Developmental timing in C. elegans is regulated by kin-20 and tim-1, homologs of core circadian clock genes. (1/47)

In Caenorhabditis elegans, heterochronic genes constitute a developmental timer that specifies temporal cell fate selection. The heterochronic gene lin-42 is the C. elegans homolog of Drosophila and mammalian period, key regulators of circadian rhythms, which specify changes in behavior and physiology over a 24 hr day/night cycle. We show a role for two other circadian gene homologs, tim-1 and kin-20, in the developmental timer. Along with lin-42, tim-1 and kin-20, the C. elegans homologs of the Drosophila circadian clock genes timeless and doubletime, respectively, are required to maintain late-larval identity and prevent premature expression of adult cell fates. The molecular parallels between circadian and developmental timing pathways suggest the existence of a conserved molecular mechanism that may be used for different types of biological timing.  (+info)

Interaction of casein kinase 1 delta (CK1 delta) with the light chain LC2 of microtubule associated protein 1A (MAP1A). (2/47)

CK1delta, a member of the casein kinase 1 family of serine/threonine specific kinases, has been shown to be involved in the regulation of microtubule dynamics. We have now identified a 176 aa fragment of the light chain LC2 of MAP1A (termed LC2-P16) specifically interacting with CK1delta. Two CK1delta interacting domains of LC2 were identified, located between aa 2629 and 2753 close to aa 2683 and between aa 2712 and 2805 of LC2. The two regions necessary for the interaction of LC2 with CK1delta have been mapped between aa 76-103 and aa 351-375 of CK1delta. Furthermore, LC2 has been identified as a new substrate of CK1delta. We therefore propose a model in which CK1delta could modulate microtubule dynamics by changing the phosphorylation status of the light chain LC2 of MAP1A.  (+info)

Physiological role for casein kinase 1 in glutamatergic synaptic transmission. (3/47)

Casein kinase 1 (CK1) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase, present in virtually all cell types, in which it phosphorylates a wide variety of substrates. So far, no role has been found for this ubiquitous protein kinase in the physiology of nerve cells. In the present study, we show that CK1 regulates fast synaptic transmission mediated by glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Through the use of CK1 inhibitors, we present evidence that activation of CK1 decreases NMDA receptor activity in the striatum via a mechanism that involves activation by this kinase of protein phosphatase 1 and/or 2A and resultant increased dephosphorylation of NMDA receptors. Indeed, inhibition of CK1 increases NMDA-mediated EPSCs in medium spiny striatal neurons. This effect is associated with an increased phosphorylation of the NR1 and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor and is occluded by the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. The mGluR1, but not mGluR5, subclass of metabotropic glutamate receptors uses CK1 to inhibit NMDA-mediated synaptic currents. These results provide the first evidence for a role of CK1 in the regulation of synaptic transmission in the brain.  (+info)

The alpha isoform of protein kinase CKI is responsible for hepatitis C virus NS5A hyperphosphorylation. (4/47)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been the subject of intensive studies for nearly two decades. Nevertheless, some aspects of the virus life cycle are still a mystery. The HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) has been shown to be a modulator of cellular processes possibly required for the establishment of viral persistence. NS5A is heavily phosphorylated, and a switch between a basally phosphorylated form of NS5A (p56) and a hyperphosphorylated form of NS5A (p58) seems to play a pivotal role in regulating HCV replication. Using kinase inhibitors that specifically inhibit the formation of NS5A-p58 in cells, we identified the CKI kinase family as a target. NS5A-p58 increased upon overexpression of CKI-alpha, CKI-delta, and CKI-epsilon, whereas the RNA interference of only CKI-alpha reduced NS5A hyperphosphorylation. Rescue of inhibition of NS5A-p58 was achieved by CKI-alpha overexpression, and we demonstrated that the CKI-alpha isoform is targeted by NS5A hyperphosphorylation inhibitors in living cells. Finally, we showed that down-regulation of CKI-alpha attenuates HCV RNA replication.  (+info)

Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1delta) interacts with the SNARE associated protein snapin. (5/47)

In this study we identified snapin as an interaction partner of the CK1 isoform delta (CK1delta) in the yeast two-hybrid system and localized the interacting domains of both proteins. The interaction of CK1delta with snapin was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Snapin was phosphorylated by CK1delta in vitro. Both proteins localized in close proximity in the perinuclear region, wherein snapin was found to associate with membranes of the Golgi apparatus. The identification of snapin as a new substrate of CK1delta points towards a possible function for CK1delta in modulating snapin specific functions.  (+info)

Integration of TGF-beta and Ras/MAPK signaling through p53 phosphorylation. (6/47)

During development and tissue homeostasis, cells must integrate different signals. We investigated how cell behavior is controlled by the combined activity of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, whose integration mechanism is unknown. We find that RTK/Ras/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) activity induces p53 N-terminal phosphorylation, enabling the interaction of p53 with the TGF-beta-activated Smads. This mechanism confines mesoderm specification in Xenopus embryos and promotes TGF-beta cytostasis in human cells. These data indicate a mechanism to allow extracellular cues to specify the TGF-beta gene-expression program.  (+info)

Novel phosphorylation sites in tau from Alzheimer brain support a role for casein kinase 1 in disease pathogenesis. (7/47)

Tau in Alzheimer disease brain is highly phosphorylated and aggregated into paired helical filaments comprising characteristic neurofibrillary tangles. Here we have analyzed insoluble Tau (PHF-tau) extracted from Alzheimer brain by mass spectrometry and identified 11 novel phosphorylation sites, 10 of which were assigned unambiguously to specific amino acid residues. This brings the number of directly identified sites in PHF-tau to 39, with an additional six sites indicated by reactivity with phosphospecific antibodies to Tau. We also identified five new phosphorylation sites in soluble Tau from control adult human brain, bringing the total number of reported sites to nine. To assess which kinases might be responsible for Tau phosphorylation, we used mass spectrometry to determine which sites were phosphorylated in vitro by several kinases. Casein kinase 1delta and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta were each found to phosphorylate numerous sites, and each kinase phosphorylated at least 15 sites that are also phosphorylated in PHF-tau from Alzheimer brain. A combination of casein kinase 1delta and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta activities could account for over three-quarters of the serine/threonine phosphorylation sites identified in PHF-tau, indicating that casein kinase 1delta may have a role, together with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of CK1delta: identification of Ser370 as the major phosphorylation site targeted by PKA in vitro and in vivo. (8/47)

The involvement of CK1 (casein kinase 1) delta in the regulation of multiple cellular processes implies a tight regulation of its activity on many different levels. At the protein level, reversible phosphorylation plays an important role in modulating the activity of CK1delta. In the present study, we show that PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase), Akt (protein kinase B), CLK2 (CDC-like kinase 2) and PKC (protein kinase C) alpha all phosphorylate CK1delta. PKA was identified as the major cellular CK1deltaCK (CK1delta C-terminal-targeted protein kinase) for the phosphorylation of CK1delta in vitro and in vivo. This was implied by the following evidence: PKA was detectable in the CK1deltaCK peak fraction of fractionated MiaPaCa-2 cell extracts, PKA shared nearly identical kinetic properties with those of CK1deltaCK, and both PKA and CK1deltaCK phosphorylated CK1delta at Ser370 in vitro. Furthermore, phosphorylation of CK1delta by PKA decreased substrate phosphorylation of CK1delta in vitro. Mutation of Ser370 to alanine increased the phosphorylation affinity of CK1delta for beta-casein and the GST (gluthatione S-transferase)-p53 1-64 fusion protein in vitro and enhanced the formation of an ectopic dorsal axis during Xenopus laevis development. Anchoring of PKA and CK1delta to centrosomes was mediated by AKAP (A-kinase-anchoring protein) 450. Interestingly, pre-incubation of MiaPaCa-2 cells with the synthetic peptide St-Ht31, which prevents binding between AKAP450 and the regulatory subunit RII of PKA, resulted in a 6-fold increase in the activity of CK1delta. In summary, we conclude that PKA phosphorylates CK1delta, predominantly at Ser370 in vitro and in vivo, and that site-specific phosphorylation of CK1delta by PKA plays an important role in modulating CK1delta-dependent processes.  (+info)

Genetic mutations that cause an inherited sleep disorder also appear to be linked to migraine, scientists have found.. The mutations are rare, but lead researcher Louis Ptáček, professor of neurology at the University of California, San Francisco, says the study moves scientists one step closer to understanding the molecular pathway to pain in migraine. Migraine is common, affecting one in four women and one in 12 men in the UK. Yet the condition is not well understood and, Professor Ptáček says, the need for better treatments is huge.. The mutations are in a gene called casein kinase I delta (CKIdelta), which has many functions, including helping control the bodys internal clock. CKIdelta mutations cause an unusual sleep pattern of early sleep times and early rising. Work on two families with this sleep disorder suggested to researchers that CKIdelta mutations were also associated with migraines.. They investigated this link using mice carrying one of the CKIdelta mutations. ...
Fan JY, Preuss F, Muskus MJ, Bjes ES, Price JL (January 2009). "Drosophila and vertebrate casein kinase Idelta exhibits ... The casein kinase 1 (CKI) family of kinases is a highly conserved group of proteins that are found in organisms from ... Sekine T, Yamaguchi T, Hamano K, Young MW, Shimoda M, Saez L (February 2008). "Casein kinase I epsilon does not rescue double- ... The mammalian homolog of doubletime is casein kinase I, epsilon. Different Mutations in the dbt gene have been shown to cause ...
... casein kinase ialpha MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.140.300.200 --- casein kinase idelta MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.140 ... map kinase kinase kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.100 --- map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... map kinase kinase kinase 2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.300 --- map kinase kinase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682 ... map kinase kinase kinase 4 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.500 --- map kinase kinase kinase 5 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682 ...
... casein kinase ialpha MeSH D12.776.476.150.300.200 -- casein kinase idelta MeSH D12.776.476.150.300.300 -- casein kinase ... cdc2 protein kinase MeSH D12.776.476.250.067.500 -- cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae MeSH D12.776.476.250.067.875 -- cyclin- ... dependent kinase 5 MeSH D12.776.476.250.067.900 -- cyclin-dependent kinase 9 MeSH D12.776.476.250.580.500 -- cdc2 protein ... mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 MeSH D12.776.476.450.169.750 -- mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 MeSH D12.776.476.450. ...
... casein kinase i MeSH D12.644.360.150.300.100 --- casein kinase ialpha MeSH D12.644.360.150.300.200 --- casein kinase idelta ... map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D12.644.360.400.200 --- map kinase kinase kinase 2 MeSH D12.644.360.400.300 --- map kinase ... kinase kinase 3 MeSH D12.644.360.400.400 --- map kinase kinase kinase 4 MeSH D12.644.360.400.500 --- map kinase kinase kinase 5 ... map kinase kinase 1 MeSH D12.644.360.440.200 --- map kinase kinase 2 MeSH D12.644.360.440.300 --- map kinase kinase 3 MeSH ...