Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A type of analysis in which subjects in a study group and a comparison group are made comparable with respect to extraneous factors by individually pairing study subjects with the comparison group subjects (e.g., age-matched controls).
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Breaks in bones.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Glucose in blood.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.
An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.

Legalized physician-assisted suicide in Oregon--the first year's experience. (1/48039)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: On October 27, 1997, Oregon legalized physician-assisted suicide. We collected data on all terminally ill Oregon residents who received prescriptions for lethal medications under the Oregon Death with Dignity Act and who died in 1998. The data were obtained from physicians' reports, death certificates, and interviews with physicians. We compared persons who took lethal medications prescribed under the act with those who died from similar illnesses but did not receive prescriptions for lethal medications. RESULTS: Information on 23 persons who received prescriptions for lethal medications was reported to the Oregon Health Division; 15 died after taking the lethal medications, 6 died from underlying illnesses, and 2 were alive as of January 1, 1999. The median age of the 15 patients who died after taking lethal medications was 69 years; 8 were male, and all 15 were white. Thirteen of the 15 patients had cancer. The case patients and controls were similar with regard to sex, race, urban or rural residence, level of education, health insurance coverage, and hospice enrollment. No case patients or controls expressed concern about the financial impact of their illness. One case patient and 15 controls expressed concern about inadequate control of pain (P=0.10). The case patients were more likely than the controls to have never married (P=0.04) and were more likely to be concerned about loss of autonomy due to illness (P=0.01) and loss of control of bodily functions (P=0.02). At death, 21 percent of the case patients and 84 percent of the controls were completely disabled (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the first year of legalized physician-assisted suicide in Oregon, the decision to request and use a prescription for lethal medication was associated with concern about loss of autonomy or control of bodily functions, not with fear of intractable pain or concern about financial loss. In addition, we found that the choice of physician-assisted suicide was not associated with level of education or health insurance coverage.  (+info)

Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study. (2/48039)

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region.  (+info)

Hygiene behaviour in rural Nicaragua in relation to diarrhoea. (3/48039)

BACKGROUND: Childhood diarrhoea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Nicaragua. Amongst the risk factors for its transmission are 'poor' hygiene practices. We investigated the effect of a large number of hygiene practices on diarrhoeal disease in children aged <2 years and validated the technique of direct observation of hygiene behaviour. METHODS: A prospective follow-up study was carried out in a rural zone of Nicaragua. From the database of a previously conducted case-control study on water and sanitation 172 families were recruited, half of which had experienced a higher than expected rate of diarrhoea in their children and the other half a lower rate. Hygiene behaviour was observed over two mornings and diarrhoea incidence was recorded with a calendar, filled out by the mother, and collected every week for 5 months. RESULTS: Of 46 'good' practices studied, 39 were associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea, five were unrelated and only for two a higher risk was observed. Washing of hands, domestic cleanliness (kitchen, living room, yard) and the use of a diaper/underclothes by the child had the strongest protective effect. Schooling (>3 years of primary school) and better economic position (possession of a radio) had a positive influence on general hygiene behaviour, education having a slightly stronger effect when a radio was present. Individual hygiene behaviour appeared to be highly variable in contrast with the consistent behaviour of the community as a whole. Feasible and appropriate indicators of hygiene behaviour were found to be domestic cleanliness and the use of a diaper or underclothes by the child. CONCLUSION: A consistent relationship between almost all hygiene practices and diarrhoea was detected, more schooling producing better hygiene behaviour. The high variability of hygiene behaviour at the individual level requires repeated observations (at least two) before and after the hygiene education in the event one wants to measure the impact of the campaign on the individual.  (+info)

Post-traumatic epilepsy: its complications and impact on occupational rehabilitation--an epidemiological study from India. (4/48039)

The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of seizure disorder, neuropsychiatric disorders and reproductive outcome of employees with post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) and their effect on occupational rehabilitation. A case-comparison group study design was used to compare 30 subjects with PTE with (1) 129 non-PTE and (2) 55 non-PTE matched control employees. The 55 non-PTE matched controls were selected from the 129 non-PTE employees on the basis of age, age at onset of seizure, age at marriage and length of employment. The PTE group had a lower fertility rate than the controls and more neuropsychiatric disorders and seizure disability. PTE employees were more occupationally rehabilitated than non-PTE employees (p = 0.033). Of the 30 PTE subjects, thirteen who were rehabilitated by placement had more seizure disability (p = 0.007) and a higher fertility rate (p = 0.018). High prevalence of seizure disability and increased fertility rate among the placed PTE employees suggested that there might be some association between severity of seizures and increased production of live offspring and work placement. Work suitability or placement should not be judged on clinical assessment only but psychosocial seizure assessment, disability evaluation and other psychometric tests which are of equal importance.  (+info)

Methodological issues in biomonitoring of low level exposure to benzene. (5/48039)

Data from a pilot study on unmetabolized benzene and trans,trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) excretion in filling station attendants and unexposed controls were used to afford methodological issues in the biomonitoring of low benzene exposures (around 0.1 ppm). Urinary concentrations of benzene and t,t-MA were measured by dynamic head-space capillary GC/FID and HPLC, respectively. The accuracy of the HPLC determination of t,t-MA was assessed in terms of inter- and intra-method reliability. The adequacy of urinary t,t-MA and benzene as biological markers of low benzene exposure was evaluated by analysing the relationship between personal exposure to benzene and biomarker excretion. Filling station attendants excreted significantly higher amounts of benzene, but not of t,t-MA, than controls. Adjusting for occupational benzene exposure, smokers excreted significantly higher amounts of t,t-MA, but not of unmetabolized benzene, than nonsmokers. A comparative analysis of the present and previously published biomonitoring surveys showed a good inter-study agreement regarding the amount of t,t-MA and unmetabolized benzene excreted (about 0.1-0.2 mg/l and 1-2 micrograms/l, respectively) per unit of exposure (0.1 ppm). For each biomarker, based on the distribution of parameters observed in the pilot study, we calculated the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with given confidence and precision.  (+info)

Post-shift changes in pulmonary function in a cement factory in eastern Saudi Arabia. (6/48039)

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1992 in the oldest of three Portland cement producing factories in Eastern Saudi Arabia. The respirable dust level was in excess of the recommended ACGIH level in all sections. Spirometry was done for 149 cement workers and 348 controls, using a Vitalograph spirometer. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% were calculated and corrected to BTPS. A significantly higher post-shift reduction FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% was observed in the exposed subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between post-shift changes and exposure to cement dust but failed to support any relationship with smoking. These findings may indicate an increase in the bronchial muscle tone leading to some degree of bronchoconstriction as a result of an irritant effect induced by the acute exposure to cement dust.  (+info)

Alteration of circadian time structure of blood pressure caused by night shift schedule. (7/48039)

The effects of night shift schedules on circadian time structure of blood pressure were studied in seven healthy young subjects by continuous monitoring of blood pressure every 30 min for 72 h. In the control experiment, subjects were instructed to sleep at regular times with the light off at 00.00 h and the light on at 07.00 h. In the shift experiment, they were instructed to go to bed at 06.00 h and wake up at 11.00 h. The circadian rhythm of blood pressure rapidly phase delayed by 3.5 h in the second night shift day as a group phenomenon. Individual differences in changes in power spectral patterns of blood pressure were found in the night shift schedule. Ultradian rhythmicity of blood pressure was more pronounced in three subjects, whereas the circadian rhythmicity was maintained in four subjects. These findings held when the adaptation to shift work was taken into account.  (+info)

Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women. (8/48039)

This study was conducted to assess the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer among young women. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 21-45 years living in three counties in Washington State. Cases were women born after 1944 with invasive or in situ breast cancer that was diagnosed between January 1, 1983, and April 30, 1990. Controls were selected using random digit dialing and were frequency-matched to cases on the basis of age and county of residence. Interviews took place between 1986 and 1992. Body size was evaluated using indices from several different time periods. After adjustment for confounders, a decreased risk of breast cancer was found for women in the highest quintile of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) as compared with the lowest quintile (for maximum lifetime body mass index, odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.94). Age modified the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of maximum body mass index who were aged 21-35 years was 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.55), as compared with an odds ratio of 1.5 for women aged 36-45 years (95% CI 0.9-2.5) (p for interaction = 0.003). This study supports prior research showing a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with increased body size among premenopausal or young women. More detailed analysis in this study found a strong effect that was limited to the youngest age group (< or = 35 years).  (+info)

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to the tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to their genetic makeup. It means that certain genes or combinations of genes increase the risk of developing a particular disease or condition. Genetic predisposition to disease is not the same as having the disease itself. It simply means that an individual has a higher likelihood of developing the disease compared to someone without the same genetic predisposition. Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited from parents or can occur due to spontaneous mutations in genes. Some examples of genetic predisposition to disease include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, Huntington's disease, cystic fibrosis, and sickle cell anemia. Understanding genetic predisposition to disease is important in medical practice because it can help identify individuals who are at high risk of developing a particular disease and allow for early intervention and prevention strategies to be implemented.

Diarrhea, infantile, is a common condition in young children characterized by frequent, loose stools. It is typically defined as having at least three loose or watery stools in a 24-hour period in infants less than 12 months of age. Infantile diarrhea can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral or bacterial infections, food allergies or intolerances, and malnutrition. It can also be a symptom of more serious underlying conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease or cystic fibrosis. Diarrhea in infants can lead to dehydration, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Treatment typically involves rehydration therapy, which involves giving the child fluids to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. In some cases, antibiotics may be necessary to treat bacterial infections. It is important to seek medical attention if an infant has diarrhea that lasts more than a few days or is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, vomiting, or blood in the stool.

In the medical field, "Abortion, Spontaneous" refers to the natural termination of a pregnancy that occurs without any external intervention. This can occur due to various reasons, such as genetic abnormalities, hormonal imbalances, infections, or other medical conditions. Spontaneous abortion, also known as a miscarriage, typically occurs in the first trimester of pregnancy and is often accompanied by bleeding and cramping. The risk of spontaneous abortion increases with age, certain medical conditions, and certain lifestyle factors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. It is important to note that while spontaneous abortion is a natural process, it can be emotionally and physically distressing for the woman involved. Medical professionals can provide support and care to help manage the physical and emotional aspects of a spontaneous abortion.

Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus. It is characterized by inflammation and damage to the lining of the digestive tract, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fatigue. The exact cause of Crohn's disease is not known, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The disease can affect people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in young adults. Treatment for Crohn's disease typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary modifications and stress management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged or diseased sections of the digestive tract.

Diarrhea is a medical condition characterized by the passage of loose, watery stools more than three times a day. It can be acute, meaning it lasts for a short period of time, or chronic, meaning it persists for more than four weeks. Diarrhea can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, food poisoning, medications, underlying medical conditions, and stress. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. Diarrhea can cause dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and malnutrition if it persists for an extended period of time. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, dietary changes, and fluid replacement therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of aromatic amines, which are a class of chemicals that can be found in many foods, drugs, and environmental pollutants. NAT catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to an aromatic amine, resulting in the formation of an N-acetylated amine. This reaction is an important step in the detoxification of aromatic amines, as N-acetylation renders the amines less toxic and more easily excreted from the body. NAT is encoded by the NAT1 and NAT2 genes, and genetic variations in these genes can affect an individual's ability to metabolize aromatic amines.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the breast tissue. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign breast neoplasms are usually not life-threatening, but they can cause discomfort or cosmetic concerns. Malignant breast neoplasms, on the other hand, can spread to other parts of the body and are considered a serious health threat. Some common types of breast neoplasms include fibroadenomas, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma.

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the colon and rectum. It is characterized by inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the colon and rectum, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not known, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, as well as lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and stress management. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected portion of the colon.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the colon or rectum. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Colorectal neoplasms can be further classified into polyps, adenomas, and carcinomas. Polyps are non-cancerous growths that typically arise from the inner lining of the colon or rectum. Adenomas are a type of polyp that have the potential to become cancerous if left untreated. Carcinomas, on the other hand, are cancerous tumors that can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal neoplasms are a common health concern, and regular screening is recommended for individuals at high risk, such as those with a family history of colorectal cancer or those over the age of 50. Early detection and treatment of colorectal neoplasms can significantly improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

An adenoma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops from glandular cells. It is a type of neoplasm, which is an abnormal growth of cells. Adenomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the colon, rectum, breast, thyroid gland, and prostate gland. In the colon and rectum, adenomas are commonly referred to as polyps. They can vary in size and shape and may or may not cause symptoms. However, some adenomas can develop into cancer if left untreated, which is why they are often removed during a colonoscopy or other screening tests. In other parts of the body, adenomas may cause symptoms depending on their location and size. For example, an adenoma in the thyroid gland may cause a goiter, while an adenoma in the prostate gland may cause difficulty urinating. Treatment for adenomas depends on their size, location, and whether they are causing symptoms. Small adenomas may not require treatment, while larger ones may be removed through surgery or other procedures. In some cases, medication may be used to shrink the adenoma or prevent it from growing back.

Pregnancy complications refer to any medical conditions or problems that arise during pregnancy that can potentially harm the mother or the developing fetus. These complications can range from minor issues that can be easily managed to life-threatening conditions that require immediate medical attention. Some common examples of pregnancy complications include gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, placenta previa, preterm labor, and miscarriage. Other complications may include infections, such as urinary tract infections or sexually transmitted infections, as well as conditions that can affect the baby, such as congenital anomalies or birth defects. Pregnancy complications can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, underlying medical conditions, and environmental factors. Proper prenatal care and regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help identify and manage pregnancy complications early on, reducing the risk of complications and improving outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. It is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for about 90-95% of all cases. In type 2 diabetes, the body's cells become resistant to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. As a result, the pancreas may not produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance, leading to high blood sugar levels. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes may include increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, slow-healing sores, and unexplained weight loss. If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, nerve damage, and vision loss. Treatment for type 2 diabetes typically involves lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, as well as medication to help regulate blood sugar levels. In some cases, insulin therapy may be necessary.

Occupational diseases are illnesses or injuries that are caused by exposure to hazards or conditions in the workplace. These hazards or conditions can include chemicals, dusts, fumes, radiation, noise, vibration, and physical demands such as repetitive motions or awkward postures. Occupational diseases can affect various systems in the body, including the respiratory system, skin, eyes, ears, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. Examples of occupational diseases include asbestosis, silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and hearing loss. Occupational diseases are preventable through proper safety measures and regulations in the workplace. Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthy work environment for their employees, and workers have the right to report hazards and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms related to their work.

Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-related condition characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs, particularly the liver and kidneys. It typically develops after 20 weeks of pregnancy and can be a serious condition if left untreated. Pre-eclampsia can also be a sign of underlying health problems, such as diabetes or kidney disease. Symptoms of pre-eclampsia may include severe headaches, vision changes, upper abdominal pain, and protein in the urine. Treatment typically involves hospitalization and close monitoring of the mother and baby, and may include medication to lower blood pressure and prevent seizures. In severe cases, pre-eclampsia can lead to complications such as eclampsia, HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets), and preterm birth.

In the medical field, a chronic disease is a long-term health condition that persists for an extended period, typically for more than three months. Chronic diseases are often progressive, meaning that they tend to worsen over time, and they can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Chronic diseases can affect any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Some examples of chronic diseases include heart disease, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and arthritis. Chronic diseases often require ongoing medical management, including medication, lifestyle changes, and regular monitoring to prevent complications and manage symptoms. Treatment for chronic diseases may also involve rehabilitation, physical therapy, and other supportive care.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the lungs. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Lung neoplasms can occur in any part of the lung, including the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. Lung neoplasms can be further classified based on their type, including: 1. Primary lung neoplasms: These are tumors that develop in the lungs and do not spread to other parts of the body. 2. Secondary lung neoplasms: These are tumors that develop in the lungs as a result of cancer that has spread from another part of the body. 3. Benign lung neoplasms: These are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body. 4. Malignant lung neoplasms: These are cancerous tumors that can spread to other parts of the body. Some common types of lung neoplasms include lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. The diagnosis of lung neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as chest X-rays and CT scans, and a biopsy to examine a sample of tissue from the tumor. Treatment options for lung neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient.

Venous thrombosis is a condition in which a blood clot forms in a vein, usually in the legs, but it can also occur in other parts of the body such as the arms, pelvis, or brain. The clot can block blood flow and cause swelling, pain, and redness in the affected area. If the clot breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream, it can cause serious complications such as pulmonary embolism, which can be life-threatening. Venous thrombosis is a common condition, particularly in older adults and people who are bedridden or have a sedentary lifestyle. It can be treated with anticoagulant medications, compression stockings, and other therapies.

Stomach neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the lining of the stomach. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Stomach neoplasms can occur in different parts of the stomach, including the stomach lining, the muscular wall of the stomach, and the glands that produce stomach acid. Some common types of stomach neoplasms include gastric adenocarcinoma (a type of cancer that starts in the glandular cells of the stomach lining), gastric lymphoma (a type of cancer that starts in the lymphatic cells of the stomach), and gastric stromal tumors (benign tumors that develop in the connective tissue of the stomach). Stomach neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and loss of appetite. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging tests (such as endoscopy or CT scan), and biopsy. Treatment for stomach neoplasms depends on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Fractures, bone refer to a break or crack in a bone that occurs due to trauma or injury. Fractures can be classified based on their severity, location, and type. There are several types of bone fractures, including: 1. Simple fractures: These are clean breaks in the bone with no displacement of the broken ends. 2. Compound fractures: These are breaks in the bone that involve the skin and/or soft tissues surrounding the bone. 3. Comminuted fractures: These are fractures in which the bone is broken into multiple pieces. 4. Stress fractures: These are small cracks in the bone that occur due to repetitive stress or overuse. 5. Open fractures: These are fractures in which the broken bone pierces through the skin. 6. Closed fractures: These are fractures in which the broken bone is contained within the skin. The treatment for bone fractures depends on the severity and location of the fracture, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE), casting, surgery, or physical therapy.

Esophageal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that carries food from the throat to the stomach. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign esophageal neoplasms include polyps, which are small, non-cancerous growths that can develop on the lining of the esophagus. Other examples of benign neoplasms include leiomyomas, which are smooth muscle tumors, and lipomas, which are fatty tumors. Malignant esophageal neoplasms, on the other hand, are more serious and can be further classified into two main types: squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. Squamous cell carcinomas develop in the squamous cells that line the esophagus, while adenocarcinomas develop in the glandular cells that line the lower part of the esophagus, near the stomach. Esophageal neoplasms can cause a range of symptoms, including difficulty swallowing, chest pain, weight loss, and difficulty breathing. Treatment options for esophageal neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a medical condition in which the force of blood against the walls of the arteries is consistently too high. This can lead to damage to the blood vessels, heart, and other organs over time, and can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Hypertension is typically defined as having a systolic blood pressure (the top number) of 140 mmHg or higher, or a diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) of 90 mmHg or higher. However, some people may be considered hypertensive if their blood pressure is consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Hypertension can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices (such as a diet high in salt and saturated fat, lack of physical activity, and smoking), and certain medical conditions (such as kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea). It is often a chronic condition that requires ongoing management through lifestyle changes, medication, and regular monitoring of blood pressure levels.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that starts in the glandular cells of an organ or tissue. It is one of the most common types of cancer and can occur in many different parts of the body, including the lungs, breast, colon, rectum, pancreas, stomach, and thyroid gland. Adenocarcinomas typically grow slowly and may not cause symptoms in the early stages. However, as the cancer grows, it can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. This can lead to more serious symptoms and a higher risk of complications. Treatment for adenocarcinoma depends on the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient. Options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. The goal of treatment is to remove or destroy the cancer cells and prevent them from spreading further.

Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated (HbA1c) is a type of hemoglobin that is produced when hemoglobin A (the most common form of hemoglobin in red blood cells) combines with glucose in the blood. HbA1c is a measure of a person's average blood glucose level over the past 2-3 months. It is often used as a diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus, as well as a way to monitor blood sugar control in people who have already been diagnosed with the condition. A high HbA1c level indicates poor blood sugar control, while a normal or low HbA1c level suggests good blood sugar control.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by a range of symptoms that affect a person's thoughts, emotions, and behavior. These symptoms can include hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based in reality), disorganized thinking and speech, and problems with emotional expression and social interaction. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that can last for a lifetime, although the severity of symptoms can vary over time. It is not caused by a single factor, but rather by a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Treatment for schizophrenia typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support from family and friends. While there is no cure for schizophrenia, with proper treatment, many people are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

Carcinoma, Squamous Cell is a type of cancer that originates in the squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells that line the surface of the body. Squamous cells are found in the skin, mouth, throat, lungs, and other organs. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell can develop in any part of the body where squamous cells are present, but it is most commonly found in the head and neck, lungs, and skin. The exact cause of Squamous Cell Carcinoma is not always clear, but it is often associated with exposure to certain substances, such as tobacco smoke, alcohol, and certain chemicals. It can also develop as a result of chronic inflammation or infection, such as HPV (human papillomavirus) infection in the cervix. Symptoms of Squamous Cell Carcinoma can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but may include a persistent sore or lesion that does not heal, a change in the appearance of the skin or mucous membranes, difficulty swallowing or breathing, and unexplained weight loss. Treatment for Squamous Cell Carcinoma typically involves surgery to remove the tumor, followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. In some cases, targeted therapy or immunotherapy may also be used. The prognosis for Squamous Cell Carcinoma depends on the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis and the overall health of the patient.

Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a form of tuberculosis that affects the lungs. It is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is typically spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. PTB can cause a range of symptoms, including coughing, chest pain, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. It can also cause coughing up blood or phlegm, shortness of breath, and fatigue.,PTB,、、。

Helicobacter infections refer to a group of bacterial infections caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). H. pylori is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine. It is estimated that more than half of the world's population is infected with H. pylori, and the majority of infected individuals do not experience any symptoms. H. pylori infections can lead to a range of health problems, including gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach or duodenum), and stomach cancer. In some cases, H. pylori infections can also cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting. Diagnosis of H. pylori infections typically involves a combination of tests, including a breath test, stool test, and endoscopy with biopsy. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors, which can help to eliminate the bacteria and reduce inflammation in the stomach. Prevention of H. pylori infections involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. Vaccines for H. pylori are currently being developed, but are not yet available for widespread use.

Diabetes complications refer to the various health problems that can arise as a result of having diabetes. These complications can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the eyes, kidneys, heart, blood vessels, nerves, and feet. Some common diabetes complications include: 1. Diabetic retinopathy: Damage to the blood vessels in the retina, which can lead to vision loss or blindness. 2. Diabetic nephropathy: Damage to the kidneys, which can lead to kidney failure. 3. Cardiovascular disease: Increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and other heart problems. 4. Peripheral artery disease: Narrowing or blockage of blood vessels in the legs and feet, which can lead to pain, numbness, and even amputation. 5. Neuropathy: Damage to the nerves, which can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the hands and feet. 6. Foot ulcers: Sores or wounds on the feet that can become infected and lead to serious complications. 7. Gum disease: Increased risk of gum disease, which can lead to tooth loss. 8. Sexual dysfunction: Impaired sexual function in men and women. It is important for people with diabetes to manage their blood sugar levels and receive regular medical check-ups to prevent or delay the onset of these complications.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the body's cells, and it is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream in response to the body's needs. In the medical field, blood glucose levels are often measured as part of a routine check-up or to monitor the health of people with diabetes or other conditions that affect blood sugar levels. Normal blood glucose levels for adults are typically between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) before a meal and between 80 and 120 mg/dL two hours after a meal. Elevated blood glucose levels, also known as hyperglycemia, can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, stress, certain medications, and high-carbohydrate meals. Low blood glucose levels, also known as hypoglycemia, can be caused by diabetes treatment that is too aggressive, skipping meals, or certain medications. Monitoring blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes, as it helps them manage their condition and prevent complications such as nerve damage, kidney damage, and cardiovascular disease.

Obesity is a medical condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat, which increases the risk of various health problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher, where BMI is calculated as a person's weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared. Obesity is a complex condition that results from a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. It can lead to a range of health problems, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, certain types of cancer, and respiratory problems. In the medical field, obesity is often treated through a combination of lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medical interventions, such as medications or bariatric surgery. The goal of treatment is to help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight, reduce their risk of health problems, and improve their overall quality of life.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and other symptoms. Over time, CAD can also lead to a heart attack if the blood flow to the heart is completely blocked. CAD is a common condition that affects many people, particularly those who are middle-aged or older, and is often associated with other risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for CAD may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the liver. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign liver neoplasms include hemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasia, and adenomas. These growths are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant liver neoplasms, on the other hand, are more serious and include primary liver cancer (such as hepatocellular carcinoma) and secondary liver cancer (such as metastatic cancer from other parts of the body). These tumors can grow quickly and spread to other parts of the body, leading to serious health complications. Diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.

Postoperative complications are adverse events that occur after a surgical procedure. They can range from minor issues, such as bruising or discomfort, to more serious problems, such as infection, bleeding, or organ damage. Postoperative complications can occur for a variety of reasons, including surgical errors, anesthesia errors, infections, allergic reactions to medications, and underlying medical conditions. They can also be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, dehydration, and smoking. Postoperative complications can have serious consequences for patients, including prolonged hospital stays, additional surgeries, and even death. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent postoperative complications and to promptly recognize and treat them if they do occur.

Disease progression refers to the worsening or progression of a disease over time. It is a natural course of events that occurs in many chronic illnesses, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Disease progression can be measured in various ways, such as changes in symptoms, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, or imaging studies. In some cases, disease progression can be slowed or stopped through medical treatment, such as medications, surgery, or radiation therapy. However, in other cases, disease progression may be inevitable, and the focus of treatment may shift from trying to cure the disease to managing symptoms and improving quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for healthcare providers to develop effective treatment plans and to communicate with patients about their condition and prognosis. It can also help patients and their families make informed decisions about their care and treatment options.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections refer to the presence of the HIV virus in the body. HIV is a retrovirus that attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases. HIV is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common modes of transmission include unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles or syringes, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to the virus. Once diagnosed, HIV can be managed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), which helps to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). It is important to note that HIV is not the same as AIDS. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, but not everyone with HIV will develop AIDS. With proper treatment and management, individuals with HIV can live long and healthy lives.

Glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1) is an enzyme that plays a role in detoxifying harmful substances in the body. It is a member of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family of enzymes, which are involved in the metabolism of a wide range of compounds, including drugs, toxins, and carcinogens. In the medical field, GSTP1 is often studied in relation to cancer. Some research has suggested that certain genetic variations in the GSTP1 gene may increase a person's risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as lung cancer and prostate cancer. GSTP1 is also being studied as a potential target for cancer therapy, as it may play a role in the development and progression of certain types of cancer. In addition to its role in cancer, GSTP1 is also involved in the metabolism of other substances, including drugs. Some drugs are metabolized by GSTP1, which can affect their effectiveness and potential side effects. As a result, GSTP1 is an important enzyme to consider when developing new drugs and evaluating their potential risks and benefits.

In the medical field, a stroke is a medical emergency that occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted or reduced, causing brain cells to die. This can happen in two ways: 1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 85% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel in the brain, cutting off blood flow to the affected area. 2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding into the brain. Hemorrhagic strokes are less common than ischemic strokes, accounting for about 15% of all strokes. Strokes can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the brain damage. Common symptoms include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; dizziness or loss of balance; and severe headache. Prompt medical treatment is crucial for stroke patients, as the sooner treatment is given, the better the chances of recovery. Treatment options may include medications to dissolve blood clots or prevent further clot formation, surgery to remove a blood clot or repair a ruptured blood vessel, and rehabilitation to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels due to the body's inability to produce insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. This type of diabetes is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes, as it typically develops in childhood or adolescence. In Type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leaving the body unable to produce insulin. Without insulin, glucose (sugar) cannot enter the body's cells for energy, leading to high blood sugar levels. Symptoms of Type 1 diabetes may include frequent urination, excessive thirst, hunger, fatigue, blurred vision, and slow healing of wounds. Treatment typically involves insulin injections or an insulin pump, along with a healthy diet and regular exercise.

Sepsis is a serious medical condition that occurs when the body's response to an infection causes widespread inflammation throughout the body. It is a life-threatening condition that can lead to organ failure, septic shock, and even death if not treated promptly and effectively. Sepsis can develop from any type of infection, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections. The body's immune system responds to the infection by releasing chemicals called cytokines, which can cause inflammation throughout the body. This inflammation can damage tissues and organs, leading to a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing, confusion, and decreased urine output. Diagnosis of sepsis typically involves a combination of clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, treatment may include fluid resuscitation, vasopressors to maintain blood pressure, and organ support. Early recognition and prompt treatment of sepsis are critical for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of death.

In the medical field, recurrence refers to the reappearance of a disease or condition after it has been treated or has gone into remission. Recurrence can occur in various medical conditions, including cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases. For example, in cancer, recurrence means that the cancer has come back after it has been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatments. Recurrence can occur months, years, or even decades after the initial treatment. In infections, recurrence means that the infection has returned after it has been treated with antibiotics or other medications. Recurrence can occur due to incomplete treatment, antibiotic resistance, or other factors. In autoimmune diseases, recurrence means that the symptoms of the disease return after they have been controlled with medication. Recurrence can occur due to changes in the immune system or other factors. Overall, recurrence is a significant concern for patients and healthcare providers, as it can require additional treatment and can impact the patient's quality of life.

Hypertension, pregnancy-induced, also known as gestational hypertension, is a condition that occurs during pregnancy and is characterized by high blood pressure. It typically develops after 20 weeks of pregnancy and can be a sign of potential complications for both the mother and the baby. The exact cause of gestational hypertension is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to changes in the mother's blood vessels and blood volume during pregnancy. Risk factors for gestational hypertension include a history of high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, and multiple pregnancies. Symptoms of gestational hypertension may include headaches, vision changes, and upper abdominal pain. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as preeclampsia, which is a more severe form of hypertension that can cause damage to the mother's organs and the baby. Treatment for gestational hypertension typically involves close monitoring of the mother's blood pressure and the baby's health, as well as medication to lower blood pressure if necessary. In some cases, delivery of the baby may be necessary to prevent complications.

In the medical field, "Diseases in Twins" refers to the occurrence of health conditions or illnesses in individuals who are identical or fraternal twins. Twins have a higher risk of developing certain diseases or health conditions compared to individuals who are not twins. This increased risk can be due to genetic factors, shared environmental factors, or a combination of both. For example, identical twins have a higher risk of developing certain genetic disorders, such as cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia, compared to non-twins. Fraternal twins, who are not genetically identical, also have a higher risk of developing certain health conditions, such as type 1 diabetes or schizophrenia, compared to non-twins. The study of diseases in twins is an important area of research in the medical field, as it can help identify genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the development of certain diseases. This information can then be used to develop more effective prevention and treatment strategies for these diseases.

Metabolic Syndrome X, also known as Syndrome X or Insulin Resistance Syndrome, is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of developing heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. The five key components of Metabolic Syndrome X are: 1. Abdominal obesity: A waist circumference of 102 cm (40 inches) or more in men and 88 cm (35 inches) or more in women. 2. High blood pressure: A systolic blood pressure of 130 mmHg or higher, or a diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or higher. 3. High fasting blood sugar: A fasting blood sugar level of 100 mg/dL or higher. 4. High triglyceride levels: A triglyceride level of 150 mg/dL or higher. 5. Low HDL cholesterol levels: An HDL cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dL in men and less than 50 mg/dL in women. These conditions are often found together and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and certain medical conditions. Treatment for Metabolic Syndrome X typically involves lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and may also include medication to manage blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol levels.

Lipids are a diverse group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ether or chloroform. They are an essential component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in energy storage, insulation, and signaling in the body. In the medical field, lipids are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease. The main types of lipids that are measured include: 1. Total cholesterol: This includes both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol. 2. Triglycerides: These are a type of fat that is stored in the body and can be converted into energy when needed. 3. Phospholipids: These are a type of lipid that is a major component of cell membranes and helps to regulate the flow of substances in and out of cells. 4. Steroids: These are a type of lipid that includes hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, as well as cholesterol. Abnormal levels of lipids in the blood can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. Therefore, monitoring and managing lipid levels is an important part of maintaining overall health and preventing these conditions.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings that include episodes of mania or hypomania (abnormally elevated or irritable mood) and depression. These mood swings can be severe and can significantly impact a person's daily life, relationships, and ability to function. Bipolar disorder is typically diagnosed based on a person's symptoms, medical history, and a physical examination. There are several different types of bipolar disorder, including bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, cyclothymic disorder, and other specified bipolar and related disorders. Treatment for bipolar disorder typically involves a combination of medication and therapy. Medications used to treat bipolar disorder may include mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Therapy may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, and family-focused therapy. It is important to note that bipolar disorder is a serious medical condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. With proper treatment, many people with bipolar disorder are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a medical condition characterized by persistent and unexplained fatigue that is not relieved by rest and is accompanied by a range of other symptoms that can include muscle pain, joint pain, headaches, memory problems, and difficulty concentrating. The exact cause of CFS is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to an abnormal immune response or an issue with the body's energy metabolism. CFS can be a debilitating condition that affects a person's ability to work, attend school, and perform daily activities. Treatment for CFS typically involves a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and therapy to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream. It helps the body's cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy or store it for later use. Insulin is essential for maintaining normal blood sugar levels and preventing conditions such as diabetes. In the medical field, insulin is used to treat diabetes and other conditions related to high blood sugar levels. It is typically administered through injections or an insulin pump.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways in the lungs. This can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Asthma can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, irritants, exercise, and respiratory infections. It is a common condition, affecting millions of people worldwide, and can range from mild to severe. Treatment typically involves the use of medications to control inflammation and open up the airways, as well as lifestyle changes to avoid triggers and improve overall lung function.

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is a medical condition in which an infant under one year of age dies suddenly and unexpectedly, without any apparent cause or explanation. SIDS is also known as crib death or cot death. SIDS is a leading cause of death in infants in many countries, and the exact cause of SIDS is not fully understood. However, it is believed to be related to a combination of factors, including abnormalities in the infant's brainstem, problems with the infant's heart and lungs, and exposure to environmental factors such as smoke or overheating. SIDS typically occurs during sleep, and the infant may appear to be healthy and well before the sudden death. There are no warning signs or symptoms of SIDS, and the condition cannot be prevented or predicted. If a baby dies suddenly and unexpectedly, it is important to have a thorough investigation by a medical examiner or coroner to determine the cause of death. This can help to identify any risk factors or underlying conditions that may have contributed to the death and may help to prevent similar deaths in the future.

C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is a protein that is produced by the liver in response to inflammation or infection in the body. It is a nonspecific marker of inflammation and is often used as a diagnostic tool in the medical field. CRP levels can be measured in the blood using a blood test. Elevated levels of CRP are often seen in people with infections, autoimmune diseases, and certain types of cancer. However, it is important to note that CRP levels can also be elevated in response to other factors such as exercise, injury, and stress. In addition to its diagnostic role, CRP has also been studied as a potential predictor of future health outcomes. For example, high levels of CRP have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other chronic conditions. Overall, CRP is an important biomarker in the medical field that can provide valuable information about a person's health and help guide treatment decisions.

In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.

Prostatic neoplasms refer to tumors that develop in the prostate gland, which is a small gland located in the male reproductive system. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign prostatic neoplasms, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), are the most common type of prostatic neoplasm and are typically associated with an increase in the size of the prostate gland. Malignant prostatic neoplasms, on the other hand, are more serious and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. The most common type of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma, which starts in the glandular cells of the prostate. Other types of prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas, which are rare and start in the connective tissue of the prostate, and carcinoid tumors, which are rare and start in the neuroendocrine cells of the prostate.

Cholelithiasis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of gallstones in the gallbladder. Gallstones are hard, solid masses that can range in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. They are typically composed of cholesterol, calcium, or a combination of both. Cholelithiasis can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In some cases, gallstones may cause no symptoms at all and may only be discovered incidentally during a routine medical examination. If left untreated, cholelithiasis can lead to complications such as cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), and gallbladder cancer. Treatment options for cholelithiasis include medication, endoscopic procedures, and surgery.

In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for more than 17 million deaths each year. CVDs include conditions such as coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD), and stroke. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of CVDs. Treatment for CVDs may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, surgery.

Hypoglycemia is a medical condition characterized by low blood sugar levels (glucose). It occurs when the body produces too much insulin or when the body cannot use insulin properly, leading to a decrease in blood glucose levels. Symptoms of hypoglycemia can include dizziness, weakness, confusion, irritability, shakiness, sweating, rapid heartbeat, and hunger. In severe cases, hypoglycemia can lead to seizures, loss of consciousness, and even coma. Hypoglycemia is typically treated by consuming foods or drinks that contain sugar or other carbohydrates, which can quickly raise blood glucose levels. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help regulate blood sugar levels. Hypoglycemia can be a serious condition, especially for people with diabetes who rely on insulin to manage their blood sugar levels. It is important for individuals with diabetes to monitor their blood sugar levels regularly and to have a plan in place for treating hypoglycemia if it occurs.

Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a hormone and neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response. It is produced by the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or danger. In the medical field, epinephrine is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction), cardiac arrest, and asthma. It works by constricting blood vessels, increasing heart rate and contractility, and relaxing smooth muscles in the bronchial tubes, which can help to open airways and improve breathing. Epinephrine is typically administered via injection, either intravenously or subcutaneously (under the skin). It is a powerful medication and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Coronary disease, also known as coronary artery disease (CAD), is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and other symptoms. In severe cases, coronary disease can lead to a heart attack, which occurs when the blood flow to a part of the heart is completely blocked, causing damage to the heart muscle. Coronary disease is a common condition that affects many people, particularly those who are middle-aged or older, and is often associated with other risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.

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A nested case-control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which cases and controls are drawn from the ... A case-cohort study is a design in which cases and controls are drawn from within a prospective study. All cases who developed ... Thus the nested case-control study is more efficient than the full cohort design. The nested case-control study can be analyzed ... Keogh, Ruth H.; Cox, D. R. (2014). "Nested case-control studies". Case-Control Studies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 160-190 ...
... is of particular concern in retrospective studies that use a case-control design to investigate the etiology of a ... "Bias in case-control studies. A review". Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 44 (3): 179-86. doi:10.1136/jech.44.3. ... "Case-control studies: research in reverse" (PDF). Lancet. 359 (9304): 431-4. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07605-5. PMID 11844534. ... a multicenter randomized blinded noninferiority study of 1992 cases (pivotal study)". American Journal of Surgical Pathology. ...
Gusev, E; Boiko, A; Lauer, K; Riise, T; Deomina, T (1996). "Environmental risk factors in MS: A case-control study in Moscow". ... Wolfson, C; Granieri, E; Lauer, K (1997). "Case-control studies in multiple sclerosis". Neurology. 49 (2 Suppl 2): S5-14. doi: ... "A questionnaire for multinational case-control studies of environmental risk factors in multiple sclerosis (EnvIMS-Q)". Acta ... Like John Kurtzke, Klaus J. Lauer has dedicated a large part of his work to the study of MS in the Faroe Islands, starting with ...
"Control methods and case studies" (PDF). Department of the Environment and Energy. Retrieved 2017-03-25. Lalith Gunasekera, ... There are currently no studies that have looked at the biological control of A. glabra within Australia. Without studies, any ... Options for the control of the A. glabra include fire, chemical, and mechanical controls including combinations of the three ... A 2008 study found that A. glabra seeds can withstand floating in salt water and fresh water for up to 12 months. About 38% of ...
... but only the odds ratio can be used in case-control studies. Although most case-control studies are retrospective, they can ... Case-control study "What is epidemiology?" (PDF). 11 March 2019. "Definition of historic cohort study - NCI Dictionary of ... Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies". Emergency Medicine Journal. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. ... A retrospective cohort study, also called a historic cohort study, is a longitudinal cohort study used in medical and ...
Since case control studies don't track patients over time, they can't establish relative risk. The case control study can, ... "What Do Case-Control Studies Estimate? Survey of Methods and Assumptions in Published Case-Control Research". American Journal ... Case control studies are relatively inexpensive and less time-consuming than cohort studies.[citation needed] ... Greenland, Sander; Thomas, D. C. (1982). "On the need for the rare disease assumption in case-control studies". American ...
Case-control study. / Sequeira, H; Howlin, P; Hollins, S.In: British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 183, No. NOV., 11.2003, p. 451 ... Model to the Cases of "James" and "Juan"". Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy. 10 (3): 156-195. doi:10.14713/pcsp. ... In a 2016 case study, therapists used a metaphor to describe post-traumatic stress disorder and aid treatment for a young man ... In a 2009 case study, a 24-year-old woman with an intellectual disability experienced a reduction in posttraumatic stress ...
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Haux J, Klepp O, Spigset O, Tretli S (2001). "Digitoxin medication and cancer; case control and internal dose-response studies ... While several controlled trials have shown digoxin to be effective in a proportion of patients treated for heart failure, the ... The biological half-life is 7 to 8 days except when kidney and liver functions are impaired, in which case it is usually longer ...
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Cole P, MacMahon B (November 1971). "Attributable risk percent in case-control studies". British Journal of Preventive & Social ... In such case A F p = ∑ i P i R R i − ∑ i P i ′ R R i ∑ i P i R R i {\displaystyle AF_{p}={\frac {\sum _{i}P_{i}RR_{i}-\sum _{i} ... In such case, removal of the risk factor will greatly reduce the number of the incidents in the population. The values of AFp ... It is used when an exposure increases the risk, as opposed to reducing it, in which case its symmetrical notion is preventable ...
Cole P, MacMahon B (November 1971). "Attributable risk percent in case-control studies". Br J Prev Soc Med. 25 (4): 242-4. doi: ... It is used when an exposure increases the risk, as opposed to reducing it, in which case its symmetrical notion is preventable ...
May 1995). "Systemic lupus erythematosus: a case-control epidemiologic study in Japan". Int J Dermatol. 34 (5): 333-7. doi: ... a case-control study". Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57 (8): 451-5. doi:10.1136/ard.57.8.451. PMC 1752721. PMID 9797548. Källberg H, ... A study in the United Kingdom found that alcohol causes about 4% of cancer cases in the UK (12,500 cases per year). The Centers ... Results from two Scandinavian case-control studies". Ann. Rheum. Dis. 68 (2): 222-7. doi:10.1136/ard.2007.086314. PMC 2937278. ...
A case-control study". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 72 (3): 150-58. doi:10.1159/000069731. PMID 12707482. S2CID 22105282. ... Extreme cases of vitiligo, to the extent that little pigmented skin remains, are referred to as vitiligo universalis. NSV can ... In mild cases, vitiligo patches can be hidden with makeup or other cosmetic camouflage solutions. If the affected person is ... In cases of extensive vitiligo the option to depigment the unaffected skin with topical drugs like monobenzone, mequinol, or ...
"Why does family homelessness occur? A case-control study." American Journal of Public Health 78, no. 7 (1988): 783-788. Shinn, ... It has been studied that most homeless families stay in homeless shelters for only a short time, and when they exit they ... A study in 2018[specify] projected a total of 56,342 family households were recognized as homeless. Roughly 16,390 of these ... According to several studies conducted by various academic journals, children who experience homelessness can often have ...
A case control study". Journal of Neural Transmission. 115 (1): 135-8. doi:10.1007/s00702-007-0798-1. PMID 17768593. S2CID ... Consistent with these studies, it has been hypothesized that ASD and SCZ thus may be located at the extreme ends of a cognitive ... Indeed, it has been suggested that maternally imprinted cases of Prader-Willi syndrome have an elevated autism prevalence ... While Crespi and Badcock have claimed neuroimaging studies lend support to the imprinted brain hypothesis, other neuroimaging ...
"Vermont: Proud to be Billboard-Free!" (PDF). Billboard Control Case Study. Scenic America. Archived from the original (PDF) on ... In those cases, the agency might ask for the request in writing. Costs associated with the requests might be costs of copying, ... In that case, the agency head must respond within 5 business days to the appeal and must "include the asserted statutory basis ... In May 2013, Vermont passed Act 39 (a.k.a. the Patient Choice and Control at End of Life Act), becoming the first state to ...
A case-control study". JAMA. 264 (5): 585-91. doi:10.1001/jama.264.5.585. PMID 2366297. Purification Program - Scientology ... Some apparently supportive studies have been published, but these lack control groups and have other scientific failings. ... No cases of radiation sickness have ever been reported in Utah, due to the low level of fallout involved, although some cases ... "in some cases lethal". Prof. Michael Ryan, a pharmacologist at University College Dublin, testified in a 2003 court case that ...
Application of Case-Crossover and Case-time-control study designs in analyses of time-varying predictors of T-cell homeostasis ... A case-control study of injuries due to the earthquake in Armenia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 70(2):251-257; ... A Case-Control Study in Armenia. Medical Principles and Practice 115, 2009 Armenian HK, Khatib R. Developing an Instrument of ... A Case Control Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 124:762 7;1986. Armenian HK, Saadeh FM, Armenian SL: Widowhood and ...
A case-control study". Acta Psychiatr Scand. 109 (4): 313-7, discussion 317-8. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2004.00293.x. PMID ... Although the studies conducted by these initiatives did not have control groups, their results were promising and became the ... Further UK studies have shown slightly more moderate rates of substance misuse among mentally ill individuals. One study found ... A study by Kessler et al. in the United States attempting to assess the prevalence of dual diagnosis found that 47% of clients ...
A case control study". Journal of Neural Transmission. 115 (1): 135-138. doi:10.1007/s00702-007-0798-1. PMID 17768593. S2CID ... who compared 75 children with ASD to 30 non-autistic "controls". These controls were children who had a developmental delay, ... IQ and the control group used. Several studies have reported associated motor problems that include poor muscle tone, poor ... high-quality studies are overall lacking. According to several studies, there is a high prevalence of strabismus in autistic ...
A Case-control Study on 100 Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India". Indian Journal of Endocrinology and ... A case-control study". Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet Thangphaet. 96 (8): 947-951. PMID 23991602. ... A case-control study". Indian Dermatology Online Journal. 5 (3): 276-281. doi:10.4103/2229-5178.137776. PMC 4144211. PMID ... One possible case study is about a maneless male lion in the Tsavo area. The Tsavo lion prides are unique in that they ...
A case-control study". Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 110 (1): 83-91. doi:10.1160/TH13-02-0097. ISSN 0340-6245. PMID 23677493. ... CTEPH is an orphan disease with an estimated incidence of 5 cases per million, but it is likely that CTEPH is under-diagnosed ... The median age of patients at diagnosis is 63 years (there is a wide age range, but paediatric cases are rare), and both ... "Clinical Study to Assess the Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Macitentan in Subjects With Inoperable Chronic Thromboembolic ...
A case-control study". Archives of General Psychiatry. 46 (10): 914-918. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810100056011. PMID 2572206 ... In one study, identical twins presented with NMS, and a mother and two of her daughters have presented with NMS in another case ... In these cases NMS is not usually fatal. In earlier studies the mortality rates from NMS ranged from 20%-38%, but by 2009 ... No major studies have reported an explanation for the abnormal EEG, but it is likely also attributable to dopamine blockage ...
"Basic statistical analysis in genetic case-control studies". Nature Protocols. 6 (2): 121-33. doi:10.1038/nprot.2010.182. PMC ... More precisely, a study's defined significance level, denoted by α {\displaystyle \alpha } , is the probability of the study ... A study that is found to be statistically significant may not necessarily be practically significant. Effect size is a measure ... In other fields of scientific research such as genome-wide association studies, significance levels as low as 5×10−8 are not ...
Variations on the case-control approach. A common alternative to case-control GWA studies is the analysis of quantitative ... Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, Burton PR (June 2007). "Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common ... Another landmark publication in the history of GWA studies was the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) study, the ... "Largest ever study of genetics of common diseases published today" (Press release). Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. 6 ...
Schlesselman JJ: Case-control Studies: Design, Conduct, Analysis. New York: Oxford U. Press; 1982:144-152. Wittes J, ... Dupont, WD: "Power Calculations for Matched Case-Control Studies", Biometrics, 1988; 44:1157-1168. Casagrande JT, Pike MC, ... Dupont WD, Plummer WD: "Power and Sample Size Calculations for Studies Involving Linear Regression", Controlled Clinical Trials ... Controlled Clin Trials,1997;18:274 Schoenfeld DA, Richter JR: "Nomograms for Calculating the Number of Patients Needed for a ...
... the ECTIM and PATHROS studies. Etude Cas-Témoins de l'Infarctus du Myocarde. Paris Thrombosis case-control Study". ... Study of 5 cases]". Journal Français d'Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie; Audiophonologie, Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale. 26 (9): 669-76. doi: ... Many of the studies so far have been performed in vitro, providing only a prediction of what may happen not a real-time ... Studies also show that the placement of the mutation in the TATA box sequence hinders the binding of TBP. For example, a ...
High-Impact Prevention case study for preventing and controlling TB ... CDC phased in use of the TB funding formulas to allow TB programs to prepare for large changes in funding levels as their case ... and control of TB was based on the burden of TB disease among jurisdictions that had experienced the largest increases in case ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...
The study period began a month before onset of symptoms of the first case in the case household. The case and control household ... a matched case-control study was conducted with paired households as study units. Case households were defined as households ... Case-Control Study. Figure 2. Figure 2. Total number of confirmed tularemia cases in Kosovo by municipality, July 1999-May 2000 ... 46 case households and 76 control households were included in a matched analysis. Visual inspection of the case and control ...
Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health-Care Workers After Percutaneous Exposure to HIV-Infected Blood -- France, ... A retrospective case-control study is not the optimal study design for assessing ZDV efficacy. The optimal approach -- a ... Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health-Care Workers After Percutaneous Exposure to HIV-Infected Blood -- France, ... First, case- and control-HCWs were identified using different data sources. Second, if control-HCWs were more likely to have ...
Study design. This was an observational case-control study. Cases were TB patients who defaulted from treatment and controls ... in the control group and a ratio of cases to controls of 1:2. This gave a sample size of 105 cases and 210 controls. ... ABSTRACT Defaulting on tuberculosis (TB) treatment remains a challenge to controlling TB. This case-control study aimed to ... The disease and treatment characteristics of the cases and controls are given in Table 1. Cases and controls had a similar BCG ...
Study design and site. This study was a retrospective, hospital-based, matched case-control study in a rural district of ... of the cases were anaemic compared to 42.8% of the controls. About half of the cases (52.6%) and 37.2% of the controls had a ... Factors associated with low birthweight in term pregnancies: a matched case-control study from rural Pakistan ... A case control study on risk factors associated with low birth weight babies in Eastern Nepal. Int J Pediatr. 2015;2015:807373 ...
Nitrosamines In Bacon: A Case Study Of Balancing Risks Cite CITE. Title : Nitrosamines In Bacon: A Case Study Of Balancing ... Saccharin Case-Control Studies. 99(4). Cordle, F and Miller, S A "Using Epidemiology To Regulate Food Additives: Saccharin Case ... A Case Study Of Balancing Risks. 99(4). McCutcheon, J W "Nitrosamines In Bacon: A Case Study Of Balancing Risks" 99, no. 4 ( ... Cordle, F and Miller, S A "Using Epidemiology To Regulate Food Additives: Saccharin Case-Control Studies" vol. 99, no. 4, 1984 ...
... case-control study. Pensando fam. [online]. 2021, vol.25, n.2, pp. 256-271. ISSN 1679-494X. ... This study aimed to compare the level of family adversity of adolescents who were bullied (n = 21) and non-victims (n = 21), ...
Case-control studies of common childhood diseases : the example of diarrhoea / S. N. Cousens ... [et al.] by Cousens, Simon N ... European multicentre case-control study of lung cancer in non-smokers : detailed results on exposure to environmental tobacco ... v. 1, The analysis of case-control studies. by Breslow, N. E , Day, N. E , Davis, Walter. ... SEARCH : a computer package to assist the statistical analysis of case-control studies / Gary J. Macfarlane, Peter Boyle, ...
... and this study shows increased fracture risk, says an observer. ... Large Case-Control Study Used UK Database Using data from the ... "This is the first large population study on this topic," although there have been a few case reports, Burden explained to ... Need a Curbside Consult? Share cases and questions with Physicians on Medscape Consult. Share a Case ... more likely to have an osteoporotic fracture during an up to 10-year follow-up than matched control patients, in a large study. ...
This study aimed to verify and compare the QoL between two groups of individuals, with (cases) and without DFD (controls), ... A case-control study (individuals with or without deformity), assessed the QoL of individuals with DFD (n=143) - 36 before ... This study aimed to verify and compare the QoL between individuals with (cases) and without DFD but with routine dental needs ( ... The comparison between the OQLQ of a Jordanians study 1 showed total OQLQ scores similar to those of the present study: ...
Study Design: Case-Control. Publications. No publications available at this time.. Principal Investigator: Andrea Branch, PhD ...
The impact of prenatal maternal mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic on birth outcomes: two nested case-control studies ...
... a case-control study Authors. * Zu-Mu Zhou Department of Emergency Response, Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention ... a case-control study. Western Pac Surveill Response J [Internet]. 2015 Jul. 6 [cited 2023 Oct. 18];6(3). Available from: https ... Conclusions: The present study identified that the risks of neonatal tetanus in the studied neonatal patients from Wenzhou were ... Yi Xu Department of Emergency Response, Wenzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wenzhou 325000, Peoples Republic of ...
A case-control study. The ARIC Study Investigators. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol 1997;17: ... Cangemi, F. E. TOZAL Study: an open case control study of an oral antioxidant and omega-3 supplement for dry AMD. BMC ... a case-control study nested in the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study. Cancer Sci. 2003;94:57-63. View abstract. ... a case-control study nested in the JACC Study. J Epidemiol. 2005;15 Suppl 2:S140-S149. View abstract. ...
78 Cases Of Methemoglobinemia Induced By Vegetable Intake In Infants In North Spain. A Case-Control Study. J Pediatr ... A 10-year retrospective case-control study by Chowdhary and colleagues of 94,694 procedures in which topical anesthetics were ... Risk of topical anesthetic-induced methemoglobinemia: a 10-year retrospective case-control study. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 May 13 ... A case study suggested methemoglobinemia as a potential adverse effect of the combination of pembrolizumab and axitinib for ...
Case-Control Studies / Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice Type of study: Observational study / Qualitative research / Risk ... Case-Control Studies / Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice Type of study: Observational study / Qualitative research / Risk ... Humans; Case-Control Studies; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Benin; Delivery of Health Care; COVID-19 ... A total of 312 respondents (104 cases and 208 controls) were included in the study. Logistic regression and Spearman ...
Pest-control; Case-studies; Protective-clothing; Respirators; Respiratory-system-disorders; Surveillance-programs; ... 1988]. The case reports described in this Alert clearly illustrate the hazards to workers who handle or work near phosphide ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ... This Alert describes 205 cases of illness or injury in workers exposed to phosphine gas associated with phosphide fumigants. ...
Case-Control Studies 1 * Law of Similars 1 BIREME - OPAS - OMS Centro Latino-Americano e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da ...
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (
  • This qualitative case study explores factors involving pilot instrument proficiency in a general aviation loss of control accident. (
  • To assess potential risk factors, CDC, in collaboration with French and British public health authorities, conducted a retrospective case-control study using data reported to national surveillance systems in the United States, France, and the United Kingdom. (
  • We performed a retrospective continuous longitudinal analysis comparing cases' and controls' contacts with health services. (
  • ABSTRACT Defaulting on tuberculosis (TB) treatment remains a challenge to controlling TB. (
  • A representative cohort of 1721 cases (8605 controls) were eligible for the fully linked analysis. (
  • However, ers, butchers and motorized vehicle drivers are in a situation of the majority of associations were not shown to be statistically risk for this type of tumor, irrespective of age, alcohol and to- significant, and cohort studies did not control the confounding bacco consumption. (
  • The impact of prenatal maternal mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic on birth outcomes: two nested case-control studies within the CONCEPTION cohort. (
  • The DocXellent Managed Cloud (DMC) is the collection of people, competencies, and process controls provided by DocXellent that enables you to achieve well-architected, reliable, secure, durable, and compliant Cloud frameworks that promote business operations and growth. (
  • The outbreak in London provides a strong case for ongoing vigilance and the use of serologic testing in diagnosis and serologic surveillance schemes to determine and monitor the prevalence of anthrax exposure in the PWID community. (
  • For arteries of all sizes, the area of the intima and percent luminal occlusion were greater in the limited and diffuse (no renal crisis) groups than in controls, and these differences were statistically significant for large and medium sized vessels. (
  • Methods: This population-based study investigated were shown to be statistically associated with the development an occupation that was classified according to the International of cancer of the oropharynx with Odds Ratio (OR) ranging from Standard Classification of Occupations. (
  • Genetic factors, especially those related to immune system functioning, have been intensively studied to determine their role in the development of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). (
  • Of the 31 exposures sustained by case-HCWs, 29 (94%) were needlesticks (all with hollow needles) and two (7%) involved other sharp objects. (
  • Future studies are warranted to assess whether there are GBS-associated infectious or environmental exposures inherent to military populations. (
  • A study that compares exposures of people who have a disease or condition (cases) with people who do not have the disease or condition (controls). (
  • Exposures that are more common among the cases may be considered as possible risk factors for the disease. (
  • The evolution of resource allocation for prevention and control of TB in health department funding reflects the changing epidemiology of TB, new treatment guidelines, and the emergence of indicators to monitor program performance-all taking place in the context of flat funding for TB programs. (
  • guidelines and planning preventive actions for the control of cancer. (
  • Preventive measures directed to the pregnant floating population may reduce the occurrence of neonatal tetanus in the studied area. (
  • ynx (OSCC)11 Workers in mechanical and industrial workshops, Studies have analyzed the relationship between occupation- such as metal works and petrochemical plants, as well as paint- al exposure and risk for cancer of the oral cavity2-10. (
  • La luteína se toma comúnmente por vía oral para prevenir enfermedades oculares, incluidas las cataratas y una enfermedad que conduce a la pérdida de la visión en los adultos mayores (degeneración macular relacionada con la edad o AMD). (
  • Es probable que la luteína sea segura cuando se toma por vía oral en cantidades adecuadas. (
  • Case-HCWs were identified through reports to national surveillance systems for occupationally acquired HIV infection operated by CDC, in cooperation with state and local health departments (United States), the National Public Health Network (Reseau National de Sante Publique) (France), and the Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Center (United Kingdom). (
  • In total, 252 subjects (178 controls and 74 patients with RAS) were enrolled in this case-control study, and their detailed anamnestic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained. (
  • Laboratory companies must control their business content in accordance with the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA). (
  • Control your organization's content across the globe or down the hallway with our flexible, secure, user-friendly online document control software, ENSUR. (
  • Version control, and how it's handled, is often a pain point for companies, especially those managing content with paper or a file share. (
  • Longitudinal studies of patterns of healthcare contacts in those who die by suicide to identify those at risk are scarce. (
  • A population-based electronic case-control study of all who died by suicide in Wales, 2001-2017, linking individuals' electronic healthcare records from general practices, emergency departments and hospitals. (
  • At any week in the year before their death, cases were more likely to contact healthcare services than controls. (
  • Document Version Control is especially important in the ever changing healthcare industry. (
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  • Control-HCWs were identified through reports to a passive surveillance project maintained by CDC since 1983 that includes data from approximately 300 health-care institutions in the United States (1). (
  • Medical encounter data were obtained from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (Silver Spring, MD). Active duty personnel with an incident GBS diagnosis were matched by age, sex, and time with up to 4 controls. (
  • In this study, we compared two samples, totaling 106 respondents: 53 individuals with some degree of DFD, classified as Angle's Class II or Class III (23 males and 30 females), and 53 individuals without DFD, classified Angle's Class I (23 males and 30 females). (
  • A total of 312 respondents (104 cases and 208 controls) were included in the study. (
  • The study included all case-HCWs reported in the United States whose exposure occurred during January 1988-August 1994 and all control-HCWs exposed after January 1988 whose 6-month follow-up evaluation was completed as of August 1994. (
  • Case- and control-HCWs reported in the United States before 1988 were excluded from the analysis because information on some variables was not routinely collected and because postexposure use of ZDV was infrequent before 1988 (1). (
  • 1988]. The case reports described in this Alert clearly illustrate the hazards to workers who handle or work near phosphide fumigants. (
  • Conclusions These results suggest that tobacco control policies, including sizeable tax increases, were progressive in their impact. (
  • Contacts with primary and secondary healhtcare prior to sucide: Case-control whole-population-based study using person-level linked routine data in Wales, UK, 2000-2017. (
  • Although prospective studies indicate that the estimated risk for HIV infection after a percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood is approximately 0.3% (1,2), factors that influence this risk have not been determined. (
  • Participants Mothers or carers of 185 infants whose deaths were attributed to SIDS and 312 randomly selected controls matched for race or ethnicity and age. (
  • It s central core is a finely detailed empirical case study that offers insights into the meaning of educational change by coming to an understanding of the ideologies, values, and attitudes of key participants a group of teachers who reveal why they act the way they do when faced with management directives to makes changes to their professional working practices. (
  • This study aimed to verify and compare the QoL between individuals with (cases) and without DFD but with routine dental needs (controls), totalizing 106 participants. (
  • Most of the cases (67.31%) and control (79.81%) participants reported cough as a symptom of COVID-19. (
  • The present study identified that the risks of neonatal tetanus in the studied neonatal patients from Wenzhou were associated with untrained birth attendant, unsterile method of delivery and poor cord hygiene. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Case-control studies. (
  • We examined data collected in a population based case-control study of risk factors for SIDS in California to determine whether use of a dummy during sleep is associated with a reduced risk of SIDS, what factors may modify the association between use and SIDS, and whether use influences other risk factors related to sleep environment. (
  • Of these, 185 had resumed treatment before data collection and 143 had not and were eligible as cases. (
  • DocXellent has helped many clients, from Fortune 500 companies to smaller firms, migrate data into our ENSUR document control system. (
  • Prior to 2005, CDC's method of allocation of TB funds to state and city health departments for prevention and control of TB was based on the burden of TB disease among jurisdictions that had experienced the largest increases in case counts during the TB resurgence that took place from 1985-1993. (
  • For example, the five-year average was changed to a three-year average so that funding levels can rapidly reflect changes in case burden. (
  • This is the first large population study on this topic," although there have been a few case reports, Burden explained to Medscape Medical News in an interview. (
  • Method The impact of tobacco control measures on different income groups was analysed by contrasting household tobacco expenditures reported in 2006-2007 and 2012 household expenditure surveys. (
  • Case-HCWs had a documented occupational percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood (i.e., a needlestick or a cut with a sharp object {e.g., scalpel or lancet}), HIV seroconversion temporally associated with the exposure, and no other concurrent exposure to HIV. (
  • Control-HCWs had a documented occupational percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood and were HIV seronegative at the time of exposure and at least 6 months later. (
  • No significant differences were found in the genotypes of the two polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene between cases and controls. (
  • Our study has not shown a significant association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. (
  • Morphometric measurements were performed on pulmonary arteries in 58 patients with systemic sclerosis (20 limited cutaneous and 38 diffuse cutaneous involvement [21 with and 17 without renal crisis]) and age, race, and sex matched autopsy controls. (
  • In total, 58 breast cancer patients and 58 unaffected controls were enrolled in the study. (
  • This case-control study aimed to identify determinants of treatment default among TB patients attending treatment clinics in Khartoum State from May to July 2011. (
  • Cases were TB patients who defaulted on treatment and controls were those who completed treatment. (
  • La présente étude cas-témoin avait pour objectif d'identifier les déterminants de l'abandon de traitement parmi les patients atteints de tuberculose pris en charge dans des centres de traitement dans l'État de Khartoum entre mai et juillet 2011. (
  • The aim of the present study was to analyze gene variability in interleukin (IL)2, IL4 (and its receptor alpha, IL4R alpha), IL10, and IL13, which were selected based on literature review and/or their functional relevance, in Czech patients with RAS and in healthy controls. (
  • 1000 µg/L or a diagnosis of hemochromatosis or thalassemia - were 60% more likely to have an osteoporotic fracture during an up to 10-year follow-up than matched control patients, in a large study. (
  • Compared with control patients, those with iron overload had a roughly twofold increased risk of a vertebral fracture, as well as an increased risk of a hip or humerus fracture, but not a forearm fracture. (
  • The study shows that once patients have an iron overload of more than 1000 µg/L, we need to be doing regular checks for their BMD and figuring how to best minimize their fracture risk. (
  • They matched each iron overload patient with up to 10 control patients based on age, sex, year, and general practitioner, for a total of 198,037 control patients. (
  • During follow-up there were 777 fractures in the iron-overload patients (9.61 fractures per 1000 patient-years) and 4344 fractures in the control group (4.68 fractures per 1000 patient-years). (
  • Mauritius implemented a series of tobacco control measures from 2009 to 2012, including tobacco tax increases. (
  • These increases were accompanied by numerous non-price tobacco control measures. (
  • We conclude that tobacco use increases poverty and inequality, but stronger tobacco control policies can mitigate the impact of tobacco use on impoverishment. (
  • Labplas redesigns custom production machines with EtherCAT, robotics and AI for quality control, ensuring ROI of less than one year on all upgrades, for 15 to 35% machine productivity increases. (
  • SEARCH : a computer package to assist the statistical analysis of case-control studies / Gary J. Macfarlane, Peter Boyle, Patrick Maisonneuve. (
  • We performed a case-control study to investigate the association between the two SNPs in the MTHFR gene and risk of breast cancer. (
  • CDC provides financial and technical assistance to state, local, and territorial health and educational agencies to implement high-impact programs to prevent and control youth risk behaviors, HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, STDs, and tuberculosis (TB). (
  • The study included 31 case-HCWs (23 from the United States, five from France, and three from the United Kingdom) and 679 control-HCWs (who were from 190 of the reporting health-care institutions). (
  • In the week before their death, 31.4% of cases and 15.6% of controls contacted health services. (
  • Our document management software helps companies in the food & beverage industry comply with FDA audit & SQF audit control guidelines. (
  • This Alert describes 205 cases of illness or injury in workers exposed to phosphine gas associated with phosphide fumigants. (
  • This saved our team time and gave us confidence that we could pass compliance testing for case temperature and overall unit temperature. (
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  • One of those is case temperature to ensure the unit doesn't overheat, cause burns to the touch, or otherwise be a heat hazard or fire risk. (
  • Like our MTM final-assembly test setup outlined above, we deployed the Evo Thermal sensor to monitor the PCB and case temperature on the USBHub3c during functional and validation testing. (
  • This allows us to push the device under test to its absolute thermal limit while keeping close control over the PCB and case temperature in an automated fashion. (
  • We conducted a hospital-based matched case control study to identify risk factors associated with LBW in a rural district of Pakistan. (
  • ENSUR is an easy-to-use, configurable, web-based Document Management and Quality Control Software System that will dramatically help you to improve and manage the efficiency of paper based or uncontrolled electronic file based processes. (
  • Your document control management protocol encompasses a wide variety of processes integral to the continued flow of your business. (
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  • For similar reasons, analysis was limited to case-HCWs reported in France since 1990 and in the United Kingdom since 1989. (
  • v. 1, The analysis of case-control studies. (
  • The potential risk factors of the neonatal tetanus group were compared with the control group using univariate analysis. (
  • Logistic regression analysis revealed that the untrained birth attendants was significantly higher in the tetanus group than the control group (OR=61.39, 95% CI 1.60, 354.33). (
  • A case control study of lung cancer in Florence, Italy. (
  • and 532 were part of a ing with a partner may be raised as possible risk factors for the control group, paired by age, gender, place and smoking habit, development of cancer of the mouth and oropharynx. (
  • Case study questions and answers: Seven bakery lines converge in one packaging area that fills 20 cases per minute. (
  • Design Population based case-control study. (
  • This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with neonatal tetanus in Wenzhou, China. (
  • The cord was cut without taking disinfection measures in the majority of tetanus cases. (
  • Some studies have reported that use of a dummy (pacifier) is associated with a reduced risk of SIDS, though few have examined the association in detail and in the context of other risk factors. (
  • We also introduce a procedure to label case sequences as potential carriers or noncarriers of causal variants after an association has been found. (
  • Any one of a group of diseases that occur when cells in the body become abnormal and grow or multiply out of control. (
  • Now this new study has found an increase in fractures in such people, he noted. (