A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.
The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.
A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
Breaks in CARTILAGE.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.
The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.
The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.
The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.
Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
An extracellular endopeptidase which excises a block of peptides at the amino terminal, nonhelical region of the procollagen molecule with the formation of collagen. Absence or deficiency of the enzyme causes accumulation of procollagen which results in the inherited connective tissue disorder--dermatosparaxis. EC 3.4.24.14.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
Surgical techniques used to correct or augment healing of chondral defects in the joints (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). These include abrasion, drilling, and microfracture of the subchondral bone to enhance chondral resurfacing via autografts, allografts, or cell transplantation.
An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.
A plastic surgical operation on the nose, either reconstructive, restorative, or cosmetic. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.
A low-osmolar, ionic contrast medium used in various radiographic procedures.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains ELASTIC FIBERS and elastic lamellae, in addition to the normal components of HYALINE CARTILAGE matrix. Elastic cartilage is found in the EXTERNAL EAR; EUSTACHIAN TUBE; EPIGLOTTIS; and LARYNX.
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
A clear, homogenous, structureless, eosinophilic substance occurring in pathological degeneration of tissues.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.
Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.
A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
A type of osteochondritis in which articular cartilage and associated bone becomes partially or totally detached to form joint loose bodies. Affects mainly the knee, ankle, and elbow joints.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A dead body, usually a human body.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. It may remain within the substance of a cartilage or bone (true chondroma or enchondroma) or may develop on the surface of a cartilage (ecchondroma or ecchondrosis). (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.
An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, GENU VARUM, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
An acquired disease of unknown etiology, chronic course, and tendency to recur. It is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of cartilage and can result in deformities such as floppy ear and saddle nose. Loss of cartilage in the respiratory tract can lead to respiratory obstruction.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.
Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.
A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.
Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.
The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. In addition to a conserved HMG-BOX DOMAIN, members of this group contain a leucine zipper motif which mediates protein DIMERIZATION.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.
A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.
The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Surgical reconstruction of the hearing mechanism of the middle ear, with restoration of the drum membrane to protect the round window from sound pressure, and establishment of ossicular continuity between the tympanic membrane and the oval window. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.

Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta production by nitric oxide-treated chondrocytes: implications for matrix synthesis. (1/4540)

OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO) is generated copiously by articular chondrocytes activated by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). If NO production is blocked, much of the IL-1beta inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis is prevented. We tested the hypothesis that this inhibitory effect of NO on proteoglycan synthesis is secondary to changes in chondrocyte transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta). METHODS: Monolayer, primary cultures of lapine articular chondrocytes and cartilage slices were studied. NO production was determined as nitrite accumulation in the medium. TGFbeta bioactivity in chondrocyte- and cartilage-conditioned medium (CM) was measured with the mink lung epithelial cell bioassay. Proteoglycan synthesis was measured as the incorporation of 35S-sodium sulfate into macromolecules separated from unincorporated label by gel filtration on PD-10 columns. RESULTS: IL-1beta increased active TGFbeta in chondrocyte CM by 12 hours; by 24 hours, significant increases in both active and latent TGFbeta were detectable. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMA) potentiated the increase in total TGFbeta without affecting the early TGFbeta activation. IL-1beta stimulated a NO-independent, transient increase in TGFbeta3 at 24 hours; however, TGFbeta1 was not changed. When NO synthesis was inhibited with L-NMA, IL-1beta increased CM concentrations of TGFbeta1 from 24-72 hours of culture. L-arginine (10 mM) reversed the inhibitory effect of L-NMA on NO production and blocked the increases in TGFbeta1. Anti-TGFbeta1 antibody prevented the restoration of proteoglycan synthesis by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta + L-NMA, confirming that NO inhibition of TGFbeta1 in IL-1beta-treated chondrocytes effected, in part, the decreased proteoglycan synthesis. Furthermore, the increase in TGFbeta and proteoglycan synthesis seen with L-NMA was reversed by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamide. Similar results were seen with cartilage slices in organ culture. The autocrine increase in CM TGFbeta1 levels following prior exposure to TGFbeta1 was also blocked by NO. CONCLUSION: NO can modulate proteoglycan synthesis indirectly by decreasing the production of TGFbeta1 by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta. It prevents autocrine-stimulated increases in TGFbeta1, thus potentially diminishing the anabolic effects of this cytokine in chondrocytes.  (+info)

Expression of both P1 and P2 purine receptor genes by human articular chondrocytes and profile of ligand-mediated prostaglandin E2 release. (2/4540)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the expression and function of purine receptors in articular chondrocytes. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to screen human chondrocyte RNA for expression of P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. Purine-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release from chondrocytes, untreated or treated with recombinant human interleukin-1alpha (rHuIL-1alpha), was assessed by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: RT-PCR demonstrated that human articular chondrocytes transcribe messenger RNA for the P1 receptor subtypes A2a and A2b and the P2 receptor subtype P2Y2, but not for the P1 receptor subtypes A1 and A3. The P1 receptor agonists adenosine and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine did not change PGE2 release from chondrocytes. The P2Y2 agonists ATP and UTP stimulated a small release of PGE2 that was potentiated after pretreatment with rHuIL-1alpha. PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP cotreatment was not additive, but release in response to coaddition of ATP and bradykinin (BK) or UTP and BK was additive, consistent with ATP and UTP competition for the same receptor site. The potentiation of PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP after rHuIL-1alpha pretreatment was mimicked by phorbol myristate acetate. CONCLUSION: Human chondrocytes express both P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. The function of the P1 receptor subtype is not yet known, but stimulation of the P2Y2 receptor increases IL-1-mediated PGE2 release.  (+info)

Destruction of hyaline cartilage in the sigmoid notch of the human ulna. (3/4540)

In an ulna from an adolescent a fossa nudata divided the articular surface of the sigmoid notch into olecranon and coronoid areas. In the floor of the fossa a layer of loose avascular pannus covered a thin layer of articular cartilage. The pannus appeared to have been formed by removal of chondroitin from the cartilage, freeing the cells and unmasking the fibres. Probably the change followed loss of contact between the articular cartilages of the sigmoid notch and trochlea during postnatal growth.  (+info)

Transport of solutes through cartilage: permeability to large molecules. (4/4540)

A review of the transport of solutes through articular cartilage is given, with special reference to the effect of variations in matrix composition. Some physiological implications of our findings are discussed. Also, results of an experimental study of the permeability of articular cartilage to large globular proteins are presented. Because of the very low partition coefficients of large solutes between cartilage and an external solution new experimental techniques had to be devised, particularly for the study of diffusion. The partition coefficients of solutes were found to decrease very steeply with increase in size, up to serum albumin. There was, however, no further decrease for IGG. The diffusion coefficient of serum albumin in cartilage was relatively high (one quarter of the value in aqueous solution). These two facts taken together suggest that there may be a very small fraction of relatively large pores in cartilage through which the transport of large molecules is taking place. The permeability of cartilage to large molecules is extremely sensitive to variations in the glycosaminoglycan content: for a threefold increase in the latter there is a hundredfold decrease in the partition coefficient. For cartilage of fixed charge density around 0-19 m-equiv/g, there is no penetration at all of globular proteins of size equal to or larger than serum albumin.  (+info)

Association of the aggrecan keratan sulfate-rich region with collagen in bovine articular cartilage. (5/4540)

Aggrecan, the predominant large proteoglycan of cartilage, is a multidomain macromolecule with each domain contributing specific functional properties. One of the domains contains the majority of the keratan sulfate (KS) chain substituents and a protein segment with a proline-rich hexapeptide repeat sequence. The function of this domain is unknown but the primary structure suggests a potential for binding to collagen fibrils. We have examined binding of aggrecan fragments encompassing the KS-rich region in a solid-phase assay. A moderate affinity (apparent Kd = 1.1 microM) for isolated collagen II, as well as collagen I, was demonstrated. Enzymatic digestion of the KS chains did not alter the capacity of the peptide to bind to collagen, whereas cleavage of the protein core abolished the interaction. The distribution of the aggrecan KS-rich region in bovine tarsometatarsal joint cartilage was investigated using immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoreactivity was relatively low in the superficial zone and higher in the intermediate and deep zones of the uncalcified cartilage. Within the pericellular and territorial matrix compartments the epitopes representing the aggrecan KS-rich region were detected preferentially near or at collagen fibrils. Along the fibrils, epitope reactivity was non-randomly distributed, showing preference for the gap region within the D-period. Our data suggest that collagen fibrils interact with the KS-rich regions of several aggrecan monomers aligned within a proteoglycan aggregate. The fibril could therefore serve as a backbone in at least some of the aggrecan complexes.  (+info)

Distribution of chondroitin sulfate in cartilage proteoglycans under associative conditions. (6/4540)

Proteoglycan aggregates and proteoglycan subunits were extracted from bovine articular cartilage with guanidine-HC1 folowed by fractionation by equilibrium centrifugation in cesium chloride density gradients. The distribution of chondroitin sulfates (CS) in the cartilage proteoglycans was studied at the disaccharide level by digestion with chondroitinases. In the proteoglycan aggregate fraction, it was observed that the proportion of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS increased from the bottom to the top fractions, whereas that of 6-sulfated disaccharide units was in the reverse order. Thus, the ratio of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to 6-sulfated disaccharide units increased significantly with decreasing density. The proportion of non-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS tended to increase with increasing density. These data indicate a polydisperse distribution of CS chains, under the conditions used here, in proteoglycan aggregates from bovine articular cartilage.  (+info)

Effect of anti-inflammatory drugs on sulphated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in aged human articular cartilage. (7/4540)

The anti-inflammatory drugs, sodium salicylate, indomethacin, hydrocortisone, ibuprofen, and flurbiprofen, were examined for their effects on sulphated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in aged human cartilage in vitro. Cartilage was obtained from femoral heads removed during surgery and drug effects were found to vary significantly from one head to another. Statistical analysis of the results showed that sodium salicylate exhibits concentration-dependent inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis over the concentration range used. Indomethacin, hydrocortisone, and ibuprofen, at concentrations comparable to those attained in man, caused a statistically significant depression of sulphated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in cartilage from some femoral heads but not others, reflecting the variable response of human articular cartilage to anti-inflammatory drugs. Sodium salicylate and indomethacin at higher doses produced significant (Pless than 0-005) inhibition of sulphated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in all femoral heads studied. The results for flurbiprofen were less conclusive; this compound appears not to inhibit glycosaminoglycan synthesis over the concentration range used.  (+info)

Uridine diphosphate xylosyltransferase activity in cartilage from manganese-deficient chicks. (8/4540)

The glycosaminoglycan content of cartilage is decreased in manganese deficiency in the chick (perosis). The activity of xylosyltransferase, the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of sulphated glycosaminoglycans, was studied in the epiphysial cartilage of 4-week-old chicks which had been maintained since hatching on a manganese-deficient diet. Enzymic activity was measured by the incorporation of [14C]xylose from UDP-[14C]xylose into trichloroacetic acid precipitates. Optimal conditions for the xylosyltransferase assay were established and shown to be the same for both control and manganese-deficient cartilage. Assay of the enzyme by using an exogenous xylose acceptor showed no difference in xylosyltransferase activity between control and manganese-deficient tissue. Further, the extent of xylose incorporation was greater in manganese-deficient than in control cartilage preparations, suggesting an increase in xylose-acceptor sites on the endogenous acceptor protein in the deficient cartilage. 35S turnover in the manganese-deficient cartilage was also increased. The data suggest that the decreased glycosaminoglycan content in manganese-deficient cartilage is due to decreased xylosylation of the acceptor protein plus increased degradation of glycosaminoglycan.  (+info)

PURPOSE: The goal of the study was to report the prevalence of the lesions of the articular cartilage of the femoral condyles and tibial plateau in patients with a symptomatic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee undergoing day-case arthroscopy. TYPE OF STUDY: Case series study. METHODS: We studied 378 skeletally mature patients (average age, 27.3 years; range, 16-50 years; 282 men and 84 women), part of a sample of 1,978 patients undergoing a primary knee arthroscopy between January 1986 and August 1993. The articular cartilage lesions were classified according to Outerbridge by a single observer. We assessed the relationship between time of injury and articular cartilage lesions and between meniscal lesions and articular cartilage lesions. RESULTS: A complete ACL tear was found in all 378 knees. Of these, 157 showed at least one lesion of the articular cartilage. The medial femoral condyle (MFC) showed the highest frequency of articular cartilage lesions, especially in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of articular cartilage thickness of the humeral head. T2 - MR- anatomic correlation in cadavers. AU - Hodler, J.. AU - Loredo, R. A.. AU - Longo, C.. AU - Trudell, D.. AU - Yu, J. S.. AU - Resnick, D.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to evaluate several commonly used MR sequences to determine how accurately each demonstrates the thickness of the articular cartilage of the humeral head. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ten cadaveric shoulders (age at death, 58-92 years; mean, 79 years) were imaged with fat-suppressed transaxial T1-weighted spin-echo three-dimensional gradient-recalled sequences, both before and after injection of 12 ml of diluted gadopentetate dimeglumine. Articular cartilage was measured to the nearest 10th of a millimeter on the MR images and corresponding anatomic sections. RESULTS. Cartilage could not be differentiated from surrounding structures in 14 of 112 locations (13%) on the spin-echo images obtained without ...
BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage repair in the knee is aimed at young patients with area(s) of cartilage loss and no deformity of the knee. These patients arent indicated for a knee replacement. Articular cartilage repair leads to improvement of symptoms of pain, locking and function. Traditionally, articular cartilage repair has always involved exposing the entire knee joint with an arthrotomy. This, though effective, would lead to a large scar, longer hospital stay, longer rehabilitation and its associated complications. Also, the use of Bone Marrow Aspirate Cells (BMAC) for the purpose of cartilage repair has long been debated with both sides having valid arguments and good surgical results.. RATIONALE: Both procedures in this study are performed in one stage, arthroscopically and as day case procedures, which offers minimal scarring and quicker recovery. This automatically confers a significant advantage over the traditional surgical techniques.. To correct the articular cartilage defect, ...
Extracts of normal mature articular cartilage contain aggrecan molecules which bear the G1 domain (the N-terminal globular domain of aggrecan) and are C-terminally truncated by proteolysis at a number of sites. of mature bovine articular cartilage and establish the presence of a novel proteolytic pathway for aggrecanolysis in the cells and/or matrix of mature articular cartilages. EXPERIMENTAL Materials Porcine kidney m-calpain was purchased from Calbiochem. Chondroitinase ABC, endo-galactosidase and keratanase II were obtained from Seikagaku America (East Falmouth, MA, U.S.A.). Goat anti-mouse secondary antibody and mouse mAb isotyping kit were from Amersham Biosciences (Little Chalfont, Amersham, Bucks., U.K.). The affinity column HiTrap? Protein A HP and Sepharose CL-2B were from Amersham Biosciences (Uppsala, Sweden). Preparation of mAb SK-28 The antigen used for immunization was the ovalbumin-linked peptide aggrecan cleavages by m-calpain The Western-blot data (Figures ?(Figures1A,1A, ...
The hallmark feature of osteoarthritis is the breakdown in the articular cartilage of joints such as the knee and hip. Both animal and human research has consistently shown that corticosteroid injections into normal and degenerated knees accelerate the arthritic process. A summary of the effects of the intraarticular corticosteroids on articular cartilage includes: a decrease of protein and matrix synthesis, matrix hyaline appearance becomes fibrotic, clumping of collagen, alteration in chondrocyte cell shape, chondrocyte cell proliferation inhibited, chondrocyte cytoxicity enhanced, loss of chondrocytes, surface deterioration including edema, pitting, shredding, ulceration and erosions, inhibition of articular cartilage metabolism, articular cartilage necrosis, thinning of articular cartilage, decrease in cartilage growth and repair, formation of articular cartilage cysts, and ultimately articular cartilage destruction.. When researchers microscopically and radiologically examine human joints ...
Signals from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have typically been considered to provide catabolic activities in articular cartilage, and accordingly have been suggested to have a causal role in osteoarthritis progression. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo roles for endogenous EGFR signal activation in articular cartilage. Transgenic mice with conditional, limb-targeted deletion of the endogenous intracellular EGFR inhibitor Mig-6 were generated using CreLoxP (Mig-6-flox; Prx1Cre) recombination. Histology, histochemical staining and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm activation of EGFR signaling in the articular cartilage and joints, and to analyze phenotypic consequences of Mig-6 loss on articular cartilage morphology, proliferation, expression of progenitor cell markers, presence of chondrocyte hypertrophy and degradation of articular cartilage matrix. The articular cartilage of Mig-6-conditional knockout (Mig-6-cko) mice was dramatically and significantly thicker than
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Objective: To investigate the differences between chondrocytes of the superficial and underlying zones of articular cartilage at the level of gene expression. Methods: Messenger RNA (mRNA) was isolated from chondrocytes harvested from the superficial and deep zones of immature bovine articular cartilage. This mRNA was reverse transcribed, radiolabeled, and then each complementary DNA (cDNA) sample was used to screen duplicate filters of a bovine chondrocyte cDNA library. By comparing autoradiographic signals on matching filter sets, clones exclusively expressed in the superficial zone of articular cartilage were isolated and characterized further. Results: Of the superficial-specific gene clones isolated, 25% were found to be a single gene product, clusterin. Northern hybridization was used to show that clusterin is expressed specifically in the superficial zone of articular cartilage and that its expression is up-regulated in mature cartilage. In situ hybridization was used to precisely ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Degradation of proteoglycans in human osteoarthritic cartilage. AU - Altman, Roy D.. AU - Pita, Julio C.. AU - Howell, David S.. PY - 1973/1/1. Y1 - 1973/1/1. N2 - New ultramicro modifications of a hypertonic salt extraction and purification schemes for proteoglycans were applied to the study of proteoglycans in discolored marginal lesions cartilage of patients with osteoarthritis, and the results were compared to a control group of normal appearing cartilage samples from the same patients or from patients with relatively noninflammatory diseases involving the lower extremities. Histologic studies of portions of the same sample used for chemical analysis revealed only minor morphologic changes without leukocytic infiltration. Considerable aberrations from control bovine nasal cartilages were exhibited by normal human articular cartilage samples in respect to the proteoglycan fractionation. Additional abberations of behavior in respect to proteoglycan fractionation were observed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chondroprotective effects of zoledronic acid on articular cartilage in dogs with experimentally induced osteoarthritis. AU - Dearmin, Michael G.. AU - Trumble, Troy N.. AU - García, Ana Patricia. AU - Chambers, Jon N.. AU - Budsberg, Steven C.. PY - 2014/4. Y1 - 2014/4. N2 - Objective-To assess effects of zoledronic acid on biomarkers, radiographic scores, and gross articular cartilage changes in dogs with induced osteoarthritis. Animals-21 purpose-bred hound-type dogs. Procedures-The left stifle joint of each dog was examined arthroscopically to determine initial articular cartilage status, which was followed by cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) transection to induce osteoarthritis. Dogs were assigned to 3 groups (control group, low dose [10 μg of zoledronic acid/kg], or high dose [25 μg of zoledronic acid/kg). Treatments were administered SC every 3 months for 1 year beginning the day after CrCL transection. Serum and synovial fluid samples and radiographs were obtained 0, 1, ...
Published: Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015 Oct 28;17(10):e19594. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.19594. eCollection 2015. Authors: Kazemi D, Fakhrjou A.. Summary: Articular cartilage injuries of the knee are among the most debilitating injuries leading to osteoarthritis due to limited regenerative capability of cartilaginous tissue. The use of platelet concentrates containing necessary growth factors for cartilage healing has recently emerged as a new treatment method. This study investigated the efficacy of two types of different platelet concentrates were compared in the treatment of acute articular cartilage injuries of the knee in an animal model. The results of this study indicate that both L-PRP and L-PRF could be used to effectively promote the healing of articular cartilage defects of the knee.. Key words: Articular Cartilage; Cartilage; Dogs; Knee Joint; Platelet-Rich Plasma. Read the full study here. ...
During appendicular skeletal development, the bi-potential cartilage anlagen gives rise to transient cartilage, which is eventually replaced by bone, and to articular cartilage that caps the ends of individual skeletal elements. While the molecular mechanism that regulates transient cartilage differentiation is relatively well understood, the mechanism of articular cartilage differentiation has only begun to be unraveled. Furthermore, the molecules that coordinate the articular and transient cartilage differentiation processes are poorly understood. Here, we have characterized in chick the regulatory roles of two transcription factors, NFIA and GATA3, in articular cartilage differentiation, maintenance and the coordinated differentiation of articular and transient cartilage. Both NFIA and GATA3 block hypertrophic differentiation. Our results suggest that NFIA is not sufficient but necessary for articular cartilage differentiation. Ectopic activation of GATA3 promotes articular cartilage ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Growth factor gene transfer to articular chondrocytes may be capable of augmenting cell-based approaches to articular cartilage repair. Currently available data is insufficient to enable translation into clinical use. The purpose of this proposal is to help close the gap between present mechanistic knowledge and therapeutic application. We will focus on three related specific aims. Aim 1: Define a potentially therapeutic set of growth factor genes for articular cartilage repair by determining how interactions among selected growth factors regulate articular chondrocyte function. Hypothesis 1: IGF-I, FGF-2, BMP-2, and BMP-7, when employed for articular chondrcyte gene transfer, interact to differentially regulate the expression of genes that influence chondrocyte reparative functions. Aim 2: Determine whether genetic and tissue engineering methods, when applied to articular chondrocytes, are interdependent. Hypothesis 2: Chemically distinct biomaterials, ...
Treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) diminishes inflammation along with mediators of cartilage destruction. However, NSAIDs may exert adverse direct effects on cartilage, particularly if treatment is prolonged. We therefore compared the direct effects of indomethacin, naproxen, aceclofenac and celecoxib on matrix turnover in human OA cartilage tissue. Human clinically defined OA cartilage from five different donors was exposed for 7 days in culture to indomethacin, naproxen, aceclofenac and celecoxib - agents chosen based on their cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 selectivity. As a control, SC-560 (a selective COX-1 inhibitor) was used. Changes in cartilage proteoglycan turnover and prostaglandin E2 production were determined. OA cartilage exhibited characteristic proteoglycan turnover. Indomethacin further inhibited proteoglycan synthesis; no significant effect of indomethacin on proteoglycan release was found, and proteoglycan content tended to decrease. Naproxen
Dr Justin Hudson performs hip cartilage restoration in Eugene, Salem, Springfield and Corvallis, OR. He also offers treatment for articular cartilage damage.
The University of Virginia, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, is seeking adults with articular cartilage defects in the knee. The purpose of this study is to show if using an investigational tissue graft is better than the standard method of microfracture for the treatment of articular cartilage defects. This study will also document changes in knee pain and function after either surgery is performed.. The standard of care for treating articular cartilage defects in the knee is microfracture. This study is being done to observe if a graft is an efficient and more superior treatment option. For eligible participants, the defect will be treated with either microfracture or by using an investigational tissue graft.. This study involves 12 follow up visits over a 5 year period following surgery.. Study related clinic visits, research x-rays and MRI scans are provided free of charge. The study will also cover the costs of physical therapy that are not covered by your insurance up to $4,000 ...
Articular cartilage is a vital structure in any joint. It is comprised of layers of matrix a tough, smooth and flexible substance which is maintained by cells called chondrocytes which live in the matrix. The superficial layer of the cartilage is incredibly smooth, the deep layers are anchored to the underlying bone. This combination allows bones to slide and rotate against each other, allowing the joint to move. The articular cartilage can be damaged in injuries, it can also deteriorate (degenerate) over time. Damage to the articular cartilage is the key issue in the development of osteo-arthritis. As the joint surface becomes split or broken the ability of the joint to glide and flex slowly deteriorates. The damaged joint surface also causes the release of complex chemicals which stimulate inflammation in the joint. This can be a cause of pain and swelling. Another major cause of pain is the overload of bone under damaged articular cartilage surfaces. As damage worsens, the ability of the ...
re: full thickness articular cartilage damage .9cm right knee weight bearing area 30 year old very active athletic female want a LONG TERM solution! should i microfracture, aci, oats . . .
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spatial and temporal changes of subchondral bone proceed to microscopic articular cartilage degeneration in guinea pigs with spontaneous osteoarthritis. AU - Wang, T.. AU - Wen, Chunyi. AU - Yan, C. H.. AU - Lu, W. W.. AU - Chiu, K. Y.. PY - 2013/4/1. Y1 - 2013/4/1. N2 - Objective: This study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal subchondral bone change of Dunkin-Hartley (DH) strain guinea pigs spontaneous osteoarthritis (OA) model at early stage with three-dimensional Microfocal Computed Tomography (Micro-CT) analysis, histology and immunohistochemistry. Materials and methods: Knee joints of DH and Bristol Strain 2 (BS2) guinea pigs were analyzed at 1, 2 and 3 months of age for early staged subchondral bone ultrastructure change of OA by Micro-CT and histology. And cartilage degeneration was monitored by histological examination. In addition, expression of Osterix was quantified by immunohistochemistry. Results: Microscopic cartilage degeneration was not found at first 3 ...
Articular cartilage damage is a damage of the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints.
Objectives This experimental study aims to compare the effects of three techniques, tree autogenous periosteal graft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) combined with periosteal graft on the healing of full thickness joint cartilage defects in rabbits ...
This study proposes a method for measuring the refractive index of articular cartilage within a thin and small specimen slice. The cartilage specimen, with a thickness of about 50 μm, was put next to a thin film of immersion oil of similar thickness. Both the articular cartilage and immersion oil were scanned along the depth direction using a confocal microscope. The refractive index mismatch between the cartilage and the immersion oil induced a slight axial deformation in the confocal images of the cartilage specimen that was accurately measured by a subpixel edge-detection-based technique. A theoretical model was built to quantify the focal shift of confocal microscopy caused by the refractive index mismatch. With the quantitative deformations of cartilage images and the quantified function of focal shift, the refractive index of articular cartilage was accurately interpolated. At 561 nm, 0.1 MPa and 20 °C, the overall refractive index of the six cartilage plugs was 1.3975 ± 0.0156. The ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Investigating mechanical properties of porcine articular cartilage by flat plate compression tests. AU - Liou, N. S.. AU - Jeng, Y. R.. AU - Yen, S. H.. AU - Chen, S. F.. AU - Wu, K. T.. PY - 2011/12/1. Y1 - 2011/12/1. N2 - An inverse iterative finite element analysis procedure was developed to investigate mechanical properties of porcine articular cartilage under compression load. Specimen consists of articular cartilage and bone was cut from porcine femur for this study. The specimen was mounted on metal base plate and the compression tests were performed by using material test machine with flat compression plate. The ramp-hold compression tests with different ramping displacement rates and long-term compression test with very low displacement rate were performed on the specimens. The force and compression displacement as function of time were recorded. The profile of specimen was obtained from for generating the geometry model of specimen. The finite element model which ...
A gold standard treatment for articular cartilage injuries is yet to be found, and a cost-effective and predictable large animal model is needed to bridge the gap between in vitro studies and clinical studies. Ideally, the animal model should allow for testing of clinically relevant treatments and the biological response should be reproducible and comparable to humans. This allows for a reliable translation of results to clinical studies.This study aimed at verifying the Göttingen minipig as a pre-clinical model for articular cartilage repair by testing existing clinical cartilage repair techniques and evaluating the use of two defects per knee. Sixteen fully mature Göttingen minipigs were used. The minipigs received bilateral trochlear osteochondral drill-hole defects or chondral defects (Ø 6 mm), either one defect per knee or two defects per knee. The defects were treated with one of the following: Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI), microfracture (MFx), autologous-dual
Articular cartilage is an avascular connective soft tissue in the diarthrodial joints and functions in a highly demanding mechanical environment. The degeneration or wear of the cartilage is a huge problem that effects millions of people every year.. The long term objective of the present work is to develop an analytical articular cartilage growth model. A simplified 2D axisymmetric representation of the human knee joint, including cartilage layers, meniscus and underlying bones, was developed. The cartilage was modeled as a biphasic fluid saturated porous medium and an uniform growth was simulated by a thermal expansion of the solid phase.. The results obtained in the current work show that the cartilage was seen growing onto the implant with time. The deeper the implant, the higher the cartilage grew onto the implant, and into the gap between the cartilages. This and other results will be presented.. ...
Football, the most popular sport in the world, is played by more than 300 million people. Increasing participation is associated with an increase in articular cartilage injuries in the high-impact sport, particularly at the competitive and world class level.1 ,2 Injury of articular cartilage surfaces occurs in 36% of athletes, which is more than twice than that in the general population.3 Higher injury rates are noted in competitions than during practice, in athletes with body mass index (BMI) over 30, and in certain playing positions.4. Articular cartilage injury in athletes may occur in two separate pathways. Chronic repetitive loading of the articular cartilage during sports activity can lead to progressive articular cartilage degradation with accumulation of catabolic enzymes and cytokines, fragmentation of collagen and aggrecan, and resultant fissuring and progressive breakdown of the articular surface.5 The sports-associated chronic biochemical and metabolic changes are similar to the ...
The preponderance of scientific evidence shows that NSAIDs damage articular cartilage. Various scientific papers and consensus groups have stated that there is no convincing data to show that the widely used NSAIDs and recommended selective COX-2 inhibitors have favorable effects on cartilage.129-131 Even the main consensus paper from the International Cartilage Repair Society and Osteoarthritis Research Society International stated that NSAID use has to be limited to the short term. Specifically the recommendation was as follows: In patients with symptomatic hip or knee osteoarthritis, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be used at the lowest effective dose but their long-term use should be avoided if possible.132 They also noted that NSAIDs should not be first-line therapy for joint OA. Other groups have raised similar sentiments. The committees of the International League Against Rheumatism and the World Health Organization came up with guidelines for the testing of new ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitative analysis of shrinkage and swelling behavior of articular cartilage using high-frequency ultrasound. AU - Wnag, Qing. AU - Zheng, Yongping. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Articular cartilage provides joints with excellent lubrication, wearing characteristics and a smooth efficient weight-bearing system. Swelling of articular cartilage serves as an important biomechanical property and one of the early signs of osteoarthritis (OA). The aims of this study were to build a high-frequency ultrasound system and to investigate the transient osmosis-induced free shrinkage-swelling behavior of articular cartilage in a non-destructive and non-contact way. Cylindrical cartilage-bone specimens were prepared from the normal mature bovine patellae. The transient shrinkage (de-swelling) and swelling behaviors of cartilage were induced by changing the concentration of the bathing saline from 0.15 M to 2 M and then back to 0.15 M. The shrinkage and swelling phases were monitored ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of nitric oxide in proteoglycan turnover by bovine articular cartilage organ cultures. AU - Stefanovic-Racic, M.. AU - Morales, T. I.. AU - Taskiran, D.. AU - McIntyre, L. A.. AU - Evans, C. H.. PY - 1996/2/1. Y1 - 1996/2/1. N2 - Monolayer cultures of articular chondrocytes synthesize large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) following exposure to IL-1. The latter has antianabolic and procatabolic activities on these cells, but little is known about the role, if any, of NO in the integrated metabolic pathways of the chondrocyte. In the present study, the role of endogenously produced NO in both the synthesis and degradation of proteoglycans was investigated for the first time. Bovine articular cartilage slices exposed to 20 U/ml human rIL-1β (hrIL-1β) synthesized large amounts of NO for 1 to 2 days, after which production fell to a steady state level ~20% of the peak value for the remainder of the 14- day incubation. The NO synthase inhibitor, N-monomethyl L-arginine (L-NMA, ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Articular cartilage. AU - Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.. AU - Darling, Eric M.. AU - DuRaine, Grayson D.. AU - Hu, Jerry C.. AU - Reddi, A Hari. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - This book covers the latest research and advancements related to articular cartilage in biology, development, pathology, clinical applications and tissue engineering. The authors take an interdisciplinary approach that encompasses the breadth and depth of basic science, bioengineering, translational science and detailed methological approaches. It is designed to be an all encompassing encyclopedia of articular cartilage. Written at a level that allows wide accessibility, the books comprehensive focus on multiple aspects of articular cartilage sets it apart from other books.. AB - This book covers the latest research and advancements related to articular cartilage in biology, development, pathology, clinical applications and tissue engineering. The authors take an interdisciplinary approach that encompasses ...
Articular cartilage lesions occur commonly. Cartilage is relatively avascular and is unable to self-repair. A chondral lesion may become symptomatic. It may lead to osteoarthritis and increased morbidity. The aim of cartilage repair is to restore hyaline cartilage. There are many types of cartilage repair surgery, most of which result in fibrocartilage repair tissue that is suboptimal. Autologous chondrocyte implantation has been shown to produce hyaline-type repair tissue. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is performed preoperatively to define the ulcer and postoperatively to evaluate the technical success of implantation and the state of cartilage healing and to identify potential complications. Features of the autologous chondrocyte implantation graft that are assessed include the degree of filling by repair tissue, its integration with native cartilage and subchondral bone, the character of the graft substance and surface, and the underlying bone. MR arthrography is superior to unenhanced MR ...
Recent advances in MRI have enabled the quantitative assessment of articular cartilage morphology in human joints. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the precision of quantitative shoulder cartilage measurements is sufficient to detect changes between and within patients, and that shoulder cartilage thickness in paraplegic patients increases due to increased loading. We imaged the shoulders of seven healthy volunteers four times using a coronal 3D, fat-suppressed, gradient-echo sequence. The humeral head cartilage in seven paraplegic patients was evaluated soon after injury and 1 year post injury. A precision of 4.5% (root mean square (RMS) average coefficient of variation (CV) %) was found for shoulder cartilage thickness measurements in the humeral head. Whereas a significant decrease of cartilage thickness (-11%, P , 0.05) was observed in the knee, there was no significant change in articular cartilage thickness in the shoulder (-1.1%). Our data show, for the first time, that ...
OBJECTIVE: Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in articular cartilage can signal via two routes, the ALK5/Smad2/3P and the ALK1/Smad1/5/8P route, the first being protective and the latter favoring chondrocyte terminal differentiation. Since biomechanical factors are known to play an essential role in osteoarthritis (OA) initiation and progression, we investigated if excessive mechanical compression can alter TGF-beta signaling in cartilage shifting it from ALK5/Smad2/3P to ALK1/Smad1/5/8P pathway, favoring terminal differentiation of chondrocytes. DESIGN: Articular cartilage explants were harvested from bovine metacarpophalangeal joints. After equilibration, explants were subjected to unconfined dynamic mechanical compression (1 Hz) with 3 MPa (physiological) or 12 MPa (excessive) stress. After different time intervals samples were frozen and mRNA levels of selected genes were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: In articular cartilage compressed with 3 MPa and ...
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint disease, characterized by cartilage loss and subchondral bone remodeling in response to abnormal mechanical load. Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans bind to many proteins that regulate cartilage homeostasis, including growth factors, morphogens, proteases, and their inhibitors, and modulate their localization, retention, and biological activity. Changes in HS expression and structure may thus have important consequences for joint health. We analyzed normal and osteoarthritic human knee cartilage, and found HS biosynthesis was markedly disrupted in OA, with 45% of the 38 genes analyzed differentially regulated in diseased cartilage. The expression of several HS core proteins, biosynthesis, and modification enzymes was increased in OA cartilage, whereas the expression of the HS proteoglycans syndecan 4 and betaglycan was reduced. The structure of HS was also altered, with increased levels of 6-O-sulfation in osteoarthritic samples, which correlated with
Purpose: To compare 3D high-resolution MRI sequences in term of contrast, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), artefacts and cartilage thickness in knee artic..
Results from a Clinical Trial for Safety and Proof‐of‐Concept with 7 Years of Extended Follow‐Up. Few methods are available to regenerate articular cartilage defects in patients with osteoarthritis. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of articular cartilage regeneration by a novel medicinal product composed of allogeneic human umbilical cord blood‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB‐MSCs). Patients with Kellgren‐Lawrence grade 3 osteoarthritis and International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade 4 cartilage defects were enrolled in this clinical trial. The stem cell‐based medicinal product (a composite of culture‐expanded allogeneic hUCB‐MSCs and hyaluronic acid hydrogel [Cartistem]) was applied to the lesion site. Safety was assessed by the World Health Organization common toxicity criteria. The primary efficacy outcome was ICRS cartilage repair assessed by arthroscopy at 12 weeks.. Read more about cartilage regeneration and stem cells ...
The location of pyridinoline in 18-month-old bovine articular cartilage was investigated by fractionation of CNBr-derived peptides by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Two peptides, PCP1 and PCP2, were isolated and were shown to contain stoichiometric amounts of pyridinoline. From its amino acid composition and sequence studies, peptide PCP1 was shown to comprise two C-terminal non-helical chains (CB14) linked through pyridinoline to the alpha 1(II)-CB12 portion of the helix. The CB14 chains appeared to be labile at their C-terminal ends, resulting in lower-than-expected amounts of homoserine, and only the N-terminal portion of the peptide was sequenced. Similar studies of peptide PCP2 showed that it contained two N-terminal non-helical chains (CB4) linked to the alpha 1(II)-CB9,7 portion of the helix. The isolated peptides therefore confirmed the function of pyridinoline in stabilizing the 4D stagger of adjacent molecules. The possibility that the cross-link could act both as an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Current Concepts of Articular Cartilage Restoration Techniques in the Knee. AU - Camp, Christopher L.. AU - Stuart, Michael J.. AU - Krych, Aaron. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Context:Articular cartilage injuries are common in patients presenting to surgeons with primary complaints of knee pain or mechanical symptoms. Treatment options include comprehensive nonoperative management, palliative surgery, joint preservation operations, and arthroplasty.Evidence Acquisition:A MEDLINE search on articular cartilage restoration techniques of the knee was conducted to identify outcome studies published from 1993 to 2013. Special emphasis was given to Level 1 and 2 published studies.Study Design:Clinical review.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Results:Current surgical options with documented outcomes in treating chondral injuries in the knee include the following: microfracture, osteochondral autograft transfer, osteochondral allograft transplant, and autologous chondrocyte transplantation. ...
Articular cartilage is a critical component in the movement of one bone against another. It possesses unique chemical properties allowing it to serve as a bearing surface, capable of transferring loads from one bone to another while simultaneously allowing the load bearing surfaces to articulate with low friction. Patient-specific finite element (FE) models incorporating articular cartilage provide insight into articular joint mechanics [1, 2]. To date, the methods/tools available to create accurate FE mesh definitions of the articular cartilage are limited. Semi-automated morphing methods have been developed, but many intermediate steps have to be performed to get the final cartilage mesh definition [3]. Commercially available software [4] is capable of generating tetrahedral/shell/pyramid element based meshes of the cartilage from the underlying bony surface, but hexahedral meshes are preferred over tetrahedral meshes [5]. IA-FEMesh currently provides the ability to project a pre-defined set ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The evolution of articular cartilage imaging and its impact on clinical practice. AU - Winalski, Carl S.. AU - Rajiah, Prabhakar. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Over the past four decades, articular cartilage imaging has developed rapidly. Imaging now plays a critical role not only in clinical practice and therapeutic decisions but also in the basic research probing our understanding of cartilage physiology and biomechanics.. AB - Over the past four decades, articular cartilage imaging has developed rapidly. Imaging now plays a critical role not only in clinical practice and therapeutic decisions but also in the basic research probing our understanding of cartilage physiology and biomechanics.. KW - Arthrography. KW - Articular cartilage. KW - Computed tomography. KW - Imaging. KW - Magnetic resonance imaging. KW - Optical coherence tomography. KW - Radiography. KW - Ultrasound. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=80052058355&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of stem cells for articular cartilage regeneration.. AU - Hwang, Nathaniel S.. AU - Elisseeff, Jennifer. PY - 2009/1. Y1 - 2009/1. N2 - Articular cartilage is a highly organized tissue lacking self-regeneration capacity upon lesion. Current surgical intervention by application of in vitro-expanded autologous chondrocytes transplantation procedure is associated with several disadvantages, including donor-site morbidity and inferior fibrocartilage formation at the defect site. However, recent advancements in tissue engineering have provided notable strategies for stem cell-based therapies and articular cartilage tissue engineering. In this review, we discuss the current strategies to engineer cartilage tissues from adult stem cells and human embryonic stem cell-derived cells. The characteristics of adult stem cells, the microenvironmental control of cell fate determination, and the limitation imposed by the intrinsic nature of stem cells are discussed. The strategy to ...
Joints that have degenerated as a result of aging or injury contain dead chondrocytes and damaged cartilage. Some studies have suggested that chondrocyte death precedes cartilage damage, but how the loss of chondrocytes affects cartilage integrity is not clear. In this study, we examined whether chondrocyte death undermines cartilage integrity in aging and injury using a rapid 3D confocal cartilage imaging technique coupled with standard histology. We induced autonomous expression of diphtheria toxin to kill articular surface chondrocytes in mice and determined that chondrocyte death did not lead to cartilage damage. Moreover, cartilage damage after surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus of the knee was increased in mice with intact chondrocytes compared with animals whose chondrocytes had been killed, suggesting that chondrocyte death does not drive cartilage damage in response to injury. These data imply that chondrocyte catabolism, not death, contributes to articular cartilage damage ...
With the aim of providing information for modelling joint and limb systems, widely available constitutive hyperelastic laws are evaluated in this paper for their ability to predict the mechanical responses of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage. Load-displacement data from mechanical indentation were obtained for normal and osteoarthritic cartilage at 0.1 s(-1) and 0.025 s(-1) and converted to the stress-stretch ratio. The data were then fitted to the Arruda-Boyce, Mooney-Rivlin, neo-Hookean, Ogden, polynomial, and Yeoh hyperelastic laws in the MATLAB environment. Although each of the hyperelastic laws performed satisfactorily at the higher rate of loading, their ability to fit experimental data at the lower loading rate varied considerably. For the preferred models, coefficients were provided for stiff, soft, and average tissues to represent normal and degraded tissue at high and low loading rates. The present authors recommend the use of the Mooney-Rivlin or the Yeoh models for describing
Objective: Oxidative stress occurs when the metabolic balance of a cell is disrupted through exposure to excess pro-oxidant. Whilst it is known that unregulated production or exposure to exogenous sources of pro-oxidants induces chondrocyte cell death and degrades matrix components in vitro, relatively little is known of the effects of pro-oxidants on articular cartilage in situ. The objective of this study was to determine if a single exposure to the pro-oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces a degenerative phenotype. Methods: Articular cartilage explants were obtained from skeletally mature bovine steers and exposed to a single dose of hydrogen peroxide (0.1-1.0 mM) and cultured for up to 21 days. Cell death, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan loss into the medium and gene expression were quantitatively determined. Adoption of an abnormal chondrocyte phenotype was analyzed through the expression of 3B3(−), nitrotyrosine and procollagen type IIA epitopes in cartilage explants. Results: Cell ...
PURPOSE: To measure reproducibility, longitudinal and cross-sectional differences in T2* maps at 3 Tesla (T) in the articular cartilage of the knee in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy matched controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI data and standing radiographs were acquired from 33 subjects with OA and 21 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Reproducibility was determined by two sessions in the same day, while longitudinal and cross-sectional group differences used visits at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Each visit contained symptomological assessments and an MRI session consisting of high resolution three-dimensional double-echo-steady-state (DESS) and co-registered T2* maps of the most diseased knee. A blinded reader delineated the articular cartilage on the DESS images and median T2* values were reported. RESULTS: T2* values showed an intra-visit reproducibility of 2.0% over the whole cartilage. No longitudinal effects were measured in either group over 6 months. T2* maps revealed a 5
Complex cartilage lesions of the knee including large cartilage defects, kissing lesions, and osteoarthritis (OA) represent a common problem in orthopaedic surgery and a challenging task for the orthopaedic surgeon. As there is only limited data, we performed a prospective clinical study to investigate the benefit of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for this demanding patient population. Fifty-one patients displaying at least one of the criteria were included in the present retrospective study: (1.) defect size larger than 10 cm2; (2.) multiple lesions; (3.) kissing lesions, cartilage lesions Outerbridge grade III-IV, and/or (4.) mild/moderate osteoarthritis (OA). For outcome measurements, the International Cartilage Societys International Knee Documentation Committees (IKDC) questionnaire, as well as the Cincinnati, Tegner, Lysholm and Noyes scores were used. Radiographic evaluation for OA was done using the Kellgren score. Patients age was 36 years (13-61), defects size 7.25 (3-17.5) cm2,
Although various alterative models of therapy are used for cartilage repair, no definite conclusion has been reached. Glucosamine (GlcN) is widely used as a nutritional supplement. However, the clinical- evidence-based outcome of GlcN administration remains controversial. N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc), a derivative of GlcN, shows chondroprotective activity and mediates the activation of articular chondrocytes. Therefore, we investigated the effect of intra-articular administration of GlcNAc in rabbits knee joints with experimental full-thickness articular cartilage (FTAC) defects. Twelve male adult New Zealand white rabbits, providing 24 knees, were used in this study. FTAC defects were created in the high-weight-bearing area of the medial femoral condyles of bilateral knees. All rabbits were randomly allocated to analysis at postsurgical week 4 or postsurgical week 12. In the week 4 group, rabbits knees (six per group) were intra-articularly injected with normal saline or with GlcNAc twice per week
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrostatic pressure in articular cartilage tissue engineering. T2 - From chondrocytes to tissue regeneration. AU - Elder, Benjamin D.. AU - Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.. PY - 2009/3/1. Y1 - 2009/3/1. N2 - Cartilage has a poor intrinsic healing response, and neither the innate healing response nor current clinical treatments can restore its function. Therefore, articular cartilage tissue engineering is a promising approach for the regeneration of damaged tissue. Because cartilage is exposed to mechanical forces during joint loading, many tissue engineering strategies use exogenous stimuli to enhance the biochemical or biomechanical properties of the engineered tissue. Hydrostatic pressure (HP) is emerging as arguably one of the most important mechanical stimuli for cartilage, although no optimal treatment has been established across all culture systems. Therefore, this review evaluates prior studies on articular cartilage involving the use of HP, with a particular emphasis on the ...
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and limitations of autologous osteochondral grafting for the treatment of articular cartilage defects in the knee. Methods: The subjects were 40 patients who had undergone autologous osteochondral grafting. Fifteen knees had cartilage defects combined with anterior cruciate ligament tears (ACL group), 15 knees had cartilage defects combined with osteoarthritis (OA group), and 10 knees had cartilage defects combined with osteochondral dissecans (OCD group). From one to five osteochondral pegs were harvested from the less-weight-bearing periphery of the articular surface of the femoral condyle and grafted to cartilage defects. The clinical results were assessed based on the Lysholm score and radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image assessment. Results: The median follow-up duration was 24 months (range from 12 to 41 months). The mean Lysholm score following treatment was improved in all groups. The patients who had cartilage defects combined ...
The ability to heal soft tissue injuries and regenerate cartilage is the Holy Grail of musculoskeletal medicine. Articular cartilage repair and regeneration is considered to be largely intractable due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. Due to their low self-repair ability, cartilage defects that result from joint injury, aging, or osteoarthritis, are the most often irreversible and are a major cause of joint pain and chronic disability. However, current methods do not perfectly restore hyaline cartilage and may lead to the apparition of fibro- or continue hypertrophic cartilage. The lack of efficient modalities of treatment has prompted research into tissue engineering combining stem cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to repair, regenerate, and/or improve injured or diseased cartilage functionality, has evoked intense interest and holds great potential for improving cartilage therapy. Plasma-rich ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Altered mechanics of tibial cartilage following joint immobilization in a canine model. AU - Setton, Lori A.. AU - Perry, Charles H.. AU - LeRoux, Michelle A.. AU - Wang, Jean Y.. AU - Howell, David S.. AU - Cheung, Herman S.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - To study the effect of immobilization, the compressive and shear properties of articular cartilage were quantified at sites corresponding to those of elevated MMP staining on the tibial plateau of mongrel dogs. Cartilage samples were tested in compression and torsion on a displacement-controlled rheometer. The samples were weighed after testing and again after lyophilization to determine water content as the percentage of tissue wet weight. The results support the hypothesis that knee joint immobilization will produce deleterious changes in cartilage function at the tibial plateau.. AB - To study the effect of immobilization, the compressive and shear properties of articular cartilage were quantified at sites corresponding to those ...
Orthopedic knee surgeons at OrthoNorCal in Morgan Hill, Watsonville, Santa Cruz County and Santa Clara County, CA offers knee surgery to treat patellofemoral problems, knee osteoarthritis, knee pain, articular cartilage damage, patellar dislocation and patellar malalignment.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Frictional response of articular cartilage containing crystals. AU - Clift, Sally E. AU - Harris, B. AU - Dieppe, P A. AU - Hayes, A. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Many joint diseases are associated with the deposition of crystals in articular cartilage. Three main types are commonly found: calcium pyrophosphate, calcium hydroxyapatite and monosodium urate. The effects of these articular crystals on the frictional properties and the surface condition of the articular cartilage were studied. A total of 43 cartilage specimens cut from 19 post-mortem knee joints have been tested in purpose-designed apparatus. The results show that a high friction coefficient and a high level of crystal deposition tend to occur with a worsening of the surface quality of the articular cartilage. AB - Many joint diseases are associated with the deposition of crystals in articular cartilage. Three main types are commonly found: calcium pyrophosphate, calcium hydroxyapatite and monosodium urate. The effects ...
Destruction of articular cartilage is a characteristic feature of osteoarthritis (OA). Collagen hydrolysates are mixtures of collagen peptides and have gained huge public attention as nutriceuticals used for prophylaxis of OA. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether different bovine collagen hydrolysate preparations indeed modulate the metabolism of collagen and proteoglycans from human OA cartilage explants and determined the chemical composition of oligopeptides representing collagen fragments. Using biophysical techniques, like MALDI-TOF-MS, AFM, and NMR, the molecular weight distribution and aggregation behavior of collagen hydrolysates from bovine origin (CH-Alpha®, Peptan™ B 5000, Peptan™ B 2000) were determined. To investigate the metabolism of human femoral OA cartilage, explants were obtained during knee replacement surgery. Collagen synthesis of explants as modulated by 0-10 mg/ml collagen hydrolysates was determined using a novel dual radiolabeling procedure. Proteoglycans, NO,
Hopping provides efficient and energy saving locomotion for kangaroos, but it results in great forces in the knee joints. A previous study has suggested that a unique fibrous cartilage in the central region of the tibial cartilage could serve to decrease the peak stresses generated within kangaroo tibiofemoral joints. However, the influences of the microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the central fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage on the function of the knee joints are still to be defined. The present study showed that the fibrous cartilage was thicker and had a lower chondrocyte density than the hyaline cartilage. Despite having a higher PG content in the middle and deep zones, the fibrous cartilage had an inferior compressive strength compared to the peripheral hyaline cartilage. The fibrous cartilage had a complex three dimensional collagen meshwork with collagen bundles parallel to the surface in the superficial zone, and with collagen bundles both parallel and ...
Objective: To investigate the effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (EMF) on articular cartilage matrix biosynthesis with regard to age and cartilage damage using a matrix depleted cartilage explant model.. Methods: Cartilage explants were obtained from metacarpophalangeal joints of calves and adult cows. After depletion of the extracellular matrix by trypsin digestion, samples were maintained in serum-free basal medium with and without the addition of interleukin 1β (IL1β). Half the samples were subjected to an EMF for 24 minutes daily; the other half were left untreated. Undigested and untreated explants served as negative controls. After 7 days, biosynthesis of matrix macromolecules was assessed by [35S]sulphate incorporation and values were normalised to hydroxyproline content.. Results: The EMF increased matrix macromolecule synthesis in undigested, untreated explants (p,0.009). In matrix depleted samples the EMF had no stimulatory effect on proteoglycan biosynthesis. IL1β ...
Background: Recent studies have provided evidence that integrins play roles in recognition of mechanical stimuli and its translation into a cellular response. Integrin signaling may be regulated by a number of mechanisms including accessory proteins such as CD98 (4F2 antigen). Objectives: To determine CD98 expression by human articular chondrocytes and its involvement in human articular mechanotransduction. Methods: CD98 expression was assessed by immunostaining of cryostat sections of snap frozen articular cartilage and in cultured cells by western blotting. Chondrocytes enzymatically isolated from macroscopically normal and osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilage were grown in short term, primary monolayer culture and used in a resting state or following mechanical stimulation at 0.33Hz. Results: Human articular chondrocytes express CD98 and immunoreactivity revealed a similar heterogeneous pattern of CD98 in both normal and osteoarthritic (OA) human articular cartilage. No role of CD98 was detected
Purpose: To systematize the available scientific literature on the prevalence of articular cartilage and/or osteo- chondral lesions in football (soccer) players knees, and overview the surgical procedures and functional outcomes and return to sports. Methods: A comprehensive search using Pubmed, Cochrane Library, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases was carried out until September 30, 2015. All English language studies that assessed the outcomes of a surgical technique for the treatment of articular cartilage lesions in football players knees, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months, were included. The reference list of the most relevant papers was screened. The main outcomes of interest were the clinical, arthroscopy or imaging primary outcomes and the return to sports rate. The methodological and reporting qualities were assessed according to Coleman methodology score. Results: The search provided 485 titles and abstracts. Five studies were eligible for inclusion (mean Coleman score of 37.2 ...
ACI or autologous chondrocyte implantation is one way to biologically restore more normal functioning acticular cartilage tissue. In the picture above, there is a full thickness, large osteochondral defect in this case of the lateral femoral condyle. You can see the defect hematoma that develops which will lead to the development of scar cartilage. This is the bodys normal attempt to heal this injury, but we know that scar cartilage doesnt function like normal hyaline cartilage and will not last. ACI procedure will attempt to replace this scar cartilage with the patients own articular cartilage cells that have been grown in the lab. The following sequence of pictures will show steps of the procedure. Click image for larger view.. #gallery-1 { margin: auto; } #gallery-1 .gallery-item { float: left; margin-top: 10px; text-align: center; width: 50%; } #gallery-1 img { border: 2px solid #cfcfcf; } #gallery-1 .gallery-caption { margin-left: 0; } /* see gallery_shortcode() in wp-includes/media.php ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a one year programme of running training (up to 40 km/day for 15 weeks) on the spatial orientation pattern of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage in different parts of the knee (stifle) and shoulder joints of young beagle dogs. METHODS: Area specific measurements of the optical path difference (= retardation, gamma) and the cartilage zone thickness were performed using conventional procedures and a new computer based quantitative polarised light microscopy method. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the zonal volume density of collagen fibrils. The concentrations of collagen and hydroxypyridinium crosslinks were investigated biochemically. RESULTS: Running training decreased gamma by 24-34% (p , 0.05) in the superficial zone of the lateral femoral condyle articular cartilage and at the centre of the tibial condyles. Gamma of glycosaminoglycans decreased by 26% (p , 0.05) in the superficial zone of the lateral condyle ...
The efficacy of the biphasic poroviscoelastic (BPVE) theory [1] in constitutive modeling of articular cartilage biomechanics is well-established [2-4]. Indeed, this model has been used to simultaneously predict stress relaxation force across confined compression, unconfined compression, and indentation protocols [2,3]. Previous works have also demonstrated success in simultaneously curve-fitting the BPVE model to reaction force and lateral deformation data gathered from stress relaxation tests of articular cartilage in unconfined compression [4]. However, a potential limitation of practical applications of such a successful model is seen in some commonly-employed mechanical testing methods for articular cartilage, such as confined compression and unconfined compression. These methods require the excision of a disk of cartilage from its underlying subchondral base, which likely would compromise the structural integrity of the tissue, causing swelling and curling artifacts of the sample [5]. ...
Theoretical and experimental studies were performed to address the relationships between the microstructure, composition, and mechanical behaviors of articular cartilage and hydrogel-based engineered constructs for functional tissue engineering of articular cartilage. The contributions of the two major components of articular cartilage - negatively charged proteoglycans and bimodular collagen fibrils - to electromechanical properties was described by a triphasic model (Lai, Hou et al, 1991) that is incorporated with conewise linear elasticity constitutive model (Cumier, He et al 1995). The model was solved analytically for the unconfined compression stress relaxation. The fixed charge density of the tissue was successfully quantitatively calculated from stress-relaxation experiments on whole tissue samples. The interaction between collagen and proteoglycans, and the resulting residual stress and curling behaviors of cartilage strips were analyzed with a layeredinhomogeneous, orthotropic, ...
By Nathan K. Endres, MD. Chances are, anyone reading this right now has dealt with knee pain. Whether youre a skier, boarder, climber, hiker, runner, biker or maybe even a paddler - most of us have had a knee problem at some point.. Some knee problems seem to get better and go away, while others can linger and interfere with activities and, sometimes, just daily life.. There are lots of causes of knee pain. One of the most common causes is articular cartilage damage. Articular cartilage is a specialized tissue made up of water, collagen and cells (chondrocytes) surrounded by a matrix. Cartilage is the bearing surface of any joint. Normal cartilage provides a nearly frictionless interface to allow for smooth motion.. In the knee, cartilage covers the end of the femur (thigh bone), the top of the tibia (shin bone) and the back of the patella (knee cap). Normally, cartilage looks white and shiny - like the inside of a coconut, or a cue ball. It is good at resisting compression, but not as good at ...
Lubricin, a heavily O-glycosylated protein, is essential for boundary lubrication of articular cartilage. Strong surface adherence of lubricin is required given the extreme force it must withstand. Disulfide bound complexes of lubricin and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) have recently been identified in arthritic synovial fluid suggesting they may be lost from the cartilage surface in osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis. This investigation was undertaken to localise COMP-lubricin complexes within cartilage and investigate if other cartilage proteins are involved in anchoring lubricin to the joint. Immunohistochemical analysis of human cartilage biopsies showed lubricin and COMP co-localise to the cartilage surface. COMP knockout mice, however, presented with a lubricin layer on the articular cartilage leading to the further investigation of additional lubricin binding mechanisms. Proximity ligation assays (PLA) on human cartilage biopsies was used to localise additional lubricin ...
Lameness caused by osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common reason for failure to race among horses. Degenerative changes to the articular cartilage are commonly seen often with subchondral bone sclerosis. Cartilage is a connective tissue with tensile strength and resilience, consisting of cells and abundant extracellular matrix. The cells are adapting the matrix to environmental conditions by synthesis and degradation of the matrix structural elements. A change in the concentration of macromolecules in synovial fluid and serum can indicate early biochemical changes in the joint. This provides a tool for research into and monitoring pathogenic mechanisms of OA. The content of COMP, aggrecan and collagen type II was measured in serum and synovial fluid (sf) from trotters and riding horses with either normal joints or joints with different stages of cartilage pathology. The trotters with a training background and cartilage degeneration had low concentrations of COMP and aggrecan in synovial fluid ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The characterization of versican and its message in human articular cartilage and intervertebral disc. AU - Sztrolovics, Robert. AU - Grover, Judy. AU - Cs-Szabo, Gabriella. AU - Shi, Shui Liang. AU - Zhang, Yiping. AU - Mort, John S.. AU - Roughley, Peter J.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Splicing variation of the versican message and size heterogeneity of the versican core protein were analyzed in human articular cartilage and intervertebral disc. Splicing variation of the message was studied by PCR analysis to detect the presence or absence of exons 7 and 8, which encode large chondroitin sulfate attachment regions. At all ages in normal cartilage from the third trimester fetus to the mature adult, the presence of the versican isoform possessing exon 8 but not exon 7 (V1) could be readily detected. The message isoforms possessing neither exon 7 nor 8 (V3) or both exons 7 and 8 (V0) were only detectable in the fetus, and the isoform possessing only exon 7 (V2) was never detected. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Pure cartilage-based repair modalities of focal cartilage lesions. AU - Bárdos, T.. PY - 2013/6/1. Y1 - 2013/6/1. N2 - Focal cartilage lesions in diarthrodial joints have a limited capacity to heal, and repair techniques used at present are still unable to provide a universal solution. Osteochondral auto- and allografts are accepted and successful methods for the treatment of these lesions, but occasionally the osseal incorporation is delayed or insufficient and graft integration might be unsuccessful. Failure at this level generates a large osseos crater and the consequences can prove challenging. Until just a few years ago, it was a generally accepted dogma that when cartilage is detached from the subchondral bone it would fail to reintegrate to its bed and its surrounding cartilage. Recently, innovative approaches have been established to repair cartilage defects using pure cartilage-based implants, and so far they seem to have had considerable success. One of the available ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Imaging of immature articular cartilage using ultrasound backscatter microscopy at 50 MHz. AU - Kim, H. K W. AU - Babyn, P. S.. AU - Harasiewicz, K. A.. AU - Gahunia, H. K.. AU - Pritzker, K. P H. AU - Foster, F. S.. PY - 1995/11. Y1 - 1995/11. N2 - A high frequency sonographic technique-ultrasound backscatter microscopy-was used to visualize the subsurface structure of immature porcine articular cartilage from the knee joint. In 20‐week‐old pigs, all parts that were scanned, except the weight‐bearing regions of the femoral condyles, demonstrated heterogeneous ultrasound backscatter characteristics within the articular cartilage. A trilaminar pattern consisting of hypoechoic, hyperechoic, and anechoic layers ranging from superficial to deep generally was observed, except in the weight‐bearing regions of the femoral condyles, where a homogeneous anechoic pattern was seen. In the younger pigs (6 and 10 weeks old), the trilaminar backscatter pattern was not observed. Small, ...
Dr Suzanne Miller in Waltham, Dedham and Boston, MA offers osteochondral autograft transplantation to treat articular cartilage (AC) defects. Articular cartilage can be damaged by trauma such as accidents or mechanical injury.
Aigner, Thomas, Gebhard, Pia Margarethe, Schmid, Erik, Bau, Brigitte, Harley, Vincent and Poschl, Ernst (2003) SOX9 expression does not correlate with type II collagen expression in adult articular chondrocytes. Matrix Biology, 22 (4). pp. 363-372. ISSN 1569-1802 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Microfracture surgery is used to repair articular cartilage damage in the knee, is performed by Andrew L DeGruccio in Louisville, Kentucky.
Cartilage lesions are common injury and mostly affect the articular cartilage. Cartilage lesions treatment is offered at Texas Institute for Hip & Knee Surgery in Austin, Texas.
There are many causes for painful worn cartilage in the knee joint: arthritis, arthrosis, traumas with bone- or cartilage lesions or metabolic disorders like gout or hemochromatosis. © bilderzwerg @ fotolia. Osteoarthritis (worn cartilage) is the most common joint condition. The most common form of osteoarthritis is osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis of the knee causes chronic pain and limits movement. The cartilage in the knee wears away over many years. Since the cartilage has no sensitive nerve endings (pain sensors), damage is only noticed when the defects already affect the bone beneath the cartilage.. A cartilage transplant, or cartilage cell or chondrocyte transplant, is a new surgical procedure: in which cartilage damage is repaired using cartilage cells from the patients own body. Few knee specialists in Germany successfully perform this procedure. Dr Baum was the first physician in the world to perform an entirely arthroscopic cartilage transplant of the knee. He co-developed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression and regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 by IL-1β and fibronectin fragments in human articular chondrocytes. AU - Su, S. L.. AU - Tsai, C. D.. AU - Lee, C. H.. AU - Salter, D. M.. AU - Lee, Herng Sheng. PY - 2005/10. Y1 - 2005/10. N2 - Objective: The objective of this study was to examine expression and regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in human articular chondrocytes. Methods: Human articular chondrocytes were enzymatically isolated from normal and osteoarthritic knee cartilage. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to assess the expression of toll-like receptors. Following stimulation of chondrocytes in vitro by IL-1β and fibronectin proteolytic fragments, the relative levels of mRNA for TLR2 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. MyD88 activation and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation were evaluated by immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, ...
This causes it to heal very slowly. So, you can find hyaline cartilage in the larynx and trachea in the throat portion of the body, and then also in all of the joints where the surfaces of bones are articulating each other. Cartilage is a type of connective tissue found in the body. It has a capacity for rapid interstitial and appositional growth in young and growing tissues. Three types of cartilage(hyaline cartilage, white fibrocartilage, and yellow elastic cartilage) can be distinguished on the basis of the composition and structure of their extracellular matrices, but many features of the cells and matrix are common to all three types, and these features will be considered first. This smooth, transparent, glassy type of cartilage coats the ends … This cartilage is of three types as. Articular cartilage is a physiologically non-self-renewing avascular tissue with a singular cell type, the chondrocyte, which functions as the load-bearing surface of the arthrodial joint. Cartilage is a ...
Bioprinting is a promising tool to fabricate well-organized cell-laden constructs for repair and regener- ation of articular cartilage. The selection of a suitable bioink, in terms of composition and mechanical properties, is crucial for the development of viable cartilage substitutes. In this study, we focused on the use of one of the main cartilage components, hyaluronic acid (HA), to design and formulate a new bioink for cartilage tissue 3D bioprinting. Major characteristics required for this application such as printabil- ity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability were analyzed. To produce cartilage constructs with optimal mechanical properties, HA-based bioink was co-printed with polylactic acid (PLA). HA-based bioink was found to improve cell functionality by an increase in the expression of chondrogenic gene markers and specific matrix deposition and, therefore, tissue formation. These results indicate that it is a promising bioink candidate for cartilage tissue engineering based in 3D ...
0078] The histology of knee cartilage samples taken at different time points was analyzed to observe the repair role of rhMK revealed temporally (FIG. 2). rhMK was shown promoting the repair of rabbit knee full-thickness injuries with regenerated chondrocytes 2 weeks (FIGS. 2 A and B), 4 weeks (FIGS. 2 C and D), and 12 weeks (FIGS. 2 E and F) after the knee surgical operation creating the damage model. The rectangle in FIG. 2 A, C and E marks the areas which are enlarged and shown in FIG. 2 B, D and F, respectively. In Figure A and C, arrow points to the chondrocytes which are growing into the injury site. At 2 weeks after the surgery, although the central area of injury was filled with fibrous cells, incomplete hyaline cartilage layer appeared forming the cylindrical repair cartilage layer (FIG. 2A). The new cartilage layer contained the typical chondrocytes which resided in clusters in specific cartilage lacuna (FIG. 2B). At 4 weeks after the surgery, the complete cylindrical repair cartilage ...
Osteoarthritis (OA), a non-inflammatory, degenerative disease of articular cartilages, is a common cause of poor performance and early retirement in equine athletes. Pathologically, OA is characterized by matrix degradation and decreased chondrocyte numbers. A mechanical stress is believed to be the major etiologic factor of OA development. Recent studies have indicated that apoptosis is responsible for hypocellularity in OA cartilage and that chondrocyte death by apoptosis could directly contribute to matrix degradation. Increased nitric oxide (NO), a free radical, has been implicated as a cause of chondrocyte apoptosis. No studies, however, have been performed on chondrocyte apoptosis in equine OA. We investigated chondrocyte apoptosis in equine OA cartilage and its relationship to matrix degradation and NO production. Furthermore, we studied whether mechanical stress could induce chondrocyte apoptosis and how NO production and Bcl-2 and caspase-3 proteins contribute to chondrocyte apoptosis by using
Patellar luxations contribute to cartilage erosion which can be developing to cartilage degradation. This research divided to 2 studies. The objectives of the first study were to prevalence of cartilage erosion in dogs with patellar luxation and relation between cartilage erosion and severity of patellar luxation. Sixty dogs with patellar luxation, 48.65% was grade III patellar luxation and 35.14 was grade IV patellar luxation. There was a relation between cartilage erosion and severity of patellar luxation. In second study, the objective was to study of gene expression of osteoarthritis in articular cartilage from dogs with patellar luxation. 34 dogs divided into 4 groups, group 1 was dogs with normal articular cartilage (Nor) (n=5), group 2 stifle osteoarthritic dogs (OA) (n=13), group 3 was dogs with patellar luxation and not found cartilage erosion (PL) (n=6), and group 4 was dogs with patellar luxation and found cartilage erosion (PLCE) (n=10). HAS-1, HAS-2, COL2A1, MMP-3, IL-1, AGG-1 and ...
Polymer scaffold use has become commonplace in tissue engineering strategies. Scaffolds provide sturdy interfaces that securely anchor tissue engineered constructs to their designated locations. Researchers have used scaffolds to provide support to developing tissues as well as a growth template to aid the development of the desired phenotypic structure. In addition to using scaffolds for their mechanical support, scaffolds can be used as a diagnostic tool by attaching sensors. Strain gauge sensors have been attached to scaffolds to monitor compression and elongation. These polybutylterphalate (PBT) scaffolds were used in a cartilage tissue-engineering project for femoral cartilage repair. The aim of this project was to measure native cartilage pressure in normal canine stifle joints using strain gauge scaffolds. By using pressure sensitive films to confirm joint surface pressures determined with strain gauge measurements, sensate scaffolds were created to be able to provide in vivo joint ...
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease and a major cause of disability and pain.1 The OA prevalence has doubled since the mid-20th century2 with an expected higher incidence in the future.3 The annual total medical cost per person suffering from OA is on average €11 100.4 Articular cartilage breakdown is the hallmark of OA, with aggrecan loss being an early sign of tissue degeneration. Many factors such as age, body mass index (BMI), knee injury, inflammation, sex and family history independently, and as a result of their interaction, contribute to its development and progression.5 6 For example, approximately every second major knee injury from sports results in OA 10-15 years later,7-9 and it has been estimated that at least 12% of the total burden of knee OA originates from knee injury.10 Hypothetically, interventions targeting younger patients at increased risk of OA (eg, following sports injury), or in the early stages of the disease, increase the chances of slowing ...
Oral administration of doxycycline has been shown to reduce the severity of articular cartilage breakdown in various animal models of osteoarthritis (OA). This disease modifying effect is associated with reductions in the levels of active and total collagenase and gelatinase in extracts of articular …
It is key for successful auricular (AUR) cartilage tissue-engineering (TE) to ensure that the engineered cartilage mimics the mechanics of the native tissue. This study provides a spatial map of the mechanical and biochemical properties of human auricular cartilage, thus establishing a benchmark for the evaluation of functional competency in AUR cartilage TE. Stress-relaxation indentation (instantaneous modulus, Ein; maximum stress, σmax; equilibrium modulus, Eeq; relaxation half-life time, t1/2; thickness, h) and biochemical parameters (content of DNA; sulfated-glycosaminoglycan, sGAG; hydroxyproline, HYP; elastin, ELN) of fresh human AUR cartilage were evaluated. Samples were categorized into age groups and according to their harvesting region in the human auricle (for AUR cartilage only). AUR cartilage displayed significantly lower Ein, σmax, Eeq, sGAG content; and significantly higher t1/2, and DNA content than NAS cartilage. Large amounts of ELN were measured in AUR cartilage (,15% ELN ...
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Our findings show that OVX-induced cessation of endogenous oestrogen production influenced the integrity and morphology of articular cartilage, and EA and ERT prevented the further incidence of cartilage surface erosion in OVX rabbits. Furthermore, EA increased the OVX-induced reduction in serum oestrogens levels while decreasing MMP-13 mRNA and protein levels in OVX rabbits. In addition, the body weight of the rabbits decreased after acupuncture. All of these findings suggest that EA could exert chondroprotective effects by increasing oestrogen levels, inhibiting the production of MMP-13 and reducing body weight.. Studies have shown that OVX cynomolgus monkeys and OVX rats can be used to model postmenopausal OA, which presents OA-like pathological changes.5 ,28 The results are consistent with the results of our study. Several experimental studies have clearly shown that oestrogen increases cartilage turnover and surface erosion through complex molecular mechanisms on multiple levels. In studies ...
If an articular cartilage injury - better described as focal chondral defect - is suspected, your doctor may do a thorough clinical exam and ask about previous injuries and surgeries to the joint; x-rays and a MRI scan of the involved joint; and possibly arthroscopy of the joint.
INTRODUCTION: Lubricin, one of the main lubricating constituents of synovial fluid, has been targeted as a prospective therapeutic option to inhibit the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA) [1]. Prior in vitro studies have shown lubricin to reduce frictional forces at articular cartilage surfaces by as much as 70% [2]. Numerous analogues of this glycoprotein have been
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common debilitating disease resulting from the degeneration of articular cartilage. The major protein of cartilage is type II collagen, which is encoded by the COL2A1 gene. Mutations at this locus have been discovered in several individuals with inherited disorders of cartilage. We have identified 27 primary OA patients who are heterozygous for sequence dimorphisms located in the coding region of COL2A1. These dimorphisms were used to distinguish the mRNA output from each of the two COL2A1 alleles in articular cartilage obtained from each patient. Three patients demonstrated differential allelic expression and produced | 12% of the normal level of mRNA from one of their COL2A1 alleles. The same allele shows reduced expression in all three patients, and this allele is more frequent in a well-defined OA population than in a control group, suggesting the possible existence of a rare COL2A1 allele that predisposes to OA.
Articular cartilage research[edit]. In addition to meniscus replacement, Stone focused on articular cartilage regeneration for ... "Articular Cartilage Paste Grafting to Full-Thickness Articular Cartilage Knee Joint Lesions: A 2-12 year Follow Up". ... the first stem cell articular cartilage repair procedure called Articular Cartilage Paste Grafting which in long-term studies ... Stone's clinical work has focused on repairing and replacing meniscus, articular cartilage, and ligaments to keep people active ...
Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.; Darling, Eric M.; Hu, Jerry C.; DuRaine, Grayson D.; Reddi, A. Hari (2013). Articular Cartilage. CRC ... Osteoarthritis begins in the cartilage and eventually causes the two opposing bones to erode into each other. The condition ... In rheumatoid arthritis, most damage occurs to the joint lining and cartilage which eventually results in erosion of two ... For more severe cases of osteoarthritis, intra-articular corticosteroid injections may also be considered. The drugs to treat ...
Much of his scientific work relates to osteogenesis, articular cartilage lesions and articular cartilage repair surgery. ... Articular Cartilage. In: Principles of regenerative medicine. Atala A, Lanza R, Nerem R, Thomson JA (Eds.) Elsevier Science & ...
Articular cartilage injuries. *Acute lung injury. *Pancreatic injury. *Thoracic aorta injury. *Biliary injury ...
Abazari A, Jomha NM, Elliott JA, McGann LE (2013). "Cryopreservation of articular cartilage". Cryobiology. 66 (3): 201-209. doi ... central nervous system Immune privilege is also believed to occur to some extent or able to be induced in articular cartilage. ... Fujihara Y, Takato T, Hoshi K (2014). "Macrophage-inducing FasL on chondrocytes forms immune privilege in cartilage tissue ...
Scott, C. Corey; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A. (2006). "Mechanical Impact and Articular Cartilage". Critical Reviews in Biomedical ... cartilage, ligaments, and tendons. Bone and cartilage, as load-bearing biological materials, are of interest to both a medical ... Cartilage damage and fracture can contribute to osteoarthritis, a joint disease that results in joint stiffness and reduced ... Studying bone and cartilage can motivate the design of resilient synthetic materials that could aid in joint replacements. ...
"Nonlinear optical microscopy of articular cartilage". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 13 (4): 345-352. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2004.12 ... Also, pathologies in cartilage such as osteoarthritis can be probed by polarization-resolved SHG microscopy,. SHIM was later ... It can be found in tendon, skin, bone, cornea, aorta, fascia, cartilage, meniscus, intervertebral disks... Myosin can also be ... "Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy". Journal of ...
Though articular cartilage damage is not life-threatening, it does strongly affect the quality of life. Articular cartilage ... Inflammation of cartilage in the ribs, causing chest pain. Osteoarthritis: The cartilage covering bones (articular cartilage) ... that contribute to articular cartilage repair. However, these procedures do not treat osteoarthritis. [1] American Orthopaedic ... Chondropathy refers to a disease of the cartilage. It is frequently divided into 5 grades, with 0-2 defined as normal and 3-4 ...
Roughley PJ, White RJ (September 1989). "Dermatan sulphate proteoglycans of human articular cartilage. The properties of ...
... is an important component of articular cartilage, where it is present as a coat around each cell (chondrocyte ... 1988). "Hyaluronic acid in human articular cartilage. Age-related changes in content and size". Biochem. J. 250 (2): 435-441. ... and that intra-articular injection of HA could possibly cause adverse effects. A 2020 meta-analysis found that intra-articular ... Hyaluronan is used in treatment of articular disorders in horses, in particular those in competition or heavy work. It is ...
Non-glycanated forms of biglycan (no GAG chains) increase with age in human articular cartilage. The composition of GAG chains ... Roughley PJ, White RJ (September 1989). "Dermatan sulphate proteoglycans of human articular cartilage. The properties of ... "Non-proteoglycan forms of biglycan increase with age in human articular cartilage". Biochem. J. 295 (2): 421-6. doi:10.1042/ ... Vynios DH, Papageorgakopoulou N, Sazakli H, Tsiganos CP (September 2001). "The interactions of cartilage proteoglycans with ...
Immediately afterwards, she again received articular cartilage surgery. After a few months of recovery, she participated in the ...
... a cell-based articular cartilage repair procedure that aims to provide complete hyaline repair tissues for articular cartilage ... forcing the patient to reengage in articular cartilage repair. The effectiveness of cartilage growth after microfracture ... "Articular cartilage repair of the knee" by Karen Hambly. www.cartilagehealth.com/acr.html "Characterized Chondrocyte ... Microfracture surgery is an articular cartilage repair surgical technique that works by creating tiny fractures in the ...
Organization, chromosomal location, and expression in articular cartilage". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (37): ...
... articular cartilage mechanics, drug delivery, and pathomechanisms of osteoarthritis. She is currently the Department Chair as ... "In situ crosslinking elastin-like polypeptide gels for application to articular cartilage repair in a goat osteochondral defect ... "Photocrosslinkable hyaluronan as a scaffold for articular cartilage repair". Ann Biomed Eng. 32 (3): 391-397. doi:10.1023/b: ... development of injectable hydrogels for articular cartilage repair, and development of injectable drug delivery vehicles for ...
These gels became very successful articular cartilage replacement systems. In 1978, he developed the same systems for in situ ... N.A. Peppas: "Hydrogels for Synthetic Articular Cartilage Applications," SPE Techn. Papers (NATEC), 62-63 (1977) Peppas, N. A ... 1979). "Characterization of homogeneous and pseudocomposite homopolymers and copolymers for articular cartilage replacement". ...
Self-assembling engineered articular cartilage was introduced by Jerry Hu and Kyriacos A. Athanasiou in 2006 and applications ... Hu JC, Athanasiou KA (April 2006). "A self-assembling process in articular cartilage tissue engineering". Tissue Engineering. ... Cartilage: lab-grown cartilage, cultured in vitro on a scaffold, was successfully used as an autologous transplant to repair ... Scaffold-free cartilage: Cartilage generated without the use of exogenous scaffold material. In this methodology, all material ...
Articular cartilage is the connective tissue that protects bones of load-bearing joints like knee, shoulder by providing a ... This mechanical responsiveness of articular cartilage is due to its biphasic nature; it contains both the solid and fluid ... Wong, M; Carter, D.R (July 2003). "Articular cartilage functional histomorphology and mechanobiology: a research perspective". ... "Comparison of the equilibrium response of articular cartilage in unconfined compression, confined compression and indentation ...
... and biochemical properties of this engineered cartilage approach those of native articular cartilage. More recently, the ... Athanasiou and his colleagues published the book Articular Cartilage. He published one of the first papers on the use of ... Athanasiou, K.A.; Darling, E.; DuRaine, G.; Hu, J.; Reddi, A.H.: Articular Cartilage, Second Edition, ISBN 978-1-4987-0622-3, ... His group has also demonstrated the fabrication of entire sections of articular cartilage by self-assembly of cells, without ...
"Mechanisms for asporin function and regulation in articular cartilage". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (44): 32185-92 ... ASPN belongs to a family of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins associated with the cartilage matrix. The name asporin reflects ...
Chronic arthritis, inflammation, destruction of articular cartilage and bone. Tuberculin reaction (Mantoux test)[3]. Tuberculin ...
Over 80% of the bone is covered in articular cartilage. The palmar surface of the scaphoid is concave, and forming a tubercle, ...
One of the main mechanical functions of articular cartilage is to act as a low-friction, load-bearing surface. Due to its ... Behrens, Fred; Kraft, Ellen L.; Oegema, Theodore R. (1989). "Biochemical changes in articular cartilage after joint ... articular cartilage experiences a range of static and dynamic forces that include shear, compression and tension. These ... "Effect of Compressive Strain on Cell Viability in Statically Loaded Articular Cartilage". Biomechanics and Modeling in ...
The load now was distributed directly to the articular cartilage. In light of these findings, it is essential to preserve the ... In joints with intact menisci, the force was applied through the menisci and articular cartilage; however, a lesion in the ... While the ends of the thigh bone and the shin bone have a thin covering of soft hyaline cartilage, the menisci are made of ... When doctors and patients refer to "torn cartilage" in the knee, they actually may be referring to an injury to a meniscus at ...
Vincent T, Saklatvala J (June 2006). "Basic fibroblast growth factor: an extracellular mechanotransducer in articular cartilage ...
... the epiphysis is covered with articular cartilage; below that covering is a zone similar to the epiphyseal plate, known as ... Traction epiphysis: The regions of the long bone which are non-articular, i.e. not involved in joint formation. Unlike pressure ...
The articular surface extends to the inferior aspect for attachment with the first costal cartilage. ...
The load now was distributed directly to the articular cartilage. In light of these findings, it is essential to preserve the ... In joints with intact menisci, the force was applied through the menisci and articular cartilage; however, a lesion in the ... tear of medial cartilage/meniscus (836.1), and tear of cartilage/meniscus (836.2). Females had a total of 53.49% discharges, ... This is due to a piece of the torn cartilage preventing the normal functioning of the knee joint.[citation needed] ...
"Mechanisms for asporin function and regulation in articular cartilage". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (44): 32185-92 ...
Talk:Articular branches of descending genicular artery. *Talk:Articular capsule of the knee joint ... Talk:Arytenoid cartilage. *Talk:Arytenoid muscle. *Talk:Ascending aorta. *Talk:Ascending branch of medial circumflex femoral ...
These are ossified (turned into bone) portions of cartilage -- called Meckel's cartilage -- that are attached to the jaw. As ... These correspond to the quadrate, prearticular, articular, and angular structures in earlier land vertebrates.[1] ... the embryo develops, the cartilage hardens to form bone. Later in development, the bone structure breaks loose from the jaw and ...
The new section will however contain cartilage rather than bone, and will never grow to the same length as the original tail. ... a jaw joint formed by the quadrate and articular bones, and certain characteristics of the vertebrae.[17] The animals singled ...
Articular cartilage, most notably that which is found in the knee joint, is generally characterized by very low friction, high ... Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis, which is also known as AMIC, is a biological treatment option for articular cartilage ... Osteochondral Grafting of Articular Cartilage Injury at eMedicine. ... "Articular cartilage regeneration with autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells and hyaluronic Acid after arthroscopic ...
... and the articular cartilage.[8] In an experiment performed on rat muscles after twenty sessions of treadmill low intensity ...
Articular cartilage injuries. *Acute lung injury. *Pancreatic injury. *Thoracic aorta injury. *Biliary injury ...
The articular facet, is small and oval and is the lower and more medial of the two, and connects to the transverse costal facet ... The first seven sets of ribs, known as "true ribs", are attached to the sternum by the costal cartilages. The first rib is ... The non-articular portion is a rough elevation and affords attachment to the ligament of the tubercle. The tubercle is much ... The superior costotransverse ligament attaches from the non-articular facet of the tubercle to the transverse process of the ...
Proteins involved in autophagy are reduced with age in both human and mouse articular cartilage.[76] Mechanical injury to ... Autophagy is constantly activated in normal cartilage but it is compromised with age and precedes cartilage cell death and ... "The relationship of autophagy defects to Cartilage Damage During joint aging in a mouse model". Arthritis Rheumatol. 67 (6): ... "Autophagy is a protective mechanism in normal cartilage, and its aging related loss is linked with cell death and ...
Cartilage. *Articular cartilage repair *Microfracture surgery. *Knee cartilage replacement therapy. *Autologous chondrocyte ... Ankle replacement, or ankle arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure to replace the damaged articular surfaces of the human ankle ... This meniscal bearing should allow full congruence at the articular surfaces in all joint positions in order to minimize wear ... ligaments and articular surfaces), and poor restoration of these functions in the replaced joint may be responsible for the ...
... articular cartilage may atrophy,[21]:46 leading to narrowed joint spaces. Depending on the degree of spasticity, a person with ...
In all tetrapods the cartilage partially ossifies (changes to bone) at the rear end of the jaw and becomes the articular bone, ... The Meckelian Cartilage, also known as "Meckel's Cartilage", is a piece of cartilage from which the mandibles (lower jaws) of ... Meckel's cartilage arises from the first pharyngeal arch.. The dorsal end of each cartilage is connected with the ear-capsule ... the cartilage was covered in bone - although in their embryos the jaw initially develops as the Meckelian Cartilage. ...
Cartilage. *Articular cartilage repair *Microfracture surgery. *Knee cartilage replacement therapy. *Autologous chondrocyte ... Fixing the torn cartilage will increase the procedure time, increasing cost. Insurance plays the biggest roll in cost for an ... cartilage cells). Ligament tissue mainly consists of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix. Ligament cells differ in size, ...
It is broad and bears the glenoid cavity on its articular surface which is directed forward, laterally and slightly upwards, ... The surface is covered with cartilage in the fresh state; and its margins, slightly raised, give attachment to a ...
The two hip bones are joined anteriorly at the pubic symphysis by a fibrous cartilage covered by a hyaline cartilage, the ... and synovial joints between the articular processes of the two bones. In addition to these ligaments the joint is strengthened ... At birth the whole of the hip joint (the acetabulum area and the top of the femur) is still made of cartilage (but there may be ... During childhood, these sections are separate bones, joined by the triradiate cartilage. During puberty, they fuse together to ...
ഇതിന് മുകൾ ഭാഗത്തും അടിഭാഗത്തും ആയി ഓരോ സന്ധി മുഖികകൾ (articular facets) ഉണ്ട്. മുകൾഭാഗത്തെ സന്ധിമുഖിക വഴി അനുകപാലാസ്ഥിയുമായും ... ഈ മധ്യഭിത്തി അസ്ഥികളാലും തരുണാസ്ഥി (cartilage)കളാലും നിർമിതമാണ്. മധ്യഭിത്തിയിൽ ഊർധ്വഹന്വസ്ഥിയുടെയും പാലറ്റൈൻ - സ്ഫീനോയ്ഡ് ... കശേരുകദണ്ഡിന്റെ വക്ഷീയഭാഗവും പാർശുകകളും (വാരിയെല്ല് - ribs) അവയുടെ പാർശുക-തരുണാസ്ഥികളും (costal cartilages) ഉരോസ്ഥിയും (sternum ... superiour articular) പ്രവർധങ്ങളും, രണ്ട് ...
Arthroplasty is an orthopedic surgery where the articular surface of a musculoskeletal joint is replaced, remodeled, or ... Masaki Watanabe of Japan to perform minimally invasive cartilage surgery and reconstructions of torn ligaments. Arthroscopy ...
A few structures (such as cartilage and the lens of the eye) do not contain blood vessels and are labeled. ...
In tetrapods the cartilage partially ossifies (changes to bone) at the rear end of the jaw and becomes the articular bone, ... Meckel's cartilage is a piece of cartilage from which the mandibles (lower jaws) of vertebrates evolved. Originally it was the ... the cartilage was covered in bone - although in their embryos the jaw initially develops as the Meckel's cartilage. ... The jaws of a large great white shark may have up to five layers.[26] In the rostrum (snout), the cartilage can be spongy and ...
... is an important component of articular cartilage, where it is present as a coat around each cell (chondrocyte ... "Hyaluronic acid in human articular cartilage. Age-related changes in content and size". Biochem. J. 250 (2): 435-441. PMC ... Hyaluronan is used in treatment of articular disorders in horses, in particular those in competition or heavy work. It is ... These aggregates imbibe water and are responsible for the resilience of cartilage (its resistance to compression). The ...
nasal cartilages *of the septum. *Greater alar. *Lesser alar. *Lateral nasal. *Accessory nasal ...
The earliest amniotes had a jaw joint composed of the articular (a small bone at the back of the lower jaw) and the quadrate (a ... yet maintain a slender connection to the jaw via the ossified Meckel's cartilage, which in more advanced mammals dissolves ... The jaw joint consisted of the articular bone in the lower jaw and the quadrate in the upper jaw. The early pelycosaurs (late ... Over the course of the evolution of mammals, one bone from the lower and one from the upper jaw (the articular and quadrate ...
Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.; Darling, Eric M.; Hu, Jerry C.; DuRaine, Grayson D.; Reddi, A. Hari (2013). Articular Cartilage (in ...
Wakitani S, Nawata M, Tensho K, Okabe T, Machida H, Ohgushi H (2007). "Repair of articular cartilage defects in the patello- ... "Regeneration of meniscus cartilage in a knee treated with percutaneously implanted autologous mesenchymal stem cells, platelate ... have reported high field MRI evidence of increased cartilage and meniscus volume in individual human clinical subjects as well ... "Increased knee cartilage volume in degenerative joint disease using percutaneously implanted, autologous mesenchymal stem ...
Abazari A, Jomha NM, Elliott JA, McGann LE (2013). "Cryopreservation of articular cartilage". Cryobiology. 66 (3): 201-209. doi ... Fujihara Y, Takato T, Hoshi K (2014). "Macrophage-inducing FasL on chondrocytes forms immune privilege in cartilage tissue ...
... and the formation of articular cartilage and the epiphyseal plates.[citation needed] ... Zone of reserve cartilage. This region, farthest from the marrow cavity, consists of typical hyaline cartilage that as yet ... it involves the development of bone from cartilage. This process includes the development of a cartilage model, its growth and ... Salentijn, L. Biology of Mineralized Tissues: Cartilage and Bone, Columbia University College of Dental Medicine post-graduate ...
Cartilage. *Articular cartilage repair *Microfracture surgery. *Knee cartilage replacement therapy. *Autologous chondrocyte ...
The superior and inferior articular processes of cervical vertebrae have fused on either or both sides to form articular ... From C6-7, the cricoid cartilage[9]. *At C6, the oesophagus becomes continuous with the laryngopharynx and also where the ... The articular facets are flat and of an oval form: *the superior face backward, upward, and slightly medially. ...
Arthritis is a condition that affects the cartilage of the joints. As the cartilage lining wears away, the protective lining ... intra-articular corticosteroid injections (injection into the joint space) are another popular, conservative option.[5] If all ... patients often developed cartilage loss on their glenoid surface as well, leading to pain and glenoid erosion. This prompted ...
The articular cartilage of the tibia is located on its top portion. It is the articulating portion of the epiphysis that is ... coated with a layer of hyaline cartilage. This layer is resistant to wear and produces a minimum of friction when it is ...
If the injury is restricted to the cartilage, it will not show up in an X-ray, but can be found by means of arthroscopy (using ... Articular cartilage injuries. Damage to the knee can cause lesions to the articular lining cartilage or hyaline cartilage, ... An arthroscopy may show up subtle surface articular cartilage lesions not visualised by an MRI scan. Injury to the cartilage ... There are also two types of cartilages: the menisci and the articular cartilage, which makes up the lining. ...
... Rami K. Korhonen,1 Petro Julkunen,2 LePing Li,3 and Corrinus C. van Donkelaar4 ...
... in a hydrogel skewed differentiation of MF-activated SSCs toward articular cartilage. These data indicate that following MF, a ... Endogenous skeletal stem cells are recruited to form cartilage in mice when stimulated by microfracture surgery together with ... progressive destruction of articular cartilage1. The etiology of OA is complex and involves a variety of factors, including ... populations to regenerate cartilage in relation to age, a possible contributor to the development of osteoarthritis5-7. We ...
Observations ON THE NUTRITION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE Br Med J 1920; 1 :661 ... Observations ON THE NUTRITION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE. Br Med J 1920; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.3098.661 (Published ...
The aim of an articular cartilage repair treatment is to restore the surface of an articular joints hyaline cartilage. Over ... See also Stem cell transplantation for articular cartilage repair Rehabilitation following any articular cartilage repair ... scientists have striven to replace damaged articular cartilage with healthy articular cartilage. Previous repair procedures, ... First, cartilage cells are extracted arthroscopically from the patients healthy articular cartilage that is located in a non ...
The invention disclosed provides an articular cartilage cancellous bone paste in an effective amount for enhancing formation of ... The paste can include a cartilage-stimulating factor. ... 4. The articular cartilage paste of claim 3 wherein the cells ... 3, the first step of articular cartilage transplantation is shown, demonstrating shaving of articular cartilage lesion. FIG. 4 ... 1. An articular cartilage paste comprising:. an osteocartilaginous tissue mixture for effecting in vivo cartilage formation, ...
The decreased capacity of damaged articular cartilage to heal or regenerate has contributed measurably to these effects. ... and full-thickness cartilage injuries, as well as osteochondral pathology in weightbearing joints, have produced deleterious ... encoded search term (Osteochondral Grafting of Articular Cartilage Injuries) and Osteochondral Grafting of Articular Cartilage ... Osteochondral Grafting of Articular Cartilage Injuries. Updated: Oct 06, 2020 * Author: Abigail E Smith, MD; Chief Editor: ...
... full thickness articular cartilage damage .9cm right knee weight bearing area 30 year old very active athletic female want a ... articular cartilage damage in knee melissafox re: full thickness articular cartilage damage .9cm right knee weight bearing area ... aci - after all that, couldnt the cartilage grow in as fiborous anyway? wont i need another surgery in a few years with this ...
Variations in articular mechanical load are predicted to modulate cartilage thickness. These results are consistent with the ... Mechanobiology in the development, maintenance, and degeneration of articular cartilage.. Beaupré GS1, Stevens SS, Carter DR. ... Specifically, intermittent hydrostatic pressure is thought to maintain cartilage, and shear stresses encourage cartilage ... on the development of a layer of articular cartilage, using an idealized finite element computer model. The results of our ...
Articular cartilage transplantation. Clinical results in the knee.. Chu CR1, Convery FR, Akeson WH, Meyers M, Amiel D. ... Between December 1983 and August 1991, 55 consecutive patients (55 knees) who underwent articular cartilage transplantation to ... the knee capitalize on the different healing potentials of bone and cartilage by transplanting the viable articular cartilage ... full thickness articular cartilage defects to the medial or lateral femoral condyles and to the patella. ...
Normal and osteochondrotic porcine articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex by Stina Ekman; 1 edition; Subjects: Veterinary ... Are you sure you want to remove Normal and osteochondrotic porcine articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex from your list? ... Normal and osteochondrotic porcine articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex studies on cellular and matrix components Stina Ekman ... Normal and osteochondrotic porcine articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex ,author = Stina Ekman ,publication-date = 1990 }}. ...
... ground breaking research shows promising advancements in the battle against articular cartilage disease. A new ... Articular cartilage disease is a large and growing problem as the US population ages. Orthopedic surgeons are able to visibly ... Articular cartilage disease is a large and growing problem as the US population ages. Orthopedic surgeons are able to visibly ... New, ground breaking research shows promising advancements in the battle against articular cartilage disease. A new study, ...
It is also called joint cartilage or hyaline cartilage. ... Articular cartilage is the white gristle covering the ends of ... Introduction to articular cartilage repair. Part 1 of an in-depth review on Articular Cartilage Repair by Dr Karen Hambly PhD ... It is also called joint cartilage or hyaline cartilage.. It is damage to the articular cartilage which is called arthritis ... Articular cartilage repair. A short but sound overview of the issue of damage to the joint cartilage, and what can be done ...
MR Imaging of Articular Cartilage. Room A102. 16:00 18:00. Chairs: R. Mark Henkleman and Gabrielle Bergman. ... Proteoglycan Distribution Across Articular Cartilage as Determined by Na MRI, E.M. Shapiro, A. Borthakur, J.S. Leigh and R. ... The Role of T2 and Gd-DTPA Enhanced T1 Relaxation in Mapping Degraded Articular Cartilage, A.M. Herneth, V. Mlynarik, M. Huber ... Watershed Segmentation of High Resolution Articular Cartilage Images for Assessment of OsteoArthritis, S. Ghosh, O. Beuf, D.C. ...
Pinder previously reported that synovectomy with drilling of areas of articular cartilage loss showed cartilage regeneration ... The loss of the articular cartilage in RA is evident on X-ray as joint-space narrowing, but in most cases, erosion and joint- ... Rheumatoid arthritis Joint destruction Synovitis Articular cartilage Regeneration Abbreviations. ACR. American College of ... When the joint has the ability to regenerate the destroyed bone and/or articular cartilage, self-regeneration should occur ...
Articular cartilage maturation is the postnatal development process that adapts joint surfaces to their site-specific ... based therapies dedicated to cartilage repair. We hypothesize that at the microscale, the articular cartilage tissue properties ... Maroudas A, Bullough P, Swanson, Freeman MA (1968) The permeability of articular cartilage. J Bone Jt Surg Br 50:166-177Google ... Articular cartilage maturation is the postnatal development process that adapts joint surfaces to their site-specific ...
... M. Pasqualicchio,1,2 R. Gasperini,2 G. P. Velo,2 ... "Effects of copper and zinc on proteoglycan metabolism in articular cartilage," Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 95 ...
... not true hyaline articular cartilage. Knowing that fibrocartilage was not as durable as articular cartilage and that its ... "Articular cartilage paste grafting to full-thickness articular cartilage knee joint lesions: a 2- to 12-year follow-up". ... Articular cartilage is a connective tissue overlying the ends of bones that provides smooth joint surfaces. Healthy cartilage ... Stone, KR; Walgenbach, A (1997). "Surgical technique for articular cartilage transplantation to full-thickness cartilage ...
This site is owned by a UK-based limited company (company number 2893459; incorporated 1st February 1994). The domain was first registered on 4th February 1997.. Registered Address: The KNEEguru, c/o Price Pearson Limited (att. Chris Cooper, Accountant), Finch House, 28/30 Wolverhampton Street, Dudley, West Midlands, DY1 1DB, United Kingdom.. ...
Objectives: 1) To detail the structure of healthy articular cartilage, the key tissue affected by osteoarthritis. 2) To detail ... if the basic collective information on the role of biomechanics in mediating or moderating articular cartilage integrity and ... what aspects of cartilage damage best characterize osteoarthritis. 3) To consider the role of biomechanical factors in ... Kuettner, K.E., Aydeotte, M. and Thonar, E.J.-M.A. (1991) Articular Cartilage Matrix and Structure: A Mini Review. Journal of ...
The method results in the regeneration and/or functional repair of articular cartilage tissue. ... Methods and compositions are provided for the treatment of articular cartilage defects and disease involving the combination of ... A method for regeneration of articular cartilage comprising administering to an area in need of regeneration of said articular ... for regeneration of articular cartilage comprising administering to an area in need of regeneration of said articular cartilage ...
... doctors have developed surgical techniques to stimulate the growth of new cartilage. Restoring articular cartilage can relieve ... Articular cartilage can be damaged by injury or normal wear and tear. Because cartilage does not heal itself well, doctors have ... Normal healthy articular cartilage in the knee (left). A large cartilage defect in the knee joint surface (center). During ... Cartilage Damage. Hyaline Cartilage. The main component of the joint surface is a special tissue called hyaline cartilage.When ...
最新原著レビュー 磁性化幹細胞を用いた関節軟骨再生 [in Japanese] Articular cartilage repair with magnetic mesenchymal stem cells [
Similar cells are not found in lesions of osteoarthritis cartilage. We have designated them as pannocytes (PCs). Their rhomboid ... A distinctive cell was identified from sites of rheumatoid arthritis cartilage injury. ... Pannocytes: distinctive cells found in rheumatoid arthritis articular cartilage erosions Am J Pathol. 1997 Mar;150(3):1125-38. ... A distinctive cell was identified from sites of rheumatoid arthritis cartilage injury. Similar cells are not found in lesions ...
... Sci Transl Med. 2014 Aug 27;6(251):251ra119. doi: 10.1126 ... NCs could also be reprogrammed to stably express Hox genes typical of ACs upon implantation into goat articular cartilage ... implying a role for NCs in the unmet clinical challenge of articular cartilage repair. An ongoing phase 1 clinical trial ... Using hyaline cartilage as a model, we showed that adult human neuroectoderm-derived nasal chondrocytes (NCs) can be ...
We describe an explant model comprising two different repair systems in immature articular cartilage. This model provides us ... Explants of articular cartilage were dissected from the femoral condyles of immature one-year-old pigs and cultured in DMEM/F12 ... The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reparative processes occurring in a young age porcine cartilage explant model ... After 1 - 4 weeks of culture with FCS, LM showed migration and proliferation of chondrocytes in cartilage close to the injured ...
... intra-articular and extra-articular environment in order to optimize cartilage preservation and restoration. ... Strategies for Articular Cartilage Lesion Repair and Functional Restoration. Tissue Eng. Part B Rev. 2010; Jan 30. Epub ahead ... Articular cartilage regeneration: Current status and future opportunities. It is becoming increasingly clear that we are ... The concept of preserving and protecting articular cartilage is not new, although delivering on this worthy goal has been ...
Cartilage Allograft. * As part of the Allograft OATS® procedure, Arthrex offers cartilage allografts for the replacement of ... facilitate harvesting of various diameter osteochondral/hyaline cartilage cylinders from a donor site superior and lateral to ...
Enhanced cleavage of type II collagen by collagenases in osteoarthritic articular cartilage.. ... involved in the cleavage and denaturation of type II collagen in articular cartilage, that this is increased in OA, and that ... compared to adult nonarthritic cartilages as determined by immunoassay of cartilage extracts. A synthetic preferential ... from human osteoarthritic cartilage explants. These data suggest that collagenase(s) produced by chondrocytes is (are) ...
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease resulting in irreversible, progressive destruction of articular cartilage 1 . (nature.com)
  • Focal arthritic defects may occur as the result of trauma or other conditions, such as loss of the protective meniscus cartilage or osteoarthritis. (google.ca)
  • These results are consistent with the view that the mechanobiological factors responsible for the development of diarthrodial joints eventually lead to cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis (OA) with aging. (nih.gov)
  • Injury to cartilage can lead to pain and stiffness and is the precursor to the development of osteoarthritis (degenerative joint arthritis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Buckwalter JA, Mankin HJ, Grodzinsky AJ (2005) Articular cartilage and osteoarthritis. (springer.com)
  • Objectives: 1) To detail the structure of healthy articular cartilage, the key tissue affected by osteoarthritis. (scirp.org)
  • 2) To detail what aspects of cartilage damage best characterize osteoarthritis. (scirp.org)
  • Marks, R. (2014) Osteoarthritis and Articular Cartilage: Biomechanics and Novel Treatment Paradigms. (scirp.org)
  • Similar cells are not found in lesions of osteoarthritis cartilage. (nih.gov)
  • There was significantly more COL2-3/4C(short) neoepitope in osteoarthritis (OA) compared to adult nonarthritic cartilages as determined by immunoassay of cartilage extracts. (jci.org)
  • Articular cartilage injuries are a prime target for regenerative techniques, since spontaneous healing is poor and untreated defects predispose to osteoarthritis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This chapter reviews the structure and function of articular cartilage and the pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis (OA) before exploring the challenges associated with cartilage repair and regeneration. (igi-global.com)
  • Ayturk UM, Sieker JT, Haslauer CM, Proffen BL, Weissenberger MH, Warman ML, Fleming BC, Murray MM. Proteolysis and cartilage development are activated in the synovium after surgical induction of post traumatic osteoarthritis. (harvard.edu)
  • Leptin in osteoarthritis: Focus on articular cartilage and chondrocytes. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Osteoarthritis affects millions of people globally, with damage to articular cartilage causing pain and altered mechanics during articulation. (bl.uk)
  • Osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent disease in the United States population, with approximately 75% of persons over age 65 having radiographic evidence of degenerative changes, and nearly two-thirds of routine knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating articular cartilage damage. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The presence of a hysteresis loop in cartilage indicates energy loss, thereby signaling degradation of cartilage leading to osteoarthritis. (rice.edu)
  • Proteomic changes in articular cartilage of human endemic osteoarthritis in China. (diva-portal.org)
  • It is a degenerative disease similar to osteoarthritis, but with different manifestations of cartilage damage. (diva-portal.org)
  • An injurious impact applies a significant amount of physical stress on articular cartilage and can initiate a cascade of biochemical reactions that can lead to the development of osteoarthritis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of autologous transplantation , under arthroscopy, of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal stem cells , using, with a cell separator, a fresh non-culture expanded Autologous Bone Marrow derived Mesenchymal Stem , mixed and activated with proteins scaffold in patient with Knee cartilage defects and osteoarthritis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Because of its characteristics as an imaging technique, Raman mapping could be a promising tool for studying biochemical changes in cartilage occurring during aging or osteoarthritis. (rsc.org)
  • It is believed that cartilage damage due to knee osteoarthritis is mechanically induced. (witpress.com)
  • 700N) and misalignment (valgus variation) could damage the AC because they increase the stress magnitude and it comes into the cyclic damage range (5-10 MPa), which progressively produces articular cartilage damage and enhances the osteoarthritis phenomenon due to mechanical factors. (witpress.com)
  • The hallmark feature of osteoarthritis is the breakdown in the articular cartilage of joints such as the knee and hip. (getprolo.com)
  • Articular cartilage defects may initiate osteoarthritis. (biologists.org)
  • Subchondral drilling, proposed for the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans by Smillie in 1957 ( Smillie, 1957 ) and osteoarthritis by Pridie in 1959 ( Pridie and Gordon, 1959 ), is a widely used marrow stimulation technique for articular cartilage repair in the clinical setting. (biologists.org)
  • 1,2] Unless cartilage damage is prevented or treated in time, the inevitable end result is osteoarthritis (OA). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We assessed the pathological changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone on different locations of the knee after extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in early osteoarthritis (OA). (medsci.org)
  • 5. The articular cartilage paste of claim 3 wherein the cells comprise a plurality of cloned chondrocytes. (google.ca)
  • Surgical techniques currently being studied include: bone marrow stimulation osteochondral autograft transplantation osteochondral allograft transplantation autologous chondrocyte implantation cell-based (using chondrocytes or stem-cells) or acellular scaffolding Articular cartilage stem cell paste grafting is another technique in use and is undergoing continued investigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their rhomboid morphology differs from the bipolar shape of fibroblast-like synoviocytes or the spherical configuration of primary human articular chondrocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Using hyaline cartilage as a model, we showed that adult human neuroectoderm-derived nasal chondrocytes (NCs) can be constitutively distinguished from mesoderm-derived articular chondrocytes (ACs) by lack of expression of specific HOX genes, including HOXC4 and HOXD8. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that collagenase(s) produced by chondrocytes is (are) involved in the cleavage and denaturation of type II collagen in articular cartilage, that this is increased in OA, and that MMP-13 may play a significant role in this process. (jci.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the safety and feasibility of implanting an engineered cartilage graft obtained by culturing expanded autologous nasal chondrocytes within a collagen type I/III membrane into the cartilage defect on the femoral condyle and/or trochlea of the knee after a traumatic injury. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The unbalanced production of catabolic and anabolic mediators by chondrocytes, the only cell type present in cartilage, determines cartilage degradation, which is the central pathological feature of OA. (wellnessresources.com)
  • The aim of this project is to find alternative ways of repairing articular cartilage defects in rabbits by implanting carbon fibre, collagen gel or hydrogel PC 97 plugs with associated chondrocytes. (bl.uk)
  • Isolated chondrocytes, cultured in either a carbon fibre, collagen gel or hydrogel PC 97 plug, were transplanted into full-thickness defects of articular cartilage in the tibiae of mature rabbits. (bl.uk)
  • The hydrogel PC 97 plugs plus associated chondrocytes at 3 weeks in vitro culture were surrounded by a cartilage-like matrix. (bl.uk)
  • Altered Golgi apparatus in hydrostatically loaded articular cartilage chondrocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Primary cultures of chondrocytes from bovine articular cartilage, grown on coverslips, were subjected to 5, 15, or 30 MPa hydrostatic pressure, applied continuously or cyclically at 0.125 or 0.05 Hz. (diva-portal.org)
  • The latter is done using marrow stimulation techniques (such as microfracture), mosaicplasty (also known as osteochondral cylinder transplantation), and more recently with implantation of healthy cartilage cells (chondrocytes). (cochrane.org)
  • Histological examination using toluidine blue showed that the chondrocytes bordering the cartilage defect produced by deep lacerations and drill holes responded by increased cellular activity, as shown by cell cloning and increased matrix staining. (ovid.com)
  • A tissue engineering approach to regenerate cartilage is to integrate chondrocytes, the primary cell in cartilage, with biomaterials and biomolecules. (umd.edu)
  • We aimed to investigate the effects of L-NG-monomethyl-arginine on the apoptosis of articular chondrocytes. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The main pathological characteristics of degenerative OA include significant apoptosis of cartilage cells in joints and progressive degradation of the matrices outside articular chondrocytes[ 3 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Thereby motivated, we herein evaluated the influence of L-NMMA on the apoptosis of articular chondrocytes in OA rabbits. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The authors therefore investigated whether nasal chondrocytes ( HOX -negative, neuroectoderm origin) were compatible with an articular cartilage environment, like the knee joint ( HOX -positive, mesoderm origin). (sciencemag.org)
  • Objective This study investigated whether chondrocytes within the cartilage matrix have the capacity to communicate through intercellular connections mediated by voltage-gated gap junction (GJ) channels. (bmj.com)
  • 5] Chondrocytes, the main type of cell in the joint cartilage, have mechanosensitive characteristics. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Cartilage-characteristic matrix reconstruction by sequential addition of soluble factors during expansion of human articular chondrocytes and their cultivation in collagen sponges. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our goal was to test whether collagen sponges could be used as scaffolds for reconstruction of cartilage with human articular chondrocytes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Isolated human articular chondrocytes were amplified for two passages with or without a cocktail of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and insulin (FI). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • bFGF was shown to be extracellular, and by immunohistochemistry, was present in the pericellular matrix of articular chondrocytes attached to the heparan sulphate proteoglycan perlecan. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Lavage focuses on removing degenerative articular cartilage flaps and fibrous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The implant is designed to support the formation of hyaline cartilage through a unique guided tissue mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It protects the repair site from infiltration of undesired fibrous tissue while providing the appropriate environment for hyaline cartilage matrix formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This non-ablative technology now allows us to selectively target and remove damaged tissue without causing necrosis in the contiguous cartilage tissue surrounding the lesion. (prweb.com)
  • Articular cartilage is a connective tissue overlying the ends of bones that provides smooth joint surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • We hypothesize that at the microscale, the articular cartilage tissue properties of the mouse (i.e., shear modulus and permeability) change with the growth and are dependent on location within the joint. (springer.com)
  • A rich body of data has helped us to better understand the key tissue involved, and suggests a repair process might be feasible, if the basic collective information on the role of biomechanics in mediating or moderating articular cartilage integrity and function is forthcoming. (scirp.org)
  • Methods and compositions are provided for the treatment of articular cartilage defects and disease involving the combination of tissue, such as osteochondral grafts, with active growth factor. (google.ca)
  • The method results in the regeneration and/or functional repair of articular cartilage tissue. (google.ca)
  • Articular cartilage is the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints. (aaos.org)
  • The main component of the joint surface is a special tissue called hyaline cartilage.When it is damaged, the joint surface may no longer be smooth. (aaos.org)
  • In contrast to ACs, serially cloned NCs could be continuously reverted from differentiated to dedifferentiated states, conserving the ability to form cartilage tissue in vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Parameters to be evaluated are: filling of the defect, integration of the border zone to the adjacent cartilage, intactness of the subchondral lamina, intactness of the subchondral bone, and relative signal intensities of the repair tissue compared to the adjacent native cartilage. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Furthermore many techniques show unsatisfactory long term results due to inferior quality of repair tissue as compared to native cartilage or have yet to prove the cost versus benefit. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These drawbacks could be overcome by using a tissue engineered nasal cartilage graft, thereby reducing donor site morbidity without introducing additional risk of complication or technically challenging techniques. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Biomimetic models of cartilage relevant to cartilage regeneration and tissue engineering research are reviewed along with microenvironmental approaches that preserve the chondrocyte phenotype using a combination of biomimetic 3-dimensional cell culture systems and growth factor supplementation. (igi-global.com)
  • Future refinement of tissue-engineering approaches for cartilage repair will benefit significantly from advances in cell-based repair strategies. (igi-global.com)
  • Articular cartilage (also known as hyaline cartilage) is a tough yet flexible and mechanically compliant connective tissue. (igi-global.com)
  • a) This figure illustrates a sample of human cartilage from a tissue microarray developed by the cooperative human tissue network (CHTN) of the National Cancer Institute ( http://www.chtn.nci.nih.gov/ ). (igi-global.com)
  • Cartilage is predominantly an avascular, aneural and alymphatic load-bearing connective tissue consisting of a single cell type known as the chondrocyte. (igi-global.com)
  • Surgical and tissue engineering strategies for articular cartilage and meniscus repair. (harvard.edu)
  • In past studies, cartilage permeability has been related directly to the orientation of the glycosaminoglycan chains attached to the proteoglycans which constitute the tissue matrix. (biomedsearch.com)
  • after 6 and 12 months cartilage-like tissue was shown in all layers except the surface. (bl.uk)
  • At 3, 6 and 12 months post-implantation, a variety of repair responses were observed, ranging from repair tissue resembling articular cartilage to fibrous-like graft tissue. (bl.uk)
  • It is hypothesized that the re-introduction of GAGs into early stage osteoarthritic cartilage through the use of permanent linkage and integration into a self-assembling peptide hydrogel matrix which could penetrate the cartilage tissue would potentially restore the resistance to deformation observed in osteoarthritic cartilage. (bl.uk)
  • The hydrogels were doped with fluorescently labelled material which integrated into the hydrogel matrix, then injected into the cartilage tissue in a monomeric state. (bl.uk)
  • This ability was manipulated by varying the size of the components of the mimetics, and more effective lubricants resulted in better preservation of the cartilage tissue in injured joints evident by both the preservation of the cartilage's lubricating surface and histologic OARSI scoring. (cornell.edu)
  • At The Stone Clinic in San Francisco, Dr. Kevin Stone has developed a technique called the articular cartilage paste graft, which uses your own bone, cartilage and stem cells to create repair tissue which can be pasted over that damaged surface. (stoneclinic.com)
  • In recent models of this tissue, finite element methods have been used to predict tissue deformation as a function of time for adult articular cartilage bearing a characteristic depth-dependent structure and composition. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This series of mini-reviews focuses on articular cartilage, a tissue that has attracted much basic and clinical research attention for years owing to its importance in body movement and quality of life as well as its vulnerability to malfunction and disease. (elsevier.com)
  • Then, with a second surgery, the cells are placed into the joint defect in an effort to produce a tissue that substitutes the normal cartilage. (cochrane.org)
  • This technique is called "microfracture" and helps the body to regenerate and repair tissue that is similar to articular cartilage and may be sufficient to repair a small defect. (uky.edu)
  • 2008 . Injectable gellan gum hydrogels as supports for cartilage tissue engineering applications. (wiley.com)
  • In all cases, tissue-specific type II ([alpha1 (II)]3) cartilage collagen was synthesized. (ovid.com)
  • The drilled holes were completely filled by tissue with staining and morphological characteristics similar to those of hyaline cartilage. (ovid.com)
  • 3D ultrasound scans of cartilage repair tissue were performed to quantify defect sites after cartilage repair volumetrically. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Thus, tissue engineering approaches have received attention as a promising alternative to treat cartilage disease. (rice.edu)
  • In particular, injectable and biodegradable materials hold promise for cartilage tissue engineering due to the ease of administration and their biomimetic properties. (rice.edu)
  • The purpose of this study is to show if using an investigational tissue graft is better than the standard method of microfracture for the treatment of articular cartilage defects. (uvahealth.com)
  • however, such therapeutics may rapidly diffuse out of cartilage unless there is additional specific binding to intra-tissue substrates that can maintain enhanced intra-tissue concentration for local delivery. (mit.edu)
  • The main component of the joint surface may be a special tissue called cartilage .When it's damaged, the joint surface may not be smooth . (alliedacademies.org)
  • However, limited work has been performed with articular cartilage, and no studies have examined the decellularization of tissue engineered constructs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The results of this study are exciting as they indicate the feasibility of creating engineered cartilage that may be non-immunogenic as a replacement tissue. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although engineered articular cartilage tissue has recently been created with biochemical and biomechanical properties in the range of native tissue values, [ 3 ] there are currently two significant limitations to cartilage tissue engineering. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Additionally, the majority of cartilage tissue engineering approaches have employed bovine or other animal cells, and tissues grown from these cells are xenogenic. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Tissue engineering approaches have attempted to address some of the problems associated with articular cartilage defect repair, but grafts with sufficient functional properties have yet to reach clinical practice. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • This mechanical stimulation must improve the functional properties (both biochemical and structural) of engineered articular cartilage tissue. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The general hypothesis of the present thesis proposes that the generation of functional articular cartilage substitute tissue in vitro benefits from load and fluid flow conditions similar to those occurring in vivo. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Evaluation of early compositional changes in healing articular cartilage is critical for understanding tissue repair and for therapeutic decision-making. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the current study, we determined the feasibility of IFOP assessment of cartilage repair tissue in a rabbit model, and assessed correlations with gold-standard histology. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 15 , 16 This subjective score requires the observer to rate different aspects of the repair tissue based on, for example, integration, hypocellularity, adjacent tissue degererative changes, and proteoglycan (PG) staining, where tissues more closely resembling true hyaline cartilage receive a higher score. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Collagen forms an organized network in articular cartilage to give tensile stiffness to the tissue. (jyu.fi)
  • A three-dimensional cellular network mediated through GJs might mediate metabolic and physiological homeostasis to maintain cartilage tissue. (bmj.com)
  • Articular cartilage is a connective tissue consisting of a specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) that dominates the bulk of its wet and dry weight. (ku.dk)
  • Defects of the articular cartilage, the gliding tissue that covers the ends of articulating bones in all joints, do not heal. (biologists.org)
  • It is still believed that longitudinal damage to the joint cartilage tissue in adults cannot heal and that such damage can even worsen over time. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Tissue engineering combined with gene therapy technology has the potential to manage the repair of defective articular cartilage. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Dr. Qi said "CS/PVA gel can be applied to the repair of articular cartilage defects as an injectable material in tissue engineering, and the regenerated cartilage can secrete cartilage matrix and perform the functions of hyaline cartilage. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Dr. Steven R. Goodman, Editor-in-Chief of Experimental Biology and Medicine said "The study by Qi and colleagues is very exciting as it combines tissue engineering and gene therapy approaches to successfully repair defective articular cartilage. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We have shown that extracellular-signal-regulated kinase was activated on cutting and loading articular cartilage, and deduced that this was due to the release of bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) from the tissue. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Damage to the knee can cause lesions to the articular lining cartilage or hyaline cartilage, which covers the bony surfaces of the knee, or sometimes to both the cartilage and the bone. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • An arthroscopy may show up subtle surface articular cartilage lesions not visualised by an MRI scan. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • A 2011 study reports histologically confirmed hyaline cartilage regrowth in a 5 patient case-series, 2 with grade IV bipolar or kissing lesions in the knee. (wikipedia.org)
  • They explain that the significance of this cartilage regeneration protocol is that it is successful in patients with historically difficult-to-treat grade IV bipolar or bone-on-bone osteochondral lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past, articular cartilage lesions have been treated by means of subchondral bone abrasions or drilling at the site of focal damage with procedures popularized by Pridie and Johnson. (medscape.com)
  • An ongoing phase 1 clinical trial preliminarily indicated the safety and feasibility of autologous NC-based engineered tissues for the treatment of traumatic articular cartilage lesions. (nih.gov)
  • As part of the Allograft OATS® procedure, Arthrex offers cartilage allografts for the replacement of lesions with new cartilage. (arthrex.com)
  • Dr. C. Benjamin Ma, Chief of Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service at UCSF, discuses the management of articular cartilage lesions. (uctv.tv)
  • The specific surgical target of the trial is the repair of one or two full-thickness cartilage defects from 2 cm2 to 8 cm2 (per lesion, not exceeding a total of 8 cm2 for all lesions) due to traumatic injury on the femoral condyle and/or trochlea of the knee. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This article is based on "MR of articular cartilage lesions," presented at Sports Medicine 2010: Advances in MRI and Orthopaedic Management, Department of Continuing Education, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, May 9, 2010. (appliedradiology.com)
  • 3,4 Fat suppression helps to highlight marrow edema and cystic changes underlying cartilage lesions and to eliminate chemical shift artifact seen at the marrow (fat)-cartilage (water) interfaces. (appliedradiology.com)
  • MR arthrography (MRA) of the knee also helps to increase sensitivity for cartilage lesions and for detection of intra-articular bodies and their donor sites, but it is also not routinely performed. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The uniformity of the collagen fiber orientation at the articular and the bony surfaces helps to elucidate the reason magic angle phenomenon affects cartilage (Figure 2), and the curvature of the collagen fibers also helps to explain the curved appearance of many cartilage lesions. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Diagnostic accuracy of 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of articular cartilage lesions of the talus. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of our study was to determine diagnostic accuracy of 3T MRI in detecting Outerbridge grades 3 and 4 articular cartilage lesions of the talus in a clinical setting, utilizing a standardized clinical MRI protocol. (nih.gov)
  • Before the implantation of the mesenchymal stem cells, a knee arthroscopy procedure is made for the debridement of the meniscal and cartilage lesions, with microperforation and abrasion, preparation of the osteochondral defect to receive the transplantation, patellar lateral release if necessary. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Chondroinduction is the main cartilage repair response to microfracture and microfracture with BST-CarGel: results as shown by ICRS-II histological scoring and a novel zonal collagen type scoring method of human clinical biopsy specimens. (nature.com)
  • Cartilage is composed of cells embedded in an extracellular matrix of collagen fibers and proteoglycans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bank RA, Bayliss MT, Lafeber FP, Maroudas A, Tekoppele JM (1998) Ageing and zonal variation in post-translational modification of collagen in normal human articular cartilage. (springer.com)
  • Christensen SE, Coles JM, Zelenski NA, Furman BD, Leddy HA, Zauscher S, Bonaldo P, Guilak F (2012) Altered trabecular bone structure and delayed cartilage degeneration in the knees of collagen VI null mice. (springer.com)
  • Enhanced cleavage of type II collagen by collagenases in osteoarthritic articular cartilage. (jci.org)
  • We demonstrate the direct involvement of increased collagenase activity in the cleavage of type II collagen in osteoarthritic human femoral condylar cartilage by developing and using antibodies reactive to carboxy-terminal (COL2-3/4C(short)) and amino-terminal (COL2-1/4N1) neoepitopes generated by cleavage of native human type II collagen by collagenase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 (collagenase-1), MMP-8 (collagenase-2), and MMP-13 (collagenase-3). (jci.org)
  • In particular, its elastic properties are influenced by the arrangement of the collagen fibres, which are orthogonal to the bone-cartilage interface in the deep zone, randomly oriented in the middle zone, and parallel to the surface in the superficial zone. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to express the permeability of cartilage accounting for the microstructural anisotropy and inhomogeneity caused by the collagen fibres. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The stiffness of the collagen gel plugs was lower than in native cartilage. (bl.uk)
  • The collagen leaves extend perpendicularly from the bony surface and curve 90 degrees until they are approximately horizontal or parallel to the bone at the articular surface. (appliedradiology.com)
  • In vitro collagen biosynthesis in healing and normal rabbit articular cartilage. (ovid.com)
  • The morphology, thickness and expression of cartilage-associated molecules such as collagen type II/X, lubricin and Vit D receptor (VDR), were assessed. (mdpi.com)
  • In both preclinical and clinical healing, these procedures unfortunately often result in formation of type I collagen containing fibrocartilage, which is mechanically inferior to the desired type II containing hyaline cartilage. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Half of the bovine articular cartilage samples (n ¼ 27) were treated with threose to increase the collagen cross-linking while the other half (n ¼ 27) served as a control group. (jyu.fi)
  • Type II collagen and aggrecan are the main ECM proteins in cartilage. (ku.dk)
  • Visually normal articular cartilage samples taken from the same joints are known to display varying quantities of their microconstituents, namely, collagen, proteoglycans and cells [ 7 ], where proteoglycans and cell are extractable from the matrix by enzymatic and biochemical manipulations. (omicsonline.org)
  • We investigated the effects on the nature and abundance of cartilage matrix produced of sequential addition of chosen soluble factors during cell amplification on plastic and cultivation in collagen scaffolds. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We found that addition of BIT could trigger chondrocyte redifferentiation and cartilage-characteristic matrix production in the collagen sponges. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • If the patients' symptoms fail to respond to this then arthroscopic surgery can be utilised to stimulate neo-cartilaginous or fibro cartilaginous healing of the articular surface defect. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Normally after the bone at the base of the articular cartilage defect has been stimulated in this way, patients are treated by a physiotherapy programme, normally non-weight bearing, for six weeks. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Studies, however, have shown that marrow stimulation techniques often have insufficiently filled the chondral defect and the repair material is often fibrocartilage (which is not as good mechanically as hyaline cartilage). (wikipedia.org)
  • During the standard microfracture procedure, the implant is applied to the cartilage defect as a liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is then exposed to UVA light for 90 seconds, turning it into a solid, soft implant that completely occupies the space of the cartilage defect. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large cartilage defect in the knee joint surface (center). (aaos.org)
  • If there is a small cartilage defect, the initial treatment can be the trimming of the defect edges and a clean up of debris that is floating inside the joint. (uky.edu)
  • They get cultured and in a second surgery over 10 million of your own cartilage cells get implanted into the defect. (uky.edu)
  • This donor cartilage will then be sized to fit your defect and can be implanted in a second surgery. (uky.edu)
  • A plug of bone and cartilage is harvested from a non-weight bearing area in the joint and transferred to the area with the defect. (uky.edu)
  • Based on extensive preclinical investigations, the technology of using freshly isolated bone marrow mononuclear cells mixed with proteins seems safe and most effective for a one-step correction of cartilage defect and restoration of the osteochondral complex, because the same mixture can generate cartilage in the vasculature-free knee joint, and bone in the environment of bone defects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Following a meticulous removal of the calcified cartilage layer, the exposed subchondral bone plate on the base of the defect is penetrated by the custom-made cutting tip of the instrument to a certain depth at a high speed of approximately 10,000 to 400,000 rpm ( Fincham and Jaeblon, 2011 ). (biologists.org)
  • Oral and intravenous medications affect the whole body, but to promote joint regeneration in a particular joint, two potent options are intra-articular steroid injection and synovectomy. (springer.com)
  • Future cartilage regeneration programs will likely consist of a comprehensive orchestration of patient-matched treatment elements aimed to enhance the cellular, intra-articular and extra-articular environment in order to optimize cartilage preservation and restoration. (healio.com)
  • Other injectables such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and stem cells are being studied for intra-articular use. (healio.com)
  • Intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells leads to reduced inflammation and cartilage damage in murine antigen-induced arthritis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) was induced by intra-articular injection of methylated bovine serum albumin into the knee joints of preimmunized C57Bl/6 mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 14. The method of claim 13 , wherein the area in need of regeneration of articular cartilage is the trochlear groove. (google.ca)
  • Regeneration of Articular Cartilage: Opportunities, Challenges, and Perspectives. (igi-global.com)
  • Muir, H. (1995) The Chondrocyte, Architect of Cartilage. (scirp.org)
  • Perhaps more exciting though, HA injections may play a role in cartilage repair and preservation through decreasing surface fibrillation and even improving chondrocyte viability after traumatic surface damage. (healio.com)
  • Although still in the lab, we are learning that chondrocyte death which occurs after cartilage impact can be diminished by the introduction of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. (healio.com)
  • Chondrocyte transplantation (MACI), however, is durable treatment that can regenerate the damaged cartilage. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • The goal of this focused review is to summarize the current knowledge on the role of leptin in OA with particular emphasis on the effects of this adipokine in cartilage and chondrocyte pathophysiology. (wellnessresources.com)
  • In the technique of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), a small piece of cartilage is retrieved from the knee joint. (cochrane.org)
  • An alternative is autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), the surgical implantation of healthy cartilage cells into the damaged areas. (cochrane.org)
  • Reproduced from Mithoefer K, Williams RJ III, Warren RF, et al: Chondral resurfacing of articular cartilage defects in the knee with the microfracture technique. (aaos.org)
  • There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the use of ACI for treating full thickness articular cartilage defects in the knee. (cochrane.org)
  • The University of Virginia, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, is seeking adults with articular cartilage defects in the knee. (uvahealth.com)
  • The standard of care for treating articular cartilage defects in the knee is microfracture. (uvahealth.com)
  • The results support the use of fresh osteochondral shell allograft transplantation for the treatment of large, full thickness articular cartilage defects to the medial or lateral femoral condyles and to the patella. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the efficacy and safety of ACI in people with full thickness articular cartilage defects of the knee. (cochrane.org)
  • Accurate assessment of the progression of cartilage healing is necessary to improve treatment for degenerative articular cartilage. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Articular cartilage injuries are common across all age groups and arise from acute trauma or chronic repetitive injury to weightbearing joints. (medscape.com)
  • The model predicts that joints that experience higher contact pressures will have thicker cartilage layers. (nih.gov)
  • Healthy cartilage is essential to the proper functioning of joints within the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Healthy cartilage in our joints makes it easier to move. (aaos.org)
  • Articular cartilage is the weight-bearing surface in joints. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • The science of cartilage repair for joints is in full swing. (stoneclinic.com)
  • It actively contributes to the inflammatory status and to cartilage degradation in the OA joints. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Articular cartilage (AC) has an essential function in the best performance of the human body's joints, but it has a limited capacity of regeneration and the initial cause that develops the pathological degenerative process is still unknown. (witpress.com)
  • Because of this possibility, organizations such as the American College of Rheumatology acknowledge, "It is generally recommended, although not well supported by published data, that injection of corticosteroids in a given joint not be performed more than three to four times in a given year because of concern about the possible development of progressive cartilage damage through repeated injection in the weight-bearing joints. (getprolo.com)
  • Some loading features including magnitudes, directions, and loading time create a specific daily loading history for the joints and cartilages in each individual. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to elucidate if mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) injected in the joints of mice with arthritis are therapeutic, reducing joint swelling and cartilage destruction. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our results reveal that MSCs injected in the joints of mice with AIA are therapeutic, reducing inflammation, joint swelling and cartilage destruction. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The value of autologous osteochondral paste for in-vitro treatment of damage to articular cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six of the eight lubricin-mimetics effectively lubricated cartilage surfaces in vitro, with two mimetics lubricating more effectively than the lubricinmutant LUB:1. (cornell.edu)
  • Thus, lubricants that lubricate cartilage more effectively when administered in vitro can be used as a screening process to determine the lubricant's effectiveness at protecting cartilage in vivo and preventing injury and disease progression. (cornell.edu)
  • Furthermore, oxygen tension can alter matrix synthesis, and the material properties of articular cartilage in vitro . (ecmjournal.org)
  • The holes are made in the bone beneath the cartilage, called subchondral bone. (aaos.org)
  • 2 FSE PD-weighted images provide excellent anatomic detail and evaluation of all structures, including cartilage, menisci, ligaments, and subchondral bone. (appliedradiology.com)
  • A more restricted movement was observed at both the articular surface and near to the subchondral bone than at regions midway between these two locations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Subchondral bone stiffness is measured and suggests contributing in cartilage deterioration and changes of OA knee [ 11 ]. (medsci.org)
  • The subchondral bone shows a significant leading role that causes secondary changes of the articular cartilage in knee OA [ 4 - 6 , 10 , 12 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Muraoka and colleagues showed that subchondral bone formation is the key role before the onset of cartilage damage in Hartley guinea pigs and it is significant in the development of OA disease [ 10 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Brama and colleagues reported that microarchitecture of subchondral bone supported the overlying articular cartilage and involved in osteochondral disease [ 13 ]. (medsci.org)
  • We tested cartilage on the medial femoral condyle and lateral femoral condyle of seven C57Bl6 mice at different ages (2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, and 17 weeks old) using a micro-indentation test. (springer.com)
  • Chan EF, Harjanto R, Asahara H, Inoue N, Masuda K, Bugbee WD, Firestein GS, Hosalkar HS, Lotz MK, Sah RL (2012) Structural and functional maturation of distal femoral cartilage and bone during postnatal development and growth in humans and mice. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, since much of the cartilage surfaces of the knee are curved (eg, the femoral condyles), appearance of the articular cartilage varies. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing ACI with any other type of treatment (including no treatment or placebo ) for symptomatic cartilage defects of the medial or lateral femoral condyle, femoral trochlea or patella. (cochrane.org)
  • To examine the repair collagens produced by cells in injured cartilage, the femoral articular surfaces of three groups of New Zealand white rabbits were injured by making both superficial and deep lacerations and drill holes. (ovid.com)
  • This short term solution is not considered an articular cartilage repair procedure but rather a palliative treatment to reduce pain, mechanical restriction and inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variations in articular mechanical load are predicted to modulate cartilage thickness. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding the changes in mechanical tissues properties during growth is a critical step in advancing strategies for orthopedics and for cell- and biomaterial- based therapies dedicated to cartilage repair. (springer.com)
  • Armstrong CG, Mow VC (1982) Variations in the intrinsic mechanical properties of human articular cartilage with age, degeneration, and water content. (springer.com)
  • Burgin LV, Edelsten L, Aspden RM (2014) The mechanical and material properties of elderly human articular cartilage subject to impact and slow loading. (springer.com)
  • In the diagnostics and repair of hyaline articular cartilage, new methods to quantify structure and mechanical capacity are required to improve the treatment of cartilage defects for millions of patients worldwide. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The mechanical component contains a simulation of a blunt impact applied onto a cartilage explant and the resulting strains that initiate the biochemical processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mechanical loads are properly controlled in the body to maintain the functional properties of articular cartilage. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Oxygen tension significantly alters endogenous NO production in articular cartilage, as well as the stimulation of NO in response to both mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines. (ecmjournal.org)
  • Although accounting for only a small fraction of the mature matrix, these minor collagens not only play essential structural roles in the mechanical properties, organization, and shape of articular cartilage, but also fulfil specific biological functions. (ku.dk)
  • The main factor underlying the sustained function and structure of the joint cartilage is thought to be a reasonable mechanical load. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Although mechanical joint functions are thought to affect the cartilage histomorphology and composition, the type of signal pathway which the mechanical load mobilizes within the cellular and extracellular matrices is unknown. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Elastic deformation in the joint cartilage caused by mechanical load is a well-known condition. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Mechanical stimuli are important signals in articular cartilage, but what mediates them is unknown. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The described technique of osteochondral shell allograft resurfacing of the knee capitalize on the different healing potentials of bone and cartilage by transplanting the viable articular cartilage organ in its entirety along with just enough of the underlying bone to allow for graft incorporation through creeping substitution. (nih.gov)
  • The disposable donor and recipient cutting tube sets of the Osteochondral Autograft Transfer System (OATS) facilitate harvesting of various diameter osteochondral/hyaline cartilage cylinders from a donor site superior and lateral to the notch or above the sulcus terminalis. (arthrex.com)
  • Surgical techniques for cartilage repair are critically reviewed and special emphasis is placed upon arthroscopic lavage and debridement, microfracture, bone marrow stimulation, and autologous osteochondral allografting. (igi-global.com)
  • Cartilage Damage Is Related to ACL Stiffness in a Porcine Model of ACL Repair. (harvard.edu)
  • The stiffness of the carbon fibre implants at 6 and 12 months post-implantation showed values in the same range as normal rabbit articular cartilage of similar age (native cartilage). (bl.uk)
  • The hydrogel PC 97 plugs had a higher stiffness than in native cartilage. (bl.uk)
  • Therefore, currently physicians have to estimate the stiffness of cartilage by means of manual palpation. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In this study, through minimally invasive injection methods the authors were able to repair rabbit articular cartilage defects with CS/PVA gel and gene modified BMSCs. (medicalxpress.com)
  • IUCr) Calcifications in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage: ex vivo assessment of calcium compounds using XANES spectroscopy. (iucr.org)
  • A hydrogel implant to help the body regrow cartilage in the knee is currently being studied in U.S. and European clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attempts to restore weightbearing hyaline cartilage via clinical techniques of joint resurfacing have been described. (medscape.com)
  • Knowing that fibrocartilage was not as durable as articular cartilage and that its formation yielded only short term clinical benefits, Stone proposed his paste grafting as a means of regenerating hyaline-like cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our findings identify previously unrecognized regenerative properties of HOX-negative differentiated neuroectoderm cells in adults, implying a role for NCs in the unmet clinical challenge of articular cartilage repair. (nih.gov)
  • 1.1 Current evidence on the safety and efficacy of mosaicplasty for knee cartilage defects is adequate to support the use of this procedure provided that standard arrangements are in place for clinical governance, consent and audit. (nice.org.uk)
  • This study is a phase I, prospective, uncontrolled, investigator initiated clinical trial involving 25 patients, with the objective of demonstrating safety and feasibility in the use of engineered nasal cartilage grafts for repair of articular cartilage. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These findings can lead to the development of a hysteretic model for cartilage, which may be used in a clinical setting to establish a novel method for determining the state of disease of cartilage. (rice.edu)
  • Cartilage repair remains a yet unmet clinical need, with few viable cell therapy options available. (sciencemag.org)
  • Subchondral drilling, a widely applied clinical technique to treat small cartilage defects, does not yield cartilage regeneration. (biologists.org)
  • These results have important implications for future investigations aimed at an enhanced translation into clinical settings for the treatment of cartilage defects, highlighting the importance of considering specific aspects of modifiable variables such as improvements in the design and reporting of preclinical studies, together with the need to better understand the underlying mechanisms of cartilage repair following subchondral drilling. (biologists.org)
  • Biochemical assay analyses have been commonly applied to determine the proteoglycan quantity of articular cartilage in laboratory and clinical research [ 1 , 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • 1 Therefore, careful evaluation of the articular cartilage is an important part of the knee MRI examination. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Statistically significant correlations to MOS were identified for both radiography and MRI but neither diagnostic modality provided sufficiently strong correlations to serve as a substitute for arthroscopic evaluation of the articular cartilage. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is partly because the response of articular cartilage to compressive stress is complex. (frontiersin.org)
  • Due to their invasiveness as well as the complex properties of articular cartilage current treatments often fail to restore cartilage damage. (rice.edu)
  • If the injury is restricted to the cartilage, it will not show up in an X-ray, but can be found by means of arthroscopy (using a special instrument to look inside the joint). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Injury to the cartilage will normally produce symptoms of pain, swelling, clicking, sometimes locking and sometimes sensations of instability. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • If a piece of cartilage or bone has become detached in the knee and the injury is not treated immediately, the loose part can 'swim around' in the joint. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Articular cartilage can be damaged by injury or normal wear and tear. (aaos.org)
  • Most candidates for articular cartilage restoration are young adults with a single injury, or lesion. (aaos.org)
  • A distinctive cell was identified from sites of rheumatoid arthritis cartilage injury. (nih.gov)
  • Orthopedic surgeons specializing in the lower extremity will find this book to be an excellent resource that they can consult to guide them in the treatment of patients with articular cartilage injury of the knee. (ovid.com)
  • Articular cartilage injury and degeneration occurs frequently in athletes and results from the significant chronic joint stress and acute traumatic injuries associated with high-impact sports. (ovid.com)
  • Treatment of articular cartilage injury in athletes can be complex and requires effective and durable joint surface restoration that can withstand even the significant joint stresses generated during sports activity. (ovid.com)
  • Several established articular cartilage repair techniques have been shown to successfully return the athlete with articular cartilage injury to high-impact sports. (ovid.com)
  • Subjective relief of pain for the patient will be assessed using the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) Cartilage Injury Evaluation Package which includes the pre- and postsurgical evaluation of general medical conditions, pain, activity level as well as functional and morphological status. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Injury to articular cartilage typically causes pain on activity, catching and swelling of the joint. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • 9-11 Various other techniques have been developed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio between cartilage and its surrounding structures, 12,13 and to evaluate the molecular changes in the cartilage to detect early cartilage injury 6, 14-21 but these techniques are not routinely utilized. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Articular cartilage are often damaged by injury or normal wear and tear . (alliedacademies.org)
  • When there is a direct trauma to the knee or when the knee turns or twists beyond the cartilage's ability to support it, the result is articular cartilage injury, also called chondral injury. (tria.com)
  • The goal of microfracture is to stimulate the growth of new articular cartilage by creating a new blood supply. (aaos.org)
  • Drilling, like microfracture, stimulates the production of healthy cartilage. (aaos.org)
  • Microfracture is a surgical technique used to repair damaged articular cartilage by making multiple small holes in the surface of the joint to stimulate a healing response. (stoneclinic.com)
  • This study is to compare NOVOCART 3D relative to Microfracture for the treatment of knee cartilage defects. (centerwatch.com)
  • Subjects with articular knee defects will be randomized to receive either Microfracture or NOVOCART 3D. (centerwatch.com)
  • Microfracture is used to promote growth of new cartilage into the damaged area. (tria.com)
  • Microfracture surgery is a bone marrow stimulation technique for treating cartilage defects and injuries in the knee. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Erica Su, Hui Sun , Tibor Juhasz, Brian J. Wong , "Preclinical investigations of articular cartilage ablation with femtosecond and pulsed infrared lasers as an alternative to microfracture surgery," Journal of Biomedical Optics 19(9), 098001 (8 September 2014). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Such variability includes varying degrees and distribution of cartilage damage on the medial coronoid process (MCP) or humeral trochlea (HT) with some dogs having arthroscopically normal or near normal articular cartilage in the medial compartment while other dogs have complete loss of articular cartilage throughout the medial compartment ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The technique was devised in response to reports that many of the contemporary cartilage restoration procedures lead to the development of fibrocartilage, not true hyaline articular cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, this work shows improved and new possibilities for structural and biomechanical characterization of hyaline articular cartilage and the outcomes of cartilage repair based on ultrasound data. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Normal healthy articular cartilage in the knee (left). (aaos.org)
  • Though these solutions do not perfectly restore articular cartilage, some of the latest technologies start to bring very promising results in repairing cartilage from traumatic injuries or chondropathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, the pain and disability caused by degenerative joint disease (DJD) and traumatic cartilage defects can veer us all a little off track, but it does not have to be this way. (healio.com)
  • Injuries to articular cartilage, whether traumatic or from degeneration, generally result in the formation of mechanically inferior fibrocartilage, due to the tissue's poor intrinsic healing response. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Are you sure you want to remove Normal and osteochondrotic porcine articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex from your list? (openlibrary.org)
  • Injected stem cells suspended in HA have shown promise by inducing healing of partial-thickness traumatized porcine cartilage. (healio.com)
  • The best hydrogel candidates were then taken forward to be injected into a GAG depleted early stage osteoarthritic porcine cartilage model developed by Andres Barco (University of Leeds) where a severely GAG depleted state had been produced through a succession of surfactant and phosphate buffered saline washes. (bl.uk)
  • Mechanobiology in the development, maintenance, and degeneration of articular cartilage. (nih.gov)
  • We have developed a method that can measure natural alterations in cartilage material properties in a murine joint, which will be useful in identifying changes in cartilage mechanics with degeneration, pathology, or treatment. (springer.com)
  • Untreated articular cartilage defects frequently lead to chronic joint degeneration and disability. (ovid.com)
  • Compared to the cost of other complex cartilage restoration procedures, the cost of paste grafting is minimal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goal of cartilage restoration procedures is to stimulate new hyaline cartilage growth. (aaos.org)
  • The knee is the most common area for cartilage restoration. (aaos.org)
  • 35-40mm2) and not surrounded with normal cartilage a cartilage restoration procedure may not be feasible. (uky.edu)
  • The goal of cartilage restoration procedures is to stimulate new cartilage growth. (alliedacademies.org)
  • 4. The articular cartilage paste of claim 3 wherein the cells comprise a plurality of undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells. (google.ca)
  • Pilot Study of A One-Step Procedure for the Use of Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stimulated by Proteins Scaffold to Heal Under Arthroscopy Full-Thickness Defects Articular Cartilage and Osteoarthrosis of the Knee. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Researchers at Micro Orthopaedics, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, led by Dr. Ai-xi Yu, have suggested that articular cartilage defects can be repaired by a novel thermo-sensitive injectable hydrogel engineered with gene modified bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Over the last decades, surgeons and researchers have made progress in elaborating surgical cartilage repair interventions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the different articular cartilage procedures differ in the used technologies and surgical techniques, they all share the aim to repair articular cartilage whilst keeping options open for alternative treatments in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although cartilage injuries can affect any weightbearing joint, the knee is the joint most commonly affected and most likely to require the surgical interventions discussed in this article. (medscape.com)
  • Because cartilage does not heal itself well, doctors have developed surgical techniques to stimulate the growth of new cartilage. (aaos.org)
  • Surgical techniques to repair damaged cartilage are still evolving. (aaos.org)
  • Through the past several years, orthopedic investigators have developed myriad surgical techniques which have been shown to improve our patients underlying cartilage problems and lifestyles. (healio.com)
  • However, 3-dimensional SPGR is not typically included in imaging protocols because of decreased contrast between the cartilage and the adjacent joint fluid, long imaging times, increased metallic artifact (in the case of a post-surgical knee), and uneven fat suppression, even though it is considered standard for morphologic imaging of cartilage. (appliedradiology.com)
  • This is clinically relevant because approximately 50% of dogs with medial coronoid disease have some pathology of cartilage on the HT and there are a growing number of surgical options available for treating dogs when pathology is not limited solely to the MCP ( 3 - 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 1.2 The procedure should only be done by surgeons experienced in cartilage surgery and with specific training in mosaicplasty for knee cartilage defects. (nice.org.uk)
  • It is damage to the articular cartilage which is called ' arthritis ' and in the knee all efforts are geared towards preventing any damage or breakdown of this all-essential joint surface, as it has a poor blood supply and does not heal well if damaged. (kneeguru.co.uk)
  • Damaged cartilage can also lead to arthritis in the joint. (aaos.org)
  • Damaged cartilage also can cause arthritis within the joint. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Articular cartilage maturation is the postnatal development process that adapts joint surfaces to their site-specific biomechanical demands. (springer.com)
  • They bound to cartilage surfaces with binding time constants ranging from 20 to 41 min, and polymer binding was proportional to their lubricating ability. (cornell.edu)
  • A layer of cartilage covering the knee joint surfaces acts to protect the joint and reduce friction. (cochrane.org)
  • To determine whether assessment of morphological MRI sequences or delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) would have strong correlations with arthroscopic assessment of cartilage pathology in dogs with naturally occurring medial compartment pathology of the elbow. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cartilage pathology was graded arthroscopically using a modified Outerbridge score (MOS) by a surgeon blinded to MRI assessment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Of these, only arthroscopy provides an ability to assess the articular cartilage and is generally considered the gold standard for assessment of pathology in the canine elbow in dogs with MCP disease ( 2 , 9 , 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A synthetic preferential inhibitor of MMP-13 significantly reduced the unstimulated release in culture of neoepitope COL2-3/4C(short) from human osteoarthritic cartilage explants. (jci.org)
  • It has been reported that there is a correlation between the loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from within osteoarthritic cartilage and the changes in biomechanics of the cartilage. (bl.uk)
  • There are also some evidences for thickening and volumetric increase on the osteoarthritic cartilage depending on the water retention and increasing glycosaminoglycan (GAG) contents. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • However, this is still controversial and the osteoarthritic cartilage response to exercise is not clear. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Broadly taken, there are five major types of articular cartilage repair: Arthroscopic lavage is a "cleaning up" procedure of the knee joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • Articular cartilage is the white gristle covering the ends of joint bones ('articulating' bones). (kneeguru.co.uk)
  • It is also called joint cartilage or hyaline cartilage . (kneeguru.co.uk)
  • A short but sound overview of the issue of damage to the joint cartilage , and what can be done about it. (kneeguru.co.uk)
  • The loss of the articular cartilage in RA is evident on X-ray as joint-space narrowing, but in most cases, erosion and joint-space narrowing progress coordinately. (springer.com)
  • It is hoped that as more is learned about cartilage and the healing response, surgeons will be better able to restore an injured joint. (aaos.org)
  • In many cases, patients who have joint injuries, such as meniscal or ligament tears, will also have cartilage damage. (aaos.org)
  • Sometimes it is necessary to address other problems in the joint, such as meniscal or ligament tears, when cartilage surgery is done. (aaos.org)
  • New blood supply can reach the joint surface, bringing with it new cells that will form the new cartilage. (aaos.org)
  • If you have damaged your articular cartilage, the bearing surface inside the joint, you may be experiencing pain and swelling. (stoneclinic.com)
  • The contrast between the high T2 signal intensity joint fluid and the intermediate T2 signal intensity cartilage helps to assess for surface irregularities and defects of the cartilage. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Cartilage is approximately 75% to 80% water by weight and therefore appears slightly less hyperintense to joint fluid on T2-weighted images. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Articular cartilage proteoglycan content is controlled by joint loading. (diva-portal.org)
  • Damage to the cartilage (articular surface) can decrease mobility of the joint and cause pain on movement. (cochrane.org)
  • Treatments for damaged cartilage include relieving symptoms, surgically cleaning up the joint, or surgically re-establishing the cartilage layer. (cochrane.org)
  • During an arthroscopy, the surgeon introduces a small camera into the knee or shoulder joint to evaluate the cartilage damage. (uky.edu)
  • These results suggest that Vit D supplementation with diet, already after 10 weeks, has a favorable impact on the articular cartilage thickness development, joint lubrication and ECM fibers deposition in a young healthy rat model. (mdpi.com)
  • The human knee joint is composed mainly of the femur, tibia, patella, menisci and articular cartilage. (witpress.com)
  • Articular cartilage in the knee acts as a protective cushion for the bones on either side and reduces friction in the joint. (tria.com)
  • These findings suggest that the relatively low levels of oxygen within the joint may have significant influences on the metabolic activity, and inflammatory response of cartilage as compared to ambient levels. (ecmjournal.org)
  • Joint cartilage has limited healing and renewal capabilities. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In addition, the fluid at the joint cartilage (on the surface or in the extracellular matrix) is displaced while walking or during exercise. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Although the relationship between exercise and extracellular matrix still remains to be elucidated, the results of many studies performed on animals and data obtained from adolescents show that exercise increases the volume of joint cartilage. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Several studies in the literature reported positive impacts of exercise on knee joint cartilage. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In addition to imaging, this study aimed to obtain objective data by measuring the thickness and the volume of the knee joint cartilage at various areas of the joint. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • During the arthroscopy some of your own cartilage cells are harvested and sent to a laboratory. (uky.edu)
  • 11 - 13 This is becuase of the fact that to date, assessment by histological staining is not only the best but the only truly accurate method to identify structural and compositional changes in cartilage. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recently, image analysis-based protocols have been suggested and are gaining increased usage in biomechanical experiments [ 3 - 7 ] since they only require a very small biopsy rather than destruction of the entire sample, enabling their capacity to support experiments where progressive degradation of cartilage specimens is required. (omicsonline.org)
  • Here, Pelttari and colleagues looked up the nose for cells that may have the capacity to regenerate cartilage. (sciencemag.org)
  • Afara I, Singh S, Moody H, Oloyede A (2013) A Comparison of the Histochemical and Image-Derived Proteoglycan Content of Articular Cartilage. (omicsonline.org)
  • There are several methods for determining the proteoglycan content of cartilage in biomechanics experiments. (omicsonline.org)
  • The aim of an articular cartilage repair treatment is to restore the surface of an articular joint's hyaline cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many procedures to restore articular cartilage are done arthroscopically. (aaos.org)
  • All of these factors may need to be addressed in order to restore your cartilage successfully. (uky.edu)
  • Absorbed fluid helps to restore the cartilage. (thefreelibrary.com)