A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.
A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A casein kinase I isoenzyme with specificity for proteins involved the regulation of the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a regulatory role in a variety of cellular functions including vesicular transport, CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION; CYTOKINESIS, developmental processes, and the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways including the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY, the CELL CYCLE, membrane trafficking, and RNA processing. Multiple isoforms of casein kinase I alpha exist and are due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An RNA polymerase II transcriptional inhibitor. This compound terminates transcription prematurely by selective inhibition of RNA synthesis. It is used in research to study underlying mechanisms of cellular regulation.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
The phosphoric acid ester of serine.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
An egg yolk phosphoglycoprotein which contains about 90% of the yolk protein phosphorus. It is synthesized in the liver of the hen and transferred to the developing oocyte, where it is bound to lipoproteins within the yolk granules.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID, which inhibits 11-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts to restore EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 to its GTP bound form.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Proteins found in any species of virus.

Phosphorylation of the DNA repair protein APE/REF-1 by CKII affects redox regulation of AP-1. (1/1209)

The DNA repair protein apurinic endonuclease (APE/Ref-1) exerts several physiological functions such as cleavage of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and redox regulation of the transcription factor AP-1, whose activation is part of the cellular response to DNA damaging treatments. Here we demonstrate that APE/Ref-1 is phosphorylated by casein kinase II (CKII). This was shown for both the recombinant APE/Ref-1 protein (Km=0.55 mM) and for APE/Ref-1 expressed in COS cells. Phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 did not alter the repair activity of the enzyme, whereas it stimulated its redox capability towards AP-1, thus promoting DNA binding activity of AP-1. Inhibition of CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 blocked mutagen-stimulated increase in AP-1 binding. It also abrogated the induction of c-Jun protein and rendered cells more sensitive to induced DNA damage. Thus, phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 appears to be involved in regulating the different physiological activities of the enzyme. CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 and concomitant increase in AP-1 binding activity appears to be a novel mechanism of cellular stress response, forcing transcription of AP-1 target gene(s) the product(s) of which may exert protective function.  (+info)

Allosteric regulation of even-skipped repression activity by phosphorylation. (2/1209)

The Drosophila homeodomain protein Even-skipped (Eve) is a well characterized transcriptional repressor. Here, we show that Eve's ability to function in vitro is negatively regulated by phosphorylation. DNA-binding activity was unaffected by phosphorylation, but phosphorylated Eve was unable to interact with the TATA-binding protein (TBP), a known target for repression. Unexpectedly, phosphorylation of the Eve N terminus, which is dispensable for repression and TBP binding, was necessary and sufficient to inactivate Eve. LiCl, which specifically inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), reduced Eve phosphorylation in nuclear extract and blocked inhibition of repression. In addition, Eve was phosphorylated and inactivated by purified GSK-3 beta plus casein kinase II. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of transcriptional control involving phosphorylation-induced allosteric interference with a repressive protein-protein interaction.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of yeast TBP by protein kinase CK2 reduces its specific binding to DNA. (3/1209)

Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous Ser/Thr kinase which phosphorylates a large number of proteins including several transcription factors. Recombinant Xenopus laevis CK2 phosphorylates both recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe TATA binding protein (TBP). The phosphorylation of TBP by CK2 reduces its binding activity to the TATA box. CK2 copurifies with the transcription factor IID (TFIID) complex from HeLa cell extracts and phosphorylates several of the TBP-associated factors within TFIID. Taken together these findings argue for a role of CK2 in the control of transcription by RNA polymerase II through the modulation of the binding activity of TBP to the TATA box.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38. (4/1209)

Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of CD45 by casein kinase 2. Modulation of activity and mutational analysis. (5/1209)

CD45 is a receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that is required for antigen-specific stimulation and proliferation in lymphocytes. This study was designed to determine the nature of specific kinases in lymphocytes that phosphorylate CD45 and to determine the effect of phosphorylation on CD45 PTP activity. A major cytoplasmic lymphocyte kinase that phosphorylated CD45 was identified as casein kinase 2 (CK2) by use of an in-gel kinase assay in combination with immunoprecipitation, immunodepletion, and specific inhibition. Mutational analysis of CK2 consensus sites showed that the target for CK2 was in an acidic insert of 19 amino acids in the D2 domain, and Ser to Ala mutations at amino acids 965, 968, 969, and 973 abrogated CK2 phosphorylation of CD45. CK2 phosphorylation increased CD45 activity 3-fold toward phosphorylated myelin basic protein, and this increase was reversible by PP2A treatment. Mutation of Ser to Glu at the CK2 sites had the same effect as phosphorylation and also tripled the Vmax of CD45. CD45 isolated in vivo was highly phosphorylated and could not be phosphorylated by CK2 without prior dephosphorylation with phosphatase PP2A. We conclude that CK2 is a major lymphocyte kinase that is responsible for in vivo phosphorylation of CD45, and phosphorylation at specific CK2 sites regulates CD45 PTP activity.  (+info)

A modulatory role for clathrin light chain phosphorylation in Golgi membrane protein localization during vegetative growth and during the mating response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/1209)

The role of clathrin light chain phosphorylation in regulating clathrin function has been examined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phosphorylation state of yeast clathrin light chain (Clc1p) in vivo was monitored by [32P]phosphate labeling and immunoprecipitation. Clc1p was phosphorylated in growing cells and also hyperphosphorylated upon activation of the mating response signal transduction pathway. Mating pheromone-stimulated hyperphosphorylation of Clc1p was dependent on the mating response signal transduction pathway MAP kinase Fus3p. Both basal and stimulated phosphorylation occurred exclusively on serines. Mutagenesis of Clc1p was used to map major phosphorylation sites to serines 52 and 112, but conversion of all 14 serines in Clc1p to alanines [S(all)A] was necessary to eliminate phosphorylation. Cells expressing the S(all)A mutant Clc1p displayed no defects in Clc1p binding to clathrin heavy chain, clathrin trimer stability, sorting of a soluble vacuolar protein, or receptor-mediated endocytosis of mating pheromone. However, the trans-Golgi network membrane protein Kex2p was not optimally localized in mutant cells. Furthermore, pheromone treatment exacerbated the Kex2p localization defect and caused a corresponding defect in Kex2p-mediated maturation of the alpha-factor precursor. The results reveal a novel requirement for clathrin during the mating response and suggest that phosphorylation of the light chain subunit modulates the activity of clathrin at the trans-Golgi network.  (+info)

Antisense expression of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene in Arabidopsis. Effects on light-regulated gene expression and plant growth. (7/1209)

The protein kinase CK2 (formerly casein kinase II) is thought to be involved in light-regulated gene expression in plants because of its ability to phosphorylate transcription factors that bind to the promoter regions of light-regulated genes in vitro. To address this possibility in vivo and to learn more about the potential physiological roles of CK2 in plants, we transformed Arabidopsis with an antisense construct of the CK2 alpha-subunit gene and investigated both morphological and molecular phenotypes. Antisense transformants had a smaller adult leaf size and showed increased expression of chs in darkness and of cab and rbcS after red-light treatment. The latter molecular phenotype implied that CK2 might serve as one of several negative and quantitative effectors in light-regulated gene expression. The possible mechanism of CK2 action and its involvement in the phytochrome signal transduction pathway are discussed.  (+info)

Nuclear matrix targeting of the protein kinase CK2 signal as a common downstream response to androgen or growth factor stimulation of prostate cancer cells. (8/1209)

Protein kinase CK2, a messenger-independent serine/threonine kinase, has been implicated in cell growth. Androgenic stimulus in rat prostate modulates its association with nuclear matrix (NM) and chromatin. Because the growth of human prostate carcinoma cells is influenced by androgens and/or growth factors, we determined the nature of CK2 signaling in the NM in response to androgen and growth factor stimuli. Androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-insensitive PC-3 cells were cultured in media to regulate their growth in the presence of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT) or growth factors (epidermal growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor, and transforming growth factor alpha). The activity of CK2 was measured in the cytosolic and NM fractions isolated from these cells after treatment with growth stimuli. The changes in CK2 in various fractions were also confirmed by immunoblotting with a specific antibody. LNCaP cells responded to both 5alpha-DHT and growth factors for growth. The presence of these agents in the culture medium evoked a translocation of CK2 to the NM from the cytosol. The PC-3 cells did not respond to 5alpha-DHT for growth but did respond to growth factors. Under these conditions, there was also a translocation of CK2 to the NM concomitant with a decrease in the cytosolic fraction. These results suggest that CK2 translocation to the NM occurs in response to various growth stimuli in cells in culture. Thus, CK2 is a common downstream signal transducer in response to diverse growth stimuli that may relate to the pathobiology of prostate cancer cells.  (+info)

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We discovered previously that NF-κB is aberrantly activated and promotes tumorigenesis in human HNSCC and murine SCC ( 4- 8, 10). NF-κB activation has been broadly shown and associated with progression in intraepithelial premalignant and malignant squamous neoplasms of the head and neck as well as uterine cervix ( 9, 33). We have shown that expression of an S32A/S36A IκBα mutant unresponsive to IKK phosphorylation strongly inhibited NF-κB activation in HNSCC and murine SCC ( 7, 10). Tamatani et al. ( 34) detected increased IKK-mediated phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB activation in three HNSCC cell lines relative to that observed in five primary gingival keratinocyte cultures, indicating that IKK and NF-κB are aberrantly activated together in HNSCC. Gapany et al. ( 19) showed that cytosolic CK2 expression and activity are also increased in HNSCC tumor specimens and cell lines. In the present study, we directly examined the hypothesis that CK2 promotes IKK-mediated aberrant activation ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
electromechanical responses of cardiomyocytes to individual and combined components of ischemia. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol, 80: 1145-1157 2003.- Schaeffer, C., D. Vandroux, L. Thomassin, P. Athias, L. Rochette and J. L. Connat. Calcitonin gene-related peptide partly protects cultured smooth muscle cells from apoptosis induced by an oxidative stress via activation of ERK1/2 MAPK. Biochim Biophys Acta 1643(1-3): 65-73. 2004.- Chantome, A., A. Pance, N. Gauthier, D. Vandroux, J. Chenu, E. Solary, J. F. Jeannin and S. Reveneau. Casein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 subunit enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase gene transcription in vivo. J Biol Chem. 279(23): 23953-60. 2004.- Gambert, S., S. Bes-Houtmann, D. Vandroux, C. Tissier, C. Vergely-Vandriesse, L. Rochette and P. Athias. Deep hypothermia during ischemia improves functional recovery and reduces free-radical generation in isolated reperfused rat heart. J Heart Lung Transplant 23(4): 487-91. 2004.- Vandroux, D., C. ...
Benzene, 1,2,3,4-tetrabromo-5-(2,3,4,6-tetrabromophenoxy)- | C12H2Br8O | CID 71363036 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Casein Kinase II (CKII) is a constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase and the general recognition motif for phsophorylation is SXXE/D.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epigenetic regulation of gene expression by Ikaros, HDAC1 and Casein Kinase II in leukemia. AU - Song, Chunhua. AU - Pan, X.. AU - Ge, Z.. AU - Gowda, Chandrika. AU - Ding, Y.. AU - Li, H.. AU - Li, Z.. AU - Yochum, Gregory. AU - Muschen, M.. AU - Li, Q.. AU - Payne, K. J.. AU - Dovat, Sinisa. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84955311527&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84955311527&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1038/leu.2015.331. DO - 10.1038/leu.2015.331. M3 - Letter. VL - 30. SP - 1436. EP - 1440. JO - Leukemia. JF - Leukemia. SN - 0887-6924. IS - 6. ER - ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. casein kinase II inhibitor III ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. The encoded protein is one of the beta subunits, which are auxiliary proteins associating with functional Kv-alpha subunits. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with the potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related subfamily, member 5 gene product and regulates the activity of the alpha subunit. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012 ...
CK2 is an extremely pleiotropic Ser/Thr protein kinase, responsible for the generation of a large proportion of the human phosphoproteome and implicated in a wide variety of biological functions. CK2 plays a global role as an anti-apoptotic agent, a property which is believed to partially account for the addiction of many cancer cells to high CK2 levels. To gain information about the CK2 targets whose phosphorylation is primarily implicated in its pro-survival signaling advantage has been taken of quinalizarin (QZ) a cell permeable fairly specific CK2 inhibitor, previously shown to be able to block endogenous CK2 triggering an apoptotic response. HEK-293T cells either treated or not for 3h with 50μM QZ were exploited to perform a quantitative SILAC phosphoproteomic analysis of phosphosites readily responsive to QZ treatment. Our analysis led to the identification of 4883 phosphosites, belonging to 1693 phosphoproteins. 71 phosphosites (belonging to 47 proteins) underwent a 50% or more decreased ...
Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. Phosphorylates casein in vitro (PubMed:7678767). The alpha chain contains the catalytic site. The tetrameric holoenzyme CK2, composed of two alpha and two beta subunits, phosphorylates the transcription factor GBFl, resulting in stimulation of its DNA binding activity (PubMed:7696877). CK2 phosphorylates the transcription factor PIF1 after an exposure to light, resulting in a proteasome-dependent degradation of PIF1 and promotion of photomorphogenesis (PubMed:21330376). CK2 phosphorylates translation initiation factors. May participate in the regulation of the initiation of translation (PubMed:19509278, PubMed:19509420). Acts as circadian clock component that maintains the correct period length through phosphorylation of CCA1 (PubMed:21900482). Required for the maintenance and control of genomic stability and chromatin structure (PubMed:22487192). May act as an ectokinase that
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BioAssay record AID 712789 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human CK1-gamma2 in HEK293 cells assessed as inhibition of doxcycline-induced LRP6 phosphorylation after 2 hrs by electrochemiluminescence analysis.
Protein kinase CK2 (CK2) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase with multiple cellular functions in vertebrates including apoptosis, differentiation, proliferation, survival, tumorigenesis, signal transduction, immune regulation and inflammation. In the current study, the catalytic and regulatory subunit homologs of Litopenaeus vannamei protein kinase CK2 (LvCK2α and LvCK2ß) were cloned and characterized. LvCK2α has a full-length cDNA sequence of 1764 bp with a 1053 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 351 amino acids, which contains a typical serine/threonine kinase domain. On the other hand, LvCK2ß has a 1394 bp full-length cDNA with an ORF of 663 bp encoding a protein with 221 amino acids, which contains a Casein kinase II regulatory subunit domain. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that LvCK2 was evolutionary related with the CK2 of invertebrates. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that LvCK2α and LvCK2ß transcripts were ...
Catalytic subunit of a constitutively active serine/threonine-protein kinase complex that phosphorylates a large number of substrates containing acidic residues C-terminal to the phosphorylated serine or threonine. Regulates numerous cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, apoptosis and transcription, as well as viral infection. May act as a regulatory node which integrates and coordinates numerous signals leading to an appropriate cellular response. During mitosis, functions as a component of the p53/TP53-dependent spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) that maintains cyclin-B-CDK1 activity and G2 arrest in response to spindle damage. Also required for p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis, phosphorylating Ser-392 of p53/TP53 following UV irradiation. Can also negatively regulate apoptosis. Phosphorylates the caspases CASP9 and CASP2 and the apoptotic regulator NOL3. Phosphorylation protects CASP9 from cleavage and activation by CASP8, and inhibits the dimerization of CASP2 and activation of CASP8.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Induction of the generation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca(++))-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) by gallic acid (GA) has been implicated in the mitochondrial apoptotic death of human oral cancer (OC) cells, but the molecular mechanism by which GA causes ER Ca(++) release of OC cells to undergo cell death remains unclear. Here, we report that GA-induced phosphorylation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2)-interacting killer (BIK) (threonine (Thr) 33/Serine (Ser) 35) and p53 (Ser 15 and Ser 392), Bcl-2-associated x protein (BAX)/BCL-2 antagonist killer 1 (BAK) oligomerization on the ER and mitochondria, rising of cytosolic Ca(+)(+) and ROS, cytochrome c (Cyt c) release from the mitochondria, Ψm loss, and apoptosis were suppressed in cells co-treated with a specific inhibitor of casein kinase II (CK II) (4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole ...
CK2 is a pleiotropic and constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase composed of two catalytic (α and/or α′) and two regulatory β-subunits, whose mechanism of modulation is still obscure. Here we show that CK2 α/α′ subunits undergo intermolecular (trans) tyrosine-autophosphorylation, which is dependent on intrinsic catalytic activity and is suppressed by the individual mutation of Tyr182, a crucial residue of the activation loop, to phenylalanine. At variance with serine-autophosphorylation, tyrosine-autophosphorylation of CK2α is reversed by ADP and GDP and is counteracted by the β-subunit and by a peptide reproducing the activation loop of CK2α/α′ (amino acids 175-201). These results disclose new perspectives about the mode of regulation of CK2 catalytic subunits.. ...
The acronym CK2 (derived from the misnomer casein kinase 2) denotes one of the most pleiotropic members of the eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily, characterized by an acidic consensus sequence in which a carboxylic acid (or pre-phosphorylated) side chain at position n+3 relative to the target serine/threonine residue plays a crucial role. The latest repertoire of CK2 substrates includes approx. 300 proteins, but the analysis of available phosphopeptide databases from different sources suggests that CK2 alone may be responsible for the generation of a much larger proportion (10-20%) of the eukaryotic phosphoproteome. Although for the time being CK2 is not included among protein kinases whose inhibitors are in clinical practice or in advanced clinical trials, evidence is accumulating that elevated CK2 constitutive activity co-operates to induce a number of pathological conditions, including cancer, infectious diseases, neurodegeneration and cardiovascular pathologies. The development and ...
It is now generally recognized that protein kinase signaling is involved in virtually every aspect of cell function, including growth and proliferation. The field of protein phosphorylation, including
1LR4: Inclining the purine base binding plane in protein kinase CK2 by exchanging the flanking side-chains generates a preference for ATP as a cosubstrate.
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Data Availability StatementAll components and data can be accessible on demand. avoid artefactual results caused by pre-senescent adjustments. Since these cells ought to be researched within a firmly controlled pre-senescent division count ( 21 divisions), and yields of myoblasts per muscle biopsy are low, it is difficult or impossible to amplify sufficiently large cell numbers (some 250 106 myoblasts) to obtain sufficient conditioned medium for the standard ultracentrifugation approach to exosome isolation. Thus, an optimized strategy to extract and study secretory muscle vesicles is needed. In this study, conditions are optimized for the in vitro cultivation of human myoblasts, and the quality and yield of exosomes extracted using an ultracentrifugation protocol are compared with a modified polymer-based precipitation strategy combined with extra washing steps. Both vesicle extraction methods successfully enriched exosomes, as vesicles were positive for CD63, CD82, CD81, floated at identical ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-CKII alpha prime polypeptide Antibody. Validated: WB, IP. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse. 100% Guaranteed.
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CKII, CK2, CkII-beta, CK2beta, DmCKIIbeta, dCKII, DmCK2beta, CKIIbeta, CkIIbeta1, betaCK2, DmCkIIbeta, CKIIb, CG15224, CK II, CKII-beta1, mbu, CkII, And, CCK2, CK-IIbeta, CK-II beta, CK-2, Ds cas kin, CkIIbeta, Cask-II-b, dCK2beta ...
CKII alpha antibody [N1C3] (casein kinase 2, alpha prime polypeptide) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-CKII alpha pAb (GTX110726) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
RefSeq Summary (NM_001320): This gene encodes the beta subunit of casein kinase II, a ubiquitous protein kinase which regulates metabolic pathways, signal transduction, transcription, translation, and replication. The enzyme is composed of three subunits, alpha, alpha prime and beta, which form a tetrameric holoenzyme. The alpha and alpha prime subunits are catalytic, while the beta subunit serves regulatory functions. The enzyme localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013 ...
Full-length recombinant human CK1δ was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. CK1δ is a member of the CK1 family of serine/threonine protein kinases which play an important role in diverse cell processes, including DNA replication and repair.
1DS5: The crystal structure of the complex of Zea mays alpha subunit with a fragment of human beta subunit provides the clue to the architecture of protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme.
Protein kinase casein kinase II (CK2) is a heterotetrameric serine/threonine kinase involved in proliferation, apoptosis and embryonic development. It is expressed at elevated levels in proliferating tissue, human cancer cell lines and virtually all forms of solid cancers. Recently it has been shown that CK2 inhibition induces apoptosis in cell models of acquired anti-estrogen resistance. These findings suggest that there may be tumor phenotype specific effects of CK2 in breast cancer and consequently phenotype specific sensitivity to CK2 inhibition. As such we sought to determine if luminal and basal cell types display differential sensitivity to selective CK2 inhibitors. Utilizing crystal violet and alamar blue assays, it was found that CK2 inhibition decreased viability of both luminal and basal breast cancer cell lines, with basal-like ER(−) MDA MB 231 cells showing notable sensitivity. Hypertrophic morphologic changes consistent with cellular senescence were noted upon inhibition of CK2. ...
ProSpecs Casein Kinases include: Casein Kinase 2 alpha Human Recombinant, Casein Kinase 2 alpha Human Recombinant His, Casein Kinase 2 beta Human Recombinant Active, Casein Kinase 2 Beta Human Recombinant, Casein Kinase 2 alpha Zea Mays Recombinant, Casein Kinase 2 Holoenzyme Human Recombinant
TY - JOUR. T1 - Casein kinase 2 and protein substrates are released from rat liver cells nuclei by DNase or RNase digestion. AU - Bosser, Ramon. AU - Roig, Joan. AU - Itarte, Emilio. AU - Bachs, Oriol. PY - 1994/7/29. Y1 - 1994/7/29. N2 - Casein kinase 2 was released from rat liver cells nuclei by digestion with DNase 1 plus RNase A. This treatment also released three major substrates of 50, 40-42, and 37 kDa. Casein kinase 2 and substrates were also extracted by DNase or RNase separately. However, in DNase extracts only the 37 kDa protein was phosphorylated by casein kinase 2, whereas in RNase extracts all three substrates were phosphorylated. When the DNase extracts were subsequently treated with RNase the 40-42 substrates were then phosphorylated, indicating that their interaction with RNA prevents their phosphorylation by casein kinase 2. The ratio of β:α subunits of casein kinase 2 present in the nuclease extracts was higher than that of the purified enzyme, which is assumed to be 1:1. A ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein kinase CK2 localizes to sites of DNA double-strand break regulating the cellular response to DNA damage. AU - Olsen, Birgitte B.. AU - Wang, Shih Ya. AU - Svenstrup, Tina H.. AU - Chen, Benjamin P C. AU - Guerra, Barbara. PY - 2012/3/9. Y1 - 2012/3/9. N2 - Background: The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a nuclear complex composed of a large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and a heterodimeric DNA-targeting subunit Ku. DNA-PK is a major component of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair mechanism, which is activated in the presence of DNA double-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation, reactive oxygen species and radiomimetic drugs. We have recently reported that down-regulation of protein kinase CK2 by siRNA interference results in enhanced cell death specifically in DNA-PKcs-proficient human glioblastoma cells, and this event is accompanied by decreased autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at S2056 and delayed repair of DNA double-strand breaks.Results: In the ...
Kinson, P. L. and Orlando, C. M. (1979), 2,2′,6,6′-Tetrabromo-3,3′,5,5′-tetramethyl-4,4′-biphenol (TTB)-flame retardant copolycarbonates and copolyesters. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 23: 155-162. doi: 10.1002/app.1979.070230114 ...
Nucleolin is a ubiquitous multifunctional protein involved in preribosome assembly and associated with both nucleolar chromatin in interphase and nucleolar organizer regions on metaphasic chromosomes in mitosis. Extensive nucleolin phosphorylation by a casein kinase (CKII) occurs on serine in growing cells. Here we report that while CKII phosphorylation is achieved in interphase, threonine phosphorylation occurs during mitosis. We provide evidence that this type of in vivo phosphorylation involves a mammalian homolog of the cell cycle control Cdc2 kinase. In vitro M-phase H1 kinase from starfish oocytes phosphorylated threonines in a TPXK motif present nine times in the amino-terminal part of the protein. The same sites which matched the p34cdc2 consensus phosphorylation sequence were used in vivo during mitosis. We propose that successive Cdc2 and CKII phosphorylation could modulate nucleolin function in controlling cell cycle-dependent nucleolar function and organization. Our results, along ...
The transition element zinc, which has recently been identified as an intracellular second messenger, has been implicated in various signaling pathways, including those leading to cell proliferation. Zinc channels of the ZIP (ZRT1- and IRT1-like protein) family [also known as solute carrier family 39A (SLC39A)] transiently increase the cytosolic free zinc (Zn2+) concentration in response to extracellular signals. We show that phosphorylation of evolutionarily conserved residues in endoplasmic reticulum zinc channel ZIP7 is associated with the gated release of Zn2+ from intracellular stores, leading to activation of tyrosine kinases and the phosphorylation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Through pharmacological manipulation, proximity ligation assay, and mutagenesis, we identified protein kinase CK2 as the kinase responsible for ZIP7 activation. Together, the present results show that transition element channels in eukaryotes can be activated posttranslationally by ...
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Casein kinase (CK) are serine/threonine-selective enzymes that function as regulators of signal transduction pathways in most eukaryotic cell types. CK1 isoforms are involved in Wnt signaling, circadian rhythms, nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors, DNA repair, and DNA transcription. The CK1 family of monomeric serine-threonine protein kinases is found in eukaryotic organisms from yeast to humans. Mammals have 7 family members: alpha, beta 1, gamma 1, gamma 2, gamma 3, delta, and epsilon. Casein kinase 1 epsilon has been suggested to play a role in phosphorylation of Disheveled in the Wnt signaling pathway.
Protein phosphorylation is an important biological process associated with elicitor-induced defense responses in plants. In a previous report, we described how plant ferredoxin-like protein (PFLP) in transgenic plants enhances resistance to bacterial pathogens associated with the hypersensitive response (HR). PFLP possesses a putative casein kinase II phosphorylation (CK2P) site at the C-terminal in which phosphorylation occurs rapidly during defense response. However, the contribution of this site to the enhancement of disease resistance and the intensity of HR has not been clearly demonstrated. In this study, we generated two versions of truncated PFLP, PEC (extant CK2P site) and PDC (deleted CK2P site), and assessed their ability to trigger HR through harpin (HrpZ) derived from Pseudomonas syringae as well as their resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum. In an infiltration assay of HrpZ, PEC intensified harpin-mediated HR; however, PDC negated this effect. Transgenic plants expressing these ...
anti-CK2beta | casein kinase 2 subunit beta antibodies, UniProt: P40228, P40229, O81275, O80507, At5g47080, At4g17640, At3g60250, At2g44680, anti-CKB, CKB, CK2 beta, AS16 3213
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anti-CK2alpha | casein kinase 2 subunit alpha antibodies, UniProt: Q08467, Q08466, O64817, O64816, At5g67380, At3g50000, At2g23080, At2g23070, anti-CKA, CKA, CK2 alpha, AS16 3212
The members of the casein kinase 1 (CK1) family are highly conserved and are expressed in many eukaryotes ranging from yeast to humans. Mammalian CK1 isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon) and their splice variants are involved in diverse cellular processes including membrane trafficking, cir …
Blood test shows low female creatine kinase (ck) blood test level. Discover what does Creatine kinase (CK) deficiency mean for woman?
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Casein kinase II is a protein serinethreonine kinase that is thought to be present in all eukarotic cells, implying that it has fundamental cellular functions. The holoenzyme is a tetramer containing 2 alpha or alpha-prime subunits (or one of each) and 2 beta subunits. The function of beta subunits
Protein kinase CK2 is a tetrameric holoenzyme composed of two catalytic (α and/or α) subunits and two regulatory (β) subunits. Crystallographic data paired with fluorescence imaging techniques have suggested that the formation of the CK2 holoenzyme complex within cells is a dynamic process. Although the monomeric CK2α subunit is endowed with a constitutive catalytic activity, many of the plethora of CK2 substrates are exclusively phosphorylated by the CK2 holoenzyme. This means that the spatial and high affinity interaction between CK2α and CK2β subunits is critically important and that its disruption may provide a powerful and selective way to block the phosphorylation of substrates requiring the presence of CK2β. In search of compounds inhibiting this critical protein-protein interaction, we previously designed an active cyclic peptide (Pc) derived from the CK2β carboxy-terminal domain that can efficiently antagonize the CK2 subunit interaction. To understand the functional significance of
Multiple myeloma cells survival and proliferation rely on high levels and activity of the serine-threonine kinase CK2. Conference Proceeding ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
CRN2 (synonyms: coronin 1C, coronin 3) functions in the re-organization of the actin network and is implicated in cellular processes like protrusion formation, secretion, migration and invasion. We demonstrate that CRN2 is a binding partner and substrate of protein kinase CK2, which phosphorylates C …
Csnk1g3 - Csnk1g3 (untagged) - Mouse casein kinase 1, gamma 3 (cDNA clone MGC:40777 IMAGE:5366964), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
1lr4: Inclining the purine base binding plane in protein kinase CK2 by exchanging the flanking side-chains generates a preference for ATP as a cosubstrate.
CK2 is a constitutively active, ubiquitously expressed and pleiotropic serine/threonine protein kinase that is implicated in many cellular functions including tumorigenesis. CK2 has two catalytic subunits, CK2a and CK2a, that carry out its function in the cell. Previous studies have indicated that inhibitor-refractory mutants have been effective in recovering residual CK2 activity, in the presence of inhibitors, when compared to wild type CK2. Based on these observations, inhibitor-refractory mutants were created for both CK2a and CK2a and tested with various concentrations with two CK2-specific inhibitors, CX-4945 and inhibitor VIII. The CK2a triple mutant (V66A/I174A/H160D) was tested in inducible U2OS Flp-In cell lines with inhibitor VIII and CX-4945 inhibitors and was found to recover residual CK2 activity 5-fold greater than previously established CK2a-(V66A/I174A) inhibitor-refractory mutants. Seven novel mutations were made to CK2a in vitro and tested with CK2 inhibitor CX-4945. The mutants
The synthetic peptide RRKDLHDDEEDEAMSITA can be used as a substrate for casein kinase 1 (CK1) in in vitro kinase assays. It is phosphorylated by CK1 with a Km of 172 �M
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What do most of you out there use for a CK7 control?......CK20 control?.... We currently are using an adenocarcinoma of the lung for our CK7 and an adenocarcinoma of the colon for the CK20. We have been having problems and need some help. Thanks Amy Johnson _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
Xu, X.; Toselli, P. A.; Russell, L. D.; Seldin, D. C. (1999-09-01). "Globozoospermia in mice lacking the casein kinase II alpha ... There are two types of globozoospermia: Type 1 globozoospermia exhibits a complete lack of acrosome and acrosomal enzymes and ... however it is unclear whether these two forms are variations on the same syndrome, or actually different syndromes. Infertility ... doi:10.1007/s10815-015-0433-2. ISSN 1058-0468. PMC 4380889. PMID 25711835. Dam, A. H. D. M.; Feenstra, I.; Westphal, J. R.; ...
2017). "Casein Kinase II (CK2) as a Therapeutic Target for Hematological Malignancies". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 23 (1): ... Two mathematical models have been proposed, attempting to explain the emergence of this hybrid E/M phenotype, and its highly ... Zou J, Luo H, Zeng Q, Dong Z, Wu D, Liu L (June 2011). "Protein kinase CK2α is overexpressed in colorectal cancer and modulates ... Silmitasertib (CX-4945) is a small molecule inhibitor of protein kinase CK2, which has been supported to be linked with TGF-β ...
After translation, the CCA1 protein needs to be phosphorylated by Casein Kinase 2 (CK2). This phosphorylation is necessary for ...
Nucleus/Nucleolus: Phosphorylation of Ser19 by casein kinase 2 translocates Par14 into the cellular nucleus. After ... In 1999, Par14 was identified by two groups independently. After the discovery of human Pin1 in 1996, Par14 turned out to be ... Par14 requires phosphorylation of Ser7 and Ser9 by protein kinase B (Akt) (or protein kinase C) for nuclear export. This export ... 446 (2-3): 278-282. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(99)00239-2. PMID 10100858. S2CID 45172611. Thorpe, Julian R.; Rulten, Stuart L.; Kay ...
"Casein kinase 2", Wikipedia, April 12, 2020, retrieved April 30, 2020 "Phyre 2 Results for c14orf119". www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk. ... "PSORT II page for c14orf119". PSORT II.[permanent dead link] "NCBI GEO Profile for record GDS4889, c14orf119". NCBI GEO. "NCBI ... "PSORT II - c14orf119". PSORT II. Retrieved April 28, 2020.[permanent dead link] "KKXX (amino acid sequence)", Wikipedia, April ... It contains two exons and covers 5.76 kb, from 23563900 to 23569660 on the forward strand. The span of the c14orf119 gene, from ...
Johnson, Sally E.; Wang, Xueyan; Hardy, Serge; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J.; Konieczny, Stephen F. (April 1996). "Casein kinase II ... "Serine/Threonine kinases 3pK and MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 interact with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor ... Two years later, the third E-box binding protein, HEB, was discovered by screening a cDNA library from HeLa cells. A splice- ... Many kinases have been associated with E47 including 3pk and MK2. These 2 proteins form a complex with E47 and reduce its ...
"Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II". The EMBO Journal. 8 (4): 1111-9. PMC 400922 . PMID 2663470.. ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proceedings of the National ... RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding. • E-box binding. • protein binding. • repressing ... transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • regulation of transcription from RNA ...
Apel ED, Litchfield DW, Clark RH, Krebs EG, Storm DR (Jun 1991). "Phosphorylation of neuromodulin (GAP-43) by casein kinase II ... protein kinase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • response to wounding. • regulation of growth. • ... It is a major protein kinase C (PKC) substrate and is considered to play a key role in neurite formation, regeneration, and ... However, F1 was not cAMP kinase dependent. B-50 was regulated by the pituitary peptide ACTH and was associated with grooming ...
Reineke LC, Tsai WC, Jain A, Kaelber JT, Jung SY, Lloyd RE (February 2017). "Casein Kinase 2 Is Linked to Stress Granule ... Löw D, Brändle K, Nover L, Forreiter C (September 2000). "Cytosolic heat-stress proteins Hsp17.7 class I and Hsp17.3 class II ... Wasserman T, Katsenelson K, Daniliuc S, Hasin T, Choder M, Aronheim A (January 2010). "A novel c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)- ... Aulas A, Lyons SM, Fay MM, Anderson P, Ivanov P (November 2018). "Nitric oxide triggers the assembly of "type II" stress ...
O'Brien, K A; Lemke S J, Cocke K S, Rao R N, Beckmann R P (1999). «Casein kinase 2 binds to and phosphorylates BRCA1». Biochem ... RNA polymerase II transcription coactivator activity. • RNA polymerase binding. • identical protein binding. ... BRCA1 interacts with and is required for paclitaxel-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3». ... kinase and ATM and Rad3 related kinase mediate phosphorylation of Brca1 at distinct and overlapping sites. In vivo assessment ...
As the osteoblast transitions to an osteocyte, alkaline phosphatase is reduced, and casein kinase II is elevated, as is ... A mature osteocyte contains a single nucleus that is located toward the vascular side and has one or two nucleoli and a ... type II preosteocyte (osteoid osteocyte), and type III preosteocyte (partially surrounded by mineral matrix). The embedded " ... "osteoid-osteocyte" must do two functions simultaneously: regulate mineralization and form connective dendritic processes, which ...
"LY 294002 inhibits adenosine receptor activation by a mechanism independent of effects on PI-3 kinase or casein kinase II". ... Two of these are the proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (PIM1) and the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3- ... With an IC50 of 1.4 μM it is somewhat less potent than wortmannin, another well-known PI3 kinase inhibitor. However, LY294002 ... 1994). "A Specific Inhibitor of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase, 2-(4-Morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-l-benzopyran-4-one (LY294002)". ...
Cala SE, Jones LR (January 1991). "Phosphorylation of cardiac and skeletal muscle calsequestrin isoforms by casein kinase II. ... Both forms of calsequestrin are phosphorylated by casein kinase 2, but the cardiac form is phosphorylated more rapidly and to a ... Two forms of calsequestrin have been identified. The cardiac form Calsequestrin-2 (CASQ2) is present in cardiac and slow ... the hydrophobic core of domain II appears to be necessary for CASQ2's function, because a single amino acid mutation that ...
This FRQ-FRH complex is suggested to recruit protein kinases such as casein kinase (CK I) and CK II to phosphorylate WCC. The ... White Collar-1 (wc-1) is a gene in Neurospora crassa encoding the protein WC-1 (127 kDa). WC-1 has two separate roles in the ... WCC serves as an activator of frq gene transcription by binding to two DNA promotor elements in the nucleus: the Clock box (C ... Liu Y, He Q, Cheng P (Oct 2003). "Photoreception in Neurospora: a tale of two White Collar proteins". Cellular and Molecular ...
Kramer has examined the role of casein kinase 2 (CK2) in the mammalian circadian clock, specifically in its ability to ... a zinc ion on the mCRY1-mPER2 dimer and suggested importance of zinc and disulfide bond formation to the interaction of the two ... Discovered the protein casein kinase 2 (CK2) as being an important component in the cellular clock as a phosphorylating agent ... Gannon, Megan; October 2, Live Science Contributor ,; ET, 2017 06:57am. "Nobel Prize in Medicine Awarded for Work on Biological ...
"Casein kinase II phosphorylation of cyclin F at serine 621 regulates the Lys48-ubiquitylation E3 ligase activity of the SCF ( ... Skp2 binds p27Kip1 only when two conditions are met: p27Kip1 is phosphorylated by E/A/CKD2 and bound to Cks1. As a consequence ... βTRCP recognizes these substrates after they are phosphorylated by Polo-like kinase 1 or Cyclin B-CDK1. Fbw7, which is the ... Schwob, E (1994-10-21). "The B-type cyclin kinase inhibitor p40SIC1 controls the G1 to S transition in S. cerevisiae". Cell. 79 ...
There are four casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, and this motif is a serine/threonine kinase. There are six N- ... The four types are cAMP and cGMP dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site, casein kinase II phosphorylation site, N- ... These sites include cAMP and cGMP dependent protein kinase phosphorylation sites, casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, and a ... This protein is known to be involved in the MAP Kinase pathway. The MAP Kinase pathway is associated with the Alzheimer's ...
The N-terminal, however, is highly conserved between all three species and is thought to contain potential casein kinase 2 (CK2 ... Several casein genes have also been found nearby to the FDC-SP gene. Numerous genes that are expressed in oral tissues, ... CK2 is a constitutively and widely expressed serine/threonine kinase that has many substrates related to signal transduction ... 338 (2): 1197-1203. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.10.076. PMID 16259954. Monther Al-Alwan (2007). "Follicular Dendritic Cell Secreted ...
In vitro phosphorylation by casein kinase II". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (49): 31034-40. PMID 7983041.. ... In humans, PR is encoded by a single PGR gene residing on chromosome 11q22,[5][6][7] it has two isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, that ... RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding. • steroid hormone receptor activity. • steroid ... "Two distinct estrogen-regulated promoters generate transcripts encoding the two functionally different human progesterone ...
It has a potential N-glycosylation site, a phosphorylation site for protein kinase C and another for casein kinase II, and 3 N- ... 37 (2): 258-264. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.11.039. PMID 30497837. On CNN, July 29, 2007 The Doctors' Channel, December 23, ...
... including four sites for protein kinase A (PKA), two sites for protein kinase C (PKC), three sites for casein kinase 2 (CKII), ... one site for ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), one site for cGMP-dependent protein kinase or Protein Kinase G (PKG), and one site for ... 2015). "ATG16L1 phosphorylation is oppositely regulated by CSNK2/casein kinase 2 and PPP1/protein phosphatase 1 which ... SPAS predicts two repetitive structures. The first repetitive structure is amino acid alphabet structures with a core block ...
O'Brien KA, Lemke SJ, Cocke KS, Rao RN, Beckmann RP (July 1999). "Casein kinase 2 binds to and phosphorylates BRCA1". Biochem. ... two quartets of cysteine or histidine residues that coordinate two zinc atoms.[30] This motif contains a short anti-parallel ... "BRCA1 interacts with and is required for paclitaxel-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3". ... kinase and ATM and Rad3 related kinase mediate phosphorylation of Brca1 at distinct and overlapping sites. In vivo assessment ...
In fact, Ser445 and Ser459 are also subject to phosphorylation, where both sites are associated with casein kinase II (CKII), ... which are most likely targeted by kinases protein kinase C (PKC), CKII, PKC, and CKI/II, respectively. Conserved glycation ... Two 0 runs that run through several transmembrane domains in addition to a +/* run in between two transmembrane domains are ... There are two paralogs for this gene, SLC46A1 and SLC46A2, and orthologs as distant as fungi. So far, more than 4580 single ...
"Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II". EMBO J. 8 (4): 1111-9. PMC 400922. PMID 2663470. ... ARID (1A, 1B, 2, 3A, 3B, 4A) • CAP • IFI (16, 35) • MLL (2, 3, T1) • MNDA • NFY (A, B, C) • Ro/Sigma ... ARX • CDX (1, 2) • CRX • CUTL1 • DBX (1, 2) • DLX (3, 4, 5) • EMX2 • EN (1, 2) • FHL (1, 2, 3) • HESX1 • HHEX • HLX • Homeobox ... II), Ear-2, HNF4 (α, γ), PNR, RXR (α, β, γ), Testikularni receptor (2, 4), TLX). podfamilija 3 (Steroidni hormon (Androgen, ...
... protein kinase C, Casein kinase II, DNA-dependent protein kinase, and Cyclin-dependent kinase 1. It is predicted to contain a ... "NCBI Geo". Retrieved 2 April 2018. "NCBI BLAST". Retrieved 4 February 2018. "NCBI C7orf61". Retrieved 4 January 2018.. ... most of which involve serine/threonine kinases - ...
... is predicted to have post-translational modification sites for: acetylation, Protein Kinase C and Casein Kinase II ... In addition, PSORT II found that there is 56.5% chance that CCDC121 is found in the nucleus. There is also evidence to suggest ... Each of the mRNA variants contains two exons separated by a gt-ag intron. Molecular weight and pI were calculated using ExPasy ... The four remaining orthologs are the two-lined caecilian, the West Indian Ocean coelacanth, the electric eel, and the northern ...
... binds and protects casein kinase II from self-aggregation and enhances its kinase activity". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (10): 7042-7. ... There are two homologs, found in the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum respectively. The presence of these two homologs was ... The Hsp90 protein can adopt two major conformational states. The first is an open ATP-bound state and the second is a closed ... The drug was originally thought to function as a kinase inhibitor but was subsequently shown to be an Hsp90 inhibitor where it ...
"Association and regulation of casein kinase 2 activity by adenomatous polyposis coli protein". Proceedings of the National ... II. Spatio-temporal appearance of proteins involved in cell-cell contact and communication. Formation of two distinct N- ... Metcalfe C, Bienz M (Nov 2011). "Inhibition of GSK3 by Wnt signalling--two contrasting models". Journal of Cell Science 124 (Pt ... Behrens J (Oct 2008). "One hit, two outcomes for VHL-mediated tumorigenesis". Nature Cell Biology 10 (10): 1127-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
... protein kinase C phosphorylation site, N-myristoylation site, casein kinase II phosphorylation site, and cGMP-dependent protein ... Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery". Genome ... Several protein domains and motifs were found including CHD5-like protein, tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site, ... kinase phosphorylation site. The picture indicates the location of the motifs. The protein is predicted to be made up with 21.2 ...
In 1998, Jeff Price from the Young lab discovered a kinase called doubletime(Casein kinase 1) that phosphorylates PER on ... At The Rockefeller University in the early 1980s, Young and his two lab members, Ted Bargiello and Rob Jackson, further ... "The Drosophila Clock Gene double-time Encodes a Protein Closely Related to Human Casein Kinase Iε" (PDF). Cell. 94 (1): 97-107 ... which is linked to an hPer2 polymorphism that removes a serine normally phosphorylated by Casein kinase 1.[17] Other forms of ...
The two major types of growth media are those used for cell culture, which use specific cell types derived from plants or ... An undefined medium has some complex ingredients, such as yeast extract or casein hydrolysate, which consist of a mixture of ... the Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV TK). ... 2] Different types of media are used for growing different ...
Other protein kinase. Serine/threonine:. *Casein kinase *1. *2. *eIF-2 kinase *EIF2AK3 ...
Budd DC, McDonald JE, Tobin AB (2000). „Phosphorylation and regulation of a Gq/11-coupled receptor by casein kinase 1alpha.". J ... Urotenzin-II • Vazopresin (1A, 1B, 2) ... Evidence for a protein kinase C-independent pathway.". J. Biol ... 1996). „Phosphorylation of human m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and protein ... CysLT (1, 2) • LTB4 (1, 2) • FPRL1 • OXE • Prostaglandin (DP (1, 2), EP (1, 2, 3, 4), FP) • Prostaciklin • Tromboksan ...
If there is an excess in the amount of tannins in the wine, winemakers can use various fining agents like albumin, casein and ... vinifera vines such as hybrids and the American Vitis labrusca will have anthocyanins with two molecules. This phenomenon is ... This large group of natural phenols can be broadly separated into two categories, flavonoids and non-flavonoids. Flavonoids ... 47 (2): 678-84. doi:10.1021/jf980314u. PMID 10563952.. *^ "Flavonoids". Linus Pauling Institute, Micronutrient Information ...
Lüscher B, Kuenzel EA, Krebs EG, Eisenman RN, Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II, in EMBO J., vol. 8, nº 4 ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., ... S Gupta, Davis R J, MAP kinase binds to the NH2-terminal activation domain of c-Myc, in FEBS Lett., vol. 353, nº 3, ottobre ... Iijima S, Teraoka H, Date T, Tsukada K, DNA-activated protein kinase in Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Phosphorylation of c-Myc ...
"Human vitamin D receptor phosphorylation by casein kinase II at Ser-208 potentiates transcriptional activation". Proc. Natl. ... As mutacións neste xene están asociadas co raquitismo resistente a vitamina D tipo II. Un polimorfismo dun só nucleótido no ... Rut AR, Hewison M, Kristjansson K, Luisi B, Hughes MR, O'Riordan JL (1995). "Two mutations causing vitamin D resistant rickets ... Commun. 253 (2): 358-63. PMID 9878542. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.9799.. *↑ 15,0 15,1 15,2 15,3 Puccetti E, Obradovic D, Beissert T ...
Buhl AM, Osawa S, Johnson GL (1995). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation requires two signal inputs from the human ... Other protein kinase. Serine/threonine:. *Casein kinase *1. *2. *eIF-2 kinase *EIF2AK3 ... 1omw: Crystal Structure of the complex between G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 and Heterotrimeric G Protein beta 1 and ... 2bcj: Crystal Structure of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 in Complex with Galpha-q and Gbetagamma Subunits ...
Kinase. L[cuir in eagar , athraigh foinse]. For substances with an l- or L- prefix such as L-alanine or DL-alanine, please see ... Aigéad éarúcach Erucic acid] - CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)11COOH ... Cáiséin Casein. *Caspase. *Ceallaláis Cellulase. *Ceallalós ...
Two naturally occurring milk peptides are formed from the milk protein casein when digestive enzymes break this down; they can ... An oligopeptide consists of only a few amino acids (between two and twenty). ... Kinase inhibitors: Linsitinib. *Antibodies: Xentuzumab (against IGF-1 and IGF-2). Kisspeptin. *Agonists: Kisspeptin ... Prolactin modulators: Prolactin inhibitors: D2 receptor agonists (e.g., bromocriptine, cabergoline); Prolactin releasers: D2 ...
Other protein kinase. Serine/threonine:. *Casein kinase *1. *2. *eIF-2 kinase *EIF2AK3 ... There are two classes of G proteins. The first function as monomeric small GTPases, while the second function as heterotrimeric ... cAMP can then act as a second messenger that goes on to interact with and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA can ... G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes referred to as the "large" G ...
... out of 540 different protein kinase genes that make up for human kinome, only one other protein kinase, Casein kinase 2, is ... Four cAMP molecules are able to bind to the two R-subunits. This is done by two cAMP molecules binding to each of the two cAMP ... "cAMP-dependent protein kinase" redirects here. It is not to be confused with AMP-activated protein kinase or cyclin-dependent ... The dimerization and docking (D/D) domain of the dimer binds to the A-kinase binding (AKB) domain of A-kinase anchor protein ( ...
Other protein kinase. Serine/threonine:. *Casein kinase *1. *2. *eIF-2 kinase *EIF2AK3 ... Indirect/downstream NO modulators: ACE inhibitors/AT-II receptor antagonists (e.g., captopril, losartan) ... In the mammalian retina, two forms of guanylate cyclase have been identified, each encoded by separate genes; RETGC-1 and RETGC ... doi:10.1007/978-3-540-68964-5_2.. *^ Tseng K, Caballero A, Dec A, Cass D, Simak N, Sunu E, Park M, Blume S, Sammut S, Park D, ...
Mapping of the human casein kinase II catalytic subunit genes: two loci carrying the homologous sequences for the alpha subunit ... de 1998). «Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains of several transcription factors». Nucleic Acids Res. (ENGLAND) 26 ... de 2000). «Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced phosphorylation of RelA/p65 on Ser529 is controlled by casein kinase II». J. ... Entrez Gene: CSNK2A1 casein kinase 2, alpha 1 polypeptide». *↑ Kristensen, Lars P; Larsen Martin R, Højrup Peter, Issinger Olaf ...
ACE (Angiotensin converting enzyme) then removes a further two residues, converting angiotensin I into angiotensin II. ACE is ... The lactotripeptides Val-Pro-Pro and Ile-Pro-Pro produced by the probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus or derived from casein have ... A decrease renal protein kinase C. With ACE inhibitor use, the production of ATII is decreased, which prevents aldosterone ... ACE inhibitors do not completely prevent the formation of angiotensin II, as blockage is dose-dependent, so angiotensin II ...
2003). "Regulation of phosducin-like protein by casein kinase 2 and N-terminal splicing.". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (7): 4474-81. ... 2000). "Phosphorylation of phosducin and phosducin-like protein by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 ( ... 2006). "Mechanism of assembly of G protein betagamma subunits by protein kinase CK2-phosphorylated phosducin-like protein and ... Phosducin-like‏ (Phosducin-like protein) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين Phosducin-like في الإنسان.[1][2] ...
... cAMP-dependent protein kinase), one of the first few kinases discovered. It has four sub-units two catalytic and two regulatory ... Other protein kinase. Serine/threonine:. *Casein kinase *1. *2. *eIF-2 kinase *EIF2AK3 ... Main article: function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, ... an enzyme called protein kinase A (PKA).[12]. The PKA enzyme is also known as cAMP-dependent enzyme because it gets activated ...
Other protein kinase. Serine/threonine:. *Casein kinase *1. *2. *eIF-2 kinase *EIF2AK3 ... There are two main groups of cyclins: *G1/S cyclins - essential for the control of the cell cycle at the G1/S transition, * ... Cyclins contain two domains of a similar all-α fold, the first located at the N-terminus and the second at the C-terminus. All ... Cyclins, when bound with the dependent kinases, such as the p34/cdc2/cdk1 protein, form the maturation-promoting factor. MPFs ...
Two dioxygenases are necessary for the decomposition path. The end products can then enter into the citric acid cycle. ... Some of the tyrosine residues can be tagged (at the hydroxyl group) with a phosphate group (phosphorylated) by protein kinases ... as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese.[2][3] It is called ... Two methods were formerly used to manufacture L-tyrosine. The first involves the extraction of the desired amino acid from ...
Lin R., Hiscott J. (1999). A role for casein kinase II phosphorylation in the regulation of IRF-1 transcriptional activity.. ... transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • transcription, DNA-templated. • regulation of cell cycle. • positive ... GO:0000980 RNA polymerase II cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • GO:0000975 ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • negative regulation of cell proliferation. • positive ...
NUCKS1: Nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate. *NVL: Nuclear valosin-containing protein-like ... Humans have two copies of chromosome 1, as they do with all of the autosomes, which are the non-sex chromosomes. Chromosome 1 ... It was the last completed chromosome, sequenced two decades after the beginning of the Human Genome Project. ... 978-1-136-84407-2. .. *^ a b Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last ...
Proteins responsible for post-translational modification of clock genes include casein kinase family members (casein kinase 1 ... and create two interlocking feedback loops.[26] In the primary feedback loop, members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS ... and casein kinase 1 epsilon (CSNK1E) and the F-box leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (FBXL3).[27] In mammals, CSNK1E and CSNK1D are ... and two cryptochrome genes (CRY1 and CRY2). Negative feedback is achieved by PER:CRY heterodimers that translocate back to the ...
Xu X, Toselli PA, Russell LD, Seldin DC (1999). "Globozoospermia in mice lacking the casein kinase II alpha catalytic subunit ... CSNK2A1 CSNK2A2 Casein kinase 1 - a distinct protein kinase family Ahmad KA, Wang G, Unger G, Slaton J, Ahmed K (2008). " ... Casein kinase 2 (EC 2.7.11.1)(CK2/CSNK2) is a serine/threonine-selective protein kinase that has been implicated in cell cycle ... Casein kinase 2 activity has been reported to be activated following Wnt signaling pathway activation. A Pertussis toxin- ...
Casein kinase II subunit alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CSNK2A1 gene. Casein kinase II is a serine/ ... "Mapping of the human casein kinase II catalytic subunit genes: two loci carrying the homologous sequences for the alpha subunit ... Yamaguchi Y, Wada T, Suzuki F, Takagi T, Hasegawa J, Handa H (August 1998). "Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains ... Three transcript variants encoding two different proteins have been found for this gene. Casein kinase 2, alpha 1 has been ...
Casein kinase II, regulatory subunit (IPR000704). Short name: Casein_kinase_II_reg-sub ... Human phosvitin/casein kinase type II. Molecular cloning and sequencing of full-length cDNA encoding subunit beta.. Eur. J. ... Cloning and disruption of CKB1, the gene encoding the 38-kDa beta subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae casein kinase II (CKII). ... Cloning and disruption of CKB1, the gene encoding the 38-kDa beta subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae casein kinase II (CKII). ...
... is a constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase and the general recognition motif for phsophorylation is SXXE/D. ... Casein Kinase II (CK2) Casein Kinase II (CKII) is a constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase composed of two 44 ... Casein Kinase II (CK2) is a constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase composed of two 44 kDa catalytic α-subunits ... Home Protein Tools Products Casein Kinase II (CK2) ... How much Casein Kinase II (NEB# P6010) should be used? * What ...
Casein kinase II (CK-II) is a ubiquitous protein kinase, localized to both nucleus and cytoplasm, with strong specificity for ... Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II.. Lüscher B1, Kuenzel EA, Krebs EG, Eisenman RN. ... Our results, along with previous studies on myc deletion mutants, show that Myc is phosphorylated by CK-II, or a kinase with ... Since CK-II can be rapidly activated after mitogen treatment we postulate that CK-II mediated phosphorylation of Myc plays a ...
Constitutive phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha by casein kinase II. C F Barroga, J K Stevenson, E M Schwarz, and I M Verma ... Constitutive phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha by casein kinase II Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... There are several consensus sites for casein kinase II (CKII) in the C-terminal region of I kappa B alpha. Additionally, the ... A two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide map of I kappa B alpha from unstimulated cells was identical to that obtained by in ...
casein kinase II subunit alpha. Names. CK II alpha. casein kinase II, alpha 2, polypeptide. NP_034104.1. *EC 2.7.11.1 ... XM_006530641.3 → XP_006530704.1 casein kinase II subunit alpha isoform X2. Conserved Domains (2) summary. cd14132. Location:22 ... NM_009974.3 → NP_034104.1 casein kinase II subunit alpha. See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_034104.1 ... XM_006530643.3 → XP_006530706.1 casein kinase II subunit alpha isoform X3. See identical proteins and their annotated ...
Alfa Aesar Casein Kinase II Substrate 1mg Electrophoresis, Western Blotting and ELISA:Western Blotting Reagents, Membranes, ...
Heterotetramer composed of two catalytic subunits (alpha chain and/or alpha chain) and two regulatory subunits (beta chains). ... However, besides these two, there are many other icons. For more information about the meaning and exact position of a sequence ... RCSB PDB (citation) is managed by two members of the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics: Rutgers and UCSD/ ... Catalytic subunit of a constitutively active serine/threonine-protein kinase complex that phosphorylates a large number of ...
Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. ... However, besides these two, there are many other icons. For more information about the meaning and exact position of a sequence ... RCSB PDB (citation) is managed by two members of the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics: Rutgers and UCSD/ ...
Rabbit polyclonal Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2 antibody validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Referenced in 4 publications ... Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CK1 Ser/Thr protein kinase family. Casein kinase I subfamily.. Contains 1 protein ... Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. It ... All lanes : Anti-Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2 antibody (ab64829) at 1/500 dilution. Lane 1 : HeLa cell extract. Lane 2 : 293 cell ...
6. Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor Pipeline Products in Non-clinical Stages 6.1 Drug Name : Company Name*Product Description ... 5. Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor Pipeline Products in Clinical Stages. 5.1 Drug Name : Company Name*Product Description ... Features the Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor pipeline across the complete product development cycle including all clinical and non- ... Table 3: Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor Therapeutic Products in Non-clinical Stages. Table 4: Pipeline Assessment by Route of ...
Regulates transcription by direct phosphorylation of RNA polymerases I, II, III and IV. Also phosphorylates and regulates ... Catalytic subunit of a constitutively active serine/threonine-protein kinase complex that phosphorylates a large number of ... IPR011009. Kinase-like_dom. IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... IPR011009. Kinase-like_dom. IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ...
Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. ... IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... Casein kinase II subunit alphaAdd BLAST. 332. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Casein Kinase 2 beta antibody [EPR1994]. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. ... Cited in 3 publication(s). Independently reviewed in 2 review(s). ... Casein kinase II beta subunit antibody. *Casein kinase II ... All lanes : Anti-Casein Kinase 2 beta antibody [EPR1994] (ab133576) at 1/1000 dilution. Lane 1 : HepG2 cell lysate. Lane 2 : ... Beale AD et al. Casein Kinase 1 Underlies Temperature Compensation of Circadian Rhythms in Human Red Blood Cells. J Biol ...
Association of casein kinase 2 with nuclear chromatin in relation to androgenic regulation of rat prostate.. K Ahmed, S Yenice ... Casein kinase 2 (CK-2) is a ubiquitous messenger-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in growth ... Association of casein kinase 2 with nuclear chromatin in relation to androgenic regulation of rat prostate. ... Association of casein kinase 2 with nuclear chromatin in relation to androgenic regulation of rat prostate. ...
"Casein Kinase II" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Casein Kinase II" was a major or minor topic of ... A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase ... "Casein Kinase II" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... "Casein Kinase II" by people in Profiles.. * Kim JM, Yang YS, Park KH, Ge X, Xu R, Li N, Song M, Chun H, Bok S, Charles JF, ...
Casein kinase 2 (CK2) binds and phosphorylates SP1, a transcription factor of KCNJ2 that encodes Kir2.1. Whether valsartan ... Valsartan Upregulates Kir2.1 in Rats Suffering from Myocardial Infarction via Casein Kinase 2.. [Xinran Li, Hesheng Hu, Ye Wang ...
Bid plays an essential role in Fas-mediated apoptosis of the so-called type II cells. In these cells, following cleavage by ... Here we report that Bid is phosphorylated by casein kinase I (CKI) and casein kinase II (CKII). Inhibition of CKI and CKII ... Phosphorylation of bid by casein kinases I and II regulates its cleavage by caspase 8 Mol Cell. 2001 Sep;8(3):601-11. doi: ... Bid plays an essential role in Fas-mediated apoptosis of the so-called type II cells. In these cells, following cleavage by ...
Casein kinase II alpha subunit , casein kinase II, alpha 1 polypeptide , casein kinase II, alpha 1 related sequence 4 , Casein ... casein kinase II alpha 1 subunit , casein kinase II subunit alpha , protein kinase CK2 , casein kinase 2 alpha subunit , ck2 ... Casein kinase II is a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins such as casein. The kinase exists as ... casein kinase II subunit alpha-like , CK II alpha , casein kinase 2, alpha subunit , CK II , casein kinase II alpha subunit , ...
... casein kinase 1ε (CK1ε), casein kinase 2 (CK2) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)], at least two protein phosphatases ( ... Ribosomal S6 Kinase Cooperates with Casein Kinase 2 to Modulate the Drosophila Circadian Molecular Oscillator. Bikem Akten, ... 2002) In vivo functional analysis of Drosophila protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) beta-subunit. Gene 298:29-39. ... Ribosomal S6 Kinase Cooperates with Casein Kinase 2 to Modulate the Drosophila Circadian Molecular Oscillator ...
In nonstimulated fibroblasts and epithelial cells, c-Jun is phosphorylated on a cluster of two to three sites abutting its DNA- ... We show that two of these sites, Thr-231 and Ser-249, are phosphorylated by casein kinase II (CKII). Substitution of the third ... Casein kinase II is a negative regulator of c-Jun DNA binding and AP-1 activity Cell. 1992 Sep 4;70(5):777-89. doi: 10.1016/ ... These results suggest that one of the roles of CKII, a major nuclear protein kinase with no known functions, is to attenuate AP ...
View and select products within our casein kinase II alpha Inhibitors category available for immediate purchase. ... Buy casein kinase II alpha Inhibitors from Santa Cruz. ... casein kinase II alpha Inhibitors. Casein kinase I (also ... and casein kinase II (also designated CKII) compose a family of serine/ threonine protein kinases which are present in all ... Biochemicals that inhibit casein kinase II alpha have many applications in biochemical and physiological research. Click on the ...
Protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2 proteinAdd BLAST. 488. ... sp,Q9QY17,PACN2_RAT Protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2 protein OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Pacsin2 PE=1 SV=2 ... Cluster: Protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons protein 2. 159. ... Cluster: Protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons protein 2. 630. ...
... protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... PACSIN2 11252 protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2. ... X Y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 NA PACSIN2 (protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in ...
Showing Protein Casein kinase II subunit alpha (HMDBP01476). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein ... Involved in protein kinase activity. Specific Function. Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential ... subunits of casein kinase II. Biochemistry. 1990 Sep 11;29(36):8436-47. [PubMed:2174700 ] ... Daub H, Olsen JV, Bairlein M, Gnad F, Oppermann FS, Korner R, Greff Z, Keri G, Stemmann O, Mann M: Kinase-selective enrichment ...
Compare and order Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. ... Mouse (Murine) Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2 ELISA Kit (ABIN5648047) - geliefert von Anmelden zum Anzeigen ... Rat (Rattus) Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2 ELISA Kit (ABIN5648047) - geliefert von Anmelden zum Anzeigen ... Human Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2 ELISA Kit (ABIN5648047) - geliefert von Anmelden zum Anzeigen ...
Regulation of the Casein Kinase -2 in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells You will receive an email whenever this article is ... S. Hoffmann, H. S. Walter, B. Seitz, M. Montenarh; Regulation of the Casein Kinase -2 in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. ... Caseinkinase-2 (CK-2) is a cell signalling molecule involved in epithelial- mesenchymal transition. Until now, the regulation, ... CK-2 seems to have impact on the inhibition of RPE cell proliferation most likely by modulating cellular apoptosis. ...
Cilostazol Prevents Focal Cerebral Ischemic Injury by Enhancing Casein Kinase 2 Phosphorylation and Suppression of Phosphatase ... Cilostazol Prevents Focal Cerebral Ischemic Injury by Enhancing Casein Kinase 2 Phosphorylation and Suppression of Phosphatase ... Cilostazol Prevents Focal Cerebral Ischemic Injury by Enhancing Casein Kinase 2 Phosphorylation and Suppression of Phosphatase ... Cilostazol Prevents Focal Cerebral Ischemic Injury by Enhancing Casein Kinase 2 Phosphorylation and Suppression of Phosphatase ...
casein kinase II. DRB. 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole 1-β-d-ribofuranoside. EPSC. excitatory postsynaptic current. mEPSC. miniature ... protein kinase A, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, or the Src tyrosine kinase (Pinna, 1990). The concentration of ... Casein Kinase II Regulates N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Activity in Spinal Cords and Pain Hypersensitivity Induced by Nerve ... 1999) Casein kinase-II regulates NMDA channel function in hippocampal neurons. Nat Neurosci 2:125-132. ...
  • Casein kinase 2 (EC 2.7.11.1)(CK2/CSNK2) is a serine/threonine-selective protein kinase that has been implicated in cell cycle control, DNA repair, regulation of the circadian rhythm, and other cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alpha-subunit is the catalytic unit and contains regions characteristic of serine/threonine protein kinases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Casein Kinase II (CKII) is a constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase composed of two 44 kDa catalytic α-subunits and two 26 kDa regulatory β-subunits in an α2β2 configuration to form stable heterotetramers. (neb.com)
  • CK2 holoenzyme undergoes autophosphorylation at two serine residues (S2/S3) of its β-subunit. (neb.com)
  • Casein kinase II is a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins such as casein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Casein kinase II (CK-II) is a ubiquitous protein kinase, localized to both nucleus and cytoplasm, with strong specificity for serine residues positioned within clusters of acidic amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • Catalytic subunit of a constitutively active serine/threonine-protein kinase complex that phosphorylates a large number of substrates containing acidic residues C-terminal to the phosphorylated serine or threonine. (rcsb.org)
  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase. (abcam.com)
  • Casein kinase 2 (CK-2) is a ubiquitous messenger-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in growth control. (pnas.org)
  • Casein kinase I (also designated CKI) and casein kinase II (also designated CKII) compose a family of serine/ threonine protein kinases which are present in all eukaryotes examined to date. (scbt.com)
  • The protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CSNK2 or CK2) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is expressed in most cell types [ 1 ] . (medsci.org)
  • The Casein kinase 2 (EC 2.7.11.1) is a serine/threonine-selective protein kinase that is a tetramer of two alpha subunits and two beta subunits. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Its lipid transfer activity is negatively regulated by casein kinase, a serine/threonine-protein kinase which phosphorylates STARD10 on a serine residue at position 284 (Olayioye et al. (reactome.org)
  • 100 µg) CSNK2A1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins such as casein. (allelebiotech.com)
  • Casein kinase II is a serine/threonine protein kinase complex that phosphorylates numerous substrates including casein. (genecards.org)
  • S)-1-Carboxy-2-Phenyl]-carbamoyl-Arg-Val-arginal Specificity: Inhibits Ca 2+ -dependent endopeptidases, including papain, trypsin-like serine proteases, some cysteine proteases and to a lesser extent plasmin. (thomassci.com)
  • Motifs and phosphorylation analyses showed conserved amidation, N -myristoylation, casein kinase-2 (CK2), serine and threonine phosphorylation sites. (mdpi.com)
  • CK2 (casein kinase 2) is an ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase that forms a tetramer containing two catalytic (α and/or α´) subunits and two regulatory β subunits [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The serine/threonine kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) has a well-reported role in prostate cancer resistance to apoptotic agents or anticancer drugs. (abo.fi)
  • The Casein Kinase 1 are protein kinases that are serine/threonine-selective enzymes. (prospecbio.com)
  • Because it is known that 1) these transcription factors are activated by phosphorylation ( 30 , 31 ), and 2) the activation of CHOP, a member of the C/EBP transcription factor family, is dependent upon phosphorylation at serine residues 78 and 81 by the p38 MAPK ( 32 ), we examined the possibility that the p38 MAPK, through C/EBPβ and -δ factors, might also be important for IL-1β transcription. (jimmunol.org)
  • This is a heterogeneous group of serine/threonine protein kinases that do not have an activating compound and are either non-specific or their specificity has not been analysed to date. (genome.jp)
  • α being 42 kDa and α' being 38 kDa, and two β subunits, each weighing in at 28 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The β regulatory domain only has one isoform and therefore within the tetramer will have two β subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme is a tetramer of 2 alpha- and 2 beta-subunits [ PMID: 2666134 , PMID: 1856204 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • However, some species (e.g., mammals) possess 2 related forms of the alpha-subunit (alpha and alpha'), while others (e.g., fungi) possess 2 related beta-subunits (beta and beta') [ PMID: 7737972 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The kinase exists as a tetramer and is composed of an alpha, an alpha-prime, and two beta subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heterotetramer composed of two catalytic subunits (alpha chain and/or alpha' chain) and two regulatory subunits (beta chains). (rcsb.org)
  • The tetramer can exist as a combination of 2 alpha/2 beta, 2 alpha'/2 beta or 1 alpha/1 alpha'/2 beta subunits. (rcsb.org)
  • A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. (harvard.edu)
  • Ahmed, Davis, Hanten, Lambert, McIvor, Goueli: Cloning of cDNAs encoding the alpha and beta subunits of rat casein kinase 2 (CK-2): investigation of molecular regulation of CK-2 by androgens in rat ventral prostate. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Lozeman FJ, Litchfield DW, Piening C, Takio K, Walsh KA, Krebs EG: Isolation and characterization of human cDNA clones encoding the alpha and the alpha' subunits of casein kinase II. (hmdb.ca)
  • NF-κB activation was specifically inhibited by kinase-dead mutants of the IKK1 and IKK2 subunits or small interfering RNA targeting the β subunit of CK2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is composed of 2 large catalytic subunits, CK2α (44 kDa) and CK2α' (36 kDa), and 2 small non-catalytic CK2β subunits (25 kDa). (medsci.org)
  • The alpha subunits have the catalytic kinase domain. (creativebiomart.net)
  • PKCK2 is a tetramer composed of two catalytic kinase domains, alpha subunits, and two identical regulatory beta subunits. (arp1.com)
  • Human recombinant casein kinase 2 holo enzyme containing alpha and beta subunits which were separately expressed in E. coli as non-fusion proteins and purified using several chromatographic steps. (neobiolab.com)
  • Muscle myosin is a hexameric protein that consists of 2 heavy chain subunits ,MHC), 2 alkali light chain subunits ,MLC) and 2 regulatory light chain subunits ,MLC2). (casein-kinases.com)
  • Holoenzyme can be activated by adding the second messenger cAMP (Activation constant about 100nM) releasing two monomeric catalytic subunits. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Activity of recombinant alpha and beta subunits of casein kinase II from Xenopus laevis. (cngb.org)
  • The ratio of β:α subunits of casein kinase 2 present in the nuclease extracts was higher than that of the purified enzyme, which is assumed to be 1:1. (uab.cat)
  • Casein kinase II consists of catalytic (alpha) and regulatory (beta) subunits complexed into a heterotetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure. (umassmed.edu)
  • Full-length cDNAs encoding the alpha and beta subunits of human casein kinase II were subcloned into an expression vector containing the cytomegalovirus promotor, yielding the expression constructs pCMV-alpha and pCMV-beta. (umassmed.edu)
  • Zandi E, Rothwarf DM, Delhase M, Hayakawa M, Karin M (1997) The IkappaB kinase complex (IKK) contains two kinase subunits, IKKalpha and IKKbeta, necessary for IkappaB phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation. (springer.com)
  • Cloning and disruption of CKB1, the gene encoding the 38-kDa beta subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae casein kinase II (CKII). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • There are several consensus sites for casein kinase II (CKII) in the C-terminal region of I kappa B alpha. (pnas.org)
  • Additionally, the activity of the cellular kinase is blocked by antibodies against the alpha subunit of CKII. (pnas.org)
  • Here we report that Bid is phosphorylated by casein kinase I (CKI) and casein kinase II (CKII). (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of CKI and CKII accelerated Fas-mediated apoptosis and Bid cleavage, whereas hyperactivity of the kinases delayed apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • We show that two of these sites, Thr-231 and Ser-249, are phosphorylated by casein kinase II (CKII). (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that one of the roles of CKII, a major nuclear protein kinase with no known functions, is to attenuate AP-1 activity through phosphorylation of c-Jun. (nih.gov)
  • Biochemical criteria and immunological cross-reactivity identified the kinase activity as the alpha catalytic subunit of casein kinase II (CKII). (asm.org)
  • In addition to CKII, it is also shown to interact, directly or indirectly, with cellular TANK-binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) and NIMA-related kinase 9 (NEK9). (merckmillipore.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Casein Kinase 2, alpha 1 Polypeptide Proteine (21) und Casein Kinase 2, alpha 1 Polypeptide Kits (11) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • CSNK2B - Casein kinase 2, beta polypeptide, also known as CSNK2B, is a human gene. (academic.ru)
  • Recombinant Human Casein Kinase 2 alpha is a non-glycosylated polypeptide having a molecular mass of 45.1 kDa. (creativebiomart.net)
  • CK2A Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain encoding the sequence of 411 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 47.3 kDa.Casein Kinase 2 alpha subunit is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. (neobiolab.com)
  • The CK2 substrate specificity is invariably determined by multiple acidic residues located at positions between -2 and +5 relative to the target amino acid (mostly Ser and rarely Thr). (neb.com)
  • By using an in-gel kinase assay with recombinant IkappaBalpha as substrate, two forms of the kinase (43 and 38 kDa) were identified. (asm.org)
  • Here we report that TRF1 interacts with the βsubunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2) and serves as a substrate for CK2. (elsevier.com)
  • This gene is a member of the protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons family. (nih.gov)
  • Heparin is a potent inhibitor of the kinase when casein, glycogen synthase, or myosin light chain is the substrate. (elsevier.com)
  • However, with troponin as substrate the kinase is relatively insensitive to inhibition by heparin. (elsevier.com)
  • The amount of heparin required for 50% inhibition with troponin as substrate is at least 10 times greater than with casein as substrate. (elsevier.com)
  • In the work described here, we tested whether this cardiac-specific sequence is a substrate for casein kinase II. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results indicate that the cardiac isoform of calsequestrin is the preferred substrate for casein kinase II both in vivo and in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • In this work, we demonstrate both in rat and humans that (i) Par-4 is a new substrate of the survival kinase CK2 and (ii) phosphorylation by CK2 impairs Par-4 proapoptotic functions. (abo.fi)
  • It is a major protein kinase C ( PKC ) substrate and is considered to play a key role in neurite formation, regeneration, and plasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • GAP-43 is also a protein kinase C (PKC) substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report the identification and partial purification of a cellular kinase from unstimulated or stimulated murine cells, which specifically phosphorylates the C terminus of I kappa B alpha. (pnas.org)
  • Title: Casein kinase 2 phosphorylates and stabilizes C/EBPβ in pancreatic β cells. (nih.gov)
  • Casein kinase 2 (CK2) binds and phosphorylates SP1, a transcription factor of KCNJ2 that encodes Kir2.1. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Previously, we demonstrated that CK2 kinase phosphorylates the Ikaros tumor suppressor in vivo and that phosphorylation of Ikaros at specific amino acids interferes with the normal function of the Ikaros protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Casein kinase II phosphorylates exposed Ser or sometimes Thr residues, provided that an acidic residue is present three residues from the phosphate acceptor site. (academic.ru)
  • Furthermore, yeast casein kinase II phosphorylates recombinant wild-type eIF-2 alpha protein in vitro but does not phosphorylate recombinant eIF-2 alpha that contains Ser-to-Ala mutations at all three consensus casein kinase II sequences. (asm.org)
  • These data strongly support the conclusion that casein kinase II directly phosphorylates eIF-2 alpha at one or all of these Ser amino acids in vivo. (asm.org)
  • CSNK2 phosphorylates various proteins that deal with cell cycle regulation, cell survival, cell morphology, cell metabolism, tumorigenesis, and cancer cell invasiveness [ 2 ] . (medsci.org)
  • Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor - Pipeline Insight, 2018' reportoffers comprehensive insights of the pipeline (under development) therapeutics scenario and growth prospects across Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor development. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Descriptive coverage of pipeline development activities for Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor - Pipeline therapeutics development coverage provides descriptive product profiles including (but not limited to) drug description, product development and R&D activities encompassing clinical and pre-clinical studies, designations, collaborations, licensing deals, grants, technologies and patent details. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The report assesses the active Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor pipeline products by developmental stage, product type, molecule type, and administration route. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Inhibitor-κB (IκB) kinase (IKK) is known to activate NF-κB by inducing NH 2 -terminal phosphorylation and degradation of its endogenous inhibitor, IκB. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A cell-permeable pyrrolo-pyrimidone compound that acts as a potent, ATP-competitive inhibitor of casein kinase II (IC 50 = 9 nM) and an effective inducer of normal human keratinocytes (NHEK) differentiation (EC 50 = 100 nM). (merckmillipore.com)
  • Casein Kinase II Inhibitor III, TBCA, CAS 934358-00-6, is a cell-permeable, potent and ATP-competitive inhibitor of Casein Kinase II (IC50 = 110 nM, Ki = 77 nM). (merckmillipore.com)
  • A cell-permeable tetrabrominated cinnamic acid compound that acts as a potent and ATP-competitive inhibitor of Casein Kinase II (IC 50 = 110 nM, K i = 77 nM) with greater selectivity than TBB (Cat. (merckmillipore.com)
  • A screen profiling 158 kinase inhibitors (Calbiochem Protein Kinase Inhibitor Library I and II, catalogue numbers 539744 and 539745) for their inhibitory activity at 1µM and 10µM against 234 human recombinant kinases using the EMD Millipore KinaseProfiler TM service. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • The Casein Kinase II Inhibitor VIII controls the biological activity of Casein Kinase II. (emdmillipore.com)
  • A cell-permeable thiazolamide compound that acts as a potent, reversible, and ATP-competitive inhibitor against casein kinase-2/CK2 (IC 50 = 32 and 46 nM against CK2α and CK2α', respectively), as well as DYRK1B and FLt-3 (82% and 76% inhibition, respectively, at 30 nM), while diplaying reduced or little potency toward other targets in a 70-kinase panel selectivity profile study. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Treatment with the COX2 inhibitor or knockdown of COX2 reduced expression of casein kinase (CK) 2 α, a phophorylated Akt and urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA), resulting in p27 induction, cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and cell growth suppression in human urothelial carcinoma cell lines expressing COX2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calbiochem A potent, ATP-competitive, and specific inhibitor of casein kinase II (IC₅₀ = 6 µM). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, the effect of simultaneous bFGF and PDGF-BB stimulation and CK-2 inhibition on RPE cell proliferation was investigated by an MTT-assay. (arvojournals.org)
  • CK-2 seems to have impact on the inhibition of RPE cell proliferation most likely by modulating cellular apoptosis. (arvojournals.org)
  • Inhibition of protein tyrosine kinases or protein kinase C has little effect on NMDAR currents potentiated by nerve injury. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Inhibition of CK2 kinase by 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1 H -benzimidazole resulted in increased doxorubicin accumulation in MRP1 cells, but not in MRP1 CK2α(−), MRP1-T249A, or MRP1-T249E cells, suggesting that CK2α regulates MRP1 function via phosphorylation of Thr249. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Casein kinase 2 inhibition sensitizes medulloblastoma to temozolomide. (stanford.edu)
  • Previously, the pleiotropic "master kinase" casein kinase 2 (CK2) was shown to interact with CFTR, the protein responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF). Moreover, CK2 inhibition abolished CFTR conductance in cell-attached membrane patches, native epithelial ducts, and Xenopus oocytes. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • LPS-stimulated p38 MAPK activity in the RAW264.7 cells was blocked by SB203580, as measured by the inhibition of MAPKAP2 kinase activity, a downstream target of the p38 MAPK. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recombinant CK2α was shown to phosphorylate recombinant IKK2 as well as to promote immunoprecipitated IKK complex from HNSCC to phosphorylate the NH 2 -terminal S32/S36 of IκBα. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sample: Recombinant casein kinase II α-Subunit. (emdmillipore.com)
  • A screen profiling the inhibitory activity of 178 commercially available kinase inhibitors at 0.5µM against a panel of 300 recombinant protein kinases using the Reaction Biology Corporation Kinase Hotspot SM platform. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Recombinant Human Protein kinase Casein Kinase 2 alpha, His-tagged Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Recombinant Human Protein kinase Casein Kinase 2 alpha, His-tagged. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Recombinant Human Casein Kinase 2 beta, Active Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • In addition, synthetic peptides with sequences corresponding to putative CK-II phosphorylation sites in Myc are subject to multiple, highly efficient phosphorylations by CK-II, and can act as competitive inhibitors of CK-II phosphorylation of Myc in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • We have used such peptides to map the phosphorylated regions in Myc and have located major CK-II phosphorylations within the central highly acidic domain and within a region proximal to the C terminus. (nih.gov)
  • The phosphorylation of troponin by casein kinase-2 results in the incorporation of phosphate into two major tryptic peptides, which are different from those phosphorylated by casein kinase-1. (elsevier.com)
  • Three of the four peptides, plus another (Mr 175 000), were phosphorylated by purified casein kinase II while two peptides (Mr 95 000 and Mr 76 000) were phosphorylated with casein kinase I. The mRNP particles were not substrates for the cAMP-dependent protein kinases. (duke.edu)
  • Structure of the gene encoding human casein kinase II subunit beta. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Synthetic peptide derived from N-terminus of human Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2. (abcam.com)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to a region within Human Casein Kinase 2 beta (UniProt P67870). (abcam.com)
  • Devilat, Carvallo: Structure and sequence of an intronless gene for human casein kinase II-alpha subunit. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Human anti Human casein kinase 2 alpha 1 antibody recognizes the casein kinase 2 subunit alpha, also known as CK II alpha. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Human anti Human casein kinase 2 alpha 1 antibody detects a band of 42 kDa. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • CSNK2A1 CSNK2A2 Casein kinase 1 - a distinct protein kinase family Ahmad KA, Wang G, Unger G, Slaton J, Ahmed K (2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • Casein kinase II subunit alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CSNK2A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lepr db / + Lepr db mice, T2DM, Casein Kinase 2 Alpha 1 (CSNK2A1). (medsci.org)
  • In this study, we investigated casein kinase 2 alpha 1 (CSNK2A1) gene and protein expression in the liver tissues of mice at different ages (4, 16, and 32 weeks) using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (medsci.org)
  • Three transcript variants encoding two different proteins have been found for CSNK2A1 (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008). (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • In mammals, RSK1 is a light- and clock-regulated kinase known to be activated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, but there is no direct evidence that it functions as a component of the circadian system. (jneurosci.org)
  • Several reports have shown that bicyclic imidazoles, specific inhibitors of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), block cytokine synthesis at the translational level. (jimmunol.org)
  • Regulates transcription by direct phosphorylation of RNA polymerases I, II, III and IV. (rcsb.org)
  • In this study, we explored whether casein kinase 2α (CK2α), the human homolog of Cka1p, regulates MRP1 by phosphorylation at the semiconserved site Thr249. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This gene encodes the beta subunit of casein kinase II, a ubiquitous protein kinase which regulates metabolic pathways, signal transduction, transcription, translation, and replication. (nih.gov)
  • The conserved protein kinase CK2 negatively regulates centrosome assembly and is required for proper cell cycle progression and cytokinesis in early C. elegans embryos. (biologists.org)
  • Polycystin-1 regulates actin cytoskeleton organization and directional cell migration through a novel PC1-Pacsin 2-N-Wasp complex. (nih.gov)
  • The mammalian beta-subunit gene promoter shares common features with those of other mammalian protein kinases and is closely related to the promoter of the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase [ PMID: 7737972 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Three transcript variants encoding two different proteins have been found for this gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Title: Casein kinase 2-mediated phosphorylation of Brahma-related gene 1 controls myoblast proliferation and contributes to SWI/SNF complex composition. (nih.gov)
  • Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression. (harvard.edu)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2 alpha), encoded by the SUI2 gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is phosphorylated at Ser-51 by the GCN2 kinase in response to general amino acid control. (asm.org)
  • Although substitution of SUI2 genes mutated at these sites for the wild-type gene have no obvious effect on cell growth, one test that we have used appears to demonstrate that the inability to phosphorylate these sites has a physiological consequence on eIF-2 function in S. cerevisiae. (asm.org)
  • Haploid strains constructed to contain Ser-to-Ala mutations at the consensus casein kinase II sequences in SUI2 in combination with a mutated allele of either the GCN2, GCN3, or GCD7 gene have synthetic growth defects. (asm.org)
  • Kunal Chopra , Shoko Ishibashi and Enrique Amaya find that zebrafish harbouring two loss-of-function alleles of the single duox gene exhibit various adult phenotypes reminiscent of human congenital hypothyroidism. (biologists.org)
  • Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the casein kinase II alpha protein. (genecards.org)
  • CSNK2A3 (Casein Kinase 2 Alpha 3) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Our integrated gene network and useful evaluation indicated that Sox4 features as a bimodular transcription aspect and guarantees N family tree precursor difference through 2 specific systems. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Bid plays an essential role in Fas-mediated apoptosis of the so-called type II cells. (nih.gov)
  • We found that C/EBPβ is phosphorylated by CK2 under AMPK suppression and ER stress, which are important from the viewpoint of the worsening pathological condition of type 2 diabetes, such as decreased insulin secretion and apoptosis of pancreatic β cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The first to be discovered was its capability to drive cell proliferation (upregulates cyclins, downregulates p21), but it also plays a very important role in regulating cell growth (upregulates ribosomal RNA and proteins), apoptosis (downregulates Bcl-2 ), differentiation, and stem cell self-renewal. (wikipedia.org)
  • As Casein kinase-2 (CK2) induces aberrant NF-κB activation and as we observed elevated CK2 levels in GBM tumors, we investigated the potential of CK2 inhibitors (CK2-Is)-DRB and Apigenin in sensitizing glioma cells to TNFα-induced apoptosis. (tut.fi)
  • In SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infected Caco-2 cells, the phosphorylase activity of CK2 is increased resulting in phosphorylation of several cytoskeletal proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper we show that cellular myc-encoded proteins, derived from avian and human cells, can serve as substrates for phosphorylation by purified CK-II in vitro and that this phosphorylation is reversible. (nih.gov)
  • Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. (rcsb.org)
  • Previous work in Drosophila has identified several kinases, phosphatases, and an E3 ligase that are critical for determining the nuclear translocation and/or stability of clock proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Identification of casein kinase II and phosphorylated proteins associated with messenger ribonucleoproteins particles from reticulocytes. (duke.edu)
  • Phosphorylation of the β subunit of EF-1 from rabbit reticulocytes by casein kinase II was stimulated up to 22-fold by polylysine, while basic proteins or polyarginine enhanced phosphorylation to a lesser extent. (elsevier.com)
  • 1 ) antioxidant defenses, (2) the regulation of structural, contractile and metabolic proteins, (3) ubiquitin proteosomal machinery, and ( 4 ) macroautophagy pathways. (degruyter.com)
  • Cardiac MHC exists as two isoforms in humans, alphacardiac MHC and betacardiac MHC. (casein-kinases.com)
  • These two isoforms are expressed in different amounts in the human heart. (casein-kinases.com)
  • Cala, SE & Jones, L 1991, ' Phosphorylation of cardiac and skeletal muscle calsequestrin isoforms by casein kinase II: Demonstration of a cluster of unique rapidly phosphorylated sites in cardiac calsequestrin ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 266, no. 1, pp. 391-398. (elsevier.com)
  • Several different family members (sometimes thought of as isoforms that are encoded by distinct genes) are possessed by mammals -- these are alpha, beta 1, gamma 1, gamma 2, gamma 3, delta, and epsilon. (prospecbio.com)
  • Abstract 4371: Anti-leukemia effect of Casein Kinase II (CK2) inhibitors in vivo is mediated by the Ikaros tumor suppressor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • abstract = "During the development of type 2 diabetes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to pancreatic β cell failure. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Casein kinase 2 was released from rat liver cells nuclei by digestion with DNase 1 plus RNase A. This treatment also released three major substrates of 50, 40-42, and 37 kDa. (uab.cat)
  • Reaction Conditions: 1X NEBuffer for Protein Kinases (PK), supplement with 200 µM ATP and gamma-labeled ATP to a final specific activity of 100-500 µCi/µmol. (neb.com)
  • NEBuffer for Protein Kinases (PK) will also accept GTP as a phosphoryl donor in place of ATP). (neb.com)
  • At a 1X concentration the NEBuffer for Protein Kinases (PK) assures optimal activity of protein kinase enzymes. (neb.com)
  • Tetramer of two alpha and two beta chains (possible). (rcsb.org)
  • A two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide map of I kappa B alpha from unstimulated cells was identical to that obtained by in vitro phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha with the partially purified cellular kinase. (pnas.org)
  • In nonstimulated fibroblasts and epithelial cells, c-Jun is phosphorylated on a cluster of two to three sites abutting its DNA-binding domain. (nih.gov)
  • Until now, the regulation, function and expression of CK-2 in RPE cells has not been enlightened. (arvojournals.org)
  • Furthermore, the modulation ofCK-2 in RPE cells by the specific inhibitors TBB and Quin was investigated. (arvojournals.org)
  • The PVR associated growth factors bFGF and PDGF-BB have no impact on the expression of CK-2 in RPE cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • CK-2 expression in RPE cells is not modulated by the PVR associated growth factors bFGF and PDGF-BB. (arvojournals.org)
  • Casein kinase 2 (CK2) was previously reported to be overexpressed in HNSCC cells and to be a COOH-terminal IKK, but its relationship to NF-κB activation in HNSCC cells is unknown. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We conclude that the aberrant NF-κB activity in HNSCC cells in response to serum is partially through a novel mechanism involving CK2-mediated activation of IKK2, making these kinases candidates for selective therapy to target the NF-κB pathway in HNSCC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In normal cells, the classic IKK complex plays a critical role in integrating responses to various stimuli, resulting in IKK2-mediated phosphorylation of S32/S36 in the NH 2 terminus of IκBα and NF-κB activation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To further characterize the signaling events that contribute to IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, a kinase activity was isolated from Jurkat T cells that specifically interacted with IkappaBalpha in an affinity chromatography step and phosphorylated IkappaBalpha with high specificity in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Anti-Casein Kinase II, α-Subunit, mouse monoclonal, clone 1AD9, recognizes the ~45 kDa CK2α subunit in F9 cells. (emdmillipore.com)
  • invasion and migration, improved matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) manifestation, and improved activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in breasts and prostate tumor cells (10). (casein-kinases.com)
  • As shown in Fig. 2, PODXL overexpression in SW1783 cells increased cell invasion by 4-fold compared with that of the controls, and this increase was eradicated by LY. (casein-kinases.com)
  • Open in a separate window Physique 2 cell invasion by SW1783 and U-87 cells. (casein-kinases.com)
  • CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) β is highly induced by ER stress and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppression in pancreatic β cells, and its accumulation reduces pancreatic β cell mass. (elsevier.com)
  • Casein kinase 2 (CK2) was found to co-localize with C/EBPβ in MIN6 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Casein kinase 2 determines the voltage dependence of the Kv3.1 channel in auditory neurons and transfected cells. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Casein and Publication1/2 kinase 1 are essential effectors of Sox4 function in progenitor N cells. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Immunoblot analysis utilizing anti-casein kinase II antiserum of cytosolic extracts prepared from COS-1 cells co-transfected with pCMV-alpha and pCMV-beta showed 2- and 4-fold increases in immunoreactive alpha and beta subunit protein, respectively, relative to vector-transfected cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • COS-1 cells transfected with pCMV-alpha alone exhibited a 3-fold increase in immunoreactive alpha subunit protein and a nearly 2-fold increase in cytosolic casein kinase II catalytic activity. (umassmed.edu)
  • Reported to inhibit insulin-stimulated nuclear and cytosolic p70S6 kinase in CHO cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These professional secretory cells devote as much as half of their total protein synthesis to the production of a single hormone ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • One- and two-dimensional mapping experiments demonstrate that the major phosphopeptides from in vivo phosphorylated Myc correspond to the phosphopeptides produced from Myc phosphorylated in vitro by CK-II. (nih.gov)
  • CK2 and IKK kinase activity, as well as NF-κB transcriptional activity, was shown to be serum responsive, indicating that these kinases mediate aberrant activation of NF-κB in response to serum factor(s) in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Point mutation of residues T-291, S-283, and T-299 dramatically reduced phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha by the kinase in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Casein kinase 2 activity has been reported to be activated following Wnt signaling pathway activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have studied the activity and subcellular location of CK-2 in adult rat ventral prostate in relation to androgen withdrawal and administration. (pnas.org)
  • Androgen deprivation by castration results in a faster decline in CK-2 activity associated with prostatic nuclei than that in the cytosol. (pnas.org)
  • Reversal of these events by administration of a single dose of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone to adult rats castrated 144 hr previously was accompanied by a differential early enhancement of chromatin-associated CK-2 activity, with a concomitant decrease in the CK-2 activity present in the cytosol. (pnas.org)
  • Changes in the nuclear CK-2 activity correlated with the immunostainable enzyme protein in the nucleus. (pnas.org)
  • After this time course the activity of the CK-2 was evaluated with a Western Blot. (arvojournals.org)
  • Here we show that peripheral nerve injury induces a large GluN2A-mediated increase in NMDAR activity in spinal lamina II, but not lamina I, neurons. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, the specific protein kinases responsible for increased NMDAR activity caused by nerve injury have not been conclusively identified. (aspetjournals.org)
  • An increase in the expression and activity of pro-oncogenic Casein Kinase II (CK2) is associated with the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in humans. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hence, CK2 has recently been recognized as a "master kinase" that is involved in many important cellular processes by controlling the activity of several other kinases [ 1 ] . (medsci.org)
  • Similar to other GPCRs, various kinases modulate M3R activity via phosphorylation. (medsci.org)
  • At a 1X concentration this reaction buffer assures optimal activity of protein kinases, including Abl Protein Tyrosine Kinase (Abl) (NEB# P6050), CDK1-cyclin B (NEB# P6020), CaMKII (NEB #P6060), p42 MAP Kinase (MAPK) (NEB# P6080). (neb.com)
  • We identify a novel parasitic type 2C phosphatase that binds the Toxofilin/G-actin complex and a casein kinase II-like activity in the cytosol, both of which modulate the phosphorylation status of Toxofilin serine53. (pasteur.fr)
  • Messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particles, isolated from reticulocyte polysomes and purified by buoyant density centrifugation in metrizamide, contained an endogenous protein kinase activity. (duke.edu)
  • Antibody prepared to casein kinase II was shown to inhibit the protein kinase activity in the mRNP particles. (duke.edu)
  • Here we show that the peptide CVVKILKPVKKKKIKREIKILE, reproducing the basic insert 66-86 of CK2 catalytic subunit, can mimick polylysine in triggering the latent 'calmodulin kinase' activity of CK2 holoenzyme, and that spermine and, to a lesser extent, spermidine, but not putrescine, can reversibly and dose-dependently counteract such an activation. (unipd.it)
  • At the latter KCl concentration CK-2 activity was localized at a position corresponding to a Mr of 230-250 kDa, which is still higher than the typical tetrameric form of the enzyme. (uab.cat)
  • These same cytosolic fractions exhibited an average 5-fold increase in casein kinase II catalytic activity. (umassmed.edu)
  • Transfection with the cDNA coding for the noncatalytic beta subunit alone also caused a near doubling of cytosolic casein kinase II catalytic activity. (umassmed.edu)
  • These results indicate that a portion of the endogenous cellular casein kinase II protein is not fully active and that raising the concentration of the alpha or beta subunit stimulates this latent activity. (umassmed.edu)
  • In terms of the role of CK1, activity relating to casein kinase was found to be present in nearly all cell types. (prospecbio.com)
  • Biochemicals that inhibit casein kinase II alpha have many applications in biochemical and physiological research. (scbt.com)
  • Has been used to inhibit RNA polymerase II transcription which may be dependent on casein kinase II. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 263, 8958-8964), which is highly acidic and contains several consensus phosphorylation sites for casein kinase II. (elsevier.com)
  • We propose that androgens evoke translocation of CK-2 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus (nucleoplasm) where its enhanced association with the chromatin constituents takes place. (pnas.org)
  • Conversely, withdrawal of circulating androgens due to castration evokes a dissociation of CK-2 from chromatin and eventual translocation of nucleoplasmic CK-2 to the cytoplasm. (pnas.org)
  • Title: Protein Kinase CK2 Controls the Fate between Th17 Cell and Regulatory T Cell Differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly, we demonstrate a physical interaction between S6KII and the casein kinase 2 regulatory subunit (CK2β), suggesting a functional relationship between the two kinases. (jneurosci.org)
  • We have found that a number of nuclear oncoproteins share a CK-II phosphorylation sequence motif, including Myc, Myb, Fos, E1a and SV40 T antigen. (nih.gov)
  • Notably, mutation of Y512, a consensus sequence for the spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) possibly acting in a CK2 context adjacent to the common CF-causing defect F508del, had a strong effect on both maturation and CFTR currents, allowing the identification of this kinase as a novel regulator of CFTR. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • They are different from other protein kinases because there is a sequence of S-I-N rather A-P-E in the kinase domain VIII. (prospecbio.com)
  • CK2 is implicated in a variety of cellular functions (1,2). (neb.com)
  • Casein kinase 2 has been implicated in cell cycle control, DNA repair, regulation of the circadian rhythm and other cellular processes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • In this manuscript we review the crosstalk between the Casein Kinase II (CK2) and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) pathways that plays a critical role in the regulation of cellular proliferation in leukemia. (elsevier.com)
  • The cyclic-nucleotide-independent protein kinase phosphorylated casein using either ATP or GTP as the phosphoryl donor and had properties similar to casein kinase II, an enzyme previously purified and characterized from the post-ribosomal supernate of reticulocytes. (duke.edu)
  • We have now found that this feature of the Kv3.1 channel is strongly influenced by its constitutive phosphorylation by the enzyme casein kinase II. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Primary antibody: Anti-Casein Kinase II, α-Subunit Mouse mAb (1AD9) (Cat. (emdmillipore.com)
  • We propose that the two kinases cooperate within clock neurons to fine-tune circadian period, improving the precision of the clock mechanism. (jneurosci.org)
  • Strikingly, casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitors normalize increased NMDAR currents of dorsal horn neurons in nerve-injured rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our results, along with previous studies on myc deletion mutants, show that Myc is phosphorylated by CK-II, or a kinase with similar specificity, in regions of functional importance. (nih.gov)
  • Previously published data suggest that CK2 and GSK-3 act synergistically to promote the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway via phosphorylation of PTEN. (elsevier.com)
  • Treatment of SUI2+ delta gcn2 strain extracts with phosphatase results in the identification of three additional isoelectric forms of eIF-2 alpha that correspond to the stepwise removal of three phosphates from the protein. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, inhibitors of casein kinase 2 mimicked the effect of phosphatase treatment on voltage-dependent activation and inactivation, whereas inhibitors of protein kinase C failed to alter these parameters. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Protein kinase CK2 is a critical regulator of epithelial homeostasis in chronic intestinal inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • In this dissertation we identify casein kinase (CK) 2α phosphorylation of cortactin as a negative regulator of Arp2/3 binding. (wvu.edu)
  • Launch People of the Sry-related high flexibility group container (Sox) transcriptional regulator family members control important developing procedures in embryonic and adult levels.1 Results from our prior others and research demonstrated that Sox4 has an essential function in B-cell advancement.2,3 However, the molecular systems underlying the function of Sox4 as a transcriptional regulator in B lymphopoiesis stay imprecise. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Casein kinase-2 from rabbit skeletal muscle was found to phosphorylate, in addition to glycogen synthase, troponin from skeletal muscle, and myosin light chain from smooth muscle. (elsevier.com)
  • Troponin T and the 20,000 M r myosin light chain are phosphorylated by casein kinase-2 at much greater rates than glycogen synthase. (elsevier.com)
  • however, the K m values for these two substrates are greater than that for glycogen synthase. (elsevier.com)
  • Troponin T and the 20,000 Mr myosin light chain are phosphorylated by casein kinase-2 at much greater rates than glycogen synthase. (elsevier.com)
  • We have shown previously that the function of Ycf1p, yeast ortholog of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), is regulated by yeast casein kinase 2α (Cka1p) via phosphorylation at Ser251. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Mutational analysis of SUI2 coupled with biochemical analysis of eIF-2 alpha maps the sites to the carboxyl region of SUI2 that correspond to Ser residues at amino acid positions 292, 294, and 301 that compose consensus casein kinase II sequences. (asm.org)
  • 32Pi labeling or isoelectric focusing analysis of eIF-2 alpha from conditional casein kinase II mutants indicated that phosphorylation of eIF-2 alpha is abolished or dephosphorylated forms of eIF-2 alpha are detected when these strains are grown at the restrictive growth conditions. (asm.org)
  • The present study evaluated the function of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) in the Drosophila circadian system. (jneurosci.org)
  • Title: Lipopolysaccharide inhibits colonic biotin uptake via interference with membrane expression of its transporter: a role for a casein kinase 2-mediated pathway. (nih.gov)
  • An alternate pathway involving IKK1 has also been described ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • PC1 modulates actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and directional cell migration through the Pacsin 2/N-Wasp complex. (nih.gov)