A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A casein kinase I isoenzyme with specificity for proteins involved the regulation of the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a regulatory role in a variety of cellular functions including vesicular transport, CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION; CYTOKINESIS, developmental processes, and the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways including the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY, the CELL CYCLE, membrane trafficking, and RNA processing. Multiple isoforms of casein kinase I alpha exist and are due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An RNA polymerase II transcriptional inhibitor. This compound terminates transcription prematurely by selective inhibition of RNA synthesis. It is used in research to study underlying mechanisms of cellular regulation.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An egg yolk phosphoglycoprotein which contains about 90% of the yolk protein phosphorus. It is synthesized in the liver of the hen and transferred to the developing oocyte, where it is bound to lipoproteins within the yolk granules.
A condition when the SELLA TURCICA is not filled with pituitary tissue. The pituitary gland is either compressed, atrophied, or removed. There are two types: (1) primary empty sella is due a defect in the sella diaphragm leading to arachnoid herniation into the sellar space; (2) secondary empty sella is associated with the removal or treatment of PITUITARY NEOPLASMS.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
An enzyme that activates tyrosine with its specific transfer RNA. EC
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID, which inhibits 11-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts to restore EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 to its GTP bound form.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.

Phosphorylation of the DNA repair protein APE/REF-1 by CKII affects redox regulation of AP-1. (1/1209)

The DNA repair protein apurinic endonuclease (APE/Ref-1) exerts several physiological functions such as cleavage of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and redox regulation of the transcription factor AP-1, whose activation is part of the cellular response to DNA damaging treatments. Here we demonstrate that APE/Ref-1 is phosphorylated by casein kinase II (CKII). This was shown for both the recombinant APE/Ref-1 protein (Km=0.55 mM) and for APE/Ref-1 expressed in COS cells. Phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 did not alter the repair activity of the enzyme, whereas it stimulated its redox capability towards AP-1, thus promoting DNA binding activity of AP-1. Inhibition of CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 blocked mutagen-stimulated increase in AP-1 binding. It also abrogated the induction of c-Jun protein and rendered cells more sensitive to induced DNA damage. Thus, phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 appears to be involved in regulating the different physiological activities of the enzyme. CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 and concomitant increase in AP-1 binding activity appears to be a novel mechanism of cellular stress response, forcing transcription of AP-1 target gene(s) the product(s) of which may exert protective function.  (+info)

Allosteric regulation of even-skipped repression activity by phosphorylation. (2/1209)

The Drosophila homeodomain protein Even-skipped (Eve) is a well characterized transcriptional repressor. Here, we show that Eve's ability to function in vitro is negatively regulated by phosphorylation. DNA-binding activity was unaffected by phosphorylation, but phosphorylated Eve was unable to interact with the TATA-binding protein (TBP), a known target for repression. Unexpectedly, phosphorylation of the Eve N terminus, which is dispensable for repression and TBP binding, was necessary and sufficient to inactivate Eve. LiCl, which specifically inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), reduced Eve phosphorylation in nuclear extract and blocked inhibition of repression. In addition, Eve was phosphorylated and inactivated by purified GSK-3 beta plus casein kinase II. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of transcriptional control involving phosphorylation-induced allosteric interference with a repressive protein-protein interaction.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of yeast TBP by protein kinase CK2 reduces its specific binding to DNA. (3/1209)

Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous Ser/Thr kinase which phosphorylates a large number of proteins including several transcription factors. Recombinant Xenopus laevis CK2 phosphorylates both recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe TATA binding protein (TBP). The phosphorylation of TBP by CK2 reduces its binding activity to the TATA box. CK2 copurifies with the transcription factor IID (TFIID) complex from HeLa cell extracts and phosphorylates several of the TBP-associated factors within TFIID. Taken together these findings argue for a role of CK2 in the control of transcription by RNA polymerase II through the modulation of the binding activity of TBP to the TATA box.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38. (4/1209)

Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of CD45 by casein kinase 2. Modulation of activity and mutational analysis. (5/1209)

CD45 is a receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that is required for antigen-specific stimulation and proliferation in lymphocytes. This study was designed to determine the nature of specific kinases in lymphocytes that phosphorylate CD45 and to determine the effect of phosphorylation on CD45 PTP activity. A major cytoplasmic lymphocyte kinase that phosphorylated CD45 was identified as casein kinase 2 (CK2) by use of an in-gel kinase assay in combination with immunoprecipitation, immunodepletion, and specific inhibition. Mutational analysis of CK2 consensus sites showed that the target for CK2 was in an acidic insert of 19 amino acids in the D2 domain, and Ser to Ala mutations at amino acids 965, 968, 969, and 973 abrogated CK2 phosphorylation of CD45. CK2 phosphorylation increased CD45 activity 3-fold toward phosphorylated myelin basic protein, and this increase was reversible by PP2A treatment. Mutation of Ser to Glu at the CK2 sites had the same effect as phosphorylation and also tripled the Vmax of CD45. CD45 isolated in vivo was highly phosphorylated and could not be phosphorylated by CK2 without prior dephosphorylation with phosphatase PP2A. We conclude that CK2 is a major lymphocyte kinase that is responsible for in vivo phosphorylation of CD45, and phosphorylation at specific CK2 sites regulates CD45 PTP activity.  (+info)

A modulatory role for clathrin light chain phosphorylation in Golgi membrane protein localization during vegetative growth and during the mating response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/1209)

The role of clathrin light chain phosphorylation in regulating clathrin function has been examined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phosphorylation state of yeast clathrin light chain (Clc1p) in vivo was monitored by [32P]phosphate labeling and immunoprecipitation. Clc1p was phosphorylated in growing cells and also hyperphosphorylated upon activation of the mating response signal transduction pathway. Mating pheromone-stimulated hyperphosphorylation of Clc1p was dependent on the mating response signal transduction pathway MAP kinase Fus3p. Both basal and stimulated phosphorylation occurred exclusively on serines. Mutagenesis of Clc1p was used to map major phosphorylation sites to serines 52 and 112, but conversion of all 14 serines in Clc1p to alanines [S(all)A] was necessary to eliminate phosphorylation. Cells expressing the S(all)A mutant Clc1p displayed no defects in Clc1p binding to clathrin heavy chain, clathrin trimer stability, sorting of a soluble vacuolar protein, or receptor-mediated endocytosis of mating pheromone. However, the trans-Golgi network membrane protein Kex2p was not optimally localized in mutant cells. Furthermore, pheromone treatment exacerbated the Kex2p localization defect and caused a corresponding defect in Kex2p-mediated maturation of the alpha-factor precursor. The results reveal a novel requirement for clathrin during the mating response and suggest that phosphorylation of the light chain subunit modulates the activity of clathrin at the trans-Golgi network.  (+info)

Antisense expression of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene in Arabidopsis. Effects on light-regulated gene expression and plant growth. (7/1209)

The protein kinase CK2 (formerly casein kinase II) is thought to be involved in light-regulated gene expression in plants because of its ability to phosphorylate transcription factors that bind to the promoter regions of light-regulated genes in vitro. To address this possibility in vivo and to learn more about the potential physiological roles of CK2 in plants, we transformed Arabidopsis with an antisense construct of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene and investigated both morphological and molecular phenotypes. Antisense transformants had a smaller adult leaf size and showed increased expression of chs in darkness and of cab and rbcS after red-light treatment. The latter molecular phenotype implied that CK2 might serve as one of several negative and quantitative effectors in light-regulated gene expression. The possible mechanism of CK2 action and its involvement in the phytochrome signal transduction pathway are discussed.  (+info)

Nuclear matrix targeting of the protein kinase CK2 signal as a common downstream response to androgen or growth factor stimulation of prostate cancer cells. (8/1209)

Protein kinase CK2, a messenger-independent serine/threonine kinase, has been implicated in cell growth. Androgenic stimulus in rat prostate modulates its association with nuclear matrix (NM) and chromatin. Because the growth of human prostate carcinoma cells is influenced by androgens and/or growth factors, we determined the nature of CK2 signaling in the NM in response to androgen and growth factor stimuli. Androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-insensitive PC-3 cells were cultured in media to regulate their growth in the presence of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT) or growth factors (epidermal growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor, and transforming growth factor alpha). The activity of CK2 was measured in the cytosolic and NM fractions isolated from these cells after treatment with growth stimuli. The changes in CK2 in various fractions were also confirmed by immunoblotting with a specific antibody. LNCaP cells responded to both 5alpha-DHT and growth factors for growth. The presence of these agents in the culture medium evoked a translocation of CK2 to the NM from the cytosol. The PC-3 cells did not respond to 5alpha-DHT for growth but did respond to growth factors. Under these conditions, there was also a translocation of CK2 to the NM concomitant with a decrease in the cytosolic fraction. These results suggest that CK2 translocation to the NM occurs in response to various growth stimuli in cells in culture. Thus, CK2 is a common downstream signal transducer in response to diverse growth stimuli that may relate to the pathobiology of prostate cancer cells.  (+info)

The symptoms of ESS can vary depending on the specific hormone deficiency present and may include:

1. Growth retardation in children
2. Short stature as an adult
3. Delayed puberty or irregular menstrual cycles in females
4. Hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels)
5. Adrenal insufficiency (low cortisol levels)
6. Infertility or irregular menstrual cycles in females
7. Erectile dysfunction or decreased libido in males
8. Fatigue, weakness, and malaise
9. Headaches, vision problems, or other symptoms related to hormone deficiencies.

The exact cause of empty sella syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some cases have been linked to a family history of the condition, while others may be caused by a tumor or other structural abnormality in the pituitary gland.

There is no specific treatment for empty sella syndrome, but hormone replacement therapy may be recommended to treat any underlying hormone deficiencies. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a tumor or other structural abnormality in the pituitary gland. The prognosis for ESS varies depending on the specific cause of the condition and the presence of any underlying hormone deficiencies. With appropriate treatment, many individuals with ESS can lead normal lives, but some may experience ongoing symptoms or complications related to hormone deficiencies.

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Ubeda M, Habener JF (October 2003). "CHOP transcription factor phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 inhibits transcriptional ... which then activates the downstream kinases, Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), ... Those processes are mainly regulated by three factors: protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), activating ... double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) iron deficiency through heme-regulated inhibitor kinase (HRI) stress from ...
Xu, X.; Toselli, P. A.; Russell, L. D.; Seldin, D. C. (1999-09-01). "Globozoospermia in mice lacking the casein kinase II alpha ... There are two types of globozoospermia: Type 1 globozoospermia exhibits a complete lack of acrosome and acrosomal enzymes and ... however it is unclear whether these two forms are variations on the same syndrome, or actually different syndromes. Infertility ... doi:10.1007/s10815-015-0433-2. ISSN 1058-0468. PMC 4380889. PMID 25711835. Dam, A. H. D. M.; Feenstra, I.; Westphal, J. R.; ...
Li D, Meier UT, Dobrowolska G, Krebs EG (1997). "Specific interaction between casein kinase 2 and the nucleolar protein Nopp140 ... Pai CY, Yeh NH (1996). "Cell proliferation-dependent expression of two isoforms of the nucleolar phosphoprotein p130". Biochem ... Chiu CM, Tsay YG, Chang CJ, Lee SC (2002). "Nopp140 is a mediator of the protein kinase A signaling pathway that activates the ... 142 (2): 319-29. doi:10.1083/jcb.142.2.319. ISSN 0021-9525. PMC 2133063. PMID 9679133. Miau, L H; Chang C J; Shen B J; Tsai W H ...
... is a target of phosphorylation by Casein kinase 2 (CK2). In addition, multiple phosphorylation sites are found by high ... Two resultant protein products of the JADE1 gene were designated JADE1S for the short (which is same as(3)) and JADE1L for the ... "Casein kinase 1 α phosphorylates the Wnt regulator Jade-1 and modulates its activity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 289 ... There are two known protein products of the PHF17 gene, the full length JADE1 (JADE1L) and its splice variant missing the C- ...
Cala SE, Jones LR (January 1991). "Phosphorylation of cardiac and skeletal muscle calsequestrin isoforms by casein kinase II. ... Both forms of calsequestrin are phosphorylated by casein kinase 2, but the cardiac form is phosphorylated more rapidly and to a ... Two forms of calsequestrin have been identified. The cardiac form Calsequestrin-2 (CASQ2) is present in cardiac and slow ... In addition, the hydrophobic core of domain II appears to be necessary for CASQ2's function, because a single amino acid ...
Casein kinase II phosphorylates the protein on its serine at position 184. The function of StarD10 in the cell is not yet ... "Phosphorylation of StarD10 on serine 284 by casein kinase II modulates its lipid transfer activity". The Journal of Biological ... "Phosphorylation of StarD10 on serine 284 by casein kinase II modulates its lipid transfer activity". The Journal of Biological ... 3.0.CO;2-P. PMID 9610721. "Entrez Gene: STARD10 START domain containing 10". Olayioye MA, Vehring S, Müller P, Herrmann A, ...
... and Ser91 by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and Ser66 by casein kinase II (CKII). Phosphorylation of these residues (Ser66 in ... "Activation of mammalian DNA ligase I through phosphorylation by casein kinase II". The EMBO Journal. 11 (8): 2925-33. doi: ... "Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of human DNA ligase I at the cyclin-dependent kinase sites". The Journal of Biological ... 282 (2): e1-e3. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(20)73504-0. Ferrari G, Rossi R, Arosio D, Vindigni A, Biamonti G, Montecucco A ( ...
HNRPA2B1 has been shown to interact with casein kinase 2, alpha 1. The mutation p.D290V/302V in hnRNPA2B1 is implicated in ... The protein encoded by this gene has two repeats of quasi-RRM domains that bind to RNAs. This gene has been described to ... Bauw G, Rasmussen HH, van den Bulcke M, van Damme J, Puype M, Gesser B, Celis JE, Vandekerckhove J (1990). "Two-dimensional gel ... Biamonti G, Ruggiu M, Saccone S, Della Valle G, Riva S (August 1994). "Two homologous genes, originated by duplication, encode ...
Yamaguchi Y, Wada T, Suzuki F, Takagi T, Hasegawa J, Handa H (August 1998). "Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains ... It can also activate Src-family kinases through its GFRα1 receptor. The most prominent feature of GDNF is its ability to ... The association between GDNF and NCAM results in the activation of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases Fyn and FAK. GDNF has ... June 1996). "GDNF-induced activation of the ret protein tyrosine kinase is mediated by GDNFR-alpha, a novel receptor for GDNF ...
... (INN), codenamed CX-4945, is a small-molecule inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase II), a ... 2017). "Casein Kinase II (CK2) as a Therapeutic Target for Hematological Malignancies". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 23 (1): ... "The casein kinase 2 inhibitor, CX-4945, as an anti-cancer drug in treatment of human hematological malignancies". Frontiers in ... the phosphorylase activity of casein kinase 2 (CK2) is increased resulting in phosphorylation of several cytoskeletal proteins ...
Yamaguchi Y, Wada T, Suzuki F, Takagi T, Hasegawa J, Handa H (August 1998). "Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 ( ... a new MAP kinase-activated protein kinase, isolated by a novel expression screening method for identifying protein kinase ... Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, CSNK2A2, JDP2, MAPK14, MAPK8, Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 NCOA6, ...
2017). "Casein Kinase II (CK2) as a Therapeutic Target for Hematological Malignancies". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 23 (1): ... Two mathematical models have been proposed, attempting to explain the emergence of this hybrid E/M phenotype, and its highly ... Zou J, Luo H, Zeng Q, Dong Z, Wu D, Liu L (June 2011). "Protein kinase CK2α is overexpressed in colorectal cancer and modulates ... Silmitasertib (CX-4945) is a small molecule inhibitor of protein kinase CK2, which has been supported to be linked with TGF-β ...
Kim JM, Cha JY, Marshak DR, Bae YS (1996). "Interaction of the beta subunit of casein kinase II with the ribosomal protein L5 ... Kim JM, Cha JY, Marshak DR, Bae YS (September 1996). "Interaction of the beta subunit of casein kinase II with the ribosomal ... The protein interacts specifically with the beta subunit of casein kinase 2. Variable expression of this gene in colorectal ... Boldyreff B, Issinger OG (February 1997). "A-Raf kinase is a new interacting partner of protein kinase CK2 beta subunit". FEBS ...
... position 375 of VP16 is critical for complex assembly with Oct-1 and HCF and is a target of phosphorylation by casein kinase II ... from the Yeast Two-Hybrid System to the Mammalian Split-Luciferase System". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 76 (2 ...
Hino S, Michiue T, Asashima M, Kikuchi A (April 2003). "Casein kinase I epsilon enhances the binding of Dvl-1 to Frat-1 and is ... Swiatek W, Tsai IC, Klimowski L, Pepler A, Barnette J, Yost HJ, Virshup DM (March 2004). "Regulation of casein kinase I epsilon ... 183 (2): 234-42. doi:10.1006/dbio.1997.8502. PMID 9126297. Pashirzad M, Fiuji H, Khazei M, Moradi-Binabaj M, Ryzhikov M, ... 20 (2): 373-7. doi:10.3892/ijo.20.2.373. PMID 11788904. Katoh M (March 2002). "Molecular cloning and expression of mouse Wnt14 ...
... angiotensin II - angiotensin receptor - ankyrin - annexin II - antibiotic - antibody - apoenzyme - apolipoprotein - apoptosis ... ribosomal protein S6 kinase - ribosome - RNA - RNA virus - RNA-binding protein - RNA-directed DNA polymerase - rod outer ... casein - catabolism - catalyst - catalytic domain - CCR5 receptor - CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein ... kinase - kinesin - kinetic energy - kinetic exclusion assay - kinetics - knock-out mouse - Krebs cycle lactalbumin - lactic ...
... is a drug developed by Pfizer which acts as a selective inhibitor of the enzyme Casein kinase 1 epsilon (CK1-ε), and ... Etchegaray JP, Yu EA, Indic P, Dallmann R, Weaver DR (April 2010). Yamazaki S (ed.). "Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1delta) ... August 2009). "Selective inhibition of casein kinase 1 epsilon minimally alters circadian clock period". The Journal of ... May 2009). "A role for casein kinase 1 epsilon in the locomotor stimulant response to methamphetamine". Psychopharmacology. 203 ...
NS1 specifically targets and degrades the microfilament tropomyosin using casein kinase II, actin filaments through activation ... mda-7 interacts with two of the type II cytokine hetero-dymeric receptor complexes IL-20R1/IL-20R2 and IL-22R1/IL-20R2. It has ... interacts with kinases including serine/threonine protein kinase (PKR). Further studies will need to be performed to better ... One of the two molecules of this complex is multimeric alpha lactalbumin (MAL) (Figure 3), which was first discovered during a ...
Russo GL, Vandenberg MT, Yu IJ, Bae YS, Franza BR, Marshak DR (1992). "Casein kinase II phosphorylates p34cdc2 kinase in G1 ... Cdk1 is comprised mostly by the bare protein kinase motif, which other protein kinases share. Cdk1, like other kinases, ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that ... Evidence for two cooperative binding domains in p9CKShs2". Eur. J. Biochem. 203 (3): 353-360. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1992. ...
"Casein kinase II phosphorylation of cyclin F at serine 621 regulates the Lys48-ubiquitylation E3 ligase activity of the SCF ( ... Skp2 binds p27Kip1 only when two conditions are met: p27Kip1 is phosphorylated by E/A/CKD2 and bound to Cks1. As a consequence ... βTRCP recognizes these substrates after they are phosphorylated by Polo-like kinase 1 or Cyclin B-CDK1. Fbw7, which is the ... Schwob, E (1994-10-21). "The B-type cyclin kinase inhibitor p40SIC1 controls the G1 to S transition in S. cerevisiae". Cell. 79 ...
This PER/CRY complex moves into the nucleus upon phosphorylation by CK1-epsilon (casein kinase 1 epsilon) and inhibits the CLK/ ... Two years later, Albrecht et al. found genetic evidence to support this result when they discovered that mPer1 mutants are not ... "Nuclear entry of the circadian regulator mPER1 is controlled by mammalian casein kinase I epsilon". Molecular Cell Biology. 20 ... CRY has two human homologs, CRY1 and CRY2. A computational model for model has been developed by Jean-Christophe Leloup and ...
Two of the reviews postulate that exercise is not essential for the development of symptoms, but rather that it is one of ... In addition to tropomyosin, arginine kinase and hemocyanin seem to have a role in cross-reactivity to dust mites. Exercise can ... "Casein (milk)," or as an alternative, there must be a statement separate but adjacent to the ingredients list: "Contains milk ... Some will display both, so that a child could react to an oral food challenge with allergic symptoms, followed a day or two ...
Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". FEBS ... Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. In melanocytic cells CHKA gene expression ... Spanner S, Ansell GB (1979). "Choline kinase and ethanolamine kinase activity in the cytosol of nerve endings from rat ... Choline kinase alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CHKA gene. The major pathway for the biosynthesis of ...
... by casein kinase II and protein kinase c, respectively. ERICH4 is not predicted to be undergo a methionine cleavage or ... Ethan Wolf, Peter S. Kim, and Bonnie Berger (June 1997). "MultiCoil: A Program for Predicting Two- and Three-Stranded Coiled ... 127 (2): 261-266. doi:10.1242/jcs.132605. PMID 24421309. Zhou M, McPherson L, Feng D, Song A, Dong C, Lyu SC, Zhou L, Shi X, ... ERICH4 is located on the sense strand of 19q13.2 in humans, consists of 2,340 base pairs, and contains 2 exons. ERICH4, on the ...
Meggio F, Brunati AM, Pinna LA (1987). "Polycation-dependent, Ca2+-antagonized phosphorylation of calmodulin by casein kinase-2 ... Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase FER is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FER gene. Fer protein is a member of ... 2000). "FER kinase activation of Stat3 is determined by the N-terminal sequence". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (37): 28902-10. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: FER fer (fps/fes related) tyrosine kinase (phosphoprotein NCP94)". Schwartz, Y; Ben-Dor I; Navon A; Motro B; Nir U ...
He and his colleagues genetically increased the Casein Kinase 1 levels and found that the period was restored when Casein ... They examined two mutations (created by inversion of a part of the prd-2 gene) and found that these mutations drastically ... They concluded that the circadian period is dependent on Casein Kinase 1 levels. During Dunlap's time at Santa Cruz, one of the ... In his most recent work, Dunlap's lab examined regulators of the mRNAs encoding the Casein Kinase 1 protein; one such regulator ...
Collagen XVII is extracellularly phosphorylated by ecto-casein kinase 2 within the NC16A domain, phosphorylation negatively ... Two homotrimeric forms of type XVII collagen exist. The full length form is the transmembrane protein. A soluble form, referred ... "Extracellular phosphorylation of collagen XVII by ecto-casein kinase 2 inhibits ectodomain shedding". J Biol Chem. 282 (31): ... 1998). "Two forms of collagen XVII in keratinocytes. A full-length transmembrane protein and a soluble ectodomain". J. Biol. ...
Jin YJ, Burakoff SJ (1993). "The 25-kDa FK506-binding protein is localized in the nucleus and associates with casein kinase II ... 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Meng X, Chen J, Yang Q, Wang S, Chao Y, Ying K, Xie Y, Mao ... 184 (2): 733-8. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(92)90651-Z. PMID 1374240. Porat R, Poutsiaka DD, Miller LC, Granowitz EV, Dinarello CA ( ... 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano ...
... casein kinase 2 (CK2), and protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation sites, O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine sites, and a ... with two introns near the start codon. There are no alternative splicings of the LOC100287387 gene (isoforms). The LOC100287387 ... a Tool to Predict Kinase-specific Phosphorylation Sites in Hierarchy". Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. 7 (9): 1598-1608. doi: ... The gene is located on the q arm of chromosome 2. The human LOC100287387 gene is located on the minus strand of the q arm of ...
Casein kinase 1, a growth factor-activated protein kinase, also phosphorylates and potentiates FOXO1 and translocates FOXO1 to ... Rena G, Woods YL, Prescott AR, Peggie M, Unterman TG, Williams MR, Cohen P (May 2002). "Two novel phosphorylation sites on FKHR ... Guo S, Rena G, Cichy S, He X, Cohen P, Unterman T (June 1999). "Phosphorylation of serine 256 by protein kinase B disrupts ... The transcription and half- life of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIP1 rises when FOXO1 is active. A study detects that ...
"Phosphorylation of C8 and C9 subunits of the multicatalytic proteinase by casein kinase II and identification of the C8 ... This barrel-shaped core structure is composed of 4 axially stacked rings of 28 non-identical subunits: the two end rings are ... The proteolytic capacity of 20S core particle (CP) can be activated when CP associates with one or two regulatory particles (RP ... The proteasome and its subunits are of clinical significance for at least two reasons: (1) a compromised complex assembly or a ...
... activates the cyclin dependent kinase CDC2 by removing two phosphate groups and it is required for entry into mitosis. ... CDC25B has been shown to interact with MAPK14, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CHEK1, MELK, Estrogen receptor alpha, YWHAB, YWHAZ, ... Booher RN, Holman PS, Fattaey A (1997). "Human Myt1 is a cell cycle-regulated kinase that inhibits Cdc2 but not Cdk2 activity ... 1993). "Dephosphorylation of human p34cdc2 kinase on both Thr-14 and Tyr-15 by human cdc25B phosphatase". FEBS Lett. 318 (3): ...
Casein kinase 1 (CK1) inhibition has been identified by Facio Therapies, a Dutch pharmaceutical company, to repress DUX4 ... The two sides of the body are often affected unequally. Weakness typically manifests at ages 15 - 30 years. FSHD can also cause ... Creatine kinase (CK) blood level is often ordered when muscle damage is suspected. CK is an enzyme found in muscle, leaking ... Initially, FSHD1 and FSHD2 were described as two separate genetic causes of the same disease. However, they can also be viewed ...
If there is an excess in the amount of tannins in the wine, winemakers can use various fining agents like albumin, casein and ... This large group of natural phenols can be broadly separated into two categories, flavonoids and non-flavonoids. Flavonoids ... 126 (2): 524-35. doi:10.1104/pp.126.2.524. PMC 111146. PMID 11402184. J. Robinson (ed), "The Oxford Companion to Wine". Third ... 8 (2): 1489. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1489. Halliwell B (2007). "Dietary polyphenols: Good, bad, or indifferent for your health ...
Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, DAB2, eNOS, FOXO4, MPHOSPH1, MYT1, Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2, Mothers against ... Albert A, Lavoie S, Vincent M (Aug 1999). "A hyperphosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II is the major interphase antigen of ... Pin1 activity regulates the outcome of proline-directed kinase (e.g. MAPK, CDK or GSK3) signalling and consequently regulates ... "The C-terminal domain of the Cdc2 inhibitory kinase Myt1 interacts with Cdc2 complexes and is required for inhibition of G(2)/M ...
Kasahara H, Izumo S (January 1999). "Identification of the in vivo casein kinase II phosphorylation site within the homeodomain ... Kim YH, Choi CY, Lee SJ, Conti MA, Kim Y (October 1998). "Homeodomain-interacting protein kinases, a novel family of co- ... Watanabe Y, Benson DW, Yano S, Akagi T, Yoshino M, Murray JC (November 2002). "Two novel frameshift mutations in NKX2.5 result ... 178 (2): 203-16. doi:10.1006/dbio.1996.0212. PMID 8812123. Li J, Cao Y, Wu Y, Chen W, Yuan Y, Ma X, Huang G (December 2015). " ...
... casein kinase II, Rac3, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 3, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated ... STE20-related kinase adaptor protein α, RhoI, Klotho, N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase V, B-Raf proto-oncogene, casein kinase 2 ... Shin YJ, Kim YB, Kim JH (September 2013). "Protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates and activates p21-activated kinase 1". Molecular ... "PAK1 kinase promotes cell motility and invasiveness through CRK-II serine phosphorylation in non-small cell lung cancer cells ...
Alpha-S1-casein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CSN1S1 gene. CSN1S1 has been shown to interact with SAP130. ... Creasy CL, Chernoff J (1995). "Cloning and characterization of a human protein kinase with homology to Ste20". J. Biol. Chem. ... Murakami K, Lagarde M, Yuki Y (1999). "Identification of minor proteins of human colostrum and mature milk by two-dimensional ... "Entrez Gene: CSN1S1 casein alpha s1". Menon, Suchithra; Tsuge Tomohiko; Dohmae Naoshi; Takio Koji; Wei Ning (2008). " ...
... it directly interacts with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and is phosphorylated at casein kinase II (CKII) sites. The human homolog ... It was first identified during a search for RNA polymerase II-associated elongation factors in yeast; ... "RNA polymerase II elongation factors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a targeted proteomics approach". Molecular and Cellular ... 21 (2): 160-74. doi:10.1101/gad.1503107. PMC 1770899. PMID 17234882. v t e (Genes on human chromosome 2, All stub articles, ...
"The AP-3 complex required for endosomal synaptic vesicle biogenesis is associated with a casein kinase Ialpha-like isoform". ... 301 (2): 502-8. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)03010-3. PMID 12565890. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et al. (2004). "Complete ... AP-3 complex subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP3B2 gene. GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: AP3B2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit". Human AP3B2 genome location and AP3B2 gene details page ...
Additionally, Ser568 has been seen to be phosphorylated by casein kinase 1, inhibiting CTP synthase activity. CTP is also ... Two isozymes with CTP synthase activity exist in humans, encoded by the following genes: CTPS - CTP synthase 1 CTPS2 - CTP ... One major example of this is phosphorylation of the Ser-571 residue by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) in response to low ... The enzyme contains two major domains, responsible for the aminotransferase and synthase activity, respectively. The ...
Casein Kinase 2). Cancer Res. 2004, 64, 7127-7129. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version] ... Fourth, since the two major routes of elimination for CPPs are the kidney and liver, analysis of toxicity of a CPP-based ... It is likely that transduction is a two-step process, with the first step being electrostatic interaction of non-specific CPPs ... For example, the pathogenic bacteria Yersinia enterocolitica encodes for the anti-inflammatory protein YopM with two alpha ...
Phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha in the C-terminal PEST domain by casein kinase II affects intrinsic protein stability. Mol. ... phosphorylation of lysine residues by casein kinase II is associated with increased protein stability (DiDonato et al., 1996; ... Therefore, IL-1β exerts two effects on the life-death balance in hepatocytes: It shifts hepatocytes to a mitochondrial type II ... 2008). Switch from type II to I Fas/CD95 death signaling on in vitro culturing of primary hepatocytes. Hepatology (Baltimore, ...
Also, the activity of casein kinase II (CK2) and the phosphorylation of Bid, a downstream substrate of CK2 and a proapoptotic ... The different effects in these two cell lines were attributed to Erα protein, which is initiated by estrogen and supports the ... In Hep G2 cell line, 10-40 μM aloe emodin upregulated the metastasis suppressor nucleoside diphosphate kinase A (nm23) in a ... L. Zhang, Y. K. Lau, W. Xia, G. N. Hortobagyi, and M. C. Hung, "Tyrosine kinase inhibitor emodin suppresses growth of HER-2/neu ...
Casein kinase (2) Caspase (11) Caspase 1 (2) Caspase 3 (5) Caspase 8 (2) ...
Phosphorylation site motif analyses implicate casein kinase II and calcium/calmodulin dependent kinases among the primary light ... transition kinases. The comparative analysis of the diurnal proteome and diurnal and circadian transcriptome established how ... 3Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, IBG-2: Plant Sciences, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany ... 3Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, IBG-2: Plant Sciences, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany ...
A1 receptor; A2A receptor; A2B receptor; A3 receptor; Adenosine deaminase; Adenosine kinase; Equilibrative nucleoside ... phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type 2 alpha; phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type 2 beta... click on ligand to see complete list ... Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3; Sodium/nucleoside cotransporter 2; ribonucleotide reductase catalytic subunit M1; ... Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1; Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2; Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3; Sodium/ ...
... that contains two potential phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C and seven for casein kinase 2. GAIP shows high homology ... Interaction between the two domains of ARD1 required two negatively charged residues (Asp427 and Glu428) located in the ... Rhodopsin kinase (GRK1) L166K mutant at 2.5A resolution. 3uzs. Structure of the C13.28 RNA Aptamer Bound to the G Protein- ... Bovine G Protein Coupled Receptor Kinase 1 in Complex with Paroxetine. 4mk0. Crystal structure of G protein-coupled receptor ...
D12.776.476.150.299.300 Casein Kinase II D12.644.360.150.600 Casein Kinases D12.644.360.150 CD4 Lymphocyte Count E1.450.375.107 ... D2.33.755.624.698.207 Casein Kinase I D12.644.360.150.300 D5.500.117.750 D12.776.476.150.300 D12.776.476.81.750 D12.776.476.150 ... D12.776.476.150.299.100 Casein Kinase Idelta D12.644.360.150.300.200 D5.500.117.750.200 D12.776.476.150.300.200 D12.776.476.81. ... 750.200 D12.776.476.150.299.200 Casein Kinase Iepsilon D12.644.360.150.300.300 D5.500.117.750.300 D12.776.476.150.300.300 ...
Previous studies on protein kinase C and casein kinase 2 substrates in neurons 2 (PACSIN2), a known regulator of endocytosis ... This includes two-loop thermal corrections to scalar and Debye masses as well as one-loop thermal corrections to couplings. ... The overall PAF for male ICC was almost two times higher than the female one. For ECC and ampullary cancer, infection of bile ... S. aureus and E. faecalis showed more attachment to Ti grade 2, whereas S. mutans showed higher adherence to PLA in a ...
Casein Kinase II (CKII) phosphorylates ENaC. The CKII phosphorylation site in ENaC resides within a canonical "anchor" ankyrin ... Mechanisms and consequences of casein kinase II and ankyrin-3 regulation of the epithelial Na+ channel. ... Anquirinas/fisiologia , Caseína Quinase II/fisiologia , Canais Epiteliais de Sódio/fisiologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , ... We present case reports of two patients treated with miltefosine for mucocutaneous leishmaniasis whose gastrointestinal ...
Casein Kinase II Entry term(s):. 2alpha, Casein Kinase. Casein Kinase 2. Casein Kinase 2 alpha Subunit. Casein Kinase 2 alpha ... 2alpha, Casein Kinase Casein Kinase 2alpha Kinase 2alpha, Casein Casein Kinase 2 beta Subunit - Narrower Concept UI. ... Casein Kinase 2alpha. Casein Kinase 2alpha. Casein Kinase TS. Casein Kinase-2. Kinase 2alpha, Casein. Kinase CKII, Protein. ... Casein Kinase II - Preferred Concept UI. M0232027. Scope note. A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct ...
CSNK2B ; CK2N ; G5A ; Casein kinase II subunit beta ; CK II beta ; Phosvitin ; Protein G5a. ... Synthesized peptide derived from human Casein Kinase IIβ around the non-phosphorylation site of S209. ... Address Line 2. City. State / Province / Region. ZIP / Postal Code. Afghanistan. Albania. Algeria. American Samoa. Andorra. ... Address Line 2. City. State / Province / Region. ZIP / Postal Code. Afghanistan. Albania. Algeria. American Samoa. Andorra. ...
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casein kinase II1. *CK21. *coronavirus disease 20191. *COVID-191 ... In Brief SARS-CoV-2, the betacoronavirus that caused the COVID- ... Proteomics-Based Insights Into the SARS-CoV-2-Mediated COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review of the First Year of Research. Molecular & ...
... of patients receiving the dual oral inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3 kinase delta and casein kinase 1 epsilon. These adverse ... "Because of the seriousness of this safety concern and the similarities between the two types of cancer for which this drug is ... The FDA granted accelerated approval to umbralisib in February 2021 for patients with two types of lymphoma: adults with ... However, the phase 2 trial that led to February 2021 approvals found the drugs safety profile to be "manageable," with serious ...
The protein interacts specifically with the beta subunit of casein kinase II. Variable expression of this gene in colorectal ... SARS-CoV-2 SARS-CoV-2 IVD. SARS-CoV-2 ELISA Kit. Raw materials for IVD. SARS-CoV-2 Recombinant Proteins. SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies ... SARS-CoV-2 ELISA Kit ELISA Kits Food Safety Kits Metabolism Assays Labeling Kits Cell Products. Cell Culture Cell Apoptosis ... SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test TUNEL Assay Kit Immunology Related Reagents Antibodies. Flow Cytometry Antibodies Polyclonal ...
Also an ideal substrate for protein kinase A and casein kinase II. Thought to be involved in the targeting of PP1 to RNA- ... Also an ideal substrate for protein kinase A and casein kinase II. Thought to be involved in the targeting of PP1 to RNA- ...
Casein Kinase II. *Catheter Ablation. *Catheterization. *Cattle. *Caveolin 1. *Caveolin 2. *Caveolins ...
C. elegans KIN-10 protein; contains similarity to Pfam domain PF01214 Casein kinase II regulatory subunitcontains similarity to ...
Phosphorylation of DARPP-32, a dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, by casein kinase II.. J Biol Chem. 264(36):21748-59 ... Protein kinases and phosphoproteins in the nervous system.. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis. 64:47-69.*PubMed ... Specificity of protein kinase inhibitor peptides and induction of long-term potentiation.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 91(11): ... Stimulus-dependent phosphorylation of MacMARCKS, a protein kinase C substrate, in nerve termini and PC12 cells.. J Biol Chem. ...
Top CK2 acronym meaning: Casein Kinase 2 Early on its true but they have done that on purpose along with them having better ... Proteiinkinaas CK2 (EC, tuntud ka kui kaseiinkinaas II, on seriini/treoniini proteiinkinaas, mis on laialt levinud ... Avoid cell death acronym meaning: Casein kinase 2 Looking ck2 han starts online definition of and... Fix bugs! ) ve got a ... 2. Time for the next game I … So if you start at any bookmark after Ogdei Khan becomes children of a genius parent can inherit ...
Casein Kinase 1 Coordinates Cohesin Cleavage, Gametogenesis, and Exit from M Phase in Meiosis II ...
Polymorphisms of casein kinase I gamma 2 gene associated with simple febrile seizures in Chinese Han population. Neuroscience ... letters 2004 Sep 368 (1): 2-6. Yinan Ma, Yu Qi, Zhiyue Chen, Jianjun Lu, Lie Hao, Liping Zou, Jianhui Zhang, Fang Sun, Dingfang ...
... and some studies have suggested casein kinase 2, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, and estrogen signaling can modulate the ... This is article two in a series of four articles about Dr. Mouldens life work.. As a physician and PhD researcher, he raised ... In fact, between the ages of 37 and 43, I was pregnant four times and two of them went full-term. But one of those full-term ... My son has been having trouble medically since he received two DTaP shots (yes 2) in the ER back in August. That was 11 months ...
Protein Kinase Inhibitors *Casein Kinase 2. *EGFR Kinase. *VEGFR. *Multi Kinase. *Histone Deacetylase ... SARS-CoV-2 Targeted Libraries *SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Targeted Library ...
High Expression of Casein Kinase 2 Alpha Is Responsible for Enhanced Phosphorylation of DNA Mismatch Repair Protein MLH1 and ... Frontiers in genetics 2022 2 12 755629. Xie Zhengyong, Ke Yongli, Chen Junyong, Li Zehang, Wang Changzheng, Chen Yuhong, Ding ... Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc 2023 2 36 (2): 100012. ... GE Portuguese journal of gastroenterology 2022 2 29 (1): 13-21. Frias-Gomes Catarina, Sousa Ana Carla, Rolim Inês, Henriques ...
Dixit, D and Sharma, V and Ghosh, S and Mehta, VS and Sen, Ellora (2012) Inhibition of Casein kinase-2 induces p53-dependent ... Ghosh, S and Gupta, P and Sen, Ellora (2016) TNFα driven HIF-1α-hexokinase II axis regulates MHC-I cluster stability through ... miR-217-casein kinase-2 cross talk regulates ERK activation in ganglioglioma. J Mol Med (Berl), 95 (11). pp. 1215-1226. ... Effects of a Tripeptide on Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Glycogen Synthase Kinase Activation in a Cell Line Derived from ...
... the link to neurodevelopmental abnormalities and dysmorphic features caused by heterozygous mutations in the casein kinase II, ... ii) The patient had no obvious signs of nervous system damage, compared to previous cases.1-7 Her growth and development were ... 1-7 Two authors performed the database search, the manual search through references of relevant publications, and extracted the ... At 2-month - 4-day of age, the weight of infant increased to 4.23 kg. Her muscular tone and Test of Infant Motor Performance ...
Hence particular phosphorylation of CTCF with the proteins kinase CK2 (previous casein kinase II) impacts CTCF function in ... The Pol II enzyme is composed of 12 subunits (termed Rpb1 to Rpb12) (66). Rpb1 the largest subunit of Pol II (LS Pol II) is ... The CTD can be altered by phosphorylation which results in the appearance of two forms of LS Pol II: hypophosphorylated (LS Pol ... In this statement we describe the conversation of CTCF with RNA polymerase II (Pol II). The eukaryotic Pamidronate Disodium Pol ...
AP71230 Recombinant human Casein kinase II subunit alpha 11055 6930 4125 2508 1452 0 1012 E.coli HUMAN His-SUMO-tag Store at - ... AP71553 Recombinant human MOB kinase activator 1A 11055 6930 4125 2508 1452 0 1012 E.coli HUMAN GST-tag Store at -20°C, for ... AP71592 Recombinant human N-acetyl-D-glucosamine kinase 11055 6930 4125 2508 1452 0 1012 E.coli HUMAN His-tag Store at -20°C, ... AP70901 Recombinant human Uridine-cytidine kinase 1 11055 6930 4125 2508 1452 0 1012 E.coli HUMAN His-SUMO-tag Store at -20°C, ...
  • To identify proteins that interact with TH following phosphorylation of serine 19, this amino acid was mutated to alanine and THS19A was used as bait in a yeast two-hybrid system. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro kinase assay and bioinformatic analysis indicated phosphorylation of NRL at Ser117 residue by CK2. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphorylation site motif analyses implicate casein kinase II and calcium/calmodulin dependent kinases among the primary light-dark transition kinases. (biorxiv.org)
  • The majority of the phosphorylation takes place at Ser or Thr residues embedded within acidic sequences, and therefore are targets for casein kinase I (CK1) or casein kinase II (CK2)-like kinases. (northwestern.edu)
  • In turn, CK2 activity may be initiated only after an initial phosphorylation of one of the messenger-dependent kinases. (northwestern.edu)
  • Synthesized peptide derived from human Casein Kinase IIβ around the non-phosphorylation site of S209. (afgsci.com)
  • GlcNAcylation is also often reciprocal to phosphorylation and occurs at protein sites identical to those used by kinases that regulate cell growth (see figure). (nih.gov)
  • GlcNAcylation is Thr-58 (see figure), which is also the major phosphorylation site used by glycogen-synthetase-kinase-3 and is the major mutational "hotspot" in human lymphomas. (nih.gov)
  • High Expression of Casein Kinase 2 Alpha Is Responsible for Enhanced Phosphorylation of DNA Mismatch Repair Protein MLH1 and Increased Tumor Mutation Rates in Colorectal Cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Casein kinase II is a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins such as casein. (nih.gov)
  • Catalytic subunit of a constitutively active serine/threonine-protein kinase complex that phosphorylates a large number of substrates containing acidic residues C-terminal to the phosphorylated serine or threonine. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 11p110 and casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibit the interaction between tyrosine hydroxylase and 14-3-3. (nih.gov)
  • From this, mouse-derived cyclin-dependent kinase 11 (CDK11)p110 was identified as an interacting partner with THS19A. (nih.gov)
  • Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Three transcript variants encoding two different proteins have been found for this gene. (nih.gov)
  • expression of these proteins is maintained in carcinoma cells lines [6], and expression of these two proteins induces immortalization and transformation in a variety of rodent and human cell types [54]. (nih.gov)
  • Figures 2 and 3 illustrate sequence similarities between the E7 proteins of various HPV types, and similarities between the E7 protein and other viral oncoproteins, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. (nih.gov)
  • The kinase exists as a tetramer and is composed of an alpha, an alpha-prime, and two beta subunits. (nih.gov)
  • The active form of CK2 is a tetrameric holoenzyme, with 2 α catalytic subunits and 2 β regulatory subunits. (northwestern.edu)
  • Casein kinase 2a regulates glioblastoma brain tumor-initiating cell growth through the ß-catenin pathway. (stanford.edu)
  • This gene encodes the beta subunit of casein kinase II, a ubiquitous protein kinase which regulates metabolic pathways, signal transduction, transcription, translation, and replication. (nih.gov)
  • Caption: Casein kinase 1 (CK1) regulates PERIOD, a core protein in the biological clock of people. (nih.gov)
  • They are ubiquitous, constitutively active, second-messenger-independent kinases. (northwestern.edu)
  • However, the phase 2 trial that led to February 2021 approvals found the drug's safety profile to be "manageable," with serious adverse reactions reported in 18% of patients receiving the dual oral inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3 kinase delta and casein kinase 1 epsilon. (medscape.com)
  • Loss of CK2α decreased two β-catenin-regulated genes that are involved in GBM-initiating cell growth, OCT4 and NANOG. (stanford.edu)
  • La caseína cinasa II fosforila un gran número de sustratos, muchos de los cuales son proteínas implicadas en la regulación de la expresión de los genes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (nih.gov)
  • Polymorphisms of casein kinase I gamma 2 gene associated with simple febrile seizures in Chinese Han population. (cdc.gov)
  • This domain can be divided into two all-alpha subdomains. (embl.de)
  • It is an inhibitor of casein kinase I. (mcw.edu)
  • During our studies to elucidate NRL-mediated transcriptional regulation, we identified protein kinase CK2 in NRL-enriched complexes bound to Rho promoter-enhancer regions and in NRL-enriched high molecular mass fractions from the bovine retina. (nih.gov)
  • Previous research has demonstrated that casein kinase 2 (CK2) interacts with CDK11p110, and both were observed to phosphorylate TH in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • The FDA granted accelerated approval to umbralisib in February 2021 for patients with two types of lymphoma: adults with relapsed or refractory marginal zone lymphoma who received at least one prior therapy, and those with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma who received at least three prior therapies. (medscape.com)
  • Studies are under way to evaluate the effects of glycosylation on kinase activity and subcellular trafficking of this regulatory protein. (nih.gov)
  • In the latest paper, Partch and her colleagues focused on two core clock components: an enzyme known as casein kinase 1 (CK1) and a protein called PERIOD. (nih.gov)
  • The enzyme adjusts PERIOD levels by chemically modifying the protein at one of two sites, thereby adjusting its stability. (nih.gov)
  • Exogenous expression of GGT7 resulted in a 2- to 3-fold reduction in proliferation and anchorage-independent growth under minimal growth conditions (1% serum). (stanford.edu)
  • Decreasing GGT7 expression using either short interfering RNA or short hairpin RNA consistently increased proliferation 1.5- to 2-fold. (stanford.edu)
  • In addition, intracranial injections of U87-MG cells with reduced GGT7 expression increased tumor growth in mice approximately 2-fold, and decreased mouse survival. (stanford.edu)
  • 2. Casein kinase 2 inhibition sensitizes medulloblastoma to temozolomide. (nih.gov)
  • GE Portuguese journal of gastroenterology 2022 2 29 (1): 13-21. (cdc.gov)
  • Frontiers in genetics 2022 2 12 755629. (cdc.gov)
  • Gu XL and Wei Lu (2018) Genetic deletion of NMDA receptors suppresses GABAergic synaptic transmission in two distinct types of central neurons . (nih.gov)
  • In addition, cancer cells can escape from physiological suppressors and have metastasis properties with the mutations they undergo [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 10 A genome wide screen was undertaken using phenotypic data and DNA from 362 families in Wessex and 98 in the USA with at least two siblings with asthma. (bmj.com)
  • The addition of 13 more markers at 1-2 cM intervals increased the MLS to 2.94 at D20S482 (12.1 cM) which further increased to 3.93 when BHR was included in the definition of asthma (despite halving the sample size), thereby exceeding the threshold for genome wide significance. (bmj.com)
  • the E-value for the RGS domain shown below is 3.15e-2. (embl.de)
  • 2,6-Dihydroxyacetophenone (DHA) matrix has been shown to provide efficient ionization of lipids, especially gangliosides. (nih.gov)
  • Initial studies showed that two GBM cell lines (U87-MG and U138) transduced with CK2α had enhanced proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. (stanford.edu)
  • The phase III PROCLAIM trial, recently published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology entitled "PROCLAIM: randomized phase III trial of pemetrexed-cisplatin or etoposide-cisplatin plus thoracic radiation therapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy in locally advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer", compared two different chemotherapy regimens given concurrently with radiotherapy in patients with stage III non-squamous lung cancer: pemetrexed plus cisplatin versus cisplatin plus etoposide [ 2 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • And then sonicate the sample for 1 min (under ice water bath conditions) with 2 s' sonication and 2 s' intervals to make cells fully lysis and reduce the viscosity of sample. (elabscience.com)