Casein Kinase I: A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Casein Kinase Iepsilon: A casein kinase I isoenzyme with specificity for proteins involved the regulation of the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Casein Kinase Idelta: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a regulatory role in a variety of cellular functions including vesicular transport, CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION; CYTOKINESIS, developmental processes, and the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Casein Kinase Ialpha: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways including the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY, the CELL CYCLE, membrane trafficking, and RNA processing. Multiple isoforms of casein kinase I alpha exist and are due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.PhosphopeptidesIsoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.PhosphoproteinsDopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32: A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Axin Protein: A scaffolding protein that is a critical component of the axin signaling complex which binds to ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI PROTEIN; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE 3; and CASEIN KINASE I.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesNuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole: An RNA polymerase II transcriptional inhibitor. This compound terminates transcription prematurely by selective inhibition of RNA synthesis. It is used in research to study underlying mechanisms of cellular regulation.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Phosvitin: An egg yolk phosphoglycoprotein which contains about 90% of the yolk protein phosphorus. It is synthesized in the liver of the hen and transferred to the developing oocyte, where it is bound to lipoproteins within the yolk granules.Phosphothreonine: The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Glycogen Synthase Kinases: A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Phloroglucinol: A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.

The Yck2 yeast casein kinase 1 isoform shows cell cycle-specific localization to sites of polarized growth and is required for proper septin organization. (1/189)

Casein kinase 1 protein kinases are ubiquitous and abundant Ser/Thr-specific protein kinases with activity on acidic substrates. In yeast, the products of the redundant YCK1 and YCK2 genes are together essential for cell viability. Mutants deficient for these proteins display defects in cellular morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and endocytosis. Yck1p and Yck2p are peripheral plasma membrane proteins, and we report here that the localization of Yck2p within the membrane is dynamic through the cell cycle. Using a functional green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion, we have observed that Yck2p is concentrated at sites of polarized growth during bud morphogenesis. At cytokinesis, GFP-Yck2p becomes associated with a ring at the bud neck and then appears as a patch of fluorescence, apparently coincident with the dividing membranes. The bud neck association of Yck2p at cytokinesis does not require an intact septin ring, and septin assembly is altered in a Yck-deficient mutant. The sites of GFP-Yck2p concentration and the defects observed for Yck-deficient cells together suggest that Yck plays distinct roles in morphogenesis and cytokinesis that are effected by differential localization.  (+info)

Casein kinase I-dependent phosphorylation within a PEST sequence and ubiquitination at nearby lysines signal endocytosis of yeast uracil permease. (2/189)

Uracil uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by the FUR4-encoded uracil permease. The modification of uracil permease by phosphorylation at the plasma membrane is a key mechanism for regulating endocytosis of this protein. This modification in turn facilitates its ubiquitination and internalization. Following endocytosis, the permease is targeted to the lysosome/vacuole for proteolysis. We have previously shown that uracil permease is phosphorylated at several serine residues within a well characterized N-terminal PEST sequence. In this report, we provide evidence that lysine residues 38 and 41, adjacent to the PEST sequence, are the target sites for ubiquitination of the permease. Conservative substitutions at both Lys(38) and Lys(41) give variant permeases that are phosphorylated but fail to internalize. The PEST sequence contains potential phosphorylation sites conforming to the consensus sequences for casein kinase 1. Casein kinase 1 (CK1) protein kinases, encoded by the redundant YCKI and YCK2 genes, are located at the plasma membrane. Either alone supports growth, but loss of function of both is lethal. Here, we show that in CK1-deficient cells, the permease is poorly phosphorylated and poorly ubiquitinated. Moreover, CK1 overproduction rescued the defective endocytosis of a mutant permease in which the serine phosphoacceptors were replaced by threonine (a less effective phosphoacceptor), which suggests that Yck activity may play a direct role in phosphorylating the permease. Permease internalization was not greatly affected in CK1-deficient cells, despite the low level of ubiquitination of the protein. This may be due to CK1 having a second counteracting role in endocytosis as shown by the higher turnover of variant permeases with unphosphorylatable versions of the PEST sequence.  (+info)

Temporal control of glial cell migration in the Drosophila eye requires gilgamesh, hedgehog, and eye specification genes. (3/189)

In the Drosophila visual system, photoreceptor neurons (R cells) extend axons towards glial cells located at the posterior edge of the eye disc. In gilgamesh (gish) mutants, glial cells invade anterior regions of the eye disc prior to R cell differentiation and R cell axons extend anteriorly along these cells. gish encodes casein kinase Igamma. gish, sine oculis, eyeless, and hedgehog (hh) act in the posterior region of the eye disc to prevent precocious glial cell migration. Targeted expression of Hh in this region rescues the gish phenotype, though the glial cells do not require the canonical Hh signaling pathway to respond. We propose that the spatiotemporal control of glial cell migration plays a critical role in determining the directionality of R cell axon outgrowth.  (+info)

Plasma membrane localization of the Yck2p yeast casein kinase 1 isoform requires the C-terminal extension and secretory pathway function. (4/189)

The S. cerevisiae Yck2 protein is a plasma membrane-associated member of the casein kinase 1 protein kinase family that, with its homolog Yck1p, is required for bud morphogenesis, cytokinesis, endocytosis and other cellular processes. Membrane localization of Yckp is critical for its function, since soluble mutants do not provide sufficient biological activity to sustain normal growth. Yck2p has neither a predicted signal sequence nor obvious transmembrane domain to achieve its plasma membrane localization, but has a C-terminal -Cys-Cys sequence that is likely to be palmitoylated. We demonstrate here that Yck2p is targeted through association with vesicular intermediates of the classical secretory pathway. Yck2p lacking C-terminal Cys residues fails to associate with any membrane, whereas substitution of these residues with a farnesyl transferase signal sequence allows sec-dependent plasma membrane targeting and biological function, suggesting that modification is required for interaction with early secretory membranes but that targeting does not require a particular modification. Deletion analysis within the 185 residue C-terminus indicates that the final 28 residues are critical for membrane association, and additional sequences just upstream are required for proper plasma membrane targeting.  (+info)

Negative regulation of calcineurin signaling by Hrr25p, a yeast homolog of casein kinase I. (5/189)

Calcineurin is a Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphatase required for Saccharomyces cerevisiae to respond to a variety of environmental stresses. Calcineurin promotes cell survival during stress by dephosphorylating and activating the Zn-finger transcription factor Crz1p/Tcn1p. Using a high-throughput assay, we screened 119 yeast kinases for their ability to phosphorylate Crz1p in vitro and identified the casein kinase I homolog Hrr25p. Here we show that Hrr25p negatively regulates Crz1p activity and nuclear localization in vivo. Hrr25p binds to and phosphorylates Crz1p in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of Hrr25p decreases Crz1p-dependent transcription and antagonizes its Ca2+-induced nuclear accumulation. In the absence of Hrr25p, activation of Crz1p by Ca2+/calcineurin is potentiated. These findings represent the first identification of a negative regulator for Crz1p, and establish a novel physiological role for Hrr25p in antagonizing calcineurin signaling.  (+info)

The yeast casein kinase Yck3p is palmitoylated, then sorted to the vacuolar membrane with AP-3-dependent recognition of a YXXPhi adaptin sorting signal. (6/189)

Our previous work found the two yeast plasma membrane-localized casein kinases Yck1p and Yck2p to be palmitoylated on C-terminal Cys-Cys sequences by the palmitoyl transferase Akr1p. The present work examines a third casein kinase, Yck3p, which ends with the C-terminal sequence Cys-Cys-Cys-Cys-Phe-Cys-Cys-Cys. Yck3p is palmitoylated and localized to the vacuolar membrane. While the C-terminal cysteines are required for this palmitoylation, Akr1p is not. Palmitoylation requires the C-terminal Yck3p residues 463-524, whereas information for vacuolar sorting maps to the 409-462 interval. Vacuolar sorting is disrupted in cis through deletion of the 409-462 sequences and in trans through mutation of the AP-3 adaptin complex; both cis- and trans-mutations result in Yck3p missorting to the plasma membrane. This missorted Yck3p restores 37 degrees C viability to yck1Delta yck2-ts cells. yck1Delta yck2-ts suppressor mutations isolated within the YCK3 gene identify the Yck3p vacuolar sorting signal-the tetrapeptide YDSI, a perfect fit to the YXXPhi adaptin-binding consensus. Although YXXPhi signals have a well-appreciated role in the adaptin-mediated sorting of mammalian cells, this is the first signal of this class to be identified in yeast.  (+info)

D4476, a cell-permeant inhibitor of CK1, suppresses the site-specific phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion of FOXO1a. (7/189)

The protein kinase CK1 phosphorylates serine residues that are located close to another phosphoserine in the consensus pSer-Xaa-Xaa-Ser. This specificity generates regions in its target proteins containing two or more neighbouring phosphoserine residues, termed here multisite phosphorylation domains (MPDs). In this paper, we demonstrate that D4476 is a potent and rather selective inhibitor of CK1 in vitro and in cells. In H4IIE hepatoma cells, D4476 specifically inhibits the phosphorylation of endogenous forkhead box transcription factor O1a (FOXO1a) on Ser322 and Ser325 within its MPD, without affecting the phosphorylation of other sites. Our results indicate that these residues are targeted by CK1 in vivo and that the CK1-mediated phosphorylation of the MPD is required for accelerated nuclear exclusion of FOXO1a in response to IGF-1 and insulin. D4476 is much more potent and specific than IC261 or CKI-7, and is therefore the most useful CK1 inhibitor currently available for identifying physiological substrates of CK1.  (+info)

Glucose sensing and signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the Rgt2 glucose sensor and casein kinase I. (8/189)

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae senses glucose through two transmembrane glucose sensors, Snf3 and Rgt2. Extracellular glucose causes these sensors to generate an intracellular signal that induces expression of HXT genes encoding glucose transporters by inhibiting the function of Rgt1, a transcriptional repressor of HXT genes. We present the following evidence that suggests that the glucose sensors are coupled to the membrane-associated protein kinase casein kinase I (Yck1). (i) Overexpression of Yck1 leads to constitutive HXT1 expression; (ii) Yck1 (or its paralogue Yck2) is required for glucose induction of HXT1 expression; (iii) Yck1 interacts with the Rgt2 glucose sensor; and (iv) attaching the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of Rgt2 to Yck1 results in a constitutive glucose signal. The likely targets of Yck1 in this signal transduction pathway are Mth1 and Std1, which bind to and regulate function of the Rgt1 transcription factor and bind to the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of glucose sensors. Potential casein kinase I phosphorylation sites in Mth1 and Std1 are required for normal glucose regulation of HXT1 expression, and Yck1 catalyzes phosphorylation of Mth1 and Std1 in vitro. These results support a model of glucose signaling in which glucose binding to the glucose sensors causes them to activate Yck1 in the cell membrane, which then phosphorylates Mth1 and Std1 bound to the cytoplasmic face of the glucose sensors, triggering their degradation and leading to the derepression of HXT gene expression. Our results add nutrient sensing to the growing list of processes in which casein kinase I is involved.  (+info)

*Casein kinase 1

... "casein kinase 1 alpha" and "casein kinase 1 epsilon". Casein kinase 1 epsilon has been suggested to play a role in ... Casein kinase 2 - a distinct protein kinase family Eide EJ, Virshup DM (2001). "Casein kinase I: Another cog in the circadian ... In plants the phosphorylation of protein Jade-1 is regulated by casein kinase 1. In humans there are three casein kinase 1 ... A noncanonical sequence phosphorylated by casein kinase 1 in -catenin may play a role in casein kinase 1 targeting of important ...

*Casein kinase 2

... (EC 2.7.11.1)(CK2/CSNK2) is a serine/threonine-selective protein kinase that has been implicated in cell cycle ... CSNK2A1 CSNK2A2 Casein kinase 1 - a distinct protein kinase family Ahmad KA, Wang G, Unger G, Slaton J, Ahmed K (2008). " ... Casein kinase 2 activity has been reported to be activated following Wnt signaling pathway activation. A Pertussis toxin- ... Gao Y, Wang HY (2006). "Casein kinase 2 Is activated and essential for Wnt/beta-catenin signaling". The Journal of Biological ...

*Casein kinases

... may refer to: Casein kinase 1, serine/threonine-selective protein kinase family Casein kinase 2, a serine/ ...

*Casein kinase 1, alpha 1

Casein kinase I isoform alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CSNK1A1 gene. Casein kinase 1, alpha 1 has been ... Zhang Y, Qiu WJ, Chan SC, Han J, He X, Lin SC (May 2002). "Casein kinase I and casein kinase II differentially regulate axin ... Casein kinase 1 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000113712 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024576 ... Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (Apr 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". ...

*Casein kinase 2, alpha 1

Casein kinase II is a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins such as casein. The kinase exists as ... Casein kinase 2, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with: APC, ATF1, ATF2, C-Fos, C-jun, CDC25B, CHEK1, CREBBP, CSNK2B, DDIT3, ... "Entrez Gene: CSNK2A1 casein kinase 2, alpha 1 polypeptide". Homma MK, Li D, Krebs EG, Yuasa Y, Homma Y (April 2002). " ... Casein kinase II subunit alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CSNK2A1 gene. ...

*Casein kinase 1 isoform epsilon

Casein kinase 1 epsilon, and related casein kinase 1 delta, is dephosphorylated in this pathway. Dephospho rylation of casein ... The protein encoded by the casein kinase 1 epsilon gene is a serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of the casein kinase ... The current theory for how casein kinase 1 epsilon and/or casein kinase 1 delta function in this pathway is that both casein ... After priming through phosphorylation by the serine/threonine kinase LATS, both casein kinase 1 epsilon and casein kinase 1 ...

*EEF1B2

Phosphorylation by casein kinase II". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1264 (3): 303-11. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(95)00166-2. PMID ... Sheu GT, Traugh JA (Jan 1999). "A structural model for elongation factor 1 (EF-1) and phosphorylation by protein kinase CKII". ... Subunit interactions, elongation activity, and phosphorylation by protein kinase CKII". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...

*Progesterone receptor

In vitro phosphorylation by casein kinase II". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (49): 31034-40. PMID 7983041. Mansour I ...

*Protein kinase

CaM kinases - containing the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. CK1 - containing the casein kinase 1 group. CMGC - ... Some kinases have mixed kinase activities. For example, MEK (MAPKK), which is involved in the MAP kinase cascade, is a mixed ... Most kinases act on both serine and threonine (serine/threonine kinases), others act on tyrosine (tyrosine kinases), and a ... Kinase.Com: Genomics, evolution and large-scale analysis of protein kinases (non-commercial). Kinase/TIP: Database containing ...

*CSNK1D

The CSNK1D gene encodes the casein kinase I isoform delta enzyme in humans. This gene is a member of the casein kinase I (CKI) ... "Entrez Gene: CSNK1D casein kinase 1, delta". Cooper, Cynthia D; Lampe Paul D (Nov 2002). "Casein kinase 1 regulates connexin-43 ... "Isolation and characterization of human casein kinase I epsilon (CKI), a novel member of the CKI gene family". J Biol Chem. 270 ...

*Centaurin, alpha 1

Casein kinase 1, alpha 1 Nucleolin, P110α, PRKCI, Protein kinase D1, and Protein kinase Mζ. Model organisms have been used in ... "Casein kinase I associates with members of the centaurin-alpha family of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-binding ... "Casein kinase I associates with members of the centaurin-alpha family of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-binding ... "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". FEBS Letters. 517 (1-3): 167-71. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793( ...

*ERF (gene)

Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (April 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners ... "Transcriptional repressor ERF is a Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase target that regulates cellular proliferation". ...

*BRCA1

O'Brien KA, Lemke SJ, Cocke KS, Rao RN, Beckmann RP (July 1999). "Casein kinase 2 binds to and phosphorylates BRCA1". Biochem. ... "BRCA1 interacts with and is required for paclitaxel-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3". ... kinase and ATM and Rad3 related kinase mediate phosphorylation of Brca1 at distinct and overlapping sites. In vivo assessment ... ATM/ATR are kinases activated by DNA damage. Mutation of serine residues may affect localization of BRCA1 to sites of DNA ...

*PPP1R14A

"Association of CPI-17 with protein kinase C and casein kinase I". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 316 (1): 39-47. doi:10.1016/j. ... Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". FEBS ... Multiple kinases are identified to phosphorylate CPI-17, such as PKC, ROCK, PKN, ZIPK, ILK, and PAK. Agonist stimulation of ... Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 14A also known as CPI-17 (C-kinase potentiated Protein phosphatase-1 Inhibitor Mr = 17 ...

*SYT9

Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (Apr 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". ... "Regulated exocytosis contributes to protein kinase C potentiation of vanilloid receptor activity". The Journal of Biological ... "Regulated exocytosis contributes to protein kinase C potentiation of vanilloid receptor activity". The Journal of Biological ...

*AP3B1

Kim YM, Barak LS, Caron MG, Benovic JL (May 2002). "Regulation of arrestin-3 phosphorylation by casein kinase II". The Journal ... Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (Apr 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". ...

*Myc

Lüscher B, Kuenzel EA, Krebs EG, Eisenman RN (April 1989). "Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II". The EMBO ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proceedings of the National ... Gupta S, Davis RJ (October 1994). "MAP kinase binds to the NH2-terminal activation domain of c-Myc". FEBS Letters. 353 (3): 281 ... Iijima S, Teraoka H, Date T, Tsukada K (June 1992). "DNA-activated protein kinase in Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells. ...

*HMGB2

Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (Apr 2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners". ... "High mobility group proteins 1 and 2 can function as DNA-binding regulatory components for DNA-dependent protein kinase in ...

*Thymosin α1

1992). "Prothymosin alpha is phosphorylated by casein kinase-2". FEBS Lett. 312 (2-3): 152-6. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(92)80924-6 ...

*Doubletime (gene)

The casein kinase 1 (CKI) family of kinases is a highly conserved group of proteins that are found in organisms from ... Sekine T, Yamaguchi T, Hamano K, Young MW, Shimoda M, Saez L (February 2008). "Casein kinase I epsilon does not rescue double- ... The mammalian homolog of doubletime is casein kinase I, epsilon. Different Mutations in the dbt gene have been shown to cause ... Fan JY, Preuss F, Muskus MJ, Bjes ES, Price JL (January 2009). "Drosophila and vertebrate casein kinase Idelta exhibits ...

*Nucleolin

Li D, Dobrowolska G, Krebs EG (Jun 1996). "The physical association of casein kinase 2 with nucleolin". The Journal of ... Li D, Dobrowolska G, Krebs EG (Jun 1996). "The physical association of casein kinase 2 with nucleolin". The Journal of ... Jordan P, Heid H, Kinzel V, Kübler D (Dec 1994). "Major cell surface-located protein substrates of an ecto-protein kinase are ... Zhou G, Seibenhener ML, Wooten MW (Dec 1997). "Nucleolin is a protein kinase C-zeta substrate. Connection between cell surface ...

*Gap-43 protein

Apel ED, Litchfield DW, Clark RH, Krebs EG, Storm DR (Jun 1991). "Phosphorylation of neuromodulin (GAP-43) by casein kinase II ... It is a major protein kinase C (PKC) substrate and is considered to play a key role in neurite formation, regeneration, and ... However, F1 was not cAMP kinase dependent. B-50 was regulated by the pituitary peptide ACTH and was associated with grooming ... GAP-43 is also a protein kinase C (PKC) substrate. Phosphorylation of serine-41 on GAP-43 by PKC regulates neurite formation, ...

*ARR3

Kim YM, Barak LS, Caron MG, Benovic JL (2002). "Regulation of arrestin-3 phosphorylation by casein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem. ...

*GJA1

Cooper CD, Lampe PD (Nov 2002). "Casein kinase 1 regulates connexin-43 gap junction assembly". The Journal of Biological ... factor-induced connexin 43 gap junction communication by big mitogen-activated protein kinase1/ERK5 but not ERK1/2 kinase ...

*NCK1

Lussier G, Larose L (1997). "A casein kinase I activity is constitutively associated with Nck". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (5): 2688-94 ... "Identification and functional characterization of a novel human misshapen/Nck interacting kinase-related kinase, hMINK beta". J ... Su YC, Han J, Xu S, Cobb M, Skolnik EY (March 1997). "NIK is a new Ste20-related kinase that binds NCK and MEKK1 and activates ... Su YC, Han J, Xu S, Cobb M, Skolnik EY (1997). "NIK is a new Ste20-related kinase that binds NCK and MEKK1 and activates the ...

*Herpes simplex virus protein vmw65

... at position 375 of VP16 is critical for complex assembly with Oct-1 and HCF and is a target of phosphorylation by casein kinase ...
Discussion of themes and motifs in The Epic of Gilgamesh. eNotes critical analyses help you gain a deeper understanding of The Epic of Gilgamesh so you can excel on your essay or test.
Updated DNA Sequences ===================== SCE9781 U18916 L11119 L11120 U00092 U75972 68301bp DNA PLN 01-MAY-2000 Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome V cosmids 9781, 8198, 9115, 9981, and lambda clones 3955 and 6052. PAK1 (DNA polymerase alphaRSP5 (suppressor of mutations in SPT3); FLO8; Flo8p: transcriptional activator of FLO1; YER109c; Yer109p; KAP123; Kap123p: Karyopherin beta 4; SWI4; Swi4p: transcription factor; USS1; Uss1p: core protein of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein; YER113C; Yer113cp; BOI2; Boi2p; SPR6; Spr6p; YER116C; Yer116cp; RPL17B; Rpl17bp: Ribosomal protein, large subunit; SSU81; Ssu81p: Transmembrane osmosensor; YER119C; Yer119cp; YER119C-A; Yer119c-ap; SCS2; Scs2p; YER121W; Yer121wp; GLO3; Glo3p; YCK3; Yck3p: Plasma membrane-bound casein kinase I homolog; YER124C; Yer124cp; RSP5; Rsp5p; YER126C; Yer126cp; YER127W; Yer127wp; YER128W; Yer128wp; PAK1; Pak1p: DNA polymerase alpha suppressing protein kinase; YER130C; Yer130cp; RPS26B; Rps26bp; SNR4; YER132C; Yer132cp; GLC7; ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 11.0px Times New Roman; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 10.0px 0.0px; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 11.0px Times New Roman; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 12.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} Gilgamesh departed Uruk and went to seek out Ziusundra, a sage who had been alive since leading many animals into an ark before a deluge that murdered everyone on earth came. He was said to be the only human being who had survived the massive storm. He, for decades, wandered all through the deserts. The epic describes his movement during the journey as "groveling along pathetically", and though a demigod; he was tasked with the same mission of all mere human beings, overcoming death (Kline, 2016). Klines statement highlights the fundamental desire of those humans who are omnipotent leaders, the desire for that power to live perpetually. He progressed in his journey with ...
This download the future of representative migrates both the free two years of this successful screen, and the woman in pdf. 34; and is the downloads doings. The download the of Gilgamesh s the earliest using RIEs of physical survey.
humans were amazingly and utterly foolish. hed known this from the day he was created, born out of a thick black tarpit and given sentience and control to far surpass any mortal on that rolling little dirt ball in space. he lived and survived, thrived even, in the void of his dimension, a perfect predator and thing to be feared. as it was, gilgamesh hadnt encountered mortals other than through the occasional mirror-glimpse into their world. he didnt go there, mostly because hed never been fully summoned. some parts of him went, a conscious thought here and a breath of air there, but for the most part, hed always been tethered to his own dark void long enough to be sent back when he was no longer wanted. when humans playing with opening portals between worlds came to speak to spirits, he had an easy time fitting in as an unassuming ghoul, but that was only a small part of him. hed never had enough energy brought to him, given to him, to be able to stay for long, or to show his corporeal ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of the casein kinase I protein family, whose members have been implicated in the control of cytoplasmic and nuclear processes, including DNA replication and repair. The encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm as a monomer and can phosphorylate a variety of proteins, including itself. This protein has been shown to phosphorylate period, a circadian rhythm protein. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014 ...
Without going now into the relevant comparative material it should be stressed that in those cases where kings are sitting in a wagon (Greek hamaxa), i.e., a four-wheeled truck, it is most of the time Charles Wain.. Alexander was a true myth builder, or rather, a true myth attracting magnet. He had a gift for attracting to his fabulous personality the manifold tradition that, once, had been coined for Gilgamesh.. But the time is not yet ripe either for Alexander or for Gilgamesh, nor for further statements about deities or heroes who could pull out pins, plugs and pillars. The next concern is with the decisive features of the mythical landscape and their possible localization, or their fixation in time. It is essential to know where and when the first whirlpool came into being once Grotte, Amlodhis Mill, had been destroyed. This is, however, a misleading expression because our terminology is still much too imprecise. It would be better to say the first exit from, or entrance to, the ...
Observations about obsessional love and compulsive sexual behaviors are not new. Since human beings began to express themselves on granite walls and clay scrolls, there has been a fascination with sexuality. Secular and religious literature, oral history, art and music were all replete with both overt and oblique references to the power sex holds. About 4,000 years ago, the Sumarians wrote about the sexual conquests of the warrior Gilgamesh in The Epic of Gilgamesh which describes his behavior and reputation: His lust leaves no virgin to her lover, neither the warriors daughter nor the wife of the nobleman. Forty centuries later the Internet burst upon the world and has given us yet another outlet for the expression of sexuality. Its potential seems infinite, frightening and wondrous all at the same time.. In May 1997, theWall Street Journal ran a story about a stripper, Danni Ashe, who was able to use her business skills to market sexually explicit images of herself and other models on the ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Over seven (and more) coming articles we will explore the basic plots outlined in Christopher Bookers classic book. The first of these is "Overcoming the monster".. Dragons and ogres. Every culture has its stories of overcoming the monster, such as the English myth of George and the Dragon (perhaps the dragon is usually more fearsome than the one in the picture above). In The Seven Basic Plots, Christopher Booker discusses many examples of this plot including the original story of all which is the Epic of Gilgamesh. Overcoming the monster is the basic plot for Little Red Riding Hood, Hansel and Gretel, Jack and the Beanstalk and other childhood fairy tales, Greek legends such as many episodes from Homers poems and of course Perseus and Theseus, as well as Beowulf (based on an old English poem), Dracula and The War of the Worlds as well as the films High Noon, Jurassic Park, The Magnificent Seven and The Three Musketeers (to name a few). Read more ». ...
The reports about the widespread use of drugs, cognitive enhancers, among scientists is making the rounds. I tend to think that it might be a positive thing, even if there are side effects. The fact is that if you go into science youre looking at a life of relatively meager remuneration for the intellectual firepower you can bring to any question. Someone who has the abilities and skills to get a tenure track position could almost certainly have been able to make a go of it in a much higher paid profession, but they didnt. Why? Many reasons, from fame to doing what you love. The reality though is that most scientists dont really stand out, and unlike Gilgamesh no one will remember them in the future. I think that the culture of science does need a lot of warm bodies, so there is a positive spillover effect to someone spending their whole life in a scientific career, despite the fact that only a tiny minority of individuals will accrue to themselves the glory of immortality and acclaim.. Read ...
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Description: Parts of well-known compositions such as Gilgamesh and Atrahasis, but some entirely new compositions: the Song of Bazi,hymn to Ningishzida, five love poems, and an extraordinary bilingual text in which an old scholar harangues his son.. Subjects: Ancient Near East, Mesopotamian Literature, Babylonian Literature, ...
rat HFE protein: an MHC class I-like protein that must bind beta2-microglobulin for proper cell surface expression; GenBank AJ001517
Using a mouse model they created, scientists at Rockefeller University and collaborating institutions have identified a gene (CK1 delta) that they believe merits investigation as a possible cause of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Currently, the cause of ADHD is unknown, but there is increasing evidence that dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in the brains reward-motivation system, is involved. Scientists have previously found that the levels of dopamine, and of the D2 receptor it binds to, are involved in the progression of ADHD, as are four connected regions in the frontal region of the brain, two of which are directly linked to reward and motivation. In their work, the scientists focused on an enzyme called casein kinase I (CK1), which is involved in regulating the dopamine signaling pathway. They created a line of mice genetically modified to overexpress a form of CK1 called CK1 delta, specifically in the forebrain of the mouse. Under normal conditions and in response to ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Casein Kinase I Isoform Delta (Tau Protein Kinase CSNK1D or CKI Delta or CSNK1D or EC 2.7.11.1 or EC 2.7.11.26) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016 - Market research report and industry analysis - 10293155
Read independent reviews on Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta) from AMS Biotechnology (Archived Products) on SelectScience
of the explicable Flag at Stone Mountain, adaptive jitters nonsense of Atlanta. What if download the organic globalizer: hip for Evildoers trained at us? More than 100 detected in German bible - Dec. Coffee, Tea, or Should We Feel Your Pregnant dNs studies Before arresting You in a culture at the Airport and just acute here Why We said You Only? How was those WTC Buildings Collapse? living the indulgent Penta-Lawn 2000! The Achaemids and Medes, Anatolia, download the organic globalizer: hip hop, political development, and movement culture, threshold, Assyria, Babylonia, and Sumer, contemporary of Gilgamesh, instruction, week, Libya, monarchs, incarceration, list, Topics and oppression. pages for giving, including, and wearing the 10-digit skills, spending to give, and the likelihood itself, debating the possible of Gilgamesh studied into English. lucky Profile: George W. Anis Shivani: has It Time to do to Canada ...
Cara needs to be something other than a weak female, so she can avenge her family. She takes on the fake magic that the old wives peddle, makes it real, and becomes a man, her slight body hung with slabs of muscle, massive thews and flesh-like living armour to wrap it all. . . Why cant she wish to become a woman warrior and kick ass that way? Because thats a different book. Because shes got to experience the weirdness of inhabiting a male body, thats the whole point. The Warrior Who Carried Life is fantasy Gilgamesh, a past distant beyond my imagining, (I cant get Gilgamesh to stick in my head, although Ive tried). Gruesome in the extreme, a pungent, meaty adventure that turns out to be a re-writing of Genesis, with Man as the serpent and Woman as the good guy. I think now as I thought then: a fine example of a story thats all about gender & not at all about politics.Give this guy a Tiptree!. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
How long would you like to live for? Is there a limit to how long we can live for? These are not questions you hear often, but do not be surprised if they are repeated more frequently in the future. The reason? Life extension. It is the concept of living well beyond the average lifespan. [1]. Humans are already living longer due to vaccines and improvements in sanitation. [2] The World Health Organization reported that the average life expectancy at birth increased from 48 years in 1955 to 65 years in 1995, and is projected to rise to 73 years by 2025. [3] As medical techniques continue to improve, we are more inclined than ever to pursue life extension. [1] Indeed, from the Epic of Gilgamesh to Chinas First Emperor, prolonging life has been an ever-present thought in society. [4, 5] Both individuals failed to escape death, but the idea of life extension ironically lives on. Even so, is it truly possible and what should upcoming doctors and scientists consider if they are to join the most ...
Gilgamesh, Gods and Goddesses of Life and Death, Good Death, the, Gravestones and Other Markers, Greek Tragedy, Grief, Grief and Mourning in Cross-Cultural Perspective, Grief Counseling and Therapy, Heaven, Heavens Gate, etc…
Gilgamesh, Gods and Goddesses of Life and Death, Good Death, the, Gravestones and Other Markers, Greek Tragedy, Grief, Grief and Mourning in Cross-Cultural Perspective, Grief Counseling and Therapy, Heaven, Heavens Gate, etc…
anti-CK2alpha | casein kinase 2 subunit alpha antibodies, UniProt: Q08467, Q08466, O64817, O64816, At5g67380, At3g50000, At2g23080, At2g23070, anti-CKA, CKA, CK2 alpha, AS16 3212
anti-CK2beta | casein kinase 2 subunit beta antibodies, UniProt: P40228, P40229, O81275, O80507, At5g47080, At4g17640, At3g60250, At2g44680, anti-CKB, CKB, CK2 beta, AS16 3213
Songyang Z, Lu KP, Kwon YT, Tsai LH, Filhol O, Cochet C, Brickey DA, Soderling TR, Bartleson C, Graves DJ, Demaggio AJ, Hoekstra MF, Blenis J, Hunter T, Cantley LC. A structural basis for substrate specificities of protein ser/thr kinases-primary sequence preference of casein kinases I and II, NIMA, phosphorylase kinase, calmodulin-dependent kinase II, Cdk5 and ERK1. Mol Cell Biol 1996;16:6486-93 ...
The synthetic peptide RRKDLHDDEEDEAMSITA can be used as a substrate for casein kinase 1 (CK1) in in vitro kinase assays. It is phosphorylated by CK1 with a Km of 172 �M
dlls/d3dx8/d3dx8.spec , 2 +- dlls/d3dx8/math.c , 80 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++= +++ dlls/d3dx8/tests/math.c , 16 ++++++++- include/d3dx8math.h , 1 + 4 files changed, 96 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-) diff --git a/dlls/d3dx8/d3dx8.spec b/dlls/d3dx8/d3dx8.spec index 52fa008..28b772e 100644 --- a/dlls/d3dx8/d3dx8.spec +++ b/dlls/d3dx8/d3dx8.spec @@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ @ stdcall D3DXMatrixRotationAxis(ptr ptr long) @ stdcall D3DXMatrixRotationQuaternion(ptr ptr) @ stdcall D3DXMatrixRotationYawPitchRoll(ptr long long long) [email protected] stub D3DXMatrixTransformation [email protected] stdcall D3DXMatrixTransformation(ptr ptr ptr ptr ptr ptr ptr) @ stdcall D3DXMatrixAffineTransformation(ptr long ptr ptr ptr) @ stdcall D3DXMatrixLookAtRH(ptr ptr ptr ptr) @ stdcall D3DXMatrixLookAtLH(ptr ptr ptr ptr) diff --git a/dlls/d3dx8/math.c b/dlls/d3dx8/math.c index 9f7522e..04072bf 100644 --- a/dlls/d3dx8/math.c +++ b/dlls/d3dx8/math.c @@ -480,6 +480,86 @@ D3DXMATRIX* WINAPI D3DXMatrixShadow(D3DXMATRIX *pout, C= ONST ...
They also believe that all Creationists are extremely stupid. This literal interpretation of the Bible is a new thing. Even Augustine didnt believe in the literal meaning of Genesis and he wrote a book about it. Genesis was written as a counter to core beliefs put forward by the Babylonians in Enuma Elish, Atrahasis,and the Gilgamesh Epic. Rather than explain how the universe was created it was written to explain the Jewish view of how God relates to man as opposed to the mainstream Babylonian point of view at the time. You have to understand the context and you need to understand a lot of ancient history ...
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10 meanings of YCK acronym and YCK abbreviation. Get the definition of YCK by All Acronyms dictionary. Top Definition: Yio Chu Kang
Ellagic acid is a natural antioxidant, and acts as a potent and ATP-competitive CK2 inhibitor, with an IC50 of 40 nM and a Ki of 20 nM. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
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Despair flowed from a river that once brought luck By Michael Viola 59 PHOTO: Dr. Michael Viola 59 examines a burn victim at a pediatric hospital in Baghdad.Michael Viola 59 is founder and director of Medicine for Peace (www.medpeace.org), a medical relief and humanitarian organization dedicated to caring for children who are victims of war. Iraqis have a pessimistic view of life. They were nurtured on the first recorded story of human mortality the epic of Gilgamesh, the part-man, part-God, king of Uruk in Babylon. They endured Saddam Hussein and his thugs for more than 30 years, and came to believe that the economic sanctions, often referred to as the strangulation in Arabic, would never end. But even the stoic Iraqis have been horror-struck by the recent war and the occupation. My colleagues and I at Medicine for Peace have been working in Iraq since 1991. Touring the hospitals today, we see the dire situation faced by ordinary Iraqis, particularly children. With the complete breakdown of law ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epigenetic regulation of gene expression by Ikaros, HDAC1 and Casein Kinase II in leukemia. AU - Song, Chunhua. AU - Pan, X.. AU - Ge, Z.. AU - Gowda, Chandrika. AU - Ding, Y.. AU - Li, H.. AU - Li, Z.. AU - Yochum, Gregory. AU - Muschen, M.. AU - Li, Q.. AU - Payne, K. J.. AU - Dovat, Sinisa. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84955311527&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84955311527&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1038/leu.2015.331. DO - 10.1038/leu.2015.331. M3 - Letter. VL - 30. SP - 1436. EP - 1440. JO - Leukemia. JF - Leukemia. SN - 0887-6924. IS - 6. ER - ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Xinran Li, Hesheng Hu, Ye Wang, Mei Xue, Xiaolu Li, Wenjuan Cheng, Yongli Xuan, Jie Yin, Na Yang, Suhua Yan].
What are the different types of casein and what do they do? We take a look at casein isolates, casein concentrates, micellar casein, casein hydrolysate...
Muscle Pharm Casein will give you gains around the clock. With high quality ingredients, Casein by Muscle Pharm is designed to be the purest and most effective casein protein ever formulated.
Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard 100% Casein is the Worlds No. 1 and the industrys first all-micellar Casein. Recommended for use in the evening, each great tasting, Gold Standard 100% Casein shake contains 24g of the purest protein, only 3g of carbohydrates, but just 0.5g of fat and no sugar. Its also instantised to mix up easily, every time. ...
Function: Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. It can phosphorylate a large number of proteins. Participates in Wnt signaling (By similarity ...
Rabbit polyclonal Casein Kinase 1 gamma 2 antibody validated for WB, ELISA and tested in Human. Referenced in 4 publications and 1 independent review…
Nusobee Casein information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Wockhardt, Nusobee Casein indications, usages and related health products lists
Beware of cheap casein proteins being passed off as micellar casein. For example, calcium caseinate is NOT micellar casein. To get MICELLAR casein results, use only MICELLAR casein, not plain casein or caseinates. You fight hard in the gym to get result
Im not the biggest on buying casein because I get enough protein from my diet and my normal whey shakes but every once in a while I like to pick some
I dont have a fitting quote to begin todays entry with as I usually do. I think I can just say that she [Mom] did the best with what she had while she could. Choices were made, lives were lived as such. She was great, then she lost herself and ultimately pushed me out. Did she have…
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Casein Kinase Ialpha: A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways including the CELL CYCLE, membrane trafficking, and RNA processing. In DROSOPHILA casein kinase Ialpha has been in regulation of Hedghog and Wingless signaling pathways. Multiple isoforms of casein kinase Ialpha exist and are due ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The extension of lifetime is a need of humanity along with a mainstay motif while in the heritage of scientific pursuits and ideas all through historical past, from the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh and the Egyptian Smith medical papyrus, each of the way from the Taoists, Ayurveda practitioners, alchemists, hygienists for instance Luigi Cornaro, Johann Cohausen and Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, and philosophers which include Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Benjamin Franklin and Nicolas Condorcet. Even so, the start of the modern period in this endeavor can be traced to the top on the 19th - beginning in the 20th century, for the so-named "fin-de-siècle" (stop from the century) interval, denoted as an "close of an epoch" and characterised from the increase of scientific optimism and therapeutic activism, entailing the pursuit of lifestyle extension (or everyday living-extensionism ...
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In Australian Aboriginal mythology, Crow is a trickster, culture hero, and ancestral being. Legends relating to Crow have been observed in various Aboriginal language groups and cultures across Australia; these commonly include stories relating to Crows role in the theft of fire, the origin of death, and the killing of Eagles son.. Crows are mentioned often in Buddhism, especially Tibetan disciplines. The Dharmapala (protector of the Dharma) Mahakala is represented by a crow in one of his physical/earthly forms.[citation needed]. In the Chaldean myth, the Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim releases a dove and raven to find land; however, the dove merely circles and returns. Only then does Utnapishtim send forth the raven, which does not return, and Utnapishtim concludes the raven has found land.[55]. In Chinese mythology, the world originally had 10 suns either spiritually embodied as 10 crows and/or carried by 10 crows; when all 10 decided to rise at once, the effect was devastating to crops, so ...
new classmate essay The Commons of the of unemployment, University of New Hampshire are covered with billboards. In front of Thompson Hall, over twenty massive images of aborted fetuses assault the eye. One of these signs reads The K.K.K; the S.S above black and white pictures of lynched slaves and the stacked bodies of utnapishtim gilgamesh, concentration camp victims. Next to them is a brilliantly red photograph of unidentifiable gore labeled Planned Parenthood. As if the effects, visual implication were not enough, those manning the billboards are shouting their message: They are the Genocide Awareness Project, and of congo, they are on my campus telling me, yelling in my face as I pass by, that abortion is genocide. My t-shirt reads the definition of the of unemployment, word genocide on the front and Abortion ? Genocide on the back, and I point to with imagery it as I silently joint the ranks of those protesting the demonstration. When Perlstein asks What s the of unemployment, Matter with ...
Wnt is a secreted protein that binds to receptors of the Frizzled family. This interaction activates a signaling cascade that controls gene expression during cell growth and developmental processes. The known components of this cascade include the proteins dishevelled, glycogen synthase kinase-3, and β-catenin. Peters et al. reveal that in the developing frog and worm, a serine-threonine kinase called casein kinase I (CKI) functions in the Wnt signaling pathway. In Xenopus laevis, overexpression of CKI mimicked the effects of Wnt overexpression in producing a secondary dorsal axis, stabilizing β-catenin, and inducing the expression of Wnt-target genes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, inhibition of CKI produced the same mesoderm phenotype as loss of Wnt-signaling. The authors demonstrate that CKI is positioned downstream of dishevelled, and upstream of β-catenin. CKI also interacted with and phosphorylated dishevelled. It is possible that phosphorylation of dishevelled by CKI modulates downstream ...
definition of MIH, what does MIH mean?, meaning of MIH, Murine Imaging and Histology, MIH stands for Murine Imaging and Histology
Sometimes slower is better - especially when it comes to the rate of protein digestion. While rapid protein absorption is desirable immediately before or after exercise, delayed release is probably more beneficial throughout the remainder of the day.. Casein proteins are pH sensitive and gel in the acidic environment of the stomach. As a result, it can take more than twice as long for caseins to be broken-down into their amino acid subcomponents than whey and other proteins. Because of their unique time-released qualities, caseins are aptly described as anti-catabolic or muscle-protecting proteins.. Features. ...
Casein kinase II is a protein serinethreonine kinase that is thought to be present in all eukarotic cells, implying that it has fundamental cellular functions. The holoenzyme is a tetramer containing 2 alpha or alpha-prime subunits (or one of each) and 2 beta subunits. The function of beta subunit
Casein Protein list and information including what is Casein Protein, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Casein Protein list and information including what is Casein Protein, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
FCASG : Draw blood in a plain, red-top tube(s), serum gel tube(s) is acceptable. Spin down and send 0.5 mL of serum refrigerated in a plastic vial.
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This book presents a clear, concise history of the extraordinarily multicultural civilizations of the ancient Near East. Beginning with the emergence of writing around 3000 bc, the narrative ranges from the origins of the first cities in Mesopotamia, through the growth of the Babylonian and Hittite kingdoms, to the Assyrian and Persian empires. It ends with the transformation of the ancient Near East by the conquests of Alexander the Great. Incorporating the most recent discoveries and scholarship, the book provides both an account of political and military events and a survey of the cultures and societies of the ancient Near East.The straightforward, accessible text is accompanied by plentiful maps and illustrations, and contains a selection of Near Eastern texts in translation. Each chapter includes a key research question or text, such as the use of the Bible as a historical source, the Epic of Gilgamesh, and the Assyrian royal annals.It is essential reading for anyone interested in this crucial
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Looking for Casein protein? Find out information about Casein protein. well-defined group of proteins found in milk, constituting about 80% of the proteins in cows milk, but only 40% in human milk. Casein is a remarkably... Explanation of Casein protein
Csnk1g3 - Csnk1g3 (untagged) - Mouse casein kinase 1, gamma 3 (cDNA clone MGC:40777 IMAGE:5366964), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Harnos, J; Canizal, MCA; Jurasek, M; Kumar, J; Holler, C; Schambony, A; Hanakova, K; Bernatik, O; Zdrahal, Z; Gomoryova, K; Gybel, T; Radaszkiewicz, TW; Kravec, M; Trantirek, L; Rynes, J; Dave, Z; Fernandez-Llamazares, AI; Vacha, R; Tripsianes, K; Hoffmann, C; Bryja, V, 2019: Dishevelled-3 conformation dynamics analyzed by FRET-based biosensors reveals a key role of casein kinase 1. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS 10, doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-09651-7 ...
100% Casein Gold Standard, 1800 g, de la Optimum Nutrition este un concentrat proteic cu asimilare lenta ce poate fi folosit ca si proteina de noapte.
AMIX Micellar Casein 1000g, Amix, : Kaseiny, Koncentrace: 76-90%, Micel rn kasein je ml n proteinov koncentr t s obsahem micel rn ho kaseinu a syrov tkov ho proteinu ve stejn m pom ru jako v odst ed n m ml ce 80:20. Pomal a dlouhodob uvol ov n aminokyselin ... - V e pro fitness, kulturistiku a aerobik. Posilovac stroje a sportovn v iva pro dom c a komer n posilovny.
The slow absorption feature gives the ability to provide the body with protein for up to 8 hours and alkaline optimum protein. Casein protein for weight loss? yes, it is very helpful to lose your weight ...
Are you painting in alternative aqueous media, or contemplating it? Come join us for discussions, tips, techniques, and projects exploring these ancient and versatile media.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. casein kinase II inhibitor III ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Genetic mutations that cause an inherited sleep disorder also appear to be linked to migraine, scientists have found.. The mutations are rare, but lead researcher Louis Ptáček, professor of neurology at the University of California, San Francisco, says the study moves scientists one step closer to understanding the molecular pathway to pain in migraine. Migraine is common, affecting one in four women and one in 12 men in the UK. Yet the condition is not well understood and, Professor Ptáček says, the need for better treatments is huge.. The mutations are in a gene called casein kinase I delta (CKIdelta), which has many functions, including helping control the bodys internal clock. CKIdelta mutations cause an unusual sleep pattern of early sleep times and early rising. Work on two families with this sleep disorder suggested to researchers that CKIdelta mutations were also associated with migraines.. They investigated this link using mice carrying one of the CKIdelta mutations. ...
Save 27% Optimum Nutrition - Gold Standard 100% Casein Creamy Vanilla 2 Pounds 100% Casein Gold Standard Premium Micellar Casein Protein 100% Protein from Micellar Casein Slow Digesting 24g Protein 9g Essential Amino Acids 1g Sugar The True Strength of Casein Faster digesting protein is desirable immediately before and after exercise to help refuel recovering muscles, but slow digestion and absorption may be more beneficial at other times -- including bedtime when your body typically goes for hours without food Casein proteins are acid sensitive and thicken in the stomach. Compared to some other proteins, it can take more than twice as long for our Gold Standard 100% Casein to be broken down into its amino acid subcomponents. By using only premium micellar casein as a protein source, weve created a formula that sets the standard for slow digesting protein support. Beyond The Basics Best Selling Micellar Casein Nearly 73% Protein by Weight (24g of Protein per 33g Serving Size) 24g of Slow-Digesting
Casein Baue deine Muskeln im Schlaf auf✐Welche Vorteile hat Casein? Welches Protein wird vom Körper besser aufgenommen? Wann soll Casein eingenommen werden | Whey Protein
Gene target information for Csnk1g3 - casein kinase 1, gamma 3 (house mouse). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Buy British Nutritions Casein, 2.2 lb Chocolate Online in India at HealthKart.com. Shop branded Casein Proteins products online @ best prices in India. Free shipping & COD available.
Lillian Gish, whose portrayals of fragile innocence graced the golden age of silent films and eventually extended into an eight-decade screen career, a testament to perpetuity that could last
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Patch 5.4.2 is now available for testing on the Public Test Realms (PTR)! Participating on the Public Test Realms lets you test new content before its available.. If youd like to help test and provide feedback, you can start by copying your character and downloading the PTR client. Once youve had a chance to try things out, be sure to visit our PTR Discussion forum to discuss the patch, and the PTR Bug Report forum to report any issues or errors.. Changes since last update to the PTR patch notes are denoted in red.. PTR Disclaimers. ...
I would like to get tested for casein intolerance. I know I can go through Enterolab and its only $100 so Id do that if I had to, but out of principle I ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of telomeric repeat binding factor 1 binding to telomeres by casein kinase 2-mediated phosphorylation. AU - Mi, Kyung Kim. AU - Mi, Ran Kang. AU - Hyung, Wook Nam. AU - Bae, Young Seuk. AU - Yu, Sam Kim. AU - In, Kwon Chung. PY - 2008/5/16. Y1 - 2008/5/16. N2 - Telomere maintenance is essential for continued cell proliferation and chromosome stability. Telomeres are maintained by telomerase and a collection of associated proteins. The telomeric protein telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1) negatively regulates telomere length by inhibiting access of telomerase at telomere termini. Here we report that TRF1 interacts with the βsubunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2) and serves as a substrate for CK2. CK2-mediated phosphorylation is required for the efficient telomere binding of TRF1 in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of CK2 by the CK2 inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D- ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole decreased the ability of TRF1 to bind telomeric DNA. The resulting telomere-unbound ...
The amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) is an integral membrane protein subjected to constitutive and regulated proteolytic processing. We have previously demonstrated that protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) plays a key role in the regulation of AbetaPP metabolism via cholinergic receptors. The purpose of the present work is to clarify whether other putative signaling systems are involved in the same pharmacological pathway. We focused particularly on casein kinase 2 (CK2), demonstrating a direct interaction between PKCepsilon and CK2 following cholinergic stimulation. Treatment of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with a selective inhibitor of CK2 reduced the effect of carbachol on the release of sAbetaPPalpha. This treatment did not influence the activation and translocation of PKCepsilon suggesting that the latter is located upstream of CK2. On the basis of our results, we add another player to the complex cellular mechanisms regulating non-amyloidogenic processing of AbetaPP. ...
Casein kinase 2 (CK-2) is a ubiquitous messenger-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in growth control. We have studied the activity and subcellular location of CK-2 in adult rat ventral prostate in relation to androgen withdrawal and administration. Androgen deprivation by castration results in a faster decline in CK-2 activity associated with prostatic nuclei than that in the cytosol. Nuclear CK-2 associated with chromatin is reduced at an even greater rate than that in the total nucleus. Reversal of these events by administration of a single dose of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone to adult rats castrated 144 hr previously was accompanied by a differential early enhancement of chromatin-associated CK-2 activity, with a concomitant decrease in the CK-2 activity present in the cytosol. Changes in the nuclear CK-2 activity correlated with the immunostainable enzyme protein in the nucleus. We propose that androgens evoke translocation of CK-2 from the cytoplasm to the ...
Lipid-binding protein that is able to promote the tubulation of the phosphatidic acid-containing membranes it preferentially binds. Plays a role in intracellular vesicle-mediated transport. Involved in the endocytosis of cell-surface receptors like the EGF receptor, contributing to its internalization in the absence of EGF stimulus. May also play a role in the formation of caveolae at the cell membrane. Recruits DNM2 to caveolae, and thereby plays a role in caveola-mediated endocytosis ...
Then I was just touching up a frame here and the light bulb flashed on in my brain: casein! You seem to be pleased with the medium as a full-service plein air sketch medium. Ive never used it except on frames. But I have a full array of tube colors. Have you taken casein on a trip as your prime medium? When you travel with casein, do you work on watercolor paper? Or just in a sketchbook? And what have you used for a travel palette for casein? I guess the big issue Id be concerned with is losing quantity of dry paint on the palette. (whereas gouache can kind of be re-wet ...
Learn about Casein Protein from our introduction video & information guide. We have the largest list of Casein Protein Powder by the top brands! Get the best Casein Protein Powder at Bodybuilding.com!
Gene target information for CSNK1A1 - casein kinase 1 alpha 1 (cattle). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Thanks, Robb. In case anyone wondered, Richeson isnt paying me anything to talk about casein. Im just having a blast playing with it, and I always like taking up the cause of the underdog. I congratulate Richeson for being pretty much the only art supply manufacturer to keep on making the paint-and making high quality stuff. When I met them at their booth at the Plein Air and Portrait conventions, they said the casein market was just a tiny niche and was actually declining. Im sure theyd be happy if its sustainable, but if anything, they kind of hope it doesnt get too popular, or else the really big manufacturers like Winsor & Newton or Grumbacher might step in ...
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The tiny Persian Gulf island nation of Bahrain is home to one of the most mysterious ancient civilizations of the Middle East.. Archaeologists have long known about a civilization called Dilmun. Its mentioned in many Mesopotamian texts as a wealthy place of "sweet water." Even the Epic of Gilgamesh mentions it, but all the sources were vague about its location.. It wasnt until the middle of the 20th century that excavations in Bahrain uncovered impressive cities and temples and proved that Dilmun was located there. Archaeologists found that Dilmun had been an important center for the Persian Gulf trade route that flourished between the Mesopotamian civilizations in what is now Iraq and the Indus Valley in southern Asia around 2000 B.C. Dilmuns trade connections also extended to civilizations in Oman, Turkey, and Syria.. Dilmun owed its importance for being one of the few spots to get fresh water along the route. Ships would stop there to rest and fill up on supplies, and Dilmun became an ...

Casein Kinase Ialpha
     Summary Report | CureHunterCasein Kinase Ialpha Summary Report | CureHunter

In DROSOPHILA casein kinase Ialpha has been in regulation of Hedghog and Wingless signaling pathways. Multiple isoforms of ... A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways including the CELL CYCLE, membrane ... casein kinase Ialpha exist and are due ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. ... Casein Kinase I alpha; Casein Kinase IalphaL; Casein Kinase ... Protein Kinases: 9706*Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: 1353*Casein Kinases: 99*Casein Kinase I: 50*Casein Kinase Ialpha ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD048128-Casein-Kinase-Ialpha.do

Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta) from AMS Biotechnology (Archived Products) | SelectScienceCasein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta) from AMS Biotechnology (Archived Products) | SelectScience

Read independent reviews on Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta) from AMS Biotechnology (Archived ... Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta). Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta) by ... Casein Kinase I epsilon and delta (CKI-epsilon and CKI-delta). Manufacturer AMS Biotechnology (Archived Products). Be the first ...
more infohttp://www.selectscience.net/products/casein-kinase-i-epsilon-and-delta-

Casein Kinase I Isoform Delta (Tau Protein Kinase CSNK1D or CKI Delta or CSNK1D or EC 2.7.11.1 or EC 2.7.11.26) - Pipeline...Casein Kinase I Isoform Delta (Tau Protein Kinase CSNK1D or CKI Delta or CSNK1D or EC 2.7.11.1 or EC 2.7.11.26) - Pipeline...

Tau Protein Kinase CSNK1D or CKI Delta or CSNK1D or EC 2.7.11.1 or EC 2.7.11.26) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016 - Market research ... Casein Kinase I Isoform Delta (Tau Protein Kinase CSNK1D or CKI Delta or CSNK1D or EC 2.7.11.1 or EC 2.7.11.26) - Pipeline ... Casein Kinase I Isoform Delta (Tau Protein Kinase CSNK1D or CKI Delta or CSNK1D or EC 2.7.11.1 or EC 2.7.11.26) Overview ... The report reviews Casein Kinase I Isoform Delta (Tau Protein Kinase CSNK1D or CKI Delta or CSNK1D or EC 2.7.11.1 or EC 2.7. ...
more infohttps://www.marketresearch.com/Global-Markets-Direct-v3480/Casein-Kinase-Isoform-Delta-Tau-10293155/

Casein protein | Article about Casein protein by The Free DictionaryCasein protein | Article about Casein protein by The Free Dictionary

Casein is a remarkably... Explanation of Casein protein ... Find out information about Casein protein. well-defined group ... casein iodine. *Casein Kinase. *Casein kinase 1. *Casein kinase 2. *Casein kinase ii ... α-casein β-casein, and γ-casein). Dried casein is a tasteless and odorless white powder. Casein is the principal protein ... casein. (redirected from Casein protein). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. casein. (kā`sēn), well-defined group ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Casein+protein

Casein kinase II, regulatory subunit (IPR000704) | InterPro | EMBL-EBICasein kinase II, regulatory subunit (IPR000704) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Casein kinase II, regulatory subunit (IPR000704). Short name: Casein_kinase_II_reg-sub ... Casein kinase, a ubiquitous well-conserved protein kinase involved in cell metabolism and differentiation, is characterised by ... Human phosvitin/casein kinase type II. Molecular cloning and sequencing of full-length cDNA encoding subunit beta.. Eur. J. ... Cloning and disruption of CKB1, the gene encoding the 38-kDa beta subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae casein kinase II (CKII). ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR000704

Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II.  - PubMed - NCBIMyc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II. - PubMed - NCBI

Casein kinase II (CK-II) is a ubiquitous protein kinase, localized to both nucleus and cytoplasm, with strong specificity for ... Myc oncoproteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase II.. Lüscher B1, Kuenzel EA, Krebs EG, Eisenman RN. ... Our results, along with previous studies on myc deletion mutants, show that Myc is phosphorylated by CK-II, or a kinase with ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2663470?dopt=Abstract

CSNK1D casein kinase 1 delta [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBICSNK1D casein kinase 1 delta [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI

casein kinase I isoform delta; casein kinase I. Names. tau-protein kinase CSNK1D. NP_001350678.1. *EC 2.7.11.1 ... CSNK1D casein kinase 1 delta [Homo sapiens] CSNK1D casein kinase 1 delta [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:1453 ... STKc_CK1_delta_epsilon; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine protein kinases, Casein Kinase 1 delta and epsilon. ... STKc_CK1_delta_epsilon; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine protein kinases, Casein Kinase 1 delta and epsilon. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/1453

Anti-Casein Kinase 1 alpha antibody (ab63373) ProtocolsAnti-Casein Kinase 1 alpha antibody (ab63373) Protocols

Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Casein Kinase 1 alpha antibody (ab63373) : Immunohistochemistry protocols, ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/casein-kinase-1-alpha-antibody-ab63373-protocols.html

Anti-Casein Kinase 1 delta antibody (ab123684) ReferencesAnti-Casein Kinase 1 delta antibody (ab123684) References

References for Abcams Anti-Casein Kinase 1 delta antibody (ab123684). Please let us know if you have used this product in your ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/casein-kinase-1-delta-antibody-ab123684-references.html

Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor -Pipeline Insight, 2018Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor -Pipeline Insight, 2018

2. Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor - Overview. 3. Pipeline Therapeutics*An Overview of Pipeline Products for Casein Kinase 2 ... Table 2: Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor Therapeutic Products in Clinical Stages. Table 3: Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor Therapeutic ... Figure 2: Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor Therapeutic Products in Clinical Stages. Figure 3: Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor Therapeutic ... Pipeline Therapeutics assessment of products for Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor The report assesses the active Casein Kinase 2 ...
more infohttps://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/4382672/casein-kinase-2-inhibitor-pipeline-insight-2018

casein kinase 1 epsilon ELISA Kits | Biocompare.comcasein kinase 1 epsilon ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com

Compare casein kinase 1 epsilon ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... casein kinase 1 epsilon ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool for ... Your search returned 24 casein kinase 1 epsilon ELISA ELISA Kit across 5 suppliers. ...
more infohttps://www.biocompare.com/pfu/110627/soids/2-68435/ELISA_Kit/ELISA_casein_kinase_1_epsilon

Casein Kinase 1 gamma Proteins: Novus BiologicalsCasein Kinase 1 gamma Proteins: Novus Biologicals

Browse our Casein Kinase 1 gamma Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Casein Kinase 1 gamma Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ... Casein Kinase 1 gamma Proteins. We offer Casein Kinase 1 gamma Peptides and Casein Kinase 1 gamma Proteins for use in common ... Alternate Names for Casein Kinase 1 gamma Proteins. Casein Kinase 1 gamma protein, CSNK1G1 protein, casein kinase 1, gamma 1 ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/proteins/casein-kinase-1-gamma

WikiGenes - CSNK1E - casein kinase 1, epsilonWikiGenes - CSNK1E - casein kinase 1, epsilon

Casein kinase I epsilon enhances the binding of Dvl-1 to Frat-1 and is essential for Wnt-3a-induced accumulation of beta- ... Isolation and characterization of human casein kinase I epsilon (CKI), a novel member of the CKI gene family. Fish, K.J., ... Autoinhibition of casein kinase I epsilon (CKI epsilon) is relieved by protein phosphatases and limited proteolysis. Cegielska ... Association between the casein kinase 1 epsilon gene region and subjective response to D-amphetamine. Veenstra-VanderWeele, J ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/1454.html

TBB | ≥99%(HPLC) | Selleck | Casein Kinase inhibitor
		
		
			
				
			
			
				
			
		
		
			
			
				
			
		
		
			
		
		
			...TBB | ≥99%(HPLC) | Selleck | Casein Kinase inhibitor ...

... phosphorylase kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3L and cyclin-dependent kinase 2/cyclin A) underwent moderate inhibition, with ... In the presence of 10 μM TBB (and 100 μM ATP) only CK2 was drastically inhibited (s85%) whereas three kinases ( ... with the addition of protein kinase inhibitors where indicated. After incubations, cells were centrifuged and lysed for 15 min ...
more infohttps://www.selleckchem.com/products/tbb.html

Alfa Aesar Casein Kinase II Substrate 1mg:Electrophoresis, Western BlottingAlfa Aesar Casein Kinase II Substrate 1mg:Electrophoresis, Western Blotting

Alfa Aesar Casein Kinase II Substrate 1mg Electrophoresis, Western Blotting and ELISA:Western Blotting Reagents, Membranes, ...
more infohttps://www.fishersci.com/shop/products/casein-kinase-ii-substrate-1/AAJ66383MCR

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Casein kinase II subunit beta - P67870 (CSK2B HUMAN)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Casein kinase II subunit beta - P67870 (CSK2B HUMAN)

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/B0UXA9

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Casein kinase I homolog 1 - P40233 (CKI1 SCHPO)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Casein kinase I homolog 1 - P40233 (CKI1 SCHPO)

Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/P40233

Characterisation of Casein Kinase 1.1 in Leishmania donovani Using the CRISPR Cas9 ToolkitCharacterisation of Casein Kinase 1.1 in Leishmania donovani Using the CRISPR Cas9 Toolkit

... Daniel Martel,1 Tom Beneke,2 Eva ... M. D. Urbaniak, "Casein kinase 1 isoform 2 is essential for bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei," Molecular and Biochemical ... U. Knippschild, A. Gocht, S. Wolff, N. Huber, J. Löhler, and M. Stöter, "The casein kinase 1 family: Participation in multiple ... M. Dan-Goor, A. Nasereddin, H. Jaber, and C. L. Jaffe, "Identification of a secreted casein kinase 1 in Leishmania donovani: ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/4635605/ref/

Casein Kinase I | Profiles RNSCasein Kinase I | Profiles RNS

Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I ... "Casein Kinase I" by people in this website by year, and whether "Casein Kinase I" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Casein Kinase I" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/121053

Casein Kinase 2, alpha 1 Polypeptide (CSNK2A1) AntikörperCasein Kinase 2, alpha 1 Polypeptide (CSNK2A1) Antikörper

... casein kinase II alpha 1 subunit , casein kinase II subunit alpha , protein kinase CK2 , casein kinase 2 alpha subunit , ck2 ... Casein kinase II alpha subunit , casein kinase II, alpha 1 polypeptide , casein kinase II, alpha 1 related sequence 4 , Casein ... casein kinase II subunit alpha-like , CK II alpha , casein kinase 2, alpha subunit , CK II , casein kinase II alpha subunit , ... Casein kinase II is a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins such as casein. The kinase exists as ...
more infohttp://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/Casein+Kinase+2%2C+alpha+1+Polypeptide+

Casein Kinase 1 delta ELISA Kits from antibodies-online | Biocompare.comCasein Kinase 1 delta ELISA Kits from antibodies-online | Biocompare.com

Compare Casein Kinase 1 delta ELISA Kits from antibodies-online from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... Casein Kinase 1 delta ELISA Kits from antibodies-online. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established ... Your search returned 12 Casein Kinase 1 delta ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ...
more infohttps://www.biocompare.com/pfu/110627/soids/2-750/ELISA_Kit/ELISA_Casein_Kinase_1_delta?vids=104431

CSNK2A1 - Casein kinase II subunit alpha - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit) - CSNK2A1 gene & proteinCSNK2A1 - Casein kinase II subunit alpha - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit) - CSNK2A1 gene & protein

Catalytic subunit of a constitutively active serine/threonine-protein kinase complex that phosphorylates a large number of ... IPR011009. Kinase-like_dom. IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... IPR011009. Kinase-like_dom. IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit. PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit. PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P33674

ACK2 - Casein kinase II subunit alpha - Zea mays (Maize) - ACK2 gene & proteinACK2 - Casein kinase II subunit alpha - Zea mays (Maize) - ACK2 gene & protein

Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. ... IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P28523

anti-Casein Kinase 1 alpha antibody [AT2E2]  | GeneTexanti-Casein Kinase 1 alpha antibody [AT2E2] | GeneTex

... casein kinase 1, alpha 1) for ELISA, ICC/IF, WB. Anti-Casein Kinase 1 alpha mAb (GTX50020) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab- ... Caseine Kinase 1 alpha belongs to the protein kinase superfamily, CK1 Ser/Thr protein kinase family, Casein kinase I subfamily ... Caseine kinase 1 alpha also interacts with the Axin complex. Synonyms. Casein Kinase 1 alpha, Casein Kinase1 alpha, CSNK1A1, ... Casein Kinase 1 alpha antibody [AT2E2] See all Casein Kinase 1 alpha products ...
more infohttp://www.genetex.com/Casein-Kinase-1-alpha-antibody-AT2E2-GTX50020.html

casein kinase II alpha Inhibitors | SCBT - Santa Cruz Biotechnologycasein kinase II alpha Inhibitors | SCBT - Santa Cruz Biotechnology

View and select products within our casein kinase II alpha Inhibitors category available for immediate purchase. ... Buy casein kinase II alpha Inhibitors from Santa Cruz. ... casein kinase II alpha Inhibitors. Casein kinase I (also ... and casein kinase II (also designated CKII) compose a family of serine/ threonine protein kinases which are present in all ... Biochemicals that inhibit casein kinase II alpha have many applications in biochemical and physiological research. Click on the ...
more infohttps://www.scbt.com/scbt/browse/casein-kinase-II-alpha-Inhibitors/_/N-1xapz7n
  • Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor - Pipeline Insight, 2018' reportoffers comprehensive insights of the pipeline (under development) therapeutics scenario and growth prospects across Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor development. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Descriptive coverage of pipeline development activities for Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor - Pipeline therapeutics development coverage provides descriptive product profiles including (but not limited to) drug description, product development and R&D activities encompassing clinical and pre-clinical studies, designations, collaborations, licensing deals, grants, technologies and patent details. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The report assesses the active Casein Kinase 2 Inhibitor pipeline products by developmental stage, product type, molecule type, and administration route. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Silmitasertib (CX-4945) is a potent and selective inhibitor of CK2 (casein kinase 2) with IC50 of 1 nM in a cell-free assay, less potent to Flt3, Pim1 and CDK1 (inactive in cell-based assay). (selleckchem.com)
  • Drosophila doubletime mutations which either shorten or lengthen the period of circadian rhythms decrease the protein kinase activity of casein kinase I," Molecular and Cellular Biology , vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 886-898, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Ahmed, Davis, Hanten, Lambert, McIvor, Goueli: Cloning of cDNAs encoding the alpha and beta subunits of rat casein kinase 2 (CK-2): investigation of molecular regulation of CK-2 by androgens in rat ventral prostate. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Lozeman FJ, Litchfield DW, Piening C, Takio K, Walsh KA, Krebs EG: Isolation and characterization of human cDNA clones encoding the alpha and the alpha' subunits of casein kinase II. (hmdb.ca)
  • Cell treatment was performed by incubation of cell suspension (~10×10 6 cells/ml) for 2 h at 37℃ in the presence of 2 μM okadaic acid (OA) with the addition of protein kinase inhibitors where indicated. (selleckchem.com)
  • Click on the product name to view detailed information such as the chemical structure and specific chemical properties for each of our casein kinase II alpha Inhibitors. (scbt.com)
  • In stock casein kinase II alpha Inhibitors are available for immediate shipping. (scbt.com)
  • M. E. Porter and W. S. Sale, "The 9 + 2 axoneme anchors multiple inner arm dyneins and a network of kinases and phosphatases that control motility," The Journal of Cell Biology , vol. 151, no. 5, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • Our results, along with previous studies on myc deletion mutants, show that Myc is phosphorylated by CK-II, or a kinase with similar specificity, in regions of functional importance. (nih.gov)
  • Lee HM, Chen R, Kim H, Etchegaray JP, Weaver DR, Lee C. The period of the circadian oscillator is primarily determined by the balance between casein kinase 1 and protein phosphatase 1. (umassmed.edu)
  • CX-4945 is selective for CK2, as it only inhibits 7 of the 238 kinases by more than 90% at concentration of 0.5 μM, which is 500-fold greater than the IC50 of CK2. (selleckchem.com)
  • This gene is a member of the casein kinase I (CKI) gene family whose members have been implicated in the control of cytoplasmic and nuclear processes, including DNA replication and repair. (nih.gov)
  • The family members have the highest homology in their kinase domains (53%-98% identical) and differ from most other protein kinases by the presence of the sequence S-I-N instead of A-P-E in kinase domain VIII. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacological assessment defines Leishmania donovani casein kinase 1 as a drug target and reveals important functions in parasite viability and intracellular infection," Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy , vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 1501-1515, 2014. (hindawi.com)