kinase 1 (CK1) inhibition has been identified by Facio Therapies, a Dutch pharmaceutical company, to repress DUX4 ... Creatine kinase (CK) blood level is often ordered when muscle damage is suspected. CK is an enzyme found in muscle, leaking ... Losmapimod, a selective inhibitor of p38α/β mitogen-activated protein kinases, was identified by Fulcrum Therapeutics as a ...
If there is an excess in the amount of tannins in the wine, winemakers can use various fining agents like albumin, casein and ... induces human osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway ...
Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, DAB2, eNOS, FOXO4, MPHOSPH1, MYT1, Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2, Mothers against ... Pin1 activity regulates the outcome of proline-directed kinase (e.g. MAPK, CDK or GSK3) signalling and consequently regulates ... "The C-terminal domain of the Cdc2 inhibitory kinase Myt1 interacts with Cdc2 complexes and is required for inhibition of G(2)/M ... "The C-terminal domain of the Cdc2 inhibitory kinase Myt1 interacts with Cdc2 complexes and is required for inhibition of G(2)/M ...
Kasahara H, Izumo S (January 1999). "Identification of the in vivo casein kinase II phosphorylation site within the homeodomain ... Kim YH, Choi CY, Lee SJ, Conti MA, Kim Y (October 1998). "Homeodomain-interacting protein kinases, a novel family of co- ...
STE20-related kinase adaptor protein α, RhoI, Klotho, N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase V, B-Raf proto-oncogene, casein kinase 2 ... Shin YJ, Kim YB, Kim JH (September 2013). "Protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates and activates p21-activated kinase 1". Molecular ... casein kinase II, Rac3, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 3, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated ... "The adaptor protein Nck links receptor tyrosine kinases with the serine-threonine kinase Pak1". The Journal of Biological ...
Alpha-S1-casein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CSN1S1 gene. CSN1S1 has been shown to interact with SAP130. ... Creasy CL, Chernoff J (1995). "Cloning and characterization of a human protein kinase with homology to Ste20". J. Biol. Chem. ... "Entrez Gene: CSN1S1 casein alpha s1". Menon, Suchithra; Tsuge Tomohiko; Dohmae Naoshi; Takio Koji; Wei Ning (2008). " ... Xu K, Ling MT, Wang X, Wong YC (2007). "Evidence of a novel biomarker, alphas1-Casein, a milk protein, in benign prostate ...
... and is phosphorylated at casein kinase II (CKII) sites. The human homolog, which physically interacts with protein arginine ...
"The AP-3 complex required for endosomal synaptic vesicle biogenesis is associated with a casein kinase Ialpha-like isoform". ...
Casein kinase I isoform alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CSNK1A1 gene. Casein kinase 1, alpha 1 has been ... Zhang Y, Qiu WJ, Chan SC, Han J, He X, Lin SC (May 2002). "Casein kinase I and casein kinase II differentially regulate axin ... Casein kinase 1 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000113712 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024576 ... Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (Apr 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". ...
"Casein Kinase Iepsilon" by people in this website by year, and whether "Casein Kinase Iepsilon" was a major or minor topic of ... "Casein Kinase Iepsilon" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... A casein kinase I isoenzyme with specificity for proteins involved the regulation of the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Casein Kinase Iepsilon" by people in Profiles. ...
Nuclear entry of the circadian regulator MPER1 is controlled by mammalian casein kinase I ε. In: Molecular and cellular biology ... Nuclear entry of the circadian regulator MPER1 is controlled by mammalian casein kinase I ε. Molecular and cellular biology. ... The Drosophila double-time gene product, a casein kinase I ε (CKIε) homolog, has been reported to interact with dPER and ... The Drosophila double-time gene product, a casein kinase I ε (CKIε) homolog, has been reported to interact with dPER and ...
A null mutant of the highly homologous casein kinase 1 isoform 1 (Tb927.5.790) in bloodstream form T. brucei displays no growth ... Urbaniak, Michael D. (2009) Casein kinase 1 isoform 2 is essential for bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei. Molecular and ... Casein kinase 1 isoform 2 is essential for bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei ... Induction of RNA interference targeted against casein kinase 1 isoform 2 (TbCK1.2, Tb927.5.800) in bloodstream form Trypanosoma ...
Casein kinase 2 (CK2) family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance ... Casein kinase 2 (CK2) family: casein kinase 2, alpha 1 polypeptide subunit. Last modified on 23/08/2017. Accessed on 02/12/2022 ... CSNK2A1 is included in Guide to IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY as it is a subunit of the casein kinase 2 complex.. ... EMD Millipore KinaseProfilerTM screen/Reaction Biology Kinase HotspotSM screen A screen profiling 158 kinase inhibitors ( ...
Boster Bio Anti-Casein Kinase I Gamma 3 CSNK1G3 Antibody catalog # A12301. Tested in WB applications. This antibody reacts with ... CSNK1G3 casein kinase 1 gamma 3 casein kinase I isoform gamma-3,casein kinase I ... Anti-Casein Kinase I Gamma 3 CSNK1G3 Antibody. CKI gamma 3 antibody. Boster Bio Anti-Casein Kinase I Gamma 3 CSNK1G3 Antibody ... casein kinase 1, gamma 3; casein kinase I isoform gamma-3; CKI-gamma 3; EC 2.7.11; EC 2.7.11.1 CSNK1G3 CKI-gamma 3L, ...
APC: Adenomatosis polyposis coli; CK1α: Casein kinase 1α; Dvl: Dishevelled; GSK3: Glycogen synthase kinase 3; LEF: Lymphoid ... APC: Adenomatosis polyposis coli; CK1α: Casein kinase 1α; Dvl: Dishevelled; GSK3: Glycogen synthase kinase 3; LEF: Lymphoid ... glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and casein kinase 1α (CK1α). Within this complex, β-catenin is phosphorylated by CK1α and ...
ProViz is an interactive protein exploration tool, which searches several databases for information about a given query protein. Data relevant to the protein like an alignment of homologues, linear motifs, post translational modifications, domains, secondary structure, sequence variations and others are graphically represented relative to their position in the protein.
Posted in: PLATagged: Cleaved-Thr288)NVP-BEZ235 small molecule kinase inhibitorRabbit Polyclonal to CATL1 H chain ... Posted in: Heat Shock Protein 90Tagged: Q-VD-OPh hydrate small molecule kinase inhibitorWT1 ... Posted in: Dopamine D3 ReceptorsTagged: Belinostat small molecule kinase inhibitorRabbit polyclonal to ITM2C ... Posted in: OP3 ReceptorsTagged: BI6727 small molecule kinase inhibitorRabbit Polyclonal to TPIP1 ...
Umbralisib- Dual inhibitor of PI3K and casein kinase epsilon Options for second-line consolidation or extended dosing (optional ... Targeting Bruton tyrosine kinase with ibrutinib in relapsed/refractory marginal zone lymphoma. Blood. 2017 Apr 20. 129 (16): ...
Ko, H., Kim, S., Jin, C. H., Lee, E., Ham, S., Yook, J. I., & Kim, K. (2012). Protein kinase casein kinase 2-mediated ... Ko, H, Kim, S, Jin, CH, Lee, E, Ham, S, Yook, JI & Kim, K 2012, Protein kinase casein kinase 2-mediated upregulation of N- ... Protein kinase casein kinase 2-mediated upregulation of N-cadherin confers anoikis resistance on esophageal carcinoma cells. ... Protein kinase casein kinase 2-mediated upregulation of N-cadherin confers anoikis resistance on esophageal carcinoma cells. In ...
2022 casein kinases mediate the phosphorylatable protein pp49 Entries (RSS) and Comments (RSS) Child theme Enough Child of ... casein kinases mediate the phosphorylatable protein pp49 This content shows Simple View ...
View NEBs product offering of both protein phosphatases and protein kinases ... cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA), catalytic subunit Close Casein Kinase II (CK2) Close Lambda Protein Phosphatase (Lambda PP ... Home Applications Protein Analysis & Tools Protein Phosphatases & Kinases Protein Phosphatases & Kinases Products ... Protein Phosphatases & Kinases Products. Product Listing Application Overview Choose Product:. Protein Phosphatases & Kinases ...
Members of the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family of serine-threonine protein kinases are implicated in the regulation of many ... Casein Kinase IHEK293 CellsHumansIntracellular Signaling Peptides and ProteinsNeoplasm ProteinsProtein DomainsProtein Isoforms ... The DUF1669 domain of FAM83 family proteins anchor casein kinase 1 isoforms. ... Because these kinases exhibit constitutive activity in biochemical assays, it is likely that their activity in cells is ...
Protein kinase A and casein kinases mediate sequential phosphorylation events MENU. Category: Glycosyltransferase. ... Posted in: GlycosyltransferaseTagged: Daidzin small molecule kinase inhibitorNcam1 Supplementary MaterialsFigure S1: CD25 and ...
Casein kinase 1 epsilon antibody for detecting human casein kinase 1 isoform epsilon. Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for ... Encoded by the CSNK1E gene, casein kinase 1 epsilon is a serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of the casein kinase I ... Mouse anti Human casein kinase 1 epsilon antibody recognizes the casein kinase I isoform epsilon, also known as CKI-epsilon, ... Mouse anti Casein Kinase 1 Epsilon. Product Type. PrecisionAb Monoclonal. Clone. OTI5C9. Isotype. IgG2a. Format. Purified. ...
Compartmentalization of casein kinase 1 γ CSNK1G controls the intracellular trafficking of ceramide. Goto et al.. Published:. ...
Phosphorylation of site 5 by glycogen synthase kinase-5 (casein kinase-II) is a prerequisite for phosphorylation of sites 3 by ... Activation of casein kinase II in response to insulin and to epidermal growth factor (English) ... Activation of casein kinase II in response to insulin and to epidermal growth factor. scientific article ... Synergistic phosphorylation and activation of ATP-Mg-dependent phosphoprotein phosphatase by F A/GSK-3 and casein kinase II ( ...
... a FRQ-phosphorylating kinase was purified and identified as casein kinase II (CKII). Disruption of the catalytic subunit gene ... a FRQ-phosphorylating kinase was purified and identified as casein kinase II (CKII). Disruption of the catalytic subunit gene ... a FRQ-phosphorylating kinase was purified and identified as casein kinase II (CKII). Disruption of the catalytic subunit gene ... a FRQ-phosphorylating kinase was purified and identified as casein kinase II (CKII). Disruption of the catalytic subunit gene ...
Casein kinase II subunit alpha: A. SMTL:PDB. SMTL Chain Id:. PDB Chain Id:. A. A ... Nakanishi, I. et al., Identification of protein kinase CK2 inhibitors using solvent dipole ordering virtual screening. To be ...
... and G peptide kinase activities and two MBP kinase peaks. Both MBP- and several S6 peptide kinase peaks could be inactivated by ... and G peptide kinase activities and two MBP kinase peaks. Both MBP- and several S6 peptide kinase peaks could be inactivated by ... The S6 peptide kinases as well as the two MBP kinases stimulated in response to bombesin are similar to those activated by ... The S6 peptide kinases as well as the two MBP kinases stimulated in response to bombesin are similar to those activated by ...
RNA helicase DDX3 is a regulatory subunit of casein kinase 1 in Wnt-beta-catenin signaling. ...
Casein Kinase I Cell Line Chick Embryo Down-Regulation Fibroblasts Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic Infectious bursal ... The down-regulation of casein kinase 1 alpha as a host defense response against infectious bursal disease virus infection. ... In the present study, casein kinase 1 alpha (CK1α), a novel VP2-associated protein, was down-regulated during IBDV replication ... The down-regulation of casein kinase 1 alpha as a host defense response against infectious bursal disease virus infection. ...
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF CASEIN KINASE I ISOFORM DELTA (CK1 DELTA) COMPLEXED WITH SR4133 INHIBITOR - 6RCH , canSARS ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF CASEIN KINASE I ISOFORM DELTA (CK1 DELTA) COMPLEXED WITH SR4133 INHIBITOR ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF CASEIN KINASE I ISOFORM DELTA (CK1 DELTA) COMPLEXED WITH SR4133 INHIBITOR ...
Casein kinase II subunit alpha. A. 340. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CSNK2A1, CK2A1. EC: 2.7.11.1. ...
Furthermore, nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of FTO is regulated by casein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of FTO. Our results ... Keywords: FTO; N(6)-methyladenosine; RNA; casein kinase; cell cycle; cyclin D1; modification; phosphorylation. ...
Kloss B, Price JL, Saez L et al: The Drosophila clock gene double-time encodes a protein closely related to human casein kinase ... Lin JM, Kilman VL, Keegan K et al: A role for casein kinase 2alpha in the Drosophila circadian clock. Nature 2002; 420: 816-820 ... aka casein kinase 1ɛ, CK1ɛ, in mammals). When the FASPS gene was identified in an extensive single-family pedigree, imagine the ... The pers mutation is a serine-to-asparagine change in that part of the PER protein that interacts with a kinase called ...
CASEIN KINASE 1 INHIBITORS FOR THE TREATMENT OF B-CELL CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA BRYJA Vítězslav KAUCKÁ Markéta PLEVOVÁ ... CASEIN KINASE 1 INHIBITORS FOR THE TREATMENT OF B-CELL CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA BRYJA Vítězslav KAUCKÁ Markéta PLEVOVÁ ...
  • Phosphorylation of the type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and glycogen synthase kinase 5. (wikidata.org)
  • To identify the kinase phosphorylating FRQ and to understand the function of FRQ phosphorylation, a FRQ-phosphorylating kinase was purified and identified as casein kinase II (CKII). (elsevier.com)
  • This kinase activity was heparin-sensitive and also measurable with the G peptide (SPQPSRRGSESSEE) and GS-1 peptide (YRRAAVPPSPSPSLSRHSSPHQSEDEE), which contain consensus sequences for phosphorylation by CK-2. (unipd.it)
  • Furthermore, nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of FTO is regulated by casein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of FTO. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphorylation of Nrf2 in the transcription activation domain by casein kinase 2 (CK2) is critical for the nuclear translocation and transcription activation function of Nrf2. (cdc.gov)
  • Hedgehog binds to the transmembrane receptor Patched to relieve inhibition of the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo), which in turn activates the transcription factor Ci by inhibiting its phosphorylation by the kinase PKA. (science.org)
  • PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Smo further enhanced its association with PKAc to form stable kinase-substrate complexes that promoted the PKA-mediated transphosphorylation of Smo dimers. (science.org)
  • O-GlcNAc is an essential carbohydrate modification that intersects with phosphorylation signaling pathways via crosstalk on protein substrates or by direct modification of the kinases that write the phosphate modification. (glycosciences.de)
  • Phosphorylation of PRH by Protein Kinase CK2 (Casein Kinase II) stops PRH from binding to DNA and regulating the transcription of its direct target genes. (intechopen.com)
  • Because casein kinase CK1α-initiated phosphorylation of β-catenin is a key first step to restrain WNT signaling, effective restoration of CK1α activity represents an innovative strategy to combat WNT-driven cancer. (jbc.org)
  • ProtScale and ScanProsite analyses revealed raised local hydrophobicity and the creation of a hypothetical casein kinase II phosphorylation site. (elsevier.com)
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins at two different stages in zebrafish embryonic development was studied by immuno-affinity purification and multi-dimensional LC-MS. Tyrosine kinases including members of the Src family of kinases, Eph receptors and Focal adhesion kinase as well as adaptor proteins such as Paxillin, Crk and p130Cas were identified. (uu.nl)
  • Thus sequestered, DVL2 is unable to undergo phosphorylation by casein kinase, inhibiting its role in WNT signaling. (reactome.org)
  • We report that stromal cells from ovariectomized mice exhibit increased casein kinase II-dependent phosphorylation of the nuclear protein Egr-1. (wustl.edu)
  • In the absence of Wnt binding to the co-receptor complex of Frizzled (Fz) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (LRP) 5 and 6, a multi-protein destruction complex consisting of the scaffolding/tumor suppressor proteins Axin and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and the serine/threonine kinases casein kinase 1α (CK-1α) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) mediates phosphorylation of β-catenin 2,3,9 . (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Phosphorylation by casein kinase II (CK2) regulates BRD4 function, is necessary for active transcription and is involved in resistance to BRD4 drug inhibition in triple-negative breast cancer. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Control of beta-catenin phosphorylation/degradation by a dual-kinase mechanism. (bioseek.eu)
  • beta-catenin degradation is initiated upon amino-terminal serine/threonine phosphorylation, which is believed to be performed by glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in complex with tumor suppressor proteins Axin and adnomatous polyposis coli (APC). (bioseek.eu)
  • Here we describe another Axin-associated kinase, whose phosphorylation of beta-catenin precedes and is required for subsequent GSK-3 phosphorylation of beta-catenin. (bioseek.eu)
  • S-nitrosylation of GRK6 and CK2 enhanced their kinase activity towards phosphorylation of -syn at S129. (bbcpk.org)
  • A screen of 72 inhibitors against 456 human kinases. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • A screen profiling 158 kinase inhibitors (Calbiochem Protein Kinase Inhibitor Library I and II, catalogue numbers 539744 and 539745) for their inhibitory activity at 1µM and 10µM against 234 human recombinant kinases using the EMD Millipore KinaseProfiler TM service. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • A screen profiling the inhibitory activity of 178 commercially available kinase inhibitors at 0.5µM against a panel of 300 recombinant protein kinases using the Reaction Biology Corporation Kinase Hotspot SM platform. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 2011) Unprecedented selectivity and structural determinants of a new class of protein kinase CK2 inhibitors in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Identification of protein kinase CK2 inhibitors using solvent dipole ordering virtual screening. (expasy.org)
  • TAK-715 and AMG-548 are inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which has been suggested to regulate activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Screening for protein kinase CK2 inhibitors of the structural diversity compound library (DTP NCI/NIH) led to the discovery of 4-[(E)-(fluoren-9-ylidenehydrazinylidene)-methyl]benzoic acid (E9). (rcsb.org)
  • How to prioritize T. brucei kinases and quantify their intracellular engagement by small-molecule inhibitors remain unsolved problems. (elifesciences.org)
  • The present invention provides 4,6-diaminopyrimidine compounds useful as kinase inhibitors, pharmaceutically acceptable compositions thereof, and methods of using the same. (justia.com)
  • Casein kinase 1 epsilon inhibitors that are considered safe for humans already exist. (tunisiesoir.com)
  • With this funding, CasInvent Pharma will be strengthening its portfolio of casein kinase inhibitors and progressing its lead compound to the development candidate status. (iniprague.com)
  • The company CasInvent Pharma is developing proprietary, highly selective inhibitors of enzymes belonging to the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family, which play an important role in several disease-related processes, including the migration of leukemia cells into lymphoid organs. (iniprague.com)
  • Western blot analysis of whole cell lysates probed with casein kinase 1 epsilon antibody followed by detection with HRP conjugated Goat anti Mouse IgG (1/10,000, STAR207P ) and visualized on the ChemiDoc MP with 30 second exposure. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Mouse anti Human casein kinase 1 epsilon antibody recognizes the casein kinase I isoform epsilon, also known as CKI-epsilon, CKIe and casein kinase I isoform epsilon. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Encoded by the CSNK1E gene, casein kinase 1 epsilon is a serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of the casein kinase I protein family, whose members have been implicated in the control of cytoplasmic and nuclear processes, including DNA replication and repair. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Profiling of TAK-715 and AMG-548 against a panel of over 200 kinases revealed cross-reactivity with casein kinase I delta and epsilon, which are known activators of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • An evaluation of polymorphisms in casein kinase 1 delta and epsilon genes in major psychiatric disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • casein kinase 1 epsilon [Source:HGNC S. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • The enzyme casein kinase 1 epsilon was found to control how fast the body's clock can be reset based on light and temperature cues in mice. (tunisiesoir.com)
  • The researcher found that mice that lacked the enzyme casein kinase 1 epsilon were able to shift to a new routine of light and dark much easier and with less detrimental health problems than mice that had the enzyme. (tunisiesoir.com)
  • Umbralisib is the first and only oral, once daily, inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) delta and casein kinase 1 (CK1) epsilon. (illinoiscancercare.com)
  • Crystal structure of human protein kinase CK2 in complex with the inhibitor CX-5011. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 1. Anastassiadis T, Deacon SW, Devarajan K, Ma H, Peterson JR. (2011) Comprehensive assay of kinase catalytic activity reveals features of kinase inhibitor selectivity. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • BSF 208075 small molecule kinase inhibitor Open in another window INTRODUCTION A simple question is normally how environmental cues instruct regulatory T cell (Treg) advancement and function to keep host immune BSF 208075 small molecule kinase inhibitor system homeostasis. (casein-kinase.info)
  • von Drathen T, Ure EM, Kirschner S, Roth A, Meier L, Woolhouse AD, Cameron SA, Knippschild U , Peifer C, Luxenburger A. C5-Iminosugar modification of casein kinase 1δ lead 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-isopropyl-4-(pyridin-4-yl)isoxazole promotes enhanced inhibitor affinity and selectivity. (uniklinik-ulm.de)
  • have produced a synthetic version of a microbially derived kinase inhibitor, called hypothemycin, and have shown that it kills T. brucei cells grown in culture. (elifesciences.org)
  • Nintedanib is a small molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitor with IC50 of 34 nM/13 nM/13 nM, 69 nM/37 nM/108 nM and 59 nM/65 nM for VEGFR1/2/3, FGFR1/2/3 and PDGFRα/β, respectively. (absource.de)
  • Regulation of type 1 protein phosphatase/inhibitor-2 complex by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in intact cells. (modencode.org)
  • Plant casein kinases phosphorylate and destabilize a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor to promote cell division. (matchpointnetwork.nl)
  • CSK21_HUMAN ] Catalytic subunit of a constitutively active serine/threonine-protein kinase complex that phosphorylates a large number of substrates containing acidic residues C-terminal to the phosphorylated serine or threonine. (proteopedia.org)
  • Casein kinase 2 alpha (CK2α), the catalytic subunit of the ubiquitously expressed and constitutively active kinase CK2, is modified by O-GlcNAc, but the effect of this modification on the phosphoproteome in cells is unknown. (glycosciences.de)
  • Conformational flexibility of human casein kinase catalytic subunit explored by metadynamics. (univ-grenoble-alpes.fr)
  • A casein kinase I isoenzyme with specificity for proteins involved the regulation of the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. (umassmed.edu)
  • Because these kinases exhibit constitutive activity in biochemical assays, it is likely that their activity in cells is controlled by subcellular localization, interactions with inhibitory proteins, targeted degradation, or combinations of these mechanisms. (figshare.com)
  • The serine/threonine kinase CK2 modulates the activity of more than 300 proteins and thus plays a crucial role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes including neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system and cancer. (uni-koeln.de)
  • CD324 binds to the αEβ7 integrin to mediate cell adhesion and also interacts with a number of intracellular proteins including including erbin, ezrin, caspase-3, caspase-8, β-catenin, presenilin 1, and casein kinase II as well as other extracellular proteins including the EGF receptor. (biolegend.com)
  • Nuclear, casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate (NUCKS), a protein similar to the HMG (high-mobility group) protein family, is one of the most modified proteins in the mammalian proteome. (portlandpress.com)
  • Several hundred different kinases work to phosphorylate various proteins and drive the entire range of cellular activities. (brightsurf.com)
  • A detailed description of the human and bovine casein and FAM20C kinase proteins with which we work can be found in Molecular biology . (realvegancheese.org)
  • DAG activates proteins kinase C (PKC) and IP3 BAY-876 induces intracellular calcium mineral discharge from intracellular shops and activates PKC. (annumed.net)
  • Group I mGluRs may also modulate extra signaling pathways and activate an array of downstream effectors, including phospholipase D and many proteins kinase pathways, such as for example casein kinase 1, Jun kinase, cyclin-dependent proteins kinase 5, the mammalian focus on of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 S6 kinase pathway and the different parts of the mitogen-activated proteins kinase/extracellular receptor kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway [10,11,12]. (annumed.net)
  • This gene encodes the beta subunit of casein kinase II, a ubiquitous protein kinase which regulates metabolic pathways, signal transduction, transcription, translation, and replication. (assaygenie.com)
  • CK2B: a regulatory subunit of the casein kinase 2 holoenzyme. (assaygenie.com)
  • The S6 peptide kinases as well as the two MBP kinases stimulated in response to bombesin are similar to those activated by epidermal growth factor in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts which suggests that the early events of the signal transduction pathway mediated by these growth factors in Swiss 3T3 cells may converge in the activation of common Ser/Thr kinases. (unipd.it)
  • We have developed a porcine skeletal muscle cDNA microarray and have identified a number of candidate genes that could be involved in muscle phenotype determination, including several members of the casein kinase 2 signalling pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some of the hallmarks of the Drosophila repair process include recruitment of blood cells ( PNAS , 2008), epidermal cell orientation and fusion ( Currrent Biology , 2015), epidermal activation of the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, JNK-dependent reepithelialization of the wound site, and clearance of cell debris and scab material. (mdanderson.org)
  • In a conventional activation pathway, I-kappa-B is phosphorylated by I-kappa-B kinases (IKKs) in response to different activators, subsequently degraded thus liberating the active NF-kappa-B complex which translocates to the nucleus. (drugbank.com)
  • The Drosophila Ral GTPase regulates developmental cell shape changes through the Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase pathway. (modencode.org)
  • Synergistic activation of the Wnt signaling pathway by Dvl and casein kinase Iepsilon. (modencode.org)
  • Protein kinase CK2 inhibition is associated with the destabilization of HIF-1alpha in human cancer cells. (proteopedia.org)
  • Combined blockade of Src kinase and epidermal growth factor receptor with gemcitabine overcomes STAT3-mediated resistance of inhibition of pancreatic tumor growth. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the serine/threonine (S/T) kinase Sat4/Hal4 is required for potassium accumulation, and thus, regulates the resistance to sodium salts and helps in the stabilization of other plasma membrane transporters. (frontiersin.org)
  • In human embryonic kidney 293T cells, knockdown of the EEL-1 homolog Huwe1 enhanced the activity of a Wnt reporter in cells stimulated with Wnt3a or in cells that overexpressed casein kinase 1 (CK1) or a constitutively active mutant of the Wnt co-receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6). (muni.cz)
  • [ 67 , 68 ] In the absence of Wnt ligand, cytoplasmic β-catenin is degraded by a destruction complex that includes Axin, adenomatosis polyposis coli, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and casein kinase 1α (CK1α). (medscape.com)
  • Yeast glycogen synthase kinase 3 is involved in protein degradation in cooperation with Bul1, Bul2, and Rsp5. (modencode.org)
  • This revealed predominant Cdk5 kinase, p38MAPK, PKA and casein kinase 2 substrates in the dataset, indicating high kinase activity. (uu.nl)
  • Characterization in mammalian brain of a DARPP-32 serine kinase identical to casein kinase II. (cornell.edu)
  • In Drosophila , protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates and activates Smo in cells stimulated with Hh. (science.org)
  • LATS1 is a known tumor-suppressor kinase that's activated by PTPN14 and phosphorylates YAP1 to prevent its translocation to the nucleus. (shu.edu)
  • NEK9 phosphorylates different histones, myelin basic protein, beta-casein, BICD2, histone H3 on serine and threonine residues, and beta-casein on serine residues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CSNK2A1 is included in Guide to IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY as it is a subunit of the casein kinase 2 complex. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of phospholipase C (PLC)γ/protein kinase C (PKC)/C‑kinase‑activated protein phosphatase‑1 (CPI‑17) signaling pathways in uterine smooth muscle during parturition. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Pak1 and the cell polarity kinase Orb6 both phosphorylate the Sts5 IDR but at distinct residues. (biorxiv.org)
  • Many kinases have already been proven to phosphorylate -syn which include G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), polo-like kinases (PLKs) and casein kinases (CKs) [22C27]. (bbcpk.org)
  • Many well-characterized mitogens [e.g. insulin-like growth factor (IGF),platelet-derived growth factor] signal through receptor tyrosine kinases(RTKs) that lead to activation of the Ras-MAPK and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways( Marshall, 1995 ). (biologists.com)
  • Group II and III mGluRs activate various other signaling pathways also, including MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 kinase) pathways [13]. (annumed.net)
  • Casein kinase I isoform alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CSNK1A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • A synthetic peptide substrate specific for casein kinase II. (wikidata.org)
  • Bombesin, which acts as a sole mitogen for Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, also produced a several-fold increase in the kinase activity toward the RRREEESEEE peptide, a specific substrate for CK-2. (unipd.it)
  • Thus, our study uncovers a previously uncharacterized mechanism for regulation of PKA activity and demonstrates that the signal-regulated formation of kinase-substrate complexes plays a central role in Hh signal transduction. (science.org)
  • Immunohistochemical and Proteomic Evaluation of Nuclear Ubiquitous Casein and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases Substrate in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast. (mpg.de)
  • Cyclin F, unlike canonical and transcriptional cyclins, does not bind or activate any cyclin-dependent kinases. (aging-us.com)
  • Orderly progression through the cell cycle is driven by the periodic oscillations in the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) [ 1 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • The acrylanilide compound and the pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof are used for treating clinical diseases by mainly acting on EGFR family casein kinases. (justia.com)
  • Members of the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family of serine-threonine protein kinases are implicated in the regulation of many cellular processes, including the cell cycle, circadian rhythms, and Wnt and Hedgehog signaling. (figshare.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 14q24.3 that encodes a NEK serine/threonine protein kinase that acts as a multifaceted regulator of mitotic progression, spindle dynamics and chromosome separation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Protein kinases are enzymes involved in almost every biological process. (brightsurf.com)
  • Intracellular -catenin amounts are controlled with a complicated made up of axin, casein kinase 1 (CKI)a, and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). (uitest.info)
  • The in vitro kinase chip technology was also used to determine protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity profiles from morpholino mediated knock down zebrafish embryo lysates. (uu.nl)
  • The researchers used two protein-engineering techniques to switch on and switch off one kinase, called tyrosine kinase c-Src. (brightsurf.com)
  • Alectinib is a second generation oral drug that selectively inhibits the activity of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase. (absource.de)
  • T. brucei has 182 different kinases, suggesting a wealth of potential new targets. (elifesciences.org)
  • Identification of a Tumor Specific, Active-Site Mutation in Casein Kinase 1α by Chemical Proteomics. (nih.gov)
  • Neuronal precursor cells in the developing cerebellum require activity of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways for growth and survival. (biologists.com)
  • Understanding precisely how kinases work would reveal cellular pathways that drive cells to become cancerous and identify novel drug targets. (brightsurf.com)
  • Treatment of quiescent Swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts with bombesin resulted in a rapid 6-8-fold stimulation of cytosolic Ser/Thr kinase activities toward the S6 peptide (RRLSSLR), myelin basic protein (MBP), and the G peptide (SPQPSRRGSESSEE). (unipd.it)
  • Anion exchange Mono Q chromatography resolved multiple S6 peptide- and G peptide kinase activities and two MBP kinase peaks. (unipd.it)
  • Both MBP- and several S6 peptide kinase peaks could be inactivated by PCSL (PP2A2) phosphatase action. (unipd.it)
  • Casein kinase 1, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with Centaurin, alpha 1 and AXIN1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The down-regulation of casein kinase 1 alpha as a host defense response against infectious bursal disease virus infection. (illumina.com)
  • Writing and Erasing O-GlcNAc on Casein Kinase 2 Alpha Alters the Phosphoproteome. (glycosciences.de)
  • This "priming" kinase is casein kinase Ialpha (CKIalpha). (bioseek.eu)
  • Casein Kinase Iepsilon" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Casein Kinase Iepsilon" by people in this website by year, and whether "Casein Kinase Iepsilon" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Casein Kinase Iepsilon" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • Morpholino knock down of the kinases Fyn and Yes, induced characteristic phenotypes in 1 day old zebrafish embryos and the lysates induced distinct changes in the PTK activity profiles compared to wild-type lysates. (uu.nl)
  • Boster Bio Anti-Casein Kinase I Gamma 3 CSNK1G3 Antibody catalog # A12301. (bosterbio.com)
  • Smirlis D, Dingli F, Sabatet V, Roth A, Knippschild U , Loew D, Späth GF, Rachidi N. Identification of the Host Substratome of Leishmania -Secreted Casein Kinase 1 Using a SILAC-Based Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Assay. (uniklinik-ulm.de)
  • Identification of the host substratome of Leishmania-secreted casein kinase 1 using a SILAC-based quantitative mass spectrometry assay. (uniklinik-ulm.de)
  • Moreover, the identification of the protein kinase CK2 in the Rrp15p-containing pre-ribosomal particles here reported, sustains the link between ribosome synthesis and cell cycle progression. (elsevier.com)
  • Structural basis of CX-4945 binding to human protein kinase CK2. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • We discovered that hypothemycin, a fungal polyketide previously shown to covalently inactivate a subset of human CDXG kinases, kills T. brucei in culture and in infected mice. (elifesciences.org)