Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Cartilage Diseases: Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Nasal Cartilages: Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Ear Cartilage: Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.Laryngeal Cartilages: The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.Hyaline Cartilage: A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Matrilin Proteins: PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Arytenoid Cartilage: One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.Cricoid Cartilage: The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Thyroid Cartilage: The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.Osteochondritis: Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.Matrix Metalloproteinase 13: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Lubrication: The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Procollagen N-Endopeptidase: An extracellular endopeptidase which excises a block of peptides at the amino terminal, nonhelical region of the procollagen molecule with the formation of collagen. Absence or deficiency of the enzyme causes accumulation of procollagen which results in the inherited connective tissue disorder--dermatosparaxis. EC 3.4.24.14.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Arthroplasty, Subchondral: Surgical techniques used to correct or augment healing of chondral defects in the joints (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). These include abrasion, drilling, and microfracture of the subchondral bone to enhance chondral resurfacing via autografts, allografts, or cell transplantation.Matrix Metalloproteinase 3: An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Collagen Type IX: A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Collagen Type X: A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Osteochondrodysplasias: Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.Rhinoplasty: A plastic surgical operation on the nose, either reconstructive, restorative, or cosmetic. (Dorland, 28th ed)Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Collagen Type XI: A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.Joint DiseasesIoxaglic Acid: A low-osmolar, ionic contrast medium used in various radiographic procedures.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)ArthritisElastic Cartilage: A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains ELASTIC FIBERS and elastic lamellae, in addition to the normal components of HYALINE CARTILAGE matrix. Elastic cartilage is found in the EXTERNAL EAR; EUSTACHIAN TUBE; EPIGLOTTIS; and LARYNX.Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Chondrosarcoma: A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)Matrix Metalloproteinases: A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Carpus, Animal: The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Alcian Blue: A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Hyalin: A clear, homogenous, structureless, eosinophilic substance occurring in pathological degeneration of tissues.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)ADAM Proteins: A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Talus: The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.Osteophyte: Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.Fibrocartilage: A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Osteochondritis Dissecans: A type of osteochondritis in which articular cartilage and associated bone becomes partially or totally detached to form joint loose bodies. Affects mainly the knee, ankle, and elbow joints.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Osteoarthritis, Hip: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Osteochondrosis: Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chondroma: A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. It may remain within the substance of a cartilage or bone (true chondroma or enchondroma) or may develop on the surface of a cartilage (ecchondroma or ecchondrosis). (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Tissue Transplantation: Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Chondrocalcinosis: Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Achondroplasia: An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, GENU VARUM, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Matrix Metalloproteinase 1: A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.GlucosamineModels, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Polychondritis, Relapsing: An acquired disease of unknown etiology, chronic course, and tendency to recur. It is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of cartilage and can result in deformities such as floppy ear and saddle nose. Loss of cartilage in the respiratory tract can lead to respiratory obstruction.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Oncostatin M: A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Metalloproteases: Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.Branchial Region: A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.Guided Tissue Regeneration: Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.Ear, External: The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.SOXD Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. In addition to a conserved HMG-BOX DOMAIN, members of this group contain a leucine zipper motif which mediates protein DIMERIZATION.HexosaminesMandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Aminopropionitrile: Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Patellofemoral Joint: The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Sternum: A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Hyaluronoglucosaminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Collagen Type VI: A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Tarsus, Animal: The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)SepharoseBony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Hemarthrosis: Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.Skeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.Bone Marrow DiseasesMetatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Bone Diseases, DevelopmentalTympanoplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the hearing mechanism of the middle ear, with restoration of the drum membrane to protect the round window from sound pressure, and establishment of ossicular continuity between the tympanic membrane and the oval window. (Dorland, 28th ed.)

Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta production by nitric oxide-treated chondrocytes: implications for matrix synthesis. (1/4540)

OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO) is generated copiously by articular chondrocytes activated by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). If NO production is blocked, much of the IL-1beta inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis is prevented. We tested the hypothesis that this inhibitory effect of NO on proteoglycan synthesis is secondary to changes in chondrocyte transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta). METHODS: Monolayer, primary cultures of lapine articular chondrocytes and cartilage slices were studied. NO production was determined as nitrite accumulation in the medium. TGFbeta bioactivity in chondrocyte- and cartilage-conditioned medium (CM) was measured with the mink lung epithelial cell bioassay. Proteoglycan synthesis was measured as the incorporation of 35S-sodium sulfate into macromolecules separated from unincorporated label by gel filtration on PD-10 columns. RESULTS: IL-1beta increased active TGFbeta in chondrocyte CM by 12 hours; by 24 hours, significant increases in both active and latent TGFbeta were detectable. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMA) potentiated the increase in total TGFbeta without affecting the early TGFbeta activation. IL-1beta stimulated a NO-independent, transient increase in TGFbeta3 at 24 hours; however, TGFbeta1 was not changed. When NO synthesis was inhibited with L-NMA, IL-1beta increased CM concentrations of TGFbeta1 from 24-72 hours of culture. L-arginine (10 mM) reversed the inhibitory effect of L-NMA on NO production and blocked the increases in TGFbeta1. Anti-TGFbeta1 antibody prevented the restoration of proteoglycan synthesis by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta + L-NMA, confirming that NO inhibition of TGFbeta1 in IL-1beta-treated chondrocytes effected, in part, the decreased proteoglycan synthesis. Furthermore, the increase in TGFbeta and proteoglycan synthesis seen with L-NMA was reversed by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamide. Similar results were seen with cartilage slices in organ culture. The autocrine increase in CM TGFbeta1 levels following prior exposure to TGFbeta1 was also blocked by NO. CONCLUSION: NO can modulate proteoglycan synthesis indirectly by decreasing the production of TGFbeta1 by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta. It prevents autocrine-stimulated increases in TGFbeta1, thus potentially diminishing the anabolic effects of this cytokine in chondrocytes.  (+info)

Expression of both P1 and P2 purine receptor genes by human articular chondrocytes and profile of ligand-mediated prostaglandin E2 release. (2/4540)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the expression and function of purine receptors in articular chondrocytes. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to screen human chondrocyte RNA for expression of P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. Purine-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release from chondrocytes, untreated or treated with recombinant human interleukin-1alpha (rHuIL-1alpha), was assessed by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: RT-PCR demonstrated that human articular chondrocytes transcribe messenger RNA for the P1 receptor subtypes A2a and A2b and the P2 receptor subtype P2Y2, but not for the P1 receptor subtypes A1 and A3. The P1 receptor agonists adenosine and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine did not change PGE2 release from chondrocytes. The P2Y2 agonists ATP and UTP stimulated a small release of PGE2 that was potentiated after pretreatment with rHuIL-1alpha. PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP cotreatment was not additive, but release in response to coaddition of ATP and bradykinin (BK) or UTP and BK was additive, consistent with ATP and UTP competition for the same receptor site. The potentiation of PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP after rHuIL-1alpha pretreatment was mimicked by phorbol myristate acetate. CONCLUSION: Human chondrocytes express both P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. The function of the P1 receptor subtype is not yet known, but stimulation of the P2Y2 receptor increases IL-1-mediated PGE2 release.  (+info)

Destruction of hyaline cartilage in the sigmoid notch of the human ulna. (3/4540)

In an ulna from an adolescent a fossa nudata divided the articular surface of the sigmoid notch into olecranon and coronoid areas. In the floor of the fossa a layer of loose avascular pannus covered a thin layer of articular cartilage. The pannus appeared to have been formed by removal of chondroitin from the cartilage, freeing the cells and unmasking the fibres. Probably the change followed loss of contact between the articular cartilages of the sigmoid notch and trochlea during postnatal growth.  (+info)

Transport of solutes through cartilage: permeability to large molecules. (4/4540)

A review of the transport of solutes through articular cartilage is given, with special reference to the effect of variations in matrix composition. Some physiological implications of our findings are discussed. Also, results of an experimental study of the permeability of articular cartilage to large globular proteins are presented. Because of the very low partition coefficients of large solutes between cartilage and an external solution new experimental techniques had to be devised, particularly for the study of diffusion. The partition coefficients of solutes were found to decrease very steeply with increase in size, up to serum albumin. There was, however, no further decrease for IGG. The diffusion coefficient of serum albumin in cartilage was relatively high (one quarter of the value in aqueous solution). These two facts taken together suggest that there may be a very small fraction of relatively large pores in cartilage through which the transport of large molecules is taking place. The permeability of cartilage to large molecules is extremely sensitive to variations in the glycosaminoglycan content: for a threefold increase in the latter there is a hundredfold decrease in the partition coefficient. For cartilage of fixed charge density around 0-19 m-equiv/g, there is no penetration at all of globular proteins of size equal to or larger than serum albumin.  (+info)

Association of the aggrecan keratan sulfate-rich region with collagen in bovine articular cartilage. (5/4540)

Aggrecan, the predominant large proteoglycan of cartilage, is a multidomain macromolecule with each domain contributing specific functional properties. One of the domains contains the majority of the keratan sulfate (KS) chain substituents and a protein segment with a proline-rich hexapeptide repeat sequence. The function of this domain is unknown but the primary structure suggests a potential for binding to collagen fibrils. We have examined binding of aggrecan fragments encompassing the KS-rich region in a solid-phase assay. A moderate affinity (apparent Kd = 1.1 microM) for isolated collagen II, as well as collagen I, was demonstrated. Enzymatic digestion of the KS chains did not alter the capacity of the peptide to bind to collagen, whereas cleavage of the protein core abolished the interaction. The distribution of the aggrecan KS-rich region in bovine tarsometatarsal joint cartilage was investigated using immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoreactivity was relatively low in the superficial zone and higher in the intermediate and deep zones of the uncalcified cartilage. Within the pericellular and territorial matrix compartments the epitopes representing the aggrecan KS-rich region were detected preferentially near or at collagen fibrils. Along the fibrils, epitope reactivity was non-randomly distributed, showing preference for the gap region within the D-period. Our data suggest that collagen fibrils interact with the KS-rich regions of several aggrecan monomers aligned within a proteoglycan aggregate. The fibril could therefore serve as a backbone in at least some of the aggrecan complexes.  (+info)

Distribution of chondroitin sulfate in cartilage proteoglycans under associative conditions. (6/4540)

Proteoglycan aggregates and proteoglycan subunits were extracted from bovine articular cartilage with guanidine-HC1 folowed by fractionation by equilibrium centrifugation in cesium chloride density gradients. The distribution of chondroitin sulfates (CS) in the cartilage proteoglycans was studied at the disaccharide level by digestion with chondroitinases. In the proteoglycan aggregate fraction, it was observed that the proportion of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS increased from the bottom to the top fractions, whereas that of 6-sulfated disaccharide units was in the reverse order. Thus, the ratio of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to 6-sulfated disaccharide units increased significantly with decreasing density. The proportion of non-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS tended to increase with increasing density. These data indicate a polydisperse distribution of CS chains, under the conditions used here, in proteoglycan aggregates from bovine articular cartilage.  (+info)

Effect of anti-inflammatory drugs on sulphated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in aged human articular cartilage. (7/4540)

The anti-inflammatory drugs, sodium salicylate, indomethacin, hydrocortisone, ibuprofen, and flurbiprofen, were examined for their effects on sulphated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in aged human cartilage in vitro. Cartilage was obtained from femoral heads removed during surgery and drug effects were found to vary significantly from one head to another. Statistical analysis of the results showed that sodium salicylate exhibits concentration-dependent inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis over the concentration range used. Indomethacin, hydrocortisone, and ibuprofen, at concentrations comparable to those attained in man, caused a statistically significant depression of sulphated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in cartilage from some femoral heads but not others, reflecting the variable response of human articular cartilage to anti-inflammatory drugs. Sodium salicylate and indomethacin at higher doses produced significant (Pless than 0-005) inhibition of sulphated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in all femoral heads studied. The results for flurbiprofen were less conclusive; this compound appears not to inhibit glycosaminoglycan synthesis over the concentration range used.  (+info)

Uridine diphosphate xylosyltransferase activity in cartilage from manganese-deficient chicks. (8/4540)

The glycosaminoglycan content of cartilage is decreased in manganese deficiency in the chick (perosis). The activity of xylosyltransferase, the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of sulphated glycosaminoglycans, was studied in the epiphysial cartilage of 4-week-old chicks which had been maintained since hatching on a manganese-deficient diet. Enzymic activity was measured by the incorporation of [14C]xylose from UDP-[14C]xylose into trichloroacetic acid precipitates. Optimal conditions for the xylosyltransferase assay were established and shown to be the same for both control and manganese-deficient cartilage. Assay of the enzyme by using an exogenous xylose acceptor showed no difference in xylosyltransferase activity between control and manganese-deficient tissue. Further, the extent of xylose incorporation was greater in manganese-deficient than in control cartilage preparations, suggesting an increase in xylose-acceptor sites on the endogenous acceptor protein in the deficient cartilage. 35S turnover in the manganese-deficient cartilage was also increased. The data suggest that the decreased glycosaminoglycan content in manganese-deficient cartilage is due to decreased xylosylation of the acceptor protein plus increased degradation of glycosaminoglycan.  (+info)

*Kevin R. Stone

Articular cartilage research[edit]. In addition to meniscus replacement, Stone focused on articular cartilage regeneration for ... "Articular Cartilage Paste Grafting to Full-Thickness Articular Cartilage Knee Joint Lesions: A 2-12 year Follow Up". ... the first stem cell articular cartilage repair procedure called Articular Cartilage Paste Grafting which in long-term studies ... Stone's clinical work has focused on repairing and replacing meniscus, articular cartilage, and ligaments to keep people active ...

*Extreme sport

Articular cartilage injuries. *Acute lung injury. *Pancreatic injury. *Thoracic aorta injury. *Biliary injury ...

*Arthritis

Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.; Darling, Eric M.; Hu, Jerry C.; DuRaine, Grayson D.; Reddi, A. Hari (2013). Articular Cartilage. CRC ... Osteoarthritis begins in the cartilage and eventually causes the two opposing bones to erode into each other. The condition ... In rheumatoid arthritis, most damage occurs to the joint lining and cartilage which eventually results in erosion of two ...

*Eirik Solheim

Much of his scientific work relates to osteogenesis, articular cartilage lesions and articular cartilage repair surgery. ... Articular Cartilage. In: Principles of regenerative medicine. Atala A, Lanza R, Nerem R, Thomson JA (Eds.) Elsevier Science & ...

*Immune privilege

"Cryopreservation of articular cartilage". Cryobiology. 66 (3): 201-209. doi:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2013.03.001. PMID 23499618. CS1 ... the fetus the testicles Immune privilege is also believed to occur to some extent or able to be induced in articular cartilage ... "Macrophage-inducing FasL on chondrocytes forms immune privilege in cartilage tissue engineering, enhancing in vivo regeneration ...

*Lumican

Organization, chromosomal location, and expression in articular cartilage". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (37): ... cartilage development. • keratan sulfate catabolic process. • response to growth factor. • keratan sulfate biosynthetic process ...

*Chondropathy

Cartilage tumors Though articular cartilage damage is not life-threatening, it does strongly affect the quality of life. ... Osteoarthritis: The cartilage covering bones (articular cartilage) is thinned, eventually completely worn out, resulting in a " ... Articular cartilage damage is often the cause of severe pain, swellings, strong barriers to mobility and severe restrictions to ... that contribute to articular cartilage repair. These procedures do not, however, treat osteoarthritis. [1] American Orthopaedic ...

*Type IV hypersensitivity

Chronic arthritis, inflammation, destruction of articular cartilage and bone. Tuberculin reaction (Mantoux test)[3]. Tuberculin ...

*Decorin

Roughley PJ, White RJ (Sep 1989). "Dermatan sulphate proteoglycans of human articular cartilage. The properties of dermatan ...

*Hyaluronic acid

... is an important component of articular cartilage, where it is present as a coat around each cell (chondrocyte ... 1988). "Hyaluronic acid in human articular cartilage. Age-related changes in content and size". Biochem. J. 250 (2): 435-441. ... Hyaluronan is used in treatment of articular disorders in horses, in particular those in competition or heavy work. It is ... These aggregates imbibe water and are responsible for the resilience of cartilage (its resistance to compression). The ...

*Biglycan

Non-glycanated forms of biglycan (no GAG chains) increase with age in human articular cartilage. The composition of GAG chains ... Roughley PJ, White RJ (September 1989). "Dermatan sulphate proteoglycans of human articular cartilage. The properties of ... "Non-proteoglycan forms of biglycan increase with age in human articular cartilage". Biochem. J. 295 (2): 421-6. doi:10.1042/ ... Vynios DH, Papageorgakopoulou N, Sazakli H, Tsiganos CP (September 2001). "The interactions of cartilage proteoglycans with ...

*Clavicle

The articular surface extends to the inferior aspect for attachment with the first costal cartilage. ...

*Tear of meniscus

The load now was distributed directly to the articular cartilage. In light of these findings, it is essential to preserve the ... In joints with intact menisci, the force was applied through the menisci and articular cartilage; however, a lesion in the ... tear of medial cartilage/meniscus (836.1), and tear of cartilage/meniscus (836.2). Females had a total of 53.49% discharges, ... This is due to a piece of the torn cartilage preventing the normal functioning of the knee joint.[citation needed] ...

*Tear of meniscus

The load now was distributed directly to the articular cartilage. In light of these findings, it is essential to preserve the ... In joints with intact menisci, the force was applied through the menisci and articular cartilage; however, a lesion in the ... tear of medial cartilage/meniscus (836.1), and tear of cartilage/meniscus (836.2). Females had a total of 53.49% discharges, ... This is due to a piece of the torn cartilage preventing the normal functioning of the knee joint.[citation needed] ...

*Microfracture surgery

... a cell based articular cartilage repair procedure that aims to provide complete hyaline repair tissues for articular cartilage ... forcing the patient to reengage in articular cartilage repair. The effectiveness of cartilage growth after microfracture ... "Articular cartilage repair of the knee" by Karen Hambly. www.cartilagehealth.com/acr.html Characterized Chondrocyte ... Microfracture surgery is an articular cartilage repair surgical technique that works by creating tiny fractures in the ...

*Biomineralization

Ohirta, T (1986). "Hydroxyapatite deposition in articular cartilage by intra-articular injections of methylprednisolone. A ... Hydroxyapatite crystals are found in many biological materials including bones,[24] fish scales,[25] and cartilage.[26] Each ...

*Kashin-Beck disease

"Articular cartilage metabolism in patients with an endemic osteoarthropathy in China". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 16: 680- ... Death of cartilage cells in the growth plate and articular surface is the basic pathologic feature; this can result in growth ... especially in physeal cartilage. Fulvic acid present in drinking water damages cartilage cells. Selenium supplementation in ... Wang L.H., Fu Y., Shi Y.X., Wang W.G. (2011). "T-2 toxin induces degenerative articular changes in rodents: link to Kaschin- ...

*Lori Ann Setton

... articular cartilage mechanics, drug delivery, and pathomechanisms of osteoarthritis. She is currently the Department Chair as ... "In situ crosslinking elastin-like polypeptide gels for application to articular cartilage repair in a goat osteochondral defect ... "Photocrosslinkable hyaluronan as a scaffold for articular cartilage repair". Ann Biomed Eng. 32 (3): 391-397. doi:10.1023/b: ... development of injectable hydrogels for articular cartilage repair, and development of injectable drug delivery vehicles for ...

*Nicholas A. Peppas

These gels became very successful articular cartilage replacement systems. In 1978, he developed the same systems for in situ ... N.A. Peppas: "Hydrogels for Synthetic Articular Cartilage Applications," SPE Techn. Papers (NATEC), 62-63 (1977) Peppas, N. A ... 1979). "Characterization of homogeneous and pseudocomposite homopolymers and copolymers for articular cartilage replacement". ...

*Osteoarthritis

"The Effect of Intra-articular Corticosteroids on Articular Cartilage". Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine. 3 (5). doi: ... a) cartilage erosion (b)cartilage ulceration (c)cartilage repair (d)osteophyte (bone spur) formation. Histopathology of ... Surgery to transfer articular cartilage from a non-weight-bearing area to the damaged area is one possible procedure that has ... One problem with using a specific collagen type II biomarker from the breakdown of articular cartilage is that the amount of ...

*Asporin

"Mechanisms for asporin function and regulation in articular cartilage". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (44): 32185-92 ... ASPN belongs to a family of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins associated with the cartilage matrix. The name asporin reflects ...

*Extreme sport

Articular cartilage injuries. *Acute lung injury. *Pancreatic injury. *Thoracic aorta injury. *Biliary injury ...

*Ropivacaine

... is toxic to cartilage and their intra-articular infusions can lead to Postarthroscopic glenohumeral chondrolysis.[3 ... "Articular cartilage and local anaesthetic: A systematic review of the current literature". Journal of Orthopaedics. 12: S200- ...

*Scaphoid bone

Over 80% of the bone is covered in articular cartilage. The palmar surface of the scaphoid is concave, and forming a tubercle, ...

*Mechanotransduction

One of the main mechanical functions of articular cartilage is to act as a low-friction, load-bearing surface. Due to its ... Behrens, Fred; Kraft, Ellen L.; Oegema, Theodore R. (1989). "Biochemical changes in articular cartilage after joint ... articular cartilage experiences a range of static and dynamic forces that include shear, compression and tension. These ... "Effect of Compressive Strain on Cell Viability in Statically Loaded Articular Cartilage". Biomechanics and Modeling in ...

*Basic fibroblast growth factor

Vincent T, Saklatvala J (Jun 2006). "Basic fibroblast growth factor: an extracellular mechanotransducer in articular cartilage ...

*Asporin - ويكيبيديا

"Mechanisms for asporin function and regulation in articular cartilage". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (44): 32185-92 ...

*Epiphysis

... the epiphysis is covered with articular cartilage; below that covering is a zone similar to the epiphyseal plate, known as ... Traction epiphysis: The regions of the long bone which are non-articular, i.e. not involved in joint formation. Unlike pressure ...
PURPOSE: The goal of the study was to report the prevalence of the lesions of the articular cartilage of the femoral condyles and tibial plateau in patients with a symptomatic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee undergoing day-case arthroscopy. TYPE OF STUDY: Case series study. METHODS: We studied 378 skeletally mature patients (average age, 27.3 years; range, 16-50 years; 282 men and 84 women), part of a sample of 1,978 patients undergoing a primary knee arthroscopy between January 1986 and August 1993. The articular cartilage lesions were classified according to Outerbridge by a single observer. We assessed the relationship between time of injury and articular cartilage lesions and between meniscal lesions and articular cartilage lesions. RESULTS: A complete ACL tear was found in all 378 knees. Of these, 157 showed at least one lesion of the articular cartilage. The medial femoral condyle (MFC) showed the highest frequency of articular cartilage lesions, especially in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of articular cartilage thickness of the humeral head. T2 - MR- anatomic correlation in cadavers. AU - Hodler, J.. AU - Loredo, R. A.. AU - Longo, C.. AU - Trudell, D.. AU - Yu, J. S.. AU - Resnick, D.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to evaluate several commonly used MR sequences to determine how accurately each demonstrates the thickness of the articular cartilage of the humeral head. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ten cadaveric shoulders (age at death, 58-92 years; mean, 79 years) were imaged with fat-suppressed transaxial T1-weighted spin-echo three-dimensional gradient-recalled sequences, both before and after injection of 12 ml of diluted gadopentetate dimeglumine. Articular cartilage was measured to the nearest 10th of a millimeter on the MR images and corresponding anatomic sections. RESULTS. Cartilage could not be differentiated from surrounding structures in 14 of 112 locations (13%) on the spin-echo images obtained without ...
BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage repair in the knee is aimed at young patients with area(s) of cartilage loss and no deformity of the knee. These patients arent indicated for a knee replacement. Articular cartilage repair leads to improvement of symptoms of pain, locking and function. Traditionally, articular cartilage repair has always involved exposing the entire knee joint with an arthrotomy. This, though effective, would lead to a large scar, longer hospital stay, longer rehabilitation and its associated complications. Also, the use of Bone Marrow Aspirate Cells (BMAC) for the purpose of cartilage repair has long been debated with both sides having valid arguments and good surgical results.. RATIONALE: Both procedures in this study are performed in one stage, arthroscopically and as day case procedures, which offers minimal scarring and quicker recovery. This automatically confers a significant advantage over the traditional surgical techniques.. To correct the articular cartilage defect, ...
... the G1 domain (the N-terminal globular domain of aggrecan) and are C-terminally truncated by proteolysis at a number of sites. of mature bovine articular cartilage and establish the presence of a novel proteolytic pathway for aggrecanolysis in the cells and/or matrix of mature articular cartilages. EXPERIMENTAL Materials Porcine kidney m-calpain was purchased from Calbiochem. Chondroitinase ABC, endo-galactosidase and keratanase II were obtained from Seikagaku America (East Falmouth, MA, U.S.A.). Goat anti-mouse secondary antibody and mouse mAb isotyping kit were from Amersham Biosciences (Little Chalfont, Amersham, Bucks., U.K.). The affinity column HiTrap? Protein A HP and Sepharose CL-2B were from Amersham Biosciences (Uppsala, Sweden). Preparation of mAb SK-28 The antigen used for immunization was the ovalbumin-linked peptide aggrecan cleavages by m-calpain The Western-blot data (Figures ?(Figures1A,1A, ...
The hallmark feature of osteoarthritis is the breakdown in the articular cartilage of joints such as the knee and hip. Both animal and human research has consistently shown that corticosteroid injections into normal and degenerated knees accelerate the arthritic process. A summary of the effects of the intraarticular corticosteroids on articular cartilage includes: a decrease of protein and matrix synthesis, matrix hyaline appearance becomes fibrotic, clumping of collagen, alteration in chondrocyte cell shape, chondrocyte cell proliferation inhibited, chondrocyte cytoxicity enhanced, loss of chondrocytes, surface deterioration including edema, pitting, shredding, ulceration and erosions, inhibition of articular cartilage metabolism, articular cartilage necrosis, thinning of articular cartilage, decrease in cartilage growth and repair, formation of articular cartilage cysts, and ultimately articular cartilage destruction.. When researchers microscopically and radiologically examine human joints ...
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Objective: To investigate the differences between chondrocytes of the superficial and underlying zones of articular cartilage at the level of gene expression. Methods: Messenger RNA (mRNA) was isolated from chondrocytes harvested from the superficial and deep zones of immature bovine articular cartilage. This mRNA was reverse transcribed, radiolabeled, and then each complementary DNA (cDNA) sample was used to screen duplicate filters of a bovine chondrocyte cDNA library. By comparing autoradiographic signals on matching filter sets, clones exclusively expressed in the superficial zone of articular cartilage were isolated and characterized further. Results: Of the superficial-specific gene clones isolated, 25% were found to be a single gene product, clusterin. Northern hybridization was used to show that clusterin is expressed specifically in the superficial zone of articular cartilage and that its expression is up-regulated in mature cartilage. In situ hybridization was used to precisely ...
Published: Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015 Oct 28;17(10):e19594. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.19594. eCollection 2015. Authors: Kazemi D, Fakhrjou A.. Summary: Articular cartilage injuries of the knee are among the most debilitating injuries leading to osteoarthritis due to limited regenerative capability of cartilaginous tissue. The use of platelet concentrates containing necessary growth factors for cartilage healing has recently emerged as a new treatment method. This study investigated the efficacy of two types of different platelet concentrates were compared in the treatment of acute articular cartilage injuries of the knee in an animal model. The results of this study indicate that both L-PRP and L-PRF could be used to effectively promote the healing of articular cartilage defects of the knee.. Key words: Articular Cartilage; Cartilage; Dogs; Knee Joint; Platelet-Rich Plasma. Read the full study here. ...
During appendicular skeletal development, the bi-potential cartilage anlagen gives rise to transient cartilage, which is eventually replaced by bone, and to articular cartilage that caps the ends of individual skeletal elements. While the molecular mechanism that regulates transient cartilage differentiation is relatively well understood, the mechanism of articular cartilage differentiation has only begun to be unraveled. Furthermore, the molecules that coordinate the articular and transient cartilage differentiation processes are poorly understood. Here, we have characterized in chick the regulatory roles of two transcription factors, NFIA and GATA3, in articular cartilage differentiation, maintenance and the coordinated differentiation of articular and transient cartilage. Both NFIA and GATA3 block hypertrophic differentiation. Our results suggest that NFIA is not sufficient but necessary for articular cartilage differentiation. Ectopic activation of GATA3 promotes articular cartilage ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Growth factor gene transfer to articular chondrocytes may be capable of augmenting cell-based approaches to articular cartilage repair. Currently available data is insufficient to enable translation into clinical use. The purpose of this proposal is to help close the gap between present mechanistic knowledge and therapeutic application. We will focus on three related specific aims. Aim 1: Define a potentially therapeutic set of growth factor genes for articular cartilage repair by determining how interactions among selected growth factors regulate articular chondrocyte function. Hypothesis 1: IGF-I, FGF-2, BMP-2, and BMP-7, when employed for articular chondrcyte gene transfer, interact to differentially regulate the expression of genes that influence chondrocyte reparative functions. Aim 2: Determine whether genetic and tissue engineering methods, when applied to articular chondrocytes, are interdependent. Hypothesis 2: Chemically distinct biomaterials, ...
The University of Virginia, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, is seeking adults with articular cartilage defects in the knee. The purpose of this study is to show if using an investigational tissue graft is better than the standard method of microfracture for the treatment of articular cartilage defects. This study will also document changes in knee pain and function after either surgery is performed.. The standard of care for treating articular cartilage defects in the knee is microfracture. This study is being done to observe if a graft is an efficient and more superior treatment option. For eligible participants, the defect will be treated with either microfracture or by using an investigational tissue graft.. This study involves 12 follow up visits over a 5 year period following surgery.. Study related clinic visits, research x-rays and MRI scans are provided free of charge. The study will also cover the costs of physical therapy that are not covered by your insurance up to $4,000 ...
Articular cartilage is a vital structure in any joint. It is comprised of layers of "matrix" a tough, smooth and flexible substance which is maintained by cells called chondrocytes which live in the matrix. The superficial layer of the cartilage is incredibly smooth, the deep layers are anchored to the underlying bone. This combination allows bones to slide and rotate against each other, allowing the joint to move. The articular cartilage can be damaged in injuries, it can also deteriorate (degenerate) over time. Damage to the articular cartilage is the key issue in the development of osteo-arthritis. As the joint surface becomes split or broken the ability of the joint to glide and flex slowly deteriorates. The damaged joint surface also causes the release of complex chemicals which stimulate inflammation in the joint. This can be a cause of pain and swelling. Another major cause of pain is the overload of bone under damaged articular cartilage surfaces. As damage worsens, the ability of the ...
re: full thickness articular cartilage damage .9cm right knee weight bearing area 30 year old very active athletic female want a LONG TERM solution! should i microfracture, aci, oats . . .
This study proposes a method for measuring the refractive index of articular cartilage within a thin and small specimen slice. The cartilage specimen, with a thickness of about 50 μm, was put next to a thin film of immersion oil of similar thickness. Both the articular cartilage and immersion oil were scanned along the depth direction using a confocal microscope. The refractive index mismatch between the cartilage and the immersion oil induced a slight axial deformation in the confocal images of the cartilage specimen that was accurately measured by a subpixel edge-detection-based technique. A theoretical model was built to quantify the focal shift of confocal microscopy caused by the refractive index mismatch. With the quantitative deformations of cartilage images and the quantified function of focal shift, the refractive index of articular cartilage was accurately interpolated. At 561 nm, 0.1 MPa and 20 °C, the overall refractive index of the six cartilage plugs was 1.3975 ± 0.0156. The ...
Articular cartilage is an avascular connective soft tissue in the diarthrodial joints and functions in a highly demanding mechanical environment. The degeneration or wear of the cartilage is a huge problem that effects millions of people every year.. The long term objective of the present work is to develop an analytical articular cartilage growth model. A simplified 2D axisymmetric representation of the human knee joint, including cartilage layers, meniscus and underlying bones, was developed. The cartilage was modeled as a biphasic fluid saturated porous medium and an uniform growth was simulated by a thermal expansion of the solid phase.. The results obtained in the current work show that the cartilage was seen growing onto the implant with time. The deeper the implant, the higher the cartilage grew onto the implant, and into the gap between the cartilages. This and other results will be presented.. ...
The preponderance of scientific evidence shows that NSAIDs damage articular cartilage. Various scientific papers and consensus groups have stated that there is no convincing data to show that the widely used NSAIDs and recommended selective COX-2 inhibitors have favorable effects on cartilage.129-131 Even the main consensus paper from the International Cartilage Repair Society and Osteoarthritis Research Society International stated that NSAID use has to be limited to the short term. Specifically the recommendation was as follows: In patients with symptomatic hip or knee osteoarthritis, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be used at the lowest effective dose but their long-term use should be avoided if possible.132 They also noted that NSAIDs should not be first-line therapy for joint OA. Other groups have raised similar sentiments. The committees of the International League Against Rheumatism and the World Health Organization came up with guidelines for the testing of new ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Articular cartilage. AU - Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.. AU - Darling, Eric M.. AU - DuRaine, Grayson D.. AU - Hu, Jerry C.. AU - Reddi, A Hari. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - This book covers the latest research and advancements related to articular cartilage in biology, development, pathology, clinical applications and tissue engineering. The authors take an interdisciplinary approach that encompasses the breadth and depth of basic science, bioengineering, translational science and detailed methological approaches. It is designed to be an all encompassing encyclopedia of articular cartilage. Written at a level that allows wide accessibility, the books comprehensive focus on multiple aspects of articular cartilage sets it apart from other books.. AB - This book covers the latest research and advancements related to articular cartilage in biology, development, pathology, clinical applications and tissue engineering. The authors take an interdisciplinary approach that encompasses ...
Articular cartilage lesions occur commonly. Cartilage is relatively avascular and is unable to self-repair. A chondral lesion may become symptomatic. It may lead to osteoarthritis and increased morbidity. The aim of cartilage repair is to restore hyaline cartilage. There are many types of cartilage repair surgery, most of which result in fibrocartilage repair tissue that is suboptimal. Autologous chondrocyte implantation has been shown to produce hyaline-type repair tissue. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is performed preoperatively to define the ulcer and postoperatively to evaluate the technical success of implantation and the state of cartilage healing and to identify potential complications. Features of the autologous chondrocyte implantation graft that are assessed include the degree of filling by repair tissue, its integration with native cartilage and subchondral bone, the character of the graft substance and surface, and the underlying bone. MR arthrography is superior to unenhanced MR ...
Recent advances in MRI have enabled the quantitative assessment of articular cartilage morphology in human joints. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the precision of quantitative shoulder cartilage measurements is sufficient to detect changes between and within patients, and that shoulder cartilage thickness in paraplegic patients increases due to increased loading. We imaged the shoulders of seven healthy volunteers four times using a coronal 3D, fat-suppressed, gradient-echo sequence. The humeral head cartilage in seven paraplegic patients was evaluated soon after injury and 1 year post injury. A precision of 4.5% (root mean square (RMS) average coefficient of variation (CV) %) was found for shoulder cartilage thickness measurements in the humeral head. Whereas a significant decrease of cartilage thickness (-11%, P , 0.05) was observed in the knee, there was no significant change in articular cartilage thickness in the shoulder (-1.1%). Our data show, for the first time, that ...
OBJECTIVE: Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in articular cartilage can signal via two routes, the ALK5/Smad2/3P and the ALK1/Smad1/5/8P route, the first being protective and the latter favoring chondrocyte terminal differentiation. Since biomechanical factors are known to play an essential role in osteoarthritis (OA) initiation and progression, we investigated if excessive mechanical compression can alter TGF-beta signaling in cartilage shifting it from ALK5/Smad2/3P to ALK1/Smad1/5/8P pathway, favoring terminal differentiation of chondrocytes. DESIGN: Articular cartilage explants were harvested from bovine metacarpophalangeal joints. After equilibration, explants were subjected to unconfined dynamic mechanical compression (1 Hz) with 3 MPa (physiological) or 12 MPa (excessive) stress. After different time intervals samples were frozen and mRNA levels of selected genes were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: In articular cartilage compressed with 3 MPa and ...
Results from a Clinical Trial for Safety and Proof‐of‐Concept with 7 Years of Extended Follow‐Up. Few methods are available to regenerate articular cartilage defects in patients with osteoarthritis. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of articular cartilage regeneration by a novel medicinal product composed of allogeneic human umbilical cord blood‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB‐MSCs). Patients with Kellgren‐Lawrence grade 3 osteoarthritis and International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade 4 cartilage defects were enrolled in this clinical trial. The stem cell‐based medicinal product (a composite of culture‐expanded allogeneic hUCB‐MSCs and hyaluronic acid hydrogel [Cartistem]) was applied to the lesion site. Safety was assessed by the World Health Organization common toxicity criteria. The primary efficacy outcome was ICRS cartilage repair assessed by arthroscopy at 12 weeks.. Read more about cartilage regeneration and stem cells ...
The location of pyridinoline in 18-month-old bovine articular cartilage was investigated by fractionation of CNBr-derived peptides by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Two peptides, PCP1 and PCP2, were isolated and were shown to contain stoichiometric amounts of pyridinoline. From its amino acid composition and sequence studies, peptide PCP1 was shown to comprise two C-terminal non-helical chains (CB14) linked through pyridinoline to the alpha 1(II)-CB12 portion of the helix. The CB14 chains appeared to be labile at their C-terminal ends, resulting in lower-than-expected amounts of homoserine, and only the N-terminal portion of the peptide was sequenced. Similar studies of peptide PCP2 showed that it contained two N-terminal non-helical chains (CB4) linked to the alpha 1(II)-CB9,7 portion of the helix. The isolated peptides therefore confirmed the function of pyridinoline in stabilizing the 4D stagger of adjacent molecules. The possibility that the cross-link could act both as an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Current Concepts of Articular Cartilage Restoration Techniques in the Knee. AU - Camp, Christopher L.. AU - Stuart, Michael J.. AU - Krych, Aaron. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Context:Articular cartilage injuries are common in patients presenting to surgeons with primary complaints of knee pain or mechanical symptoms. Treatment options include comprehensive nonoperative management, palliative surgery, joint preservation operations, and arthroplasty.Evidence Acquisition:A MEDLINE search on articular cartilage restoration techniques of the knee was conducted to identify outcome studies published from 1993 to 2013. Special emphasis was given to Level 1 and 2 published studies.Study Design:Clinical review.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Results:Current surgical options with documented outcomes in treating chondral injuries in the knee include the following: microfracture, osteochondral autograft transfer, osteochondral allograft transplant, and autologous chondrocyte transplantation. ...
Articular cartilage is a critical component in the movement of one bone against another. It possesses unique chemical properties allowing it to serve as a bearing surface, capable of transferring loads from one bone to another while simultaneously allowing the load bearing surfaces to articulate with low friction. Patient-specific finite element (FE) models incorporating articular cartilage provide insight into articular joint mechanics [1, 2]. To date, the methods/tools available to create accurate FE mesh definitions of the articular cartilage are limited. Semi-automated morphing methods have been developed, but many intermediate steps have to be performed to get the final cartilage mesh definition [3]. Commercially available software [4] is capable of generating tetrahedral/shell/pyramid element based meshes of the cartilage from the underlying bony surface, but hexahedral meshes are preferred over tetrahedral meshes [5]. IA-FEMesh currently provides the ability to project a pre-defined set ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The evolution of articular cartilage imaging and its impact on clinical practice. AU - Winalski, Carl S.. AU - Rajiah, Prabhakar. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Over the past four decades, articular cartilage imaging has developed rapidly. Imaging now plays a critical role not only in clinical practice and therapeutic decisions but also in the basic research probing our understanding of cartilage physiology and biomechanics.. AB - Over the past four decades, articular cartilage imaging has developed rapidly. Imaging now plays a critical role not only in clinical practice and therapeutic decisions but also in the basic research probing our understanding of cartilage physiology and biomechanics.. KW - Arthrography. KW - Articular cartilage. KW - Computed tomography. KW - Imaging. KW - Magnetic resonance imaging. KW - Optical coherence tomography. KW - Radiography. KW - Ultrasound. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=80052058355&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
Joints that have degenerated as a result of aging or injury contain dead chondrocytes and damaged cartilage. Some studies have suggested that chondrocyte death precedes cartilage damage, but how the loss of chondrocytes affects cartilage integrity is not clear. In this study, we examined whether chondrocyte death undermines cartilage integrity in aging and injury using a rapid 3D confocal cartilage imaging technique coupled with standard histology. We induced autonomous expression of diphtheria toxin to kill articular surface chondrocytes in mice and determined that chondrocyte death did not lead to cartilage damage. Moreover, cartilage damage after surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus of the knee was increased in mice with intact chondrocytes compared with animals whose chondrocytes had been killed, suggesting that chondrocyte death does not drive cartilage damage in response to injury. These data imply that chondrocyte catabolism, not death, contributes to articular cartilage damage ...
With the aim of providing information for modelling joint and limb systems, widely available constitutive hyperelastic laws are evaluated in this paper for their ability to predict the mechanical responses of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage. Load-displacement data from mechanical indentation were obtained for normal and osteoarthritic cartilage at 0.1 s(-1) and 0.025 s(-1) and converted to the stress-stretch ratio. The data were then fitted to the Arruda-Boyce, Mooney-Rivlin, neo-Hookean, Ogden, polynomial, and Yeoh hyperelastic laws in the MATLAB environment. Although each of the hyperelastic laws performed satisfactorily at the higher rate of loading, their ability to fit experimental data at the lower loading rate varied considerably. For the preferred models, coefficients were provided for stiff, soft, and average tissues to represent normal and degraded tissue at high and low loading rates. The present authors recommend the use of the Mooney-Rivlin or the Yeoh models for describing
Objective: Oxidative stress occurs when the metabolic balance of a cell is disrupted through exposure to excess pro-oxidant. Whilst it is known that unregulated production or exposure to exogenous sources of pro-oxidants induces chondrocyte cell death and degrades matrix components in vitro, relatively little is known of the effects of pro-oxidants on articular cartilage in situ. The objective of this study was to determine if a single exposure to the pro-oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces a degenerative phenotype. Methods: Articular cartilage explants were obtained from skeletally mature bovine steers and exposed to a single dose of hydrogen peroxide (0.1-1.0 mM) and cultured for up to 21 days. Cell death, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan loss into the medium and gene expression were quantitatively determined. Adoption of an abnormal chondrocyte phenotype was analyzed through the expression of 3B3(−), nitrotyrosine and procollagen type IIA epitopes in cartilage explants. Results: Cell ...
To measure reproducibility, longitudinal and cross-sectional differences in T2* maps at 3 Tesla (T) in the articular cartilage of the knee in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy matched controls.MRI data and standing radiographs were acquired from 33 subjects with OA and 21 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Reproducibility was determined by two sessions in the same day, while longitudinal and cross-sectional group differences used visits at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Each visit contained symptomological assessments and an MRI session consisting of high resolution three-dimensional double-echo-steady-state (DESS) and co-registered T2* maps of the most diseased knee. A blinded reader delineated the articular cartilage on the DESS images and median T2* values were reported.T2* values showed an intra-visit reproducibility of 2.0% over the whole cartilage. No longitudinal effects were measured in either group over 6 months. T2* maps revealed a 5.8% longer T2* in the medial tibial
Complex cartilage lesions of the knee including large cartilage defects, kissing lesions, and osteoarthritis (OA) represent a common problem in orthopaedic surgery and a challenging task for the orthopaedic surgeon. As there is only limited data, we performed a prospective clinical study to investigate the benefit of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for this demanding patient population. Fifty-one patients displaying at least one of the criteria were included in the present retrospective study: (1.) defect size larger than 10 cm2; (2.) multiple lesions; (3.) kissing lesions, cartilage lesions Outerbridge grade III-IV, and/or (4.) mild/moderate osteoarthritis (OA). For outcome measurements, the International Cartilage Societys International Knee Documentation Committees (IKDC) questionnaire, as well as the Cincinnati, Tegner, Lysholm and Noyes scores were used. Radiographic evaluation for OA was done using the Kellgren score. Patients age was 36 years (13-61), defects size 7.25 (3-17.5) cm2,
References [1] Buckwalter JA, Mankin HJ (1998) Articular cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis, repair, regeneration, and transplantation. Instr Course Lect. 1998; 47: 487-504. [2] Curl WW, Krome J Gordon ES, Rushing J, Smith BP, Poehling GG (1997) Cartilage injuries: a review of 31.516 knee arthroscopy. Arthroscopy 13 (4): 456-460 [3] Browne JE, Branch TP (2000) Alternative Surgical treatment of articular cartilage for lesions. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 8 (3): 180-189 [4] Outerbridge RE (1961) The etiology of chondromalacia patella. J Bone Joint Surg Br 43: 752-757 [5] Brittberg M, L Peterson (1998) Introduction of an articular cartilage classification. ICRS Newsletter, 1: 5-8.. [6] Messner K, Maletius W (1996) The long-term prognosis for severe damage to weight-bearing cartilage in the knee: a 14-year clinical and radiologic follow-upon 28 young athletes. Acta Orthop Scand 67: 165-168 [7] Jackson RW (1991) Arthroscopic treatment of degenerative arthritis. In: McGinty JB (ed) Operative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell therapy, biomaterials and other options may enhance cartilage repair. AU - Saris, Daniël B.F.. PY - 2013/3/1. Y1 - 2013/3/1. N2 - There are several articular cartilage repair techniques being used, including microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation and mosaicplasty, and orthopaedic surgeons have found they offer some improvement for patients, overall. The physicians who spoke with Orthopaedics Today Europe discussed indications for the major techniques currently used worldwide and noted that results of each approach are somewhat mixed. From their comments it seems that orthopaedic clinicians and researchers are divided over which cartilage repair approaches are optimal and whether developments being worked on now will deliver on the promise of improved outcomes in the future.. AB - There are several articular cartilage repair techniques being used, including microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation and mosaicplasty, and orthopaedic surgeons have found ...
Knee Cartilage Anatomy - See more about Knee Cartilage Anatomy, anatomy of knee cartilage, knee anatomy articular cartilage, knee anatomy cartilage damage, knee cartilage anatomy, knee joint cartilage anatomy
PURPOSE To evaluate the sensitivity of quantitative MRI techniques (T1 , T1,Gd , T2 , continous wave (CW) T1ρ dispersion, adiabatic T1ρ , adiabatic T2ρ , RAFF and inversion-prepared magnetization transfer (MT)) for assessment of human articular cartilage with varying degrees of natural degeneration. METHODS Osteochondral samples (n = 14) were obtained from the tibial plateaus of patients undergoing total knee replacement. MRI of the specimens was performed at 9.4T and the relaxation time maps were evaluated in the cartilage zones. For reference, quantitative histology, OARSI grading and biomechanical measurements were performed and correlated with MRI findings. RESULTS All MRI parameters, except T1,Gd , showed statistically significant differences in tangential and full-thickness regions of interest (ROIs) between early and advanced osteoarthritis (OA) groups, as classified by OARSI grading. CW-T1ρ showed significant dispersion in all ROIs and featured classical laminar structure of cartilage
Cell therapeutics to treat cartilage defects include autologous chondrocyte implantation products. However, little is known on the correlation of cartilage cell transplant properties before implantation and their potency to regenerate cartilage tissue after implantation. In this study, an ex vivo human cartilage repair model was developed, consisting of human condyle chips in which a standardized subchondral cartilage defect was manually set, being representative of cartilage defects as treated in the clinic. This model was used to test the potency of a cartilage cell transplant. To do so, cartilage cell transplants (spheroids) were implanted into these defects in a clinical relevant dosage and the defect filling and tissue regeneration process was followed ex vivo for 12 weeks. Most importantly, before implantation, characteristics of spheroids from the same batch as used for the implantation were determined with respect to general spheroid characteristics, gene expression of the chondrogenic ...
Production, means the output of Cartilage Repair/ Cartilage Regeneration Revenue, means the sales value of Cartilage Repair/ Cartilage Regeneration This report studies Cartilage Repair/ Cartilage Regeneration in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share
Chemically modified glucosamine inhibits the release of proteoglycan in a model system of articular cartilage degradation [Abstract]. International Journal of Experimental Pathology 90 (1) , A78-A79. 10.1111/j.1365-2613.2008.00612.x ...
One goal of cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) is to create constructs for regeneration of hyaline cartilage. Three-dimensional (3D)-printed cartilage constructs fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL) and chondrocyte-impregnated alginate mimic the biphasic nature of articular cartilage and offers great promise for CTE applications. However, ensuring that these constructs provide biologically conducive environment and mechanical support for cellular activities and articular cartilage regeneration is still a challenge. That said, the regulatory pathway for medical device development requires validation of implants such as these through in vitro bench test and in vivo preclinical examination prior to their premarket approval. Furthermore, mechano-transduction and secretion of cartilage-specific ECM are influenced by mechanical stimuli directed at chondrocytes. Thus, ensuring that these cartilage constructs have mechanical properties similar to that of human articular cartilage is crucial to their ...
The ability to quantify and qualify the progression of joint degeneration is becoming increasingly important in surgery. This paper examines the patterns of relative ultrasound reflection from normal, artificially and naturally degraded cartilage-on-bone, particularly investigating the potential of the ratio of reflection coefficients from the surface and osteochondral junction in distinguishing normal from osteoarthritic tissue. To this end, the reflection coefficients from the articular surface and osteochondral junction of normal cartilage-on-bone samples were calculated and compared to samples after the removal of proteoglycans, disruption of the collagen meshwork, delipidization of the articular surface and mechanical abrasion. Our results show that the large variation across normal and degraded joint samples negates the use of an isolated bone reflection measurement and to a lesser extent, an isolated surface reflection. The relative surface to bone reflections, calculated as a ratio of reflection
Fortune Business Insights has stated that the Market in North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa will emerge leading in the forecast period. North America is likely to exhibit the highest CAGR in the forecast period. Fortune Business Insights has profiled some of the leading companies that are operating in the global Knee Cartilage Repair Market.. The advent of digitalization has completely transformed the face of Knee Cartilage Repair Market. Increasing demand for simplified treatment options has led to the growth of the global Knee Cartilage Repair Market.. There has been an increasing need of protecting health information and other confidential data private organizations, hospitals, and other healthcare institutions. Incorporation of technologies such as cloud and Internet of Things (IoT) have boosted the global Knee Cartilage Repair Market and are likely to favour growth of the market in the forecast period.. Key questions answered in the Knee Cartilage ...
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mediates signal transduction in articular cartilage in response to mechanical loading. METHODS: Articular cartilage from porcine metacarpophalangeal or knee joints was cyclically loaded (62.5-250N) for 2 minutes in the absence or presence of a bFGF receptor inhibitor, SB 402451 (250 nM). Activation of the extracellularly regulated kinase MAP kinase ERK was measured by Western blot analysis. Changes in protein synthesis were assessed by measuring the incorporation of (35)S-Met/Cys into proteins secreted by cartilage explants or by isolated chondrocytes. RESULTS: Rapid activation of the ERK MAP kinase occurred when articular cartilage was loaded. This was dependent upon release of the bFGF because it was restricted by the FGF receptor inhibitor. Loaded explants were shown to release bFGF. Loading or bFGF stimulation of explants induced synthesis and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), which was inhibited
Objectives: To investigate changes in gene expression in fibrillated and intact human osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage for evidence of an altered chondrocyte phenotype and hypertrophy.. Methods: Paired osteochondral samples were taken from a high-load site and a low-load site from 25 OA joints and were compared with eight similar paired samples from age-matched controls. Gene expression of key matrix and regulatory genes was analysed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on total RNA extracted from the cartilage.. Results: There was a major change in chondrocyte gene expression in OA cartilage. SOX9 (38-fold) and aggrecan (4-fold) gene expression were both lower in OA (p,0.001), and collagen I (17-fold) and II (2.5-fold) gene expression were each increased in a subset of OA samples. The major changes in gene expression were similar at the fibrillated high-loaded site and the intact low-loaded site. There was no evidence of a generalised change in OA to ...
Discussion. Chondral cartilage lesions do not heal spontaneously and may progress to severe osteoarthritis. For cartilage repair, a variety of surgical techniques have been established over the years. Further research led to the development of current new one-step cell-free scaffold-assisted cartilage repair approaches based on the experience with scaffold materials in previous two-step autologous chondrocyte implantation procedures. Commercially available scaffold-based products for one-step chondral cartilage repair have been recently tested in first case series and showed promising clinical outcome in the short-term follow-up; however, medium- and long-term comparative studies are necessary to evaluate the regenerative potential of this new one-step cartilage repair procedure and to demonstrate its superiority over or adequacy to traditional approaches.. Conclusion. This critical review summarises the development from two-step cell-based autologous chondrocyte implantation procedures to new ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization and localization of citrullinated proteoglycan aggrecan in human articular cartilage. AU - Glant, Tibor T.. AU - Ocsko, Timea. AU - Markovics, Adrienn. AU - Szekanecz, Z.. AU - Katz, Robert S.. AU - Rauch, Tibor A.. AU - Mikecz, Katalin. PY - 2016/3/1. Y1 - 2016/3/1. N2 - Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of the synovial joints. The autoimmune character of RA is underscored by prominent production of autoantibodies such as those against IgG (rheumatoid factor), and a broad array of joint tissue-specific and other endogenous citrullinated proteins. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) can be detected in the sera and synovial fluids of RA patients and ACPA seropositivity is one of the diagnostic criteria of RA. Studies have demonstrated that RA T cells respond to citrullinated peptides (epitopes) of proteoglycan (PG) aggrecan, which is one of the most abundant macromolecules of articular cartilage. However, it is not known if ...
Loss of or damage to the meniscus alters the pattern of loading in the knee joint and frequent leads to cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis. The mechanical properties of articular cartilage have been shown to reflect the extent of cartilage degeneration in human osteoarthritis and in experimental models of joint disease, but there is little experimental data documenting changes in cartilage mechanics following meniscectomy. We hypothesized that the tensile properties of the surface zone of articular cartilage are altered following total medial meniscectomy. Twelve mongrel dogs underwent complete resection of the medial meniscus in the right knee, and the femoral cartilage was studied 12 weeks after the operation. We performed uniaxial, tensile stress-relaxation tests to determine the equilibrium tensile modulus of surface-zone cartilage. Water and glycosaminoglycan content were also measured at site-matched locations. The tensile moduli of the cartilage decreased significantly following ...
Matrilin-3 gene is mapped on chromosome 2p24-p23 that can form homo-tetramers as well as hetero-oligomers together with subunit of matrilin-1. It present in the cartilage extracellular matrix functions in the development and homeostasis of cartilage and bone. Particularly it is located in the extracellular matrix surrounding the cells that makes-up tendons and ligaments near the chondrocytes that is essential in bone formation in which spine, hips and limbs start with the formation of cartilage then converted into bone. Matrilin-3 is a mandatory component of mature articular cartilage that restricted in chondrocytes from the tangential zone and upper middle cartilage zone therefore, it is an integral component of articular cartilage matrix and its augmented expression in osteoarthritis might be a cellular response to the modified microenvironment in the disease. Matrilin-3 gene mutations implicated in multiple epiphyseal dysplasias a generalized skeletal dysplasia associated with morbidity in ...
OBJECTIVE: We have previously identified in articular cartilage an abundant pool of the heparin-binding growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), which is bound to the pericellular matrix heparan sulfate proteoglycan, perlecan. This pool of FGF-2 activates chondrocytes upon tissue loading and is released following mechanical injury. In vitro, FGF-2 suppresses interleukin-1-driven aggrecanase activity in human cartilage explants, suggesting a chondroprotective role in vivo. We undertook this study to investigate the in vivo role of FGF-2 in murine cartilage. METHODS: Basal characteristics of the articular cartilage of Fgf2(-/-) and Fgf2(+/+) mice were determined by histomorphometry, nanoindentation, and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The articular cartilage was graded histologically in aged mice as well as in mice in which osteoarthritis (OA) had been induced by surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus. RNA was extracted from the joints of Fgf2(-/-) and Fgf2
In the United States alone, more than 500,000 cartilage lesions per year require some treatment to reduce pain, restore joint mobility, and prevent further damage caused by the progression of osteoarthritis. The lack of effective cartilage repair approaches or products for restoration of defective articular cartilage to its native, hyaline morphology only continues to exacerbate the incidence of osteoarthritis as these initial defects enlarge and degrade over a 10 to 20 year period. The repair of cartilage, especially in the knee, remains a formidable clinical challenge. Regenerative medicine approaches to cartilage repair have only begun to be explored as possible options and there is a clear trend toward biological solutions for the repair and regeneration of damaged or diseased articular cartilage. The study was designed to compare how well the Neocartilage Implant works against the microfracture therapy, a widely used and accepted cartilage repair therapy. Data to be collected include Pain ...
cartilage loss - MedHelps cartilage loss Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for cartilage loss. Find cartilage loss information, treatments for cartilage loss and cartilage loss symptoms.
Results In multivariable analysis, baseline knee bone size was negatively associated with annual change in knee cartilage volume at medial and lateral tibial sites (ß = -0.62% to -0.47%/cm2, all p , 0.001). The associations disappeared at medial tibial site after adjustment for baseline cartilage volume and became of borderline statistical significance at lateral tibial site after adjustment for both baseline cartilage volume and osteophytes (ß = -0.29, p = 0.059). Baseline knee cartilage volume was consistently and negatively associated with annual change in knee cartilage volume at all 3 medial tibial, lateral tibial, and patellar sites (ß = -4.41% to -1.37%/ml, all p , 0.001). Baseline BMI was negatively associated with an annual change in knee cartilage volume, but only in subjects within the upper tertile of baseline cartilage volume, even after adjusting for cartilage defects (ß = -0.16% to -0.34%/kg/m2, all p , 0.05). ...
Joint, or articular, cartilage covers the ends of bones and allows for joints to glide smoothly with minimal friction. Cartilage damage, or chondral defects, can be caused by acute trauma, such as a bad fall or sports-related injury, or by repetitive trauma, such as general wear over time. Unlike other tissues in the body, joint cartilage has no innate ability to repair itself, making any injury permanent. Left untreated, knee cartilage damage can deteriorate into debilitating osteoarthritis and chronic pain, ultimately necessitating a joint replacement procedure.. We estimate, based on internal research, that over 500,000 knee cartilage procedures are performed annually in the United States primarily in the form of debridement, microfracture, conventional autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and osteochondral grafting. Debridement and microfracture procedures are the most frequently performed surgical procedures for the treatment of cartilage damage, accounting for an estimated 90% of all ...
This thesis is concerned with the behaviour of articular cartilage under compressive loading. An apparatus was built to apply sinusoidal and constant loading to specimens of cartilage. The majority of the tests performed were on specimens of bovine cartilage although some tests have been conducted on human patella cartilage. Confined tests, with load, deformation and flow confined to an axial direction, were considered most realistic to the conditions in the body, and so the majority of the work was on this type of test. However some tests of an unconfined nature, with axial load but radial flow and deformation, were carried out. An already established computer model of this behaviour of cartilage was modified and used to reproduce the experimental results. The model is based on fluid flow phenomena only and hence agreement with the experimental work was not entirely satisfactory. However, the model does allow the effect of changes in cartilage properties to be studied. The model yielded its ...
Sprifermin (recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18) is in clinical development as a potential disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD). In vitro studies have shown that cartilage regenerative properties of sprifermin involve chondrocyte proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production. To gain further insight into the process of sprifermin in the cartilage tissue, this study aimed at investigating the ECM turnover of articular cartilage explants in a longitudinal manner. Bovine full-depth articular cartilage explants were stimulated with sprifermin or placebo at weekly intervals, similar to the dosing regimen used in clinical trials. Pre-culturing with oncostatin M and tumour necrosis factor-α, was also used to induce an inflammatory state before treatment. Metabolic activity was measured using AlamarBlue, and chondrocyte proliferation was visualized by immuno-histochemical detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. ECM turnover was quantified by biomarker ELISAs; ProC2
This research investigates the phenomenon of hysteresis in cartilage experimentally. The presence of a hysteresis loop in cartilage indicates energy loss, thereby signaling degradation of cartilage leading to osteoarthritis. Although hysteresis in ligaments and tendons has been studied to a great extent, limited work has been done with regards to cartilage response. In the course of this investigation, tensile tests were performed on rectangular bovine cartilage specimens in one orientation. The testing procedure was based upon published ASTM procedures, modified to account for the size of the specimen. The acquired data were analyzed to determine the energy loss per cycle and the implications that result from the energy loss. These findings can lead to the development of a hysteretic model for cartilage, which may be used in a clinical setting to establish a novel method for determining the state of disease of cartilage ...
The Runx family of transcription factors supports cell fate determination, cell cycle regulation, global protein synthesis control, and genetic as well as epigenetic regulation of target genes. Runx1, which is essential for hematopoiesis; Runx2, which is required for osteoblast differentiation; and Runx3, which is involved in neurologic and gut development; are expressed in the growth plate during chondrocyte maturation, and in the chondrocytes of permanent cartilage structures. While Runx2 is known to control genes that contribute to chondrocyte hypertrophy, the functions of Runx1 and Runx3 during chondrogenesis and in cartilage tissue have been less well studied. The goals of this project were to characterize expression of Runx proteins in articular cartilage and differentiating chondrocytes and to determine the contribution of Runx1 to osteoarthritis (OA). Here, the expression pattern of Runx1 and Runx2 was characterized in normal bovine articular cartilage. Runx2 is expressed at higher levels in
Animal models have provided much information on molecular and cellular changes in joint disease, particularly OA. However there are limitations to in vivo work and single tissue in vitro studies can provide more specific information on individual events. The rat is a commonly used laboratory species but at the current time only in vivo models of rat OA are available to study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the damage that single impact load (SIL) of 0.16J causes in a rat cartilage in vitro model and assess whether this load alters the arrangement of vimentin. Rat cartilage was single impact loaded (200 g from 8 cm) and cultured for up to 48 hours (n = 72 joints). Histological changes were measured using a semi-quantitative modified Mankin score. Immunolocalisation was used to identify changes in vimentin distribution. SIL caused damage in 32/36 cartilage samples. Damage included surface fibrillation, fissures, fragmentation, changes in cellularity and loss of proteoglycan. SIL caused a
Influence of bone morphogenetic protein on articular cartilage regeneration following periosteal grafting. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Direct gene transfer strategies are of promising value to treat articular cartilage defects. Here, we tested the ability of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) SOX9 vector to enhance the repair of cartilage lesions in vivo. The candidate cons
Increased weight-bearing and repetitive joint loading in active teens is a good thing. Research shows that the volume and thickness of joint cartilage actually increases in athletes and adolescents with activity.. There are three main types of cartilage: elastic, articular or hyaline, and fibrocartilage. Articular cartilage is the smooth cartilage that lines the joints. It makes smooth, coordinated joint motion possible.. The more repetitive loading the athlete experiences, the healthier the function of the articular cartilage. However, it is true that too much of a good thing can lead to problems. There is a threshold of activity beyond which damage to the articular cartilage can occur.. Chronic microtrauma and/or acute injury in the high-impact athlete can damage the articular cartilage. Symptoms of articular cartilage can be fairly vague. Activity-related pain or swelling around the joint should be examined sooner than later. The same is true for any reports of joint clicking, catching, or ...
Objective: To study the active involvement of S100A8 and A9 in joint inflammation and cartilage destruction during antigen-induced arthritis (AIA).. Methods: Joint inflammation and cartilage destruction was measured with 99mTc uptake and histology. The role of S100A8/A9 was investigated by inducing AIA in S100A9-/- mice, which lacks also S100A8 at protein level, or after intra-articular injection of rS100A8 in mouse kneejoints. Cartilage destruction was measured using immunolocalisation of the neoepitope VDIPEN or NITEGE. mRNA levels of MMPs and cytokines were measured using RT-PCR.. Results: Immunization of S100A9-/- mice with the antigen mBSA induced normal cellular and humoral responses, not different from WT controls. However, joint swelling measured at day 3 and 7 after AIA induction was significantly lower (36 and 70% respectively). Histologically, at day 7 AIA, cellular mass was much lower (63- 80%) and proteoglycan depletion from cartilage layers was significantly reduced (between ...
{use-layout:ORTHOSEC} Workshop held in November 2000, manuscripts published as a supplement to the October 2001 issue of Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® (CORR) Issue Table of Contents The Classic - Age Changes in Articular Cartilage Symptomati
Cartilage Repair/ Regeneration Market Size, Market Share, Application Analysis, Regional Outlook, Growth Trends, Key Players, Competitive Strategies And Forecasts, 2017 To 2025. Cartilage Repair/ Regeneration Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 the global cartilage repair/ regeneration market was valued at US$ 1.90 Bn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 3.11 Bn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 5.6% from 2017 to 2025.. View Full Report with TOC @ http://www.acutemarketreports.com/report/cartilage-repair-regeneration-market. Market Insights. Cartilage is smooth elastic tissue that protects the bone joints by preventing friction between the bones, cartilage damage generally caused by injury or trauma, congenital abnormalities or hormonal disorders. For the purpose of study, global cartilage repair/ regeneration market is segmented on the basis of treatment modalities such as cell-based approaches (chondrocyte transplantation and growth factor technology) and ...
Articular cartilage injuries are one of the most challenging problems in musculoskeletal medicine due to the poor intrinsic regenerative capacity of this tissue. The lack of efficient treatment modalities motivates research into tissue engineering: combining cells, biomaterials mimicking extracellular matrix (scaffolds) and microenvironmental signaling cues. The aim of this review is to focus on the use of biomaterials as delivery systems for microenvironmental cues in relation to their applications for treatment of cartilage defects. The latest advances in cartilage tissue engineering and regeneration are critically reviewed to demonstrate an outline of challenges toward biomaterial-based approaches of cartilage regeneration. © 2011 American Chemical Society ...
MicroRNAs have been shown to function in cartilage development and homeostasis, as well as in progression of osteoarthritis. The objective of the current study was to identify microRNAs involved in the onset or early progression of osteoarthritis and characterise their function in chondrocytes. MicroRNA expression in mouse knee joints post-DMM surgery was measured over 7 days. Expression of miR-29b-3p was increased at day 1 and regulated in the opposite direction to its potential targets. In a mouse model of cartilage injury and in end-stage human OA cartilage, the miR-29 family was also regulated. SOX9 repressed expression of miR-29a-3p and miR-29b-3p via the 29a/b1 promoter. TGFβ1 decreased expression of miR-29a, b, and c (3p) in primary chondrocytes, whilst IL-1β increased (but LPS decreased) their expression. The miR-29 family negatively regulated Smad, NFκB, and canonical WNT signalling pathways. Expression profiles revealed regulation of new WNT-related genes. Amongst these, FZD3, FZD5, DVL3,
and thats great news.. Bad news, the study was in mice.. But, the idea worked and nearly all joint related studies start out in mice or rabbits because, well, their knee cartilage is so close to human beings.. So it hold promise for us homeosapiens.. The drug is one commonly used for a different problem - osteoporosis - or softening of the bone and its called Forteo.. What you might not know is that the precursor of bone is cartilage. The cells that make up bone are the same as those that make up cartilage.. So, researchers, in this mouse model of osteoarthritis, gave the drug for a month and discovered that the knee-joint cartilage was 32% thicker than in control animals (thicker means better). And they noticed an increase in the cells that produce the basic infrastructure of cartilage as well suppressing the cells that cause an excessive breakdown of cartilage.. This all sounds great if youre a mouse but since youre not, what should you do for knee cartilage in the meantime?. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pilot Study of Cartilage Repair in the Knee Joint with Multiply Incised Chondral Allograft. AU - Bardos, Tamas. AU - Vancsodi, Jozsef. AU - Farkas, Boglarka. AU - Fazekas, Adam. AU - Nagy, Szilvia Anett. AU - Bogner, Peter. AU - Vermes, Csaba. AU - Than, Peter. PY - 2015/4/27. Y1 - 2015/4/27. N2 - Background. Focal cartilage lesions in the knee joint have limited capacity to heal. Current animal experiments show that incisions of the deep zone of a cartilage allograft allow acceptable integration for the graft. Questions/Purposes. We performed this clinical study to determine (1) if the multiply incised cartilage graft is surgically applicable for focal cartilage lesions, (2) whether this allograft has a potential to integrate to the repair site, and (3) if patients show clinical improvement. Patients and Methods. Seven patients with 8 chondral lesions were enrolled into the study. Symptomatic lesions between 2 and 8 cm2 were accepted. Additional injuries were allowed but were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maturation of tissue engineered cartilage implanted in injured and osteoarthritic human knees. AU - Hollander, Anthony P.. AU - Dickinson, Sally C.. AU - Sims, Trevor J.. AU - Brun, Paola. AU - Cortivo, Roberta. AU - Kon, Elisaveta. AU - Marcacci, Maurilio. AU - Zanasi, Stefano. AU - Borrione, Anna. AU - De Luca, Claudio. AU - Pavesio, Alessandra. AU - Soranzo, Carlo. AU - Abatangelo, Giovanni. PY - 2006/7. Y1 - 2006/7. N2 - The regeneration of damaged organs requires that engineered tissues mature when implanted at sites of injury or disease. We have used new analytic techniques to determine the extent of tissue regeneration after treatment of knee injury patients with a novel cartilage tissue engineering therapy and the effect of pre-existing osteoarthritis on the regeneration process. We treated 23 patients, with a mean age of 35.6 years, presenting with knee articular cartilage defects 1.5 cm2 to 11.25 cm2 (mean, 5.0 cm 2) in area. Nine of the patients had X-ray evidence of ...
Email: João T. Oliveira ([email protected]). *3Bs Research Group-Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark, Zona Industrial da Gandra, S. Cláudio do Barco, 4806-909 Caldas das Taipas, Guimarães, Portugal. T: +351-253510900; F: +351-253510909. ...
Cartilage defects in the knee are often seen in young and active patients. There is a need for effective joint preserving treatments in patients suffering from cartilage defects, as untreated defects often lead to osteoarthritis. Within the last two decades, tissue engineering based techniques using a wide variety of polymers, cell sources, and signaling molecules have been evaluated. We start this review with basic background information on cartilage structure, its intrinsic repair, and an overview of the cartilage repair treatments from a historical perspective. Next, we thoroughly discuss polymer construct components and their current use in commercially available constructs. Finally, we provide an in-depth discussion about construct considerations such as degradation rates, cell sources, mechanical properties, joint homeostasis, and non-degradable/hybrid resurfacing techniques. As future prospects in cartilage repair, we foresee developments in three areas: first, further optimization of degradable
BACKGROUND Limited information exists on the clinical use of a synthetic osteochondral scaffold plug for cartilage restoration in the knee. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS The purpose of this study was to compare the early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance, including quantitative T2 values, between cartilage defects treated with a scaffold versus a scaffold with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC). The hypothesis was that the addition of PRP or BMAC would result in an improved cartilage appearance. STUDY DESIGN Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS Forty-six patients with full-thickness cartilage defects of the femur were surgically treated with a control scaffold (n = 11), scaffold with PRP (n = 23), or scaffold with BMAC (n = 12) and were followed prospectively. Patients underwent MRI with a qualitative assessment and quantitative T2 mapping at 12 months after surgery. An image assessment was performed retrospectively by a blinded musculoskeletal ...
Any cartilage damage to the glenohumeral joint should be avoided, as these damages may result in osteoarthritis of the shoulder. To understand the pathomechanism leading to shoulder cartilage damage, we conducted a systematic review on the subject of articular cartilage lesions caused by traumas where non impression fracture of the subchondral bone is present. PubMed (MEDLINE), ScienceDirect (EMBASE, BIOBASE, BIOSIS Previews) and the COCHRANE database of systematic reviews were systematically scanned using a defined search strategy to identify relevant articles in this field of research. First selection was done based on abstracts according to specific criteria, where the methodological quality in selected full text articles was assessed by two reviewers. Agreement between raters was investigated using percentage agreement and Cohens Kappa statistic. The traumatic events were divided into two categories: 1) acute trauma which refers to any single impact situation which directly damages the articular
Articular cartilage can easily become damaged or diseased and it does not have the ability to heal itself. A tissue engineering approach to regenerate cartilage is to integrate chondrocytes, the primary cell in cartilage, with biomaterials and biomolecules. Currently, there is limited knowledge on how all these factors influence the expression of upstream insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling molecules. In an effort to better understand how IGF-1 and phenotypic, type II collagen, expression can be modified by altering construct properties, chondrocytes were embedded in alginate hydrogels. Increasing alginate concentration resulted in an upregulation of IGF-1 expression and by increasing cell density further enhanced IGF-1 expression. Additional changes in chondrocyte signaling were observed when exogenously delivering IGF-1 to the constructs. IGF-1 expression decreased while the receptor for IGF-1 (IGF-1R) expression as well as type II collagen increased in the presence of excess IGF-1 ...
Teichtahl et al studied the dominant hip on 3T MRI in 141 community participants recruited from the MCCS who had never been diagnosed with OA and had no symptoms of hip OA, and 19 separately recruited participants meeting American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for hip OA, including K-L grade ,1. This study confirmed that the OA participants had significantly reduced femoral head cartilage volumes (FHCV) compared with their non-OA counterparts, with mean values 1763±321 vs 3343±808 mm3, p,0.001.10 In addition, cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions were more prevalent in the OA participants after adjusting for age, gender and BMI. Further work by the same investigators on presumably the same cohort of 141 non-OA participants showed that FHCV was significantly and substantially higher in men than women (mean 3891±636 vs 2867±451 mm3, respectively). In women only, increasing BMI correlated negatively with FHCV and with increased cartilage defects. Interestingly, increased fat-free ...
INTRODUCTION. Cartilaginous tissue of the articular surface is not vascularized and its nutrition is carried out by diffusion of substances found in synovial fluid, reason why articular cartilage lesions are difficult to heal (Lombelo et al., 2003). Several surgical and clinical treatments have been proposed over the years to repair articular lesions, including surgical excision of damaged tissue (Denoncourt et al., 1986), electrotherapy (Sousa et al., 2001), use of nutraceuticals (Henrotin et al., 2005), and mosaycplasty (Huntley et al., 2005). Nevertheless, all these procedures have resulted in a tissue with fibrocartilaginous repair, which does not have the same biomechanical properties of hyaline articular cartilage. In this context, cellular therapy may be used as an alternative to obtain the best morphophysiological repair result.. The clinical use of cultivated autologous chondrocyte implants began in 1987 (Jones and Peterson, 2006). At present, this method is used in human patients who ...
Osteoarthritic knee cartilage. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of cartilage from the knee of a patient suffering from osteoarthritis. This disease causes the wasting of the cartilage that normally reduces friction between moving bones. The surface of the cartilage has become roughened, making it less effective at lubricating the joint, which may result in pain and stiffness. Painkilling drugs can treat the pain, and weight loss reduces pressure on the joints. In serious cases the knee joint may be replaced surgically. Magnification unknown. - Stock Image M110/0483
Regeneration of Articular Cartilage: Opportunities, Challenges, and Perspectives: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2506-8.ch007: This chapter reviews the structure and function of articular cartilage and the pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis (OA) before exploring the challenges associated
Age-dependent wearing of articular cartilage of the knee joint.(A) Width of lateral articular cartilage of the tibia in 4-month-old wild type (WT; n = 8) and PX
OBJECTIVE: Use of MR imaging to measure the width of the articular cartilage has not been thoroughly investigated. The value of a selective fat-suppression spin-echo sequence in the quantitative assessment of articular cartilage of the hip was studie
Articular cartilage is a critical joint tissue and its evaluation remains a diagnostic challenge in horses. Coupled with a poor capacity for healing, early degenerative changes in articular cartilage are difficult to characterise using routine diagnostic imaging evaluations. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) both provide volumetric joint assessment and highlight morphologic and quantitative properties of articular cartilage, improving assessment of this essential tissue. While the use of CT and MRI for joint evaluation is not new, there still remains a shortage of literature and scientific studies on the ability of these methods to evaluate articular cartilage in the horse ...
Articular cartilage is a critical joint tissue and its evaluation remains a diagnostic challenge in horses. Coupled with a poor capacity for healing, early degenerative changes in articular cartilage are difficult to characterise using routine diagnostic imaging evaluations. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) both provide volumetric joint assessment and highlight morphologic and quantitative properties of articular cartilage, improving assessment of this essential tissue. While the use of CT and MRI for joint evaluation is not new, there still remains a shortage of literature and scientific studies on the ability of these methods to evaluate articular cartilage in the horse ...
Articular cartilage, most notably that which is found in the knee joint, is generally characterized by very low friction, high wear resistance, and poor regenerative qualities. It is responsible for much of the compressive resistance and load bearing qualities of the knee joint and, without it, walking is painful to impossible. Osteoarthritis is a common condition of cartilage failure that can lead to limited range of motion, bone damage and invariably, pain. Due to a combination of acute stress and chronic fatigue, osteoarthritis directly manifests itself in a wearing away of the articular surface and, in extreme cases, bone can be exposed in the joint. Some additional examples of cartilage failure mechanisms include cellular matrix linkage rupture, chondrocyte protein synthesis inhibition, and chondrocyte apoptosis. There are several different repair options available for cartilage damage or failure. "Maci" or autologous cultured chondrocytes on porcine collagen membrane, is a treatment to ...
One important injury-activated pathway involves the release of pericellular fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) from the articular cartilage. Using a novel model of murine cartilage injury, and joints from surgically destabilized mice we examined the extent to which FGF2 contributes to the cellular gene response to injury. Femoral epiphyses from 5 week old wild type mice were avulsed into serum-free medium. Explant lysates were western blotted for phospho-ERK, phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK or were fixed for immunohistochemistry for nuclear translocation of p65 (indicative of NFκB activation). RNA was extracted from injured explants, rested explants stimulated with recombinant FGF2 or FGF18, or whole joints of either wild type or Fgf2-/- mice. RT-PCR was performed for a number of inflammatory response genes previously identified from a microarray analysis. Murine cartilage avulsion injury resulted in the rapid activation of the three mitogen activated kinase pathways as well as NFκB. Almost all ...
Another option is using the patients own cells, either cartilage cells or bone marrow stem cells, to attempt to re-grow new cartilage in the ulcer. This technique is called Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI). Typically this requires 2 separate operations, the first to harvest the cells, and the second to implant them. Culturing the cells usually takes between 3 to 6 weeks. The picture to the right shows ACI performed on a 3 cm square cartilage defect.. The implantation surgery is usually open traditional surgery, in which the cells are impregnated in a collagen scaffolding (that looks like a piece of wet tissue paper), and this is pasted into the cartilage defect. ...
Articular cartilage is the white gristle covering the ends of joint bones (articulating bones). It is also called joint cartilage or hyaline cartilage.
Cartilage is flexible outer covering of bone, when it is damaged it affects the movement and causes pain. Kasturi hospitals Hyderabad provides affordable cartilage surgery.
Objectives To investigate whether subchondral bone structure from plain radiographs is different between subjects with and without articular cartilage damage or bone marrow lesions (BMLs).
Research Grant Recipient: Dr. Elizabeth W. Bradley, PhD. Grant Period: 2015-2017. Award Value: $500,000. Site: Mayo Clinic. Click here to read Bradleys First Year Progress ReportClick here to see progress video Click here to read Bradleys Final Progress Report. Osteoarthritis is one of the leading causes of disability in the US today. The disease occurs when articular cartilage in a joint degenerates. Articular cartilage is the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints. It doesnt regenerate in the same way as other tissue in the body. Articular cartilage allows the bones to glide over each other with very little friction, and its essential to movement. As osteoarthritis takes hold, it becomes progressively more painful and difficult to move.. The only way to currently cure osteoarthritis is through joint replacement surgery. Its not ideal, we dont have implants available for every joint, and infection is always a risk. Even when a joint ...
While cartilage thickness alterations are a central element of knee osteoarthritis (OA), differences among disease stages are still incompletely understood. This study aimed to quantify the spatial-variations in cartilage thickness using anatomically standardized thickness maps and test if there are characteristic patterns in patients with different stages of medial compartment knee OA. Magnetic resonance images were acquired for 75 non-OA and 100 OA knees of varying severities (Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) scores 1-4). Three-dimensional cartilage models were reconstructed and a shape matching technique was applied to convert the models into two-dimensional anatomically standardized thickness maps. Difference thickness maps and statistical parametric mapping were used to compare the four OA and the non-OA subgroups. This analysis showed distinct thickness patterns for each clinical stage that formed a coherent succession from the non-OA to the KL 4 subgroups. Interestingly, the only sign
Proteoglycans (PGs) are one of the major components in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of cartilage, and are negatively charged due to the charged groups attached to their backbone (i.e., fixed charge groups). PGs play substantial roles in the mechanical, biotransport and electrical events within the tissue.3,7 More specifically, swelling pressure generated by the interaction between fixed charge groups and ionic interstitial fluid enhances cartilages capacity of load-bearing. In addition, biotransport properties (e.g., hydraulic permeability) and electrical properties (e.g., electrical conductivity) have been shown to be affected by water content (i.e., porosity) and fixed charge density (FCD).2-4 The alteration of proteoglycan content will affect the tissue FCD and water content, which could cause the changes in biomechanical, biotransport and electrical properties of the cartilage. The relationship between the PG content and biomechanical properties has been widely studied,6,8 but the ...
Yougui pills (YGPs) have been used for centuries in the treatment of Chinese patients with Kidney-Yang Deficiency Syndrome. Despite the fact that the efficiency of YGPs on treating osteoarthritis has been verified in clinic, the underlying mechanisms are not totally understood. The present study observes the therapeutic role of YGPs and mechanisms underlying its chondroprotective action in osteoarthritic cartilage. To evaluate the chondroprotective effects of YGPs, we examined the impact of orally administered YGPs in a model of destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). Male C57BL/6J mice were provided a daily treatment of YGPs and a DMM surgery was performed on the right knee. At 12 weeks post-surgery, the joints were harvested for tissue analyses, including histomorphometry, OARSI scoring, micro-CT and immunohistochemistry for COL-2, MMP-13 and pSMAD-2. We also performed the relative experiments mentioned above in mice with Tgfbr2 conditional knockout (TGF-βRIICol2ER mice) in articular cartilage.
article{9d325a73-95e5-4bae-8461-b7437e3e6bc4, abstract = {,p,Current treatments of osteoarthritis (OA) focus on pain and loss of joint function. When these interventions fail, the destroyed joint is replaced by implants of metal, plastic and ceramics. In the future, we need to detect cartilage loss before it is too severe, prevent further loss and stimulate regrowth of lost cartilage. Research in tissue engineering can help us understand the complex requirements for regeneration of joint cartilage. Results from animal experiments and small, uncontrolled, open series of human cartilage repair suggest that functional repair can be accomplished in some joints in some patients. However, outcome is inconsistent. Do we need to recreate the original hyaline joint cartilage or will something else work as well? It is far from clear what factors determine a successful repair or what method is best. The durability of repair tissue is uncertain. The cost-benefit equation is unresolved, and current surgical ...
Option for repair damaged knee cartilage is microfracture procedure. Articular cartilage repair can done by Dr.Raju Easwaran, best knee specialist in Delhi.
A knee cartilage injury can occur through trauma, overuse or age related degeneration, ranging from softening of the cartilage to a tear.
Tracy McGrady underwent season-ending Microfracture Surgery on Feb. 24, a treatment for Cartilage Injuries that is becoming more and more common among athletes., New Treatment Techniques for Athletes Suffering from Cartilage Injuries
Introduction. The purpose of this study was to observe the difference in healing of chondral and osteochondral defects treated with abrasion arthroplasty versus subchondral microfracture.. Material and methods. 8 rabbits were divided in two groups (4 rabbits in group A and 4 rabbits in group B). In both groups, a 3.0 mm diameter defect was created on medial and lateral femoral condyles. In group A cartilage was shaved without penetrating the subchondral plate. In group B, defects were created into subchondral bone (3.0 mm deep). In each medial epicondyle defects, two 1.0 mm holes were performed into subchondral bone with orthopedic awl until bleeding was observed. Each lateral epicondyle defects underwent a abrasion arthroplasty until punctate bleeding was observed. Joint resurfacing and degenerative changes were evaluated grossly and histologically after 8 and 12 weeks.. Results. On gross observation a greater volume of repair tissue filled treated defects. Degenerative changes in the cartilage ...
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and limitations of autologous osteochondral grafting for the treatment of articular cartilage defects in the knee. Methods: The subjects were 40 patients who had undergone autologous osteochondral grafting. Fifteen knees had cartilage defects combined with anterior cruciate ligament tears (ACL group), 15 knees had cartilage defects combined with osteoarthritis (OA group), and 10 knees had cartilage defects combined with osteochondral dissecans (OCD group). From one to five osteochondral pegs were harvested from the less-weight-bearing periphery of the articular surface of the femoral condyle and grafted to cartilage defects. The clinical results were assessed based on the Lysholm score and radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image assessment. Results: The median follow-up duration was 24 months (range from 12 to 41 months). The mean Lysholm score following treatment was improved in all groups. The patients who had cartilage defects combined ...
The International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) is a unique forum dedicated to research and education on cartilage repair and regeneration as well as joint preservation. This years world congress takes place in Macau from 9-12 April 2018.
What is triple cartilage piercing Multiple ear piercings are stirring interest in most passionate body piercing enthusiasts looking for representing a unique style of fashion. There is no dearth of locations on the ear cartilage for getting a piercing besides the earlobe. Triple cartilage piercing is another creative modification of cartilage piercing involving triple perforations of any area of the ear cartilage. Since there is an availability of a wide variety of cartilage jewelry, you can think of different ways to deck the ear. The price of the piercing will vary according to its location. Triple Cartilage Piercing Triple Cartilage Piercings Triple cartilage piercing pain As ear cartilage piercings are generally painful, you might get hurt while undergoing the process. Soreness, swelling, and redness may prevail for a couple of days. However, these are the normal signs of healing, not leading to any complications. Triple Ear Cartilage Piercing Triple Piercing Cartilage Spiral Triple cartilage
BACKGROUND The anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee is prone to osteoarthritis and meniscus lesions. Very little, however, is known about the biomechanical properties of articular cartilage in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees. PURPOSE To evaluate biomechanical and macroscopical cartilage changes in the knee joint with respect to the time after anterior cruciate ligament rupture. HYPOTHESIS Chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficiency induces cartilage softening. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS Cartilage stiffness of 50 patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive surgery because of symptomatic knee instability after chronic anterior cruciate ligament rupture was measured with an arthroscopic indenter device, and the number and size of cartilage lesions were evaluated. RESULTS The cartilage stiffness did not correlate with time from trauma to surgery (r = 0.002, P = .99), but the number of cartilage lesions in the knee increased
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of biochemical cartilage change after anterior cruciate ligament injury using T1ρ mapping magnetic resonance imaging. AU - Osaki, Kanji. AU - Okazaki, Ken. AU - Takayama, Yukihisa. AU - Matsubara, Hirokazu. AU - Kuwashima, Umito. AU - Murakami, Koji. AU - Doi, Toshio. AU - Matsuo, Yoshio. AU - Honda, Hiroshi. AU - Iwamoto, Yukihide. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Background: Patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-injured knees are at an increased risk of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (OA). OA changes secondary to ACL injuries have many variations, and when and where early cartilage degenerative change begins has not yet been established. Purpose: To characterize the location of cartilage degeneration after ACL injury associated with time since injury using T1rho (T1ρ) mapping. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: In this study, 49 knees with ACL injuries and 14 normal knees from uninjured volunteers were imaged with a ...
ObjectiveTo examine the ability of a broad-spectrum histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor to protect cartilage in vivo, and to explore the effects of class-selective HDAC inhibitors and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced knockdown of HDACs on metalloproteinase expression and cartilage degradation in vitro. MethodsA destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) model was used to assess the in vivo activity of the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Human articular chondrocytes (HACs) and SW-1353 chondrosarcoma cells were treated with cytokines and TSA, valproic acid, MS-275, or siRNA, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the effect of treatment on metalloproteinase expression. HDAC inhibitor activity was detected by Western blotting. A bovine nasal cartilage (BNC) explant assay was performed to measure cartilage resorption in vitro. ResultsSystemically administered TSA protected cartilage in the DMM model. TSA, valproic acid, and MS-275 ...
Looking for online definition of elastic cartilage in the Medical Dictionary? elastic cartilage explanation free. What is elastic cartilage? Meaning of elastic cartilage medical term. What does elastic cartilage mean?
Several methods for auricular cartilage engineering use tissue engineering techniques. However, an ideal method for engineering auricular cartilage has not been reported. To address this issue, we developed a strategy to engineer auricular cartilage using silk fibroin (SF) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel. We constructed different hydrogels with various ratios of SF and PVA by using salt leaching, silicone mold casting, and freeze-thawing methods. We characterized each of the hydrogels in terms of the swelling ratio, tensile strength, pore size, thermal properties, morphologies, and chemical properties. Based on the cell viability results, we found a blended hydrogel composed of 50% PVA and 50% SF (P50/S50) to be the best hydrogel among the fabricated hydrogels. An intact 3D ear-shaped auricular cartilage formed six weeks after the subcutaneous implantation of a chondrocyte-seeded 3D ear-shaped P50/S50 hydrogel in rats. We observed mature cartilage with a typical lacunar structure both in ...
Looking for online definition of apex of arytenoid cartilage in the Medical Dictionary? apex of arytenoid cartilage explanation free. What is apex of arytenoid cartilage? Meaning of apex of arytenoid cartilage medical term. What does apex of arytenoid cartilage mean?

COSM  » OSTEOCHONDRITIS DISSECANS - TALUSCOSM » OSTEOCHONDRITIS DISSECANS - TALUS

Without a blood supply, the potential for healing damage to the articular cartilage is minimal. Therefore, when this tissue is ... Typically, there has been an injury to the articular surface of the talus. Although an injury has occurred to the articular ... The location of the injury is on the articular surface of the talus. It may be located on either side of the talar dome. The ... As the articular surface deteriorates, the surface changes from a nice smooth frictionless surface to a rough cobblestone like ...
more infohttp://arthroscopy.com/injuries-ailments/osteochondritis-dissecans-talus/

RheumaKnowledgy » Calcium Pyrophoshate Dihydrate Crystal Deposition Disease (CPPD)RheumaKnowledgy » Calcium Pyrophoshate Dihydrate Crystal Deposition Disease (CPPD)

Chondrocalcinosis: Calcification of articular cartilage (identified by x-ray).. -Chronic CPPD crystal deposition disease: ... Calcification of hyaline cartilage occurs in the midzonal layer, appearing as a radiopaque line that runs parallel to the ... Formation of CPPD crystals in cartilage may be related to matrix changes or result from elevated levels of calcium or inorganic ... Imaging: Calcification of articular fibrocartilage may be visible as punctate and linear densities, most frequently seen in the ...
more infohttp://www.rheumaknowledgy.com/calcium-pyrophoshate-dihydrate-crystal-deposition-disease-cppd/

Arytenoid cartilage corniculate process financial definition of arytenoid cartilage corniculate processArytenoid cartilage corniculate process financial definition of arytenoid cartilage corniculate process

What is arytenoid cartilage corniculate process? Meaning of arytenoid cartilage corniculate process as a finance term. What ... Definition of arytenoid cartilage corniculate process in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and ... does arytenoid cartilage corniculate process mean in finance? ... arytenoid articular surface of lamina of cricoid cartilage. * ... Related to arytenoid cartilage corniculate process: muscular process of arytenoid cartilage, vocal process of arytenoid ...
more infohttp://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/arytenoid+cartilage+corniculate+process

Articular Cartilage (Tibia)Articular Cartilage (Tibia)

The articular cartilage of the tibia is located on its top portion. It is the articulating portion of the epiphysis that is ... coated with a layer of hyaline cartilage. This layer is resistant to wear and produces a minimum of friction when it is ...
more infohttps://www.innerbody.com/image_skel12/skel25.html

Knee injuries - the articular cartilageKnee injuries - the articular cartilage

If the injury is restricted to the cartilage, it will not show up in an X-ray, but can be found by means of arthroscopy (using ... Articular cartilage injuries. Damage to the knee can cause lesions to the articular lining cartilage or hyaline cartilage, ... An arthroscopy may show up subtle surface articular cartilage lesions not visualised by an MRI scan. Injury to the cartilage ... There are also two types of cartilages: the menisci and the articular cartilage, which makes up the lining. ...
more infohttps://www.netdoctor.co.uk/conditions/aches-and-pains/a5095/knee-injuries-8211-the-articular-cartilage/

Computational Models of Articular CartilageComputational Models of Articular Cartilage

... Guest Editors: Rami K. Korhonen, Petro Julkunen, LePing Li, and Corrinus C. van ... Computational Models of Articular Cartilage, Rami K. Korhonen, Petro Julkunen, LePing Li, and Corrinus C. van Donkelaar ... Altered Knee Joint Mechanics in Simple Compression Associated with Early Cartilage Degeneration, Y. Dabiri and L. P. Li ... Review of the Combination of Experimental Measurements and Fibril-Reinforced Modeling for Investigation of Articular Cartilage ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/si/841364/

Computational Models of Articular CartilageComputational Models of Articular Cartilage

... Rami K. Korhonen,1 Petro Julkunen,2 LePing Li,3 and Corrinus C. van Donkelaar4 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2013/254507/abs/

Observations ON THE NUTRITION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE | The BMJObservations ON THE NUTRITION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE | The BMJ

Observations ON THE NUTRITION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE Br Med J 1920; 1 :661 ... Observations ON THE NUTRITION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE. Br Med J 1920; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.3098.661 (Published ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/1/3098/661

Patent US6110209 - Method and paste for articular cartilage transplantation - Google PatentsPatent US6110209 - Method and paste for articular cartilage transplantation - Google Patents

The invention disclosed provides an articular cartilage cancellous bone paste in an effective amount for enhancing formation of ... The paste can include a cartilage-stimulating factor. ... 4. The articular cartilage paste of claim 3 wherein the cells ... 3, the first step of articular cartilage transplantation is shown, demonstrating shaving of articular cartilage lesion. FIG. 4 ... 1. An articular cartilage paste comprising:. an osteocartilaginous tissue mixture for effecting in vivo cartilage formation, ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/US6110209

articular cartilage damage in knee - Orthopedics & Sports Medicine - MedHelparticular cartilage damage in knee - Orthopedics & Sports Medicine - MedHelp

... full thickness articular cartilage damage .9cm right knee weight bearing area 30 year old very active athletic female want a ... articular cartilage damage in knee melissafox re: full thickness articular cartilage damage .9cm right knee weight bearing area ... aci - after all that, couldnt the cartilage grow in as fiborous anyway? wont i need another surgery in a few years with this ...
more infohttps://www.medhelp.org/posts/Orthopedics--Sports-Medicine/articular-cartilage-damage-in-knee/show/1027167

Mechanobiology in the development, maintenance, and degeneration of articular cartilage.  - PubMed - NCBIMechanobiology in the development, maintenance, and degeneration of articular cartilage. - PubMed - NCBI

Variations in articular mechanical load are predicted to modulate cartilage thickness. These results are consistent with the ... Mechanobiology in the development, maintenance, and degeneration of articular cartilage.. Beaupré GS1, Stevens SS, Carter DR. ... Specifically, intermittent hydrostatic pressure is thought to maintain cartilage, and shear stresses encourage cartilage ... on the development of a layer of articular cartilage, using an idealized finite element computer model. The results of our ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10850820?dopt=Abstract

Articular cartilage transplantation. Clinical results in the knee.  - PubMed - NCBIArticular cartilage transplantation. Clinical results in the knee. - PubMed - NCBI

Articular cartilage transplantation. Clinical results in the knee.. Chu CR1, Convery FR, Akeson WH, Meyers M, Amiel D. ... Between December 1983 and August 1991, 55 consecutive patients (55 knees) who underwent articular cartilage transplantation to ... the knee capitalize on the different healing potentials of bone and cartilage by transplanting the viable articular cartilage ... full thickness articular cartilage defects to the medial or lateral femoral condyles and to the patella. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10101321?dopt=Abstract

Normal and osteochondrotic porcine articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex | Open LibraryNormal and osteochondrotic porcine articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex | Open Library

Normal and osteochondrotic porcine articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex by Stina Ekman; 1 edition; Subjects: Veterinary ... Are you sure you want to remove Normal and osteochondrotic porcine articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex from your list? ... Normal and osteochondrotic porcine articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex studies on cellular and matrix components Stina Ekman ... Normal and osteochondrotic porcine articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex ,author = Stina Ekman ,publication-date = 1990 }}. ...
more infohttps://openlibrary.org/works/OL13455558W/Normal_and_osteochondrotic_porcine_articular-epiphyseal_cartilage_complex

New, Ground Breaking Research Shows Promising Advancements in the Battle Against Articular Cartilage DiseaseNew, Ground Breaking Research Shows Promising Advancements in the Battle Against Articular Cartilage Disease

... ground breaking research shows promising advancements in the battle against articular cartilage disease. A new ... Articular cartilage disease is a large and growing problem as the US population ages. Orthopedic surgeons are able to visibly ... Articular cartilage disease is a large and growing problem as the US population ages. Orthopedic surgeons are able to visibly ... New, ground breaking research shows promising advancements in the battle against articular cartilage disease. A new study, ...
more infohttp://www.prweb.com/releases/2010/10/prweb4607964.htm

Articular cartilage | KNEEguruArticular cartilage | KNEEguru

It is also called joint cartilage or hyaline cartilage. ... Articular cartilage is the white gristle covering the ends of ... Introduction to articular cartilage repair. Part 1 of an in-depth review on Articular Cartilage Repair by Dr Karen Hambly PhD ... It is also called joint cartilage or hyaline cartilage.. It is damage to the articular cartilage which is called arthritis ... Articular cartilage repair. A short but sound overview of the issue of damage to the joint cartilage, and what can be done ...
more infohttp://www.kneeguru.co.uk/KNEEnotes/knee-dictionary/articular-cartilage

Tuesday 16:00 MR Imaging of Articular CartilageTuesday 16:00 MR Imaging of Articular Cartilage

MR Imaging of Articular Cartilage. Room A102. 16:00 18:00. Chairs: R. Mark Henkleman and Gabrielle Bergman. ... Proteoglycan Distribution Across Articular Cartilage as Determined by Na MRI, E.M. Shapiro, A. Borthakur, J.S. Leigh and R. ... The Role of T2 and Gd-DTPA Enhanced T1 Relaxation in Mapping Degraded Articular Cartilage, A.M. Herneth, V. Mlynarik, M. Huber ... Watershed Segmentation of High Resolution Articular Cartilage Images for Assessment of OsteoArthritis, S. Ghosh, O. Beuf, D.C. ...
more infohttps://www.ismrm.org/00prog/tues/tuespm16.htm

Articular cartilage damage - WikipediaArticular cartilage damage - Wikipedia

Since articular cartilage does not have a blood supply and chondrocytes (cells in articular cartilage) have limited mobility, ... Though articular cartilage damage is not life-threatening, it does strongly affect ones quality of life. Articular cartilage ... Articular cartilage damage may also be found in the shoulder causing pain, discomfort and limited movement. Articular cartilage ... Articular Cartilage Repair of the Knee MRI-scans are becoming more valuable in the analysis of articular cartilage but their ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Articular_cartilage_damage

Articular cartilage repair - WikipediaArticular cartilage repair - Wikipedia

The aim of an articular cartilage repair treatment is to restore the surface of an articular joints hyaline cartilage. Over ... scientists have striven to replace damaged articular cartilage with healthy articular cartilage. Previous repair procedures, ... First, cartilage cells are extracted arthroscopically from the patients healthy articular cartilage that is located in a non ... See also Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplant for Cartilage Growth Rehabilitation following any articular cartilage ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Articular_cartilage_repair

Control of articular synovitis for bone and cartilage regeneration in rheumatoid arthritis | SpringerLinkControl of articular synovitis for bone and cartilage regeneration in rheumatoid arthritis | SpringerLink

Pinder previously reported that synovectomy with drilling of areas of articular cartilage loss showed cartilage regeneration ... The loss of the articular cartilage in RA is evident on X-ray as joint-space narrowing, but in most cases, erosion and joint- ... Rheumatoid arthritis Joint destruction Synovitis Articular cartilage Regeneration Abbreviations. ACR. American College of ... When the joint has the ability to regenerate the destroyed bone and/or articular cartilage, self-regeneration should occur ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s41232-018-0064-y

Permeability and shear modulus of articular cartilage in growing mice | SpringerLinkPermeability and shear modulus of articular cartilage in growing mice | SpringerLink

Articular cartilage maturation is the postnatal development process that adapts joint surfaces to their site-specific ... based therapies dedicated to cartilage repair. We hypothesize that at the microscale, the articular cartilage tissue properties ... Maroudas A, Bullough P, Swanson, Freeman MA (1968) The permeability of articular cartilage. J Bone Jt Surg Br 50:166-177Google ... Articular cartilage maturation is the postnatal development process that adapts joint surfaces to their site-specific ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10237-015-0671-3

Articular cartilage restoration | KNEEguruArticular cartilage restoration | KNEEguru

This site is owned by a UK-based limited company (company number 2893459; incorporated 1st February 1994). The domain was first registered on 4th February 1997.. Registered Address: The KNEEguru, c/o Price Pearson Limited (att. Chris Cooper, Accountant), Finch House, 28/30 Wolverhampton Street, Dudley, West Midlands, DY1 1DB, United Kingdom.. ...
more infohttps://www.kneeguru.co.uk/specialists/articular-cartilage-restoration

Osteoarthritis and Articular Cartilage: Biomechanics and Novel Treatment ParadigmsOsteoarthritis and Articular Cartilage: Biomechanics and Novel Treatment Paradigms

Objectives: 1) To detail the structure of healthy articular cartilage, the key tissue affected by osteoarthritis. 2) To detail ... if the basic collective information on the role of biomechanics in mediating or moderating articular cartilage integrity and ... what aspects of cartilage damage best characterize osteoarthritis. 3) To consider the role of biomechanical factors in ... Kuettner, K.E., Aydeotte, M. and Thonar, E.J.-M.A. (1991) Articular Cartilage Matrix and Structure: A Mini Review. Journal of ...
more infohttps://scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=49383

Patent US7323445 - Methods and compositions for healing and repair of articular cartilage - Google PatentsPatent US7323445 - Methods and compositions for healing and repair of articular cartilage - Google Patents

The method results in the regeneration and/or functional repair of articular cartilage tissue. ... Methods and compositions are provided for the treatment of articular cartilage defects and disease involving the combination of ... A method for regeneration of articular cartilage comprising administering to an area in need of regeneration of said articular ... for regeneration of articular cartilage comprising administering to an area in need of regeneration of said articular cartilage ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/US7323445

Documents | Mosaicplasty for symptomatic articular cartilage defects of the knee | Guidance | NICEDocuments | Mosaicplasty for symptomatic articular cartilage defects of the knee | Guidance | NICE

Evidence-based recommendations on mosaicplasty for symptomatic articular cartilage defects of the knee (osteochondral ... Mosaicplasty for symptomatic articular cartilage defects of the knee. Interventional procedures guidance [IPG607]. Published ...
more infohttps://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ipg607/history

Articular Cartilage Restoration - OrthoInfo - AAOSArticular Cartilage Restoration - OrthoInfo - AAOS

... doctors have developed surgical techniques to stimulate the growth of new cartilage. Restoring articular cartilage can relieve ... Because cartilage does not heal itself well, ...
more infohttps://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/treatment/articular-cartilage-restoration
  • Resetting functional chondron density patterns may have the potential to create a more chondro-supportive environment for articular cartilage as it inherently responds to disease. (prweb.com)
  • Brommer H, Brama PAJ, Laasanen MS, Helminen HJ, van Weeren PR, Jurvelin JS (2005) Functional adaptation of articular cartilage from birth to maturity under the influence of loading: a biomechanical analysis. (springer.com)
  • We tested cartilage on the medial femoral condyle and lateral femoral condyle of seven C57Bl6 mice at different ages (2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, and 17 weeks old) using a micro-indentation test. (springer.com)
  • If the injury is restricted to the cartilage, it will not show up in an X-ray, but can be found by means of arthroscopy (using a special instrument to look inside the joint). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Specifically, intermittent hydrostatic pressure is thought to maintain cartilage, and shear stresses encourage cartilage destruction and ossification. (nih.gov)
  • In the present investigation we examined the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and shear stress--in the form of an osteogenic index--on the development of a layer of articular cartilage, using an idealized finite element computer model. (nih.gov)
  • Kuettner, K.E. (1992) Biochemistry of Articular Cartilage in Health and Disease. (scirp.org)
  • A comprehensive reference that combines the basic scientific knowledge of articular cartilage as it relates to patient health and disease with patient-focused diagnosis and treatment options. (ovid.com)
  • Orthopedic surgeons specializing in the lower extremity will find this book to be an excellent resource that they can consult to guide them in the treatment of patients with articular cartilage injury of the knee. (ovid.com)
  • If it fails then the treatment can be repeated, or bigger surgery such as cartilage transplant surgery can be performed. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Dr. Jack Farr, a leading orthopedic surgeon out of Indianapolis stated, "The research presented at the conference shows a compelling case for a new treatment option we now have for articular cartilage disease. (prweb.com)
  • Cartilage structures and functions can be damaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • It tends to be diagnosed only after other structures have been ruled out - well if it isn't your meniscus or ligaments, what else could it be, perhaps we should look at the articular cartilage? (wikipedia.org)
  • Biomechanics, Structure, Function and Molecular Biology of Cartilage Matrix Macromolecules. (scirp.org)
  • Injury to the cartilage will normally produce symptoms of pain, swelling, clicking, sometimes locking and sometimes sensations of instability. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • A synthetic preferential inhibitor of MMP-13 significantly reduced the unstimulated release in culture of neoepitope COL2-3/4C(short) from human osteoarthritic cartilage explants. (jci.org)
  • The age-related increase in non-enzymatic glycation affects biomechanical properties of cartilage. (springer.com)
  • During skeletal development, the establishment of a layer of cartilage at the ends of long bones is intimately linked to the process of endochondral ossification. (nih.gov)