Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A type of analysis in which subjects in a study group and a comparison group are made comparable with respect to extraneous factors by individually pairing study subjects with the comparison group subjects (e.g., age-matched controls).
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Breaks in bones.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Glucose in blood.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.
An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.

Legalized physician-assisted suicide in Oregon--the first year's experience. (1/48039)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: On October 27, 1997, Oregon legalized physician-assisted suicide. We collected data on all terminally ill Oregon residents who received prescriptions for lethal medications under the Oregon Death with Dignity Act and who died in 1998. The data were obtained from physicians' reports, death certificates, and interviews with physicians. We compared persons who took lethal medications prescribed under the act with those who died from similar illnesses but did not receive prescriptions for lethal medications. RESULTS: Information on 23 persons who received prescriptions for lethal medications was reported to the Oregon Health Division; 15 died after taking the lethal medications, 6 died from underlying illnesses, and 2 were alive as of January 1, 1999. The median age of the 15 patients who died after taking lethal medications was 69 years; 8 were male, and all 15 were white. Thirteen of the 15 patients had cancer. The case patients and controls were similar with regard to sex, race, urban or rural residence, level of education, health insurance coverage, and hospice enrollment. No case patients or controls expressed concern about the financial impact of their illness. One case patient and 15 controls expressed concern about inadequate control of pain (P=0.10). The case patients were more likely than the controls to have never married (P=0.04) and were more likely to be concerned about loss of autonomy due to illness (P=0.01) and loss of control of bodily functions (P=0.02). At death, 21 percent of the case patients and 84 percent of the controls were completely disabled (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the first year of legalized physician-assisted suicide in Oregon, the decision to request and use a prescription for lethal medication was associated with concern about loss of autonomy or control of bodily functions, not with fear of intractable pain or concern about financial loss. In addition, we found that the choice of physician-assisted suicide was not associated with level of education or health insurance coverage.  (+info)

Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study. (2/48039)

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region.  (+info)

Hygiene behaviour in rural Nicaragua in relation to diarrhoea. (3/48039)

BACKGROUND: Childhood diarrhoea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Nicaragua. Amongst the risk factors for its transmission are 'poor' hygiene practices. We investigated the effect of a large number of hygiene practices on diarrhoeal disease in children aged <2 years and validated the technique of direct observation of hygiene behaviour. METHODS: A prospective follow-up study was carried out in a rural zone of Nicaragua. From the database of a previously conducted case-control study on water and sanitation 172 families were recruited, half of which had experienced a higher than expected rate of diarrhoea in their children and the other half a lower rate. Hygiene behaviour was observed over two mornings and diarrhoea incidence was recorded with a calendar, filled out by the mother, and collected every week for 5 months. RESULTS: Of 46 'good' practices studied, 39 were associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea, five were unrelated and only for two a higher risk was observed. Washing of hands, domestic cleanliness (kitchen, living room, yard) and the use of a diaper/underclothes by the child had the strongest protective effect. Schooling (>3 years of primary school) and better economic position (possession of a radio) had a positive influence on general hygiene behaviour, education having a slightly stronger effect when a radio was present. Individual hygiene behaviour appeared to be highly variable in contrast with the consistent behaviour of the community as a whole. Feasible and appropriate indicators of hygiene behaviour were found to be domestic cleanliness and the use of a diaper or underclothes by the child. CONCLUSION: A consistent relationship between almost all hygiene practices and diarrhoea was detected, more schooling producing better hygiene behaviour. The high variability of hygiene behaviour at the individual level requires repeated observations (at least two) before and after the hygiene education in the event one wants to measure the impact of the campaign on the individual.  (+info)

Post-traumatic epilepsy: its complications and impact on occupational rehabilitation--an epidemiological study from India. (4/48039)

The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of seizure disorder, neuropsychiatric disorders and reproductive outcome of employees with post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) and their effect on occupational rehabilitation. A case-comparison group study design was used to compare 30 subjects with PTE with (1) 129 non-PTE and (2) 55 non-PTE matched control employees. The 55 non-PTE matched controls were selected from the 129 non-PTE employees on the basis of age, age at onset of seizure, age at marriage and length of employment. The PTE group had a lower fertility rate than the controls and more neuropsychiatric disorders and seizure disability. PTE employees were more occupationally rehabilitated than non-PTE employees (p = 0.033). Of the 30 PTE subjects, thirteen who were rehabilitated by placement had more seizure disability (p = 0.007) and a higher fertility rate (p = 0.018). High prevalence of seizure disability and increased fertility rate among the placed PTE employees suggested that there might be some association between severity of seizures and increased production of live offspring and work placement. Work suitability or placement should not be judged on clinical assessment only but psychosocial seizure assessment, disability evaluation and other psychometric tests which are of equal importance.  (+info)

Methodological issues in biomonitoring of low level exposure to benzene. (5/48039)

Data from a pilot study on unmetabolized benzene and trans,trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) excretion in filling station attendants and unexposed controls were used to afford methodological issues in the biomonitoring of low benzene exposures (around 0.1 ppm). Urinary concentrations of benzene and t,t-MA were measured by dynamic head-space capillary GC/FID and HPLC, respectively. The accuracy of the HPLC determination of t,t-MA was assessed in terms of inter- and intra-method reliability. The adequacy of urinary t,t-MA and benzene as biological markers of low benzene exposure was evaluated by analysing the relationship between personal exposure to benzene and biomarker excretion. Filling station attendants excreted significantly higher amounts of benzene, but not of t,t-MA, than controls. Adjusting for occupational benzene exposure, smokers excreted significantly higher amounts of t,t-MA, but not of unmetabolized benzene, than nonsmokers. A comparative analysis of the present and previously published biomonitoring surveys showed a good inter-study agreement regarding the amount of t,t-MA and unmetabolized benzene excreted (about 0.1-0.2 mg/l and 1-2 micrograms/l, respectively) per unit of exposure (0.1 ppm). For each biomarker, based on the distribution of parameters observed in the pilot study, we calculated the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with given confidence and precision.  (+info)

Post-shift changes in pulmonary function in a cement factory in eastern Saudi Arabia. (6/48039)

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1992 in the oldest of three Portland cement producing factories in Eastern Saudi Arabia. The respirable dust level was in excess of the recommended ACGIH level in all sections. Spirometry was done for 149 cement workers and 348 controls, using a Vitalograph spirometer. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% were calculated and corrected to BTPS. A significantly higher post-shift reduction FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% was observed in the exposed subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between post-shift changes and exposure to cement dust but failed to support any relationship with smoking. These findings may indicate an increase in the bronchial muscle tone leading to some degree of bronchoconstriction as a result of an irritant effect induced by the acute exposure to cement dust.  (+info)

Alteration of circadian time structure of blood pressure caused by night shift schedule. (7/48039)

The effects of night shift schedules on circadian time structure of blood pressure were studied in seven healthy young subjects by continuous monitoring of blood pressure every 30 min for 72 h. In the control experiment, subjects were instructed to sleep at regular times with the light off at 00.00 h and the light on at 07.00 h. In the shift experiment, they were instructed to go to bed at 06.00 h and wake up at 11.00 h. The circadian rhythm of blood pressure rapidly phase delayed by 3.5 h in the second night shift day as a group phenomenon. Individual differences in changes in power spectral patterns of blood pressure were found in the night shift schedule. Ultradian rhythmicity of blood pressure was more pronounced in three subjects, whereas the circadian rhythmicity was maintained in four subjects. These findings held when the adaptation to shift work was taken into account.  (+info)

Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women. (8/48039)

This study was conducted to assess the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer among young women. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 21-45 years living in three counties in Washington State. Cases were women born after 1944 with invasive or in situ breast cancer that was diagnosed between January 1, 1983, and April 30, 1990. Controls were selected using random digit dialing and were frequency-matched to cases on the basis of age and county of residence. Interviews took place between 1986 and 1992. Body size was evaluated using indices from several different time periods. After adjustment for confounders, a decreased risk of breast cancer was found for women in the highest quintile of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) as compared with the lowest quintile (for maximum lifetime body mass index, odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.94). Age modified the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of maximum body mass index who were aged 21-35 years was 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.55), as compared with an odds ratio of 1.5 for women aged 36-45 years (95% CI 0.9-2.5) (p for interaction = 0.003). This study supports prior research showing a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with increased body size among premenopausal or young women. More detailed analysis in this study found a strong effect that was limited to the youngest age group (< or = 35 years).  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case control study on genetic and environmental risk factors. AU - Pomp, E.R.. AU - van Stralen, K.J.. AU - le Cessie, S.. AU - Vandenbroucke, J.P.. AU - Rosendaal, F.R.. AU - Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria. N1 - Open access journal PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even ...
PURPOSE: To define the prevalence and associations of co-morbidity and school attendance in older children with epilepsy (CWE) from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. METHODS: Children aged 6-14 years old with active epilepsy (at least two unprovoked seizures in the last five years) were identified in a cross-sectional survey in Tanzania. Co-morbidities were assessed and cases were compared with age-matched controls. RESULTS: Co-morbidity was very common amongst cases (95/112, 85%), with 62/112 (55%) having multiple co-morbidities. Co-morbidities consisted of cognitive impairment (72/112, 64%), behaviour disorder 68/112 (61%), motor difficulties 29/112 (26%), burns and other previous injuries (29/112, 26%). These complications were significantly more common in cases than in controls (odds ratio 14.8, 95%CI 7.6-28.6, p|0.001). Co-morbidity in CWE was associated with structural cause, abnormal electroencephalogram and early onset seizures. Cognitive impairment
AIM: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. METHOD: One hundred and twelve children aged 6 to 14 years (55 males, 57 females; median age 12 y) with active epilepsy (at least two unprovoked seizures in the last 5 y) were identified in a cross-sectional survey and included in this study. Children who were younger than 6 years were excluded in order to eliminate febrile seizures. Behaviour was assessed using the Rutter scale; children who scored 13 or more were considered to have disordered behaviour. A comparison group was made up of age- and sex-matched children without epilepsy (n = 113; 57 males, 56 females; median age 12 y). RESULTS: Behavioural disorders were diagnosed in 68 of 103 (66%) children with epilepsy and in 19 of 99 (19%) controls. Disordered behaviour was significantly more common in children with epilepsy than in the
Schuchat A, Zywicki SS, Dinsmoor MJ, Mercer B, Romaguera J, OSullivan MJ, Patel D, Peters MT, Stoll B, Levine OS. Risk factors and opportunities for prevention of early-onset neonatal sepsis: a multicenter case-control study. Pediatrics. 2000; 105(1 Pt 1): 21-6 ...
Previous studies of predictors of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have limitations: (1) some focused on patients with clinically recognized chronic kidney disease (CKD); (2) others identified population-based patients who developed ESRD, but lacked earlier baseline clinical measures to predict ESRD. Our study was designed to address these limitations and to identify the strength and precision of characteristics that might predict ESRD pragmatically for decision-makers--as measured by the onset of renal replacement therapy (RRT). We conducted a population-based, retrospective case-control study of patients who developed ESRD and started RRT. We conducted the study in a health maintenance organization, Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW). The case-control study was nested within the adult population of KPNW members who were enrolled during 1999, the baseline period. Cases and their matched controls were identified from January 2000 through December 2004. We evaluated baseline clinical characteristics
TY - JOUR. T1 - A retrospective case-control study to investigate horse and jockey level risk factors associated with horse falls in Irish Point-to-Point races. AU - Smith, Laura J.. AU - Tabor, Gillian. AU - Williams, Jane. PY - 2020/5. Y1 - 2020/5. N2 - Horse racing as a high-risk sport can pose a significant risk to equine welfare. There have been limited epidemiological reviews of fall risk specific to point-to-point racing. This study aimed to identify horse and jockey level risk factors associated with horse falls and compare these to published findings for Hurdle and Steeplechase racing. The study used a retrospective matched case-control design. Relevant variables were identified, and information was collated for all races in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons. Cases and controls were matched with a 1:3 ratio. Controls (n=2,547) were selected at random from all horses that completed in the same race (n=849). Horse and jockey level variables were analysed through univariable analysis to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fetal outcome of lupus pregnancy. T2 - A retrospective case-control study of the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. AU - Petri, Michelle. AU - Allbritton, Jill. PY - 1993/11. Y1 - 1993/11. UR - UR - M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:84907435016. VL - 48. SP - 717. EP - 719. JO - Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. JF - Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. SN - 0029-7828. IS - 11. ER - ...
XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1) is a base excision repair protein that plays a central role in the repair of DNA base damage and strand breaks. A common polymorphism (Arg→Gln) at codon 399 of the XRCC1 gene has been previously linked to functional changes of the gene product and risk of cancers. We evaluated the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism and breast cancer risk in the population-based Shanghai Breast Cancer Study involving 1088 cancer patients and 1182 community controls. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood was used in genotyping assays, and exposure information and anthropometrics were collected through in-person interview. Plasma estrogen and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured for 190 postmenopausal breast cancer patients who had donated a pretreatment blood sample and 407 postmenopausal controls. Conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusting potential ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transient ischaemic attack, vascular risk factors and cognitive impairment. T2 - a case-controlled study. AU - Guyomard, Veronique. AU - Metcalf, Anthony K. AU - Naguib, Magdi F. AU - Fulcher, Robert A. AU - Potter, John F. AU - Myint, Phyo K. PY - 2011/9. Y1 - 2011/9. KW - aged. KW - aged, 80 and over. KW - case-control studies. KW - cognition. KW - cognition disorders. KW - female. KW - hospitals, university. KW - humans. KW - Ischemic Attack, Transient. KW - male. KW - middle aged. KW - neuropsychological tests. KW - risk assessment. KW - risk factors. KW - severity of illness index. U2 - 10.1093/ageing/afr079. DO - 10.1093/ageing/afr079. M3 - Letter. C2 - 21749995. VL - 40. SP - 641. EP - 644. JO - Age and Ageing. JF - Age and Ageing. SN - 0002-0729. IS - 5. ER - ...
Observations from the current case-control study support the association between cutaneous HPV seropositivity and SCC. Seropositivity to HPV 10 was the single type from genus-alpha associated with SCC. Seropositivity for cutaneous HPV types in genus-beta overall, and for types 8 and 17 specifically, was significantly associated with SCC in this clinic-based case-control study. In addition, correlations between seropositivity and DNA positivity for the same genus-beta HPV type were observed for HPV types 5, 24, and 17. SCC cases with tumors negative for any genus-beta HPV type were less likely to be seroprevalent for HPV types 20, 36, 9, 15, 38, and 75 than controls.. The positive association observed between SCC and seropositivity to HPV types in genus-beta is consistent with 2 (7, 8) of 5 case-control studies (3, 5, 7, 8, 16) including one study from the United States (7). Type-specific associations observed with SCC for HPV types 8 and 17 in genus-beta agree with findings from case-control ...
BACKGROUND: Different studies have reported an association between HIV infection, antiretroviral therapies, and impaired bone metabolism, but data on their impact on fracture risk are scarce. We studied the association between a clinical diagnosis of HIV infection and fracture risk. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study using data from the ... read more Danish National Health Service registries, including 124,655 fracture cases and 373,962 age- and gender-matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 50 (0.40/1000) patients in the fracture group and 52 (0.14/1000) controls had an HIV diagnosis. The risk of any fracture was thus significantly increased among HIV-infected patients (age- and gender-matched OR = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.99 to 4.18). Similarly, significant increases in the risk of hip (OR = 8.99, 95% CI: 1.39 to 58.0), forearm (OR = 3.50, 95% CI: 1.26 to 9.72), and spine fractures (OR = ...
Central oxidative stress of RNA damage in patients with bipolar disorder and healthy control individuals. A prospective longitudinal case-control study ...
Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), Barretts and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON), Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Transdisciplinary Studies of Genetic Variation in Colorectal Cancer (CORECT), Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (ECAC), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), Melanoma Genetics Consortium (GenoMEL), Glioma International Case-Control Study (GICC), International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), Integrative Analysis of Lung Cancer Etiology and Risk (INTEGRAL) Consortium, International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies (InterLymph), Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC), Oral Cancer GWAS, Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4), Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan), Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL), Renal Cancer GWAS, Testicular Cancer Consortium (TECAC), Zhang, Y. D., Hurson, A. ...
Hartge1 emphasizes the issues related to response in population-based epidemiologic studies. She notes that epidemiologists do not always document response rates in their publications and that, when available, these rates have declined, particularly among potential control subjects being recruited into case-control studies. In fact, a critical and challenging aspect of population-based case-control study designs is how to develop a scientifically sound and cost-effective method for identifying and enrolling control subjects.. Care must be taken to define the studys population base when developing the approach for control identification. Ideally, this base is the population that spawned the case subjects. Should any member of the control population be diagnosed with the disease under study, it must be guaranteed that the individual would be identified as a member of the case group. The defined population base will depend on the source of case subjects: medical practices or hospitals, health ...
Few studies have examined perinatal risk factors for NE in sub-Saharan Africa. In this Ugandan population, we found that maternal and newborn infection and inflammation, based on blood cultures, molecular assays and a subset of placentas, are independent risk factors for NE, with the strongest associations seen with fetal inflammation (funisitis) and early neonatal bacteraemia. Neonatal case fatality was not significantly higher for infants with NE exposed to neonatal bacteraemia. Intrapartum antibiotic use did not improve survival among encephalopathic infants. Other potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum risk factors were identified, with many antepartum factors mediated by intrapartum events suggesting potential large gains with improvements in intrapartum care.. In our study, funisitis, or infiltration of the umbilical cord with acute fetal inflammatory cells, was a significant risk factor for NE; however, the presence of membrane inflammation alone (isolated histological ...
Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully
Epidemiological studies of exposures that vary with time require an additional level of methodological complexity to account for the time-dependence of exposure. This study compares a nested case-control approach for the study of time-dependent exposure with cohort analysis using Cox regression including time-dependent covariates. A cohort of 1340 subjects with four fixed and seven time-dependent covariates was used for this study. Nested case-control analyses were repeated 100 times for each of 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 controls per case, and point estimates were compared to those obtained using Cox regression on the full cohort. Computational efficiencies were evaluated by comparing central processing unit times required for analysis of the cohort at sizes 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 times its initial size. Nested case-control analyses yielded results that were similar to results of Cox regression on the full cohort. Cox regression was found to be 125 times slower than the nested case-control approach (using
The most difficult and most important considerations in planning the protocol of a case-control study are ascertainment of cases, selection of controls and the quality of the exposure measurement. Plans to ensure careful field work are equally important; without attention to data collection, the protocol will be meaningless. In most case-control studies, the measurement problem is magnified because one cannot implement the collection of exposure information at the beginning of follow-up, and instead must rely on interviews, existing records or extrapolation into the past. Consideration of a case-control study as an efficient way to study a cohort helps to resolve some design issues.
Preterm labor is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Ascending lower genital tract infection leads to preterm labor and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This prospective case-control study
Researchers subject to time and budget constraints may conduct small nested case-control studies with individually matched controls to help optimize statistical power. In this paper, we show how precision can be improved considerably by combining data from a small nested case-control study with data from a larger nested case-control study of a different outcome in the same or overlapping cohort. Our approach is based on the inverse probability weighting concept, in which the log-likelihood contribution of each individual observation is weighted by the inverse of its probability of inclusion in either study. We illustrate our approach using simulated data and an application where we combine data sets from 2 nested case-control studies to investigate risk factors for anorexia nervosa in a cohort of young women in Sweden ...
Free Case-Control Studies - ä¸-å ½å »ç§ å¤§å-¦, Case-Control Studies - ä¸-å ½å »ç§ å¤§å-¦ ppt, Case-Control Studies - ä¸-å ½å »ç§ å¤§å-¦ slides, Case-Control Studies - ä¸-å ½å »ç§ å¤§å-¦ presentations download ...
Totals Samples analyzed = 1,438+2,878 = 4,316. Total Cost = 4,316 x $20 = $86,320. With this approach a similar estimate of risk was obtained after analyzing blood samples from only a small sample of the entire population at a fraction of the cost with hardly any loss in precision. In essence, a case-control strategy was used, but it was conducted within the context of a prospective cohort study. This is referred to as a case-control study nested within a cohort study.. Rothman states that one should look upon all case-control studies as being nested within a cohort. In other words the cohort represents the source population that gave rise to the cases. With a case-control sampling strategy one simply takes a sample of the population in order to obtain an estimate of the exposure distribution within the population that gave rise to the cases. Obviously, this is a much more efficient design.. It is important to note that, unlike cohort studies, case-control studies do not follow subjects ...
Methods We conducted a nested case-control study within a cohort of patients with clinically diagnosed OA (according to ICD10 codes in the SIDIAP database of primary care records for over 5 million people in Catalonia, Spain (2)). Cases were identified in the period between 2008 and 2012 through ICD10 codes of cardiac ischemic events (CIE) (AIM or unstable angina, fatal or not) and cross-checked with hospital discharge diagnosis; 3 controls without CIE were matched to each case by sex, age (±5 years), area and year (±2 years) of first diagnosis of OA. Data were linked with pharmacy invoicing information, encrypted and extracted for analysis. Exposure to NSAIDs, SYSADOAs, opioids, paracetamol and metamizole were analysed. Adjusted multivariate conditional logistic regression models were fitted to estimate odds ratio (OR) for CIE according to drug use. ...
Rhinovirus (RV) role in pathogenesis of severe childhood disease remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association between RV molecular subtyping, nasopharyngeal viral loads and viremia with childhood pneumonia. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples from cases and controls were tested for RV and the 5′ non-coding region sequenced. The cases compared to controls had a similar prevalence of RV detection in the nasopharynx (23 % vs. 22 %, P = 0.66), similar RV species distribution (A, B, C = 44 %, 8%, 44 % vs. 48 %, 7%, 38 %; respectively; P = 0.66) and similar viral load (4.0 and 3.7 log10 copies/mL, P = 0.062). However, RV-viremia was 4.01-fold (aOR 95 % CI: 1.26-12.78) more prevalent among cases (7%) than controls (2%), P = 0.019. Furthermore, among cases and controls RV-C was more commonly associated with viremia (14 % and 4%, P = 0.023), than RV-A (2% and 1%; P = 0.529). Thus RV-viremia could be used as a measure for attributing causality to RV in children hospitalized for pneumonia ...
467 Background: SV40, a polyomavirus of macaques related to the human BK virus, was a contaminant of polio vaccines used in the U.S. in 1955-62. SV40 causes NHL in hamsters, and 2 recent studies reported detection of SV40 DNA in tumor tissue from ∼40% of human NHL cases. We applied recently developed serological methods to examine the association between SV40 infection and NHL in a large U.S. population-based case-control study. Methods: The NCI-SEER Multicenter Case-Control Study recruited incident HIV-uninfected NHL cases from Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, and Seattle (1998-2000). Controls were identified through random digit dialing and Medicare files, frequency-matched to cases by sex, age, race, and site. We evaluated sera from 724 cases, 622 controls, and 19 SV40-infected macaques under masked conditions in 2 separate labs. Each lab used virus-like particle (VLP) ELISAs to measure antibodies against SV40 and BK (SV40 results were unavailable for 13 samples in lab B). Logistic regression ...
2007 (English)In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prevention, ISSN 1055-9965, Vol. 16, no 3, 559-565 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
Salmonella is an important cause of human illness. Disease is frequently associated with foodborne transmission, but other routes of exposure are recognized. Identifying sources of disease is essential for prioritizing public health interventions. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic salmonellosis have been published, often using different methodologies and settings. Systematic reviews consist of a formal process for literature review focused on a research question. With the objective of identifying the most important risk factors for salmonellosis, we performed a systematic review of case-control studies and a meta-analysis of obtained results. Thirty-five Salmonella case-control studies were identified. In the meta-analysis, heterogeneity between studies and possible sources of bias were investigated, and pooled odds ratios estimated. Results suggested that travel, predisposing factors, eating raw eggs, and eating in restaurants were the most important risk factors for salmonellosis. ...
Individual amount details from all databases have been firstly gathered into a pooled dataset and analysed by the use of a multivariable conditional logistic regression model.20 The obtained odds ratio, with 95% confidence intervals, approximated the chance of hospital admission for heart failure connected to present usage of person NSAIDs with respect to past use of any NSAID. We also believed the chances ratio associated with modern utilization of any NSAID, when compared with past use of any NSAID. Supplied the significant quantity of associations assessed On this analysis, we utilised the Bonferroni-Holm procedure21 to assess the effects of uncertainty because of multiple comparisons on the outcomes. ...
A case-control study was conducted in high- and low-risk areas of Italy to evaluate reasons for the striking geographic variation in gastric cancer (GC) mortality within the country. Personal interviews with 1,016 histologically confirmed GC cases and 1,159 population controls of similar age and sex revealed that the patients were more often of lower social class and resident in rural areas and more frequently reported a familial history of gastric (but not other) cancer. After adjusting for these effects, case-control differences were found for several dietary variables, assessed by asking about the usual frequency of consumption of 146 food items and beverages. A significant trend of increasing GC risk was found with increasing consumption of traditional soups, meat, salted/dried fish and a combination of cold cuts and seasoned cheeses. The habit of adding salt and the preference for salty foods were associated with elevated GC risk, while more frequently storing foods in the refrigerator, the ...
Individual stage information from all databases were To begin with collected into a pooled dataset and analysed via a multivariable conditional logistic regression model.twenty The obtained odds ratio, with ninety five% self-confidence intervals, approximated the potential risk of healthcare facility admission for coronary heart failure affiliated with existing utilization of person NSAIDs with regard to earlier use of any NSAID. We also believed the chances ratio associated with recent utilization of any NSAID, get redirected here in comparison with past utilization of any NSAID. Given the substantial amount of associations assessed in this analysis, we utilized the Bonferroni-Holm procedure21 to assess the effect of uncertainty as a result of various comparisons on the outcome ...
Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is using Eventbrite to organize 1 upcoming events. Check out Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium s events, learn more, or contact this organizer.
Objective To investigate the association between cigarette smoking and basal and squamous cell carcinomas (BCC and SCC) of the skin, a clinic-based case-control study was conducted in Tampa, FL.
In this paper some methodological problems particularly relevant to case-control studies of injury are illustrated by reference to previous childhood injury case-control studies. In contrast to studies of disease, where person time constitutes the observational experience of interest, in injury studies person time engaged in a particular activity to often more appropriate. The implications for the definition of the study base are discussed. The potential for hospital admission bias in injury case-control studies is considered along with potential strategies for avoiding it. The importance of errors in exposure measurement, including those arising from inappropriate induction time assumptions, are illustrated. Finally, the potential for bias resulting from the combination of etiologically unrelated injury outcomes into a single outcome measure is illustrated and discussed. ...
Aim: To evaluate the effect of different approaches to treatment of smoking as a potential confounder in an occupational study of lung cancer. Methods: Data were used from a case-control study on 956 men with lung cancer and 1253 population controls recruited in two northern Italian areas during 1990-1992. The risk of lung cancer associated with 11 selected job titles and eight selected industrial activities was estimated using seven different methods to treat smoking history. To evaluate the confounding effect of smoking, odds ratios obtained using the first six models were compared with estimates from the seventh and most complex model, in which cumulative tobacco consumption and time since cessation were considered. Results: Although crude odds ratios for some of the occupational categories were biased by up to 25%, such bias decreased to less than 10% when a simple model including smoking status (never, ex-, current) was used. Conclusions: In occupational studies on lung cancer risk, ...
Psychology Definition of EXPECTANCY CONTROL DESIGN: Design of an experiment where the experimenter expectancy effect occurs separately from the independent variable.
The inpatients medical record database 2005‐2015 of Sichuan provincial peoples hospital was examined. All individuals with a primary diagnosis of RA were included as cases, and those of osteoarthritis (OA) were included as controls, which consisted of the unmatched dataset. Then, RA cases and OA controls were matched by sex and age at 1:1 ratio, forming the matched dataset. The morbidity of CVD (including ischemia heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF), et al), stroke and arthrosclerosis were extracted from the database, so as the demographic data and comorbidities related to CVD. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the risk of CVD in RA adjusted for demographics and comorbidities using the unmatched dataset. Sensitivity analysis was conducted 1) considering interaction terms between RA and comorbidities, and 2) using multivariable conditional logistic regression for the matched dataset ...
Drinking and Smoking and Colorectal Cancer - A Population-Based Case-Control Study among NL Residents, 1999-2003. PhD student: Jinhui Zhao Supervisor: Peizhong Peter Wang Committee: Roy West and Sharon Buehler The Annual Colorectal Meeting, June 16-17, 2008, St Johns, NL. Background....
Epidemiological study of prostate cancer EPICAP: a population-based case-control study in France. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Folate-pathway gene polymorphisms have been implicated in several cancers and investigated inconclusively in relation to prostate cancer. We conducted a systematic review, which identified nine case-control studies (eight included, one excluded). We also included data from four genome-wide association studies and from a case-control study nested within the UK population-based Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment study. We investigated by meta-analysis the effects of eight polymorphisms: MTHFR C677T (rs1801133; 12 studies; 10,745 cases; 40,158 controls), MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131; 5 studies; 3,176 cases; 4,829 controls), MTR A2756G (rs1805087; 8 studies; 7,810 cases; 37,543 controls), MTRR A66G (rs1801394; 4 studies; 3,032 cases; 4,515 controls), MTHFD1 G1958A (rs2236225; 6 studies; 7,493 cases; 36,941 controls), SLC19A1/RFC1 G80A (rs1051266; 4 studies; 6,222 cases; 35,821 controls), SHMT1 C1420T (rs1979277; 2 studies; 2,689 cases; 4,110 controls), and FOLH1 T1561C (rs202676; 5 studies; 6,314 cases;
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the UK, accounting for a third of all female cancer cases, and the second most common cause of cancer death: in England in 2010, the age-standardised rate per 100,000 women-years was 125.7 for incidence and 24.3 for mortality; in addition, in situ breast cancer, that is Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS), was diagnosed at a rate of 18 per 100,000 women in 2010 (CRUK, Accessed 28 March 2013 [1]).. In the early nineties, meta-analyses of the randomised controlled trials (RCTs) confirmed the efficacy of mammographic screening for reducing primary breast cancer mortality, and led to the implementation of breast screening programmes in several regions of Europe. One of the most mature and comprehensive of those is the English National Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) which has been in place in England since 1988. A major issue to be addressed by the Department of Healths (England) Policy Research ...
Non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) is the third most rapidly increasing cancer in the United States. HIV-related NHL is responsible for some of the increase since the early 1980s. However, it cannot explain the steady increase in the incidence rates in earlier years, nor the entire increase shown recently. A possible role of environmental exposures is receiving attention. One possibility is that exposure to organochlorines (OCs) may be related to the occurrence of NHL. NCI is currently designing a large population-based case-control study to investigate this hypothesis further by analyzing OC levels in blood collected at the time of interview from cases of NHL and their matched controls. At the time of these interviews, cases in the main case-control study would most likely have already received chemotherapy. If chemotherapy changes the blood levels of OCs, this may lead to misclassification of exposure among cases and eventually to biased risk estimates. The purpose of this pilot study is to estimate ...
Unique level data from all databases were To start with collected into a pooled dataset and analysed by the use of a multivariable conditional logistic regression design.20 The attained odds ratio, with 95% assurance intervals, approximated the chance of healthcare facility admission for coronary heart failure related to present-day usage of person NSAIDs with regard to previous usage of any NSAID. We also estimated the odds ratio related to modern usage of any NSAID, compared with earlier use of any NSAID. Given the significant amount of associations assessed Within this analysis, we applied the Bonferroni-Holm procedure21 to evaluate the impact of uncertainty as a result of multiple comparisons on the final results ...
Person amount knowledge from all databases had been To start with gathered right into a pooled dataset and analysed by the use of a multivariable conditional logistic regression product.twenty The received odds ratio, with 95% self confidence intervals, estimated the potential risk of hospital admission for heart failure connected with existing utilization of specific NSAIDs with respect to earlier utilization of any NSAID. We also estimated the chances ratio linked to modern utilization of any NSAID, in contrast with earlier utilization of any NSAID. Specified the significant range of associations assessed In this particular analysis, we employed the Bonferroni-Holm procedure21 to assess the impact of uncertainty due to several comparisons on the outcome ...
CASTANO-VINYALS, Gemma y MCC-SPAIN STUDY GROUP et al. Population-based multicase-control study in common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain): rationale and study design. Gac Sanit [online]. 2015, vol.29, n.4, pp.308-315. ISSN 0213-9111. Introduction: We present the protocol of a large population-based case-control study of 5 common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain) that evaluates environmental exposures and genetic factors. Methods: Between 2008-2013, 10,183 persons aged 20-85 years were enrolled in 23 hospitals and primary care centres in 12 Spanish provinces including 1,115 cases of a new diagnosis of prostate cancer, 1,750 of breast cancer, 2,171 of colorectal cancer, 492 of gastro-oesophageal cancer, 554 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and 4,101 population-based controls matched by frequency to cases by age, sex and region of residence. Participation rates ranged from 57% (stomach cancer) to 87% (CLL cases) and from 30% to 77% in controls. ...
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of a mass screening program for stomach cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Nose town in Osaka, Japan. The case series consisted of all deaths from stomach cancer during the period 1969-1981 (54 in males and 37 in females). For each case, 3 controls of the same sex and from the same precinct as the case, and born within 5 years of the case birth-year, were selected at random from Nose town residents alive at the date of death of the relevant case. We then investigated whether each case and corresponding controls had ever had screening tests before the date of diagnosis of the case. From the matched analysis of the distribution of screening in case-control combination, the odds ratio of screened vs. unscreened among those who died from stomach cancer compared to those who did not was calculated as 0.595 (90% confidence interval: 0.338-1.045) among males and 0.382 (0.185-0.785) among females. When the screening tests conducted within 12 months of ...
Case-control studies are generally designed to investigate the effect of exposures on the risk of a disease. Detailed information on past exposures is collected at the time of study. However, only the cumulated value of the exposure at the index date is usually used in logistic regression. A weighted Cox (WC) model has been proposed to estimate the effects of time-dependent exposures. The weights depend on the age conditional probabilities to develop the disease in the source population. While the WC model provided more accurate estimates of the effect of time-dependent covariates than standard logistic regression, the robust sandwich variance estimates were lower than the empirical variance, resulting in a low coverage probability of confidence intervals. The objectives of the present study were to investigate through simulations a new variance estimator and to compare the estimates from the WC model and standard logistic regression for estimating the effects of correlated temporal aspects of exposure
Previous studies have provided limited support to the association between tobacco smoking and lymphomas with weak evidence of a dose-response relationship. We investigated the relationship between tobacco smoking and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) through logistic regression spline models. Data were derived from an Italian hospital-based case-control study (1999-2014), which enrolled 571 NHLs, 188 HLs, and 1004 cancer-free controls. Smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed through a validated questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Compared to never smokers, people smoking ≥15 cigarettes/day showed increased risks of both NHL (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.97) and HL (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.25, 4.87); the risk was particularly elevated for follicular NHL (OR = 2.43; 95% CI:1.31-4.51) and mixed cellularity HL (OR = 5.60, 95% CI: 1.31, 23.97). No excess risk
Aim Little is known about the acute effects of furosemide use on the risk of hip fracture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between furosemide use and acute risk of hip fracture in older people in Taiwan. Methods We carried out a retrospective nationwide case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. A total of 4523 older adults aged ≥65 years with newly diagnosed hip fracture from 2000 to 2013 were identified as the cases. Additionally, 4523 older adults aged ≥65 years without hip fracture were randomly selected as the controls. The cases and the controls were matched by sex, age, comorbidities, and index year and month of hip fracture diagnosis. Furosemide use was defined as current, recent or past if the furosemide prescription was filled ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Risk factors for explantation due to infection after sacral neuromodulation. T2 - a multicenter retrospective case-control study. AU - Myer, Emily N.B.. AU - Petrikovets, Andrey. AU - Slocum, Paul D.. AU - Lee, Toy Gee. AU - Carter-Brooks, Charelle M.. AU - Noor, Nabila. AU - Carlos, Daniela M.. AU - Wu, Emily. AU - Van Eck, Kathryn. AU - Fashokun, Tola B.. AU - Yurteri-Kaplan, Ladin. AU - Chen, Chi Chiung Grace. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Background: Sacral neuromodulation is an effective therapy for overactive bladder, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. Infection after sacral neurostimulation is costly and burdensome. Determining optimal perioperative management strategies to reduce the risk of infection is important to reduce this burden. Objective: We sought to identify risk factors associated with sacral neurostimulator infection requiring explantation, to estimate the incidence of infection requiring explantation, and identify associated microbial pathogens. ...
Obesity, a major risk factor for endometrial cancer, is a low-grade inflammatory state characterized by elevated concentrations of cytokines and acute phase reactants. The current study had two aims: first to investigate the associations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), and IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra) with endometrial cancer risk and second to examine to which extent these markers can influence the association between obesity and endometrial cancer. We conducted a case-control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, which comprised 305 incident cases of endometrial cancer and 574 matched controls. CRP, IL6, and IL1Ra were measured in prospectively collected blood specimens by immunoassays. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided, and P values |0.05 were considered statistically significant. We observed a significant increase in risk of endometrial cancer with elevated levels of CRP
BACKGROUND: An association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and lung cancer risk has been suggested. To evaluate this possible association better, researchers need more precise estimates of risk, the relative contribution of different sources of ETS, and the effect of ETS exposure on different histologic types of lung cancer. To address these issues, we have conducted a case-control study of lung cancer and exposure to ETS in 12 centers from seven European countries. METHODS: A total of 650 patients with lung cancer and 1542 control subjects up to 74 years of age were interviewed about exposure to ETS. Neither case subjects nor control subjects had smoked more than 400 cigarettes in their lifetime. RESULTS: ETS exposure during childhood was not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio [OR] for ever exposure = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.64-0.96). The OR for ever exposure to spousal ETS was 1.16 (95% CI = 0.93-1.44). No clear dose-response relationship
We have carried out a pilot case-control study of childhood leukaemia and exposure to benzene assessed by repeated individual measurements made on average 2 years after diagnosis. The pilot study included side-investigations aimed at evaluating the performance of two biological indicators of benzene exposure in children, at estimating amount and direction of a possible participation bias and at assessing the relation between estimated exposures to benzene and ELF magnetic fields.. Owing to the relatively low incidence of childhood cancers (10-15 for 100 000 person-years in the 0-14 year range in most industrialised countries), the case-control approach is the design of choice for analytical epidemiological studies about potential risk factors for these diseases. Such a study design, however, is inherently prone to measurement errors stemming from the retrospective reconstruction of the exposures of interest, and to differential participation leading to control samples not being representative of ...
Improved medical care and advances in surgical techniques have increased life expectancy for children with complex CHD, but developmental delays, poorer academic achievement and behavior, and neurological morbidity remain a challenge.18,19 Stroke is a potentially preventable factor that may contribute to worsened neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our study found that CHD is strongly associated with childhood stroke, with a 19-fold increased risk of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke in children between the ages of 29 days and 20 years.. We found that the children with cardiac surgery for CHD were at the greatest risk for stroke. Pediatric heart surgery, while life-saving, is complicated by a high proportion of thrombotic events20 and has been associated with a higher risk of delayed development and neurological abnormalities.18,21 Our study included only children with symptomatic strokes, but many of the radiographically identified perioperative infarcts in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dietary fatty acids and colorectal cancer. T2 - A case-control study. AU - Theodoratou, Evropi. AU - McNeill, Geraldine. AU - Cetnarskyj, Roseanne. AU - Farrington, Susan M.. AU - Tenesa, Albert. AU - Barnetson, Rebecca. AU - Porteous, Mary. AU - Dunlop, Malcolm. AU - Campbell, Harry. PY - 2007/7/15. Y1 - 2007/7/15. N2 - Fatty acid effects on colorectal cancer risk were examined in a national prospective case-control study in Scotland (1999-2006), including 1,455 incident cases and 1,455 matched controls. Three conditional logistic regression models adjusted for energy (residual method) and for other risk factors were applied in the whole sample and were stratified by sex, cancer site, age, and tumor staging. Total and trans-monounsatu rated fatty acids and palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids were dose-dependently associated with colorectal cancer risk, but these effects did not persist after further energy adjustment. Significant dose-dependent reductions in risk were associated ...
Background: Bricklayers may be at increased risk of lung cancer, although a firm association has not been established. We examined this association within the EAGLE (Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology) study, a population-based case-control study conducted in Italy between 2002 and 2005. Methods: For men in selected occupations in the construction sector we calculated smoking-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). For bricklayers we estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the attributable community risk (ACR). Results: We found increased lung cancer risk for bricklayers (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.12-2.21; 147 cases, 81 controls). The PAF was 3.9% (95% CI 0.7-7.0), corresponding to an ACR of 4.1 cases annually per 100,000 men (95% CI 0.7-7.3) in the whole community. Among bricklayers, there were increased risks for squamous cell (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.32-3.13, 56 exposed cases) and small cell carcinomas (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.29-4.07, 21 exposed cases), ...
Because aggregation of cancers at different sites can occur in families, cancer could be considered as a broad phenotype with shared genetic factors. Here, we report results from a multi-centre case-control study of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with particular emphasis on a history of cancer in first-degree relatives and the risk of lung cancer. From 2002 to 2006, 733 NSCLC patients treated surgically were recruited in 8 European countries and matched to 1312 controls, by centre, sex and age. We used multivariate conditional logistic regression models to test the association between a history of cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of NSCLC. A family history of lung cancer was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for early-onset (54years or younger) NSCLC of 4.72 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.02-21.90). A family history of gastric cancer was associated with an OR for NSCLC of 1.82 (95% CI=1.08-3.06) and for late-onset (55years or older) NSCLC of 2.92 (95% CI=1.10-7.75). Our findings provide
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrinology disease with heterogeneous phenotype. Environmental factors are thought to be involved in the development of PCOS. The present study aimed to explore the potential environmental risk factors of PCOS. A cross-sectional study and stratified population-based case-control study were carried out. Pre-designed questionnaires were prepared, including questions about medication history, contact history of endocrine disruptors (EDs), environment and habituation. Fasting blood was collected for measurement of sex hormone, glucose and insulin. Matched logistic regression analysis was used to find the potential independent risk factor of PCOS. One thousand eight hundred fifty-four participants (aged 12-44 years) were analyzed in the cross-sectional investigation. One hundred sixty-nine PCOS patients and 338 matched controls were compared. PCOS patients were more frequent than controls in eating plastic-packaged food (p=0.001), contacting
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regular analgesic use and risk of endometrial cancer. AU - Moysich, Kirsten B.. AU - Baker, Julie A.. AU - Rodabaugh, Kerry J.. AU - Villella, Jeannine A.. PY - 2005/12. Y1 - 2005/12. N2 - Background: Analgesic use has been implicated in the chemoprevention of a number of solid tumors, but thus far, no previous research has focused on the role of aspirin in endometrial cancer etiology. Methods: We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 427 women with primary, incident endometrial cancer, and 427 age- and residence-matched controls without benign or malignant neoplasms. All participants received medical services at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY, and completed a comprehensive epidemiologic questionnaire. Women who reported analgesic use at least once a week for at least 6 months were classified as regular users and served as the reference group throughout the analyses. We used unconditional logistic regression analyses to compute crude and adjusted odds ...
DISCUSSION. The current study shows that in comparison to controls (age-matched normal and with malignancy), the prevalence of overall hypothyroidism (subclinical and clinical) and autoimmunity was not higher in BC patients, although the prevalence of clinical hypothyroidism remained significantly high. BC patients with thyroid dysfunctions and autoimmunity had significantly smaller tumors than those without dysfunction and autoimmunity. In comparison to basal values, mean fT4 was higher and TSH was lower after chemotherapy but after one year of follow-up, the reverse trend was noted, i.e., lower fT4 and higher TSH than the respective values at baseline.. The findings of a significantly high prevalence of clinical hypothyroidism and significantly smaller tumors in BC patients seem related. This can partly be explained by the fact that the patients with self-reported hypothyroidism were already under medical care and were perhaps more aware to seek early consultation for breast lumps, which are ...
Globally, under-nutrition accounts for | 3 million deaths annually among children | 5 years, with Kenya having ~ 35,000 deaths. This study aimed to identify factors associated with malnutrition in children aged | 5 years in western Kenya. We conducted a hospital-based unmatched case-control study between May and June 2017. Cases were defined as children aged 6-59 months with either z-score for weight-for-height ≤ −2SD or ≥ +2SD; weight-for-age ≤ −2SD or ≥ +2SD; or height-for-age ≤ −2SD. Controls were children aged 6-59 months with age-appropriate anthropometric measurements. Cases were consecutively recruited while systematic random sampling was used to select controls. Data from interviews and clinical records were collected and entered into Epi-Info, which was used to run unconditional logistic regression analyses. A total of 94 cases and 281 controls were recruited. Of the cases, 84% (79/94) were under-nourished. Mother not having attended ante-natal clinic (OR = 7.9; 95% CI: 1.5-41.2
The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on esophageal cancer (EC) has never been explored in Spain where black tobacco and wine consumptions are quite prevalent. We estimated the independent effect of different alcoholic beverages and type of tobacco smoking on the risk of EC and its main histological cell type (squamous cell carcinoma) in a hospital-based case-control study in a Mediterranean area of Spain. We only included incident cases with histologically confirmed EC (n = 202). Controls were frequency-matched to cases by age, sex and province (n = 455). Information on risk factors was elicited by trained interviewers using structured questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were strong and independent risk factors for esophageal cancer. Alcohol was a potent risk factor with a clear dose-response relationship, particularly for esophageal squamous-cell cancer. Compared to
Results from the majority of studies show little association between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk, a finding that has not been demonstrated in a wider European population, however. The authors examined whether vitamin D concentrations were associated with prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1994-2000). Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured in 652 prostate cancer cases matched to 752 controls from 7 European countries after a median follow-up time of 4.1 years. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios for prostate cancer risk in relation to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D after standardizing for month of blood collection and adjusting for covariates. No significant association was found between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of prostate cancer (highest vs. lowest quintile: odds ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.88, 1.88; P for
Background: Studies have linked asthma death to either increased or decreased use of medical services. Methods: A population based case-control study of asthma deaths in 1994-8 was performed in 22 English, six Scottish, and five Welsh health authorities/boards. All 681 subjects who died were under the age of 65 years with asthma in Part I on the death certificates. After exclusions, 532 hospital controls were matched to 532 cases for age, district, and date of asthma admission/death. Data were extracted blind from primary care records. Results: The median age of the subjects who died was 53 years; 60% of cases and 64% of controls were female. There was little difference in outpatient attendance (55% and 55%), hospital admission for asthma (51 % and 54%), and median inpatient days (20 days and 15 days) in the previous 5 years. After mutual adjustment and adjustment for sex, using conditional logistic regression, three variables were independently associated with asthma death: fewer general ...
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22 Aug 2014 In the Clinical Studies lecture we will use pdf files that cover the generally accepted be using PowerPoint presentations and the pdf files of these of products, pharmacovigilance, (cohorts- vs. case-control-studies).8. März 2016 accounting grade 10 case study term 3 essay lessons nature australian essay writing case control and cohort studies differences ppt Establishing Causality Case-Control Studies Cohort Studies Experimental Designs Summary Multiple Choice Questions PART SIX: INTRODUCTION TO DATA Two nested case-control studies in a prospective cohort of 790 euthyroid women who were 1st or 2nd degree relatives of AITD patients. Follow-up was five year, conflicting perspectives essay ted hughes Advantages and disadvantages of observational and experimental studies for diabetes research Sarah Wild, University of Edinburgh BIRO Academy 2nd Residential …Jul 23, 2006 · Early case-control studies suggesting that patients with Parkinson disease (PD) are less likely to be smokers ...
Variants in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) could be associated with type 2 diabetes because ATP plays a critical role in the production and release of insulin. Diabetes can be precipitated both by mtDNA mutations and by exposure to mitochondrial poisons. The risk of inheriting diabetes from an affected mother is greater than that from an affected father, but this is not explained by maternally inherited diabetes and/or deafness (MIDD) caused by the 3243G:C mtDNA point mutation, which accounts for less than 0.5% of cases of diabetes. A common mtDNA variant (the 16189 variant) is positively correlated with blood fasting insulin, but there are no definitive studies demonstrating that it is associated with diabetes. We demonstrated a significant association between the 16189 variant and type 2 diabetes in a population-based case-control study in Cambridgeshire, UK (n=932, odds ratio=1.61 (1.0-2.7, P = 0.048), which was greatly magnified in individuals with a family history of diabetes from the fathers side
Risk of knee osteoarthritis (OA) was assessed in a population-based case-control study of Japanese men. The study covered three health districts in Wakayama and Osaka prefectures, Japan. Subjects were male individuals |or=45 years old diagnosed radiographically with knee OA, and who did not display any established causes of secondary OA. Controls selected randomly from the general population were individually matched to cases for age, sex, and residential district. Subjects were interviewed using structured questionnaires to determine medical history, physical activity, socio-economic factors, and occupation. Interviews were obtained from 37 cases and 37 controls. In univariate analysis, heaviest weight in the past and physical work such as factory, construction, agricultural, or fishery work as the principal occupation significantly raised the risk of male knee OA (P|0.05). Odds ratios (OR) were determined using conditional logistic regression analysis mutually adjusted for potential risk factors using
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinicopathological features and prognosis of pregnancy associated breast cancer - A matched case control study. AU - Madaras, Lilla. AU - Kovács, Kristóf Attila. AU - Szász, Attila Marcell. AU - Kenessey, István. AU - Tokés, Anna Mária. AU - Székely, Borbála. AU - Baranyák, Zsuzsanna. AU - Kiss, Orsolya. AU - Dank, Magdolna. AU - Kulka, Janina. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. N2 - Pregnancy Associated Breast Cancer (PABC) manifests during pregnancy or within a year following delivery. We sought to investigate differences in management, outcome, clinical, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) characteristics of PABC and matched controls in a retrospective case control study. PABC and control patients were selected from breast cancer cases of women ≤45 years, diagnosed in the 2nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary between 1998 and 2012. Histopathology information on tumor type, grade, size, T, N, lympho-vascular invasion (LVI), ...
Mattioli, Stefano and Baldasseroni, Alberto and Bovenzi, Massimo and Curti, Stefania and Cooke, Robin M. T. and Campo, Giuseppe and Barbieri, Pietro G. and Ghersi, Rinaldo and Broccoli, Marco and Cancellieri, Maria Pia and Colao, Anna Maria and DellOmo, Marco and Fateh-Moghadam, Pirous and Franceschini, Flavia and Fucksia, Serenella and Galli, Paolo and Gobba, Fabriziomaria and Lucchini, Roberto and Mandes, Anna and Marras, Teresa and Sgarrella, Carla and Borghesi, Stefano and Fierro, Mauro and Zanardi, Francesca and Mancini, Gianpiero and Violante, Francesco S. (2009) Risk factors for operated carpal tunnel syndrome: a multicenter population-based case-control study. ...
A retrospective case-control study of patients who underwent femtosecond LASIK surgery was carried out. A review of the preoperative data of the patients included patient demographics, visual acuity, manifest refraction, pupil size, keratometry, white-to-white (WTW) corneal diameter and central corneal thickness. The intraoperative data included the flap parameters (diameter, thickness, hinge position, and tunnel length), docking times, and number and size of gas bubbles. Univariate, and multivariate conditional logistic regression were used to determine the risk factors for AC gas bubbles during the use of a femtosecond laser for flap creation, using the eye as the unit of analysis ...
The aim of this thesis was to investigate the prognostic role of the proliferation markers cyclin B1 and Phosphorylated Histone 3 (PPH3) in breast cancer (BC).. In paper I we used an experimental study design, we compared women dying early from their BC with women free from relapse more than eight years after initial diagnosis. All women had stage I, node-negative and hormone receptor positive disease. None had received adjuvant chemotherapy. We found that low-risk node negative patients with high expression of cyclin B1 had a significantly worse outcome than patients with low expression of cyclin B1.. In paper II a population-based case control study was performed to further investigate the prognostic value of cyclin B1. One hundred and ninety women who died from BC were defined as cases and 190 women alive at the time for the corresponding cases death were defined as controls. Inclusion criteria were tumor size 50 mm, no lymph node metastases, and no adjuvant chemotherapy. Two investigators ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Familial pancreatic cancer. T2 - Clinicopathologic study of 18 nuclear families. AU - Lynch, H. T.. AU - Fitzsimmons, M. L.. AU - Smyrk, T. C.. AU - Lanspa, S. J.. AU - Watson, P.. AU - McClellan, J.. AU - Lynch, J. F.. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. N2 - Host factors have been given scant attention in the search for etiology in pancreatic cancer. Several anecdotal reports have identified its familial clustering, whereas a recent population-based case/control study has shown that 6.7% of cases and 0.7% of controls had positive family histories of this disease (p , 0.001). Forty-seven individuals with pancreatic cancer from 18 families were identified from a review of the medical records of all kindreds on file at our Hereditary Cancer Institute. The observed sex ratio, age of onset, histologic type, and survival were comparable to published data on unselected patients. We did not identify any pattern of extra-pancreatic cancer association. A serious limitation of our study is its ...
EAGLE is a large population-based case-control study designed and conducted to investigate the genetic and environmental determinants of lung cancer and smoking persistence using an integrative approach that allows combined analysis of genetic, environmental, clinical, and behavioral data. The study includes over 2,000 incident lung cancer cases, both males and females of Italian nationality, ages 35 to 79 years old, with verified lung cancer of any histological type, and over 2,000 healthy population-based controls matched to cases by age, gender, and residence. The participation rate was high: 85% and 73% in cases and controls, respectively. Lung cancer cases were enrolled from 13 hospitals within the Lombardy region of Italy. The healthy controls were randomly selected from the same residential area of the lung cancer cases. The study setting, the Lombardy region of Italy, is served by a network of modern hospitals, medical schools, and a regional health service. Within the Lombardy region, ...
Although an association between oral estrogens and endometrial cancer has been reported, at a disputed magnitude of risk, in nine case-control studies (1-9), no data are available on the relation between oral contraceptives and the subsequent occurrence of endometrial cancer. As part of a large case-control investigation of the association between estrogens and endometrial cancer (9), we have collected and analyzed data about the use of various estrogens preparations, as noted during personal interviews of all the available cases and controls.. Groups were chosen with two different methods of selection for cases and controls. In the conventional method of selection, ...
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The relationship between an index of dietary vitamin A and cancer risk at 25 sites was assessed in retrospective case-control studies. Common control groups for males and females were used in all analyses. Relative risk estimates were derived from multiple logistic regression analyses that controlle …
If you are a woman and have been using any type of hormones to ease menopause symptoms, you could be upping breast cancer risk. Recent research shows that the use of these hormones over a long period of time ignites a minor increase in breast cancer risk.. Tracking the health of nearly 60,000 nurses, the recent study found that 10 years or more of hormone use was enough to raise breast cancer risk, although it is recommended that the lowest dose possible be used for the shortest amount of time possible. The research is surprising to many as some women who were taking estrogen alone were thought to have a decreased chance of developing breast cancer. And it is already known that taking pills combining estrogen and progestin - the most common type of hormone therapy - can increase breast cancer risk.. ...
Stillbirth has been largely understudied in the U.S., says Dr. Lauren Christiansen-Lindquist, research assistant professor and Deputy Director of Emorys Center of Excellence in Maternal and Child Health, Education, Science, and Practice. We have been doing a lot of work to bring it out of the shadows. Christiansen-Lindquist used data from a large population-based case control study about stillbirth while writing her dissertation as a PhD student at Rollins.. [From those data] we learned a lot of great things about what factors are associated with stillbirth, but I pulled back even further to look at vital records and to see how well we are reporting stillbirths. The answer is, not very well. Post graduation, Christiansen-Lindquist has continued work in this area and is looking for ways to collect better data.. I conducted a pilot study to expand an existing surveillance system that surveys women who have had a recent live birth to see if we could ask questions of women [who had a ...
PURPOSE. We explored associations between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and genetic variants of 10 genes in a nationwide Chinese population.. METHODS. In this multicenter case-control study, 535 AMD patients and 469 controls were recruited from 16 centers that spread from the north to the south of China. All participants underwent comprehensive eye examinations, and 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 10 genes were selected. DNA samples were genotyped with the MassArray system. The effect of the genotypes and haplotypes on AMD was assessed with logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, long-term residence, and family origin.. RESULTS. In our study, 11 SNPs in complement H (CFH), 2 in age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2), and 2 in high-temperature requirement factor A1 (HTRA1) were associated significantly with AMD. They were rs551397, rs800292, rs1329424, rs1061170, rs10801555, rs12124794, rs10733086, rs10737680, rs2274700, rs1410996, and rs380390 in CFH; ...
Antibiotic-induced disturbances of the human microbiota have been implicated in the development of chronic autoimmune conditions. This study aimed to assess whether antibiotic use is associated with the onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A nested case-control study was conducted utilising data from the primary care Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Patients with an incident diagnosis of RA were identified (1995-2017). Each case was matched on age, gender, and general practice to ≥ 5 controls without RA. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine previous antibiotic prescriptions and RA onset after controlling for confounding factors. We identified 22,677 cases of RA, matched to 90,013 controls, with a median follow-up of 10 years before RA diagnosis. The odds of developing RA were 60% higher in those exposed to antibiotics than in those not exposed (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.51-1.68). A dose- or frequency-dependent association was observed between the number of previous antibiotic
Leptin is an adipokine involved in regulating energy balance, which has been identified as a potential biologic link in the development of obesity-associated cancers, such as pancreatic cancer. In this prospective, nested case-control study of 470 cases and 1,094 controls from five U.S. cohorts, we used conditional logistic regression to evaluate pancreatic cancer risk by prediagnostic plasma leptin, adjusting for race/ethnicity, diabetes, body mass index, physical activity, plasma C-peptide, adiponectin, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Because of known differences in leptin levels by gender, analyses were conducted separately for men and women. We also evaluated associations between 32 tagging SNPs in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene and pancreatic cancer risk. Leptin levels were higher in female versus male control participants (median, 20.8 vs. 6.7 ng/mL; P , 0.0001). Among men, plasma leptin was positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk and those in the top quintile had a ...
Purpose: Evolving therapies have improved the prognoses of patients with breast cancer; and currently, the number of long-term survivors is continuously increasing. However, these patients are at increased risk of developing a second cancer. Thus, late side effects are becoming an important issue. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether patient and tumor characteristics, and treatment type correlate with secondary tumor risk. Methods: This case-control study included 305 patients with a diagnosed second malignancy after almost 6 months after the diagnosis of primary breast cancer and 1,525 controls (ratio 1:5 of cases to controls) from a population-based cohort of 6,325 women. The control patients were randomly selected from the cohort and matched to the cases according to age at diagnosis, calendar period of diagnosis, disease stage, and time of follow-up. Results: BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ status, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were ...
Background: Although plasma estrogen and androgen levels are significantly positively associated with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, it is unknown how long a single blood hormone measure can predict subsequent breast cancer risk as most prior studies have included less than 10 years of follow-up. If including hormone levels into current breast cancer risk prediction models improves discriminative ability, evaluating how the hormone/breast cancer association varies by years since blood collection can help determine the most relevant time period for hormone measures. In addition, whether the associations vary by tumor hormone receptor status is unclear.. Methods: We conducted a prospective nested case-control analysis within the Nurses Health Study cohort. Blood samples were collected in 1989-1990 and then in 2000-2002. Among eligible postmenopausal women not using postmenopausal hormones (PMH) at blood collection, 796 cases were diagnosed through June, 2010. Two control subjects (n=1,583) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cognitive impairment in fibromyalgia. T2 - A meta-analysis of case-control studies. AU - Wu, Yu Lin. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. AU - Fang, Su Chen. AU - Ko, Ling Hsin. AU - Tsai, Pei Shan. PY - 2018/6/1. Y1 - 2018/6/1. N2 - Objective Cognitive dysfunction has been reported in individuals with fibromyalgia. However, findings regarding cognitive function examined using neuropsychological tests have been inconsistent. The aim of the study was to determine domain-specific cognitive impairment in patients with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis that systematically searched six databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) for articles published before September 2017. Results Twenty-three case-control studies with a total of 2096 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Cognitive function was significantly lower (g = 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60-1.15) in individuals with fibromyalgia than in ...
There are differences in antenatal care (ANC) utilization between urban and rural areas of Pakistan. Although multiple factors have been studied affecting the utilization of general health care services, the effect of road network distance particularly on the utilization of ANC has not been assessed. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association between road network distance from a health care facility and utilization of the ANC among women of reproductive age in Thatta Pakistan. A community-based case-control study was conducted in district Thatta, Pakistan. Women who did not utilize ANC services during their last pregnancy were considered as cases, while controls were the women who utilized ANC services during their last pregnancy. Questions related to socio-demographic, access-related factors and utilization of ANC were asked from women. Road network distance was calculated from the womens home to the health care facility providing ANC services. Logistic regression analysis was performed.
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OBJECTIVES: To assess the prior exposure to colorectal examinations between colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and matched control participants to estimate the effect of these examinations on the development of CRC and to obtain insight into the background incidence of colorectal examinations. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted within the Dutch Integrated Primary Care Information database over the period 1996-2005. All incident CRC cases were matched with up to 18 controls (n=7,790) for age, sex, index date (date of CRC diagnosis) and follow-up before diagnosis. All colorectal examinations performed in symptomatic participants in the period 0.5-5 years before index date were considered in the analyses. RESULTS: Within the source population of 457 024 persons, we identified 594 incident cases of CRC. In the period 0.5-5 years before index date 2.9% (17 of 594) of the CRC cases had undergone colorectal examinations, compared with 4.4% (346 of 7790) in the control population ...
Abstract Background Although obesity is a well-studied risk factor for diabetes, there remains an interest in whether increasing body mass index (BMI), high BMI per se, or both are the actual risk factors for diabetes. The present study aimed to retrospectively compare BMI trajectories of individuals with and without diabetes in a case-control design and to assess whether increasing BMI alone would be a risk factor. Methods Using comprehensive health check-up data measured over ten years, we conducted a case-control study and graphically drew the trajectories of BMIs among diabetic patients and healthy subjects, based on coefficients in fitted linear mixed-effects models. Patient group was matched with healthy control group at the onset of diabetes with an optimal matching method in a 1:10 ratio. Simple fixed-effects models assessed the differences in increasing BMIs over 10 years between patient and control groups. Results At the time of matching, the mean ages in male patients and controls ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A longitudinal case-control study on goals in adolescents with cancer. AU - Sulkers, Esther. AU - Janse, Moniek. AU - Brinksma, Aeltsje. AU - Roodbol, Petrie F.. AU - Kamps, Willem A.. AU - Tissing, Wim J. E.. AU - Sanderman, Robbert. AU - Fleer, Joke. PY - 2015/9/2. Y1 - 2015/9/2. N2 - Objective: This study examined whether: (1) the goals of adolescents with cancer at 3months post-diagnosis (T1) and healthy peers differed in terms of content, valuation, and abstraction level, (2) the content, valuation and abstraction level of the goals of the adolescents with cancer differed between 3 and 12months post-diagnosis (T2).Methods: Thirty-three adolescents with cancer and 66 matched controls completed the Personal Project Analysis Inventory. After nine months, the adolescents with cancer completed the measure again.Results: Compared to controls, adolescents with cancer at 3months post-diagnosis (T1) reported more intrinsic than extrinsic goals, appraised intrinsic goals as more ...
Although case-control studies are suitable for assessing gene-environment interactions, choosing appropriate control subjects is a valid concern in these studies. The authors review three nontraditional study designs that do not include a control group : 1 the case-only study, 2 the case-parental control study, and 3 the affected relative-pair...
... is of particular concern in retrospective studies that use a case-control design to investigate the etiology of a ... "Bias in case-control studies. A review". Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 44 (3): 179-86. doi:10.1136/jech.44.3. ... "Case-control studies: research in reverse" (PDF). Lancet. 359 (9304): 431-4. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07605-5. PMID 11844534. ... a multicenter randomized blinded noninferiority study of 1992 cases (pivotal study)". American Journal of Surgical Pathology. ...
Gusev, E; Boiko, A; Lauer, K; Riise, T; Deomina, T (1996). "Environmental risk factors in MS: A case-control study in Moscow". ... Wolfson, C; Granieri, E; Lauer, K (1997). "Case-control studies in multiple sclerosis". Neurology. 49 (2 Suppl 2): S5-14. doi: ... "A questionnaire for multinational case-control studies of environmental risk factors in multiple sclerosis (EnvIMS-Q)". Acta ... Dr Lauer is also one of the authors of a reference study of the cost of MS in Europe and of several publications dealing with ...
"Control methods and case studies" (PDF). Department of the Environment and Energy. Retrieved 2017-03-25. Lalith Gunasekera, ... There are currently no studies that have looked at the biological control of A. glabra within Australia. Without studies, any ... Options for the control of the A. glabra include fire, chemical, and mechanical controls including combinations of the three ... A 2008 study found that A. glabra seeds can withstand floating in salt water and fresh water for up to 12 months. About 38% of ...
Case-control study. / Sequeira, H; Howlin, P; Hollins, S.In: British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 183, No. NOV., 11.2003, p. 451 ... The causes of developmental disabilities are varied and remain unknown in a large proportion of cases. Even in cases of known ... Studies have been done testing specific scenarios on how what is the most beneficial way to educate people. Interventions are a ... This is especially the case where the services deliver lifestyles and ways of working that are centered on what suits the ...
Case-control study". British Journal of Psychiatry. 183 (5): 451-456. doi:10.1192/bjp.183.5.451. PMID 14594922. Ryan, Ruth; ... with a higher incidence of psychiatric and behavioural disorder in people with learning disabilities in a case-control study. ... There are many known cases in which the disabled have been abused by staff of a care institution, such as the case revealed in ... In a clinical study it was found that the physicians would provide poor quality of care to individuals with disabilities. They ...
Haux J, Klepp O, Spigset O, Tretli S (2001). "Digitoxin medication and cancer; case control and internal dose-response studies ... While several controlled trials have shown digoxin to be effective in a proportion of patients treated for heart failure, the ...
17 April 2013). Robust control systems : theory and case studies. Berlin. pp. 114-116. ISBN 978-3-662-09775-5. OCLC 861706617. ... In control theory, given any transfer function, any state-space model that is both controllable and observable and has the same ... Linear State-Space Control Systems, John Wiley & Sons, p. 185, ISBN 9780471735557. Tangirala, Arun K. (2015), Principles of ...
Cole P, MacMahon B (November 1971). "Attributable risk percent in case-control studies". British Journal of Preventive & Social ... In such case A F p = ∑ i P i R R i − ∑ i P i ′ R R i ∑ i P i R R i {\displaystyle AF_{p}={\frac {\sum _{i}P_{i}RR_{i}-\sum _{i} ... In such case, removal of the risk factor will greatly reduce the number of the incidents in the population. The values of AFp ... It is used when an exposure increases the risk, as opposed to reducing it, in which case its symmetrical notion is preventable ...
Cole P, MacMahon B (November 1971). "Attributable risk percent in case-control studies". Br J Prev Soc Med. 25 (4): 242-4. doi: ... It is used when an exposure increases the risk, as opposed to reducing it, in which case its symmetrical notion is preventable ...
May 1995). "Systemic lupus erythematosus: a case-control epidemiologic study in Japan". Int J Dermatol. 34 (5): 333-7. doi: ... a case-control study". Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57 (8): 451-5. doi:10.1136/ard.57.8.451. PMC 1752721. PMID 9797548. Källberg H, ... A study in the United Kingdom found that alcohol causes about 4% of cancer cases in the UK (12,500 cases per year). The Centers ... Results from two Scandinavian case-control studies". Ann. Rheum. Dis. 68 (2): 222-7. doi:10.1136/ard.2007.086314. PMC 2937278. ...
A case-control study". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 72 (3): 150-58. doi:10.1159/000069731. PMID 12707482. S2CID 22105282. ... About 10% of cases are segmental, meaning they mostly involve one side of the body; and in these cases, the affected area of ... Most cases are non-segmental, meaning they affect both sides; and in these cases, the affected area of the skin typically ... Extreme cases of vitiligo, to the extent that little pigmented skin remains, are referred to as vitiligo universalis. NSV can ...
"Why does family homelessness occur? A case-control study." American Journal of Public Health 78, no. 7 (1988): 783-788. Shinn, ... It has been studied that most homeless families stay in homeless shelters for only a short time, and when they exit they ... A study in 2018[specify] projected a total of 56,342 family households were recognized as homeless. Roughly 16,390 of these ... According to several studies conducted by various academic journals, children who experience homelessness can often have ...
A case control study". Journal of Neural Transmission. 115 (1): 135-8. doi:10.1007/s00702-007-0798-1. PMID 17768593. S2CID ... Consistent with these studies, it has been hypothesized that ASD and SCZ thus may be located at the extreme ends of a cognitive ... Indeed, it has been suggested that maternally imprinted cases of Prader-Willi syndrome have an elevated autism prevalence ... While Crespi and Badcock have claimed neuroimaging studies lend support to the imprinted brain hypothesis, other neuroimaging ...
A case-control study". JAMA. 264 (5): 585-91. doi:10.1001/jama.264.5.585. PMID 2366297. Purification Program - Scientology ... Some apparently supportive studies have been published, but these lack control groups and have other scientific failings. ... No cases of radiation sickness have ever been reported in Utah, due to the low level of fallout involved, although some cases ... "in some cases lethal". Prof. Michael Ryan, a pharmacologist at University College Dublin, testified in a 2003 court case that ...
Application of Case-Crossover and Case-time-control study designs in analyses of time-varying predictors of T-cell homeostasis ... A case-control study of injuries due to the earthquake in Armenia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 70(2):251-257; ... A Case-Control Study in Armenia. Medical Principles and Practice 115, 2009 Armenian HK, Khatib R. Developing an Instrument of ... A Case Control Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 124:762 7;1986. Armenian HK, Saadeh FM, Armenian SL: Widowhood and ...
A case-control study". Acta Psychiatr Scand. 109 (4): 313-7, discussion 317-8. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2004.00293.x. PMID ... Although the studies conducted by these initiatives did not have control groups, their results were promising and became the ... Further UK studies have shown slightly more moderate rates of substance misuse among mentally ill individuals. One study found ... A study by Kessler et al. in the United States attempting to assess the prevalence of dual diagnosis found that 47% of clients ...
A case control study". Journal of Neural Transmission. 115 (1): 135-138. doi:10.1007/s00702-007-0798-1. PMID 17768593. S2CID ... IQ and the control group used. Several studies have reported associated motor problems that include poor muscle tone, poor ... high-quality studies are overall lacking. According to one study, 35% of people with Asperger syndrome would be affected by ... mental and interpersonal control and a need for control over one's environment which interferes with personal flexibility, ...
A case-control study". Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 110 (1): 83-91. doi:10.1160/TH13-02-0097. ISSN 0340-6245. PMID 23677493. ... CTEPH is an orphan disease with an estimated incidence of 5 cases per million, but it is likely that CTEPH is under-diagnosed ... The median age of patients at diagnosis is 63 years (there is a wide age range, but paediatric cases are rare), and both ... "Clinical Study to Assess the Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Macitentan in Subjects With Inoperable Chronic Thromboembolic ...
A case-control study". Archives of General Psychiatry. 46 (10): 914-8. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1989.01810100056011. PMID 2572206. ... In these cases NMS is not usually fatal. In earlier studies the mortality rates from NMS ranged from 20%-38%, but by 2009 ... No major studies have reported an explanation for the abnormal EEG, but it is likely also attributable to dopamine blockage ... However, recent studies suggest that the decrease in mortality may be the result of increased physician awareness and earlier ...
In genetic case-control studies, the frequency of alleles or genotypes is compared between the cases and controls. The cases ... Case control studies are a classical epidemiological tool. Case-control studies use subjects who already have a disease, trait ... If the case and control populations are not well matched for ethnicity or geographic origin then false positive association can ... One problem with the case-control design is that genotype and haplotype frequencies vary between ethnic or geographic ...
"Basic statistical analysis in genetic case-control studies". Nature Protocols. 6 (2): 121-33. doi:10.1038/nprot.2010.182. PMC ... More precisely, a study's defined significance level, denoted by α {\displaystyle \alpha } , is the probability of the study ... A study that is found to be statistically significant may not necessarily be practically significant. Effect size is a measure ... In other fields of scientific research such as genome-wide association studies, significance levels as low as 5×10−8 are not ...
... the ECTIM and PATHROS studies. Etude Cas-Témoins de l'Infarctus du Myocarde. Paris Thrombosis case-control Study". ... Study of 5 cases]". Journal Français d'Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie; Audiophonologie, Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale. 26 (9): 669-76. doi: ... Many of the studies so far have been performed in vitro, providing only a prediction of what may happen not a real-time ... Studies also show that the placement of the mutation in the TATA box sequence hinders the binding of TBP. For example, a ...
"Case Study: M25 Controlled Motorway". Department for Transport. Archived from the original on 6 August 2009. ... A study into the use of ATM on the M1, M4, M20 and M25 motorways was also announced, however the Department for Transport had ... A study conducted in the previous month found that more than half of motorists surveyed would not drive on a hard shoulder even ... The term controlled motorway is sometimes used for schemes that use variable speed limits without hard-shoulder running (for ...
Langan, Y.; Nashef, L.; Sander, J. W. (2005-04-12). "Case-control study of SUDEP". Neurology. 64 (7): 1131-1133. doi:10.1212/01 ... In most cases epilepsy surgery is only an option when the area of the brain that causes the seizures - the so-called epileptic ... In most cases, side effects only occur during activity of the stimulation (mostly every 3 to 5 minutes) and reduce over time. ... Several studies show that the modified Atkins diet produces a similar or slightly lower seizure reduction to the ketogenic diet ...
"Case Study - M25 Controlled Motorway". Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 26 September 2012. Wolmar, Christian (21 ... In some cases, such as the Communications Act 2003, it is used as a de facto reference to Greater London. The M25 almost ... The M25 has a number of pollution control valves along its length, which can shut off drainage in the event of a chemical or ... Rowe studied journalism while in prison and following release became investigative journalist for the BBC. In 1996, Kenneth ...
2005). "Can iridology detect susceptibility to cancer? A prospective case-controlled study". Journal of Alternative and ... The study also selected a group of people who did not have diseased gall bladders to act as a control. A group of five ... In conclusion, few controlled studies with masked evaluation of diagnostic validity have been published. None have found any ... The study conclusion was that "Iridology was of no value in diagnosing the cancers investigated in this study." In Canada and ...
Winzenrieth, Renaud; Dufour, Rémy; Pothuaud, Laurent; Hans, Didier (2009). "A Retrospective Case-Control Study Assessing the ... Case-Control Study". Journal of Clinical Densitometry. 12 (2): 170-6. doi:10.1016/j.jocd.2008.11.006. PMID 19181553. ... A Spanish case-control study". Osteoporosis International. 24 (3): 991-8. doi:10.1007/s00198-012-2008-8. PMID 22581295. Eller- ... All these studies have shown that TBS can be used as a clinical risk factor for osteoporotic fracture since it is reversible ( ...
Voight, B. F.; Pritchard, J. K. (2005). "Confounding from Cryptic Relatedness in Case-Control Association Studies". PLOS ... "Detecting Rare Variant Associations by Identity-by-Descent Mapping in Case-Control Studies". Genetics. 190 (4): 1521-1531. doi: ... was able to identify a potential susceptibility locus for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with genotype data of case-control ... "Population-based linkage analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar case-control cohorts identifies a potential susceptibility locus ...
This can act as a confounding factor in both case-control and genome-wide association studies, as well as in studies of genetic ... Voight BF, Pritchard JK (September 2005). "Confounding from cryptic relatedness in case-control association studies". PLOS ... Other approaches that have been developed to attempt to control for cryptic relatedness are the genomic control method and the ... In population genetics, cryptic relatedness occurs when individuals in a genetic association study are more closely related to ...
Evidence from a meta-analysis of case-control studies". International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 33 (2): e257-e263. doi: ... The authors concluded that randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are needed. A large study comparing placebo to an all rac-alpha- ... Observational studies that measure dietary intake and/or serum concentration, and experimental studies that ideally are ... Health Study II randomized controlled trial". JAMA. 300 (18): 2123-33. doi:10.1001/jama.2008.600. PMC 2586922. PMID 18997197. ...
In some cases the complex interactions between inhibitory and excitatory neurons can be simplified using mean field theory, ... Machens CK, Romo R, Brody CD (2005). "Flexible control of mutual inhibition: a neural model of two-interval discrimination". ... As a result, researchers that study large neural circuits typically represent each neuron and synapse with an artificially ... However, since the biologically plausible mathematical models formulated in neuroscience are in most cases too complex to be ...
In one typical case study, an adolescent with ADHD presented with highly abnormal QEEG readings and attentional scores on ... but one recent study investigated the efficacy of both NIR and PIR training against a QEEG only control group and found that, ... A four-year study of 100 chronic migraine sufferers found that after as few as six 30-minute training sessions, 90% of patients ... The myriad of studies exploring the potency of neurotherapy as a treatment for ASD have primarily involved EEG and QEEG, ...
... placebo-controlled study". J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 28 (12): 1707-15. doi:10.1111/jdv.12377. PMC 4263247. PMID 24605812.. ... in this case, they are bent). The term "cholan" denotes a particular steroid structure of 24 carbons, and the "24-oic acid" ... UDCA-PBC Study Group". N. Engl. J. Med. 324 (22): 1548-54. doi:10.1056/NEJM199105303242204. PMID 1674105.. ... The British-Italian Gallstone Study group". Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 15 (1): 123-8. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2036.2001.00853.x. PMID ...
... as was the case for the herbicide, cloransulam-methyl. [16] Publication of registration studies in the peer-reviewed literature ... Congress enacted major revisions to FIFRA in 1972 with the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act (FEPCA).[1] The 1947 law ... a b Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act, Pub.L. 92-516. Approved 1972-10-21. ... "7 USC Chapter 6 - INSECTICIDES AND ENVIRONMENTAL PESTICIDE CONTROL. Cornell University Law School - Legal Information Institute ...
In some cases, hair loss is gradual, without symptoms, and is unnoticed for long periods. In other cases, hair loss is ... Epidemiologic studies have not been performed to determine the incidence of cicatricial alopecias. In general, they are not ... Treatment is continued until the symptoms and signs of scalp inflammation are controlled, and progression of the condition has ... In some cases, progression is slow and there is always sufficient hair remaining to cover the affected scalp areas; in other ...
International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 494. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. JSTOR 2600793. Retrieved 10 April 2021. German " ... In many cases, this took several years while the King was held up by other tasks: frequently he first had to resolve conflicts ... As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control.[33] In the late 5th and early ... In the common case of a prince-bishop, this temporal territory (called a prince-bishopric) frequently overlapped with his often ...
... of cases in those of Chinese and Japanese descent, 60-80% of cases in those of European and African descent, and 100% of cases ... Blood sugar control. See also: Anti-diabetic medication. There are several classes of anti-diabetic medications available. ... Update to a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes". ... "World Journal of Clinical Cases. 3 (6): 504-9. doi:10.12998/wjcc.v3.i6.504. PMC 4468896. PMID 26090370.. ...
The Case of Posted Workers. Polish Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 18 (1), p. 94-106 ... In 1975, the Liberal government of Pierre Trudeau introduced mandatory price and wage controls. Under the new law, wages ... In case of Estonia this indicator is lower than in Latvia and Lithuania but stays stable average 7 percent from total number of ... "The Decline in Swedish Union Density since 2007", Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies (NJWLS) Vol. 1. No 1 (August 2011), pp ...
The first cases in Northern Ireland were confirmed at five sites in counties Down and Antrim on 16 November 2012.[50] By 4 ... The study has uncovered toxin genes and other genes that may be responsible for the virulence of the fungus. In the long term ... There are currently no effective strategies for managing the disease, and most countries which have tried to control its spread ... A Danish study found that substantial genetic variation between ash trees affected their level of susceptibility.[24] However, ...
There are many physiological mechanisms that control starting and stopping a meal. The control of food intake is a ... The study confirmed the tendency of obese individuals to overeat, but these findings applied only to snacks, not to meals. That ... If eating and drinking is not possible, as is often the case when recovering from surgery, alternatives are enteral[26] ... The hormone cholecystokinin is secreted by the duodenum, and it controls the rate at which the stomach is emptied.[23] This ...
She appeared as the female lead, Hilda Lake, niece of the murder victims, in The Kennel Murder Case (1933), co-starring with ... Nevertheless, she did not gain control of her salary until she was 26 years old, at which point her parents sued her for ... The Mary Astor Collection, historical website dedicated to the study of Mary Astor's work as an actress and author ... Astor settled the case by agreeing to pay her parents $100 a month. Otto Langhanke put Moorcrest up for auction in the early ...
... suggests a bottom-up form of regulation or control.[17][18][19] Recent studies have concluded that both "top-down" and "bottom- ... It is the case that the biomass of each trophic level decreases from the base of the chain to the top. This is because energy ... This has led to the concept or area of study known as cross-boundary subsidy.[59][60] "This leads to anomalies, such as food ... Most studies focus on the larger influences where the bulk of energy transfer occurs.[17] "These omissions and problems are ...
Study 035[edit]. The study's goal was to show the different effects of different antiviral treatments. 97 patients were ... In both cases, the drugs must be taken with plenty of water one or two hours after a meal. It is recommended that users drink ... September 1997). "A controlled trial of two nucleoside analogues plus indinavir in persons with human immunodeficiency virus ... Just like Study 035, patients couldn't be in the study if they had prior protease inhibitor treatment or lamivudine for more ...
These studies tend to have a variety of problems, such as small samples, various biases, poor research design, lack of controls ... In this case, the words balance and holism are often used alongside complementary or integrative, claiming to take into account ... Science-based medicine, with its emphasis on controlled study, proof, evidence, statistical significance and safety is being ... Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and allopathy", The Lancet, 366 (9487): 726-32, doi:10.1016/S0140 ...
INTERSNP - a software for genome-wide interaction analysis (GWIA) of case-control SNP data and analysis of quantitative traits ... "Clinical Genetics: A Self-Study Guide for Health Care Providers. University of South Dakota School of Medicine. Archived from ... Such expression QTLs (eQTLs) describe cis- and trans-controlling elements for the expression of often disease-associated genes. ... It may indicate that plant height is controlled by many genes of small effect, or by a few genes of large effect. ...
... had a thirst for power.[427] He was introspective,[428] self-effacing,[429] and displayed self-control.[429] He was ... Wessinger, Catherine (2000). Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence: Historical Cases. Syracuse University Press. p. 282. ... Clayton, Victoria: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, 1991.. *Ben Kiernan, "Social Cohesion in Revolutionary Cambodia", ... Cambodia was a monarchy, but the French colonial regime, not the king, was in political control.[11] Sâr's family had ...
Tests, cases, tests per capita, cases per capita by country. *Tests, cases, tests per capita, cases per capita by country ... Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (African Union). *Pasteur Institute (in Cambodia) ... COVID Symptom Study. *Test, Trace, Protect. *NHS Test and Trace. *Undercounting COVID-19 deaths ...
In some cases the mortgagee will waive the need for the mortgagor to carry homeowner's insurance if the value of the land ... One study of fires found that most were caused by heating incidents, although smoking was a risk factor for fatal fires.[16] ... Owner-controlled insurance program. *Property insurance. *Renters insurance. References[edit]. .mw-parser-output .reflist{font- ... In such a case even the total destruction of any buildings would not affect the ability of the lender to be able to foreclose ...
The studies included in the meta-analysis had durations of 2-12 months and the majority of studies lasted 2-3 months. Seene T ( ... In severe cases of muscular atrophy, the use of an anabolic steroid such as methandrostenolone may be administered to patients ... The meta-analysis showed greater muscle mass gain in the intervention groups compared with the control groups (standard mean ... Further studies are needed to determine the precise effects of HMB on muscle strength and physical function in older adults. ...
"Aerospace Control Engineering - Master - UiT". *^ Team, AU Web Development. "The Air University or AU is a public ... "Bachelor`s studies - RTU International Coorperation and Foreign Students Department".. *^ "University of Balamand - UOB Home". ... Case Western Reserve University (ABET). *Capitol Technology University (ABET). *Clarkson University (ABET) ... In the UK, Aerospace (or aeronautical) engineering can be studied at the B.Eng., M.Eng., MSc. and Ph.D. levels at a number of ...
"Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. *^ "Pneumococcal vaccines WHO position paper--2012" (PDF). Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 87 ... A study of competition in vitro revealed S. pneumoniae overpowered H. influenzae by attacking it with hydrogen peroxide.[27] ... Until the year 2000 out of 60,000 yearly cases 40% and out of the 30,000 cases in the year 2015 30% of the infections were ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). "Ch. 16: Pneumococcal Disease". In Atkinson W; Wolfe S; Hamborsky J. ...
Mary of Iria, by Rui Vasques), religious books, legal studies, and a treaty on horse breeding.[28] Prose literary creation in ... An exception to this rule is constituted by the hiatus in which the first vowel was a nasalized i or u. In those cases, a nasal ... The "tilde" (´) is a small line written over some vowels to show in some cases which syllable carries the accent, "paspallás" ( ... An important landmark was the establishment of the Seminario de Estudos Galegos in 1923, devoted to research and study of ...
Nouns and pronouns are inflected for case, including nominative, objective, genitive (possessive), and locative.[23] The case ... Chatterji, SK (1921). "Bengali Phonetics". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 2: 1. doi:10.1017/ ... Byomkes Chakrabarti A Comparative Study of Santali and Bengali, K.P. Bagchi & Co., Kolkata, 1994, ISBN 81-7074-128-9 ... More recent studies suggest that the use of native and foreign words has been increasing, mainly because of the preference of ...
Reading Realism in Stendhal (Cambridge Studies in French), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988. ... between cold self-control, rapturous abandonment to sensual pleasures, and insecure and sometimes sentimental vaingloriousness ... "The Strange Case of Pushkin and Nabokov". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved July 24, 2015 ... profoundly serious and many-sided discussion and therefore as a medium of profoundly serious investigation into the human case ...
Eric Kandel was one of the first to study the neural basis of sensitization, conducting experiments in the 1960s and 1970s on ... IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells leading to an acute inflammatory response.[13] In this case, ... and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. ... A large body of literature has demonstrated that such ... in which there is a substantial loss of self-control, as indicated by compulsive drug taking despite the desire to stop taking ...
Developmental studies have shown that compound leaves, like shoots, may branch in three dimensions.[37][38] On the basis of ... Stomatal opening is controlled by the turgor pressure in a pair of guard cells that surround the stomatal aperture. In any ... In either case, the shed leaves may be expected to contribute their retained nutrients to the soil where they fall. ... Considerable changes in leaf type occur within species, too, for example as a plant matures; as a case in point Eucalyptus ...
"Soviet Studies. 37 (1): 118-30. doi:10.1080/09668138508411571.. *^ Ellman, Michael (2007). "The Rise and Fall of Socialist ... The Case for Socialism. Haymarket Books, 2010 (Updated Edition). ISBN 1-60846-073-8. ... Socialism may be defined as movements for social ownership and control of the economy. It is this idea that is the common ... Edmund Wilson, To the Finland Station: A Study in the Writing and Acting of History, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1940. LCCN 40- ...
"2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa - Case Counts". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2014. Archived from the ... Kuhn, Jens H. (2008). Filoviruses: A Compendium of 40 Years of Epidemiological, Clinical, and Laboratory Studies. Archives of ... "Ebola outbreak in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo tops 1,000 cases" (Press release). Centers for Disease Control and ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization (1998). Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic ...
A study of 3,525 cases of TSS for Cushing's disease in the nationally representative sample of US hospitals between 1993 and ... Bilateral adrenalectomy is another treatment which provides immediate reduction of cortisol level and control of ... Cases of Cushing's disease are rare, and little epidemiological data is available on the disease. An 18-year study conducted on ... The average incidence of newly diagnosed cases was 2.4 cases per million inhabitants per year. The disease is often diagnosed 3 ...
The study found that in the first year:[113] *Hospital use increased by 30% for those with insurance, with the length of ... In this case, due to long automated calls, untrained workers, mismanagement of documents, poor data collection, and a variety ... Certain states in which there is a Republican-controlled legislature may be forced to expand Medicaid in ways extending beyond ... "Oregon Study: Medicaid 'Had No Significant Effect' On Health Outcomes vs. Being Uninsured". Forbes. Retrieved April 18, 2019.. ...
A case-control study (also known as case-referent study) is a type of observational study in which two existing groups ... The case-control study design is often used in the study of rare diseases or as a preliminary study where little is known about ... The case-control is a type of epidemiological observational study. An observational study is a study in which subjects are not ... Randomized controlled trial. References[edit]. *^ "8. Case-control and cross sectional studies" (PDF). Retrieved 5 March 2012. ...
Nested case-control study Retrospective cohort study Prospective cohort study Randomized controlled trial "8. Case-control and ... A case-control study (also known as case-referent study) is a type of observational study in which two existing groups ... The case-control study design is often used in the study of rare diseases or as a preliminary study where little is known about ... The case-control is a type of epidemiological observational study. An observational study is a study in which subjects are not ...
A nested case-control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which cases and controls are drawn from the ... A case-cohort study is a design in which cases and controls are drawn from within a prospective study. All cases who developed ... Thus the nested case-control study is more efficient than the full cohort design. The nested case-control study can be analyzed ... Keogh, Ruth H.; Cox, D. R. (2014). "Nested case-control studies". Case-Control Studies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 160-190 ...
Braiding Machine - Noise Case Study. Problem:. Overview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories ... noise control. noise control. textile. textile. How well does this control work?. Sound levels at the aisle positions have been ... and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.. Case study: Braiding machines are used in the textile ... For the project involved in this case history, the companys Noise Control Division was called in to help the manufacturer of ...
High-Impact Prevention case study for preventing and controlling TB ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ... CDC phased in use of the TB funding formulas to allow TB programs to prepare for large changes in funding levels as their case ... and control of TB was based on the burden of TB disease among jurisdictions that had experienced the largest increases in case ...
An alternative which avoids this difficulty is the case-control or case-referent design. In a case-control study patients who ... Selection of cases. The starting point of mostcase-control studies is the identification of cases. This requires a suitable ... To give an extreme example, a case-control study of bladder cancer and smoking could give quite erroneous findings if controls ... Case-control studies. As discussed in the previous chapter, one of the drawbacks of using a longitudinal approach to ...
Home , Export Controls and Universities: Information and Case Studies. Document File: export_controls_and_universities_ ... ... 1] ... 3] [4] ...
Appending epidemiological studies to conventional case-control studies (hybride case-control studies). Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19 ... nested case-control or case-cohort studies within prospective cohort studies with high baseline response. Another option ( ... 2. Bernstein L. Control recruitment in population-based case-control studies. Epidemiology. 2006;17:255-257.. * Cited Here... ... The Limits of Case-Control Studies. Stang, Andreas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz. Epidemiology: November 2006 - Volume 17 - Issue 6 - p ...
Case-control study. The starting point of a case-control study is subjects with the disease or condition under study (cases). ... nested case-control study " is used.. An example of a population-based case-control study is a joint Swedish-Norwegian study of ... the hospital-based case-control study is the best choice (15). Cases in a hospital-based study are identified in hospitals ... much weaker compared to those of cohort and case-control studies. This is not to say that findings from cohort and case-control ...
Case Study: Lilly Jaffe Oct 26, 2010 MODY/LADA, Case Studies, Featured Writers ... Gene Study Sheds Light on Body Clocks Link to Diabetes Feb 1, 2012 Case Studies, Articles ... New Study Confirms Diabetes Linked to Colon Cancer Risk Sep 30, 2011 Case Studies, Articles ... Exenatide tQT Study Showed No Prolongation of QT Interval Jul 8, 2011 Case Studies, Articles ...
Culprit Identified in ACCORD Study May 13, 2010 Case Studies, Articles It was not hypoglycemia from intensive control or ... Jul 27, 2009 Case Studies, Articles Near-normal control of glucose beginning as soon as possible after diagnosis would greatly ... Study Shows Simple Community Program Can Prevent Weight Gain in Women Jul 22, 2010 Womens Health, Case Studies, Articles ... ROADMAP Study Demonstrates Significant Reduction of Early Kidney Disease in Type 2s May 19, 2009 Case Studies, Articles ...
... controls in this type of medical research study, which is a relatively quick and easy way to find clues, but with scientific ... Limitations of case-control studies. While a case-control study can help to test a hypothesis about the link between a risk ... Why is a case-control study useful in medical research?. There are multiple reasons why case-control studies are useful to ... What is a case-control study in medical research?. Find out how cases are compared with controls in this type of medical ...
A matched case-control study was performed. Cases were 195 diabetic patients aged 69.0 +/- 9.2 years who had an incident ... This study was aimed at the assessment of incidence of malignancies in type 2 diabetic patients treated with different ... A matched case-control study was performed. Cases were 195 diabetic patients aged 69.0 +/- 9.2 years who had an incident ... Sulphonylureas and cancer: a case-control study Acta Diabetol. 2009 Dec;46(4):279-84. doi: 10.1007/s00592-008-0083-2. Epub 2008 ...
Click here to watch the video case study or read the case study. ... Datalogic Releases New Field Service Video Case Study: Okolona ... Founded in 1972, Okolona Pest Control is the perfect example of a modern pest control operation that offers pest control and ... announces the release of a new field service video case study for field force automation. This study highlights the benefits ... Okolona Pest Control outfitted 57 field service technicians with Elf mobile computers maximizing their productivity and ...
Case Studies. Corporate, Education, Government, and Entertainment. Corporate. Juniper Networks. Before Juniper Networks ...
Home » Case Studies: SPC Automates Quality Control. Quality Exclusives Case Studies: SPC Automates Quality Control. June 2, ... Case Studies: Fastening Quality Management. Case Studies: A 23-Year CAM Partnership Case Studies: CMMs Mow Down Quality ... Calculating control limits and periodically checking the process capability were time consuming and tedious. Using InfinityQS ( ... Chantilly, VA) software for real-time statistical process control (SPC), Trek was able to automate its quality control ...
Control Recruitment in Population-Based Case-Control Studies. Bernstein, Leslie. Epidemiology: May 2006 - Volume 17 - Issue 3 ... Voigt et al12 studied this pattern in a large breast cancer case-control study in which a validation substudy of prescription ... Two recent multicenter case-control studies used RDD for control identification and recruitment: the Womens Contraceptive and ... Home , May 2006 - Volume 17 - Issue 3 , Control Recruitment in Population-Based Case-Control Studies ...
It has long been known that such studies may suffer from high rates of false positives if there is unrecognized population ... Case-control association studies are widely used in the search for genetic variants that contribute to human diseases. ... Confounding from cryptic relatedness in case-control association studies PLoS Genet. 2005 Sep;1(3):e32. doi: 10.1371/journal. ... Case-control association studies are widely used in the search for genetic variants that contribute to human diseases. It has ...
Infection Control Today invited industry members to share mini case studies that reflect real-world situations in which ... Infection Control Today invited industry members to share mini case studies that reflect real-world situations in which ... This case study will examine the impact environmental services (EVS) had on reducing the C. diff incidence rate. ... Infect Control Hosp Epidem. 2011; 32:687-99.. 2. Larson HE, Borriello SP. Quantitative study of antibiotic-induced ...
Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in ... The agricultural case study is significant because it concerns cultivation and pest control methods made on large land bases in ... In order to show that alternatives to neonicotinoids for pest control are available and can be feasible, two case studies will ... While some of the options for alternative pest control that we illustrate in these case studies have been successfully ...
Comment on methods and study design. The case-control approach enabled us to study a large number of deaths from asthma. A ... and several case-control studies3 and one cohort study4 found that fenoterol was associated with an increased risk of death ... In this large case-control study we found no evidence associating long acting β2 agonists with an increased risk of death in ... In a case-control study like this, an increased risk of death associated with drug therapy may have various explanations6[18][ ...
Thus, 233 cases and 466 controls remained in the study. The questionnaire was answered by 217 cases and 439 controls. When ... Thus, the analysis encompassed 209 cases (90%) and 425 controls (91%). The mean age of both cases and controls was 50 years ( ... Case-Control Study on Radiology Work, Medical X-ray Investigations, and Use of Cellular Telephones as Risk Factors for Brain ... The whole material of 209 cases and 425 controls was used in the other calculations. The results are presented for all cases ...
Case Studies. You, our customer, are most important to us. We listen, assess and respond to your needs, as these case studies ... Designing a Flexible Control Solution. The overarching control requirements for the entire plant including the conveyors, ... "The site now processes approximately five million tonnes of ore per annum and the control system has been embraced by operators ... FactoryTalk View Site Edition (SE) supervisory-level HMI software is used for monitoring and controlling the plant. It provides ...
... (ICPSR 1099). Version Date: Jan 3, 1996 View help for published ... Case Study of Monetary Control: 1980-1982. ICPSR01099-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social ... Case Study of Monetary Control: 1980-1982. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [ ... Case Study of Monetary Control: 1980-1982. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [ ...
Theoretical Models and Case Studies. Edited by: Moises Rivas López and Wendy Flores-Fuentes. ISBN 978-953-51-2423-8, eISBN 978- ... Robust Control. Theoretical Models and Case Studies. Edited by Moises Rivas-Lopez. Autonomous University of Baja California, ... Robust ControlTheoretical Models and Case StudiesEdited by Moises Rivas-Lopez ... Robust ControlTheoretical Models and Case StudiesEdited by Moises Rivas-Lopez ...
"Then our website took off dramatically, but it wasnt connected to our stock control or our customer records," says Ben Adair, ...
Extensive controls imposed early in Chinas coronavirus outbreak may have prevented hundreds of thousands of infections, a new ... Study: China controls may have prevented 700K COVID-19 cases. By HealthDay News ... "The number of confirmed cases in China by day 50 -- February 19 -- of the epidemic, was around 30,000," said study co-author ... Study: First cases of COVID-19 likely occurred weeks earlier than reported ...
What This Study Adds:. In New South Wales, Australia, a case-control study found both parents receiving Tdap ≥4 weeks before ... Parental Tdap Boosters and Infant Pertussis: A Case-Control Study. Helen E. Quinn, Thomas L. Snelling, Andrew Habig, Clayton ... of the contactable cases, yielding 217 cases and 585 controls in the final data set. Cases who could not be contacted were more ... cases, 76% controls) and almost all vaccinated fathers (89% cases, 93% controls) reported receiving Tdap vaccine in a primary ...
Other studies21,30 have found that plagiocephalic infants have a large head circumference. Our case patients and control ... Determinants of Nonsynostotic Plagiocephaly: A Case-Control Study. B. Lynne Hutchison, John M. D. Thompson and Ed A. Mitchell ... Determinants of Nonsynostotic Plagiocephaly: A Case-Control Study Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Environment of infants during sleep and risk of the sudden infant death syndrome: results of 1993-5 case-control study for ...
Open Access journal that publishes case reports and case series in all areas of clinical medicine. ... Case Reports in Medicine is a peer-reviewed, ... Case Report Acral Lentiginous Melanoma: A Case Control Study ... Christoforos Kosmidis, Christoforos Efthimiadis, Georgios Anthimidis, et al., "Acral Lentiginous Melanoma: A Case Control Study ... To receive news and publication updates for Case Reports in Medicine, enter your email address in the box below. ...
  • Porta's Dictionary of Epidemiology defines the case-control study as: an observational epidemiological study of persons with the disease (or another outcome variable) of interest and a suitable control group of persons without the disease (comparison group, reference group). (
  • The evolution of resource allocation for prevention and control of TB in health department funding reflects the changing epidemiology of TB, new treatment guidelines, and the emergence of indicators to monitor program performance-all taking place in the context of flat funding for TB programs. (
  • Third, editors and reviewers of epidemiology papers are too often dogmatic in their judgment of the potential for nonresponse bias in population-based studies. (
  • An observational study is a study in which subjects are not randomized to the exposed or unexposed groups, rather the subjects are observed in order to determine both their exposure and their outcome status and the exposure status is thus not determined by the researcher. (
  • However, because the difference between the cases and the controls will be smaller, this results in a lower power to detect an exposure effect. (
  • Usually, the exposure of interest is only measured among the cases and the selected controls. (
  • In a case-control study patients who have developed a disease are identified and their past exposure to suspected aetiological factors is compared with that of controls or referents who do not have the disease. (
  • This statistical adjustment may be rendered more efficient by matching cases and controls for exposure to confounders, either on an individual basis (for example by pairing each case with a control of the same age and sex) or in groups (for example, choosing a control group with an overall age and sex distribution similar to that of the cases). (
  • Within the constraints of any matching criteria, their exposure to risk factors and confounders should be representative of that in the population "at risk" of becoming cases - that is, people who do not have the disease under investigation, but who would be included in the study as cases if they had. (
  • However, assessment of their exposure may not be comparable with that of cases, especially if the assessment is achieved by personal recall. (
  • Measurement of exposure can be made more comparable by using patients with other diseases as controls, especially if subjects are not told the exact focus of the investigation. (
  • The starting point of a cohort study is the recording of healthy subjects with and without exposure to the putative agent or the characteristic being studied. (
  • The measure of association between exposure and disease in cohort studies is the relative risk. (
  • In a current cohort study, the data concerning exposure are assembled prior to the occurrence of disease-the current cohort design thus representing a true prospective study. (
  • They then compare exposure to the suspected cause (risk factor) in the cases that emerge versus those unaffected by the disease or condition (the controls). (
  • This time-saving advantage to case-control studies also means they are more practical than other scientific trial designs if the exposure to a suspected cause is a very long time before the outcome of a disease. (
  • It is key to ensure that selection of potential control subjects not depend on their exposure status to minimize bias. (
  • As Hartge 1 points out in her essay, this is more easily said than done, because case-control studies will assess numerous exposures, and having minimal bias in one exposure does not ensure lack of bias in another. (
  • Ideally, our control population will represent the exposure distribution in the underlying population giving rise to the cases, thus minimizing selection bias for all exposures, and (ideally) the recruitment of controls will be efficient in terms of time and cost. (
  • This paper showed, decades ahead of its time, how hospital-based case-control studies can be severely biased, even to the point of reversing the actual association and even when the exposure does not affect the control-defining outcome(s). (
  • Microbial genes predicted as enriched in MS versus controls included those involved in glutathione metabolism (Mann-Whitney, P = 0.017), findings that were consistent regardless of IMD exposure. (
  • Cases and controls are then evaluated for exposure to various and thus should never be selected on the basis of their exposure to the risk factors under investigation. (
  • They allow researchers to compare outcomes according to exposure to suspected risk factors by creating a hypothesis to study. (
  • An association between the hypothesized exposure and the disease being studied will be reflected in a greater proportion of the cases being exposed. (
  • It is advantageous for the controls to come from the same population from which the cases were derived, to reduce the chance that some other difference between the groups is accounting for the difference in the exposure that is under investigation. (
  • The opportunities to effectively use case-control studies may expand as new ways of characterizing exposure through the use of biologic markers of exposure are developed, which would reduce the problem of recall bias. (
  • Fluoride exposure and childhood osteosarcoma: a case-control study. (
  • 13 exposed cases) compared with no exposure. (
  • If confounding is present, then rand r(z) may yield strikingly different impressions concerning the effect of exposure on disease, and in this case, the choice of parameter to be estimated must depend on either assumptions or outside evidence concerning the biological mechanism that causes the disease. (
  • This function gives the minimum number of case subjects required to detect a real odds ratio or case exposure rate with power POWER and two sided type I error probability ALPHA. (
  • P0: probability of exposure in controls. (
  • P1: probability of exposure in case subjects. (
  • A conditional (matched) case-control analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for each paternal occupational exposure group. (
  • Since then, over 30 epidemiologic studies have investigated the association of childhood leukaemia with residential exposure to magnetic fields ( Kheifets and Shimkhada, 2005 ). (
  • r: correlation coefficient (ϕ) for exposure between matched cases and controls. (
  • P0: probability of exposure in the control group. (
  • Note, however, that due to matching, the control sample is not a random sample from the population therefore population prevalence of exposure can be a poor estimate of P0 (especially if confounders are strongly associated with exposure, Dupont, 1988 ). (
  • where α = alpha, β = 1 - power, ψ = odds ratio, ϕ is the correlation coefficient for exposure between matched cases and controls, and Zp is the standard normal deviate for probability p. n is rounded up to the closest integer. (
  • J. Klamka , H. Maurer and A. Swierniak , Local controllability and optimal control for a model of combined anticancer therapy with control delays, Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering , 14 (2017), 195-216. (
  • Koski, M. and Naukkarinen, H. (2017) The Relationship between Depression and Severe Obesity: A Case-Control Study. (
  • Glytec's eGMS ® was implemented March 2016, and the case study examined pre-eGMS ® baseline data from calendar year 2015 to post-eGMS ® data from March 2016 to March 2017. (
  • The nested case-control study can be analyzed using methods for missing covariates. (
  • If economic thresholds are exceeded and no agronomic solutions, biological control or physical treatments or any other non-chemical pest control methods are available, chemical treatments should be selected among those that pose the lowest risk to environment and human health, and they should be used in a way that minimizes the risk of pest resistance by limiting their use over space and time. (
  • The need to be tolerant to changes in the control systems or in the operational environment of systems subject to unknown disturbances has generated new control methods that are able to deal with the non-parametrized disturbances of systems, without adapting itself to the system uncertainty but rather providing stability in the presence of errors bound in a model. (
  • After discussing the necessary optimality conditions for delayed optimal control problems with control-state constraints, we propose discretization methods by which the delayed optimal control problem is transformed into a large-scale nonlinear programming problem. (
  • L. Göllmann , D. Kern and H. Maurer , Optimal control problems with delays in state and control and mixed control-state constraints, Optimal Control Applications and Methods , 30 (2009), 341-365. (
  • This chapter is an up to date compendium of theory and methods of the case-control design and many of its nuances and variants. (
  • The first topics will look at research methods and the collection of data - with a specific focus on study types. (
  • Building on an idea in Abadie and Gardeazabal (2003), this article investigates the application of synthetic control methods to comparative case studies. (
  • We discuss the advantages of these methods and apply them to study the effects of Proposition 99, a large-scale tobacco control program that California implemented in 1988. (
  • Given that many policy interventions and events of interest in social sciences take place at an aggregate level (countries, regions, cities, etc.) and affect a small number of aggregate units, the potential applicability of synthetic control methods to comparative case studies is very large, especially in situations where traditional regression methods are not appropriate. (
  • Methods: We conducted a case-control study in an urban HIV clinic among patients with incident DM (49 cases) matched to 2 controls (n = 98) on age ±5 years, race, sex, and length of clinic follow-up. (
  • After a broad search of information on available ventilation control methods for grinding with portable tools, the team identified a ventilation approach which had been demonstrated to be effective in controlling emissions from another foundry process, called air carbon-arc gouging, conducted on work benches with steel castings. (
  • METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of all stillbirths and a representative sample of live births in 59 hospitals in five geographic areas in the US. (
  • METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was performed. (
  • Abstract In case-control studies, the role of adjustments for bias, and in particular the role of matching, has been extensively debated. (
  • All efforts should be made to avoid sources of bias such as the loss of individuals to follow up during the study. (
  • Prospective studies usually have fewer potential sources of bias and confounding than retrospective studies. (
  • Most sources of error due to confounding and bias are more common in retrospective studies than in prospective studies. (
  • You should take special care to avoid sources of bias and confounding [1] in retrospective studies. (
  • In addition, care is needed that bias does not arise from the way in which cases are selected. (
  • In that way, if one of the control diseases happens to be related to a risk factor under study, the resultant bias is not too large. (
  • Sometimes interpretation is helped by having two sets of controls with different possible sources of bias. (
  • However, in contrast, studies where there is a sampling bias toward collecting relatives may indeed suffer from excessive rates of false positives. (
  • A case-control study generally depends on the collection of retrospective data, thus introducing the possibility of recall bias. (
  • Recall bias is the tendency of subjects to report events in a manner that is different between the two groups studied. (
  • There exists selection bias if a study is non-random in terms of whom you're selecting to be a participant in it. (
  • If you randomly select participants from the population (i.e., no selection bias), the confounding variables are also randomly distributed among your study participants. (
  • Recall bias in a case-control study of low birth weight. (
  • The role of report/recall bias in case-control studies of low birth weight (LBW) was investigated in women who gave birth at a tertiary hospital. (
  • To give an extreme example, a case-control study of bladder cancer and smoking could give quite erroneous findings if controls were taken from the chest clinic. (
  • The conclusions that can be drawn from findings of these types of studies are, however, much weaker compared to those of cohort and case-control studies. (
  • This is not to say that findings from cohort and case-control studies always reflect true associations which can be universally generalized. (
  • Although information of such extraneous factors is collected and quantitatively adjusted for when they are known to be present, findings from observational epidemiological studies are generally less conclusive than those from experimental studies because of the less strict control of extraneous factors. (
  • Unsanitary-appearing restrooms in commercial establishments will drive up to 33 percent of customers away, according to findings from an 18-month study conducted by Impact Products LLC, a manufacturer and supplier of janitorial and sanitary maintenance products. (
  • Armed with the study findings of where and why odors occur, how to combat them, what odors are preventable and when to redeploy odor control, Impact developed a simple holistic solution. (
  • The findings from this study can be utilized to improve the care and understanding of individuals with severe obesity. (
  • They also conducted neuroimaging studies, and their findings provide insight into the portion of the brain involved in the development of obesity. (
  • Findings from this study demonstrated that community water fluoridation is not associated with an increased risk for osteosarcoma. (
  • We report the findings of the first case-control study conducted in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland to determine risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections. (
  • The findings highlight the continued need for consumer food safety education and further control measures throughout the food chain on the island of Ireland. (
  • Additional studies are needed to reproduce these findings and assess whether this association is due to a biologically protective effect. (
  • Our findings reinforce the growing body of evidence which suggests that we can't rely on one single public health measure to achieve epidemic control," said Dr Adam Kucharski from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. (
  • The investigators will carry out a case-control study among mothers who delivered their babies at Nossa Senhora de Lourdes maternity hospital located in Aracaju, state of Sergipe, Brazil from September 1, 2015 through January 5, 2016. (
  • At the time, it housed four water chillers controlled by five programmable logic controllers (PLCs) fed by 10 racks of I/O. Between 2011 and 2016, five new water chillers were to be added. (
  • [4] Controls should come from the same population as the cases, and their selection should be independent of the exposures of interest. (
  • Whereas, A retrospective study looks backwards and examines exposures to suspected risk or protection factors in relation to an outcome that is established at the start of the study. (
  • For the project involved in this case history, the company's Noise Control Division was called in to help the manufacturer of medical sutures bring worker noise exposures of his braider operators down to an equivalent of 85 dBA or less when a bank of machines was operated. (
  • Also, the exposures of controls should be measurable with similar accuracy to those of the cases. (
  • Controls selected from the general population (for example, from general practice age-sex registers) have the advantage that their exposures are likely to be representative of those at risk of becoming cases. (
  • Studies were appraised for quality and meta-analyses using random effects models for the influenza exposures of infection, and vaccination were conducted. (
  • OR: odds ratio of exposures between cases and controls. (
  • The objective of this study was to examine the association between paternal occupational exposures and retinoblastoma using birth registration data for cases from the National Registry of Childhood Tumours (NRCT) and controls from the general population of Great Britain. (
  • We only get odds ratio from a case-control study, which is an inferior measure of strength of association as compared to relative risk. (
  • In retrospective studies the odds ratio provides an estimate of relative risk. (
  • Its secondary purpose, for which it is much better known, was to show how to estimate incidence odds ratios and prevalence odds ratios if cases are excluded from the control group, and thereby to estimate risk ratios and prevalence ratios approximately if the disease is rare. (
  • What does the odds ratio estimate in a case-control study? (
  • This paper gives a short, readable summary of the use of case-control studies to estimate risk and prevalence ratios, incidence and prevalence odds ratios, and rate ratios. (
  • The pooled odds ratio for asthma prevalence from 14 case-control studies was 1.37 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.64) if either parent smoked. (
  • However the odds ratio approximates the relative risk if probability of disease is low, and unlike the relative risk it can be estimated from a case control study (8). (
  • where α = alpha, β = 1 - power, ψ = odds ratio, n c is the continuity corrected sample size, m is the number of control subjects per case, and z p is the standard normal deviate for probability p. n is rounded up to the closest integer. (
  • For leukaemia, there was a slight excess of cases within 50 m of a transmission line over 200 kV (odds ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval 0.7-2.7). (
  • A prospective study watches for outcomes, such as the development of a disease, during the study period and relates this to other factors such as suspected risk or protection factor(s). (
  • A case-cohort study is a design in which cases and controls are drawn from within a prospective study. (
  • For example, if you wanted to test the hypothesis that a disease seen in adulthood is linked to factors occurring in young childhood, a prospective study would take decades to do. (
  • Grodstein F, Speizer FE, Hunter DJ (1995) A prospective study of incident squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in the nurses' health study. (
  • If the risk factor has a greater prevalence among the cases, then this is some evidence to suggest that it is a cause of the disease. (
  • This paper showed how to estimate risk and prevalence ratios in case-control studies without a rare-disease requirement by allowing cases into the control group. (
  • 3 This paper reviews the evidence from longitudinal and case-control studies of wheezing illness concerning the effect of parental smoking on the incidence, prognosis, prevalence, and severity of childhood asthma. (
  • When individual trajectories were examined, some participants showed significant decline over time, but the prevalence was similar for 22q11.2DS and control siblings. (
  • The prevalence of diagnosed hepatitis C infection was 9% among all cases compared with 1% among all controls (p = 0.005). (
  • 2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has more on the new coronavirus . (
  • CLINICAL CENTERS FOR ETIOLOGY OF SARCOIDOSIS: A CASE CONTROL STUDY NIH GUIDE, Volume 23, Number 33, September 16, 1994 RFP AVAILABLE: NHLBI-HR-94-21 P.T. Keywords: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute The overall objective of this program is to support a six year multi-center case-control study on the potential etiologic factors for sarcoidosis. (
  • The clinical centers will recruit 840 sarcoidosis patients and 1680 control subjects for study over a four year period. (
  • As discussed in the previous chapter, one of the drawbacks of using a longitudinal approach to investigate the causes of disease with low incidence is that large and lengthy studies may be required to give adequate statistical power. (
  • The measure of disease in cohort studies is the incidence rate, which is the proportion of subjects who develop the disease under study within a specified time period. (
  • The relative risk is the ratio of the incidence rate of index subjects to that of control subjects. (
  • This study was aimed at the assessment of incidence of malignancies in type 2 diabetic patients treated with different sulphonylureas. (
  • This case study will examine the impact environmental services (EVS) had on reducing the C. diff incidence rate. (
  • 50% reduction in the incidence of severe pertussis in young infants, 7 - 9 data on effectiveness in the field has been limited to a hospital-based study from Texas, which found no apparent reduction in infant pertussis hospitalizations despite good uptake of the vaccine among target mothers. (
  • The search was completed in April 1997 and identified six studies of asthma incidence, seven of prognosis, 22 case-control studies, and 10 case series addressing disease severity. (
  • For each case of spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, up to 5 controls were randomly selected using an incidence density sampling method matched on gestational age at diagnosis of spontaneous abortion or stillbirth (index date) and the year of the last menstrual period. (
  • The limited studies in HCv/HBV coinfected patients find higher incidence compared to HIV-infected of lipid abnormalities, diabetes, and body changes. (
  • The study found that the incidence of metamizole-induced agranulocytosis varied markedly between countries. (
  • Using social-contact data on more than 40,000 individuals from the BBC Pandemic database to simulate SARS-CoV-2 transmission in different settings and under different combinations of control measures, the researchers estimate that a high incidence of COVID-19 would require a considerable number of individuals to be quarantined to control infection. (
  • Again is this b/c it's a retrospective study? (
  • And looking back in time (a retrospective study) costs less because following people forward in time understandably, in and of itself, would have to require money and time. (
  • Prior to 2005, CDC's method of allocation of TB funds to state and city health departments for prevention and control of TB was based on the burden of TB disease among jurisdictions that had experienced the largest increases in case counts during the TB resurgence that took place from 1985-1993. (
  • The ICCP Portal is a one-stop shop for cancer prevention and control planning. (
  • A Case Study in Monetary Control: 1980-82," Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review , September/October 1994, pp. 35-58. (
  • The strength of a cohort study is that it is the best way to determine the causes of a disease, condition or issue because it allows researchers to follow one group of people over time and allows researchers to study multiple outcomes at one time. (
  • Cloonan YK, Kifle Y, Davis S, Speltz ML, Werler MM, Starr JR. Sleep outcomes in children with hemifacial microsomia and controls: a follow-up study . (
  • The case-control is a type of epidemiological observational study. (
  • As with any epidemiological study, greater numbers in the study will increase the power of the study. (
  • Case-control studies are a relatively inexpensive and frequently used type of epidemiological study that can be carried out by small teams or individual researchers in single facilities in a way that more structured experimental studies often cannot be. (
  • Cohort and case-control methodologies are the main tools for analytical epidemiological research. (
  • Other important types of epidemiological studies mainly for generating hypotheses include cross-sectional and ecological, or correlation studies. (
  • Experimental research provides data from which firmer conclusions can be made as compared with epidemiological studies. (
  • The two epidemiological methodologies to study disease causation outlined in this chapter have different approaches. (
  • For a more detailed account of design, conduct and analyses of epidemiological studies, the reader is referred to textbooks and methodological articles given in the list of references. (
  • A molecular epidemiological case-control study of lung cancer. (
  • Smoking restrictions are an important component of tobacco control policy because they protect non-smokers from the adverse health effects of passive smoking 1-5 and facilitate smokers' decisions to quit or cut down. (
  • 4 Researchers could also restrict the study base to population segments with anticipated higher response proportions such as people with identifiable telephone numbers. (
  • A case-control study is usually retrospective - the researchers look back at data collected in the past, enabling them to test whether a particular outcome can be linked back to a suspected risk factor. (
  • Risk factors could be uncovered by researchers studying the medical and lifestyle histories of the people in each group. (
  • Case-control research is a central tool used by epidemiologists, researchers who look into the factors that affect the health and illness of populations. (
  • There are multiple reasons why case-control studies are useful to researchers. (
  • A prospective case-control study may also be helpful in this scenario as researchers can collect data on suspected risk factors while they monitor for new cases. (
  • Researchers analyzed the movements of people out of Wuhan -- where the virus was first detected -- the types and timing of controls across China, and COVID-19 cases reported each day in every city. (
  • As a result, they reported 33 percent fewer confirmed coronavirus cases during the first week of their outbreaks than other cities, according to the researchers. (
  • For the study, researchers tapped a common tracking tool -- cell phone mobility data. (
  • In an ideal world we would know population-level allele frequencies, releasing researchers to focus on case subjects. (
  • By the end of the lectures you should be able to identify which study types are being used and why the researchers selected them when you are reading a paper. (
  • Brazilian researchers [Thursday] added an eagerly awaited piece of the Zika-microcephaly puzzle, publishing the first case-control study , which found a strong link between the two conditions. (
  • The study is the first time researchers have used social contact data to quantify the potential impact of control measures on reducing individual-level transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in specific settings. (
  • In the study, researchers analysed data on how 40,162 people moved about the UK and interacted with others prior to COVID-19 to simulate how combinations of different testing, isolation, tracing, and physical distancing scenarios-such as app-based tracing, remote working, limits on different sized gatherings, and mass population-based testing-might contribute to reducing secondary cases [3]. (
  • The researchers calculated that, had no control measures been implemented, R would be 2.6-meaning that one infected person would infect, on average, 2-3 more people. (
  • Near-normal control of glucose beginning as soon as possible after diagnosis would greatly improve the long-term prognosis of Type 1 diabetes, concludes a study published in the July 27, 2009, issue of the Archives of Internal Medicine, which updates information about the clinical course of Type 1 diabetes. (
  • Sign up for Insight Alerts highlighting editor-chosen studies with the greatest impact on clinical care. (
  • A notified case is classified as "confirmed" if there is definitive laboratory evidence (detection by nucleic acid testing or isolation by culture), or suggestive laboratory evidence (single point serology) together with a compatible clinical illness (coughing illness lasting 2 weeks associated with paroxysms, inspiratory whoop, or posttussive vomiting). (
  • Data sources for the phase I of the study will consist of medical records review and a standard questionnaire applied by telephone to collect information about demographic features, clinical signs and symptoms, and the duration and severity of the illness. (
  • Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. (
  • Forward projections suggest that unless control measures - including improvements in contact tracing, adequate case isolation, increased capacity for clinical management, safe burials, greater community engagement, and support from international partners - improve quickly, these three countries will soon be reporting thousands of cases and deaths each week. (
  • 11) interact with the Clinical Coordinating Center to provide data and related information necessary for data analysis, and (12) work with other study investigators in the preparation and writing of reports and manuscripts for publication. (
  • The results of such investigations may help to start a public discussion regarding the importance of participation in epidemiologic studies. (
  • Such extraneous factors may, if not under control, distort the results of the research and lead to false conclusions about cause and effect. (
  • Eli Lilly and Company, and Amylin announced positive results from a head-to-head study comparing exenatide once weekly, an investigational diabetes therapy, to BYETTA® (exenatide) injection taken twice daily, in patients with Type 2 diabetes. (
  • The fact that the data is already available for collation and analysis means that a case-control study is useful when quick results are desired, perhaps when clues are sought for what is causing a sudden disease outbreak. (
  • Our analytical results show that, for well-designed studies in outbred populations, the degree of confounding due to cryptic relatedness will usually be negligible. (
  • The results are presented for all cases with either benign or malignant tumors. (
  • Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. (
  • Results - We identified 18 441 cases of suicide matched to 36 882 controls over the 21-year accrual period. (
  • Results 16 studies (8 on influenza vaccination, 10 on influenza infection and AMI) met the eligibility criteria, and were included in the review and meta-analysis. (
  • Preliminary results from a study commissioned by the Brazilian Ministry of Health found that 13 out of 32 newborns with microcephaly tested positive for the Zika virus. (
  • RESULTS: Fifty-seven cases and 139 controls were identified. (
  • In the recently published study by Huber and colleagues, data from a prospective case-control surveillance study were used, but the presented results only contain data pertaining to the cases [6]. (
  • Thus the nested case-control study is more efficient than the full cohort design. (
  • An alternative which avoids this difficulty is the case-control or case-referent design. (
  • Design Case-control study. (
  • SAGE Automation was contracted to supply the control system and visualization together with the complete electrical design, construction and installation works for the new crushing and screening plant. (
  • The new plant has had a number of design revisions but because it is modular and mobile, it has been easy to adapt to changes," explained Jonathan Deluao, Principal Control Systems/Maintenance Engineer at Arrium Mining. (
  • Noosa collaborated with Malisko Engineering - a Solution Partner within the Rockwell Automation PartnerNetwork program - to design and implement a fully-automated control system for yoghurt production, clean-in-place (CIP) and utilities. (
  • The case-control study design, broadly defined, is a valuable tool for estimating effect measures more efficiently and, in some contexts, more validly than in cohort studies. (
  • A hybrid epidemiologic study design useful in estimating relative risk. (
  • Kupper LL, McMichaels AJ, Spritas R. A hybrid epidemiologic study design useful in estimating relative risk. (
  • The objective of this study is to investigate the occurrence of rash accompanied by three or more dengue-like signs and symptoms during pregnancy is related to the microcephaly using the case-control design. (
  • We hired Mahajak to design a reliable, future-proof AV system that makes it easy for staff and students to control AV equipment in any room with their personal devices. (
  • A longitudinal design was used to study the effectiveness of an intervention, the Communities Care program (CCP), in changing harmful social norms associated with GBV in a community in Mogadishu, Somalia. (
  • To address some of the potential issues of using a longitudinal design in a conflict-affected setting, the research team from John Hopkins and their NGO partners (Comitato Internazionale per lo Sviluppo dei Popoli - CISP) had to carefully consider the study design. (
  • Patients for phase 1 and phase 2 were selected from US hospitals via a matched case-control study design. (
  • The tabletop booth presented in NIOSH Case History #6 incorporated a wrap-around design, a three-foot diameter turntable for casting repositioning, and a unique way of introducing supply air so that it swept past the worker on both sides of the body ( Figure 1-A ). This design appeared to incorporate the best features seen to date on a ventilated booth. (
  • Using a population-based, case-control design, cigarette smoking habits were assessed in 221 prevalent ET cases (75.5 +/- 7.1 years old) and 663 matched controls (74.6 +/- 7.0 years old). (
  • A matched case-control design was used with data from birth certificates of first-episode cases and age- and gender-matched controls. (
  • The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the determinants of nonsynostotic plagiocephaly in infants. (
  • OBJECTIVE To study the role of science related and other arguments in the development of workplace smoking regulations. (
  • The objective of this study was to quantify the association between dietary patterns and colon and rectum cancers. (
  • To achieve this, Striker Australia contracted SAGE Automation , a Solution Partner of Rockwell Automation and leading provider of industrial automation and control systems. (
  • Poetsch knew that the control and visualisation solution from Rockwell Automation would provide the required flexibility and reliability for this application. (
  • As a result of the maintainability and easy integration of the solution into the systems at the site, Rockwell Automation is the control and visualization vendor of choice for Arrium Mining. (
  • Malisko implemented a PlantPAx process automation system from Rockwell Automation - a scalable, plantwide control system that helped increase efficiency and access to real-time information. (
  • Recently, a case study released by Rockwell Automation highlighted how a research laboratory underwent an expansion where it encountered this particular dilemma. (
  • inclusion of sick people is sometimes appropriate, as the control group should represent those at risk of becoming a case. (
  • Many valuable case-control studies, such as Lane and Claypon's 1926 investigation of risk factors for breast cancer, were retrospective investigations. (
  • In this situation, one may choose to assay all of the cases, and also, for each case, select a certain number of women to assay from the risk set of participants who have not yet failed (i.e. those who have not developed breast cancer before the particular case in question has developed breast cancer). (
  • The risk set is often restricted to those participants who are matched to the case on variables such as age, which reduces the variability of effect estimates. (
  • CDC provides financial and technical assistance to state, local, and territorial health and educational agencies to implement high-impact programs to prevent and control youth risk behaviors, HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, STDs, and tuberculosis (TB). (
  • Studies of modifiable risk factors for stroke have been conducted largely in developed countries. (
  • They then compare how often the group of cases had been exposed to the suspected cause (risk factor), versus how often the controls had been exposed. (
  • We explore the benefits and challenges of several options for management of three insect pests in maize crops and an invasive insect pest in forests, including diversifying crop rotations, altering the timing of planting, tillage and irrigation, using less sensitive crops in infested areas, applying biological control agents, and turning to alternative reduced risk insecticides. (
  • 1 2 In New Zealand in the 1970s an increase in deaths from asthma corresponded with an increase in prescriptions of the β 2 agonist fenoterol, and several case-control studies 3 and one cohort study 4 found that fenoterol was associated with an increased risk of death from asthma. (
  • The analysis of mobile telephone use and the risk for brain tumor according to anatomic localization was based on these 198 cases with corresponding controls. (
  • Using a tumor induction period of 5 years or more, the risk increased further to an OR of 2.10 (95% CI, 1.25-3.53) based on 36 exposed cases and 37 exposed controls. (
  • In New South Wales, Australia, a case-control study found both parents receiving Tdap ≥4 weeks before disease onset was associated with a significant reduction in risk of early infant pertussis and suggestive of persistent protection in subsequent pregnancies. (
  • We know of no other studies that have examined a wide range of risk factors for plagiocephaly. (
  • The aims of this study were to identify and quantify the determinants of NSP, to distinguish those infants most at risk, and to develop strategies that may help prevent NSP while maintaining the integrity of SIDS prevention advice. (
  • This paper discusses methodological aspects of case-control studies of severe malaria including case and control definitions, selection of cases and controls, potential risk factors, sample size calculations and analysis. (
  • Risk variants are often sought by association studies in which allele frequencies in case subjects are contrasted with those from population-based samples used as control subjects. (
  • Case-control studies permit the identification of risk factors for disease and usually requires a much smaller sample size than cohort studies. (
  • Based on the conditional logistic linear model, individuals with severe obesity had a higher risk of depression than those in the control group. (
  • Persistent eczema occurred in 174 (0.94%) suicide cases and 285 (0.77%) controls yielding a 22% increased risk of suicide associated with persistent eczema (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.48, p=0.037). (
  • The cases will also be followed to gain information on the natural history of this disease including risk factors for progression of disease. (
  • In this case-control study, we found that several traditional risk factors for DM in the general population were associated with its development in HIV-infected patients. (
  • Studies have reported an increased risk of childhood leukaemia associated with living near high-voltage electric power transmission lines that extend to distances at which magnetic fields from lines are negligible. (
  • We conducted a large records-based case-control study of childhood leukaemia risk in the population living near power lines in California. (
  • The possibility that the electric power transmission and distribution system could pose a risk for childhood cancer has been a concern for several decades, beginning with the study of Wertheimer and Leeper (1979) , which found an association with electrical wiring configurations. (
  • One of the key studies to investigate distance from power lines and childhood cancer risk was the study of Draper et al (2005) . (
  • If a disease is ridiculously rare, it's virtually impossible to feasibly put together a cohort study comparing relative risk based on the presence/absence of a risk factor because you have no idea who is going to develop that (e.g.) 1/ten million disease. (
  • The inherent structure of the study acknowledges that we couldn't possibly be fully aware of other confounding/risk factors that may have popped up over time. (
  • Danis K , Di Renzi M , O'Neill W , Smyth B , McKeown P , Foley B , Tohani V , Devine M . Risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infection: an all-Ireland case-control study. (
  • AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to identify possible risk factors for the development of leucopenia associated with metamizole use. (
  • In the 1980s, a large population-based case-control study examined the risk of agranulocytosis or aplastic anaemia during treatment with several drugs, including metamizole [9]. (
  • The aim of the present study was, therefore, to compare cases of metamizole-associated leucopenia with control patients to identify possible risk factors for developing this complication and thus to improve our knowledge about the risk-benefit profile of metamizole. (
  • Several studies have used standard cohort analyses to study precursors to breast cancer, e.g. use of hormonal contraceptives, which is a covariate easily measured on all of the women in the cohort. (
  • We call this concept the Universal Control Repository Network (UNICORN), a means to perform association analyses without necessitating direct access to individual-level control data. (
  • In logistical regression analyses, diagnosis (ET vs. control) was the dependent variable, and cigarette smoking status, the independent variable. (
  • In experimental research, investigators can manipulate one factor while controlling others, and the main research question can be broken down into subquestions with comparatively simple causal assumptions (12). (
  • The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. (
  • Investigators compared each of the 32 microcephaly cases they found with two controls: the first two infants born the following morning without microcephaly…" (Schnirring, 9/15). (
  • As an example, of the 91,523 women in the Nurses' Health Study who did not have cancer at baseline and who were followed for 14 years, 2,341 women had developed breast cancer by 1993. (
  • 3 We therefore believe that for reasons of validity, epidemiologists should give consideration to alternatives to population-based case-control studies, for example, nested case-control or case-cohort studies within prospective cohort studies with high baseline response. (
  • A small case-control study in Spain identified baseline obesity, duration of PI use, and patient lipodystrophy as being associated with the development of DM. (
  • A longitudinal study of neurocognitive functioning (IQ, executive function, processing speed and attention) was conducted in children with 22q11.2DS ( n = 75, mean age time 1 ( T 1 ) 9.9, time 2 ( T 2 ) 12.5) and control siblings ( n = 33, mean age T 1 10.6, T 2 134). (
  • Cases were children aged ≤5 years with radiological CAP.The aim of the study was to assess the association between specific respiratory viruses and childhood CAP. (
  • The study indicates viral CAP is an underestimated disease and points out hMPV as a new important target for the prevention of childhood CAP. (
  • BACKGROUND The relation of parental smoking to wheezing and asthma occurring after the first year of life was assessed by a systematic quantitative review of case-control and longitudinal studies, complementing earlier reviews of cross sectional surveys and wheezing in early childhood. (
  • Childhood cognitive deterioration in 22q11.2DS has previously been reported, but only in studies lacking a control sample. (
  • The study included 5788 childhood leukaemia and 3308 central nervous system (CNS) cancer cases (for comparison) born in and diagnosed in California (1986-2008), and matched to population-based controls by age and sex. (
  • These authors reported a case-control study of childhood cancer in relation to the distance from birth address to the nearest high-voltage overhead transmission line (mostly of 275 or 400 kv) among children born in England and Wales in 1962-1995. (
  • Violence Policy Center analysts looked at all federal firearms cases tied to Mexican gun traffickers they could find in California and three other states from 2006 to 2009. (
  • Children ≤18 years old within 2 years of MS onset or controls without autoimmune disorders attending a University of California, San Francisco, USA, pediatric clinic were examined for fecal bacterial community composition and predicted function by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analysis. (
  • We demonstrate that, following Proposition 99, tobacco consumption fell markedly in California relative to a comparable synthetic control region. (
  • In 1989, California became "the first state to ban assault weapons," and since that time, it has enacted a steady stream of gun controls, only to see violent crime rise and high-profile shootings-including terror attacks-betray the lie that gun control saves lives. (
  • Think about it like this: before the new gun controls were even signed on July 1, California had universal background checks, which means no "gun show loophole," a ten-day waiting period on gun purchases, firearm registration requirements, Gun Violence Restraining Orders, other means of firearm confiscation, and requirements for concealed carry permit holders that are so stringent getting a concealed carry permit in California is a herculean task. (
  • The experimental approach allows control of the effect of extraneous factors that may have an effect on the outcome under study, but are not under investigation. (
  • A case-control study is a type of medical research investigation often used to help determine the cause of a disease, particularly when investigating a disease outbreak or a rare condition. (
  • these involve enrolling a specific cohort and following that cohort prospectively, with "cases" emerging as people who develop the disease or condition under investigation, and those unaffected forming the "control" group. (
  • If other patients are to be used as referents, it is safer to adopt a range of control diagnoses rather than a single disease group. (
  • Some case-control studies to test this have taken referents from the general population, whereas others have used patients with other types of cancer. (
  • Cases were 195 diabetic patients aged 69.0 +/- 9.2 years who had an incident malignancy. (
  • Patients from hospitals and clinics may not represent the case base population if referral patterns vary by disease or condition. (
  • Furthermore, when using hospital- or clinic-based control subjects, we must guard against the potential for unrecognized shared causes for the case-defining disease and the diseases or conditions of patients selected for recruitment as control subjects. (
  • Participants 532 patients under age 65 who died from asthma and 532 controls with a hospital admission for asthma matched for period, age, and area. (
  • [ 6 ] histopathologic reports were obtained for 197 patients, 136 with malignant and 62 with benign tumors (1 case had 2 benign tumors: ependymoma and acoustic neurinoma). (
  • One hundred infants who received a diagnosis of having nonsynostotic plagiocephaly were recruited as case patients and compared with 94 control subjects who were selected from a citywide database of infants. (
  • One hundred case patients, being consecutive infants between the ages of 2 and 12 months and diagnosed as having NSP, were recruited from the Middlemore Hospital craniofacial clinic and from Auckland pediatric physiotherapy clinics between January and August 2001. (
  • The aim of the study was to examine the oral health status of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, to compare their oral health status to that of a control group, and to relate it to the duration and severity of PD. (
  • 74 PD patients and 74 controls were interviewed and orally examined. (
  • More PD patients than controls reported oral hygiene care support as well as chewing/biting problems, taste disturbance, tooth mobility, and xerostomia, whereas dentate patients had more teeth with carious lesions, tooth root remnants, and biofilm. (
  • In this paper we have included longitudinal and case-control studies of asthma or wheeze occurring after infancy and case series of asthmatic patients among whom parental smoking was related to disease severity. (
  • For both phases, cases included patients diagnosed with osteosarcoma, and controls were patients diagnosed with other bone tumors or nonneoplastic conditions. (
  • In phase 1, cases ( n = 209) and controls ( n = 440) were patients of record in the participating orthopedic departments from 1989 to 1993. (
  • In phase 2, cases ( n = 108) and controls ( n = 296) were incident patients who were identified and treated by orthopedic physicians from 1994 to 2000. (
  • The implication is that many true EVD case patients in Liberia may have died before receiving a definitive diagnosis. (
  • There is a growing interest in using seasonal influenza vaccines in AMI prevention, with studies (including three randomised controlled trials (RCTs)) 8-10 focusing on secondary prevention in patients with previous AMIs or known CHD. (
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts were measured by ELISA in peripheral leukocytes from 119 non-small cell lung cancer patients and 98 controls at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. (
  • A hiatal hernia was identified in 68% of patients undergoing RN on either UGI study or EGD compared to 88% in the LN cohort. (
  • We evaluated 151 rectum and 102 colon cancer cases selected among surgical patients at the Portuguese Oncology Institute, and 879 community controls. (
  • The number of patients with a positive allergy history was higher among postoperative cases than controls (p = 0.004) as was the number with previous leucopenic episodes (p = 0.03). (
  • Both uni- and multivariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences between patients with NMS ( n =15) and controls ( n =45) with regard to the presence of mental retardation, psychomotor agitation, and a number of variables relating to neuroleptic use (newly introduced or increased, intramuscular administration, and dosage). (
  • We found no differences between NMS patients and psychiatric controls in respect of changes in environmental temperature. (
  • Our study supports the need for caution when using intramuscularly administered, abruptly increasing, high-dose neuroleptics, particularly in mentally retarded or agitated patients, regardless of environmental temperature. (
  • Case-control association studies are widely used in the search for genetic variants that contribute to human diseases. (
  • An alternative could be an Internet-based report that accompanies an analytic paper on an epidemiologic study. (
  • This paper's main purpose was to show how to estimate risks, prevalences and rates in studies known today as case-control studies, an almost lost art. (
  • This paper showed how to use density control sampling to estimate rate ratios in case-control studies. (
  • Method The purpose of our systematic review of case-control studies is twofold: (1) to estimate the association between influenza infection and AMI and (2) to estimate the association between influenza vaccination and AMI. (
  • For example, in a study trying to show that people who smoke (the attribute ) are more likely to be diagnosed with lung cancer (the outcome ), the cases would be persons with lung cancer, the controls would be persons without lung cancer (not necessarily healthy), and some of each group would be smokers. (
  • Cancer Causes Control. (
  • The Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) unites and supports the cancer community to reduce the global cancer burden, to promote greater equity, and to ensure that cancer control continues to be a priority in the world health and development agenda. (
  • UICC aims to nurture aspiring young cancer control professionals to become successful leaders in cancer control and the wider global health community. (
  • It hosts selected resources on cancer control like toolkits, multimedia campaigns or background data. (
  • Controls were comprised of individuals with no history of skin cancer who screened negative for skin cancer upon physical examination at the affiliated cancer screening or primary care clinics ( n = 315). (
  • Skin cancer prevention study group. (
  • Perea-Milla LE, Minarro-Del Moral RM, Martinez-Garcia C, Zanetti R, Rosso S, Serrano S, Aneiros JF, Jimenez-Puente A, Redondo M (2003) Lifestyles, environmental and phenotypic factors associated with lip cancer: a case-control study in southern Spain. (
  • Dietary pattern analysis is a powerful technique to study the relationships between diet and cancer, accounting for the specificities of overall dietary intake in each setting. (
  • Controls can carry the same disease as the experimental group, but of another grade/severity, therefore being different from the outcome of interest. (
  • In order to compare the occurrence of disease in exposed subjects with its occurrence in non-exposed subjects, the health status of a group of individuals not exposed to the agent under study (control subjects) is followed in the same way as that of the group of index subjects. (
  • Should any member of the control population be diagnosed with the disease under study, it must be guaranteed that the individual would be identified as a member of the case group. (
  • SAN DIEGO A Washington DC gun control group says President Barack Obama should ban the import of assault weapons and make public a database that traces guns. (
  • the control group without atopic disease. (
  • Longitudinal and cohort studies follow the same group of individuals over time. (
  • Case-control studies include people with a disease or other condition and a suitable control or reference group. (
  • Depression was diagnosed more often in the subject group than in the control group according to the psychiatric interview. (
  • However, slight depression was most common in the study group. (
  • Regarding changes in appetite, the majority of the study group responded that they had a poorer appetite than previously. (
  • 118 women with PA (Group A: 54 without vaginal bleeding and Group B: 64 with bleeding), 130 women without either PA or vaginal bleeding throughout their pregnancy (Group C), 123 women with vaginal bleeding but without PA (Group D), and 46 healthy pregnant women who had undergone a control laboratory evaluation in the second/third trimester for history of previous cytomegalovirus (additional control group) were included. (
  • p = 0.018) than the additional control group. (
  • It may be that editing content is restricted to a registered user group (as is the case with Wikipedia), but anyone can register. (
  • Case households had fewer immunized mothers (22% vs 32%) or fathers (20% vs 31%) but were more likely to include additional and older children. (
  • Mothers of cases and controls will be interviewed by telephone within 15 months after the infant's date of birth. (
  • The two sets of information on case mothers and control mothers were compared, using the medical record as a reference. (
  • in control mothers, the figures were 4 and 89 respectively. (
  • The methodological principles of cohort and case-control studies are briefly outlined. (
  • Methodological issues in assessing reproducibility--a comparative study of various indices of reprod. (
  • It was conducted in the form of a case-control study of paternal occupational data for 1318 cases of retinoblastoma, born and diagnosed between 1962 and 1999, and 1318 controls matched on sex, date of birth and birth registration sub-district. (
  • Sweden reintroduced metamizole in 1995, only to withdraw it again in 1999 on account of agranulocytosis cases [4]. (
  • If a larger proportion of the cases smoke than the controls, that suggests, but does not conclusively show, that the hypothesis is valid. (
  • Extensive controls imposed early in China's coronavirus outbreak may have prevented hundreds of thousands of infections, a new study suggests. (
  • Our analysis suggests that without the Wuhan travel ban and the national emergency response there would have been more than 700,000 confirmed COVID-19 cases outside of Wuhan by that date. (
  • Achieving such a thorough level of contact tracing may be impractical, but the new study suggests that a large reduction in transmission could also be achieved by supplementing with moderate physical distancing measures. (
  • By utilizing data previously collected from a large cohort study, the time and cost of beginning a new case-control study is avoided. (
  • Individuals exposed to the agent under study (index subjects) are followed over time and their health status is observed and recorded during the course of the study. (
  • Depending on the time when the cohort study is initiated relative to occurrence of the disease(s) to be studied, one distinguishes between current and historical cohort studies. (
  • Though weight data was already being collected in the carbon molding area, we needed to implement a paperless system to help the operators respond in real-time to out-of-control signals," says Ben Fisher, product manufacturing engineer at Trek. (
  • Calculating control limits and periodically checking the process capability were time consuming and tedious. (
  • Using InfinityQS (Chantilly, VA) software for real-time statistical process control (SPC), Trek was able to automate its quality control procedures. (
  • Since the time period we studied included the Spring Festival holiday and Chinese Lunar New Year, we were able to compare patterns of travel into and out of Wuhan during the outbreak with cell phone data from two previous spring festivals," said co-author Ottar Bjornstad, a professor of entomology and biology at Penn State in College Park, Pa. (
  • In this paper, we consider optimal control problems with multiple time delays in state and control variables and present two applications in biomedicine. (
  • L. Göllmann and H. Maurer , Theory and applications of optimal control problems with multiple time-delays, Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization , 10 (2014), 413-441. (
  • As such, it needed to maximise operator efficiency, provide complete accountability in case of incidents and deliver clear return on investment over time. (
  • all exposed cases were currently on IMD treatment at the time of the stool sample, the naïve cases had never been exposed to an IMD. (
  • You have the right to withdraw or change your consent at any time by contacting Trend Control Systems. (
  • Given the inherent time frame required of this approach, it can be very challenging to employ such a study in conflict and post-conflict settings where conditions can change rapidly. (
  • Case-control studies are relatively simple and economical to carry out, but the one weakness is that only one outcome may be studied at a time. (
  • The controls were matched with the subjects according to place of residence, age, time that pension was granted, and occupation. (
  • Another important number is what's called doubling time - how long it takes the number of cases to double. (
  • Cases included those conducted with first-time AMI or any AMI cases. (
  • So case-control studies are good for rare diseases because they're most practical ( because they save a ton of money and time). (
  • But any time you pick and choose who is in your study, there exists the chance you're inadvertently picking and choosing people who share a second variable. (
  • Since you're looking back in time with a case-control study, not only are we non-random, but we also know people are poor historians. (
  • A case matched cohort of 16 LN performed during that same time period was identified for comparison. (
  • In our retrospective case control study there was no significant difference in operative time, estimated blood loss, hospital length of stay, or complication rate between the RN and LN cohorts. (
  • However, the authors note that the model is based on a series of assumptions about the effectiveness of testing, tracing, isolation, and quarantine-for example about the amount of time it takes to isolate cases with symptoms (average 2.6 days) and the likelihood that their contacts adhere to quarantine (90%)-which, although plausible, are optimistic. (
  • Datalogic, a global leader in Automatic Data Capture and Industrial Automation, announces the release of a new field service video case study for field force automation. (
  • Parental reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination is difficult to implement, and empirical data on its impact is limited to a single hospital-based study in Texas, which found no reduction in infant pertussis hospitalization. (
  • We demonstrate our approach using tens of thousands of control subjects from studies of Crohn disease, showing how it controls false positives, provides power similar to that achieved when all control data are directly accessible, and enhances power when control data are limiting or even imperfectly matched ancestrally. (
  • This case study describes how the SNAP PAC System Motion Control Subsystem was used with the new stepper motors to control module testing and gather test data. (
  • A secondary data analysis was performed with data collected from 2 separate but linked studies. (
  • Together with Candi's Network Operations Cloud™ the IoT Server abstracts the complexity of M2M communications to simplify access, visualization, control and data collection for developers and third parties. (
  • The most critical point in Energy Management System deployments is the central data transfer and collection point: i.e. the gateway," said Steve Raschke, CEO, Candi Controls, Inc. "We searched for a gateway partner with a track record of product availability, expertise and customer service to supply our enterprise customers with industrial PCs. (
  • 2) Given that the data analysis will adjust for the variable Z, is matching on Z the most efficient method of selecting controls? (
  • This requires a suitable case definition (see Chapter 2 ). (
  • Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 79-117. (
  • A study of benign prostatic hypertrophy might be misleading if cases were identified from hospital admissions and admission to hospital was influenced not only by the presence and severity of disease but also by other variables, such as social class. (
  • The cohort study starts with the putative cause of disease, and observes the occurrence of disease relative to the hypothesized causal agent, while the case-control study proceeds from documented disease and investigates possible causes of the disease. (
  • Eight cases and 11 controls reported previous radiotherapy for benign or malignant disease, yielding an OR of 1.58 (95% CI, 0.60-4.16). (
  • Case-control studies in which children with severe disease are compared with children with non-severe disease and with community controls, avoid some of the ethical and logistical problems inherent in such an undertaking. (
  • Cases and controls generally are matched according to specific characteristics (eg, age, sex, or duration of disease) to reduce by these variables. (
  • Nigeria and Senegal, two of the five countries affected by the world's worst ever Ebola outbreak are managing to halt the spread of the disease, the World Health Organization said on Monday, although the overall death toll rose to 2,793 out of 5,762 cases. (
  • Introduction For simplicity we first consider measurement of the relationship between a disease (0) and an agent under study (E) in the presence of a single confounding variable Z. Extensions to the more realistic case where a set of variables are candidates for adjustment are outlined in Section 2.4. (
  • The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. (
  • T. Guinn , Reduction of delayed optimal control problems to nondelayed problems, Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications , 18 (1976), 371-377. (
  • If you are using more than one control per case then this function also provides the reduction in sample size relative to a paired study that you can obtain using your number of controls per case ( Dupont, 1988 ). (
  • Operators were challenged with monitoring critical processes, but also had the intensive job of setting up valve transfer paths, dialing-in mixer and pump speeds and adjusting crucial temperature control valves. (
  • R. F. Hartl , S. P. Sethi and R. G. Vickson , A survey of the maximum principles for optimal control problems with state constraints, SIAM Review , 37 (1995), 181-218. (
  • However, it has been shown that with 4 controls per case and/or stratified sampling of controls, relatively little efficiency may be lost, depending on the method of estimation used. (
  • Estimability and estimation in case-referent studies. (
  • The statistical power of these studies was limited due to small numbers of subjects close to lines. (
  • Hartge 1 emphasizes the issues related to response in population-based epidemiologic studies. (
  • In fact, a critical and challenging aspect of population-based case-control study designs is how to develop a scientifically sound and cost-effective method for identifying and enrolling control subjects. (
  • The defined population base will depend on the source of case subjects: medical practices or hospitals, health plans, or population-based registries. (
  • Historically, sources of population-based controls for case-control studies have included hospitals and clinics, random-digit dialing (RDD) or telephone directories, electoral rolls and other "population" registers, neighborhood or area surveys, Medicare beneficiary files, and department of motor vehicle (DMV) lists of registered or licensed drivers. (
  • RDD has been a favored method for identifying population-based control subjects. (
  • 8 13 We investigated the role of long to medium term drug treatment for asthma in causing or preventing death from asthma in a large population based case-control study. (