Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Leptospirosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Food Parasitology: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.Q Fever: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).Coxiella burnetii: A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Tick-Borne Diseases: Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.Echinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Echinococcus granulosus: A species of hydatid tapeworm (class CESTODA) in the family Taeniidae, whose adult form infects the DIGESTIVE TRACT of DOGS, other canines, and CATS. The larval form infects SHEEP; PIGS; HORSES; and may infect humans, where it migrates to various organs and forms permanent HYDATID CYSTS.Leptospira: A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Leptospira interrogans: A genus of question mark-shaped bacteria spirochetes which is found in fresh water that is contaminated by animal urine. It causes LEPTOSPIROSIS.Cestode Infections: Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.Pets: Animals kept by humans for companionship and enjoyment, as opposed to DOMESTIC ANIMALS such as livestock or farm animals, which are kept for economic reasons.Legislation, Veterinary: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Echinococcus multilocularis: A north temperate species of tapeworm (CESTODA) whose adult form infects FOXES and wild RODENTS. The larval form can infect humans producing HEPATIC HYDATID CYSTS.Siphonaptera: An order of parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless INSECTS with the common name of fleas.Brucella melitensis: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are sheep and goats. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected. In general, these organisms tend to be more virulent for laboratory animals than BRUCELLA ABORTUS and may cause fatal infections.Hantavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.Animal DiseasesEctoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Skin Diseases, Parasitic: Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Henipavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HENIPAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Gnathostoma: A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Brucella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Communicable DiseasesSeroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Pinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Duddingtonia: A genus of ascomycetous mitosporic fungi in the family Orbiliaceae. It is used for the biological control of nematodes in livestock.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Echinococcus: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.Lyssavirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that includes RABIES VIRUS and other rabies-like viruses.Transferrins: A group of iron-binding proteins that tightly bind two ferrate ions along with two carbonate ions. They are found in the bodily fluids of vertebrates where they act as transport and storage molecules for iron.Erythrovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, and containing the type species PARVOVIRUS B19, HUMAN.BrazilBrucellosis, Bovine: A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.Trichinella: A genus of parasitic nematodes that causes TRICHINELLOSIS in man and other animal.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Echinococcosis, Pulmonary: Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.Anticestodal Agents: Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations in man or animals.Anisakiasis: Infection with roundworms of the genus ANISAKIS. Human infection results from the consumption of fish harboring roundworm larvae. The worms may cause acute NAUSEA; VOMITING; or penetrate into the wall of the DIGESTIVE TRACT where they give rise to EOSINOPHILIC GRANULOMA in the STOMACH; INTESTINES; or the OMENTUM.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Trichinellosis: An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Echinococcosis, Hepatic: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Ruminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Ixodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Dirofilariasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus DIROFILARIA, usually in animals, especially dogs, but occasionally in man.Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Bites and StingsTularemia: A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: Acute respiratory illness in humans caused by the Muerto Canyon virus whose primary rodent reservoir is the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus. First identified in the southwestern United States, this syndrome is characterized most commonly by fever, myalgias, headache, cough, and rapid respiratory failure.Brucella abortus: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Hantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.EuropeIntestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.ItalyPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Anaplasma phagocytophilum: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.ColombiaParasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.DairyingSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Francisella tularensis: The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)IndiaVirulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.United StatesBacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Mice, Inbred BALB CAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cases of human infection by Moniliformis moniliformis have been reported in the United States, Iran, Iraq, and Nigeria. ... Northern American parasitic zoonoses. Vol. 6. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 2003. Print. Salehabadi, Alireza (2008). "Human ... There are not many case studies on acanthocephaliasis but of the ones that exist, many of the patients described were ... 1985 Berenji, F; Fata, A; Hosseininejad, Z. "A case of Moniliformis moniliformis (Acanthocephala) infection in Iran". Korean J ...
Beran, George W., Steele, James H. (1994). Handbook of Zoonoses, Second Edition: Viral Zoonoses. CRC‑Press. p. 608. ISBN ... "Human Cases of Wesselsbron Disease, South Africa 2010-2011". Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 13 (5): 330-337. doi:10.1089/ ... Beran, George W., Steele, James H. (1994). Handbook of Zoonoses, Second Edition: Viral Zoonoses. CRC‑Press. p. 608. ISBN ... "Human Cases of Wesselsbron Disease, South Africa 2010-2011". Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 13 (5): 330-337. doi:10.1089/ ...
It is not uncommon for severe cases to involve the respiratory system, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system or the ... Parola, Philippe; Davoust, Bernard; Raoult, Didier (2005-06-01). "Tick- and flea-borne rickettsial emerging zoonoses". ... Tortora, Gerard J.; Funke, Berdell R.; Case, Christine L. (2013). Microbiology: An Introduction. United States of America: ...
A well-known zoonosis is rabies, a viral infection transmitted through a bite. A common bacterial zoonosis is leptospirosis, ... There have been cases of foods, candies and gums containing xylitol causing toxic or even fatal liver damage in dogs. Some dogs ... The prognosis is good in these cases. However, if the dog is already showing signs of poisoning, it is too late to try to ... "One ounce of milk chocolate per pound of body weight is a potentially lethal dose in dogs." In case of accidental intake of ...
It is not a zoonosis. Most commonly, respiratory signs are seen. These include nasal discharge, dyspnoea, sneezing and coughing ... There are reports of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms in some cases. Clinical signs are generally worse in meat ...
Some cases with multiple pairs of worms have reported low eosinophil levels, while other cases with a single pair had very high ... Zoonosis and communicable diseases common to man and animals. Washington (DC): Pan American Health Organization; 2003. ... A singular case even found worms within a cyst. Past cases have demonstrated that simple removal of the worms from upper ... Infection in humans is very rare, with only about 100 reported cases worldwide, and is assumed to be largely accidental. Cases ...
They tend to cause lesions that range in size depending on the case. Between 1990 and 1995, there was a mean of 15 cases ... Transmission routes are zoonosis and contact. Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Poxviridae Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae ... This is a significant decline from the annual mean of 46 cases between 1968 and 1978. Some authors believe that the infection ...
... there was an abrupt rise in Sonora cases with 80 fatal cases. From 2003 to 2016, cases increased to 1394 with 247 deaths. Rocky ... Rocky Mountain spotted fever, like all rickettsial infections, is classified as a zoonosis. Zoonoses are diseases of animals ... In the case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ticks are the natural hosts, serving as both reservoirs and vectors of R. ... However, in some cases a Rickettsia rickettsii infection has been contracted by contact with tick tissues or fluids. Then, the ...
More than 50 cases of Bertiella have been cited, with a high frequency of those being children. In cases in Mauritius, the ... Szyfres, B; Acha, PN (2003). "Bertielliasis". Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals (3rd ed.). ... 56 cases had been reported in the literature, 45 cases due to B. studeri, 7 due to B. mucronata, 4 due to unspecified Bertiella ... In the rare cases that dogs and humans have contracted an infection, it is attributed to proximity and frequency of soil ...
By 2003, cases of poliomyelitis had been reduced to just a small number in isolated regions of West Africa, with sporadic cases ... Zoonosis Hillis DM (2000). "AIDS. Origins of HIV". Science. 288 (5472): 1757-1759. doi:10.1126/science.288.5472.1757. PMID ... In every case, the studies' findings argued strongly against any link between the polio vaccine and AIDS. The evidence cited ... AIDS origins opposed to scientific consensus AIDS origin SV40 A scientifically accepted case of a monkey virus contaminating ...
Transmission routes are zoonosis and fomite. The 3' end of the genome encodes a polyA tail while the 5' end encodes a genome- ... In the case of Cardiovirus A, the virus can cause encephalitis and myocarditis, mostly in rodents, which are natural hosts. The ...
This was the second known case of reverse-zoonosis in the world. June 28: Due to the ongoing legislative elections and the ... with 5 confirmed cases and more than 30 suspected cases) and Santiago del Estero (which on the same day confirmed 12 cases of ... September 7: ILI cases reported up to week 33: 1,054,707. Cumulative data up to week 32: 8,384 H1N1 lab-confirmed cases, 512 ... August 29: Week 32 saw no further decrease in new ILI cases, reaching 818,031 cumulative cases. Confirmed deaths: 465, deaths ...
In some cases, the patient may also be missing a kidney on the same side as its missing uterine horn. This phenomenon is also ... Zoonosis[edit]. Researchers at the University of Cornell Feline Health Center believe that "most zoonotic diseases pose minimal ... Certain infectious diseases are a concern from a public health standpoint because they are a Feline zoonosis and transmittable ... In 20 to 30% of the cases, cats have concurrent allergic diseases (atopy / flea-allergic dermatitis). A reliable diagnosis can ...
... zoonoses ATSDR Case Studies in Environmental Medicine U.S. Department of Health and Human Services American Academy of ... ISBN 0-07-144313-4. Tuomisto, Jouko (2010). Arsenic to zoonoses. One hundred questions about the environment and health. http ...
Cases of swine flu have been reported in India, with over 31,156 positive test cases and 1,841 deaths up to March 2015. In ... The 1918 flu pandemic in humans was associated with H1N1 and influenza appearing in pigs; this may reflect a zoonosis either ... There were seven cases of Swine flu reported in Punjab province of Pakistan mainly in the city of Multan in January 2017. Cases ... Cases were also detected in the districts of Kathmandu, Morang, Kaski, and Chitwan. As of 22 April 2015 the Nepal Ministry of ...
A survey of 54 cases reported three cases of generalized infection, including one death. Vaccinia-specific immunoglobulins may ... Following the eradication of the human-specific variola virus, all human Orthopoxvirus infections are zoonoses. Monkeypox ... However, human and prairie dog cases have occurred in the US due to contact with animals imported from Ghana. Cowpox only ... Baxby, D.,; Bennett, M.; Getty, B. (1994). "Human cowpox 1969-93: a review based on 54 cases". Brit. J. Derm. 131 (5): 598-607 ...
In the case of back contamination, multicellular life is thought unlikely but has not been ruled out. In the case of forward ... If so, it might be a zoonosis to beat all others. On the one hand, how could microbes from Mars be pathogenic for hosts on ... which would immensely strengthen the case for a liquid subsurface ocean. As was the case for Enceladus, vapour geysers would ... In the case of backward contamination, however, the aim of the mission is to return biological material from foreign planets to ...
Only one case of human to human transmission has been reported. The incubation period in human cases remains unknown, but in a ... As a result of this, researchers concluded that tanapox is most likely a zoonosis. However, neither the reservoir host nor the ... In the case of Zairian patients, the lesions were mostly found on the lower limbs, with a couple of patients reporting lesions ... During the Kenyan epidemics of 1957 and 1962, cases of tanapox were reported more frequently among persons who worked or played ...
Antigenic shift Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 Influenza research Zoonosis "H7N9 Case Detected in Malaysia". CDC. 12 February ... confirmed cases rose to 102 and fatal cases to 20. On April 22, there were 104 cases with 21 deaths. On April 23, 3 more cases ... 14 severe cases and three mild cases." In Jiangsu, more than "600 close contacts of the confirmed cases are being closely ... Cases continued to be reported throughout April and then dropped to only a few cases during the summer months. At the closing ...
In this case of spread, the pathogen was suspected to transmitted from the decaying rat found under the index patient's house. ... Airborne transmission Bubonic plague Septicemic plague Super-spreader Outbreak Epidemic Zoonosis Black rat A.J. Viseltear. The ... Within the quarantined area, the health department set up a temporary laboratory to quickly identify new cases. At the same ... but it was secured in time to be used and used in only one case. On October 30, 1924, the Los Angeles County Hospital ...
Psychiatric cases of patients performing hematophagy also exist. Sucking or licking one's own blood from a wound is also a ... Chupacabra Consumer-resource systems Natural reservoir Tick-borne disease Transmission (medicine) Zoonosis Scharfetter C, ...
A 2007 fatal case in a killer whale in Texas broadened the known host range of West Nile virus to include cetaceans. Omsk ... Transmission routes are zoonosis and bite. Flaviviruses have a (+) sense RNA genome and replicate in the cytoplasm of the host ... Lineage 2 was considered an Africa zoonosis. However, in 2008, lineage 2, previously only seen in horses in sub-Saharan Africa ...
There have been human cases and equine cases, and many birds are infected. The Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus, was the first ... Lineage 2 was considered an African zoonosis. However, in 2008, lineage 2, previously only seen in horses in sub-Saharan Africa ... A 2007 fatal case in a killer whale in Texas broadened the known host range of West Nile virus to include cetaceans. The strain ... Since the first North American cases in 1999, the virus has been reported throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, the ...
There has been a surge in the number of cases and geographic range in the last decade. In the United States, cases have been ... The disease is a zoonosis, an animal disease, usually found in rodents and ticks, with spillover transmission to humans. The ... Half of all cases results in permanent neurological damage and 10-15% result in death. Caulfield, AJ; Pritt, BS (December 2015 ... "Cumulative human disease cases reported to CDC ArboNET for 2015". United States Geological Survey. McLEAN, DM; DONOHUE, WL (1 ...
Few cases were documented in Japan, Koreas, Vietnam, and Thailand. In Australia, human fasciolosis is very rare (only 12 cases ... The disease is a plant-borne trematode zoonosis, and is classified as a neglected tropical disease (NTD). It affects humans, ... In case of a suspected outbreak it may be useful to keep track of dietary history, which is also useful for exclusion of ... In this case the disease is similar to sheep and is characterized by weight loss, anemia, hypoalbuminemia and (after infection ...
... in extreme cases of species on the verge of extinction, can pose a threat to bird populations; and that in many cases in which ... are valuable for studies on coevolution and zoonoses. In addition to taxonomic research, collections can provide information ... In the case of molecular studies, the preservation of a specimen that can vouch for the source of the tissue sample used to ... the case of the great tit Parus major". J. Avian Biol. 37 (6): 609-616. doi:10.1111/j.0908-8857.2006.03636.x. Ratcliffe, D.A. ( ...
In acute cases, a green diarrhea can be an early symptom.. The most typical symptom, in chronic cases, is the swelling of the ... As the causative agent is Pasteurella multocida, it is considered as a zoonosis. ... In acute cases, the most typical p.m. lesion is the petechiae observed in the epicardial fatty tissue. Necrotic foci on liver ...
The first recorded case of syphilis occurred in Naples in 1495, after King Charles VIII of France besieged the city of Naples, ... see zoonosis). Globalization intensified during the Age of Exploration, but trading routes had long been established between ... The majority of cases that occur are among immigrants from other countries. Typhus is caused by rickettsia, which is ... Although TB is highly contagious, in most cases the human body is able to fend off the bacteria. But, TB can remain dormant in ...
... in 1968 and the EBLV-2 sequence was derived from a virus isolate from a human case of rabies that occurred in Scotland in 2002 ... Case report: isolation of a European bat lyssavirus type 2a from a fatal human case of rabies encephalitis. J Med Virol 71, 281 ... 1 1Rabies & Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA, Weybridge), WHO Collaborating Centre for the ... in 1968 and the EBLV-2 sequence was derived from a virus isolate from a human case of rabies that occurred in Scotland in 2002 ...
Since 1977, 783 cases of EBLVs (by isolation of viral RNA) have been recorded in Europe. EBLV-1 or EBLV-2 has been identified ... keywords = "disease, surveillance, European bat lyssavirus, rabies, zoonoses, conservation, RABIES-RELATED VIRUS, NEW-YORK- ... Since 1977, 783 cases of EBLVs (by isolation of viral RNA) have been recorded in Europe. EBLV-1 or EBLV-2 has been identified ... Since 1977, 783 cases of EBLVs (by isolation of viral RNA) have been recorded in Europe. EBLV-1 or EBLV-2 has been identified ...
In most cases and even for multi-host diseases such as zoonoses, risk estimation has been conducted in a univariate fashion ... Towards integrated surveillance of zoonoses: spatiotemporal joint modeling of rodent population data and human tularemia cases ... We assume that the human cases are associated with rodents status through a latent structure. Let human cases (counts), hit, ... In this paper, the expected rates, ei, are calculated as the average case count at area i over the time period as \( {e}_i=\ ...
The report shows Salmonella cases in humans fell by 17% in 2009, marking a decrease for the fifth consecutive year. The report ... have published their annual report on zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in the European Union for 2009. ... "The fall in Salmonella cases in humans is a great achievement and indicates that the control measures put in place by EU Member ... Listeria infections in humans showed an increase of 19% in 2009 compared to 2008, with 1,645 confirmed cases. Listeria is known ...
How to Contact the Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch at CDC. *Surveillance Case Definition ... Case Report Form. *Confirmed and probable cases of SFR are reported through the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System ... Surveillance Case Definition. *Spotted fever rickettsioses (SFR) are nationally notifiable conditions and cases should be ... How to Contact the Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch at CDC. The general public and healthcare providers should first call 1-800-CDC- ...
How to Contact the Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch at CDC. *Surveillance Case Definition ... Surveillance Case Definition. *Anaplasmosis is a nationally notifiable condition and cases should be reported to your state or ... Case Report Form. *Confirmed and probable cases of anaplasmosis are reported through the National Notifiable Disease ... Cases are identified using a standard case definition established by the Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists ( ...
To prioritize 100 animal diseases and zoonoses in Europe, we used a multicriteria decision-making procedure based on opinions ... Case-fatality rate, %. 1.01. 9.46. 18.00. Pert (1,01; 10; 18). Mode of transmission. 0.00. 5.71. 10.59. Pert (0; 5; 10,59). ... Classification of zoonoses. 0.00. 5.51. 11.25. Pert (0; 6; 11,25). Disease knowledge in humans. 2.40. 7.27. 11.25. Pert (2,4; 5 ... Multidisciplinary and Evidence-based Method for Prioritizing Diseases of Food-producing Animals and Zoonoses Marie-France ...
Tick-borne encephalitis in Sweden was used as a case study. Three boosted regression tree models are compared: a hazard model, ... Shaping zoonosis risk: landscape ecology vs. landscape attractiveness for people, the case of tick-borne encephalitis in Sweden ... A patch with the most compact shape (i.e. the smallest patch to area ratio), in the case of raster data, a square, has a shape ... Randolph compares human cases to "the tip of the iceberg" that emerges from the undetected enzootic cycles below the surface[3 ...
To prioritize 100 animal diseases and zoonoses in Europe, we used a multicriteria decision-making procedure based on opinions ... A, zoonotic/common agent; B, classification of zoonoses; C, disease knowledge in humans; D, illness rate; E, case-fatality rate ... points) of criteria for diseases of food-producing animals and zoonoses for 5 aspects of a pathogen proposed by experts, Europe ... A, illness rate; B, case-fatality rate; C, specificity of agents; D, mode of transmission; E, incubation period; F, clinical ...
... to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/ ... Zoonoses Is the Subject Area "Zoonoses" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Zoonosis. Not a factor but slight zoonotic capability is suspected.. No action unless a suspect case is reported. Most likely ... Zoonosis. Humans were until recently not thought to be affected but recently cases in humans, some fatal, have been diagnosed. ... Zoonosis. Humans can be affected.. Chapter 4. TABLE 3.13. Epidemiological considerations - rinderpest/peste des petits ... Zoonosis. Humans are not affected.. 1 Here and subsequently, there is no reason why feral domestic species should differ ...
A process for developing multisectoral strategies for zoonoses: the case of leptospirosis in Fiji. ... The research team has undertaken qualitative research to explore the perspectives and needs of cases and the families of cases ... In addition, a crude case fatality rate calculated using the laboratory-confirmed "cases" and reported deaths as total " ... For the data that the NNDSS does routinely collect, it aggregates the numbers of cases per facility but does not have the ...
Through this case, to be effective control of zoonoses as above case, epidemiological investigation for cattle and human should ... A Case Report of Human Brucellosis Found by Zoonoses Surveillance System Based on One Health / 農村醫學 地域保健 ... A Case Report of Human Brucellosis Found by Zoonoses Surveillance System Based on One Heal ... Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Brucellosis / Humans / Cattle / Zoonoses / Public Health / ...
A case of Dipylidium caninum in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Int J Zoonoses. 1986 Mar. 13(1):59-62. [Medline]. ... Need a Curbside Consult? Share cases and questions with Physicians on Medscape consult. Share a Case ... Case reports of Dipylidium caninum; a pet associated infection. Ceylon Med J. 1989 Mar. 34(1):27-30. [Medline]. ... Oberle MW, Knight WB, Hernández L. Dipylidium caninum in Puerto Rico: report of a human case. Bol Asoc Med P R. 1979 Jul. 71(7 ...
Saudi MERS case. Global childhood vaccinations. H5N1 in Africa. Antibiotic stewardship. Neglected zoonoses ...
They tend to cause lesions that range in size depending on the case. Between 1990 and 1995, there was a mean of 15 cases ... Transmission routes are zoonosis and contact. Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Poxviridae Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae ... This is a significant decline from the annual mean of 46 cases between 1968 and 1978. Some authors believe that the infection ...
The annual number of confirmed Q fever cases has been increasing up to more than 100 cases since 2005, comparing with less than ... Zoonoses and Public Health, 2017, 64, 7, e31. Wiley Online Library ... The first case of Q fever in Taiwan was reported in 1993. The disease is considered to be emerging in Taiwan, but the route of ...
R96052Case studies in wildlife immunocontraception: wild and feral equids and white-tailed deer. J. F. Kirkpatrick, J. W. ... R96055Zoonoses and fertility control in wildlife-requirements for vaccines. K. Stöhr and F.-X. Meslin ... R96074Selection of antigens for use in a virus-vectored immunocontraceptive vaccine: PH-20 as a case study. Michael K. Holland ...
We report the first confirmed human pulmonary paragonimiasis case caused by P. pseudoheterotremus infection. After polymerase ... Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In ... Histopathological and immunological diagnosis for parasitic zoonoses. , eds. Host Response to International Parasitic Zoonoses ... The first case of human paragonimiasis caused by Paragonimus heterotremus . Ann Trop Med Parasitol 60: 509- 514.[Crossref]. ...
Case-control study of infections with Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 in England. BMJ 1989; 299: 7713. ... Acknowledging the importance of an integrated approach to investigation and control of zoonoses, including foodborne zoonoses, ... including the production of UK zoonoses reports (available at www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/diseases/zoonoses/reports.htm). ... The recent outbreak of STEC O157 in Wales12 serves as a timely reminder of the importance of foodborne zoonoses and of the ...
... leading to several cases of Rocky mountain spotted fever cases in Arizona [48]. ... Zoonoses Public Health 2011, 58, 573-581. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]. *Summa, M.; von Bonsdorff, C.H.; Maunula, L. Pet dogs-A ... 2. Viral Zoonoses. 2.1. Rabies. Despite the fact that canine rabies has come under control in many parts of the developed world ... Zoonoses Public Health 2008, 55, 421-426. [Google Scholar]. *Vorou, R.M.; Papavassiliou, V.G.; Pierroutsakos, I.N. Cowpox virus ...
Zoonoses report: Listeria infections stable but frequently reported among the elderly. European experts have noted an ... Seven countries have reported human cases of Salmonella Enteritidis between 1 May and 12 October 2016 (112 confirmed and 148 ... EFSA re-publishes 2012 and 2013 reports on zoonoses: updated data. EFSA has revised its 2012 and 2013 European Union Summary ... probable). Cases have been reported by Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the UK. In addition, ...
This is the first reported Egyptian human case of trypanosomiasis evansi, a neglected zoonosis ... Trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camel: with a case report of zoonosis in greater Cairo, Eg ... Trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camel: with a case report of zoonosis in greater Cairo, Egypt ... Index: IMEMR (Eastern Mediterranean) Main subject: Trypanosoma / Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / Zoonoses Type of study: ...
Risk factors for Echinococcus granulosus infection: a case-control study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62: 329-334.. [Google Scholar] ... f Emergence of Sylvatic Echinococcus granulosus as a Parasitic Zoonosis of Public Health Concern in an Indigenous Community in ... Sylvatic hydatid disease in children: case reports and review of endemic Echinococcus granulosus infection in Canada and Alaska ...
Additionally, the case of a 51-year-old female who acquired meningitis with this organism after contact with a horse is ... 16181507 - Changing epidemiology of melioidosis? a case of acute pulmonary melioidosis with fatal .... 11085017 - Outbreak of ... 19078177 - Metastatic arthropathy report of two cases and review of the literature.. ... the literature pertaining to the epidemiological and clinical aspects relating to this infection on previously reported cases ...
  • Through this case, to be effective control of zoonoses as above case, epidemiological investigation for cattle and human should be concurrently conducted. (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, establishing the epidemiological link with birds and evaluate risk factors related to this zoonosis. (usp.br)
  • With reference to the epidemiological link with birds, 73% (11/15) of the confirmed/probable cases had domiciliary contact with birds and 27% (4/15) had occupational contact. (usp.br)
  • Veterinary activities involving disease control and health management in animal populations, and their integration of clinical, pathological, and epidemiological practices, often preceded similar activities in human medicine by decades, or, in some cases, centuries. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They a) allow for easy estimation of epidemiological parameters like basic reproduction number b) indicate the frequency of introductory events, e.g. spillovers in the case of zoonoses c) represent patterns of case attributes like patient sex both by generation and over time. (pyvideo.org)
  • 2010), although new data are needed to confirm the epidemiological relevance of this case. (scielo.br)
  • This report describes a case of severe, community-acquired pneumonia possibly due to C. psittaci in a resident of Colorado and examines significant clinical and epidemiological characteristics of psittacosis that affect confirming the diagnosis and managing the risks of exposure to psittacine (parrot-type) birds. (health.mil)
  • To this end, we develop a spatiotemporal joint modeling framework to integrate human case data and animal host data to offer a modeling alternative for combining multiple surveillance data streams in a novel way. (springer.com)
  • The final consultation workshop yielded a clearly articulated goal to reduce the case fatality rate attributable to leptospirosis by 50% by 2020 and 4 overarching strategies: 1) improved clinical management of leptospirosis, 2) improved surveillance for leptospirosis, 3) enhanced communication to minimise risk and improve health seeking behaviours, and 4) strengthening coordination and governance structures. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Documenting the zoonoses also allowed it to better identify the challenges and knowledge gaps specific to the prioritized zoonoses, thereby serving as a tool to direct and optimize zoonosis research, surveillance, prevention and control activities. (inspq.qc.ca)
  • And when he found the first case of TB in an elephant in 2007, he initiated a comprehensive surveillance program and then he found two other cases. (cdc.gov)
  • The report says that the reduction targets set by the European Commission to reduce the spread of Salmonella in poultry, eggs and chicken meat are likely to be the main reasons for the reduction in the number of human cases. (pigprogress.net)
  • Seven countries have reported human cases of Salmonella Enteritidis between 1 May and 12 October 2016 (112 confirmed and 148 probable). (europa.eu)
  • In case of salmonella outbreak in a poultry farm all birds are euthanized regardless of the serotype of salmonella found. (sva.se)
  • Regarding Salmonella, although the number of cases showed a decrease for a fourth successive year, 151,995 people were affected by the bacterium in 2007 compared to 164,011 in 2006. (thefishsite.com)
  • Fiji has one of the highest leptospirosis burdens in the region with an average annual incidence of 45.6 Immunoglobulin M ELISA-positive (IgM ELISA-positive) cases per 100,000 and approximately 31 deaths from 2012 to 2014 (Table 1 ) based on data from the Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MHMS) (MHMS, unpublished). (beds.ac.uk)
  • As they involve pathogens, hosts and, potentially vectors, zoonoses are complex disease systems and a challenge for public health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Made up of B cells and T cells, adaptive immunity is capable of "remembering" individual pathogens and protecting the body against them in case of re-exposure. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Furthermore, host-restricted pathogens are believed to have evolved from ancestors with a generalist life style and in some cases, this has been associated with a change in pathogenicity ( Bäumler and Fang, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Strict specialization of emerging zoonotic pathogens on single host species, however, appears to occur in only a minority of cases. (hindawi.com)
  • Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) accounted for 3,573 human disease cases in 2009, marking a slight increase from 2008. (pigprogress.net)
  • However, the distribution of disease cases potentially results from the combination of both hazard and exposure, and therefore cannot be approached solely from the hazard angle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brucellosis is one of the zoonoses, and it is a disease that is almost eliminated in South Korea. (bvsalud.org)
  • Eliminating transmission of a disease may also be considered, as in the case of yaws, the late noninfectious clinical manifestations remain of which but are not a danger to others. (cdc.gov)
  • World Zoonoses Day is marked annually on 6 July to commemorate the day in 1885 when Louis Pasteur successfully administered the first vaccine against a zoonotic disease when he treated a young boy who had been mauled by a rabid dog. (ilri.org)
  • In view of the presence in the UK of the vector for Thelazia callipaeda , namely Phortica spp, we discuss the significance of these three cases in the context of the UK government's pet travel scheme, disease control and both animal and public health in the UK. (bmj.com)
  • The word might sound funny, but zoonosis - a disease that can be transferred from animal to human - can be quite serious. (dogslife.com.au)
  • It is also referred to as a zoonotic disease - the plural being zoonoses," says Dr Rees. (dogslife.com.au)
  • Case tree plots depict the emergence and growth of clusters of zoonotic disease over time. (pyvideo.org)
  • In the United States, RMSF is characteristically a rare and sporadically distributed disease: most cases are reported from mid-Atlantic states (2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Community-based programs for the control of Rhpicephalus-associated RMSF using long-acting tick collars on dogs and environmental acaricides (pesticides targeting ticks) have been found to be effective in reducing tick populations in homes and on dogs and in human disease cases (4). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that three out of every five new human sicknesses are attributable to zoonosis. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition, the pathogenic agents of many rabbit diseases are known and in some cases well described, but their presence does not necessarily imply the existence of a disease. (fao.org)
  • A case study is provided of spatiotemporal modeling of human tularemia incidence and rodent population data from Finnish health care districts during years 1995-2012. (springer.com)
  • Spatial and temporal information of rodent abundance was shown to be useful in predicting human cases and in improving tularemia risk estimates in 40 and 75% of health care districts, respectively. (springer.com)
  • In most cases and even for multi-host diseases such as zoonoses, risk estimation has been conducted in a univariate fashion based on human case data alone. (springer.com)
  • The number of human cases of Yersinia enterocolitica , another bacterium mostly found in pigs and their meat fell in 2009 to 7,595. (pigprogress.net)
  • On the one hand, the range of human cases of TBE is expanding westward within the known tick range, and on the other hand, the expansion of ticks northward along the coast. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Gyeongbuk Agricultural Safety and Health Center established a cooperation system between a Veterinary Service Laboratory and a Public Health Center, and found a case of human brucellosis in a farm with cattle brucellosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, organisms causing human illness do not necessarily have animal health implications-campylobacter and STEC O157 are cases in point. (bmj.com)
  • The human case was successfully treated as indicated clinically, parasitologically and serologically. (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. (cdc.gov)
  • Herein, we describe a case of SFTS encephalopathy and detection of the identical SFTSV from human blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and from a tick that bit the patient. (springer.com)
  • A case history of concurrent Rocky Mountain spotted fever and human monocytic ehrlichiosis in Florida. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This is the case for instance of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC), which accounted for a total of 2,905 human infections in the European Union. (thefishsite.com)
  • The two parasitic zoonoses trichinellosis and echinococcosis were reported in 779 and 834 human infections respectively within the European Union. (thefishsite.com)
  • 20 Furthermore, cases of human ocular thelaziosis in Spain, Italy, France, Croatia and Serbia demonstrate the parasite's zoonotic potential. (bmj.com)
  • These cases in elephants are different because it is the human strain of TB occurring in wild Asian elephants. (cdc.gov)
  • The visualizations are best suited for diseases like SARS for which there are a limited number of cases, with data available on human to human transmission. (pyvideo.org)
  • Specimens of the hard tick Amblyomma triste were found infected with Rickettsia parkeri in an area of Argentina (General Lavalle, Buenos Aires Province) where cases of human illness attributed to this microorganism have been reported. (scielo.br)
  • 2008) and cases of human illness attributed to R. parkeri have been reported in the provinces of Buenos Aires, Entre Rios and Chaco (Romer et al. (scielo.br)
  • Consequently, effective barrier exclusion of squirrels from human habitations can probably prevent most cases of sylvatic typhus. (cdc.gov)
  • Listeria is known to have a high case fatality rate, affecting mostly vulnerable groups, such as the elderly. (pigprogress.net)
  • Results showed some cases of Listeria above the legal safety limit in ready-to-eat foods, most often in smoked fish and other fishery products, followed by meat products and cheese. (thefishsite.com)
  • With 1,381 confirmed cases in 2008, Listeria infections showed a decrease of 11% compared to 2007. (europa.eu)
  • Address correspondence to Martijn Bouwknegt, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Centre for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology, RIVM, p.a. (wiley.com)
  • The Public Health Laboratory Network have developed a standard case definition for the diagnosis of diseases which are notifiable in Australia. (worldaidsday.org.au)
  • A public health system without strong primary care capabilities will lack both the "radar screen" to pick up the initial cases of an outbreak and the delivery system to execute an effective response strategy. (nap.edu)
  • To help address this issue, we analysed the characteristics of locally-acquired (LA) and imported dengue cases in NQ through time and space. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the number of cases for the year to date was lower in 1999 (2,619) than 1998 (4,894), reflecting an ongoing decrease in the year to date case numbers. (health.gov.au)
  • Overall, the number of cases for the year to date decreased in 1999 (259) compared with 1998 (578). (health.gov.au)
  • However, the number of cases for the year to date reported in 1999 (373) was higher than for the same period in 1998 (308). (health.gov.au)
  • The number of cases of Q fever for this reporting period (14) was similar to the previous period (12) but significantly lower than for a similar period in 1998 (49). (health.gov.au)
  • However, each year 350-500 million cases of malaria occur worldwide, and more than a million people die, most of them young children in sub-Saharan Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • We were very concerned that this had occurred in a site with many children and counselors and wanted to ensure that no more cases would occur. (cdc.gov)
  • To access the island, approved visitors must first cross a small stretch of the Baltic Sea via a dam, which can be closed immediately in case of an outbreak. (bigthink.com)
  • These plots visualize outbreak dynamics and allow for analyses like case fatality risk stratified by generation. (pyvideo.org)
  • In this context, this study aimed to determine the occurrence of C. psittaci in patients with psittacosis symptoms attended at the Ambulatory of Tropical Diseases and Zoonosis of the Infectology Institute Emilio Ribas (IIER). (usp.br)
  • Cattle were the most common animal type in agricultural exposures, reported by 72% of cases. (cdc.gov)
  • Of the 250 cases, 124 (49.6%) had available Campylobacter isolates, of which 66 (53.2%) were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobials tested. (hindawi.com)
  • Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States. (cdc.gov)
  • However, any good investigation starts with a medical investigation to see if other cases had occurred there previously. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1994, 13,083 cases of LD were reported to CDC by 44 state health departments, 4826 (58%) more than the 8257 cases reported in 1993 Figure 1 . (cdc.gov)
  • Six northeastern states accounted for 95% of the increase in reported cases for 1994: Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania. (cdc.gov)
  • In July 2016 we described the first known case of canine ocular thelaziosis in the UK in a dog recently imported from Romania. (bmj.com)
  • from another 47% (7/15) of the cases, biological samples of the birds related to the patient could not be obtained, and in 6% (1/15) of the cases C. psittaci was not detected in the bird hosts evaluated. (usp.br)
  • In the case of Cardiovirus A, the virus can cause encephalitis and myocarditis, mostly in rodents, which are natural hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cases of the H5 or H7 virus, all livestock on a poultry farm will be destroyed, even if it is a mild form. (wur.nl)
  • between admission and laboratory diagnostic confirmation was ten days for case 1 and four days for case 2. (isciii.es)
  • Greg Dasch] Ted, we were quite sure that the initial case detected in our laboratory was sylvatic typhus. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr Bob Rees, senior technical services veterinarian at Bayer Companion Animal Health , says these diseases are known as zoonoses and can be quite harmful to our health. (dogslife.com.au)
  • Each case is represented by a colored node. (pyvideo.org)
  • Node placement along the x-axis corresponds with the date of illness onset for the case. (pyvideo.org)
  • We describe in this work the first case identifying the Cyclospora in dogs. (scielo.br)
  • State health departments may submit samples to CDC for confirmatory testing or with special permission from the Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch. (cdc.gov)
  • Leader in CDC's Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch. (cdc.gov)