Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Casein Kinase I: A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Casein Kinase Iepsilon: A casein kinase I isoenzyme with specificity for proteins involved the regulation of the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Casein Kinase Idelta: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a regulatory role in a variety of cellular functions including vesicular transport, CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION; CYTOKINESIS, developmental processes, and the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Casein Kinase Ialpha: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways including the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY, the CELL CYCLE, membrane trafficking, and RNA processing. Multiple isoforms of casein kinase I alpha exist and are due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.PhosphopeptidesProtein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole: An RNA polymerase II transcriptional inhibitor. This compound terminates transcription prematurely by selective inhibition of RNA synthesis. It is used in research to study underlying mechanisms of cellular regulation.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.PhosphoproteinsMAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Phosphothreonine: The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.2,3-Diphosphoglycerate: A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Phosvitin: An egg yolk phosphoglycoprotein which contains about 90% of the yolk protein phosphorus. It is synthesized in the liver of the hen and transferred to the developing oocyte, where it is bound to lipoproteins within the yolk granules.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Glycogen Synthase Kinases: A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Diphosphoglyceric AcidsDNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32: A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Nucleoplasmins: A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA Topoisomerases, Type II: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Nerve Tissue ProteinsStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Glycyrrhizic Acid: A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID, which inhibits 11-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.GAP-43 Protein: A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesDrosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Artemia: A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Receptor, IGF Type 2: A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Phloroglucinol: A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Okadaic Acid: A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2B: A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts to restore EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 to its GTP bound form.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.

Phosphorylation of the DNA repair protein APE/REF-1 by CKII affects redox regulation of AP-1. (1/1209)

The DNA repair protein apurinic endonuclease (APE/Ref-1) exerts several physiological functions such as cleavage of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and redox regulation of the transcription factor AP-1, whose activation is part of the cellular response to DNA damaging treatments. Here we demonstrate that APE/Ref-1 is phosphorylated by casein kinase II (CKII). This was shown for both the recombinant APE/Ref-1 protein (Km=0.55 mM) and for APE/Ref-1 expressed in COS cells. Phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 did not alter the repair activity of the enzyme, whereas it stimulated its redox capability towards AP-1, thus promoting DNA binding activity of AP-1. Inhibition of CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 blocked mutagen-stimulated increase in AP-1 binding. It also abrogated the induction of c-Jun protein and rendered cells more sensitive to induced DNA damage. Thus, phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 appears to be involved in regulating the different physiological activities of the enzyme. CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 and concomitant increase in AP-1 binding activity appears to be a novel mechanism of cellular stress response, forcing transcription of AP-1 target gene(s) the product(s) of which may exert protective function.  (+info)

Allosteric regulation of even-skipped repression activity by phosphorylation. (2/1209)

The Drosophila homeodomain protein Even-skipped (Eve) is a well characterized transcriptional repressor. Here, we show that Eve's ability to function in vitro is negatively regulated by phosphorylation. DNA-binding activity was unaffected by phosphorylation, but phosphorylated Eve was unable to interact with the TATA-binding protein (TBP), a known target for repression. Unexpectedly, phosphorylation of the Eve N terminus, which is dispensable for repression and TBP binding, was necessary and sufficient to inactivate Eve. LiCl, which specifically inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), reduced Eve phosphorylation in nuclear extract and blocked inhibition of repression. In addition, Eve was phosphorylated and inactivated by purified GSK-3 beta plus casein kinase II. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of transcriptional control involving phosphorylation-induced allosteric interference with a repressive protein-protein interaction.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of yeast TBP by protein kinase CK2 reduces its specific binding to DNA. (3/1209)

Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous Ser/Thr kinase which phosphorylates a large number of proteins including several transcription factors. Recombinant Xenopus laevis CK2 phosphorylates both recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe TATA binding protein (TBP). The phosphorylation of TBP by CK2 reduces its binding activity to the TATA box. CK2 copurifies with the transcription factor IID (TFIID) complex from HeLa cell extracts and phosphorylates several of the TBP-associated factors within TFIID. Taken together these findings argue for a role of CK2 in the control of transcription by RNA polymerase II through the modulation of the binding activity of TBP to the TATA box.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38. (4/1209)

Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of CD45 by casein kinase 2. Modulation of activity and mutational analysis. (5/1209)

CD45 is a receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that is required for antigen-specific stimulation and proliferation in lymphocytes. This study was designed to determine the nature of specific kinases in lymphocytes that phosphorylate CD45 and to determine the effect of phosphorylation on CD45 PTP activity. A major cytoplasmic lymphocyte kinase that phosphorylated CD45 was identified as casein kinase 2 (CK2) by use of an in-gel kinase assay in combination with immunoprecipitation, immunodepletion, and specific inhibition. Mutational analysis of CK2 consensus sites showed that the target for CK2 was in an acidic insert of 19 amino acids in the D2 domain, and Ser to Ala mutations at amino acids 965, 968, 969, and 973 abrogated CK2 phosphorylation of CD45. CK2 phosphorylation increased CD45 activity 3-fold toward phosphorylated myelin basic protein, and this increase was reversible by PP2A treatment. Mutation of Ser to Glu at the CK2 sites had the same effect as phosphorylation and also tripled the Vmax of CD45. CD45 isolated in vivo was highly phosphorylated and could not be phosphorylated by CK2 without prior dephosphorylation with phosphatase PP2A. We conclude that CK2 is a major lymphocyte kinase that is responsible for in vivo phosphorylation of CD45, and phosphorylation at specific CK2 sites regulates CD45 PTP activity.  (+info)

A modulatory role for clathrin light chain phosphorylation in Golgi membrane protein localization during vegetative growth and during the mating response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/1209)

The role of clathrin light chain phosphorylation in regulating clathrin function has been examined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phosphorylation state of yeast clathrin light chain (Clc1p) in vivo was monitored by [32P]phosphate labeling and immunoprecipitation. Clc1p was phosphorylated in growing cells and also hyperphosphorylated upon activation of the mating response signal transduction pathway. Mating pheromone-stimulated hyperphosphorylation of Clc1p was dependent on the mating response signal transduction pathway MAP kinase Fus3p. Both basal and stimulated phosphorylation occurred exclusively on serines. Mutagenesis of Clc1p was used to map major phosphorylation sites to serines 52 and 112, but conversion of all 14 serines in Clc1p to alanines [S(all)A] was necessary to eliminate phosphorylation. Cells expressing the S(all)A mutant Clc1p displayed no defects in Clc1p binding to clathrin heavy chain, clathrin trimer stability, sorting of a soluble vacuolar protein, or receptor-mediated endocytosis of mating pheromone. However, the trans-Golgi network membrane protein Kex2p was not optimally localized in mutant cells. Furthermore, pheromone treatment exacerbated the Kex2p localization defect and caused a corresponding defect in Kex2p-mediated maturation of the alpha-factor precursor. The results reveal a novel requirement for clathrin during the mating response and suggest that phosphorylation of the light chain subunit modulates the activity of clathrin at the trans-Golgi network.  (+info)

Antisense expression of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene in Arabidopsis. Effects on light-regulated gene expression and plant growth. (7/1209)

The protein kinase CK2 (formerly casein kinase II) is thought to be involved in light-regulated gene expression in plants because of its ability to phosphorylate transcription factors that bind to the promoter regions of light-regulated genes in vitro. To address this possibility in vivo and to learn more about the potential physiological roles of CK2 in plants, we transformed Arabidopsis with an antisense construct of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene and investigated both morphological and molecular phenotypes. Antisense transformants had a smaller adult leaf size and showed increased expression of chs in darkness and of cab and rbcS after red-light treatment. The latter molecular phenotype implied that CK2 might serve as one of several negative and quantitative effectors in light-regulated gene expression. The possible mechanism of CK2 action and its involvement in the phytochrome signal transduction pathway are discussed.  (+info)

Nuclear matrix targeting of the protein kinase CK2 signal as a common downstream response to androgen or growth factor stimulation of prostate cancer cells. (8/1209)

Protein kinase CK2, a messenger-independent serine/threonine kinase, has been implicated in cell growth. Androgenic stimulus in rat prostate modulates its association with nuclear matrix (NM) and chromatin. Because the growth of human prostate carcinoma cells is influenced by androgens and/or growth factors, we determined the nature of CK2 signaling in the NM in response to androgen and growth factor stimuli. Androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-insensitive PC-3 cells were cultured in media to regulate their growth in the presence of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT) or growth factors (epidermal growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor, and transforming growth factor alpha). The activity of CK2 was measured in the cytosolic and NM fractions isolated from these cells after treatment with growth stimuli. The changes in CK2 in various fractions were also confirmed by immunoblotting with a specific antibody. LNCaP cells responded to both 5alpha-DHT and growth factors for growth. The presence of these agents in the culture medium evoked a translocation of CK2 to the NM from the cytosol. The PC-3 cells did not respond to 5alpha-DHT for growth but did respond to growth factors. Under these conditions, there was also a translocation of CK2 to the NM concomitant with a decrease in the cytosolic fraction. These results suggest that CK2 translocation to the NM occurs in response to various growth stimuli in cells in culture. Thus, CK2 is a common downstream signal transducer in response to diverse growth stimuli that may relate to the pathobiology of prostate cancer cells.  (+info)

*Casein kinase 2

Xu X, Toselli PA, Russell LD, Seldin DC (1999). "Globozoospermia in mice lacking the casein kinase II alpha' catalytic subunit ... CSNK2A1 CSNK2A2 Casein kinase 1 - a distinct protein kinase family Ahmad KA, Wang G, Unger G, Slaton J, Ahmed K (2008). " ... Casein kinase 2 (EC 2.7.11.1)(CK2/CSNK2) is a serine/threonine-selective protein kinase that has been implicated in cell cycle ... Casein kinase 2 activity has been reported to be activated following Wnt signaling pathway activation. A Pertussis toxin- ...

*Casein kinase 2, alpha 1

Casein kinase II subunit alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CSNK2A1 gene. Casein kinase II is a serine/ ... "Mapping of the human casein kinase II catalytic subunit genes: two loci carrying the homologous sequences for the alpha subunit ... Yamaguchi Y, Wada T, Suzuki F, Takagi T, Hasegawa J, Handa H (August 1998). "Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains ... Three transcript variants encoding two different proteins have been found for this gene. Casein kinase 2, alpha 1 has been ...

*EEF1B2

Phosphorylation by casein kinase II". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1264 (3): 303-11. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(95)00166-2. PMID ... Sheu GT, Traugh JA (Jan 1999). "A structural model for elongation factor 1 (EF-1) and phosphorylation by protein kinase CKII". ... Subunit interactions, elongation activity, and phosphorylation by protein kinase CKII". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... "Microsequences of 145 proteins recorded in the two-dimensional gel protein database of normal human epidermal keratinocytes". ...

*Progesterone receptor

In vitro phosphorylation by casein kinase II". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (49): 31034-40. PMID 7983041. Mansour I ... "Two distinct estrogen-regulated promoters generate transcripts encoding the two functionally different human progesterone ... "Two distinct estrogen-regulated promoters generate transcripts encoding the two functionally different human progesterone ... In humans, PR is encoded by a single PGR gene residing on chromosome 11q22, it has two main forms, PR-A and PR-B, that differ ...

*BRCA1

O'Brien KA, Lemke SJ, Cocke KS, Rao RN, Beckmann RP (July 1999). "Casein kinase 2 binds to and phosphorylates BRCA1". Biochem. ... two quartets of cysteine or histidine residues that coordinate two zinc atoms. This motif contains a short anti-parallel beta- ... "BRCA1 interacts with and is required for paclitaxel-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3". ... kinase and ATM and Rad3 related kinase mediate phosphorylation of Brca1 at distinct and overlapping sites. In vivo assessment ...

*Myc

Lüscher B, Kuenzel EA, Krebs EG, Eisenman RN (April 1989). "Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II". The EMBO ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proceedings of the National ... Gupta S, Davis RJ (October 1994). "MAP kinase binds to the NH2-terminal activation domain of c-Myc". FEBS Letters. 353 (3): 281 ... Iijima S, Teraoka H, Date T, Tsukada K (June 1992). "DNA-activated protein kinase in Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells. ...

*Thymosin α1

1992). "Prothymosin alpha is phosphorylated by casein kinase-2". FEBS Lett. 312 (2-3): 152-6. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(92)80924-6 ... 1992). "Prothymosin alpha enhances human and murine MHC class II surface antigen expression and messenger RNA accumulation". J ... 292 (2): 70-4. doi:10.1056/NEJM197501092920204. PMID 1078552. Garaci E, Favalli C, Pica F, et al. (September 2007). "Thymosin ... 85 (2-5): 117-22. doi:10.1016/S0960-0760(03)00207-3. PMID 12943695. Barcia MG, Castro JM, Jullien CD, et al. ( ...

*Nucleolin

Li D, Dobrowolska G, Krebs EG (Jun 1996). "The physical association of casein kinase 2 with nucleolin". The Journal of ... Parada CA, Roeder RG (Jul 1999). "A novel RNA polymerase II-containing complex potentiates Tat-enhanced HIV-1 transcription". ... Li D, Dobrowolska G, Krebs EG (Jun 1996). "The physical association of casein kinase 2 with nucleolin". The Journal of ... Jordan P, Heid H, Kinzel V, Kübler D (Dec 1994). "Major cell surface-located protein substrates of an ecto-protein kinase are ...

*Gap-43 protein

Apel ED, Litchfield DW, Clark RH, Krebs EG, Storm DR (Jun 1991). "Phosphorylation of neuromodulin (GAP-43) by casein kinase II ... It is a major protein kinase C (PKC) substrate and is considered to play a key role in neurite formation, regeneration, and ... Chao S, Benowitz LI, Krainc D, Irwin N (Sep 1996). "Use of a two-hybrid system to investigate molecular interactions of GAP-43 ... However, F1 was not cAMP kinase dependent. B-50 was regulated by the pituitary peptide ACTH and was associated with grooming ...

*ARR3

Kim YM, Barak LS, Caron MG, Benovic JL (2002). "Regulation of arrestin-3 phosphorylation by casein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem. ... 224 (1-2): 87-95. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(98)00510-1. PMID 9931451. John SK, Smith JE, Aguirre GD, Milam AH (2000). "Loss of ... 204 (1-2): 127-40. doi:10.1016/S0303-7207(03)00088-1. PMID 12850288. Zhu X, Brown B, Li A, et al. (2003). "GRK1-dependent ... 382 (1-2): 105-10. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(96)00163-9. PMID 8612728. ter Haar E, Musacchio A, Harrison SC, Kirchhausen T (1998 ...

*AP3B1

Kim YM, Barak LS, Caron MG, Benovic JL (May 2002). "Regulation of arrestin-3 phosphorylation by casein kinase II". The Journal ... Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (Apr 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". ... 15 (2): 575-87. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-06-0401. PMC 329249 . PMID 14657250. Guinn BA, Bland EA, Lodi U, Liggins AP, Tobal K, ... 8 (2): 323-30. doi:10.1093/hmg/8.2.323. PMID 9931340. Dell'Angelica EC, Shotelersuk V, Aguilar RC, Gahl WA, Bonifacino JS (Jan ...

*Casein kinase 1, alpha 1

Zhang Y, Qiu WJ, Chan SC, Han J, He X, Lin SC (May 2002). "Casein kinase I and casein kinase II differentially regulate axin ... Casein kinase I isoform alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CSNK1A1 gene. Casein kinase 1, alpha 1 has been ... Casein kinase 1 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000113712 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024576 ... Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (Apr 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". ...

*DNA damage-inducible transcript 3

Ubeda M, Habener JF (October 2003). "CHOP transcription factor phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 inhibits transcriptional ... by p38 MAP Kinase". Science. 272 (5266): 1347-9. doi:10.1126/science.272.5266.1347. PMID 8650547. Fawcett TW, Eastman HB, ... lack of mediation by protein kinase C". Mol Cell Biol. 11 (2): 1009-16. PMC 359769 . PMID 1990262. "Entrez Gene: DDIT3 DNA- ... 4 (2): 175-80. doi:10.1038/ng0693-175. PMID 7503811. Crozat A, Aman P, Mandahl N, Ron D (1993). "Fusion of CHOP to a novel RNA- ...

*Silmitasertib

... (INN), codenamed CX-4945, is a small-molecule inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase II), a ... "Casein Kinase II (CK2) as a Therapeutic Target for Hematological Malignancies". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 23 (1): 95-107. ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Chon HJ, Bae KJ, Lee Y, Kim J (2015). "The casein kinase 2 inhibitor, CX-4945, as an ... the first clinical stage inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 for the treatment of cancer". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 54 (2): ...

*Epithelial-mesenchymal transition

"Casein Kinase II (CK2) as a Therapeutic Target for Hematological Malignancies". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 23 (1): 95-107. ... Two mathematical models have been proposed, attempting to explain the emergence of this hybrid E/M phenotype, and its highly ... Silmitasertib (CX-4945) is a small molecule inhibitor of protein kinase CK2, which has been supported to be linked with TGF-β ... The phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3K)/AKT axis, Hedgehog signaling pathway, nuclear factor-kappaB and Activating ...

*Globozoospermia

Xu, X.; Toselli, P. A.; Russell, L. D.; Seldin, D. C. (1999-09-01). "Globozoospermia in mice lacking the casein kinase II alpha ... There are two types of globozoospermia: Type 1 globozoospermia exhibits a complete lack of acrosome and acrosomal enzymes and ... however it is unclear whether these two forms are variations on the same syndrome, or actually different syndromes. Studies ... doi:10.1007/s10815-015-0433-2. ISSN 1058-0468. PMC 4380889 . PMID 25711835. Dam, A. H. D. M.; Feenstra, I.; Westphal, J. R.; ...

*Nucleolar phosphoprotein p130

Li D, Meier UT, Dobrowolska G, Krebs EG (1997). "Specific interaction between casein kinase 2 and the nucleolar protein Nopp140 ... Pai CY, Yeh NH (1996). "Cell proliferation-dependent expression of two isoforms of the nucleolar phosphoprotein p130". Biochem ... Chiu CM, Tsay YG, Chang CJ, Lee SC (2002). "Nopp140 is a mediator of the protein kinase A signaling pathway that activates the ... 142 (2): 319-29. doi:10.1083/jcb.142.2.319. ISSN 0021-9525. PMC 2133063 . PMID 9679133. Miau, L H; Chang C J; Shen B J; Tsai W ...

*JADE1

... is a target of phosphorylation by Casein kinase 2 (CK2). In addition, multiple phosphorylation sites are found by high ... Two resultant protein products of the JADE1 gene were designated JADE1S for the short (which is same as(3)) and JADE1L for the ... "Casein kinase 1 α phosphorylates the Wnt regulator Jade-1 and modulates its activity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 289 ... There are two known protein products of the PHF17 gene, the full length JADE1 (JADE1L) and its splice variant missing the C- ...

*Casein kinase 1

Yang Y, Cheng P, Liu Y (2002). "Regulation of the Neurospora circadian clock by casein kinase II". Genes & Development. 16 (8 ... "casein kinase 1 alpha" and "casein kinase 1 epsilon". Casein kinase 1 epsilon has been suggested to play a role in ... In plants the phosphorylation of protein Jade-1 is regulated by casein kinase 1. In humans there are three casein kinase 1 ... A noncanonical sequence phosphorylated by casein kinase 1 in -catenin may play a role in casein kinase 1 targeting of important ...

*Calsequestrin

Cala SE, Jones LR (January 1991). "Phosphorylation of cardiac and skeletal muscle calsequestrin isoforms by casein kinase II. ... Both forms of calsequestrin are phosphorylated by casein kinase 2, but the cardiac form is phosphorylated more rapidly and to a ... Two forms of calsequestrin have been identified. The cardiac form Calsequestrin-2 (CASQ2) is present in cardiac and slow ... In addition, the hydrophobic core of domain II appears to be necessary for CASQ2's function, because a single amino acid ...

*STARD10

Casein kinase II phosphorylates the protein on its serine at position 184. The function of StarD10 in the cell is not yet ... "Phosphorylation of StarD10 on serine 284 by casein kinase II modulates its lipid transfer activity". The Journal of Biological ... "Phosphorylation of StarD10 on serine 284 by casein kinase II modulates its lipid transfer activity". The Journal of Biological ... 3.0.CO;2-P. PMID 9610721. "Entrez Gene: STARD10 START domain containing 10". Olayioye MA, Vehring S, Müller P, Herrmann A, ...

*C-Fos

Yamaguchi Y, Wada T, Suzuki F, Takagi T, Hasegawa J, Handa H (August 1998). "Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains ... Yang X, Chen Y, Gabuzda D (September 1999). "ERK MAP kinase links cytokine signals to activation of latent HIV-1 infection by ... Hurd TW, Culbert AA, Webster KJ, Tavaré JM (December 2002). "Dual role for mitogen-activated protein kinase (Erk) in insulin- ... Psychostimulants] increase cAMP levels in striatum, which activates protein kinase A (PKA) and leads to phosphorylation of its ...

*LIG1

... and Ser91 by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and Ser66 by casein kinase II (CKII). Phosphorylation of these residues (Ser66 in ... "Activation of mammalian DNA ligase I through phosphorylation by casein kinase II". EMBO J. 11 (8): 2925-33. PMC 556774 . PMID ... There are two families of DNA ligases, ATP-dependent DNA ligases and NAD+ dependent DNA ligases. Dependence upon ATP or NAD+ is ... "Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of human DNA ligase I at the cyclin-dependent kinase sites". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (39): ...

*HNRNPA2B1

HNRPA2B1 has been shown to interact with casein kinase 2, alpha 1. The mutation p.D290V/302V in hnRNPA2B1 is implicated in ... The protein encoded by this gene has two repeats of quasi-RRM domains that bind to RNAs. This gene has been described to ... Bauw G, Rasmussen HH, van den Bulcke M, van Damme J, Puype M, Gesser B, Celis JE, Vandekerckhove J (1990). "Two-dimensional gel ... "Two homologous genes, originated by duplication, encode the human hnRNP proteins A2 and A1". Nucleic Acids Res. 22 (11): 1996- ...

*Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor

Yamaguchi Y, Wada T, Suzuki F, Takagi T, Hasegawa J, Handa H (Aug 1998). "Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains of ... In addition to the transcript encoding GDNF, two additional alternative transcripts encoding distinct proteins, referred to as ... "GDNF-induced activation of the ret protein tyrosine kinase is mediated by GDNFR-alpha, a novel receptor for GDNF". Cell. 85 (7 ... Jing S, Yu Y, Fang M, Hu Z, Holst PL, Boone T, Delaney J, Schultz H, Zhou R, Fox GM (Dec 1997). "GFRalpha-2 and GFRalpha-3 are ...

*Herpes simplex virus protein vmw65

... position 375 of VP16 is critical for complex assembly with Oct-1 and HCF and is a target of phosphorylation by casein kinase II ...
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electromechanical responses of cardiomyocytes to individual and combined components of ischemia. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol, 80: 1145-1157 2003.- Schaeffer, C., D. Vandroux, L. Thomassin, P. Athias, L. Rochette and J. L. Connat. Calcitonin gene-related peptide partly protects cultured smooth muscle cells from apoptosis induced by an oxidative stress via activation of ERK1/2 MAPK. Biochim Biophys Acta 1643(1-3): 65-73. 2004.- Chantome, A., A. Pance, N. Gauthier, D. Vandroux, J. Chenu, E. Solary, J. F. Jeannin and S. Reveneau. Casein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 subunit enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase gene transcription in vivo. J Biol Chem. 279(23): 23953-60. 2004.- Gambert, S., S. Bes-Houtmann, D. Vandroux, C. Tissier, C. Vergely-Vandriesse, L. Rochette and P. Athias. Deep hypothermia during ischemia improves functional recovery and reduces free-radical generation in isolated reperfused rat heart. J Heart Lung Transplant 23(4): 487-91. 2004.- Vandroux, D., C. ...
Benzene, 1,2,3,4-tetrabromo-5-(2,3,4,6-tetrabromophenoxy)- | C12H2Br8O | CID 71363036 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epigenetic regulation of gene expression by Ikaros, HDAC1 and Casein Kinase II in leukemia. AU - Song, Chunhua. AU - Pan, X.. AU - Ge, Z.. AU - Gowda, Chandrika. AU - Ding, Y.. AU - Li, H.. AU - Li, Z.. AU - Yochum, Gregory. AU - Muschen, M.. AU - Li, Q.. AU - Payne, K. J.. AU - Dovat, Sinisa. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84955311527&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84955311527&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1038/leu.2015.331. DO - 10.1038/leu.2015.331. M3 - Letter. VL - 30. SP - 1436. EP - 1440. JO - Leukemia. JF - Leukemia. SN - 0887-6924. IS - 6. ER - ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. casein kinase II inhibitor III ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
CK2 is an extremely pleiotropic Ser/Thr protein kinase, responsible for the generation of a large proportion of the human phosphoproteome and implicated in a wide variety of biological functions. CK2 plays a global role as an anti-apoptotic agent, a property which is believed to partially account for the addiction of many cancer cells to high CK2 levels. To gain information about the CK2 targets whose phosphorylation is primarily implicated in its pro-survival signaling advantage has been taken of quinalizarin (QZ) a cell permeable fairly specific CK2 inhibitor, previously shown to be able to block endogenous CK2 triggering an apoptotic response. HEK-293T cells either treated or not for 3h with 50μM QZ were exploited to perform a quantitative SILAC phosphoproteomic analysis of phosphosites readily responsive to QZ treatment. Our analysis led to the identification of 4883 phosphosites, belonging to 1693 phosphoproteins. 71 phosphosites (belonging to 47 proteins) underwent a 50% or more decreased ...
Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. Phosphorylates casein in vitro (PubMed:7678767). The alpha chain contains the catalytic site. The tetrameric holoenzyme CK2, composed of two alpha and two beta subunits, phosphorylates the transcription factor GBFl, resulting in stimulation of its DNA binding activity (PubMed:7696877). CK2 phosphorylates the transcription factor PIF1 after an exposure to light, resulting in a proteasome-dependent degradation of PIF1 and promotion of photomorphogenesis (PubMed:21330376). CK2 phosphorylates translation initiation factors. May participate in the regulation of the initiation of translation (PubMed:19509278, PubMed:19509420). Acts as circadian clock component that maintains the correct period length through phosphorylation of CCA1 (PubMed:21900482). Required for the maintenance and control of genomic stability and chromatin structure (PubMed:22487192). May act as an ectokinase that
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BioAssay record AID 712789 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human CK1-gamma2 in HEK293 cells assessed as inhibition of doxcycline-induced LRP6 phosphorylation after 2 hrs by electrochemiluminescence analysis.
Protein kinase CK2 (CK2) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase with multiple cellular functions in vertebrates including apoptosis, differentiation, proliferation, survival, tumorigenesis, signal transduction, immune regulation and inflammation. In the current study, the catalytic and regulatory subunit homologs of Litopenaeus vannamei protein kinase CK2 (LvCK2α and LvCK2ß) were cloned and characterized. LvCK2α has a full-length cDNA sequence of 1764 bp with a 1053 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 351 amino acids, which contains a typical serine/threonine kinase domain. On the other hand, LvCK2ß has a 1394 bp full-length cDNA with an ORF of 663 bp encoding a protein with 221 amino acids, which contains a Casein kinase II regulatory subunit domain. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that LvCK2 was evolutionary related with the CK2 of invertebrates. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that LvCK2α and LvCK2ß transcripts were ...
Catalytic subunit of a constitutively active serine/threonine-protein kinase complex that phosphorylates a large number of substrates containing acidic residues C-terminal to the phosphorylated serine or threonine. Regulates numerous cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, apoptosis and transcription, as well as viral infection. May act as a regulatory node which integrates and coordinates numerous signals leading to an appropriate cellular response. During mitosis, functions as a component of the p53/TP53-dependent spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) that maintains cyclin-B-CDK1 activity and G2 arrest in response to spindle damage. Also required for p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis, phosphorylating Ser-392 of p53/TP53 following UV irradiation. Can also negatively regulate apoptosis. Phosphorylates the caspases CASP9 and CASP2 and the apoptotic regulator NOL3. Phosphorylation protects CASP9 from cleavage and activation by CASP8, and inhibits the dimerization of CASP2 and activation of CASP8.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Induction of the generation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca(++))-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) by gallic acid (GA) has been implicated in the mitochondrial apoptotic death of human oral cancer (OC) cells, but the molecular mechanism by which GA causes ER Ca(++) release of OC cells to undergo cell death remains unclear. Here, we report that GA-induced phosphorylation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2)-interacting killer (BIK) (threonine (Thr) 33/Serine (Ser) 35) and p53 (Ser 15 and Ser 392), Bcl-2-associated x protein (BAX)/BCL-2 antagonist killer 1 (BAK) oligomerization on the ER and mitochondria, rising of cytosolic Ca(+)(+) and ROS, cytochrome c (Cyt c) release from the mitochondria, Ψm loss, and apoptosis were suppressed in cells co-treated with a specific inhibitor of casein kinase II (CK II) (4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole ...
CK2 is a pleiotropic and constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase composed of two catalytic (α and/or α′) and two regulatory β-subunits, whose mechanism of modulation is still obscure. Here we show that CK2 α/α′ subunits undergo intermolecular (trans) tyrosine-autophosphorylation, which is dependent on intrinsic catalytic activity and is suppressed by the individual mutation of Tyr182, a crucial residue of the activation loop, to phenylalanine. At variance with serine-autophosphorylation, tyrosine-autophosphorylation of CK2α is reversed by ADP and GDP and is counteracted by the β-subunit and by a peptide reproducing the activation loop of CK2α/α′ (amino acids 175-201). These results disclose new perspectives about the mode of regulation of CK2 catalytic subunits.. ...
The acronym CK2 (derived from the misnomer casein kinase 2) denotes one of the most pleiotropic members of the eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily, characterized by an acidic consensus sequence in which a carboxylic acid (or pre-phosphorylated) side chain at position n+3 relative to the target serine/threonine residue plays a crucial role. The latest repertoire of CK2 substrates includes approx. 300 proteins, but the analysis of available phosphopeptide databases from different sources suggests that CK2 alone may be responsible for the generation of a much larger proportion (10-20%) of the eukaryotic phosphoproteome. Although for the time being CK2 is not included among protein kinases whose inhibitors are in clinical practice or in advanced clinical trials, evidence is accumulating that elevated CK2 constitutive activity co-operates to induce a number of pathological conditions, including cancer, infectious diseases, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular pathologies. The development and ...
It is now generally recognized that protein kinase signaling is involved in virtually every aspect of cell function, including growth and proliferation. The field of protein phosphorylation, including
1LR4: Inclining the purine base binding plane in protein kinase CK2 by exchanging the flanking side-chains generates a preference for ATP as a cosubstrate.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-CKII alpha prime polypeptide Antibody. Validated: WB, IP. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse. 100% Guaranteed.
CKII, CK2, CkII-beta, CK2beta, DmCKIIbeta, dCKII, DmCK2beta, CKIIbeta, CkIIbeta1, betaCK2, DmCkIIbeta, CKIIb, CG15224, CK II, CKII-beta1, mbu, CkII, And, CCK2, CK-IIbeta, CK-II beta, CK-2, Ds cas kin, CkIIbeta, Cask-II-b, dCK2beta ...
CKII, CK2, CkII-beta, CK2beta, DmCKIIbeta, dCKII, DmCK2beta, CKIIbeta, CkIIbeta1, betaCK2, DmCkIIbeta, CKIIb, CG15224, CK II, CKII-beta1, mbu, CkII, And, CCK2, CK-IIbeta, CK-II beta, CK-2, Ds cas kin, CkIIbeta, Cask-II-b, dCK2beta ...
CKII alpha antibody [N1C3] (casein kinase 2, alpha prime polypeptide) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-CKII alpha pAb (GTX110726) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
RefSeq Summary (NM_001320): This gene encodes the beta subunit of casein kinase II, a ubiquitous protein kinase which regulates metabolic pathways, signal transduction, transcription, translation, and replication. The enzyme is composed of three subunits, alpha, alpha prime and beta, which form a tetrameric holoenzyme. The alpha and alpha prime subunits are catalytic, while the beta subunit serves regulatory functions. The enzyme localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013 ...
1DS5: The crystal structure of the complex of Zea mays alpha subunit with a fragment of human beta subunit provides the clue to the architecture of protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme.
Protein kinase casein kinase II (CK2) is a heterotetrameric serine/threonine kinase involved in proliferation, apoptosis and embryonic development. It is expressed at elevated levels in proliferating tissue, human cancer cell lines and virtually all forms of solid cancers. Recently it has been shown that CK2 inhibition induces apoptosis in cell models of acquired anti-estrogen resistance. These findings suggest that there may be tumor phenotype specific effects of CK2 in breast cancer and consequently phenotype specific sensitivity to CK2 inhibition. As such we sought to determine if luminal and basal cell types display differential sensitivity to selective CK2 inhibitors. Utilizing crystal violet and alamar blue assays, it was found that CK2 inhibition decreased viability of both luminal and basal breast cancer cell lines, with basal-like ER(−) MDA MB 231 cells showing notable sensitivity. Hypertrophic morphologic changes consistent with cellular senescence were noted upon inhibition of CK2. ...
Kinson, P. L. and Orlando, C. M. (1979), 2,2′,6,6′-Tetrabromo-3,3′,5,5′-tetramethyl-4,4′-biphenol (TTB)-flame retardant copolycarbonates and copolyesters. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 23: 155-162. doi: 10.1002/app.1979.070230114 ...
Nucleolin is a ubiquitous multifunctional protein involved in preribosome assembly and associated with both nucleolar chromatin in interphase and nucleolar organizer regions on metaphasic chromosomes in mitosis. Extensive nucleolin phosphorylation by a casein kinase (CKII) occurs on serine in growing cells. Here we report that while CKII phosphorylation is achieved in interphase, threonine phosphorylation occurs during mitosis. We provide evidence that this type of in vivo phosphorylation involves a mammalian homolog of the cell cycle control Cdc2 kinase. In vitro M-phase H1 kinase from starfish oocytes phosphorylated threonines in a TPXK motif present nine times in the amino-terminal part of the protein. The same sites which matched the p34cdc2 consensus phosphorylation sequence were used in vivo during mitosis. We propose that successive Cdc2 and CKII phosphorylation could modulate nucleolin function in controlling cell cycle-dependent nucleolar function and organization. Our results, along ...
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Protein phosphorylation is an important biological process associated with elicitor-induced defense responses in plants. In a previous report, we described how plant ferredoxin-like protein (PFLP) in transgenic plants enhances resistance to bacterial pathogens associated with the hypersensitive response (HR). PFLP possesses a putative casein kinase II phosphorylation (CK2P) site at the C-terminal in which phosphorylation occurs rapidly during defense response. However, the contribution of this site to the enhancement of disease resistance and the intensity of HR has not been clearly demonstrated. In this study, we generated two versions of truncated PFLP, PEC (extant CK2P site) and PDC (deleted CK2P site), and assessed their ability to trigger HR through harpin (HrpZ) derived from Pseudomonas syringae as well as their resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum. In an infiltration assay of HrpZ, PEC intensified harpin-mediated HR; however, PDC negated this effect. Transgenic plants expressing these ...
anti-CK2beta | casein kinase 2 subunit beta antibodies, UniProt: P40228, P40229, O81275, O80507, At5g47080, At4g17640, At3g60250, At2g44680, anti-CKB, CKB, CK2 beta, AS16 3213
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anti-CK2alpha | casein kinase 2 subunit alpha antibodies, UniProt: Q08467, Q08466, O64817, O64816, At5g67380, At3g50000, At2g23080, At2g23070, anti-CKA, CKA, CK2 alpha, AS16 3212
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Casein kinase II is a protein serinethreonine kinase that is thought to be present in all eukarotic cells, implying that it has fundamental cellular functions. The holoenzyme is a tetramer containing 2 alpha or alpha-prime subunits (or one of each) and 2 beta subunits. The function of beta subunit
Protein kinase CK2 is a tetrameric holoenzyme composed of two catalytic (α and/or α) subunits and two regulatory (β) subunits. Crystallographic data paired with fluorescence imaging techniques have suggested that the formation of the CK2 holoenzyme complex within cells is a dynamic process. Although the monomeric CK2α subunit is endowed with a constitutive catalytic activity, many of the plethora of CK2 substrates are exclusively phosphorylated by the CK2 holoenzyme. This means that the spatial and high affinity interaction between CK2α and CK2β subunits is critically important and that its disruption may provide a powerful and selective way to block the phosphorylation of substrates requiring the presence of CK2β. In search of compounds inhibiting this critical protein-protein interaction, we previously designed an active cyclic peptide (Pc) derived from the CK2β carboxy-terminal domain that can efficiently antagonize the CK2 subunit interaction. To understand the functional significance of
Csnk1g3 - Csnk1g3 (untagged) - Mouse casein kinase 1, gamma 3 (cDNA clone MGC:40777 IMAGE:5366964), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
1lr4: Inclining the purine base binding plane in protein kinase CK2 by exchanging the flanking side-chains generates a preference for ATP as a cosubstrate.
CK2 is a constitutively active, ubiquitously expressed and pleiotropic serine/threonine protein kinase that is implicated in many cellular functions including tumorigenesis. CK2 has two catalytic subunits, CK2a and CK2a, that carry out its function in the cell. Previous studies have indicated that inhibitor-refractory mutants have been effective in recovering residual CK2 activity, in the presence of inhibitors, when compared to wild type CK2. Based on these observations, inhibitor-refractory mutants were created for both CK2a and CK2a and tested with various concentrations with two CK2-specific inhibitors, CX-4945 and inhibitor VIII. The CK2a triple mutant (V66A/I174A/H160D) was tested in inducible U2OS Flp-In cell lines with inhibitor VIII and CX-4945 inhibitors and was found to recover residual CK2 activity 5-fold greater than previously established CK2a-(V66A/I174A) inhibitor-refractory mutants. Seven novel mutations were made to CK2a in vitro and tested with CK2 inhibitor CX-4945. The mutants
The synthetic peptide RRKDLHDDEEDEAMSITA can be used as a substrate for casein kinase 1 (CK1) in in vitro kinase assays. It is phosphorylated by CK1 with a Km of 172 �M
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What do most of you out there use for a CK7 control?......CK20 control?.... We currently are using an adenocarcinoma of the lung for our CK7 and an adenocarcinoma of the colon for the CK20. We have been having problems and need some help. Thanks Amy Johnson _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
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The report generally describes 1h-benzimidazole,2-methyl-1-(2-propenyl)-(9ci), examines its uses, production methods, patents. 1H-Benzimidazole,2-methyl-1-(2-propenyl)-(9CI)
A main focus in the new project phase will be the manipulation of the quaternary structure and the catalytic function of human CK2 with small molecule compounds in cooperation with the research group of Dr Markus Pietsch (Centre of Pharmacology, University Hospital Cologne). Further, structure/function relationships of CK2 from plants and other non-human sources will be investigated. For this, state-of-the-art methods in structural biology (protein crystallography, small angle X-ray scattering, cryo-electron microscopy) and biophysical chemistry (micro calorimetry, microscale thermophoresis, biolayer interferometry) will be applied ...
Tumours of astroglial origin, both malignant glioblastoma (GBM) and benign subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), pose a serious medical problem. Casein kinase 2 (CK2), a member of the serine/threonine kinase family, has antiapoptotic properties and plays a vital role in glial tumour cell...
Product name: 5-(Difluoromethoxy)-2-[(4-chloro-3-methoxy-2-pyridinyl) methyl] thio-1H-benzimidazole Molecular Formula: C15H12ClF2N3O2S Molecular Weight: 371.79 CAS Number: 368890-20-4 Density: 1.514g/cm3 Boiling point: 523.103°C at 760 mmHg Refractive index: 1.644 Flash point: 270.163°C Purity: 99% Application: Pharmaceutical Intermediates
The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of the casein kinase I protein family, whose members have been implicated in the control of cytoplasmic and nuclear processes, including DNA replication and repair. The encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm as a monomer and can phosphorylate a variety of proteins, including itself. This protein has been shown to phosphorylate period, a circadian rhythm protein. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014 ...
Protein kinase CK2 is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates many substrates and has a global role in numerous biological and pathological processes. Overexpression of the protein kinase CK2α subunit (CK2α) has been associated with the malignant transformation of several tissues, with not nearly as much focus on the role of CK2α in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aims of this study are to investigate the function and regulatory mechanism of CK2α in CRC development. Expression levels of CK2α were analyzed in 144 patients (104 with CRC and 40 with colorectal adenoma) by immunohistochemistry. Proliferation, senescence, motility and invasion assays as well as immunofluorescence staining and western blots were performed to assess the effect of CK2α in CRC. The immunohistochemical expression of nuclear CK2α was stronger in tumor tissues than in adenomas and normal colorectal tissues. Suppression of CK2α by small-interfering RNA or the CK2α activity inhibitor
The exact mechanism responsible for CK2 overexpression in cancer is not known. We report for the first time that CSNK2A1, the gene encoding CK2α, harbors frequent gene dosage gains in glioblastoma, and such gains correlate with increases in CK2α mRNA. This information suggests the genetic basis leading to overexpression of CK2α mRNA and protein expression in patients with glioblastoma. Moreover, we identify a particular subset of the disease, classical glioblastoma, that has more than 50% frequency of this alteration, highlighting patients with classical glioblastoma as a population that may be responsive to CK2-modulating therapeutics. Genome-wide CNV analysis in glioblastoma has been limited to evidence that chromosome 20 harbors frequent gains in gene dosage that may be driven by several oncogenic targets (45). Our novel finding that CK2 expression/activity is required for activation of prosurvival pathways, including the JAK/STAT, NF-κB, and PI3K/AKT pathways in glioblastomas, suggests ...
After graduating with a Biomedical Sciences degree from Cardiff University in 2012, Dr Bethan Brown (nee Monk) began a PhD in Cardiovascular Biology in Professor Sarah Georges lab at the University of Bristol. During this time, Beth investigated the effect of ageing on Wnt3a and Wnt5a signalling in vascular smooth muscle cells, highlighting the divergence between these two pro-survival pathways. In addition, Beth examined the effect of ageing on carotid artery ligation induced intimal thickening and observed exaggerated medial remodelling in the contralateral carotid artery of older mice. After completing her studies in 2016, Beth started a Research Associate position in Professor Georges lab examining a potential role for casein kinase II inhibitors in restenosis. Other sessions Dr Bethan Brown is participating in ...
Ellagic acid is a natural antioxidant, and acts as a potent and ATP-competitive CK2 inhibitor, with an IC50 of 40 nM and a Ki of 20 nM. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Xinran Li, Hesheng Hu, Ye Wang, Mei Xue, Xiaolu Li, Wenjuan Cheng, Yongli Xuan, Jie Yin, Na Yang, Suhua Yan].
Rabbit polyclonal Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2 antibody validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Referenced in 4 publications and 1 independent review…
Harnos, J; Canizal, MCA; Jurasek, M; Kumar, J; Holler, C; Schambony, A; Hanakova, K; Bernatik, O; Zdrahal, Z; Gomoryova, K; Gybel, T; Radaszkiewicz, TW; Kravec, M; Trantirek, L; Rynes, J; Dave, Z; Fernandez-Llamazares, AI; Vacha, R; Tripsianes, K; Hoffmann, C; Bryja, V, 2019: Dishevelled-3 conformation dynamics analyzed by FRET-based biosensors reveals a key role of casein kinase 1. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 10, doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-09651-7 ...
Beware of cheap casein proteins being passed off as micellar casein. For example, calcium caseinate is NOT micellar casein. To get MICELLAR casein results, use only MICELLAR casein, not plain casein or caseinates. You fight hard in the gym to get result
Casein Protein list and information including what is Casein Protein, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Casein Protein list and information including what is Casein Protein, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Nusobee Casein information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Wockhardt, Nusobee Casein indications, usages and related health products lists
Hee Jeong Son, Yoon Hee Lee, Jeong Hoon Chae, Chang Keun Kim Biol Sport 2015; 32(4):357-361 It is commonly assumed that creatine kinase (CK) activity in plasma is related to a state of an inflammatory response in 24-48 h and ...
Im not the biggest on buying casein because I get enough protein from my diet and my normal whey shakes but every once in a while I like to pick some
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http://biomedicine.gu.se/biomedicine/staff/?languageId=100001&disableRedirect=true&returnUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fbiomedicine.gu.se%2Fpersonal%2F%3Fprint%3Dtrue%26publicationPageNumber%3D8%26selectedTab%3D2%26userId%3Dxenesv%26userName%3DSven%2BEnerb%25C3%25A4ck&publicationPageNumber=8&selectedTab=2&userId=xenesv&userName=Sven+Enerb%C3%A4ck ...
Here are the explanations for the updated 2015 (effectively 2015-16) official USMLE Step 2 CK Sample Test Questions, which can be found here. Overall, there
Here are the explanations for the updated 2016-17 official USMLE Step 2 CK Sample Test Questions PDF, which can be found here. Overall, the June 2016 update
qka jane sinjalet,qka eshte sinjali,kuptimi i sinjalit,cfare eshte sinjali, çfarë eshte sinjali, qka kuptojme me sinjal, shembuj sinjalesh,sinjali,kuptim rreth sinjali,kuptimi sinjal,cka eshte sinjali
F*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CKF*CK ...
It is high time that manufacturers remove toxic flame retardant additives from their product lines. It is simply unacceptable to continue using toxic chemicals to make products meant to provide safety to our most vulnerable population, our children. Its true; car seats save lives. But, safety shouldnt come with a hidden chemical cost. That is why we are challenging car seat manufacturers to produce a car seat without adding flame retardants. UPPAbaby recently proved this can be done through their Mesa Henry infant seat, the first ever car seat manufactured without added flame retardants that still meet fire safety standards. We need both consumers and advocates to put the pressure on other manufacturers to follow UPPAbabys lead. We want toxic-free car seats! Sign the petition. ...
Abstract. RPLP1 is one of acidic ribosomal phosphoproteins encoded by RPLP1 gene, which plays an important role in the elongation step of protein synthesis. The cDNA of RPLP1 was cloned successfully for the first time from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using RT-PCR technology, which was also sequenced, analyzed preliminarily and expressed in E.coli. The cDNA fragment cloned is 449bp in size, containing an open reading frame of 344bp encoding 114 amino acids. Alignment analysis indicated that the nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence are highly conserved to other five species studied, including Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Bos Taurus and Sus scrofa. The homologies for nucleotide sequences of Giant Panda PPLP1 to that of these species are 92.4%, 89.8%, 89.0%, 91.3% and 87.5%, while the homologies for amino acid sequences are 96.5%, 94.7%, 95.6%, 96.5% and 88.6%. Topology prediction showed there are three Casein kinase II phosphorylation sites and two ...
Casein kinase 2 (CK-2) is a ubiquitous messenger-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in growth control. We have studied the activity and subcellular location of CK-2 in adult rat ventral prostate in relation to androgen withdrawal and administration. Androgen deprivation by castration results in a faster decline in CK-2 activity associated with prostatic nuclei than that in the cytosol. Nuclear CK-2 associated with chromatin is reduced at an even greater rate than that in the total nucleus. Reversal of these events by administration of a single dose of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone to adult rats castrated 144 hr previously was accompanied by a differential early enhancement of chromatin-associated CK-2 activity, with a concomitant decrease in the CK-2 activity present in the cytosol. Changes in the nuclear CK-2 activity correlated with the immunostainable enzyme protein in the nucleus. We propose that androgens evoke translocation of CK-2 from the cytoplasm to the ...
For ,3 decades, PMAD has been recognized as the critical factor in recovery and survival after cardiac arrest.5,6 To date, most research focused on ischemia/reperfusion has used variants of a Langendorff isolated heart model. Here, we present an in vivo model of PMAD, which, in leaving the neurohumoral axis intact, uncovered a significant increase in CICR in vivo that continued in isolated cardiac myocytes. A similar increase in CICR was reproduced when blood from an arrested animal was used as perfusate in the Langendorff system. We did not see this potentiation of CICR in the saline-perfused Langendorff model. This cardiac myocyte calcium "memory" seems to be triggered by a combination of catecholamines and reactive oxygen species and maintained by autophosphorylation of CaMKII with subsequent phosphorylation of RyR2 and phospholamban.. The role of CAMKII in cardiomyopathy has been described in seminal investigations.34,43-45 Its activation is important in the generation of electrical ...
p53 is an allosterically regulated protein with a latent DNA-binding activity. Posttranslational modification of a carboxy-terminal regulatory site in vitro, by casein kinase II and protein kinase C, can activate the sequence-specific DNA-binding function of the wild-type protein. The latent form of...
CRN2 (synonyms: coronin 1C, coronin 3) functions in the re-organization of the actin network and is implicated in cellular processes like protrusion formation, secretion, migration and invasion. We demonstrate that CRN2 is a binding partner and substrate of protein kinase CK2, which phosphorylates CRN2 at S463 in its C-terminal coiled coil domain. Phosphomimetic S463D CRN2 loses the wild-type CRN2 ability to inhibit actin polymerization, to bundle F-actin, and to bind to the Arp2/3 complex. As a consequence, S463D mutant CRN2 changes the morphology of the F-actin network in the front of lamellipodia. Our data imply that CK2-dependent phosphorylation of CRN2 is involved in the modulation of the local morphology of complex actin structures and thereby inhibits cell migration ...
G.L. Russo, M. Russo, C. Spagnuolo. The pleiotropic flavonoid quercetin: from its metabolism to the inhibition of protein kinases in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Food Funct. 5:2393-401 (2014). T.N. Newman, E. Liverani, E. Ivanova., G.L. Russo, N. Carpino, D. Ganea, F. Safadi, S.P. Kunapuli and A.Y. Tsygankov. Members of the novel UBASH3/STS/TULA family of cellular regulators suppress T-cell-driven inflammatory responses in vivo. Immunology and Cell Biology 1 14; (2014). M. Russo, C. Spagnuolo, S. Bilotto, I. Tedesco, G. Maiani, G. L. Russo. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 by quercetin enhances CD95-mediated apoptosis in a human thymus-derived T cell lineOriginal Research Article. Food Res Int. 63: 244 251 (2014). G. L. Russo, M. Russo, I. Castellano, A. Napolitano, A. Palumbo. Ovothiol Isolated from Sea Urchin Oocytes Induces Autophagy in the Hep-G2 Cell Line. Marine Drugs 47:132-6 (2014). Russo G. L., Russo M, Spagnuolo C, Tedesco I, Bilotto S, Iannitti R, Palumbo R. Quercetin: a pleiotropic ...
Researchers at the Research Center for Immunotherapy (FZI) and the Focus Program Translational Neurosciences (FTN) of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have identified a new mechanism that is involved in the development of autoimmune diseases. On the basis of this new insight, it may prove possible to create innovative treatments for disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The members of the research team headed by Professor Tobias Bopp at the Institute of Immunology at the Mainz University Medical Center and Professor Frauke Zipp at the Department of Neurology, were able to demonstrate that it is possible to influence the development and functioning of regulatory T cells, also known as Tregs, and T helper 17 (TH17) cells by means of inhibition of the protein kinase CK2. It would seem that many of the devastating effects of autoimmune disorders are attributable to TH17 cells. Among other factors, the relative levels of these two types of cells determine whether or not an autoimmune ...
What are the different types of casein and what do they do? We take a look at casein isolates, casein concentrates, micellar casein, casein hydrolysate...
Then I was just touching up a frame here and the light bulb flashed on in my brain: casein! You seem to be pleased with the medium as a full-service plein air sketch medium. Ive never used it except on frames. But I have a full array of tube colors. Have you taken casein on a trip as your prime medium? When you travel with casein, do you work on watercolor paper? Or just in a sketchbook? And what have you used for a travel palette for casein? I guess the big issue Id be concerned with is losing quantity of dry paint on the palette. (whereas gouache can kind of be re-wet ...
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Function: Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. It can phosphorylate a large number of proteins. Participates in Wnt signaling (By similarity ...
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Expression of CSNK1E (CKIE, CKIepsilon, HCKIE) in cancer tissue. The cancer tissue page shows antibody staining of the protein in 20 different cancers.
Summary of CSNK1E (CKIE, CKIepsilon, HCKIE) expression in human tissue. Mainly cytoplasmic and nuclear expression in several tissues.
Man försöker ta fram en blodpanel för att upptäcka och prediktera bipolär sjukdom. Towards a blood-based diagnostic panel for bipolar disorder blodpanel
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Casein Kinase Ialpha: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways including the CELL CYCLE, membrane trafficking, and RNA processing. In DROSOPHILA casein kinase Ialpha has been in regulation of Hedghog and Wingless signaling pathways. Multiple isoforms of casein kinase Ialpha exist and are due ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
In order for cells to proliferate, a certain size has to be reached, which depends primarily on the rate of translation. RNA polymerase (pol) III plays a key role in protein synthesis by catalysing the production of small, untranslated RNA molecules such as transfer (tRNA) and 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA). Indeed, recent evidence suggests that tRNAiMet production is limiting for translation and proliferation in some cell types. Therefore, the rate of pol III transcription plays a fundamental role in cellular growth and proliferation. Regulation of pol III output is mediated via a number of different mechanisms that can alter the activities of the transcription factors which are responsible for directing pol III transcription. Work presented in this thesis aimed at investigating the mechanisms behind the regulation of pol III transcription by the protein kinase CK2.. ...
Our data show that LTP inducing stimulation produces a 6-fold increase in endogenous synapsin I phosphorylation at its CaM kinase II sites. The observed rise in synapsin I phosphorylation occurred rapidly after the stimulation and persisted for at least 30 min. Most importantly, this effect was not observed in the presence of the NMDA receptor antagonist APV, suggesting that the rise in synapsin I phosphorylation is due to the LTP-inducing nature of the stimulation. Since synapsin I is localized exclusively in the presynaptic terminal, our data provide strong evidence that LTP expression is accompanied by persistent biochemical changes in the presynaptic terminal. Because the observed LTP-associated presynaptic changes require NMDA receptor activation, these data support models of LTP in which a retrograde messenger (generated subsequent to postsynaptic NMDA receptor activation) may produce presynaptic changes underlying LTP (36-38).. The mechanism by which LTP induction might lead to this ...
The NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factors participate in the activation of immune system regulatory genes and viral early genes including the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat. NF-kappaB/Rel proteins are coupled to inhibitory molecules, collectively termed IkappaB, which are responsible for cytoplasmic retention of NF-kappaB. Cell activation leads to the phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha, permitting NG-kappaB/Rel translocation to the nucleus and target gene activation. To further characterize the signaling events that contribute to IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, a kinase activity was isolated from Jurkat T cells that specifically interacted with IkappaBalpha in an affinity chromatography step and phosphorylated IkappaBalpha with high specificity in vitro. By using an in-gel kinase assay with recombinant IkappaBalpha as substrate, two forms of the kinase (43 and 38 kDa) were identified. Biochemical criteria and immunological cross-reactivity identified the kinase ...
Casein Kinase I Isoform Delta (Tau Protein Kinase CSNK1D or CKI Delta or CSNK1D or EC 2.7.11.1 or EC 2.7.11.26) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016 - Market research report and industry analysis - 10293155
Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippocampus induces glutamate release and activation of glutamate receptors in dendritic spines. A large increase in [Ca2+]i resulting from influx through NMDA receptors leads to constitutive activation of CaM kinase II (CaM KII) . Constitutively active CaM kinase II phosphorylates AMPA receptors, resulting in potentiation of the ionic conductance of AMPA receptors. Early-phase LTP (E-LTP) expression is due, in part, to this phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor. It is hypothesized that postsynaptic Ca2+ increases generated through NMDA receptors activate several signal transduction pathways including the Erk/MAP kinase and cAMP regulatory pathways. The convergence of these pathways at the level of the CREB/CRE transcriptional pathway may increase expression of a family of genes required for late-phase LTP ...
Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippocampus induces glutamate release and activation of glutamate receptors in dendritic spines. A large increase in [Ca2+]i resulting from influx through NMDA receptors leads to constitutive activation of CaM kinase II (CaM KII) . Constitutively active CaM kinase II phosphorylates AMPA receptors, resulting in potentiation of the ionic conductance of AMPA receptors. Early-phase LTP (E-LTP) expression is due, in part, to this phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor. It is hypothesized that postsynaptic Ca2+ increases generated through NMDA receptors activate several signal transduction pathways including the Erk/MAP kinase and cAMP regulatory pathways. The convergence of these pathways at the level of the CREB/CRE transcriptional pathway may increase expression of a family of genes required for late-phase LTP ...
Read independent reviews on Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta) from AMS Biotechnology (Archived Products) on SelectScience
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of telomeric repeat binding factor 1 binding to telomeres by casein kinase 2-mediated phosphorylation. AU - Mi, Kyung Kim. AU - Mi, Ran Kang. AU - Hyung, Wook Nam. AU - Bae, Young Seuk. AU - Yu, Sam Kim. AU - In, Kwon Chung. PY - 2008/5/16. Y1 - 2008/5/16. N2 - Telomere maintenance is essential for continued cell proliferation and chromosome stability. Telomeres are maintained by telomerase and a collection of associated proteins. The telomeric protein telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1) negatively regulates telomere length by inhibiting access of telomerase at telomere termini. Here we report that TRF1 interacts with the βsubunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2) and serves as a substrate for CK2. CK2-mediated phosphorylation is required for the efficient telomere binding of TRF1 in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of CK2 by the CK2 inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D- ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole decreased the ability of TRF1 to bind telomeric DNA. The resulting telomere-unbound ...
Supplementary Components1. disease (SCD) will be the most common monogenic illnesses.1,2 Both disorders could Salinomycin inhibition be ameliorated by increased degrees of fetal hemoglobin (HbF).3C5 In -thalassemia, where -globin expression is decreased or absent, -globin production can bring back normal globin chain assembly into functional hemoglobin.5 In SCD, the substitution of glutamic acid for valine in the sixth amino acid from the -globin protein qualified prospects to the forming of abnormal hemoglobin S (HbS).6 Pursuing deoxygenation in red bloodstream cells (RBCs), HbS forms polymers leading to the Salinomycin inhibition RBCs to be deformed and adherent resulting in vaso-occlusive events leading to splenic infarction, kidney failure, heart stroke, painful crises, and chronic anemia. research have shown how the HbF (22) tetramer as well as Salinomycin inhibition the (2S) tetramer inhibit HbS polymerization.7,8 Induction of fetal hemoglobin can be an important therapeutic strategy in ...

Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta) from AMS Biotechnology (Archived Products) | SelectScienceCasein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta) from AMS Biotechnology (Archived Products) | SelectScience

Read independent reviews on Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta) from AMS Biotechnology (Archived ... Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta). Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta) by ... VOYAGER II 8-Channel Adjustable Tip Spacing Pipettes by INTEGRA Biosciences "Dont start your next gene targeting project ... Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta). Manufacturer AMS Biotechnology (Archived Products). Be the first ...
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Casein kinase 2 - WikipediaCasein kinase 2 - Wikipedia

Xu X, Toselli PA, Russell LD, Seldin DC (1999). "Globozoospermia in mice lacking the casein kinase II alpha catalytic subunit ... CSNK2A1 CSNK2A2 Casein kinase 1 - a distinct protein kinase family Ahmad KA, Wang G, Unger G, Slaton J, Ahmed K (2008). " ... Casein kinase 2 (EC 2.7.11.1)(CK2/CSNK2) is a serine/threonine-selective protein kinase that has been implicated in cell cycle ... Casein kinase 2 activity has been reported to be activated following Wnt signaling pathway activation. A Pertussis toxin- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casein_kinase_2

Casein kinase II, regulatory subunit (IPR000704) | InterPro | EMBL-EBICasein kinase II, regulatory subunit (IPR000704) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Casein kinase II, regulatory subunit (IPR000704). Short name: Casein_kinase_II_reg-sub ... Human phosvitin/casein kinase type II. Molecular cloning and sequencing of full-length cDNA encoding subunit beta.. Eur. J. ... Cloning and disruption of CKB1, the gene encoding the 38-kDa beta subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae casein kinase II (CKII). ... Cloning and disruption of CKB1, the gene encoding the 38-kDa beta subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae casein kinase II (CKII). ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR000704

Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II.  - PubMed - NCBIMyc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II. - PubMed - NCBI

Casein kinase II (CK-II) is a ubiquitous protein kinase, localized to both nucleus and cytoplasm, with strong specificity for ... Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II.. Lüscher B1, Kuenzel EA, Krebs EG, Eisenman RN. ... Our results, along with previous studies on myc deletion mutants, show that Myc is phosphorylated by CK-II, or a kinase with ... Since CK-II can be rapidly activated after mitogen treatment we postulate that CK-II mediated phosphorylation of Myc plays a ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2663470?dopt=Abstract

Casein kinase 2, alpha 1 - WikipediaCasein kinase 2, alpha 1 - Wikipedia

Casein kinase II subunit alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CSNK2A1 gene. Casein kinase II is a serine/ ... "Mapping of the human casein kinase II catalytic subunit genes: two loci carrying the homologous sequences for the alpha subunit ... Yamaguchi Y, Wada T, Suzuki F, Takagi T, Hasegawa J, Handa H (August 1998). "Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains ... Three transcript variants encoding two different proteins have been found for this gene. Casein kinase 2, alpha 1 has been ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casein_kinase_2,_alpha_1

Alfa Aesar Casein Kinase II Substrate 1mg:Electrophoresis, Western BlottingAlfa Aesar Casein Kinase II Substrate 1mg:Electrophoresis, Western Blotting

Alfa Aesar Casein Kinase II Substrate 1mg Electrophoresis, Western Blotting and ELISA:Western Blotting Reagents, Membranes, ...
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Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor -Pipeline Insight, 2018Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor -Pipeline Insight, 2018

6. Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor Pipeline Products in Non-clinical Stages 6.1 Drug Name : Company Name*Product Description ... 5. Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor Pipeline Products in Clinical Stages. 5.1 Drug Name : Company Name*Product Description ... Features the Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor pipeline across the complete product development cycle including all clinical and non- ... Table 3: Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor Therapeutic Products in Non-clinical Stages. Table 4: Pipeline Assessment by Route of ...
more infohttps://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/4382672/casein-kinase-2-inhibitor-pipeline-insight-2018

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Casein kinase II subunit beta - P67870 (CSK2B HUMAN)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Casein kinase II subunit beta - P67870 (CSK2B HUMAN)

However, besides these two, there are many other icons. For more information about the meaning and exact position of a sequence ... Tetramer composed of an alpha subunit, an alpha subunit and two beta subunits. The beta subunit dimerization is mediated by ... RCSB PDB (citation) is managed by two members of the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics: Rutgers and UCSD/ ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/B0UXA9

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Casein kinase II subunit alpha - P68400 (CSK21 HUMAN)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Casein kinase II subunit alpha - P68400 (CSK21 HUMAN)

Heterotetramer composed of two catalytic subunits (alpha chain and/or alpha chain) and two regulatory subunits (beta chains). ... However, besides these two, there are many other icons. For more information about the meaning and exact position of a sequence ... RCSB PDB (citation) is managed by two members of the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics: Rutgers and UCSD/ ... Catalytic subunit of a constitutively active serine/threonine-protein kinase complex that phosphorylates a large number of ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/P68400

Csnk2a2 casein kinase 2, alpha prime polypeptide [Mus musculus (house mouse)] - Gene - NCBICsnk2a2 casein kinase 2, alpha prime polypeptide [Mus musculus (house mouse)] - Gene - NCBI

casein kinase II subunit alpha. Names. CK II alpha. casein kinase II, alpha 2, polypeptide. NP_034104.1. *EC 2.7.11.1 ... XM_006530641.3 → XP_006530704.1 casein kinase II subunit alpha isoform X2. Conserved Domains (2) summary. cd14132. Location:22 ... NM_009974.3 → NP_034104.1 casein kinase II subunit alpha. See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_034104.1 ... XM_006530643.3 → XP_006530706.1 casein kinase II subunit alpha isoform X3. See identical proteins and their annotated ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/?term=13000

CSNK2A1 - Casein kinase II subunit alpha - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit) - CSNK2A1 gene & proteinCSNK2A1 - Casein kinase II subunit alpha - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit) - CSNK2A1 gene & protein

Regulates transcription by direct phosphorylation of RNA polymerases I, II, III and IV. Also phosphorylates and regulates ... Catalytic subunit of a constitutively active serine/threonine-protein kinase complex that phosphorylates a large number of ... IPR011009. Kinase-like_dom. IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... IPR011009. Kinase-like_dom. IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P33674

ACK2 - Casein kinase II subunit alpha - Zea mays (Maize) - ACK2 gene & proteinACK2 - Casein kinase II subunit alpha - Zea mays (Maize) - ACK2 gene & protein

Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. ... IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... Casein kinase II subunit alphaAdd BLAST. 332. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P28523

casein kinase II alpha Inhibitors | SCBT - Santa Cruz Biotechnologycasein kinase II alpha Inhibitors | SCBT - Santa Cruz Biotechnology

View and select products within our casein kinase II alpha Inhibitors category available for immediate purchase. ... Buy casein kinase II alpha Inhibitors from Santa Cruz. ... casein kinase II alpha Inhibitors. Casein kinase I (also ... and casein kinase II (also designated CKII) compose a family of serine/ threonine protein kinases which are present in all ... Biochemicals that inhibit casein kinase II alpha have many applications in biochemical and physiological research. Click on the ...
more infohttps://www.scbt.com/scbt/browse/casein-kinase-II-alpha-Inhibitors/_/N-1xapz7n

Casein Kinase 2, alpha 1 Polypeptide (CSNK2A1) AntikörperCasein Kinase 2, alpha 1 Polypeptide (CSNK2A1) Antikörper

Casein kinase II alpha subunit , casein kinase II, alpha 1 polypeptide , casein kinase II, alpha 1 related sequence 4 , Casein ... casein kinase II alpha 1 subunit , casein kinase II subunit alpha , protein kinase CK2 , casein kinase 2 alpha subunit , ck2 ... Casein kinase II is a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins such as casein. The kinase exists as ... casein kinase II subunit alpha-like , CK II alpha , casein kinase 2, alpha subunit , CK II , casein kinase II alpha subunit , ...
more infohttp://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/Casein+Kinase+2%2C+alpha+1+Polypeptide+

casein kinase II phosphorylation sitecasein kinase II phosphorylation site

Casein kinase II phosphorylates exposed Ser or sometimes Thr residues, provided that an acidic residue is present three ... casein kinase II phosphorylation site. Casein kinase II phosphorylates exposed Ser or sometimes Thr residues, provided that an ... PBB Summary section title = summary text = This gene encodes the beta subunit of casein kinase II, a ubiquitous protein kinase ... NUCKS1 - Nuclear casein kinase and cyclin dependent kinase substrate 1 Identifiers Symbols NUCKS1; FLJ21480; FLJ32016; FLJ38536 ...
more infohttp://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/en_molecular_biology/1098/casein

Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Casein kinase II subunit alpha (HMDBP01476)Human Metabolome Database: Showing Protein Casein kinase II subunit alpha' (HMDBP01476)

Showing Protein Casein kinase II subunit alpha (HMDBP01476). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein ... Involved in protein kinase activity. Specific Function. Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential ... subunits of casein kinase II. Biochemistry. 1990 Sep 11;29(36):8436-47. [PubMed:2174700 ] ... Daub H, Olsen JV, Bairlein M, Gnad F, Oppermann FS, Korner R, Greff Z, Keri G, Stemmann O, Mann M: Kinase-selective enrichment ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/proteins/HMDBP01476

Association of casein kinase 2 with nuclear chromatin in relation to androgenic regulation of rat prostate. | PNASAssociation of casein kinase 2 with nuclear chromatin in relation to androgenic regulation of rat prostate. | PNAS

Association of casein kinase 2 with nuclear chromatin in relation to androgenic regulation of rat prostate.. K Ahmed, S Yenice ... Casein kinase 2 (CK-2) is a ubiquitous messenger-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in growth ... Association of casein kinase 2 with nuclear chromatin in relation to androgenic regulation of rat prostate. ... Association of casein kinase 2 with nuclear chromatin in relation to androgenic regulation of rat prostate. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/90/10/4426?ijkey=7ae3e493747d51a2afc11ad9ba09130be5de61bd&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Valsartan Upregulates Kir2.1 in Rats Suffering from Myocardial Infarction via Casein Kinase 2. | Sigma-AldrichValsartan Upregulates Kir2.1 in Rats Suffering from Myocardial Infarction via Casein Kinase 2. | Sigma-Aldrich

Casein kinase 2 (CK2) binds and phosphorylates SP1, a transcription factor of KCNJ2 that encodes Kir2.1. Whether valsartan ... Valsartan Upregulates Kir2.1 in Rats Suffering from Myocardial Infarction via Casein Kinase 2.. [Xinran Li, Hesheng Hu, Ye Wang ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/26095682

Anti-Casein Kinase II, α-Subunit Mouse mAb (1AD9) | 218703Anti-Casein Kinase II, α-Subunit Mouse mAb (1AD9) | 218703

Anti-Casein Kinase II, α-Subunit, mouse monoclonal, clone 1AD9, recognizes the ~45 kDa CK2α subunit in F9 cells. It is ... Human Casein Kinase II (CK2, CK-II) is a serine-threonine-specific protein kinase comprised of two ~45 kDa catalytic (α) ... Sample: Recombinant casein kinase II α-Subunit. Primary antibody: Anti-Casein Kinase II, α-Subunit Mouse mAb (1AD9) (Cat. No. ... Sample: Recombinant casein kinase II α-Subunit. Primary antibody: Anti-Casein Kinase II, α-Subunit Mouse mAb (1AD9) (Cat. No. ...
more infohttp://www.emdmillipore.com/PR/en/product/Anti-Casein-Kinase-II-Subunit-Mouse-mAb-1AD9,EMD_BIO-218703

Recombinant Human casein kinase 2, alpha 1 polypeptide CSNK2A1-21H - Creative BioMartRecombinant Human casein kinase 2, alpha 1 polypeptide CSNK2A1-21H - Creative BioMart

Casein Kinase 2 is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. ... Recombinant Human Casein Kinase 2 alpha is a non-glycosylated polypeptide having a molecular mass of 45.1 kDa. ... casein kinase II alpha 1 subunit; protein kinase CK2; CK2 catalytic subunit alpha; EC 2.7.11.1; OTTHUMP00000029925; ... The alpha subunits have the catalytic kinase domain. Casein kinase 2 has been implicated in cell cycle control, DNA repair, ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_4034_17.htm

Casein Kinase II Regulates N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Activity in Spinal Cords and Pain Hypersensitivity Induced by Nerve...Casein Kinase II Regulates N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Activity in Spinal Cords and Pain Hypersensitivity Induced by Nerve...

casein kinase II. DRB. 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole 1-β-d-ribofuranoside. EPSC. excitatory postsynaptic current. mEPSC. miniature ... protein kinase A, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, or the Src tyrosine kinase (Pinna, 1990). The concentration of ... Casein Kinase II Regulates N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Activity in Spinal Cords and Pain Hypersensitivity Induced by Nerve ... 1999) Casein kinase-II regulates NMDA channel function in hippocampal neurons. Nat Neurosci 2:125-132. ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/350/2/301

Abstract 4371: Anti-leukemia effect of Casein Kinase II (CK2) inhibitors in vivo is mediated by the Ikaros tumor suppressor. |...Abstract 4371: Anti-leukemia effect of Casein Kinase II (CK2) inhibitors in vivo is mediated by the Ikaros tumor suppressor. |...

Abstract 4371: Anti-leukemia effect of Casein Kinase II (CK2) inhibitors in vivo is mediated by the Ikaros tumor suppressor.. ... An increase in the expression and activity of pro-oncogenic Casein Kinase II (CK2) is associated with the development of acute ... Abstract 4371: Anti-leukemia effect of Casein Kinase II (CK2) inhibitors in vivo is mediated by the Ikaros tumor suppressor. ... Anti-leukemia effect of Casein Kinase II (CK2) inhibitors in vivo is mediated by the Ikaros tumor suppressor. [abstract]. In: ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/73/8_Supplement/4371

Phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha in the C-terminal PEST domain by casein kinase II affects intrinsic protein stability. |...Phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha in the C-terminal PEST domain by casein kinase II affects intrinsic protein stability. |...

Phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha in the C-terminal PEST domain by casein kinase II affects intrinsic protein stability.. R Lin, ... Phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha in the C-terminal PEST domain by casein kinase II affects intrinsic protein stability. ... Phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha in the C-terminal PEST domain by casein kinase II affects intrinsic protein stability. ... Phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha in the C-terminal PEST domain by casein kinase II affects intrinsic protein stability. ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/16/4/1401?ijkey=2056cbee580e81ac0aa6a7fea5f45ea87adbd21a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Casein Kinase 2α Regulates Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 1 Function via Phosphorylation of Thr249 | Molecular...Casein Kinase 2α Regulates Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 1 Function via Phosphorylation of Thr249 | Molecular...

casein kinase 2. Ycf1p. yeast cadmium factor 1. Cka1p. yeast casein kinase CK2α. CHX. cycloheximide. DMAT. 2-dimethylamino-4,5, ... Casein Kinase 2α Regulates Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 1 Function via Phosphorylation of Thr249. Elzbieta I. ... CK2 is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase that forms a tetrameric complex of two catalytic (α and/or α′) and ... In this study, we explored whether casein kinase 2α (CK2α), the human homolog of Cka1p, regulates MRP1 by phosphorylation at ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/82/3/488.long

Casein kinase II mediates multiple phosphorylation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF-2 alpha (encoded by SUI2), which is required...Casein kinase II mediates multiple phosphorylation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF-2 alpha (encoded by SUI2), which is required...

Furthermore, yeast casein kinase II phosphorylates recombinant wild-type eIF-2 alpha protein in vitro but does not ... Casein kinase II mediates multiple phosphorylation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF-2 alpha (encoded by SUI2), which is required ... Casein kinase II mediates multiple phosphorylation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF-2 alpha (encoded by SUI2), which is required ... Casein kinase II mediates multiple phosphorylation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF-2 alpha (encoded by SUI2), which is required ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/14/8/5139?ijkey=4c6ee272bca45101b0fc42460186fea965535300&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  • Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor - Pipeline Insight, 2018' reportoffers comprehensive insights of the pipeline (under development) therapeutics scenario and growth prospects across Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor development. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Descriptive coverage of pipeline development activities for Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor - Pipeline therapeutics development coverage provides descriptive product profiles including (but not limited to) drug description, product development and R&D activities encompassing clinical and pre-clinical studies, designations, collaborations, licensing deals, grants, technologies and patent details. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The report assesses the active Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor pipeline products by developmental stage, product type, molecule type, and administration route. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The Casein Kinase II Inhibitor VIII controls the biological activity of Casein Kinase II. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Casein kinase, a ubiquitous well-conserved protein kinase involved in cell metabolism and differentiation, is characterised by its preference for Ser or Thr in acidic stretches of amino acids. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • We have used such peptides to map the phosphorylated regions in Myc and have located major CK-II phosphorylations within the central highly acidic domain and within a region proximal to the C terminus. (nih.gov)
  • Our results, along with previous studies on myc deletion mutants, show that Myc is phosphorylated by CK-II, or a kinase with similar specificity, in regions of functional importance. (nih.gov)
  • One- and two-dimensional mapping experiments demonstrate that the major phosphopeptides from in vivo phosphorylated Myc correspond to the phosphopeptides produced from Myc phosphorylated in vitro by CK-II. (nih.gov)
  • To further characterize the signaling events that contribute to IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, a kinase activity was isolated from Jurkat T cells that specifically interacted with IkappaBalpha in an affinity chromatography step and phosphorylated IkappaBalpha with high specificity in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Point mutation of residues T-291, S-283, and T-299 dramatically reduced phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha by the kinase in vitro. (asm.org)
  • We have found that a number of nuclear oncoproteins share a CK-II phosphorylation sequence motif, including Myc, Myb, Fos, E1a and SV40 T antigen. (nih.gov)
  • Title: Protein Kinase CK2 Controls the Fate between Th17 Cell and Regulatory T Cell Differentiation. (nih.gov)