A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
Compounds that inhibit the enzyme activity or activation of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES.
An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.
A transmembrane domain-containing matrix metalloproteinase. It is synthesized as an inactive zymogen that is activated by the action of PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES such as FURIN. Matrix metalloproteinase 14 plays a direct role in the cleavage of proteins in the pericellular environment. In addition, it can function indirectly by enzymatically activating the proprotein form of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 15.
A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.
Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).
The smallest member of the MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It plays a role in tumor progression.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Matrix metalloproteinases that are associated with the CELL MEMBRANE, either through transmembrane domains or GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL ANCHORS. Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases may act within the pericellular environment to influence the process of CELL MIGRATION.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A member of the MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES that cleaves triple-helical COLLAGEN types I, II, and III.
A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a 21-kDa nonglycosylated protein found in tissue fluid and is secreted as a complex with progelatinase A by human fibroblast and uncomplexed from alveolar macrophages. An overexpression of TIMP-2 has been shown to inhibit invasive and metastatic activity of tumor cells and decrease tumor growth in vivo.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase which is highly expressed by MACROPHAGES where it may play a role in INFLAMMATION and WOUND HEALING.
A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.
Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the degradation of gelatin by acting on the peptide bonds. EC 3.4.24.-.
A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
A family of secreted protease inhibitory proteins that regulates the activity of SECRETED MATRIX METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES. They play an important role in modulating the proteolysis of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, most notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that may play a role in matrix degradation during WOUND HEALING. It is expressed at high levels by KERATINOCYTES, suggesting its role in keratinocyte migration.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is believed to play a role in EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX remodeling and cell fate determination during normal and pathological processes. Matrix metalloproteinase 11 was originally isolated in primary BREAST NEOPLASMS and may be involved in the process of tumorigenesis.
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
An extracellular endopeptidase which excises a block of peptides at the amino terminal, nonhelical region of the procollagen molecule with the formation of collagen. Absence or deficiency of the enzyme causes accumulation of procollagen which results in the inherited connective tissue disorder--dermatosparaxis. EC
A transmembrane domain-containing matrix metalloproteinase that plays a role in the cleavage of proteins in the pericellular environment. It is synthesized as an inactive zymogen that is activated by the action of ENDOPEPTIDASES such as MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 14.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A subclass of matrix metalloproteinases that are secreted into the pericellular space.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
A transmembrane domain-containing matrix metalloproteinase. It is synthesized as an inactive zymogen that is activated by the proteolytic action of PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES. Matrix metalloproteinase 16 plays a direct role in the cleavage of proteins in the pericellular environment. In addition, it can function indirectly by enzymatically activating the proprotein form of other MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES such as the zymogen of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2.
Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.
A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A member of the family of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases. Mutations of the gene for TIMP3 PROTEIN causes Sorsby fundus dystrophy.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is the predominant proteolytic activity in the enamel matrix. The enzyme has a high specificity for dental enamel matrix protein AMELOGENIN.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.
A membrane-type metalloproteinase that is associated with the CELL MEMBRANE via a GLYCOSYL-PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL linkage. It is synthesized as an inactive zymogen that is activated by the action of PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES such as FURIN.
The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A phenyl mercury compound used mainly as a fungicide. Has also been used as a herbicide, slimicide, and bacteriocide.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The technique of spraying a tissue specimen with a thin coat of a heavy metal such as platinum. The specimen is sprayed from an oblique angle, which results in the uneven deposition of the coating. The varying thicknesses create a shadow effect and give a three-dimensional appearance to the specimen.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An acquired disease of unknown etiology, chronic course, and tendency to recur. It is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of cartilage and can result in deformities such as floppy ear and saddle nose. Loss of cartilage in the respiratory tract can lead to respiratory obstruction.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.
Breaks in CARTILAGE.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
A metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.
The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.
A proteolytic enzyme that converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN where the preferential cleavage is between ARGININE and VALINE. It was isolated originally from human URINE, but is found in most tissues of most VERTEBRATES.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A family of polypeptides purified from snake venoms, which contain the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence. The RGD tripeptide binds to integrin receptors and thus competitively inhibits normal integrin-ligand interactions. Disintegrins thus block adhesive functions and act as platelet aggregation inhibitors.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
2005). "Matrix metalloproteinase 28/epilysin expression in cartilage from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis ... Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix for both normal ... Matrix metalloproteinase 28 also known as epilysin is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MMP28 gene. ... Lohi J, Wilson CL, Roby JD, Parks WC (Mar 2001). "Epilysin, a novel human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-28) expressed in testis ...
"Matrix metalloproteinases cleave at two distinct sites on human cartilage link protein". The Biochemical Journal. 295. 295 ( Pt ... Sun GW, Kobayashi H, Suzuki M, Kanayama N, Terao T (November 2002). "Production of cartilage link protein by human granulosa- ... Mundlos S, Meyer R, Yamada Y, Zabel B (November 1991). "Distribution of cartilage proteoglycan (aggrecan) core protein and link ... November 1990). "Complete amino acid sequence of human cartilage link protein (CRTL1) deduced from cDNA clones and chromosomal ...
These collagens are the major components of bone, cartilage and dentin, and MMPs are the only known mammalian enzymes capable ... MBInfo - Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) facilitate extracellular matrix disassembly The Matrix Metalloproteinase Protein ... Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), also known as matrix metallopeptidases or matrixins, are metalloproteinases that are calcium- ... "Cysteine array matrix metalloproteinase (CA-MMP)/MMP-23 is a type II transmembrane matrix metalloproteinase regulated by a ...
"Matrix metalloproteinases collagenase-2, macrophage elastase, collagenase-3, and membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase ... It may be involved in articular cartilage turnover and cartilage pathophysiology associated with osteoarthritis. The gene is ... Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal ... Matrix Breakdown, Atherosclerosis, and Vascular Remodeling Through a Novel Pathway Involving MMP13 (Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 ...
It can degrade aggrecan, a major proteoglycan of cartilage, brevican, a brain-specific extracellular matrix protein, neurocan ... and secondarily at the matrix metalloproteinase site (Asn341-Phe342) in the aggrecan interglobular domain". The Journal of ... "Brevican is degraded by matrix metalloproteinases and aggrecanase-1 (ADAMTS4) at different sites". The Journal of Biological ... A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADAMTS4 gene. ...
Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal ... 1995). "Neutrophil collagenase (MMP-8) cleaves at the aggrecanase site E373-A374 in the interglobular domain of cartilage ... 1997). "Matrix metalloproteinases, tumor necrosis factor and multiple sclerosis: an overview". J. Neuroimmunol. 72 (2): 155-61 ... Neutrophil collagenase, also known as matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) or PMNL collagenase (MNL-CL), is a collagen cleaving ...
As lumican can directly bind to and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP14), lumican may limit tumor progression by ... Organization, chromosomal location, and expression in articular cartilage". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (37): ... a new inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-14 activity". FEBS Letters. 588 (23): 4319-24. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2014.09.040. ... "Cleavage of lumican by membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 abrogates this proteoglycan-mediated suppression of tumor cell ...
... a metalloproteinase that directly binds to and degrades cartilage oligomeric matrix protein". FASEB Journal. 20 (7): 988-990. ... This enzyme catalyzes the degradation of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) degradation. ADAMTS7 has been associated ... A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 7 (ADAMTS7) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... In particular, the metalloproteinase domain contains a cysteine-switch motif in its binding site for binding the catalytic zinc ...
... metalloproteinases such as stromelysin, which degrade cartilage matrix proteins; collagenases such as cathepsin B1; and ... When PSGAG reaches the synovial fluid, it is then taken up by the cartilage matrices, with osteoarthritic cartilage showing a ... Normally, joint cartilages have proteoglycan complexes, which are proteins with side chains made of glycosaminoglycans such as ... In vitro studies have shown it to inhibit the enzymes that degrade cartilage and bone, as well as suppress inflammation and ...
The mesenchymal tissues of the limb stump secrete matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). As the MMPs are secreted, the wound ... During regeneration, only cartilage cells can form new cartilage tissue, only muscle cells can form new muscle tissue, and so ... The AEC causes the progress zone to re-establish; this means the cells under the AEC (including bone, cartilage, fibroblast ... 50 (1): 13-22. doi:10.1111/j.1440-169X.2007.00973.x. PMID 17986260. Kubo T, Arai T (September 1996). "Insect Lectins and ...
Zhang C, Tang W, Li Y (2012-11-21). "Matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) is a direct target of osteoblast-specific ... Certain populations of that initial cartilage serves as a template for bone cells as skeletogenesis proceeds. Sp7/Osx null ... Without sustained Sp7 expression the progenitor cells take the pathway into becoming chondrocytes and eventually cartilage ... Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 17 (6): 735-42. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2008.11.011. PMID 19136283. Tu Q, Valverde P, Li S, Zhang J, ...
... by joint white adipose tissue induces cartilage degradation via upregulation and activation of matrix metalloproteinases". ... Gualillo O (2007). "Further evidence for leptin involvement in cartilage homeostases". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 15 (8): ... effect on cartilage metabolism". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 15 (8): 872-83. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2007.01.018. PMID 17350295. ... This growing evidence points to leptin as a cartilage degradation factor in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, and as a ...
"Matrix metalloproteinase activities and their relationship with collagen remodelling in tendon pathology". Matrix Biology. 21 ( ... "Elasticity in extracellular matrix 'shape modules' of tendon, cartilage, etc. A sliding proteoglycan-filament model". Journal ... tenocytes in the tendon actively synthesize matrix components as well as enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can ... Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have a very important role in the degradation and remodeling of the ECM during the healing ...
2006). "ADAMTS-12 associates with and degrades cartilage oligomeric matrix protein". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (23): 15800-8. doi: ... A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 12 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADAMTS12 gene. ... 2008). "The ADAMTS12 metalloproteinase exhibits anti-tumorigenic properties through modulation of the Ras-dependent ERK ... This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. ...
"Matrix metalloproteinase activities and their relationship with collagen remodelling in tendon pathology". Matrix Biology. 21 ( ... non-collagenous extracellular matrix components, including: 3% cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, 1-2% elastin, 1-5% ... tenocytes in the tendon actively synthesize matrix components as well as enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can ... Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have a very important role in the degradation and remodeling of the ECM during the healing ...
15 May 2006). "Earlier Onset of Tumoral Angiogenesis in Matrix Metalloproteinase-19-Deficient Mice". Cancer Research. 66 (10): ... June 2003). "Cartilage and bone segmentation in vertebra images". Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and ... The size of the threads can modify the matrix distribution used to combine this material. The study of the distribution of ... to detect bones and cartilage edges. Image Processing can also be used to count cells. This technique was applied when looking ...
... and matrix metalloproteinase activation are associated with the rupture of the chordae tendineae cordis". Circulation. 118 (17 ... Rat mandibular condylar cartilage is positive for Tnmd mRNA at 1 week and is downregulated after 5 weeks. The putative ... 16 kDa cleaved C-terminal part of TNMD was detected in the collagenous extracellular matrix. TNMD is highly expressed on ... are differentially expressed in mandibular condylar and other growth cartilages". Bone. 42 (6): 1053-60. doi:10.1016/j.bone. ...
... also increases the production and activity of matrix metalloproteinases, a function important to invading cancer ... This molecule has been implicated in several biological functions, including mineralization of bone and cartilage, inhibiting ... Osteonectin is an acidic extracellular matrix glycoprotein that plays a vital role in bone mineralization, cell-matrix ... Lane TF, Sage EH (Feb 1994). "The biology of SPARC, a protein that modulates cell-matrix interactions". FASEB Journal. 8 (2): ...
Plasma matrix metalloproteinase activity in horses after intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharide and treatment with matrix ... Load carriage, adult articular cartilage. In: Freeman MAR, ed. Adult articular car- tilage, 1st ed. New York: Grune & Stratton ... Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Equine Systemic Inflammatory Response: Implications for Equine Laminitis. Diss. Louisiana ... Clinical and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory effects of pentoxifylline on carbohydrate overload laminitis: preliminary ...
... may enhance the activity of other proteases, including matrix metalloproteinase, urokinase (serine protease ... Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 12 (3): 239-44. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2003.11.005. PMID 14972341. Ha SD, Ham B, Mogridge J, Saftig P ... and thus it has an essential position for the proteolysis of extracellular matrix components, intercellular communication ... 88 (13): 2847-58. doi:10.1002/jnr.22453. PMID 20653046. S2CID 2977933. Yoshida M, Yamashima T, Zhao L, Tsuchiya K, Kohda Y, ...
... matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1), osteoblast/osteocyte factor 45 (OF45), Klotho, TGF-beta ... Sclerostin antagonizes the activity of BMP (bone morphogenetic protein), a cytokine that induces bone and cartilage formation. ... Those osteoblasts on the bone surface that are destined for burial as osteocytes slow down matrix production, and are buried by ... During bone formation, an osteoblast is left behind and buried in the bone matrix as an "osteoid osteocyte", which maintains ...
Increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) activity In order for a wound to heal, extracellular matrix not only needs to be laid ... Both causes lead to an increased stiffness of those structures; effects on cartilage: similar to what happens to tendons and ... Proteases, namely matrix metalloproteinases are known to degrade almost all the extracellular matrix components. They are known ... Muller, M.; Trocme, C.; Lardy, B.; Morel, F.; Halimi, S.; Benhamou, P. Y. (2008). "Matrix metalloproteinases and diabetic foot ...
Hua, H.; Li, M.; Luo, T; Yin, Y.; Jiang, Y (2011). "Matrix Metalloproteinases in Tumorigenesis: an Evolving Paradigm". Cellular ... Metalloprotease inhibitors are cellular inhibitors of the Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs belong to a family of zinc- ... Brown, P. D. (1997). "Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors in the treatment of cancer". Medical Oncology. 14 (1): 1-10. doi: ... Matrix metalloproteinase MMP inhibitors Collagen Cancer Periodontitis Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Osteoarthritis ...
Chondrocytes are found in cartilage and produce the cartilaginous matrix. Osteoblasts are responsible for bone formation. The ... and matrix metalloproteinases. The stiffness and elasticity of the ECM has important implications in cell migration, gene ... XIII) Elastins, in contrast to collagens, give elasticity to tissues, allowing them to stretch when needed and then return to ... The animal extracellular matrix includes the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane. Interstitial matrix is present ...
Matrix metalloproteinases One of the newest theories for the molecular basis of laminitis involves matrix metalloproteinases ( ... Also, ligaments attaching the collateral cartilages to the digit, primarily in the palmar portion of the foot, possibly ... To prevent tissue damage, they are regulated by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). In cases of laminitis, an ... MMPs). Metalloproteinases are enzymes that can degrade collagen, growth factors, and cytokines to remodel the extracellular ...
Through its cytoplasmic tail it promotes cancer cell migration, increased secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that ... "Expression of alpha and beta subunits of the integrin superfamily in articular cartilage from macroscopically normal and ... Matrix metallopeptidase 12 (MMP12) is an enzyme strongly associated with the development of emphysema, and was expressed 200- ... Fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells in all tissues that maintain the normal tissue matrix. When they become activated, as occurs ...
... cells also begin expressing proteases capable of degrading cadherins such as ADAM10 and secreting matrix metalloproteinases ( ... Meckel's cartilage, scleral ossicles, quadrate, articular, hyoid and columella), tracheal and laryngeal cartilage, the ... Cardiac neural crest develops into melanocytes, cartilage, connective tissue and neurons of some pharyngeal arches. Also, this ... Additionally, neural crest cells begin expressing integrins that associate with extracellular matrix proteins, including ...
Cartilage-Derived Angiogenesis Inhibitory Factor. matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. angiostatin. inhibit cell proliferation ... Jan 2000). "Canstatin, a novel matrix-derived inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth". J Biol Chem. 275 (2): 1209-15. doi: ... Endogenous inhibitors are often derived from the extracellular matrix or basement membrane proteins and function by interfering ... are critical to the attachment and migration of endothelial cells to the extracellular matrix.[4] ...
Plasmin is involved in activation of the proteolytic cascade of matrix metalloproteinases and other proteinases leading to ... Hyaluronic acid is an important component of articular cartilage, where it is present as a coat around each cell (chondrocyte ... a b c d Wayne D. Comper, Extracellular Matrix Volume 2 Molecular Components and Interactions, 1996, Harwood Academic Publishers ... Hyaluronic acid is a main component of the extracellular matrix, and has a key role in tissue regeneration, inflammation ...
Matrix metalloproteinases[edit]. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a family of more than 20 zinc-dependent ... The role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in osteoclast biology is ill-defined, but in other tissue they have been linked ... Attachment to the bone matrix is facilitated by integrin receptors, such as αvβ3, via the specific amino acid motif Arg-Gly-Asp ... In addition, several hydrolytic enzymes, such as members of the cathepsin and matrix metalloprotease (MMP) groups, are released ...
... and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). CD44 function is controlled by its posttranslational modifications. One critical ... cartilage development. • cell adhesion. • negative regulation of DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator ... extracellular matrix disassembly. • extracellular matrix organization. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • cellular ... cell-matrix adhesion. • positive regulation of monocyte aggregation. • leukocyte migration. • neutrophil degranulation. • wound ...
... cysteine rich-61 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques: relationship with clinical ... CYR61 is also found in articular cartilage from patients with osteoarthritis and appears to suppress ADAMTS4 (aggrecanase) ... However, excessive matrix deposition can lead to fibrosis, scarring, and loss of tissue function. In skin wounds, CYR61 ... Todorovic V, Chen CC, Hay N, Lau LF (2005). "The matrix protein CCN1 (CYR61) induces apoptosis in fibroblasts". J. Cell Biol. ...
... is a key component of the extracellular matrix of cartilage where it is essential for normal growth plate development ... In a model of explant growth in vitro using corneal epithelium, Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 expression correlates with an ... SundarRaj N, Fite D, Ledbetter S, Chakravarti S, Hassell JR (July 1995). "Perlecan is a component of cartilage matrix and ... Perlecan is also a key component of the vascular extracellular matrix, where it interacts with a variety of other matrix ...
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in mature human odontoblasts and pulp tissue. ... and calcified cartilage.") The dentinal tubules in this region branch profusely. In the root of the tooth there are two ... Dentin is a bone-like matrix that is porous and yellow-hued material. It is made up, by weight, of 72% inorganic materials ( ... The innermost layer of dentin is known as predentin, and is the initial dentin matrix that is laid down prior to mineralization ...
These mechanical loads are absorbed by the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM), where they are subsequently dissipated and ... "Mechanotransduction via integrins and interleukin-4 results in altered aggrecan and matrix metalloproteinase 3 gene expression ... matrix building) and catabolic (matrix degrading) processes. These processes include the synthesis of matrix proteins (type II ... it has been shown to mediate chondrocyte adhesion to cartilage surfaces, mediate survival signaling and regulate matrix ...
... in human endometriotic cells results in a reduction of invasive growth in vitro and changes in matrix metalloproteinase ... Syndecan-4 is upregulated in osteoarthritis and inhibition of syndecan-4 reduces cartilage destruction in mouse models of OA. ... Second is matrix adhesion. Syndecans bind to structural extracellular matrix molecules such as collagens I, III, V, fibronectin ... These myeloma cells had a deficiency in the ability to adhere to one another in a rotation-mediated aggregation matrix. This ...
Tumor-derived microvesicles often carry protein-degrading enzymes, including matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, and ... of inflammation correlates with numbers of activated macrophages that contribute to joint inflammation and bone and cartilage ... Matrix digestion can also facilitate angiogenesis, which is important for tumor growth and is induced by the horizontal ... Microvesicles play an important role in tumor angiogenesis and in the degradation of matrix due to the presence of ...
The oral intake of Pycnogenol down-regulated the gene expression of various cartilage degradation markers in the patients ... Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) inhibitor, Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) inhibitor, Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) ... Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitor, Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) inhibitor, Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) ... Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitor, Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) inhibitor, NF-kappaB Inhibitor, Nitric Oxide ...
Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2006;14:839-48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar. Copyright information. © International Society of ... Here, the IDH2 and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) levels in the specimens from 30 GC patients were investigated by Western ... Isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) NF-κB Matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) Gastric cancer (GC) Metastases ... Isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 inhibits gastric cancer cell invasion via matrix metalloproteinase 7. ...
Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the increase of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in articular cartilage, ... Advances in matrix metalloproteinase 13 in cartilage remodeling and arthritis Advances in matrix metalloproteinase 13 in ... resulting in an inevitable degra-dation of cartilage and extracellular matrix (ECM). MMP-13, the major functioning enzyme ... Arthritis is a common chronic disease characterized by the destruction of joint cartilage and inflammation in the sur-rounding ...
TNFalpha represents a potent proinflammatory cytokine combination that markedly induces MMP production in both cartilage and ... Oncostatin M in combination with tumor necrosis factor alpha induces cartilage damage and matrix metalloproteinase expression ... Northern blot analysis indicated that this cytokine combination synergistically induced matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), MMP ... and cartilage and bone destruction with a concomitant increase in MMP expression in both cartilage and synovium and decreased ...
... tetramer-forming tryptases induce aggrecanolysis in articular cartilage by activating matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -13 ... significantly increased the levels of enzymatically active matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in cartilage and significantly ... tetramer-forming tryptases induce aggrecanolysis in articular cartilage by activating matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -13 ... tetramer-forming tryptases induce aggrecanolysis in articular cartilage by activating matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -13 ...
Our findings indicate that IL-6 acts as a crucial mediator of HIF-2α-induced experimental OA cartilage destruction in mice via ... Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 / genetics * Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 / metabolism * Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 / genetics ... human OA cartilage, and mouse experimental OA cartilage. Experimental OA in wild-type, HIF-2α-knockdown (Epas1+/-), and Il6-/- ... Both Epas1 and Il6 were up-regulated in human and mouse OA cartilage, whereas HIF-2α knockdown in mice led to inhibition of ...
... regulated by the methylation status of specific CpG sites in the promoter and may determine RUNX2 availability in OA cartilage ... Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 is a major contributor to cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis (OA). We and others have ... Matrix metalloproteinases, a disintegrin and metalloproteinases, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinases with thrombospondin ... Osterix regulates calcification and degradation of chondrogenic matrices through matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) expression ...
Early-onset OA is caused by mutations in matrix molecules often associated with chondrodysplasias, whereas less destructive ... Matrix metalloproteinase 13-deficient mice are resistant to osteoarthritic cartilage erosion but not chondrocyte hypertrophy or ... Blocking aggrecanase cleavage in the aggrecan interglobular domain abrogates cartilage erosion and promotes cartilage repair. J ... Sandell, L. J., Hering, T. & Heinegard, D. Cell Biology, Biochemistry and Molecular and Cell Biology of Articular Cartilage in ...
International Cartilage Repair Society; MMP-1: matrix metalloproteinase-1; MMP-3: matrix metalloproteinase-3; MMP-13: matrix ... Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -3 and MMP-13 expression was reduced in aging ACL but increased in degenerated ACL, mainly in ... Morphologic analysis of articular cartilage All cartilage surfaces (femoral condyles, trochlea, and tibial plateaus) were ... with minimal changes in the articular cartilage (Grade I cartilage) (P = 0.023) (Figure 1A, B, I). In contrast, cell density in ...
Interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and their regulators in cardiac matrix ... As avascular tissues, the cardiac valve complex and cartilage share common structural properties (17, 18). The cartilage and ... Visse R, Nagase H. Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases: structure, function, and biochemistry ... Matrix metalloproteinase-2 is associated with tenascin-C in calcific aortic stenosis. Am J Pathol. 2001;159(1):321-327.. View ...
Among the latter, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are believed to play a central part in the inordinate matrix degradation, ... which maintain the homoeostasis of cartilage matrix by producing new matrix components as well as degrading enzymes in a ... Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid ... Matrix metalloproteinase-7-dependent release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in a model of herniated disc resorption. J Clin ...
Transcriptional repression of matrix metalloproteinase gene expression by the orphan nuclear receptor NURR1 in cartilage. ... Short hairpin RNA-mediated inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in MDA-231 cells: effects on matrix destruction and tumor ... Matrix metalloproteinase and G protein coupled receptors: co-conspirators in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease and cancer. ... CXCR4 and matrix metalloproteinase-1 are elevated in breast carcinoma-associated fibroblasts and in normal mammary fibroblasts ...
This therapeutic study in mice demonstrated a poor correlation between cartilage, bone or synovium (histo)pathology, and pain ... cartilage proteoglycan loss and structural damage. Allodynia was initially reduced by both treatments but significantly better ... We quantified the progression of OA-related cartilage, subchondral bone and synovial histopathology, and associated pain ... Crucial role of macrophages in matrix metalloproteinase-mediated cartilage destruction during experimental osteoarthritis: ...
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 may contribute to the breakdown of articular cartilage during arthritis. Here, we found that ... Delayed removal of amelogenins, which are initially hydrolyzed by matrix metalloproteinase MMP-20, is a characteristic of ... Inhibitory effect of emodin on tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) expression in ... ... Stromal cell-derived factor-1 induces matrix metalloprotease-13 expression in human chondrocytes. ...
Dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1) deficient mice display severe defects in cartilage formation responsible for a chondrodysplasia- ... Dentin matrix protein 1 bridges matrix metalloproteinase-9 to CD44, αvβ3, and αvβ5 integrins. Because DMP1 can separately form ... Dentin matrix protein 1-enhanced invasion requires matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cell surface receptors αvβ3 integrin, αvβ5 ... Expression of dentin matrix protein 1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, CD44, and integrin subunits αv, β3, and β5 in colon ...
... tetramer-forming tryptases induce aggrecanolysis in articular cartilage by activating matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -13 ... 2017 Mar 31;292(13):5392-5404. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.773416. Epub 2017 Feb 13. ...
... with increases in cartilage area and thickness, proteoglycan matrix, and decreases in OARSI score at 12 weeks post surgery. In ... Amelioration of cartilage degradation was observed in the YGPs group, with increases in cartilage area and thickness, ... in articular cartilage. To evaluate the safety of YGPs, hematology was determined in each group. Amelioration of cartilage ... Moreover, the preservation of cartilage correlated with reduced MMP-13, and elevated COL-2 and pSMAD-2 protein expressional ...
Interaction of HIF1alpha and beta-catenin inhibits matrix metalloproteinase 13 expression and prevents cartilage damage in mice ... Hypoxia in cartilage: HIF-1alpha is essential for chondrocyte growth arrest and survival. Genes Dev 15(21):2865-76. PubMed: ... AMP-activated Protein Kinase Suppresses Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts. J Biol Chem 286( ... pVHL function is essential for endothelial extracellular matrix deposition. Mol Cell Biol 26(7):2519-30. PubMed: 16537898MGI: J ...
ADAMTS-7: a metalloproteinase that directly binds to and degrades cartilage oligomeric matrix protein. FASEB J. 2006;20:988-990 ... Matrix metalloproteinases regulate migration, proliferation, and death of vascular smooth muscle cells by degrading matrix and ... bioactive extracellular matrix (ECM) fragments generated by matrix metalloproteinases and cathepsins have been shown to exhibit ... Metalloproteinases are critical in vascular wall remodeling through matrix or nonmatrix degradation.8 Recently, we described ...
... of periostin in human osteoarthritic cartilage and its potential role in matrix degradation via matrix metalloproteinase-13. ... Beier, F. (2014). NFATs are good for your cartilage! Osteoarthritis & Cartilage, 22, 893-5. [View HTML] ... Osteoarthritis & Cartilage 23, 966-974. #co-corresponding authors. [View HTML]. *Holm, E., Aubin, J.E., Hunter, G.K., Beier, F ... Cartilage-specific deletion of PPARγ results in abnormal endochondral ossification, and cartilage growth and development. ...
... which proliferate and produce cartilage extracellular matrix to form cartilage primordia. Proliferating chondrocytes in the ... Finally, hypertrophic chondrocytes progress to terminal maturation to express matrix metalloproteinase 13 (Mmp13). Terminally ... SOX9 expression continues in articular cartilage and decreases in osteoarthritic cartilage, a major cartilage disease caused by ... in proximal humeral cartilage at 14.5 dpc. (Left) For cartilage of Sox9flox/+ mice, the red line indicates the transition ...
Hypertrophic chondrocytes, which also produce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 13, die by apoptosis (1-3). Such events occur in a ... As chondrocytes divide, they form a columnar structure and secrete cartilage-specific extracellular matrix proteins, such as ... Altered endochondral bone development in matrix metalloproteinase 13- deficient mice. Development. 131:5883-5895. ... The role of reactive oxygen species in homeostasis and degradation of cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 11:747-755. ...
... human cartilage glycoprotein 39, YKL-40; cartilage oligomeric matrix protein; and cathepsin K were analyzed in 48 OA patients ... human cartilage glycoprotein-39, YKL-40; cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and cathepsin K were analyzed in 48 OA ... MMP-13 was the only biomarker significantly increased in OA patients compared to healthy controls in both haplogroups H and J. ... Results: MMP-13 was the only biomarker significantly increased in OA patients compared to healthy controls in both haplogroups ...
The degradation of cartilage could also be inhibited by the plant through suppression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 protein expressions. ... While the MMP-3 and MMP-13 protein expressions were evaluated using western blot method. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of ... inhibited the HYAL1 and HYAL2 mRNA gene expressions as well as MMP-3 and MMP-13 protein expression in a dose dependent manner. ... Aggrecan is degraded by matrix metalloproteinases in human arthritis. Evidance that matrix metalloproteinases and aggrecanase ...
... metalloproteinase from human articular cartilage tissue and its identification as stromelysin matrix metalloproteinase-3," The ... "Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase gene expression," in Matrix Metalloproteinases, W. C. Park and R. P. Mecham, Eds., pp. ... R. Visse and H. Nagase, "Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases: structure, function, and ... "Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and myocardial oxidative stress injury: beyond the matrix," Cardiovascular Research, vol. 85, no. 3 ...
Collagenolytic enzymes are thought to contribute to the breakdown of cartilage. Collagenase 1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1 [MMP- ... Hyaluronic acid is a major nonstructural component of the synovial and cartilage extracellular matrix. It confers viscoelastic ... Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 1994;2:61-9.. 22. Amadio P, Cummings DM. Evaluation of acetaminophen in the management of ... A joint should not be injected more than three or four times in one year because of the possibility of cartilage damage from ...
Matrix metalloproteinase 13-deficient mice are resistant to osteoarthritic cartilage erosion but not chondrocyte hypertrophy or ... We observed new cartilage forming deep within the subchondral bone compartment. The new cartilage tissue within the BML could ... qPCR validation for stathmin 2 (STMN2), thrombospondin 4 (THBS4), matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) and osteomodulin (OMD) ... matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) and chromosome 21 open reading frame, which are genes involved in diverse functions ...
Increased levels of cathepsin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) transcripts were noted in ML-II cell populations. This ... Taking advantage of a zebrafish model for ML-II, we previously showed that the cartilage morphogenesis defects in this model ... Our findings suggest a central role for excessive cathepsin K activity in the developmental aspects of ML-II cartilage ... Excessive activity of cathepsin K is associated with the cartilage defects in a zebrafish model for mucolipidosis II ...
To determine whether Mmp13 and Adamts5 are critical downstream target genes of TGF? signaling, TGF?RII/matrix metalloproteinase ... and Adamts5 expression in articular cartilage tissue and progressive OA development in TGF?RII(Col2ER) mice. Deletion of the ... Cells on the less stiff, chemically cross-linked hydrogels expressed more matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity than the ... Extracellular matrix (ECM) serves a key role in cell migration, attachment, and cell development. Here we report that ECM ...
These collagens are the major components of bone, cartilage and dentin, and MMPs are the only known mammalian enzymes capable ... MBInfo - Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) facilitate extracellular matrix disassembly The Matrix Metalloproteinase Protein ... Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), also known as matrix metallopeptidases or matrixins, are metalloproteinases that are calcium- ... "Cysteine array matrix metalloproteinase (CA-MMP)/MMP-23 is a type II transmembrane matrix metalloproteinase regulated by a ...
  • The oral intake of Pycnogenol down-regulated the gene expression of various cartilage degradation markers in the patients' chondrocytes. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 can inhibit inflammatory responses in human chondrocytes in vitro and reduce articular cartilage damage in vivo. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The release of collagen and proteoglycan was assessed in bovine cartilage explant cultures, while messenger RNA (mRNA) from bovine chondrocytes was analyzed by Northern blotting. (nih.gov)
  • A variety of cellu-lar cytokines such as IL-1 β and TNF-α,and Runx2 are assumed to affect the expression of MMP -13 in chondrocytes . (bvsalud.org)
  • The expression of HIF-2α, IL-6, and catabolic factors was determined at the messenger RNA and protein levels in primary culture mouse chondrocytes, human OA cartilage, and mouse experimental OA cartilage. (nih.gov)
  • When RAdLacZ reporter virus was used, adenoviruses efficiently infected synovial cells, chondrocytes of articular cartilage, and hypertrophic chondrocytes of the growth plate. (bmj.com)
  • In articulating joints MMPs are mainly produced by synovial cells and chondrocytes, which maintain the homoeostasis of cartilage matrix by producing new matrix components as well as degrading enzymes in a dynamic equilibrium. (bmj.com)
  • Stromal cell-derived factor-1 induces matrix metalloprotease-13 expression in human chondrocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mesenchymal cells initially undergo condensation, which is followed by the differentiation of prechondrogenic cells within these condensations into round chondrocytes, which proliferate and produce cartilage extracellular matrix to form cartilage primordia. (biologists.org)
  • Proliferating chondrocytes in the central region of the cartilage then exit the cell cycle and differentiate into prehypertrophic and, subsequently, hypertrophic chondrocytes. (biologists.org)
  • Finally, hypertrophic chondrocytes progress to terminal maturation to express matrix metalloproteinase 13 (Mmp13). (biologists.org)
  • Initially, mesenchymal cells are committed to become cartilage cells and condense into compact nodules and differentiate into chondrocytes. (rupress.org)
  • As chondrocytes divide, they form a columnar structure and secrete cartilage-specific extracellular matrix proteins, such as type II collagen and aggrecan ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • These large chondrocytes alter the matrix by secreting type X collagen and increased levels of fibronectin to promote mineralization by calcium carbonate. (rupress.org)
  • Hypertrophic chondrocytes, which also produce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 13, die by apoptosis ( 1 - 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • Hypertrophic chondrocytes express vascular endothelial growth factor, stimulating blood vessels to invade the cartilage model ( 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • 4 Cartilage degradation is one of the hallmarks of OA disease 5 and exposes the structures from which pain is most likely arising as cartilage is an avascular, aneural structure composed largely of extracellular matrix (ECM) embedded sparsely with chondrocytes. (bmj.com)
  • Involvement of the Notch pathway in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 13 and the dedifferentiation of articular chondrocytes in murine cartilage. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Aim of this study was to assess the potential of a platelet lysate (PL) for human articular cartilage repair considering its activity on progenitor cells and differentiated chondrocytes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Chondrocytes embedded in the condylar cartilage are generally separately localized into three layers. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Here we investigate the effect of millicurrent treatment on human chondrocytes cultivated in a collagen gel matrix and on human osteochondral explants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While some studies describe phenomenological effects of microcurrent treatment, the exact mechanism how microcurrent stimulation might affect chondrocytes in the hyaline cartilage environment remains unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chondrocytes are responsible for developing and maintaining the cartilage structure in areas parallel to the articular surface. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Once enzymes capable of degrading the pericellular molecules expose chondrocytes to type II collagen, DDR2 is activated and induces expression of MMP-13 leading to degradation of type II collagen and proteoglycans resulting in joint destruction and OA. (harvard.edu)
  • Wnt5a induces catabolic signaling and matrix metalloproteinase production in human articular chondrocytes. (abnova.com)
  • In the present study, whether PNS could limit tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α‑induced senescence and apoptosis in chondrocytes and whether they could slow down cartilage degeneration in a surgery‑induced rat osteoarthritis (OA) model by regulating the phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K)‑protein kinase B (AKT)‑mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was examined. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The results of the in vivo experiments demonstrated that PNS significantly inhibited the PI3K‑AKT‑mTOR signaling pathway and collagen II degradation, as well as reduced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑3 and MMP‑13 expression in chondrocytes in a rat OA model, thus attenuating cartilage destruction in OA. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated that PNS may protect osteoarthritic chondrocytes from senescence and apoptosis by inhibiting the PI3K‑AKT pathway, thus delaying the degradation of articular cartilage. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The injections induce the production of HA from chondrocytes and synoviocytes (viscoinduction) while preventing cartilage fragmentation (chondroprotection) and provide protection from mechanical stress (viscosupplementation). (healio.com)
  • Traced back to the intrauterine period, it was found that the number of chondrocytes and the contents of Col2A1 and aggrecan in the matrix in the PNE group were decreased. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of hesperidin on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced chondrocytes injury and cartilage degeneration in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). (medscimonit.com)
  • Our study suggests that hesperidin can prevent H₂O₂-induced chondrocytes injury through its antioxidant effects in vitro and reduce cartilage damage in a rat model of OA. (medscimonit.com)
  • Human primary chondrocytes isolated from control cartilage were stimulated by periostin, and the alteration of OA related gene expression was examined using quantitative RT-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of periostin showed that the main positive signal was localized in chondrocytes and their periphery matrix near the erosive area, with less immunoreactivity in deeper zones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In cultured human chondrocytes, periostin induced the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, and nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Usually, there is a balance in the anabolic and catabolic activities in the articular chondrocytes which are involved in the remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chondrocytes derived from MSCs obtain an epiphyseal cartilage-like phenotype, which turns into bone upon implantation via endochondral ossification. (pnas.org)
  • Dr. Li and his colleagues found that the mutant mice had increased amounts of the protein discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) in the articular cartilage chondrocytes of their knee joints. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • This study aimed to determine the role of miR-140 in the estrogen-dependent regulation of MMP-13 in human chondrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 17-β-estradiol (E2) suppressed MMP-13 expression in human articular chondrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inflammatory stress caused by protein kinase D (PKD) plays a critical role in damaging chondrocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM) during osteoarthritis (OA). (dovepress.com)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of the articular joints characterized by the phenotypic changes in chondrocytes, loss of cartilage tissue, synovial inflammation, and the formation of osteophytes. (dovepress.com)
  • After blunt cartilage trauma, initial hypothermia for only 2 hours and/or 16 hours induced significant cell-protective and chondroprotective effects and promoted the anabolic activity of chondrocytes, while the expression of matrix-destructive enzymes by stimulated FLS was attenuated by prolonged hypothermia. (ovid.com)
  • Hypertrophic chondrocytes derive from the condensation of mesenchymal precursors and produce a type X collagen-rich avascular cartilaginous matrix. (pnas.org)
  • At the periphery of this cartilage tissue, the so-called "borderline" hypertrophic chondrocytes ( 3 ) instruct surrounding mesenchymal cells to differentiate into osteoblasts, which results in the formation of a "bony collar. (pnas.org)
  • In parallel, chondrocytes in the central regions direct mineralization of the hypertrophic cartilage by initiating remodeling via the production of specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and attract blood vessels by releasing vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF). (pnas.org)
  • CRISPR-Cas9 targeting of MMP13 in human chondrocytes leads to significantly reduced levels of the metalloproteinase and enhanced type II collagen accumulation. (abcam.com)
  • In the present study, we demonstrated the anti-catabolic effects of formononetin, a phytoestrogen derived from herbal plants, against interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced severe catabolic effects in primary rat chondrocytes and articular cartilage. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, formononetin effectively antagonized the IL-1β-induced catabolic effects including the decrease in proteoglycan content, suppression of pericellular matrix formation, and loss of proteoglycan through the decreased expression of cartilage-degrading enzymes like matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-1, and MMP-3 in primary rat chondrocytes. (springer.com)
  • 2015. Role of chondrocytes in cartilage formation, progression of osteoarthritis and cartilage regeneration. (springer.com)
  • The growth plate is a transitional region of cartilage and highly diversified chondrocytes that controls long bone formation. (ozgene.com)
  • Differences in gene expressions of structural matrix proteins in untreated DRF and PC pellets were noted in the youngest horses, which may indicate differences in the chondrocytes potential to produce matrix in vivo. (gu.se)
  • MMP-1 is produced primarily by the synovial cells that line the joints, and MMP-13 is a product of the chondrocytes that reside in the cartilage. (bioscience.org)
  • A mouse genetic study found the induction of Runx2, an essential transcription factor for chondrocyte hypertrophy, [21,22] in articular chondrocytes during osteoarthritis progression under mechanical stress, which led to cartilage degradation and osteophyte formation through the chondrocyte maturation and MMP production [23,24]. (oatext.com)
  • Articular chondrocytes are responsible for producing and maintaining the articular cartilage extracellular matrix that provides a smooth surface for low friction joint movement and "shock absorbing" properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specifically, synovial cells and articular chondrocytes produce catabolic factors, such as matrix metalloproteinases (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LPS-induced chondrocytes injury was investigated by cell viability, apoptosis, inflammatory response and extracellular matrix degradation using MTT, flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot. (bvsalud.org)
  • CONCLUSION: Knockdown of MFI2-AS1 increased cell viability but suppressed apoptosis, inflammatory response and extracellular matrix degradation in LPS-treated chondrocytes by increasing miR-130a-3p and decreasing TCF4, indicating a novel target for the treatment of osteoarthritis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Traumatic cartilage injury leads to an irreversible cartilage loss because differentiated chondrocytes do not divide, and therefore, do not compensate for these defects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our laboratory showed an increase in the expression of MMP-2, -9, and -13 in growth-plate chondrocytes of chicks after mechanical loading ( 45 ). (physiology.org)
  • 2012. Protein kinase R plays a pivotal role in oncostatin M and interleukin-1 signalling in bovine articular cartilage chondrocytes . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • The combination of OSM + TNFalpha induced significant collagen release from bovine cartilage, accompanied by high levels of active collagenolytic activity. (nih.gov)
  • MMP -13, the major functioning enzyme during arthritis development, plays a vital role in the cartilage destruction, thus contributing to the decomposition of type Ⅱ collagen irreversibly. (bvsalud.org)
  • Indeed, the ECM of articular cartilage is primarily composed of type II collagen and aggrecan that are not the primary substrates of gelatinases. (hindawi.com)
  • MMPs were described initially by Jerome Gross and Charles Lapiere (1962), who observed enzymatic activity (collagen triple helix degradation) during tadpole tail metamorphosis (by placing a tadpole tail in a collagen matrix plate). (wikipedia.org)
  • Taking advantage of a zebrafish model for ML-II, we previously showed that the cartilage morphogenesis defects in this model are associated with altered chondrocyte differentiation and excessive deposition of type II collagen, indicating that aspects of development that rely on proper extracellular matrix homeostasis are sensitive to decreases in Man-6-P biosynthesis. (biologists.org)
  • Inhibition of cathepsin K activity by pharmacological or genetic means not only reduced the activity of this enzyme but led to a broad reduction in additional protease activity, significant correction of the cartilage morphogenesis phenotype and reduced type II collagen staining in ML-II embryos. (biologists.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the altered tissue balance of cartilage, synovial membrane, and connective tissue in collagen induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Six newly developed ELISAs quantifying MMP-derived collagen degradation (C1M, C2M, and C3M) and formation (P1NP, P2NP, and P3NP) was used to detect cartilage turnover in rats with CIA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These MMP's are important proteolytic enzymes in ECM breakdown as MMP-1 degrades type I, II and III collagen, MMP-3 degrades, amongst other ECM proteins, type III collagen and the proteoglycans of cartilage, MMP-9 degrades type IV and V collagens, and MMP-13 degrades type I, II, and III collagen, however type II collagen more efficiently than type I and III collagen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TMJ condylar cartilage is an avascular, compressible tissue comprised of dense collagen fibres and extracellular proteoglycans, which protect the joint from damage during mechanical loading. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In healthy articular cartilage, DDR2 is kept inactivated by the pericellular matrix, which separates the receptor from its ligand, type II collagen. (harvard.edu)
  • In addition, gene expression levels were measured for caspase 3, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), collagen type II (Col2a1), aggrecan, (sex-determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). (medscimonit.com)
  • Normal articular cartilage is composed of highly organized proteoglycan and collagen network. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The structure rigidity of cartilage is conferred mainly by type II collagen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The proteolytic degradation of type II collagen is believed to be mainly an irreversible event in the process of cartilage matrix degradation in osteoarthritis. (umontreal.ca)
  • Cathepsin K is the most active enzyme protease outside the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family (MMP 13, -8, -1) capable of degrading the intact triple helical type II collagen. (umontreal.ca)
  • Our study suggests that collagen binds to DDR2 and stimulates the production of MMP-13, that in turn degrades the cartilage," concludes Dr. Li. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • The effects of hypothermia were evaluated by cell viability, gene expression, type II collagen synthesis and cleavage, as well as the release of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-13, and interleukin 6 (IL-6). (ovid.com)
  • Just like normal cartilage, the lab-grown material contains Type II collagen , and under the microscope the cells appear to be perfectly formed, with structures similar to those observed in samples of hu-man-harvested cartilage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) increases the articular cartilage type II collagen in a rat osteoarthritis model. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The device will also force the differentiation of fibroblast cells in chondrocyte or chondrocyte-like cells for the production of aggrecan, Type II collagen , Sox-9 protein cartilage link protein, and perlecan. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • MMP-13 is by far the most studied of the matrix metalloproteinases in terms of its role in cartilage, as it is considered the major catabolic effector in osteoarthritis and other forms of arthritis, owing to its robust ability to cleave the type II collagen that predominates in articular cartilage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Experimental Colonic Obstruction Increases Collagen Degradation by Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Bowel Wall. (lu.se)
  • Results: Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that LPS physically interact with collagen type II in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and anti-collagen type II significantly reduced this interaction. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • 2) with 213 genes higher expressed in mild (including cartilage associated genes e.g. aggrecan, collagen type II, cartilage oligomeric protein) and 575 genes in severe (including matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and bone associated genes e.g. osteocalcin, RUNX2) degenerated AF-tissue. (egms.de)
  • RTD-PCR analyses of BMP2 and TGF β 1 stimulated cells from mild and severe degenerated AF-tissue after 24 and 48h showed a successful stimulation regarding expression of cartilage associated genes e.g. aggrecan, collagen type II. (egms.de)
  • Compared to controls, IL-1β treatment increased gene expression of versican, matrix-degrading enzymes, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and decreased aggrecan and collagen type I and type II expression. (gu.se)
  • While cartilage is made up of proteoglycans and type II collagen, tendon and bone are composed primarily of type I collagen. (bioscience.org)
  • The collagenases, MMP-1 and MMP-13, have predominant roles in RA and OA because they are rate limiting in the process of collagen degradation. (bioscience.org)
  • In addition to collagen, MMP-13 also degrades the proteoglycan molecule, aggrecan, giving it a dual role in matrix destruction. (bioscience.org)
  • Expression of other MMPs such as MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-9, is also elevated in arthritis and these enzymes degrade non-collagen matrix components of the joints. (bioscience.org)
  • Recent animal studies have disclosed that osteoarthritis is initiated by production of proteinases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and aggrecanases that sever type II collagen (COL2) and proteoglycan, the principal matrix of articular cartilage [4-6]. (oatext.com)
  • In articular cartilage of osteoarthritis patients, pathologic expression of type X collagen (COL10) and other differentiation markers, including annexin VI, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, have been reported, [16-20] indicating that the osteoarthritis articular cartilage cannot maintain the characteristics of the permanent cartilage, but adds those of the embryonic or growth plate cartilage. (oatext.com)
  • 2011. Type IX collagen interacts with fibronectin providing an important molecular bridge in articular cartilage . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) (encoded by Epas1) causes osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage destruction by regulating the expression of catabolic factor genes. (nih.gov)
  • These increased values of MMP-1 and NO - x observed in the OA cartilage suggest a higher catabolic activity. (scielo.org.ar)
  • The increase of this last catabolic factor is due to chondrocyte-specific inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and causes the increase of metalloproteinases and the decrease of glycosaminoglicans (GAGs), thus augmenting the catabolism of OA articular cartilage. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Pro-inflammatory stimulation of meniscus cells increases production of matrix metalloproteinases and additional catabolic factors involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. (abnova.com)
  • As HA binds to CD44, it causes an inhibitory effect on interleukin-1ß, which in turn decreases the production of matrix metalloproteinase and ultimately downregulates the catabolic effect on cartilage. (healio.com)
  • HMG supplementation was able to reduce the catabolic genes' expression in cultured HACs such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1 & MMP3), Interleukin 1, 6 and 8 (IL-1, IL-6 & IL-8), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • It reduced catabolic activities and increased cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study suggests that estrogen acts via ER and miR-140 to inhibit the catabolic activity of proteases within the chondrocyte extracellular matrix. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effects of treatment were measured in terms of cytotoxicity, cellular morphology, viability, apoptosis, phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), and anabolic/catabolic gene expression analyses related to cartilage tissue. (dovepress.com)
  • Furthermore, BMS-345541 and/or wortmannin suppressed the LPS-induced upregulation of catabolic enzymes that mediate ECM degradation (matrix metalloproteinases-9, -13), cyclooxygenase-2 and apoptosis (activated caspase-3). (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Catabolic responses, such as tissue necrosis and acute innate inflammation that never completely resolves, occur shortly after trauma, followed by anabolic responses, including bone remodeling and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis. (the-rheumatologist.org)
  • While the etiology of OA is complex, biomechanical and biological factors, such as mechanical strain and inflammatory cytokines alter the homeostatic balance between anabolic and catabolic factors in the joint, ultimately leading to the destruction of the articular cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the increase of matrix metalloproteinases ( MMPs ) in articular cartilage ,resulting in an inevitable degra-dation of cartilage and extracellular matrix (ECM). (bvsalud.org)
  • Among the latter, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are believed to play a central part in the inordinate matrix degradation, thus mediating destruction of joint architecture. (bmj.com)
  • MMPs are a family of structurally related, zinc dependent endopeptidases with a combined activity to degrade essentially all components of the extracellular matrix. (bmj.com)
  • 4, 5 In addition, MMPs participate in cell-cell and cell-matrix signalling by modulating the activity of growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines such as tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), transforming growth factor β, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 (MCP-3). (bmj.com)
  • These results indicate that the antiFVDIPEN antibody can be used to assess the role of MMPs in cartilage degradation in vivo. (docme.ru)
  • To more directly assess the role(s) of MMPs, including stromelysin, in rabbit models of cartilage destruction, it would be useful to have in situ markers DETECTION OF STROMELYSIN-CLEAVED RABBIT AGGRECAN of aggrecan cleavage. (docme.ru)
  • Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are believed to be pivotal enzymes in the invasion of articular cartilage by synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (tudelft.nl)
  • All matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cleave aggrecan between amino acids N341 and F342 in the proteinase-sensitive interglobular domain (IGD), and MMPs in the growth plate are thought to have a role in aggrecanolysis. (ozgene.com)
  • In both diseases, inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulate the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes that can degrade all components of the extracellular matrix. (bioscience.org)
  • Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -3 and MMP-13 expression was reduced in aging ACL but increased in degenerated ACL, mainly in the chondrocyte-like cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Changes in the normal homeostasis of articular cartilage and subchondral bone during OA are caused by the combination of (1) chondrocyte death, (2) increased degradation, and (3) decreased production of extracellular matrix (ECM). (hindawi.com)
  • To further investigate the molecular bases for the cartilage phenotypes, we analyzed the transcript abundance of several genes in chondrocyte-enriched cell populations isolated from wild-type WT and ML-II zebrafish embryos. (biologists.org)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related degenerative joint disease characterized by high oxidative stress, chondrocyte death and cartilage damage. (mdpi.com)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is a whole-joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation and mineralization associated with chondrocyte phenotype changes, subchondral bone sclerosis and mild synovial inflammation. (iospress.com)
  • Local hypothermia alleviates synovial reactions and prevents chondrocyte death as well as cartilage destructive processes after blunt cartilage trauma. (ovid.com)
  • Impairment of chondrocyte proliferation after exposure of young murine cartilage to an aged systemic environment in a heterochronic parabiosis model. (abcam.com)
  • Effects of high mobility group box protein-1, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 on cartilage matrix metabolism in three-dimensional equine chondrocyte cultures. (gu.se)
  • Human Chondrocyte Media for use with cartilage-producing cells. (cellapplications.com)
  • Endochondral ossification including chondrocyte maturation and apoptosis is an essential process for skeletal development and growth at the embryonic cartilage and growth plate cartilage, respectively, but should not occur under physiological conditions in the joint cartilage which is a permanent cartilage and is not destined to be replaced by bone. (oatext.com)
  • 2011. Effects of Wnt3A and mechanical load on cartilage chondrocyte homeostasis . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • However, the specific spatial and temporal relationship of these changes and their association with extracellular matrix (ECM) degeneration are not well understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • OA is characterized by a slow progressive degeneration of articular cartilage that leads to joint signs and symptoms, including changes at the subchondral bone and synovium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While all tissues involving the synovial joint are affected, the degeneration of articular cartilage is the main pathological feature in this disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since TMJ OA is a multifactorial disorder [18], understanding of the pathogenesis of cartilage degeneration in TMJ OA could help to identify potential therapeutic targets and interventions. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We tested the hypothesis that complete removal of Ddr2 from the knee joint of mouse adult articular cartilage can delay progression of osteoarthritis prior to or after initiation of articular cartilage degeneration. (harvard.edu)
  • Histology was performed and the OARSI Modified Mankin Score was used to evaluate articular cartilage degeneration. (harvard.edu)
  • In conclusion, conditional removal of Ddr2 in articular cartilage attenuated articular cartilage degeneration in mature knee joints of mouse models of OA. (harvard.edu)
  • The progressive process of articular cartilage degeneration was significantly delayed in the knee joints of Ddr2 -deficient mice in comparison to their control littermates. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) results in progressive degeneration of the articular cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results showed that MIA successfully induced osteoarthritis, as exhibited by severe bone loss, cartilage degeneration, and high levels of pro-inflammatory chemicals in the negative control. (naturalnews.com)
  • Blocking CCL2 and CCR2 can reduce cartilage degeneration, and CCR2 inhibition is only effective if used early in post-traumatic OA. (the-rheumatologist.org)
  • There are three main themes to the work of my research group (i) the structure and function of the minor collagens of cartilage, in particular types III, IX, X and XI, how they change with age and in disease, as well as their importance in cartilage repair (ii) elucidation of the cell signalling pathways associated with mechanical and cytokine mediated cartilage degeneration and (iii) strategies for enhancing cartilage repair. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Pomegranate consumption can improve physical function and stiffness, decrease breakdown cartilage enzymes and increase antioxidant status. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-β may function to activate enzymes involved in proteolytic digestion of cartilage. (aafp.org)
  • Collagenolytic enzymes are thought to contribute to the breakdown of cartilage. (aafp.org)
  • Collectively, these enzymes are capable of degrading all kinds of extracellular matrix proteins, but also can process a number of bioactive molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibiotic reactions caused the MMP enzymes to go from responsible clean-up to en masse destruction and tissue shredding. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Furthermore, the expression of apoptosis factors (caspase-3 and caspase-8), inflammatory factors [interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6] and matrix degradation enzymes [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, MMP-13] were also significantly increased. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Outre les collagénases de la famille des métaloprotéinases de la matrice (MMP-1, -8, -13), la cathepsine K est parmi les seules enzymes susceptibles de dégrader la triple hélice intacte du collagène de type II, devenant ainsi un élément pertinent pour les recherches sur l'ostéoarthrose. (umontreal.ca)
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the short-term effects of glucosamine (GLN) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) on expression of genes encoding inflammatory mediators and matrix enzymes in bovine cartilage explants stimulated with interleukin 1 (IL-1). (jrheum.org)
  • Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are the key enzymes in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis. (morebooks.de)
  • Enzymes from the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family play a crucial role in growth-plate vascularization and ossification via proteolytic cleavage and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. (physiology.org)
  • This process is accompanied by changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and remodeling mediated mainly by enzymes from the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. (physiology.org)
  • Injection of IL-6 protein into mouse knee joints triggered OA cartilage destruction, whereas IL-6 neutralization led to blocking of HIF-2α-induced cartilage destruction with concomitant modulation of Mmp3 and Mmp13 expression. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, Il6 knockout resulted in inhibition of AdEpas1-induced and destabilization of the medial meniscus-induced cartilage destruction as well as inhibition of Mmp3 and Mmp13 expression. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings indicate that IL-6 acts as a crucial mediator of HIF-2α-induced experimental OA cartilage destruction in mice via regulation of Mmp3 and Mmp13 levels. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that RUNX2 gene transcription is regulated by the methylation status of specific CpG sites in the promoter and may determine RUNX2 availability in OA cartilage for transactivation of genes such as MMP13 . (nature.com)
  • Human collagenase-3 (MMP13) is a recently identified member of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family that is expressed in breast carcinomas and in articular cartilage from arthritic patients. (fishersci.com)
  • Articular cartilage damage in the knee joints of the mice was associated with increased expression profiles of both Ddr2 and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (zeige MMP13 Antikörper ). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Using rabbit and human synovial fibroblast cell lines, we examined the effects of Cx43 overexpression and Cx43 siRNA-mediated knockdown on the gene expression of OA-associated matrix metalloproteinases ( MMP1 and MMP13 ), aggrecanases ( ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 ), and inflammatory factors ( IL1 , IL6 and PTGS2 ) by quantitative real time RT-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mouse mast cell protease (mMCP)-6-null C57BL/6 mice lost less aggrecan proteoglycan from the extracellular matrix of their articular cartilage during inflammatory arthritis than wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice, suggesting that this mast cell (MC)-specific mouse tryptase plays prominent roles in articular cartilage catabolism.We used ex vivo mouse femoral head explants to determine how mMCP-6 and its human ortholog hTryptase-b mediate aggrecanolysis. (edu.au)
  • Exposure of the explants to recombinant hTryptase-b, recombinant mMCP-6, or lysates harvested from WT mouse peritoneal MCs (PMCs) significantly increased the levels of enzymatically active matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in cartilage and significantly induced aggrecan loss into the conditioned media, relative to replicate explants exposed to medium alone or lysates collected from mMCP-6-null PMCs. (edu.au)
  • Treatment of cartilage explants with tetramer-forming tryptases generated aggrecan fragments that contained C-terminal DIPEN and N-terminal FFGVG neoepitopes, consistent with MMP-dependent aggrecanolysis. (edu.au)
  • The accumulated data suggest that human and mouse tetramer-forming tryptases are MMP convertases that mediate cartilage damage and the proteolytic loss of aggrecan proteoglycans in arthritis, in part, by activating the zymogen forms of MMP-3 and MMP-13, which are constitutively present in articular cartilage. (edu.au)
  • Use of an antibody against the matrix metalloproteinasegenerated aggrecan neoepitope fvdipen-cooh to assess the effects of stromelysin in a rabbit model of cartilage degradation. (docme.ru)
  • To define the stromelysin cleavage site in the interglobular domain of rabbit aggrecan, and to determine whether the stromelysin-generated neoepitope can be used as a marker of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in vivo. (docme.ru)
  • Stromelysin is a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) that has been implicated in the turnover of aggrecan from articular cartilage. (docme.ru)
  • This correlation suggested a causal relationship between the expression of stromelysin and the digestion of cartilage aggrecan. (docme.ru)
  • To accomplish this goal, conditional knock out techniques were used with Aggrecan-CreERT2 mice and floxed Ddr2 mice, Ddr2 was removed from articular cartilage of knee joints in mice at 8 weeks of age via intraperitoneal Tamoxifen injection (2mg/10g body weight) for 5 consecutive days (Group A). Mice were subjected to destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) or sham surgery at 10 weeks of age. (harvard.edu)
  • Human osteoarthritis synovial fluid and joint cartilage contain both aggrecanase- and matrix metalloproteinase-generated aggrecan fragments. (lu.se)
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases Are Not Essential for Aggrecan Turnover during Normal Skeletal Growth and Development. (ozgene.com)
  • In contrast, the fate of aggrecan in the growth plate is not clear: there is biosynthesis and loss of aggrecan from hypertrophic cartilage, but the mechanism of loss is unknown. (ozgene.com)
  • Our studies reveal that MMP cleavage in this key region is not a predominant mechanism for removing aggrecan from growth plate cartilage. (ozgene.com)
  • Expression of important genes involved in cartilage metabolism, presence of glycosaminoglycans and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) in pellets, and concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and aggrecan epitope CS 846 were evaluated. (gu.se)
  • Specifically, OSM + TNFalpha induced marked synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and cartilage and bone destruction with a concomitant increase in MMP expression in both cartilage and synovium and decreased TIMP-1 expression in the articular cartilage. (nih.gov)
  • Arthritides comprise a heterogeneous group of inflammatory degenerative disorders, characterised by different levels of chronic inflammation, invasive synovitis, destruction of cartilage and bone, and narrowing of the joint cavity. (bmj.com)
  • We quantified the progression of OA-related cartilage, subchondral bone and synovial histopathology, and associated pain sensitization (tactile allodynia). (springer.com)
  • This therapeutic study in mice demonstrated a poor correlation between cartilage, bone or synovium (histo)pathology, and pain sensitization. (springer.com)
  • OA is characterised clinically by pain and disability and pathologically by abnormalities in all joint tissues such as cartilage erosion and loss, thickened subchondral bone of reduced mineral density, excessive marginal new bone formation (osteophytes), and synovitis. (springer.com)
  • Transforming growth factor alpha controls the transition from hypertrophic cartilage to bone during endochondral bone growth. (uwo.ca)
  • Groups of cells surrounding the cartilage model differentiate into osteoblasts, which begin forming bone matrix on the partially degraded cartilage. (rupress.org)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of joint disease and cause of musculoskeletal disability in elderly people, is a disease affecting articular cartilage, bone, and soft tissue leading to joint destruction and severe impairment of mobility ( Felson and Zhang, 1998 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Because OA affects mainly bone, cartilage, and the synovium, structural molecules derived from these tissues could be candidate biological markers for OA. (frontiersin.org)
  • MOAKS showed all TKR tissue analysed had BMLs, and within these lesions, bone marrow volume was starkly reduced being replaced by dense fibrous connective tissue, new blood vessels, hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage. (bmj.com)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is a group of degenerative diseases primarily affecting the joint, characterized by progressive cartilage degradation, subchondral bone remodeling, synovitis, and chronic pain [2, 3]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The treatment strategy for TMJ OA aims at preventing the progressive destruction of cartilage and the subchondral bone, relieving joint pain and restoring TMJ function. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Although those abovementioned treatments can prevent disease progression to a certain degree, they are unable to completely restore degraded cartilage or subchondral bone lesions, as well as disc deteriorations. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Osteoarthritis is a common degenerative joint disorder that affects cartilage and bone. (sciencemag.org)
  • The microenvironment at the inner surface of long bones (endosteum), including the bone matrix and associated bone lining cells, is crucial to the dynamic processes of bone modelling and remodelling. (edu.au)
  • The human cartilage samples were obtained from the knees of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty as OA samples and from the femoral bone head of patients with femoral neck fracture as control samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The periostin expression was also detected in the fibrotic cartilage and tissue of subchondral bone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Actively steering the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) into either permanent cartilage or hypertrophic cartilage destined to be replaced by bone has not yet been possible. (pnas.org)
  • During limb development, the developing long bone is exposed to a concentration gradient of oxygen, with lower oxygen tension in the region destined to become articular cartilage and higher oxygen tension in transient hypertrophic cartilage. (pnas.org)
  • In conclusion, metabolic programming of MSCs by oxygen tension provides a simple yet effective mechanism by which to direct the chondrogenic differentiation program into either permanent articular-like cartilage or hypertrophic cartilage that is destined to become endochondral bone. (pnas.org)
  • One report demonstrates that the lack of DDR2 results in dwarfism in mice, probably due to decreased proliferation of cartilage cells during bone growth. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • Cell culture of these tissues in passage 2 demonstrated only 164 differentially expressed genes with none of the common cartilage and bone associated genes differentially expressed. (egms.de)
  • In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an inflammatory disease affecting joints, cartilage and bone, neutrophils have delayed apoptosis in synovial fluid and blood because of elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-1, tumor necrosis factor  (TNF-), IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) associated with the disease pathology [4, 5]. (termedia.pl)
  • The irreversible destruction of the cartilage, tendon, and bone that comprise synovial joints is the hallmark of both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). (bioscience.org)
  • the long bones of the fetal skeleton develop through the process of endochondral ossification, in which cartilage serves as the initial skeletal element and is later replaced by bone ( 9 ). (physiology.org)
  • During endochondral ossification, the cartilage, an avascular tissue, is gradually converted into a highly vascularized tissue, bone ( 42 ). (physiology.org)
  • MSC but not Hymovis significantly reduced late-stage (12-week post-DMM) cartilage proteoglycan loss and structural damage. (springer.com)
  • Amelioration of cartilage degradation was observed in the YGPs group, with increases in cartilage area and thickness, proteoglycan matrix, and decreases in OARSI score at 12 weeks post surgery. (frontiersin.org)
  • cartilage proteoglycan fragments into the joint fluid, and could be inhibited by pretreatment of the rabbits with a synthetic stromelysin inhibitor. (docme.ru)
  • Work on ID pathology is now revealing how a degenerated ID loses its highly concentrated proteoglycan matrix, which normally inhibits vascular ingrowth and, as a result, triggers the ingrowth of blood vessels and nerve fibers from the outer borders of the annulus into the disc substance. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • To determine the effects of the proinflammatory cytokine combination of oncostatin M (OSM) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) on cartilage destruction in both in vitro and in vivo model systems. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, recombinant hTryptase-b was able to activate latent pro-MMP-3 and pro-MMP-13 in vitro. (edu.au)
  • It can bind active MMP-9 without changing the ability of protease to digest natural substrates and causes the protease to remain active in the presence of normally inhibitory amounts of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) in vitro ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In short‐ and long‐term cultures of articular cartilage explants, we observed a release of proliferating chondroprogenitors able to differentiate and form an "in vitro" tissue with properties of healthy articular cartilage. (deepdyve.com)
  • This study demonstrated that MKX gene expression is enhanced during the tenogenic differentiation of BMMSCs in vitro and in vivo, and the adenoviral overexpression of MKX increases tendon extracellular matrix gene expression and protein production. (jove.com)
  • Human MSCs chondrogenically differentiated in vitro under hypoxia (2.5% O 2 ) produced more hyaline cartilage, which expressed typical articular cartilage biomarkers, including established inhibitors of hypertrophic differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • In particular, Indian hedgehog signaling was activated at early stages and required for the in vitro formation of hypertrophic cartilage. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we investigated the effects of gene transfer of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) on the invasiveness of RA synovial fibroblasts (RASF) in vitro and in vivo. (tudelft.nl)
  • The effects of AdTIMP-1 and AdTIMP-3 gene transfer on matrix invasion were investigated in vitro in a transwell system. (tudelft.nl)
  • An established in vitro model was used to compare the transcriptional response to cartilage injury in neonatal and adult sheep by microarray analysis of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The in vivo data clearly indicated that OSM + TNFalpha overexpression increased MMP levels and decreased levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1). (nih.gov)
  • This determines substrate specificity and is the site for interaction with TIMP's (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases). (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers measured inflammatory markers matrix metalloproteinase MMP-3 andMMP-13 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase TIMP-1 before and after the antibiotic use. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Matrix metalloproteinases -8 and -9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in burn patients. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • ProMMP-1, proMMP-3, and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1) were quantified by immunoassay. (tudelft.nl)
  • Gene expression relative to FBS control for inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGEs1), nuclear factor-kB p65 subunit (NF-kB), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and 13, aggrecanase (Agg)-1 and 2, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (jrheum.org)
  • Intraarticular injection of a pan-caspase inhibitor suppresses cartilage degradation under osteoarthritis induction in rabbits [28]. (oatext.com)
  • Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) has been known for a number of years to bind to CD44 and ArgGlyAsp sequence-dependent integrins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is an acidic phosphoglycoprotein and member of the integrin-binding SIBLING protein family ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although the precise functions of the protein have not been explicated, it has been associated with the regulation of postnatal chondrogenesis and subsequent osteogenesis and matrix mineralization ( 2 , 4 - 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Distal interleukin-1β (IL-1β) response element of human matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) binds activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factors and regulates gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • While the MMP-3 and MMP-13 protein expressions were evaluated using western blot method. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similarly, treatment with Payena dasyphylla ethyl acetate ( EA) fraction (100 μg/ml) inhibited the HYAL1 and HYAL2 mRNA gene expressions as well as MMP-3 and MMP-13 protein expression in a dose dependent manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The degradation of cartilage could also be inhibited by the plant through suppression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 protein expressions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, the preservation of cartilage correlated with reduced MMP-13, and elevated COL-2 and pSMAD-2 protein expressional levels were also revealed in DMM-induced mice treated with YGPs. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the second model, intraarticular injection of human interleukin-1 (IL-1) into the stifle joint (5,6) resulted in elevated stromelysin mRNA and protein levels in both the synovium and cartilage. (docme.ru)
  • 3 IL-17A was originally named CTLA-8 after being cloned from activated T cells, and shares 57% homology to the protein encoded by the open reading frame 13 gene of the T lymphotropic herpesvirus saimiri ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The increase in DDR2 caused an increase in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), a protein that remodels the extracellular matrix by degrading major matrix components. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • Objective: To determine protein and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3 (MMP-1 and MMP-3) in synovial fluid of patients with knee joint injury, primary osteoarthritis, and acute pyrophosphate arthritis (pseudogout). (tudelft.nl)
  • In contrast, MMP-3, associated with cartilage injuries, and its associated protein connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), were downregulated by the load. (physiology.org)
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage , 17 (5):686-692. (ucd.ie)
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage , 15 :414-420. (ucd.ie)
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 24(4), pp. 719-730. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 23(6), pp. 868-873. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Arthritis is a common chronic disease characterized by the destruction of joint cartilage and inflammation in the sur-rounding tissues . (bvsalud.org)
  • To better understand the role of collagenase-3 (MMP-13) in joint inflammation by investigating the consequences of transient overexpression of human collagenase-3 (matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13)), introduced by adenoviral gene delivery, in the mouse knee joint. (bmj.com)
  • This suggests that synovial inflammation can occur upstream of cartilage erosive mechanisms and could therefore not only be a therapeutically accessible symptom- but also disease-modifying target. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, treatment with anti-IL-17A Abs after the onset of CIA reduces the joint inflammation and histologic destruction of cartilage ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These results suggested that PNE enhanced the susceptibility of OA in male elderly offspring rats by down-regulating TGFβ signaling, which increased articular cartilage local inflammation, matrix degradation, and cell apoptosis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • OA may develop following injury due to unresolved inflammation, hemarthrosis, chronic destabilization and biomechanical effects of the trauma on cartilage and other tissues. (the-rheumatologist.org)
  • We undertook this study to explore the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in HIF-2α-mediated OA cartilage destruction in mice. (nih.gov)
  • The results demonstrated that, in SW1353 cells, 5 μM MIA exposure increased oxidative stress and decreased the expression of GPx1 and Mn-SOD but still increased GSH levels and HO-1 expression and enhanced the expression of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13. (mdpi.com)
  • Comparison of interleukin-6 and matrix metalloproteinase expression in the subretinal fluid and the vitreous during proliferative vitreoretinopathy: correlations with extent, duration of RRD and PVR grade. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • For the latter, they specifically looked at the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1-beta), and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). (naturalnews.com)
  • Short-term gene expression changes in cartilage explants stimulated with interleukin beta plus glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. (jrheum.org)
  • Publications] Sasaki,K.: 'Nitric oxide mediates interleukin-1-ianduced gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases and basic fibroblast growth factor in cultured rabbit articular chondrocytes'J.Biochem. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2011. Interleukin-1β enhances cartilage-to-cartilage integration . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • After RAdMMP-13 injection into the knee joints, expression of human MMP-13 in joint tissues resulted in an arthritis characterised by recruitment of inflammatory cells and increased production of cytokines and chemokines, synovial hyperplasia, and pannus formation. (bmj.com)
  • After the loss of MMP-13 transgene expression at 3 weeks, these inflammatory changes began to diminish. (bmj.com)
  • MMP-13 has a role in the onset of inflammatory reaction in synovium. (bmj.com)
  • Data from genetically modified mice has confirmed that ablation/inactivation of specific inflammatory molecules/pathways reduces joint structural pathology, particularly cartilage degradation, in induced models of post-traumatic (pt)OA [ 11 ]. (springer.com)
  • This happens not only because heavier mechanical loads generate greater physical stress upon connective tissue and joint surfaces, but also from the effect that excess fat has in increasing inflammatory molecules that attack and damage joint cartilage. (lifeextension.com)
  • Cartilage samples were taken from OA patients in order to describe and quantify pro-inflammatory mediators. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Control samples, taken from non-inflammatory cartilage, were cultured under the same conditions. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Both pro-inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases not only stimulate their own production but also the activity of osteoclasts (Abramson et al . (scielo.org.ar)
  • Periostin was upregulated in OA cartilage, and it may amplify inflammatory events and accelerate OA pathology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sundman EA, Cole BJ, Karas V, Della Valle C, Tetreault MW, Mohammed HO, Fortier LA. The anti-inflammatory and matrix restorative mechanisms of platelet-rich plasma in osteoarthritis. (rush.edu)
  • Thus, site-associated cartilage deterioration in equine carpal osteoarthritis (OA) is not explained by topographically different responses to inflammatory mediators. (gu.se)
  • Silence of MFI2-AS1 attenuated LPS-induced viability suppression, apoptosis production, inflammatory response and extracellular matrix degradation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Combined with appropriate scaffolds via transplantation in vivo, MSCs could restore tissue impairments to form cartilaginous or even osseous compartment in TMJ OA animal models [13, 14]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • To examine the effects on cartilage destruction in vivo , hesperidin or vehicle control were orally administrated in a surgically-induced osteoarthritis (OA) model. (medscimonit.com)
  • The findings of this preliminary ex vivo investigation indicate that optimized cryotherapy management after cartilage trauma might prevent matrix-degenerative processes associated with the pathogenesis of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. (ovid.com)
  • Subsequent development of a bony collar in vivo was followed by vascularization, osteoclastic resorption of the cartilage template, and appearance of hematopoietic foci. (pnas.org)
  • Cartilage invasion in vivo was studied in the SCID mouse coimplantation model for 60 days. (tudelft.nl)
  • This study demonstrates that OSM + TNFalpha represents a potent proinflammatory cytokine combination that markedly induces MMP production in both cartilage and synovium, thus promoting joint destruction. (nih.gov)
  • Our study demonstrates that PL induces quiescent cartilage cell activation and proliferation leading to new cartilage formation, identifies PL activated pathways playing a role in these processes, and provides a rationale to the application of PL for therapeutic treatment of damaged articular cartilage. (deepdyve.com)
  • Northern blot analysis indicated that this cytokine combination synergistically induced matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, and MMP-13 mRNA. (nih.gov)
  • In the first model, surgical removal of the medial meniscus (4) resulted in elevated stromelysin messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in the articular cartilage. (docme.ru)
  • The periostin mRNA was significantly higher in OA cartilage than in control cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The abundance of stimulated MMP-13, Agg-1, and Agg-2 mRNA was repressed, whereas TIMP-3 was upregulated by the combination at all timepoints. (jrheum.org)
  • The present study observes the therapeutic role of YGPs and mechanisms underlying its chondroprotective action in osteoarthritic cartilage. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2015). Elevated expression of periostin in human osteoarthritic cartilage and its potential role in matrix degradation via matrix metalloproteinase-13. (uwo.ca)
  • Moreover, load reduced MMP-3 synthesis in healthy, but not osteoarthritic, cartilage ( 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • Similar results were obtained in cartilage explants, although pSmad1/5 was not strongly induced by addition of TGFβ1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • METHODS: Dose-response experiments were conducted for IL-1, GLN, and CS to select concentrations of each optimized for detecting treatment effects on cartilage explants. (jrheum.org)
  • Articular cartilage explants were harvested from adult (n = 3, 2 years old) and neonatal sheep (n = 3, 1 week old) bilateral femoral medial condyle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our findings suggest a central role for excessive cathepsin K activity in the developmental aspects of ML-II cartilage pathogenesis and highlight the utility of the zebrafish system to address the biochemical underpinnings of metabolic disease. (biologists.org)
  • In this review, we will briefly summarize the pathogenesis of TMJ OA and emphasize the potential of novel approaches for the cartilage regeneration of TMJ OA, particularly focusing on the MSC-based therapy. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • however, accumulating evidence using experimental osteoarthritis models in knockout mice has not supported that these factors play a central role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis [13,14].Our previous study also showed that levels of TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 in the synovial fluid from knee joints of osteoarthritis patients were much lower than those from patients with rheumatoid arthritis [15]. (oatext.com)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease affecting the extracellular matrix of especially synovial joints. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MMP-2 (gelatinase A, 72 kDa type IV collagenase) is a matrix metalloproteinase which was first described and purified from highly metastatic murine tumors [ 17 , 18 ] and cultured human melanoma cells [ 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Collagenase 1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1 [MMP-1]) is a fibroblast collagenase, and collagenase 2 (MMP-8) is a neutrophil collagenase. (aafp.org)
  • Collagenase 3 (MMP-13) may be particularly important because of its highly potent collagenolytic activity. (aafp.org)
  • Open in another window Matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) offers been shown to become the main collagenase in charge of degradation of articular cartilage during osteoarthritis and for that reason represents a focus on for medication advancement. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • MMP-13 provides been shown to become the primary collagenase in charge of degradation of articular cartilage during OA8 and Cd19 for that reason represents a focus on for medication development. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Ensure accurate, reproducible results in immunohistochemistry experiments with the Thermo Scientific MMP-13 (Collagenase-3) Ab-1, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody. (fishersci.com)
  • At 12 weeks post-surgery, the joints were harvested for tissue analyses, including histomorphometry, OARSI scoring, micro-CT and immunohistochemistry for COL-2, MMP-13 and pSMAD-2. (frontiersin.org)
  • Instead, multiple mechanisms conspire to slowly destroy the cartilage that lines our joints. (lifeextension.com)
  • An anti-FVDIPEN antibody recognized the FMDIPEN neoepitope in situ in cartilage from stromelysin-injected joints. (docme.ru)
  • Recently, in 2 rabbit models of cartilage destruction, elevated levels of stromelysin expression were demonstrated in affected joints. (docme.ru)
  • Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage that serves as the cushion between joints breaks down, allowing for direct contact between the bones. (naturalnews.com)
  • This condition can progress through five stages from 0, which represents the normal joints, to the most severe stage 4 where there is an extensive or complete loss of cartilage. (naturalnews.com)
  • Growth factors and cytokines generated in the synovial membrane and which diffuse throughout the cartilage via the synovial fluid (Pelletier et al . (scielo.org.ar)
  • Gene expression levels of miR-140, MMP-13, and ADAMTS-5 were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene expression of some extracellular matrix molecules was inhibited by estrogen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study aimed to identify differences in gene expression and molecular responses between neonatal and adult articular cartilage during the healing of an injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are significant differences in gene expression between neonatal and adult ovine articular cartilage following acute injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cellular and extracellular matrix changes in anterior cruciate ligaments during human knee aging and osteoarthritis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A single dose (5×10 7 pfu) of recombinant adenovirus coding either for β-galactosidase (RAdLacZ) or human MMP-13 (RAdMMP-13) was injected intra-articularly into the knee joint of adult mice. (bmj.com)
  • HACs were isolated from the knee joint cartilage removed during surgery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hsieh YL & Yang CC Early intervention of swimming exercises attenuate articular cartilage destruction in a rat model of anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus knee injuries. (abcam.com)
  • OA is a chronic, disabling disease involving progressive cartilage destruction accompanied by intractable pain, and most frequently occurs in the knee joint. (thno.org)
  • 6 Hemarthrosis after a knee injury may lead to leukocyte activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production even in an otherwise healthy person, and this acute, substantial joint bleeding can damage knee cartilage, much more so than microbleeds. (the-rheumatologist.org)
  • Eleven cartilage-specific genes were dysregulated in the meniscus tissue of rats a few days after knee injury in one study, although not all at the same points in time. (the-rheumatologist.org)
  • The hypom-ethylation of the promoter region of the MMP -13 may induce its expression, while it can be reduced by inhibiting histone acety-lation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Meanwhile, microRNA can reduce the expression of MMP -13. (bvsalud.org)
  • Both Epas1 and Il6 were up-regulated in human and mouse OA cartilage, whereas HIF-2α knockdown in mice led to inhibition of both Il6 expression and cartilage destruction. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the increased expression of MMP-9 in primary colon tumors has been associated with liver metastases ( 13 ) and was increased in biopsy samples from patients with colon cancer ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The expression and activation of discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is increased in human OA tissues and mouse models of OA and was co-localized with elevated expression of MMP-13 in degenerative articular cartilages. (harvard.edu)
  • Human cartilage and synovia samples were used for the analysis of periostin expression and function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry were used for analysis of periostin expression in cartilage and synovia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MMP-13 expression was then evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Knockdown of miR-140 expression abolished the inhibitory effect of estrogen on MMP-13. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MMP-13: -122-fold [P = .0444]) and attenuated IL-6 expression by trend. (ovid.com)
  • Furthermore, stimulation of AF cells towards expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes has to be examined. (egms.de)
  • TNF α stimulation led to an increase of MMP1, -3, and -13 expression. (egms.de)
  • Load-induced injury is associated with elevated MMP-3 levels in the articular cartilage ( 28 ), whereas physiological-range loads inhibit its expression in the flexor tendons ( 3 ). (physiology.org)
  • This groundbreaking study shows that MMP inhibition resulted in a significant decrease in the cell proliferation and the remodeling of the extracellular matrix up to 2½ months after the MMP injection versus untreated control group and that these effects were associated with a marked reduction in MMP-2 activity. (morebooks.de)
  • Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 may contribute to the breakdown of articular cartilage during arthritis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 3 Growth factors such as tissue growth factor-β and insulin growth factor-1 may play a role in the body's attempts to repair cartilage through cartilage synthesis. (aafp.org)
  • When catabolism exceeds cartilage synthesis, osteoarthritis develops. (aafp.org)
  • Our study also identifies a signalling pathway in cartilage cells used by DDR2 to regulate the synthesis of MMP-13. (medica-tradefair.com)
  • Osteoarthritic changes in vervet monkey knees correlate with meniscus degradation and increased matrix metalloproteinase and cytokine secretion. (abnova.com)
  • PL induced the re‐entry in the cell cycle of confluent, growth‐arrested dedifferentiated/progenitor cartilage cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • In a cartilage permissive culture environment, differentiated cells also resumed proliferation after exposure to PL. These findings correlated with an up‐regulation of the proliferation/survival pathways ERKs and Akt and with an induction of cyclin D1. (deepdyve.com)
  • Moreover, in cultured cartilage cells, PL induced a hypoxia‐inducible factor (HIF‐1) alpha increase, its nuclear relocation and the binding to HIF‐1 responsive elements. (deepdyve.com)
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cartilage Regeneration of TMJ Osteoarthritis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Native articular cartilage is organized in distinct areas that are clearly evidenced because they are formed by cells of different morphological and mechanical properties. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Although IL-17A and IL-17F were expressed in CD4 + T cells, IL-17B and IL-17C were expressed in the cartilage and in various cell populations in the CIA arthritic paws, respectively. (jimmunol.org)
  • We investigated cells and conditioned media of the three human keratinocyte cell lines HaCaT (non-tumorigenic), A5 (benign, tumorigenic) and II-4RT (malignant, tumorigenic) with regard to production and secretion of the collagenases-1 to -3 (MMP-1, MMP-8 and MMP-13) and TIMP-1 using semi-nested RT-PCR, Western blots, ELISA, immunocytochemistry and casein zymography. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Multipotent cells, such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), have the capacity to differentiate into cartilage-forming cells. (pnas.org)
  • Although positive clinical effects on periarticular swelling and pain have been described, the effects on the cell biological activities of cartilage and synovial cells remain largely unknown so far. (ovid.com)
  • Unlike MMP-13, in which higher levels of enzyme was also detected, sustained activity of cathepsin K appeared to result from abnormal processing and activation of this enzyme at later stages. (biologists.org)
  • Matrix metalloproteinase 28 also known as epilysin is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MMP28 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • TMJ OA is a highly prevalent degenerative disease affecting articular cartilage as well as other TMJ tissues under pathological conditions and aging process [5]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. (rush.edu)
  • Soft tissues are important sources of proteases that are known to damage cartilage & joint structures. (the-rheumatologist.org)
  • After injury, "there is an effect on cartilage with matrix product release, and these can be acting as DAMPs [damage-associated molecular patterns] to activate cell population in the synovium. (the-rheumatologist.org)
  • Several studies report that estrogen exerts a chondroprotective effect, while others present evidence of a chondrodestructive effect or no effect on cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we prove that metabolic programming of MSCs by oxygen tension directs chondrogenesis into either permanent or transient hyaline cartilage. (pnas.org)
  • This differentiation program resembled the embryological development of these distinct types of hyaline cartilage. (pnas.org)
  • We also performed the relative experiments mentioned above in mice with Tgfbr2 conditional knockout ( TGF-βRII Col2ER mice) in articular cartilage. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, no significant difference in cartilage structure was observed in TGF-βRII Col2ER mice after YGPs treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adult cartilage-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma knockout mice exhibit the spontaneous osteoarthritis phenotype. (uwo.ca)
  • Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) functions in oxidative defense, and mice with Atm loss of function show premature aging caused by defects in DNA repair ( 12 , 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • Remarkably, the distinct cartilage phenotypes were preserved upon implantation in mice. (pnas.org)
  • More severe intra-articular fractures led to more severe synovitis in one study in mice, but "it didn't translate to any worse damage in terms of the cartilage nor an increase in cell death. (the-rheumatologist.org)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that results in the destruction of cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This SIBLING was recently shown to be able to specifically bind and activate proMMP-9 and to make MMP-9 much less sensitive to inhibition by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and synthetic inhibitors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The most upregulated genes included stathmin 2, thrombospondin 4, matrix metalloproteinase 13 and Wnt/Notch/catenin/chemokine signalling molecules that are known to constitute neuronal, osteogenic and chondrogenic pathways. (bmj.com)
  • BMLs demonstrated areas of high metabolic activity expressing pain sensitisation, neuronal, extracellular matrix and proinflammatory signalling genes that may explain their strong association with pain. (bmj.com)
  • Changes at the molecular level, consisting of key genes or signaling pathways, may occur during the developmental process, and this might lessen the repair ability of articular cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gottingen minipigs showed elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 1, 13 and the aggrecanase ADAMTS-4 in both their cartilage and ligament tissue after ACL injuries in one study. (the-rheumatologist.org)
  • Disturbed cartilage and joint homeostasis resulting from a loss of mitogen-inducible gene 6 in a mouse model of joint dysfunction. (uwo.ca)
  • Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) plays a crucial role in regulation of tissue homeostasis via its control over diverse cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and matrix formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main aim is to investigate the role of smoc2 in chondrogenic differentiation and cartilage homeostasis and hypothesize interactions between smoc2 and canonical wnt signaling. (wesrch.com)
  • The up-regulation of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), certain cell receptors such as integrins and CD44, and the SIBLING family of integrin-binding glycophosphoproteins have been reported separately and in various combinations for many types of tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Their regulation in the growth plate is crucial for normal matrix assembly. (physiology.org)
  • Their substrates are the ECM proteins ( 32 , 37 ), and they are involved in proteolytic cleavage and remodeling of the cartilage ( 59 ) and regulation of angiogenesis ( 48 ). (physiology.org)
  • 2021. Regulation of microRNA‐221, ‐222, ‐21 and ‐27 in articular cartilage subjected to abnormal compressive forces . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Digestive proteases are detected in larger amounts in OA cartilage than in normal cartilage [ 2 , 3 ]. (thno.org)
  • We found 1,075 (11.6%) differentially expressed probe sets in adult injured cartilage relative to normal cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A total of 1,016 (11.0%) probe sets were differentially expressed in neonatal injured cartilage relative to normal cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A total of 1,492 (16.1%) probe sets were differentially expressed in adult normal cartilage relative to neonatal normal cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 231(2): 389-91, abstract (Feb. 13, 1997). (patentgenius.com)
  • Effects of diacerhein in an accelerated canine model of osteoarthritis," Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 5(6): 438-49, abstract (Nov. 1997). (patentgenius.com)
  • Long bones and the axial skeleton in the developing embryo are formed by endochondral ossification, namely, by remodeling of cartilage templates ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • They are partly due to intrinsic differences in the process of development, and partly to different biological responses to mechanical trauma between neonatal and adult articular cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The different mechanisms of cartilage repair in young and adult articular cartilage are unclear. (biomedcentral.com)