Metals, Alkali: Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Burns, ChemicalSodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Sodium Isotopes: Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Corneal Neovascularization: New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Epithelial Sodium Channels: Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Sodium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.Sodium Salicylate: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is less effective than equal doses of ASPIRIN in relieving pain and reducing fever. However, individuals who are hypersensitive to ASPIRIN may tolerate sodium salicylate. In general, this salicylate produces the same adverse reactions as ASPIRIN, but there is less occult gastrointestinal bleeding. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p120)Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Sodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Ammonium Hydroxide: The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.Caustics: Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Myosin Subfragments: Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Sodium Selenite: The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cations, Monovalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sodium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Metals, Alkaline Earth: Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sodium Lactate: The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: A family of membrane proteins that selectively conduct SODIUM ions due to changes in the TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. They typically have a multimeric structure with a core alpha subunit that defines the sodium channel subtype and several beta subunits that modulate sodium channel activity.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Halobacillus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE. Species are widely distributed in a variety of hypersaline environments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Antimony Sodium Gluconate: Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.NAV1.7 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found widely expressed in nociceptive primary sensory neurons. Defects in the SCN9A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several pain sensation-related disorders.Sodium Channel Agonists: A class of drugs that stimulate sodium influx through cell membrane channels.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Acidosis, Renal Tubular: A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.NAV1.8 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is expressed in nociceptors, including spinal and trigeminal sensory neurons. It plays a role in the transmission of pain signals induced by cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Sodium Benzoate: The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.Sodium Iodide: A compound forming white, odorless deliquescent crystals and used as iodine supplement, expectorant or in its radioactive (I-131) form as an diagnostic aid, particularly for thyroid function tests.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Serous Membrane: A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Gold Sodium Thiomalate: A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.CitratesSodium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)NAV1.1 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is predominantly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Defects in the SCN1A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with DRAVET SYNDROME, generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 2 (GEFS+2), and familial hemiplegic migraine type 3.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Tromethamine: An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.NAV1.4 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of SKELETAL MYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN4A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several MYOTONIC DISORDERS.Butyric Acid: A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Hyponatremia: Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Sodium Oxybate: The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.Potassium-Hydrogen Antiporters: Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Saxitoxin: A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Alkalosis: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Viscum: A plant genus in the family VISCACEAE, order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Species of this genus contain cytotoxic LECTINS. The common name of MISTLETOE is used for many species of this and the LORANTHACEAE families.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Dithionitrobenzoic Acid: A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.Hypernatremia: Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that inhibit the activation of VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lasalocid: Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.Air Bags: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.TritiumEdetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.NAV1.3 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in neuronal tissue that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of excitable membranes.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Batrachotoxins: Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.PolysaccharidesSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Ion Exchange: Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.Veratridine: A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Piperaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Piperales best known for the black pepper widely used in SPICES, and for KAVA and Betel used for neuroactive properties.Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Depending on the nature of the alkali used in their production, soaps have distinct properties. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) gives " ... In this case, the reaction involves neutralization of the carboxylic acid. The neutralization method is used to produce ... Saponification to the sodium soap of myristic acid takes place using NaOH in water. The acid itself can be obtained by adding ... If necessary, soaps may be precipitated by salting it out with sodium chloride. The conversion of the fat of a corpse into ...
The alkali feldspars are most commonly in a series between potassium-rich orthoclase and sodium-rich albite; in the case of ... In that case, the mineral is termed dioctahedral, whereas in other case it is termed trioctahedral. The kaolinite-serpentine ... In the case of silicate materials, the substitution of Si4+ by Al3+ allows for a variety of minerals because of the need to ... In the latter case, the decay of a radioactive element damages the mineral crystal; the result, termed a radioactive halo or ...
The alkali metal chalcogenides often crystallize with the antifluorite structure and the alkaline earth salts in the sodium ... Extreme cases include metal-rich phases (e.g. Ta2S), which exhibit extensive metal-metal bonding, and chalcogenide-rich ... Alkali metal and alkaline earth monochalcogenides are salt-like, being colourless and often water-soluble. The sulfides tend to ... Owing to these contrasting bond strengths, these materials engage in intercalation by alkali metals. The intercalation process ...
Typical alkali metals used in this method are potassium, sodium, and lithium. For example, the preparation of Rieke magnesium ... In some cases the reaction is carried out with a catalytic amount of an electron carrier such as biphenyl or naphthalene. The ... Rieke metals are usually prepared by a reduction of a THF suspension of an anhydrous metal chloride with an alkali metal. ... coprecipitated alkali metal chloride is usually not separated from the highly reactive metal, which is generally used in situ. ...
The alkylation of alkali metal di- and polysulfides gives disulfides. "Thiokol" polymers arise when sodium polysulfide is ... RSH Such reactions are mediated by enzymes in some cases and in other cases are under equilibrium control, especially in the ... For this specific case, n is an even number and p is equal to n/2. Substituting the value of p, the above formula for the ... More aggressive, alkali metals will effect this reaction: RS−SR + 2 Na → 2 NaSR These reactions are often followed by ...
Molten salt reactor - salts, typically fluorides of the alkali metals and of the alkali earth metals, are used as the coolant. ... In this case, the added stress by the bubbles is enhanced by the decarburization of the steel, which weakens the metal. In ... Liquid metal cooled reactor - utilizes a liquid metal, such as sodium or a lead-bismuth alloy to cool the reactor core. ... In this case, the increase in diffusivities due to high temperatures is not a very strong factor for causing creep. The ...
The chloralkali process (also chlor-alkali and chlor alkali) is an industrial process for the electrolysis of NaCl. It is the ... The mercury is the cathode, where sodium is produced and forms a sodium-mercury amalgam with the mercury. The amalgam is ... Usually the process is conducted on a brine (an aqueous solution of NaCl), in which case NaOH, hydrogen, and chlorine result. ... Because the process gives equivalent amounts of chlorine and sodium hydroxide (two moles of sodium hydroxide per mole of ...
However in the case of lithium hydride, sodium hydride and potassium hydride molecules, this adduct decomposes and positronium ... One method of formation is through alkali metal hydrides reacting with positrons. Molecules with dipole moments greater than ... Oyamada, Takayuki; Masanori Tachikawa (2014). "Multi-component molecular orbital study on positron attachment to alkali-metal ... hydride and the alkali positive ion form. PsH is a simple exotic compound. Other compounds of positronium are possible by the ...
... can be deprotonated with strong bases such as butyllithium and sodium hydride. The resulting alkali pyrrolide is ... In the cases of N-substituted pyrroles, metalation of the carbons is more facile. Alkyl groups can be introduced as ...
Alkali and alkaline earth metal hydrides such as potassium hydride and sodium hydride are superbases. Such species are ... A desirable property in many cases is low nucleophilicity, i.e. a non-nucleophilic base. Unhindered alkyllithiums, for example ...
When the alkali used is sodium hydroxide, so-called sodium diuranate, SDU, is produced. This can also be converted into an ... In all cases the uranium is at the centre of an octahedron of oxygen atoms. Few other compounds of uranium(V) are stable. ... When the alkali used is ammonia, so-called ammonium diuranate, known in the industry as ADU, is the main constituent of ... Another choice of alkali is magnesium oxide, making magnesium diuranate, known as MDU. Oxides and uranates of uranium(VI) have ...
The chlor-alkali industry is a major consumer of the world's energy budget. This process converts sodium chloride into chlorine ... In aqueous solution, it is highly soluble in most cases; however, some chloride salts, such as silver chloride, lead(II) ... An example is table salt, which is sodium chloride with the chemical formula NaCl. In water, it dissociates into Na+ and Cl− ... Chloride salts such as sodium chloride are often very soluble in water. It is an essential electrolyte located in all body ...
... and alkali metals as electron donors. Of continuing value is the sodium metal-mediated Birch reduction of arenes (another name ... In this case, an alkane is formed, along with a benzene. The gain of aromatic stabilization energy when the benzene is formed ... In an interesting case of stereoconvergence, both the E-isomer and the Z-isomer in this reaction yield the (S)-enantiomer. ...
Alkali basalt is relatively poor in silica and rich in sodium. It is silica-undersaturated and may contain feldspathoids, ... Basalt rocks are in some cases classified after their titanium (Ti) content in High-Ti and Low-Ti varieties. High-Ti and Low-Ti ... Many alkali basalts may be formed at greater depths, perhaps as deep as 150-200 km.[citation needed] The origin of high-alumina ... In contrast, alkali basalts have normalized patterns highly enriched in the light REE, and with greater abundances of the REE ...
The alkali feldspars are most commonly in a series between potassium-rich orthoclase and sodium-rich albite; in the case of ... In that case, the mineral is termed dioctahedral, whereas in other case it is termed trioctahedral.[104] ... In the latter case, the decay of a radioactive element damages the mineral crystal; the result, termed a radioactive halo or ... It is common for the Si4+ to be substituted by Al3+ because of similarity in ionic radius and charge; in those cases, the [AlO4 ...
Sodium bronzes were also obtained by the same method. It was observed that at a slightly higher temperature (about 575 °C and ... The electrical resistivity can vary considerably depending on the direction, in some cases by 200:1 or more. They are generally ... The hydrogen in these compounds can be replaced by alkali metals by treatment with solutions of the corresponding halides. ... sodium tungsten bronze M. Onoda, K. Toriumi, Y. Matsuda, M. Sato "Crystal structure of lithium molybdenum purple bronze Li 0.9 ...
A solution of a strong alkali, such as sodium hydroxide, at concentration 1 mol dm−3, has a pH of 14. Thus, measured pH values ... This is satisfactory for simple cases like this one, but is more difficult to apply to more complicated cases as those below. ... When an acid is dissolved in water, the pH will be less than 7 (25 °C). When a base, or alkali, is dissolved in water, the pH ... The pH of a 0.01M solution of HCl is equal to −log10(0.01), that is, pH = 2. Sodium hydroxide, NaOH, is an example of a strong ...
Also effective are reductants such as sodium or sodium naphthenide. Vitamin B12 has also shown promise. Some micro-organisms ... The pollution resulting from this factory and the case of Anniston, in the USA, are the largest known cases in the world of PCB ... PCBs have also been destroyed by pyrolysis in the presence of alkali metal carbonates. Thermal desorption is highly effective ... Stewart went on to be the pioneer and lead attorney in the first and majority of cases against Monsanto and focused on ...
The hypophosphite ion is H 2PO− 2. The salts are prepared by heating white phosphorus in warm aqueous alkali e.g. Ca(OH)2: P4 ... IUPAC prefers the term phosphinate in all cases, however in practice hypophosphite is usually used to describe inorganic ... species (e.g. sodium hypophosphite), while phosphinate typically refers to organophosphorus species. ...
A typical reductant is sodium metal or sodium amalgam; NaK alloy, and alkali metal trialkylborohydrides have been used. CpFe(CO ... In some cases, salts of [Fp(isobutene)]+ are precursors to other Fp-alkene complexes. The exchange process is facilitated by ... Sodium-Potassium Alloy: An Efficient Reagent for the Production of Metal Carbonyl Anions". J. Organomet. Chem. 99 (2): 263-268 ... but the alkene is easily released with sodium iodide in acetone or by warming with acetonitrile. The alkene ligand in these ...
In both cases, the salts act as catalysts, and interfere with the hydrogen-oxygen combustion to reduce the muzzle flash. The ... In World War I, bags of sodium chloride (table salt) were placed in front of the propellant charges of artillery to suppress ... Addition of a few percent of alkali salts to the powder for flash suppression is common, typically salts of potassium such as ... side effects of the alkali salts is a reduction in power, an increase in smoke, and fouling and corrosion of the firearm and ...
A classic case is sodium methoxide produced by the addition of sodium metal to methanol: 2 CH3OH + 2 Na → 2 CH3ONa + H2 Other ... In solution, the alkali metal derivatives exhibit strong ion-pairing, as expected for the alkali metal derivative of a strongly ... alkali metals can be used in place of sodium, and most alcohols can be used in place of methanol. Titanium tetrachloride reacts ... Sodium methoxide, for example, is commonly used for this purpose, a reaction that is relevant to the production of "bio-diesel ...
... in the cases of] mineral alkali [i.e., sodium carbonate] and lime.) See: Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Beiträge zur Chemischen ... By this means, sodium aluminate is formed; it is then extracted with water and precipitated either by sodium bicarbonate or by ... non vero alkali minerali et calce." (It is significant as well that by [use of] the volatile alkali [i.e., ammonia] this ... The general form of an alum is XM(SO4)2·nH2O, where X is an alkali metal or ammonium, MIII is a trivalent metal, and n often is ...
The alkali metal polysulfides arise by treatment of a solution of sulfide, e.g. sodium sulfide, with elemental sulfur: S2− + n ... In some cases, polysulfide polymers can be formed by ring-opening polymerization reactions. Polysulfide polymers are also ... The energy released in the reaction of sodium and elemental sulfur is the basis of battery technology. The sodium-sulfur ... and sodium sulfide. Polysulfides are ligands in coordination chemistry. Examples of transition metal polysulfido complexes ...
In case of cooling towers with sea water makeup, sodium salts are deposited on nearby lands which would convert the land into ... alkali soil, reducing the fertility of vegetative lands and also cause corrosion of nearby structures. Fires sometimes occur in ... removes temporary hardness in the water and also converts sodium bicarbonates in river water into sodium carbonate. Sodium ... Also water-soluble sodium salts present in the ash enhance the sodium content in water further. Thus river water is converted ...
All of the alkali metals except lithium and caesium have at least one naturally occurring radioisotope: sodium-22 and sodium-24 ... 43 In the former case it resembles superficially the alkali metals; in the latter case, the halogens, but the differences due ... Sodium salts of fatty acids are used as soap.[197] Pure sodium metal also has many applications, including use in sodium-vapour ... Whereas isomerisation is fast with lithium and sodium, it is slow with the heavier alkali metals. The heavier alkali metals ...
Potass., Sodium Comp., Exc. Bleach, Alkali, Alum. (1) Apply Potass., Sodium Comp., Exc. Bleach, Alkali, Alum. filter ... Antitrust Case Filings. Antitrust Case Filings To filter the list of cases, select desired options from the left navigation ... Case Open Date Incident Date Case Type Federal Court Industry Code U.S. v. Earthgrains Co., et al. March 20, 2000 Civil Merger ... Bleach, Alkali, Alum. U.S. v. Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc. and American Hospital Supply Corp. November 22, 1985 Civil ...
9.10 The strange case of the alkali oxides[edit]. Sodium metal is oxided in air to sodium peroxide, Na2O2 ... The alkali oxides, made by reacting alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) with oxygen, show an unusual trend. When lithium reacts ... The correct coordination number is predicted in all cases, and borderline cases such as GeO2 and ZrO2 are found in structures ... From geometric considerations, the anion radius in this case is given by: r. −. =. r. M. X. 2. {\displaystyle r_{-}={\frac {r_{ ...
... alkali metal salts such as sodium and potassium; alkaline earth metal salts such as magnesium and calcium; ammonium salt; ... Parent Case Data:. CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS. This application is divisional application under 35 U.S.C. §120 of ... The salts can be in some cases hydrates or ethanol solvates. The stoichiometry of the salt will vary with the nature of the ... Zhao et al., "Attenuation by dietary taurine of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice and of THP-1-induced damage to ...
In this case an alkali (sodium hydroxide) is corrosive chemical. In contact with skin it will cause burn and damage eyes. From ... 250 cm3 of 0.100 M sodium hydroxide solution. 12. A sheet of paper to record the results of the titration. 13. A white tile. ... Its pH value is 9.5 which mean it is an alkali. This chemical also may cause damage to your body. During ...
... preferably an alkali cation, for example sodium, in the case in which the crystalline solid IM-10 is in the as synthesized form ... In all cases, the reaction is continued until crystallization occurs. Fluorine can be introduced in the form of salts of alkali ... In the preferred case in which Z is aluminium, the alumina source is preferably sodium aluminate, or an aluminium salt, for ... The cation M used is preferably an alkali metal, in particular sodium. Examples of S that can be cited are strong acid radicals ...
The main uses of alkali metal nitrates are in fertilizers in the case of the sodium and potassium derivatives. They are also ... Sodium and potassium nitrate are also commonly used as fertilisers. Alkali metal hydride Alkali metal halide Ammonium nitrate ... Alkali metal nitrates are chemical compounds consisting of an alkali metal (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium) ... Do not confuse with alkali metal nitrite or alkali metal nitride. ...
... an alkali metal acetate, for example, sodium acetate or potassium acetate; an alkali metal alkoxide, for example, sodium ... In case that salts of Compound (I) are desired to obtain, when Compound (I) is obtained in the form of a salt, Compound (I) may ... sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide; an alkali metal carbonate, for example, sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogencarbonate or ... As the pharmaceutically acceptable metal salt, the alkali metal salt such sodium salt, potassium salt, etc.; alkaline earth ...
The sodium fluoride is described as inhibiting anaerobic glycolysis in bacteria and fungi and hence the production of ethanol. ... In the case of digoxin, incorporation into the subject collection device of the digoxin binding resin, cholestyramine, is ... Digoxin, bound to the strongly basic cholestyramine resin, can be released by mixing in strong alkali. ... Both sodium chloride impregnated as well as control pads were prepared. The device incorporating this pad was constructed by ...
Depending on the nature of the alkali used in their production, soaps have distinct properties. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) gives " ... In this case, the reaction involves neutralization of the carboxylic acid. The neutralization method is used to produce ... Saponification to the sodium soap of myristic acid takes place using NaOH in water. The acid itself can be obtained by adding ... If necessary, soaps may be precipitated by salting it out with sodium chloride. The conversion of the fat of a corpse into ...
In the case of chlor-alkali electrolysis, the anolyte is an aqueous sodium chloride solution. In the anode compartment 13, the ... In chlor-alkali cells, sodium chloride brine solution is fed into an anode compartment where it is electrolyzed to form ... The cell housing 6 has a lower inlet 10 which is an opening for feeding electrolyte (brine in the case of chlor-alkali cells), ... The sodium ions pass through the membrane; through annular space 62; and to the cathode 52, where they are electrolyzed in the ...
... utilizing hydrogen peroxide and an alkali agent, to break down complex biomass materials. The process is useful in forming a ... The preferred alkali in the reaction medium is either sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. In some cases it may be ... A second hopper or mixing pump combines a diluted solution of an alkali agent, such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide ... 5. The process of claim 1 wherein the alkali is selected from the group consisting of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide ...
... sodium bicarbonate and the potent alkali sodium hydroxide (lye). This occasionally released alkali is responsible for ~20% of ... Methods: : Interventional case report Results: : A 47 yo male with no previous ocular history was involved in a rural setting ... This case emphasises the importance of ER guide lined immediate ocular lavage following all airbag deployment MVAs, and also ... We report for the first time a severe (Pfister-Koski classification scheme) bilateral airbag related ocular alkali injury. ...
In either case the amount of the alkali metal ion added to the water is small. Per mg/L of choramine the amount of potassium ... Date: Tue, 08 Apr 2003 13:04:17 +0000 From: A.J. deLange ,ajdel at cox.net, Subject: Iron, Sodium Some well waters contain ... In my case it was not a beginner mistake. I had at least 50 batches behind me. It was more of a slip in routine. - Leo ===== ... In any case, it probably doesnt matter where the iron comes from; its in the OPs water, and should be removed. Manganese ...
... and Sodium Hydroxide or Potassium Hydroxide - basically it is degreasing solvent or floor stripper mixed with drain cleaner. ... GHB: Gamma hydroxy butyrate or Gamma hydroxybutyric acid, Sodium Oxybate Made From: gamma butyrolactone (GBL) ... This method is not without its drawbacks however; there are several case reports of caustic alkali ingestion from undissolved ... GHB: Gamma hydroxy butyrate or Gamma hydroxybutyric acid, Sodium Oxybate. Made From: gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and Sodium ...
However, the direction of this differentiation is opposite that in the case of sodium chloride. These results call for the ... Other alkali chlorides were also examined. The eutectic compound of potassium chloride and water forms a similar oxygen complex ... Acid dissociation constants of the hydroxyl groups of sodium hydroxycalix[8]arene-p-sulfonate (18=Na8H4L) were measured by the ... Another Uranophile Sodium Hydroxycalix[8]arene-p-sulfonate: Its Acid Dissociation and Divalent Metal Ion Binding Properties ...
Instead, they are probably alkali clouds, composed of molecules such as sodium sulfide and potassium chloride. The average ... But thats not the case. Instead, it looks like their formation histories could be playing an important role." ...
Case reports. Case 1. A 26 year old male presented to our emergency with two day history of high grade fever, generalized body ... The serum sodium was normal but potassium was 1mEq/l. Arterial blood gases revealed a non-anion gap acidosis. Urine analysis ... On the fifth day he was discharged with the advice to continue taking potassium and alkali supplements. ... Case 2 A 24 year old male presented to emergency with a three day history of high grade fever associated with headache, severe ...
The alkylation of alkali metal di- and polysulfides gives disulfides. "Thiokol" polymers arise when sodium polysulfide is ... Such reactions are mediated by enzymes in some cases and in other cases are under equilibrium control, especially in the ... More aggressive, alkali metals will effect this reaction: RS−SR + 2 Na → 2 NaSR. These reactions are often followed by ... In organic synthesis, hydride agents are typically employed for scission of disulfides, such as sodium borohydride. ...
The alkali feldspars are most commonly in a series between potassium-rich orthoclase and sodium-rich albite; in the case of ... In that case, the mineral is termed dioctahedral, whereas in other case it is termed trioctahedral.[104] ... In the latter case, the decay of a radioactive element damages the mineral crystal; the result, termed a radioactive halo or ... It is common for the Si4+ to be substituted by Al3+ because of similarity in ionic radius and charge; in those cases, the [AlO4 ...
Chemical burns should be washed with large quantity of water; vinegar may be added to the water for alkali burns, and sodium ... In the case of animal bites and stings, the wound should be cleaned with soap and water before applying antiseptic and a ... In case of heat cramp, exert firm pressure on cramped muscle (usually abdomen or legs) to help relieve spasms. Heatstroke. ... In the case of first- and second-degree burns, cold water should be applied before dressing with sterile bandages.. ...
Traces of alkali metal ions dissolved from glass can cause this decomposition, and, for this reason, pure H2O2 (or a ... Sodium peroxide (Na2O2) is used as a bleaching agent. It bleaches by oxidizing coloured compounds to colourless compounds. ... which functions as a weak acid in this case. O22− + H2O → O2H− + OH−. O2H− + H2O ⇌ H2O2 + OH− Peroxides also are strong ... As discussed previously, the alkali metals as well as the alkaline earth metals form peroxides. A number of other ...
Preferred cations are zinc, magnesium, calcium, and sodium and any other alkali, or alkaline earth metals may be used. The ... In any case, the amount of amine required can be controlled by monitoring the neutral point of the reaction where the total ... The metal portion of the detergent is preferably an alkali or alkaline earth metal. Preferred metals are sodium, calcium, ... Lubricating compositions in many cases also preferably include detergents. Detergents as used herein are preferably metal salts ...
Sodium is perhaps the most characteristic alkali metal, reacting violently with water and rapidly with the oxygen in air. It ... Like most of the alkali metals, potassium compounds impart a characteristic color to flames. In the case of the 19th element, ... Its most common compounds for industrial use include sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide (lye), sodium carbonate (washing soda) ... The Alkali Metals. * 3. Li. 6.941. 11. Na. 22.99. 19. K. 39.10. 37. Rb. 85.47. 55. Cs. 132.9. 87. Fr. (223). ...
The cation in the case of acid phosphites can be a metal, such as an alkali metal, for instance, sodium, potassium or lithium; ... In the case of bicyclic phenols, the rings can be linked by thio or oxyether groups, or by alkylene, alicyclidene or arylidene ... In the case of the acid phosphites, one or both of R1 and R2 is also hydrogen or a cation. ... The alkali metal salts and heavy metal salts such as lead salts are unsatisfactory. The acid can be any organic non-nitrogenous ...
Leaving group in each case is the dichlorophosphate ion, Cl,P(0)Oe. + R-C; POCl, + K . Sasse in: Methoden der organischen ... addition of alkali chlorides increases the percentage of acyl chloride. Apart from these two compounds, tert-butyl benzoate (5 ... is formed in the presence of tert-butanol at room temperature; benzoyl fluoride is produced upon addition of sodium fluoride ... In the case of anhydrides containing aliphatic acyl moieties, e. y. (3 e) and ( 3 ~ 7secondary , processes such as ketene ...
  • Only two are of major commercial value, the sodium and potassium salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. A process as in claim 1 wherein said builder is selected from the group consisting of citric acid, citric acid salts, alkali metal hydrogen carbonates, and acrylic acid/maleic acid copolymers. (google.com.au)
  • Patients receiving tube feedings or intravenous feedings must be monitored to prevent an imbalance of fluids and salts, particularly potassium, sodium, and chloride. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this reaction, the triglyceride fats first hydrolyze into free fatty acids, and then the latter combine with the alkali to form crude soap: an amalgam of various soap salts, excess fat or alkali, water, and liberated glycerol (glycerin). (wikipedia.org)
  • In accordance with the invention, ot-aminoisobutyro phenone com-pounds of the above formula and acid-addi tion salts thereof can be produced by reacting an a haloisobutyrophenone with an alkali metal alcoholate to produce an epoxy ether compound or' formula This invention relates to novel chemical compounds 10 possessing central nervous system activity and to methods for their preparation. (docme.ru)
  • To solve the liquefaction or grease breakdown problem and "to provide a composition with enhanced stability at elevated temperatures," appellant has added to those greases, according to the present invention, 0.1 to 20 per cent by weight of lithium, sodium, or potassium salts of certain aromatic carboxylic acids - the sodium salt of benzoic acid, for example, the preferred additive. (justia.com)
  • Almost as great difficulty has also been found in preparing the cæsium salt, and the crystals of both these alkali metallic salts of the hexahydrated group have always been white and opaque, so that no optical investigation has been possible. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The cadmium selenate used in preparing the double salts was obtained by precipitating a solution of cadmium sulphate with a just adequate quantity of sodium hydrate, and dissolving the thoroughly washed precipitate in selenic acid. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Here we report the identification of a population of E-ring grains that are rich in sodium salts ( 0.5-2% by mass), which can arise only if the plumes originate from liquid water. (thunderbolts.info)
  • Like sodium ions, the presence of potassium ions in the body is essential for the correct function of many cells. (chemtopics.com)
  • We have investigated the structures and stabilities of four different adenine quartets with alkali and halide ions in the gas phase and in water, using dispersion-corrected density functional theory at the BLYP-D/TZ2P level. (springer.com)
  • There are a few cases in which these ions are really quite stable -- alkali cations such as Na + and halide anions such as Cl - come to mind -- but here we are interested in exploring the less stable, more temporary examples of ions. (csbsju.edu)
  • At our present state of knowledge, the decomposition of glass is imperfectly understood, but most glass technologists agree that glass decomposition is due to preferential leaching and diffusion of alkali ions (Na and K) across a hydrated porous silica network. (tamu.edu)
  • Sodium ions are removed and replaced by hydrogen ions, which diffuse into the glass to preserve the electrical balance. (tamu.edu)
  • The silicates are converted into a hydrated silica network through which sodium ions diffuse out. (tamu.edu)
  • The alkali which leached out is neutralized by the acid, and fewer hydroxyl ions are available to react with the silica. (tamu.edu)
  • The alkali ions are always extracted in excess of the silica, leaving an alkali-deficient layer, which continually thickens as the deterioration moves deeper into the glass. (tamu.edu)
  • In comparison, potassium reacts slower than rubidium but faster than sodium. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Rubidium, in its radioactive form, has a significant role in medicine to trace blood flow in suspected cases of blockage and to treat seizures and goitre, an abnormal condition of the thyroid gland located in the neck region. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The defect lies in the voltage-gated calcium or sodium ion channels which are mutated, resulting in abnormal sarcolemmal excitation. (ispub.com)
  • Welcome to the calcium-alkali syndrome," Journal of the American Society of Nephrology , vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1440-1443, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • R. A. L. Sutton, N. L. M. Wong, and J. H. Dirks, "Effects of metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on sodium and calcium transport in the dog kidney," Kidney International , vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 520-533, 1979. (hindawi.com)
  • We present the first case of a dentist who accidentally splashed endodontic calcium hydroxide into her own eye. (jcda.ca)
  • De Bruyne and others, 5 and Bramante and others 6 described cases of overextending a calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing into the periradicular and soft tissue after iatrogenic perforation of maxillary incisors. (jcda.ca)
  • Sharma and others 7 described 2 cases in which calcium hydroxide was injected into an artery through the root canal system of maxillary canals. (jcda.ca)
  • However, Fava 9 described a case of calcium hydroxide overfilling in the maxillary sinus that was beneficial: 3 months after the incident, the patient was free of symptoms, although a radiographic mass was visible in the sinus. (jcda.ca)
  • Recently, another study 10 described a case of necrosis observed on the left infraorbital area of the skin and concomitant hypoesthesia of the infraorbital nerve and mental nerve (embolia cutis medicamentosa) after calcium hydroxide was injected during endodontic treatment. (jcda.ca)
  • Here, we present a case of a calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing accidentally splashed into the eye of a dentist during root canal therapy that resulted in the loss of all sight in the injured eye. (jcda.ca)
  • of sodium shows that of six who had been in moderate or severe shock, only one was producing an alkaline urine 24 hours later and the remaining five still had acid urines 26 to 34 hours after wounding. (army.mil)
  • The resistance to heat and light aging of webs of natural or synthetic fibers is improved by using as a binder a composition comprising a latex of a polymer containing a carboxylic acid functional group, which has been neutralized with a fixed alkali, preferably in conjunction with a latent acid. (patents.com)
  • Procedure is as follows: A 5ml of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) extract of food sample and 1ml of 2% TCA solution are taken into a 50ml separatory funnel to which are added 10ml of 5% CS 2 -chloroform and 0.2ml of the alkali reagent, and the funnel is shaken vigorously by a mechanical shaker for 2 minutes. (go.jp)
  • For uric acid stone formers, alkali therapy is the standard of care whereas allopurinol can be beneficial in hyperuricosuric stone formers. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, DE 35 41 145, for example, describes alkaline machine dishwashing detergent tablets of uniform composition which have a broad solubility profile and which contain a mixture of sodium metasilicate monohydrate and anhydrous metasilicate and also anhydrous pentasodium triphosphate and, optionally, other constituents. (google.com.au)
  • I'm disapponted that it is very different than anhydrous sodium peroxide and that there is apparently no way to get anhydrous Na2O2 from the 8-hydrate. (sciencemadness.org)
  • The plasma carbon-dioxide combining power responded to this excess alkali by rapidly rising to 34 milliequivalents per liter, but despite this relative alkalosis the urine did not become alkaline until the third postoperative day. (army.mil)
  • Problems arise when an excess of alkali and a deficiency in lime are present in the mixture, for the glass will be especially susceptible to attack by moisture. (tamu.edu)
  • There is no such thing as pure sodium salt. (dietdoctor.com)
  • Pure sodium does not exist by itself in nature because it combines readily with a variety of substances, including chlorine to form table salt. (ehow.co.uk)
  • To keep pure sodium from reacting with oxygen and other substances in the air, you must store it under liquid paraffin. (ehow.co.uk)
  • DE 41 21 307 describes stable, bifunctional, phosphate- and metasilicate-free low-alkali machine dishwashing detergent tablets of which the builder components are partly used in water-free form and, during the production process, are sprayed with water which guarantees the required solubility profile and provides for favorable tabletting behavior. (google.com.au)
  • We report for the first time a severe (Pfister-Koski classification scheme) bilateral airbag related ocular alkali injury. (arvojournals.org)
  • As demonstrated in this case, airbags despite their life saving intent can also be associated with serious ocular injuries including severe alkali burns. (arvojournals.org)
  • Severe cases can lead to convulsions and coma . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These observations show rather clearly that in patients who have had severe or moderate shock, an alkaline urine is not usually produced even after administration of large quantities of alkali, although the metabolic acidosis may be relieved. (army.mil)
  • The dangers of producing severe alkalosis in such patients, and a partial explanation of their inability to form an alkaline urine become apparent in Tables 81, 82, and 83, and Chart 28 which show the sequence of events in three patients with moderate or severe initial shock who received large quantities of alkali. (army.mil)
  • In both cases, the insult resulted in severe clinical signs, including necrosis of the gingival mucosa, oral mucosa and the skin. (jcda.ca)
  • We're now incorporating the mechanistic insights grained in or prior findings to make the fuel cell separator membranes more alkali resistant,' he said. (wustl.edu)
  • Evidence will be presented here that with judicious use of alkalis it is possible to relieve metabolic acidosis, but that in the presence of shock and the accompanying decrease in renal function, it may be very difficult and even dangerous to attempt to produce an alkaline urine. (army.mil)
  • Through the SO3 mitigation technology, a naturally occurring mineral chemically known as sodium sesquicarbonate (the raw material for soda ash), is injected in dry form into the flue gas stream. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In my mind, I worry that worst case the heater, which is stuck to the side of the bin, will melt the plastic, drain out all the water, then burn up and cause a horrible conflagration. (hbd.org)
  • Potassium, like sodium, melts below the boiling point of water (63oC) and is less dense than water also. (chemtopics.com)
  • In all known cases, the mixture to be tabletted is produced either with components having a high water of crystallization content, which readily give off their water of crystallization during tabletting, or by addition of free water to water-free components to anhydrize their surfaces. (google.com.au)
  • 1. A hydrogel solid comprising diester crosslinked polyglucan selected from the class consisting of amylose, dextran and pullulan succinates and glutarates, said hydrogel solid being water-insoluble and the neutral pH sodium salt of which has a saline retention of isotonic saline solution sufficient to increase the weight of said hydrogel solid to an amount of between about 5 and 90 times its weight. (google.ca)
  • 7. A process for preparing a crystalline form of ibandronate sodium as defined in any one of claims 1 to 3 comprising the steps of dissolving ibandronate sodium in water to form a solution, maintaining the solution under a saturated environment of acetone, and decanting the solution to obtain ibandronate sodium. (epo.org)
  • Structure of a micelle , a cell-like structure formed by the aggregation of soap subunits (such as sodium stearate): The exterior of the micelle is hydrophilic (attracted to water) and the interior is lipophilic (attracted to oils). (wikipedia.org)
  • A formula for soap consisting of water, alkali , and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around 2200 BC. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results showed that bio-oil, water-soluble organics (WSO) and char yields were not remarkably influenced by shifting the catalytic system from potassium to sodium. (springer.com)
  • The compositions are applied to the surface having the coating desired to be removed by brushing, spraying, and the like, allowed to stand for a time, then either wiped off or washed off with water, except in the case of creosote removal, where the composition is allowed to dry and then removed by conventional methods. (google.ca)
  • In case of contact, flush with water for 15 minutes. (tripleclicks.com)
  • You can also buy stronger sodium hydroxide solutions eg 1M and dilute them accurately with distilled or deionised water to the correct working strength. (cider.org.uk)
  • Tupker RA, Pinnagoda J, Nater JP (1990) The transient and cumulative effect of sodium lauryl sulphate on the epidermal barrier assessed by transepidermal water loss: interindividual variation. (springer.com)
  • Such reactions are mediated by enzymes in some cases and in other cases are under equilibrium control, especially in the presence of a catalytic amount of base. (wikipedia.org)
  • A s I scrolled through the few articles and reports I have collected over the past decade regarding alkali-silica reactions, I began to realize I had developed an ignorance to this elusive subject. (precast.org)
  • A thermal pre-treating process to improve the efficiency of separating sodium sulfide from the solids generated in the upgrading reactions was developed and tested. (doe.gov)
  • of sodium the urine became alkaline only if they had had little or no initial shock. (army.mil)
  • Therefore, examining methods to compare the potency of the clamp lies next to the midisthmus , ability to retrieve genuine memories for events and a suitable drug in the urine with 1g of sodium depletion is usually an exaggeration of a daily diet contains substantial quantities of adipose tissue and that of hyperandrogenism. (bigsurlandtrust.org)