Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Casein Kinase I: A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Casein Kinase Iepsilon: A casein kinase I isoenzyme with specificity for proteins involved the regulation of the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Casein Kinase Idelta: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a regulatory role in a variety of cellular functions including vesicular transport, CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION; CYTOKINESIS, developmental processes, and the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Casein Kinase Ialpha: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways including the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY, the CELL CYCLE, membrane trafficking, and RNA processing. Multiple isoforms of casein kinase I alpha exist and are due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Adaptor Protein Complex 3: An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.PhosphopeptidesDichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole: An RNA polymerase II transcriptional inhibitor. This compound terminates transcription prematurely by selective inhibition of RNA synthesis. It is used in research to study underlying mechanisms of cellular regulation.PhosphoproteinsPyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Phosphothreonine: The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Phosvitin: An egg yolk phosphoglycoprotein which contains about 90% of the yolk protein phosphorus. It is synthesized in the liver of the hen and transferred to the developing oocyte, where it is bound to lipoproteins within the yolk granules.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).2,3-Diphosphoglycerate: A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Glycogen Synthase Kinases: A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4: A G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in the TESTES and BRAIN. Variants of this subtype exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its mRNA.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32: A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Diphosphoglyceric AcidsLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in the CYTOPLASM. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type I-specific regulatory subunits.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Topoisomerases, Type II: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesBrain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Phloroglucinol: A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.Nerve Tissue ProteinsNucleoplasmins: A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
Casein kinase 1, a growth factor-activated protein kinase, also phosphorylates and potentiates FOXO1 and translocates FOXO1 to ... These results create an opportunity for a novel gene therapy based approach to alleviating insulin desensitization in type 2 ... out of one of two ways stimulating or suppressing gene transcription. In its un-phosphorylated state, FOXO1 is localized to the ... The transcription and half- life of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIP1 rises when FOXO1 is active. A study detects that ...
Collagen XVII is extracellularly phosphorylated by ecto-casein kinase 2 within the NC16A domain, phosphorylation negatively ... Two homotrimeric forms of type XVII collagen exist. The full length form is the transmembrane protein. A soluble form, referred ... Collagen XVII is a homotrimer of three alpha1(XVII)-chains and a transmembrane protein in type II orientation. Each 180 kD a- ... "Extracellular phosphorylation of collagen XVII by ecto-casein kinase 2 inhibits ectodomain shedding". J Biol Chem. 282 (31): ...
Jakobi R, Voss H, Pyerin W (1989). "Human phosvitin/casein kinase type II. Molecular cloning and sequencing of full-length cDNA ... 1992). "Human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-encoded Vpu protein is phosphorylated by casein kinase II". Eur. J. Biochem. 204 (2 ... This gene encodes the beta subunit of casein kinase II, a ubiquitous protein kinase which regulates metabolic pathways, signal ... "Human phosvitin/casein kinase type II. Molecular cloning and sequencing of full-length cDNA encoding subunit beta". Eur. J. ...
... see Type II keratin Casein kinase 1, a family of protein kinases Asteroids 1994 CK1, see 10146 Mukaitadashi 1993 CK1, see 20043 ...
Damuni Z, Reed LJ (1988). "Purification and properties of a protamine kinase and a type II casein kinase from bovine kidney ... Types[edit]. Types include those acting directly as receptors (Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase) and Intracellular ... A major target of Akt kinases is glycogen synthase kinase-3. EC 2.7.1.37 Pelle. is a serine/threonine kinase that can ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ...
This revealed that the gene is closely related to the gene doubletime (dbt) in Drosophila, and casein kinase 1 epsilon (CKIe) ... By measuring the oscillations of NAMPT and NAD+ levels in the livers of both wild-type and mutant mice they determined that ... Takahashi was a postdoctoral fellow at the National Institute of Mental Health for two years under Martin Zatz before assuming ... the fragments of DNA that differed between the mutant and wild type hamsters. With this information, Takahashi then used ...
... serine 529 is phosphorylated by casein kinase II (CKII), while serine 536 is phosphorylated by IκB kinases (IKKs). In response ... Phosphorylation of serine 311 by protein kinase C zeta type (PKCζ) serves the same purpose. Two residues in the TAD region are ... "Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced phosphorylation of RelA/p65 on Ser529 is controlled by casein kinase II". The Journal of ... "Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced phosphorylation of RelA/p65 on Ser529 is controlled by casein kinase II". The Journal of ...
... and is required for transcription from all three types of polymerase III promoters. It is phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 ...
... within this loci found two polymorphisms that occurred in the sequence encoding for Arntl and were associated with type II ... Maywood ES, Chesham JE, Smyllie NJ, Hastings MH (April 2014). "The Tau mutation of casein kinase 1ε sets the period of the ... CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivation, is activated by phosphorylation by casein kinase 1ε and inhibited by phosphorylation by MAPK. ... is modulated in the cytoplasm by phosphorylation of PER proteins by casein kinase 1ε or δ (CK1 ε or CK1 δ), signaling these ...
... casein kinase II), a constitutively active serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is overexpressed in several types of ... "Casein Kinase II (CK2) as a Therapeutic Target for Hematological Malignancies". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 23 (1): 95-107. ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Chon HJ, Bae KJ, Lee Y, Kim J (2015). "The casein kinase 2 inhibitor, CX-4945, as an ... Silmitasertib (INN), codenamed CX-4945, is a small-molecule inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 ( ...
2006 Damuni Z, Reed LJ (1988). "Purification and properties of a protamine kinase and a type II casein kinase from bovine ... Of the latter, types include: Serine/threonine kinase (STK) expression is altered in many types of cancer. Serine/threonine ... Most kinases are inhibited by a pseudosubstrate that binds to the kinase like a real substrate but lacks the amino acid to be ... A serine/threonine protein kinase (EC 2.7.11.1) is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates the OH group of serine or threonine ( ...
Kim YM, Barak LS, Caron MG, Benovic JL (May 2002). "Regulation of arrestin-3 phosphorylation by casein kinase II". The Journal ... Mutations in this gene are associated with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2. AP3B1 has been shown to interact with AP3S2. ... Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (Apr 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". ... 15 (2): 575-87. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-06-0401. PMC 329249 . PMID 14657250. Guinn BA, Bland EA, Lodi U, Liggins AP, Tobal K, ...
... glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and casein kinase 1α (CK1α). It degrades β-catenin by targeting it for ubiquitination, which ... Overexpression of Wnt5b, for instance, may increase susceptibility due to its role in adipogenesis, since obesity and type II ... type II diabetes and others. Encouragingly, in recent years researchers reported first successful use of Wnt pathway inhibitors ... Baldness treatments GPR177 Adenomatous polyposis coli AXIN1 Casein kinase 1 Zhang, Haiwei. "Dishevelled-DEP domain interacting ...
As the osteoblast transitions to an osteocyte, alkaline phosphatase is reduced, and casein kinase II is elevated, as is ... type I preosteocyte (osteoblastic osteocyte), type II preosteocyte (osteoid osteocyte), and type III preosteocyte (partially ... An osteocyte, a star-shaped type of bone cell, is the most commonly found cell in mature bone tissue, and can live as long as ... They are the most common cell type in bone (31,900 per cubic millimeter in bovine bone to 93,200 per cubic millimeter in rat ...
Yamaguchi Y, Wada T, Suzuki F, Takagi T, Hasegawa J, Handa H (August 1998). "Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains ... may mediate oncogenesis caused by mutant Ras protein and regulate maintenance of the aggressive cancer phenotype of some types ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 ( ... a new MAP kinase-activated protein kinase, isolated by a novel expression screening method for identifying protein kinase ...
... has been shown to interact with: XIAP, Apaf-1, AIFM1, ASK1, BAG3, Casein kinase 2, FANCC, GPR37, HSF1, MSR1, PARK2, ... The ATP binding domain consists of four subdomains split into two lobes by a central ATP/ADP binding pocket. The two terminal ... In Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM), a small molecule activator of Hsp72 named BGP-15 has been shown to improve insulin ... The substrate-binding domain consists of two subdomains, a two-layered β-sandwich subdomain (SBDβ) and an α-helical subdomain ( ...
... type I, alpha 1 collagen, type II, alpha 1 Collagen, type III, alpha 1 Collagen, type IV, alpha 1 Collagen, type V, alpha 1 ... alpha 1 Carboxypeptidase A1 Casein kinase 1, alpha 1 Casein kinase 2, alpha 1 Catenin (cadherin-associated protein), alpha 1 ... type VII, alpha 1 Collagen, type VIII, alpha 1 Collagen, type IX, alpha 1 Collagen, type X, alpha 1 Collagen, type XI, alpha 1 ... type XIII, alpha 1 Collagen, type XIV, alpha 1 Collagen, type XV, alpha 1 Collagen, type XVI, alpha 1 Collagen, type XVII, ...
... including Type II diabetes (Diabetes mellitus type 2), Alzheimer's Disease, inflammation, cancer, and bipolar disorder. GSK-3 ... After being primed by casein kinase 2 (CK2), glycogen synthase gets phosphorylated at a cluster of three C-terminal serine ... Glycogen synthase kinase 3 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates the addition of phosphate molecules onto serine ... Separation from cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase and phosphorylase kinase". Eur J Biochem. 107 (2): 519-27. doi:10.1111/j. ...
Without any type of feedback repression, the molecular clock would have a period of just a few hours. Casein kinase members CK1 ... In the oscillator's feedback loop, frq gives rise to transcripts that encode for two forms of the FRQ protein. Both forms are ... Mutations in these kinases are associated with familial advanced sleep phase syndrome (FASPS). In general, phosphorylation is ... This is caused by two nuclear receptors, REV-ERB and ROR, which suppresses and activates Bmal1 transcription, respectively. In ...
Protein kinase D (PKD) has been found to phosphorylate the SR motif of CERT. Also, CERT is further phosphorylated by the casein ... More specifically, it binds to the ER resident type II membrane protein, vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) associated ... Tomishige N, Kumagai K, Kusuda J, Nishijima M, Hanada K (Jan 2009). "Casein kinase I{gamma}2 down-regulates trafficking of ... "Characterization of a novel type of serine/threonine kinase that specifically phosphorylates the human goodpasture antigen". ...
... constitutively phosphorylated by casein kinase II. The phosphorylation of two serine residues in the cytoplasmic domain is ... "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein interacts with CD74 and modulates major histocompatibility complex class II ... Vpu accomplishes these two functions through two distinct mechanisms. In the case of CD4, Vpu acts as a molecular adaptor to ... Two main functions have been assigned to the Vpu protein. The first function is known to induce degradation of the viral ...
UMP-CMP kinase COL16A1 (1p35) COL11A1: collagen, type XI, alpha 1 CPT2: carnitine palmitoyltransferase II CRYZ: Crystallin zeta ... Nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate NVL: Nuclear valosin-containing protein-like OLFML2B: ... Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase beta PIP5K1A (1q21): Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-1 alpha PLA2G4A (1q31) PPOX: ... Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, types 1 and 2 collagenopathy, types II and XI ...
After translation, the CCA1 protein needs to be phosphorylated by Casein Kinase 2 (CK2). This phosphorylation is necessary for ... They also have a period 3 hours shorter than that of the wild-type plant, which demonstrates that expression of LHY, its ... will lead to altered circadian rhythms in the mutants where CCA1 showed shorter mRNA circadian oscillation than in wild-type ... branch points and free ends than wild-type Arabidopsis. TOC1 Steve Kay Arabidopsis Oscillating gene Circadian Rhythm Green, RM ...
... casein kinase iepsilon MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.140.600 --- casein kinase ii MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.150 --- ... type ii, archaeal MeSH D08.811.399.403.741.300 --- dna topoisomerases, type ii, bacterial MeSH D08.811.399.403.741.300.500 --- ... map kinase kinase kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.100 --- map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... map kinase kinase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.400 --- map kinase kinase kinase 4 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682 ...
"Phosphorylation of C8 and C9 subunits of the multicatalytic proteinase by casein kinase II and identification of the C8 ... Proteasome subunit alpha type-3 also known as macropain subunit C8 and proteasome component C8 is a protein that in humans is ... This barrel-shaped core structure is composed of 4 axially stacked rings of 28 non-identical subunits: the two end rings are ... The proteolytic capacity of 20S core particle (CP) can be activated when CP associates with one or two regulatory particles (RP ...
Rennex, D., Hemmings, B.A., Hofsteenge, J. and Stone, S.R. (1991). „cDNA cloning of porcine brain prolyl endopeptidase and identification of the active-site seryl residue". Biochemistry,. 30: 2195-2203. PMID 1900195 ...
A1 and A2 beta-casein are genetic variants of the beta-casein milk protein that differ by one amino acid; a proline occurs at position 67 in the chain of amino acids that make up the A2 beta-casein, while in A1 beta-casein a histidine occurs at that position.[32][33] Due to the way that beta-casein interacts with enzymes found in the digestive system, A1 and A2 are processed differently by digestive enzymes, and a seven-amino peptide, beta-casomorphin-7, (BCM-7) can be released by digestion of A1-beta-casein.[32] The A1 beta-casein type is the most common type found in cow's milk in Europe (excluding France), the United States, Australia, and New Zealand.[34] Interest in the distinction between A1 and A2 ...
... s are found in many living organisms, e.g., bone mineral and tooth enamel. In milk, it exists in a colloidal form in micelles bound to casein protein with magnesium, zinc, and citrate - collectively referred to as colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP).[2] Various calcium phosphate minerals are used in the production of phosphoric acid and fertilizers. Overuse of certain forms of calcium phosphate can lead to nutrient-containing surface runoff and subsequent adverse effects upon receiving waters such as algal blooms and eutrophication. ...
Quark is a member of the acid-set cheese group, whose coagulation mainly relies on the acidity, produced by lactic acid bacteria feeding on the lactose.[a][20][21] But moderate amounts of rennet have also been in use, both at the home consumption level and the industrial level.[22][23] Manufacture of quark normally uses pasteurized skim milk as main ingredient, but cream can be added later to adjust fat content.[23][24][3] The lactic acid bacteria are introduced in the form of mesophilic Lactococcus starter cultures.[3][25][26] In the dairy industry today, quark is mostly produced with a small quantity of rennet, added after the culture when the solution is still only slightly acidic (ph 6.1).[23][3] Acidification allowed to continues until the pH reaches around 4.6,[23][3] at which acidity level the casein proteins in the milk begins to precipitate.[27] In Germany, the curd is continuously stirred to prevent it from getting hard, resulting in a thick, creamy texture. ...
... is a controversial chemical-based growth-enhancer that is approved in the United States by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for spray on fruits, vegetables, and grains. It is a mixture of equal parts gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), casein hydrolysate and glutamic acid dissolved in water. Patent: "Method to mitigate plant stress"[permanent dead link] Patent: "Methods of treating plants with glycolic acid"[permanent dead link ...
1. Influence Of Dietary Lactalbumin Hydrolysate On The Immune System Of Mice And Resistance To Salmonellosis Bounous G., Stevenson M.M., Kongshavn P.A. J Infect Dis. Sep; 144(3) :281. (1981). In the present study we investigated the effect of four weeks of treatment with a diet containing lactalbumin hydrolysate (LAH: Nestlé, Vevey, Switzerland) on the immune response of C3H/HeN mice. Our data indicate that it was possible to increase the level of this type of protein in the diet above the minimum requirement (12% LAH) and thus produce augmented humoral immune responsiveness and resistance to salmonellosis. Lactalbumin = Whey Protein Concentrate. 2. Influence Of Dietary Proteins On The Immune System Of Mice Bounous G., Kongshavn P.A. J Nutr.Sep; 112(9) :1747-55 (1982). The effect of graded amounts of dietary laetalbumin (L) and casein (C) hydrolyzates on the immune responsiveness of C3H/HeN and DBA/2 strain mice has been investigated by measuring both the ...
... s are opioid peptides (protein fragments) derived from the digestion of milk protein casein. Digestive enzymes can break casein down into peptides that have some biological activity in cells and in laboratory animals though conclusive causal effects on humans have not been established. Although they have not yet been proven to be formed in the human digestive system, there are associations between serum levels of β -casomorphins and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome, histamine release, stimulation of food intake, specifically high-fat foods, and lymphocytosis. Although research has shown high rates of use of complementary and alternative therapies for children with autism, including gluten and/or casein exclusion diets, as of 2008[update] there was a lack of evidence that these diets had any effect. Structure: H-Tyr-Pro-Phe-OH Chemical formula: C23H27N3O5 Molecular weight: 425.48 g/mo Structure: ...
Since the method measures only the amount that is retained in the body critics have pointed out what they perceive as a weakness of the biological value methodology.[21] Critics have pointed to research that indicates that because whey protein isolate is digested so quickly it may in fact enter the bloodstream and be converted into carbohydrates through a process called gluconeogenesis much more rapidly than was previously thought possible, so while amino acid concentrations increased with whey it was discovered that oxidation rates also increased and a steady-state metabolism, a process where there is no change in overall protein balance, is created.[22] They claim that when the human body consumes whey protein it is absorbed so rapidly that most of it is sent to the liver for oxidation. Hence they believe the reason so much is retained is that it is used for energy production, not protein synthesis. This would bring into question whether the method defines which proteins are more biologically ...
Although many claims of health benefits have been made for colostrum consumption in adults, until recently there have been limited randomized trials to support these assertions. It is probable that little absorption of intact growth factors and antibodies into the bloodstream occurs, due to digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the presence of casein and other buffering proteins does allow growth factors and other bioactive molecules to pass into the lumen of the small intestine intact, where they can stimulate repair and inhibit microbes, working via local effects.[43] This provides a probable mechanism explaining the positive results of colostrum on adult gut health in several recent well controlled published studies.[44][45][46][47] Evidence for the beneficial effect of colostrum on extra-gastrointestinal problems is less well developed, due in part to the limited number of randomised double-blind studies published, although a variety of possible uses have ...
In Australian Aboriginal mythology, Crow is a trickster, culture hero, and ancestral being. Legends relating to Crow have been observed in various Aboriginal language groups and cultures across Australia; these commonly include stories relating to Crow's role in the theft of fire, the origin of death, and the killing of Eagle's son.. Crows are mentioned often in Buddhism, especially Tibetan disciplines. The Dharmapala (protector of the Dharma) Mahakala is represented by a crow in one of his physical/earthly forms.[citation needed]. In the Chaldean myth, the Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim releases a dove and raven to find land; however, the dove merely circles and returns. Only then does Utnapishtim send forth the raven, which does not return, and Utnapishtim concludes the raven has found land.[55]. In Chinese mythology, the world originally had 10 suns either spiritually embodied as 10 crows and/or carried by 10 crows; when all 10 decided to rise at once, the effect was devastating to crops, so ...
A large private library (about 500 print and 4000 digital). Major sections include philosophy (e.g. Plato, Spinoza), atheism (mainly Dawkins and co. but also Bertrand Russell and ibn Warraq), history (mainly pre-AD 1500 but also for specific topics e.g. philosophy, homosexuality), mythology (e.g. Mabinogion, Gilgamesh, Popol Vuh), Greek and Roman classics, literary classics (e.g. Gulliver's Travels, Frankenstein), etc. Some gems include Shakespeare's complete works, History of the Arab Peoples, some of Russell's best, Vinland sagas and Orkneyinga saga, Rudgley's Lost Civilisations of the Stone Age, Pickthall's Quran, Omar Khayyam, Euclid, Darwin etc. I'll write a complete list someday. In the meantime, just contact me to see if I have what you're looking for. ClaretAsh ...
5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAA1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ser/thr protein kinase family. It is the catalytic subunit of the 5'-prime-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a cellular energy sensor conserved in all eukaryotic cells. The kinase activity of AMPK is activated by the stimuli that increase the cellular AMP/ATP ratio. AMPK regulates the activities of a number of key metabolic enzymes through phosphorylation. It protects cells from stresses that cause ATP depletion by switching off ATP-consuming biosynthetic pathways. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. Protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with TSC2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... s (WAKs) are receptor-like protein kinases, found in plant cell walls, that have the capability to transmit signals directly by their cytoplasmic kinase domains. They usually link the plasma membrane to the protein and carbohydrate that composed the cell wall. The receptor-like proteins contain a cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase and a less conserved region; bound to the cell wall and contains a series of epidermal growth factor repeats. WAKs are found in various plants and crops like rice, and maize. In plants genome like Arabidopsis, WAKs, are encoded by five highly similar genes clustered in a 30-kb locus, among them WAK1 & WAK2 are highly distributed. They are primarily involved in regulating plant cell wall functions including cell expansion, bind as well as response to pectins, pathogen response and also protects plants from detrimental effects. All the five WAK proteins have highly conserved ...
Casein is a remarkably... Explanation of Casein protein ... Find out information about Casein protein. well-defined group ... and post-exercise are needed to further determine if and/or how the two protein types differ in promoting hypertrophy and ... Casein Solubilization Units. *Casein-Dependant Kinase. *casein-formaldehyde. *Casein-Soya-Lactose Broth ... α-casein β-casein, and γ-casein). Dried casein is a tasteless and odorless white powder. Casein is the principal protein ...
Isolation and characterization of human cDNA clones encoding the alpha and the alpha subunits of casein kinase II. ... The protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CSNK2 or CK2) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is expressed in most cell types [1] ... Protein Kinase CK2alpha Maintains Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Activity in a CK2alpha Kinase-independent Manner ... Protein kinase CK2 in health and disease: From birth to death: the role of protein kinase CK2 in the regulation of cell ...
Human phosvitin/casein kinase type II. Molecular cloning and sequencing of full-length cDNA encoding subunit beta.. Eur. J. ... Casein kinase II, regulatory subunit (IPR000704). Short name: Casein_kinase_II_reg-sub ... Cloning and disruption of CKB1, the gene encoding the 38-kDa beta subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae casein kinase II (CKII). ... Cloning and disruption of CKB1, the gene encoding the 38-kDa beta subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae casein kinase II (CKII). ...
Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances. Publication types. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Casein kinase II (CK-II) is a ubiquitous protein kinase, localized to both nucleus and cytoplasm, with strong specificity for ... Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II.. Lüscher B1, Kuenzel EA, Krebs EG, Eisenman RN. ... Our results, along with previous studies on myc deletion mutants, show that Myc is phosphorylated by CK-II, or a kinase with ...
Damuni Z, Reed LJ (1988). "Purification and properties of a protamine kinase and a type II casein kinase from bovine kidney ... Types[edit]. Types include those acting directly as receptors (Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase) and Intracellular ... A major target of Akt kinases is glycogen synthase kinase-3. EC 2.7.1.37 Pelle. is a serine/threonine kinase that can ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ...
Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. VALIDATED. Organism. Mus musculus Lineage. Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; ... casein kinase II subunit alpha. Names. CK II alpha. casein kinase II, alpha 2, polypeptide. NP_034104.1. *EC 2.7.11.1 ... XM_006530641.3 → XP_006530704.1 casein kinase II subunit alpha isoform X2. Conserved Domains (2) summary. cd14132. Location:22 ... NM_009974.3 → NP_034104.1 casein kinase II subunit alpha. See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_034104.1 ...
100 µg) CSNK2A1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins such as casein. ... Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) polyclonal antibody $245.00 Quick view Add to Cart ...
Collagen XVII is extracellularly phosphorylated by ecto-casein kinase 2 within the NC16A domain, phosphorylation negatively ... Two homotrimeric forms of type XVII collagen exist. The full length form is the transmembrane protein. A soluble form, referred ... Collagen XVII is a homotrimer of three alpha1(XVII)-chains and a transmembrane protein in type II orientation. Each 180 kD a- ... "Extracellular phosphorylation of collagen XVII by ecto-casein kinase 2 inhibits ectodomain shedding". J Biol Chem. 282 (31): ...
In vivo Bone Formation is Induced by Blocking Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type Ia Interaction with Casein Kinase II. ... Federico II University of Naples, Pasquale Strazzullo, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Federico II University ... Session: Poster Session II & Poster Tours. Sunday, October 17, 2010 11:00 AM - 1:00 PM, Metro Toronto Convention Centre, South ... RANKL Expression in Mouse and Human T-Lymphocytes is Regulated by a Set of Cell-Type Specific Enhancers Designated the T-Cell ...
1982) Isolation and characterization of a type II casein kinase (casein kinase-TS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. ... five of which were detected in at least two replicates. In contrast, none of the RNA polymerase II subunits were observed, with ... Data Generation for the Wild-Type Histone Complex. All histones of the core nucleosome, i.e. H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 were TAP- ... The two largest increases in gene expression seen in the ydl156w deletion strain were for HSP30 and PHO84, both integral ...
2006 Damuni Z, Reed LJ (1988). "Purification and properties of a protamine kinase and a type II casein kinase from bovine ... Of the latter, types include: Serine/threonine kinase (STK) expression is altered in many types of cancer. Serine/threonine ... Most kinases are inhibited by a pseudosubstrate that binds to the kinase like a real substrate but lacks the amino acid to be ... A serine/threonine protein kinase (EC 2.7.11.1) is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates the OH group of serine or threonine ( ...
Human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-encoded Vpu protein is phosphorylated by casein kinase II.Eur. J. Biochem. 204 1992 875 883 ... The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 encoded Vpu protein is phosphorylated by casein kinase-2 (CK-2) at positions Ser52 and ... The two biological activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein involve two separable structural domains.J. ... The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpugene encodes a type I anchored integral membrane phosphoprotein with two ...
Protein Type. Enzyme. Biological Properties. General Function. Involved in protein kinase activity. ... Showing Protein Casein kinase II subunit alpha (HMDBP01476). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein ... Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. ... subunits of casein kinase II. Biochemistry. 1990 Sep 11;29(36):8436-47. [PubMed:2174700 ] ...
The E7 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 is phosphorylated by casein kinase II. New Biol 1:44-53. ... HPV-16 E7 and adenovirus E1a complex formation with TATA box binding protein is enhanced by casein kinase II phosphorylation. ... with HPV-16 E6 and HPV-31 E6 targeting the wild type and the two mutants with similar efficiency, while HPV-18 E6 appears ... Tumor development requires the combined action of two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7. These two proteins subvert a large number ...
All lanes : Anti-Casein Kinase 1 delta/CSNK1D antibody [AF12G4] (ab85320) at 1/500 dilution. Lane 1 : Wild-type HeLa cell ... Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CK1 Ser/Thr protein kinase family. Casein kinase I subfamily.. Contains 1 protein ... Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. It ... Recommended control: Human Wild Type HeLa cell line (ab255448). Please note a wild type cell line is not automatically included ...
Alfa Aesar Casein Kinase II Substrate 1mg Electrophoresis, Western Blotting and ELISA:Western Blotting Reagents, Membranes, ... What type of issue did you experience with the content on the page?*. ...
Compare and order Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. ... Method Type Cell ELISA. Sample Type Cell Culture Cells. Optionen Angebot Großbestellung Hersteller Anmelden zum Anzeigen Find ... Method Type Cell ELISA. Sample Type Cell Culture Cells. Optionen Angebot Großbestellung Hersteller Anmelden zum Anzeigen Find ... Method Type Cell ELISA. Sample Type Cell Culture Cells. Optionen Angebot Großbestellung Hersteller Anmelden zum Anzeigen Find ...
Casein kinase 1alpha mediates degradation of receptors for type I and type II interferons caused by hemagglutinin of influenza ... Influenza A virus virulence depends on two amino acids in the N-terminal domain of its NS1 protein facilitating inhibition of ... Enhanced Human-Type Receptor Binding by Ferret-Transmissible H5N1 with a K193T Mutation.. J Virol. 2018;92.. PubMed Text format ... Influenza virus susceptibility of wild-derived CAST/EiJ mice results from two amino acid changes in the MX1 restriction factor. ...
Regulates transcription by direct phosphorylation of RNA polymerases I, II, III and IV. Also phosphorylates and regulates ... Catalytic subunit of a constitutively active serine/threonine-protein kinase complex that phosphorylates a large number of ... p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding ,a href ... IPR011009. Kinase-like_dom. IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ...
Phosphorylation of Type II α PIPkin (Ptdlns5 P 4-kinase Il α) by Casein kinase II K.A. Hinchliffe, A. Ciruela, A.J. Letcher, R. ... Differential localisation of isoforms of Type II PIPkins (Ptdlns5 P 4-kinases) A. Ciruela, K.A. Hinchliffe, N. Divecha, R.F. ... Localisation and regulation of Type II PIPkins (PtdlnsSP 4-kinases) R.F. Irvine ... Casein Kinase I (CKI) Associates with Centaurin-α T. Dubois, P. Kerai, S. Howell, T.R. Jackson, A.B. Theibert, A. Aitken ...
Mac-2) Antibody - Galectin-3 (galactose-specific lectin 3) is a glycoprotein, also known as Mac-2, Gal-3, RL-29, galactose- ... Variety ligands, such as IgE, IgA, galactose, casein kinase I, laminin, mucin, LAMPs, CD66, etc Cell Type Dendritic cells, ... casein kinase I, laminin, mucin, LAMPs, and CD66. Galectin-3 is an adhesion molecule and plays an important role in regulation ... Antibody Type Monoclonal Host Species Mouse Immunogen Human Recombinant (partial), amino acids 151-251 Formulation Phosphate- ...
Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p>A type of ... IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ...
Casein kinase II-type protein kinase from pea cytoplasm and its inactivation by alkaline phosphatase in vitro ... The tomato gene Pti1 encodes a serine/threonine kinase that is phosphorylated by Pto and is involved in the hypersensitive ... Athsr3, Athsr4, ion leakage, H2O2 and protein kinase were induced. One of the elicitor harpin proteins, HrpN, from Erwinia ... Type III secretion machines: bacterial devices for protein delivery into host cells ...
In dieser Arbeit wurde mushroom bodies undersized P1 (mbuP1) als eine durch Transposon- Insertion in den Casein-Kinase-2ß- ... Deviating results from operant and classical conditioning indicate different roles for S6KII in the two types of learning. ... Eine Reversion des mbuP1-Pilzkörperphänotyps konnte unter anderem durch die Expression von Casein-Kinase-2ß-(CK2ß)-Transgenen ... Hierdurch konnte eine Beteiligung der Casein-Kinase-2 an MAP-Kinase-Signalübertragungswegen wahrscheinlich gemacht werden. ...
PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A TYPE-II CASEIN KINASE FROM DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY ... Both calf and Drosophila contain a type II casein kinase with similar molecular structure and catalytic activity. Purified calf ... Casein kinase II from both sources phosphorylates the same subunits of calf thymus RNA polymerase II and an identical set of ... SIMILARITIES IN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CALF THYMUS AND DROSOPHILA CASEIN KINASE-II JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Dahmus, G ...
  • Protein kinase CK2 is a critical regulator of epithelial homeostasis in chronic intestinal inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • There was no difference in the mRNA expressions of thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter, epithelial Na channel (ENaC), aquaporin-2, ROMK, and NaKATPase. (bio5.org)
  • Targets with demonstrated increases in both protein and mRNA abundances included neurofibromin, casein kinase IIbeta, the beta-subunit of the epithelial Na channel (beta-ENaC), 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, and c-Fos. (bio5.org)
  • Retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPEs) are regarded as the main cell type responsible for vitreoretinal scars in PVR. (arvojournals.org)
  • Caseinkinase-2 (CK-2) is a cell signalling molecule involved in epithelial- mesenchymal transition. (arvojournals.org)
  • E-cadherin is a well-characterised single-pass transmembrane Type I cadherin that is primarily expressed on epithelial cells and contains a cytoplasmic domain of 150aa and an extracellular domain of 550aa containing five EC repeats, each of approximately 110aa [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The β -catenin binding domain facilitates interaction of E-cadherin with the actin cytoskeleton via the Cytoplasmic Cell adhesion Complex (CCC), which consists of β -catenin, α -catenin, and, possibly, Epithelial Protein Lost In Neoplasm (EPLIN) [ 4 ] (Figure 2 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Western blotting experiments showed a simultaneous expression of topoisomerase IIα and ICBP90 in proliferating human lung fibroblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is expressed primarily on the surface of a subset of T lymphocytes that recognizes major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-associated peptides and plays a major role in the development and maintenance of the immune system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human phosvitin/casein kinase type II. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structure of the gene encoding human casein kinase II subunit beta. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • There are multiple HPV types capable of infecting either mucosal or cutaneous tissues ( 2 ), but only a small subset are associated with the development of human cancers. (asm.org)
  • Total cell lysate from MCF7 cells (lane 1, 15 µg), Jurkat cells (lane 2, 15 µg), 3T3-L1 (lane 3, 15 µg) and Raw264.7 (lane 4, 15 µg) were resolved by electrophoresis (4-20% Tris-Glycine gel), transferred to nitrocellulose, and probed with purified anti-mouse/human Galectin-3 (Mac-2) antibody (clone Gal397). (biolegend.com)
  • Total cell lysates (15 µg protein) from NIH3T3 (lane 1), HT29 (lane 2) and 293E (lane 3) cells were resolved by electrophoresis (4-20% Tris-Glycine gel), transferred to nitrocellulose, and probed with 1 µg/mL (1:500 dilution) of purified anti-mouse/human Galectin-3 (Mac-2) antibody (clone Gal397) (upper blot). (biolegend.com)
  • Dusenbery, K. E., Mendiola, J. R., and Skubitz, K. M. (1988) Evidence for ecto-protein kinase activity on the surface of human neutrophils. (springer.com)
  • This chapter begins with general information on the role of 5'-AMP activated kinase (AMPK) in human physiology and the molecular mechanisms that control this kinase. (intechopen.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether human neutrophils express an endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and to study the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on its expression. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with human diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry experiments showed that topoisomerase IIα and ICBP90 were coexpressed in proliferating areas of paraffin-embedded human appendix tissues and in high-grade breast carcinoma tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human anti Human casein kinase 2 alpha 1 antibody recognizes the casein kinase 2 subunit alpha, also known as CK II alpha. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Human anti Human casein kinase 2 alpha 1 antibody detects a band of 42 kDa. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Of note, human cells encode two structurally related β-TrCP isoforms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Full length human M-CSF transcripts encode a 522 amino acid (aa) type I transmembrane (TM) protein with a 464 aa extracellular region, a 21 aa TM domain, and a 37 aa cytoplasmic tail that forms a 140 kDa covalent dimer. (rndsystems.com)
  • Galectin-3 structurely possesses NWGR motif that is conserved in BH-1 domain of BCL-2 family and functions as an anti-apoptotic molecule. (biolegend.com)
  • The report provides detailed coverage of the pipeline landscape for this mechanism of action, equipped with data from multiple sources with complete pipeline analysis by developmental stage, associated indications, route of administration and molecule type. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Analysis of these profiles identifies a series of novel genetic dependencies, including that of PTEN-null breast tumor cells upon mitotic checkpoint kinases, and provides a framework upon which additional dependencies and candidate therapeutic targets may be identified. (aacrjournals.org)
  • With the aim of identifying possible gene targets for direct or indirect regulation by vasopressin in the renal medulla, we have carried out cDNA array experiments in inner medullas of Brattleboro rats infused with the V(2) receptor-selective vasopressin analog desamino-Cys1,d-Arg8 vasopressin (dDAVP) for 72 h. (bio5.org)
  • Additional cDNA arrays revealed that several transcripts that were increased in abundance after 72 h of dDAVP were also increased after 4 h, including casein kinase IIbeta, beta-ENaC, aquaporin-3, UT-A, and syntaxin 2. (bio5.org)
  • cDNA-AFLP transcript profiling on two contrasting sorghum genotypes inoculated with C. sublineolum generated about 3,000 informative fragments. (nih.gov)
  • Transfection with the cDNA coding for the noncatalytic beta subunit alone also caused a near doubling of cytosolic casein kinase II catalytic activity. (umassmed.edu)
  • Protein and cDNA sequence analysis confirmed that maize ribosomes contain one type of P1, two types of P2, and a fourth and novel P1/P2-type protein. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Two forms are known, Tat-1 exon (minor form) of 72 amino acids and Tat-2 exon (major form) of 86 amino acids. (lanl.gov)
  • The next domain, up to amino acid 37, is homologous to the entire region 2 (CR2) of E1A. (novusbio.com)
  • Mutations of Trp2 and the alanine residue of the HAV domain, W2A and A80I, respectively, have been shown to abolish trans- but not cis-homodimerisation of E-cadherin molecules, thus demonstrating the key roles of these amino acids in the formation of E-cadherin mediated cell-cell contact [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Conversely, we show that ΔFosB is both necessary and sufficient for cocaine induction of CaMKIIα gene expression in vivo , an effect selective for D 1 -type MSNs in the NAc shell subregion. (jneurosci.org)
  • Moreover, as essential regulator of glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, AMPK has become an important therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes and obesity. (intechopen.com)
  • DNA topoisomerase II (topo II), a master regulator of DNA metabolism for cell proliferation, is a critical target for anti-cancer therapy. (oist.jp)
  • Type I classical cadherins, which also include N-cadherin, P-cadherin, and VE-cadherin, possess a Histidine-Alanine-Valine (HAV) motif within the terminal EC repeat of the extracellular domain which is an essential cell adhesion recognition sequence [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The SPARC gene is completely associated with homozygous mutations in collagen XVII, which in turn causes a type of osteogenesis imperfecta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haploid strains constructed to contain Ser-to-Ala mutations at the consensus casein kinase II sequences in SUI2 in combination with a mutated allele of either the GCN2, GCN3, or GCD7 gene have synthetic growth defects. (asm.org)
  • The physiological relation between CK2 phosphorylation and GPCRs suggests that the kinases acting on β-cell GPCRs may be considered as targets for therapy. (medsci.org)
  • Title: Protein Kinase CK2 Controls the Fate between Th17 Cell and Regulatory T Cell Differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Transfer the cell suspension to a 15 mL conical tube with pre-warmed 5 mL complete medium DMEM+10% FBS, spin 125×g for approximately 5 minutes at room temperature. (abcam.com)
  • 3. Resuspend the cell pellet with 1 mL pre-warmed complete medium DMEM+10% FBS and dispense into a 25 cm 2 culture flask containing 10 mL pre-warmed complete complete medium DMEM+10% FBS. (abcam.com)
  • Chen, X. Y. and Lo, T.C.Y. (1991a) Involvement of a cell surface protein and an ectoprotein kinase in myogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Chen, X. Y. and Lo, T. C. Y. (1991b) Phosphorylation of a cell surface 112 kDa protein by an ecto-protein kinase in rat L6 myoblasts. (springer.com)
  • Two cell walls differing only by their physical characteristics were obtained by mild or harsh drying, with surface areas of 2.15 and 0.52 m 2 /g, respectively. (chemweb.com)
  • We show that during TEM, endothelial cell (EC) CD99 activates protein kinase A (PKA) via a signaling complex formed with the lysine-rich juxtamembrane cytoplasmic tail of CD99, the A-kinase anchoring protein ezrin, and soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). (rupress.org)
  • Our data explain why the effect of the S52A mutation in Vpu on virus release is cell-type dependent and suggest that a reduced ability of Vpu to counteract tetherin impairs HIV-1 replication in macrophages, but not in tissue CD4+ T cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The molecular mechanisms involved in the variations in TopoIIα expression depend on the cell type. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Differential expression of TopoIIα according to the tumor tissue and to the cell type has been reported. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anti casein kinase 2 alpha 1 detects a band of approximately 42 kDa in Jurkat cell lysates. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • These data establish that ΔFosB and CaMKII engage in a cell-type- and brain-region-specific positive feedforward loop as a key mechanism for regulating the reward circuitry of the brain in response to chronic cocaine. (jneurosci.org)
  • PC1 modulates actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and directional cell migration through the Pacsin 2/N-Wasp complex. (nih.gov)