A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.
The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.
A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
Breaks in CARTILAGE.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.
The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.
The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.
The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.
Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
An extracellular endopeptidase which excises a block of peptides at the amino terminal, nonhelical region of the procollagen molecule with the formation of collagen. Absence or deficiency of the enzyme causes accumulation of procollagen which results in the inherited connective tissue disorder--dermatosparaxis. EC
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
Surgical techniques used to correct or augment healing of chondral defects in the joints (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). These include abrasion, drilling, and microfracture of the subchondral bone to enhance chondral resurfacing via autografts, allografts, or cell transplantation.
An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.
A plastic surgical operation on the nose, either reconstructive, restorative, or cosmetic. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.
A low-osmolar, ionic contrast medium used in various radiographic procedures.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains ELASTIC FIBERS and elastic lamellae, in addition to the normal components of HYALINE CARTILAGE matrix. Elastic cartilage is found in the EXTERNAL EAR; EUSTACHIAN TUBE; EPIGLOTTIS; and LARYNX.
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
A clear, homogenous, structureless, eosinophilic substance occurring in pathological degeneration of tissues.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.
Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.
A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
A type of osteochondritis in which articular cartilage and associated bone becomes partially or totally detached to form joint loose bodies. Affects mainly the knee, ankle, and elbow joints.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A dead body, usually a human body.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. It may remain within the substance of a cartilage or bone (true chondroma or enchondroma) or may develop on the surface of a cartilage (ecchondroma or ecchondrosis). (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.
An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, GENU VARUM, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
An acquired disease of unknown etiology, chronic course, and tendency to recur. It is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of cartilage and can result in deformities such as floppy ear and saddle nose. Loss of cartilage in the respiratory tract can lead to respiratory obstruction.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.
Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.
A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.
Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.
The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. In addition to a conserved HMG-BOX DOMAIN, members of this group contain a leucine zipper motif which mediates protein DIMERIZATION.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC
A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.
The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Surgical reconstruction of the hearing mechanism of the middle ear, with restoration of the drum membrane to protect the round window from sound pressure, and establishment of ossicular continuity between the tympanic membrane and the oval window. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.

Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta production by nitric oxide-treated chondrocytes: implications for matrix synthesis. (1/4540)

OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO) is generated copiously by articular chondrocytes activated by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). If NO production is blocked, much of the IL-1beta inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis is prevented. We tested the hypothesis that this inhibitory effect of NO on proteoglycan synthesis is secondary to changes in chondrocyte transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta). METHODS: Monolayer, primary cultures of lapine articular chondrocytes and cartilage slices were studied. NO production was determined as nitrite accumulation in the medium. TGFbeta bioactivity in chondrocyte- and cartilage-conditioned medium (CM) was measured with the mink lung epithelial cell bioassay. Proteoglycan synthesis was measured as the incorporation of 35S-sodium sulfate into macromolecules separated from unincorporated label by gel filtration on PD-10 columns. RESULTS: IL-1beta increased active TGFbeta in chondrocyte CM by 12 hours; by 24 hours, significant increases in both active and latent TGFbeta were detectable. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMA) potentiated the increase in total TGFbeta without affecting the early TGFbeta activation. IL-1beta stimulated a NO-independent, transient increase in TGFbeta3 at 24 hours; however, TGFbeta1 was not changed. When NO synthesis was inhibited with L-NMA, IL-1beta increased CM concentrations of TGFbeta1 from 24-72 hours of culture. L-arginine (10 mM) reversed the inhibitory effect of L-NMA on NO production and blocked the increases in TGFbeta1. Anti-TGFbeta1 antibody prevented the restoration of proteoglycan synthesis by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta + L-NMA, confirming that NO inhibition of TGFbeta1 in IL-1beta-treated chondrocytes effected, in part, the decreased proteoglycan synthesis. Furthermore, the increase in TGFbeta and proteoglycan synthesis seen with L-NMA was reversed by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamide. Similar results were seen with cartilage slices in organ culture. The autocrine increase in CM TGFbeta1 levels following prior exposure to TGFbeta1 was also blocked by NO. CONCLUSION: NO can modulate proteoglycan synthesis indirectly by decreasing the production of TGFbeta1 by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta. It prevents autocrine-stimulated increases in TGFbeta1, thus potentially diminishing the anabolic effects of this cytokine in chondrocytes.  (+info)

Expression of both P1 and P2 purine receptor genes by human articular chondrocytes and profile of ligand-mediated prostaglandin E2 release. (2/4540)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the expression and function of purine receptors in articular chondrocytes. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to screen human chondrocyte RNA for expression of P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. Purine-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release from chondrocytes, untreated or treated with recombinant human interleukin-1alpha (rHuIL-1alpha), was assessed by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: RT-PCR demonstrated that human articular chondrocytes transcribe messenger RNA for the P1 receptor subtypes A2a and A2b and the P2 receptor subtype P2Y2, but not for the P1 receptor subtypes A1 and A3. The P1 receptor agonists adenosine and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine did not change PGE2 release from chondrocytes. The P2Y2 agonists ATP and UTP stimulated a small release of PGE2 that was potentiated after pretreatment with rHuIL-1alpha. PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP cotreatment was not additive, but release in response to coaddition of ATP and bradykinin (BK) or UTP and BK was additive, consistent with ATP and UTP competition for the same receptor site. The potentiation of PGE2 release in response to ATP and UTP after rHuIL-1alpha pretreatment was mimicked by phorbol myristate acetate. CONCLUSION: Human chondrocytes express both P1 and P2 purine receptor subtypes. The function of the P1 receptor subtype is not yet known, but stimulation of the P2Y2 receptor increases IL-1-mediated PGE2 release.  (+info)

Destruction of hyaline cartilage in the sigmoid notch of the human ulna. (3/4540)

In an ulna from an adolescent a fossa nudata divided the articular surface of the sigmoid notch into olecranon and coronoid areas. In the floor of the fossa a layer of loose avascular pannus covered a thin layer of articular cartilage. The pannus appeared to have been formed by removal of chondroitin from the cartilage, freeing the cells and unmasking the fibres. Probably the change followed loss of contact between the articular cartilages of the sigmoid notch and trochlea during postnatal growth.  (+info)

Transport of solutes through cartilage: permeability to large molecules. (4/4540)

A review of the transport of solutes through articular cartilage is given, with special reference to the effect of variations in matrix composition. Some physiological implications of our findings are discussed. Also, results of an experimental study of the permeability of articular cartilage to large globular proteins are presented. Because of the very low partition coefficients of large solutes between cartilage and an external solution new experimental techniques had to be devised, particularly for the study of diffusion. The partition coefficients of solutes were found to decrease very steeply with increase in size, up to serum albumin. There was, however, no further decrease for IGG. The diffusion coefficient of serum albumin in cartilage was relatively high (one quarter of the value in aqueous solution). These two facts taken together suggest that there may be a very small fraction of relatively large pores in cartilage through which the transport of large molecules is taking place. The permeability of cartilage to large molecules is extremely sensitive to variations in the glycosaminoglycan content: for a threefold increase in the latter there is a hundredfold decrease in the partition coefficient. For cartilage of fixed charge density around 0-19 m-equiv/g, there is no penetration at all of globular proteins of size equal to or larger than serum albumin.  (+info)

Association of the aggrecan keratan sulfate-rich region with collagen in bovine articular cartilage. (5/4540)

Aggrecan, the predominant large proteoglycan of cartilage, is a multidomain macromolecule with each domain contributing specific functional properties. One of the domains contains the majority of the keratan sulfate (KS) chain substituents and a protein segment with a proline-rich hexapeptide repeat sequence. The function of this domain is unknown but the primary structure suggests a potential for binding to collagen fibrils. We have examined binding of aggrecan fragments encompassing the KS-rich region in a solid-phase assay. A moderate affinity (apparent Kd = 1.1 microM) for isolated collagen II, as well as collagen I, was demonstrated. Enzymatic digestion of the KS chains did not alter the capacity of the peptide to bind to collagen, whereas cleavage of the protein core abolished the interaction. The distribution of the aggrecan KS-rich region in bovine tarsometatarsal joint cartilage was investigated using immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoreactivity was relatively low in the superficial zone and higher in the intermediate and deep zones of the uncalcified cartilage. Within the pericellular and territorial matrix compartments the epitopes representing the aggrecan KS-rich region were detected preferentially near or at collagen fibrils. Along the fibrils, epitope reactivity was non-randomly distributed, showing preference for the gap region within the D-period. Our data suggest that collagen fibrils interact with the KS-rich regions of several aggrecan monomers aligned within a proteoglycan aggregate. The fibril could therefore serve as a backbone in at least some of the aggrecan complexes.  (+info)

Distribution of chondroitin sulfate in cartilage proteoglycans under associative conditions. (6/4540)

Proteoglycan aggregates and proteoglycan subunits were extracted from bovine articular cartilage with guanidine-HC1 folowed by fractionation by equilibrium centrifugation in cesium chloride density gradients. The distribution of chondroitin sulfates (CS) in the cartilage proteoglycans was studied at the disaccharide level by digestion with chondroitinases. In the proteoglycan aggregate fraction, it was observed that the proportion of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS increased from the bottom to the top fractions, whereas that of 6-sulfated disaccharide units was in the reverse order. Thus, the ratio of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to 6-sulfated disaccharide units increased significantly with decreasing density. The proportion of non-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS tended to increase with increasing density. These data indicate a polydisperse distribution of CS chains, under the conditions used here, in proteoglycan aggregates from bovine articular cartilage.  (+info)

Effect of anti-inflammatory drugs on sulphated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in aged human articular cartilage. (7/4540)

The anti-inflammatory drugs, sodium salicylate, indomethacin, hydrocortisone, ibuprofen, and flurbiprofen, were examined for their effects on sulphated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in aged human cartilage in vitro. Cartilage was obtained from femoral heads removed during surgery and drug effects were found to vary significantly from one head to another. Statistical analysis of the results showed that sodium salicylate exhibits concentration-dependent inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis over the concentration range used. Indomethacin, hydrocortisone, and ibuprofen, at concentrations comparable to those attained in man, caused a statistically significant depression of sulphated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in cartilage from some femoral heads but not others, reflecting the variable response of human articular cartilage to anti-inflammatory drugs. Sodium salicylate and indomethacin at higher doses produced significant (Pless than 0-005) inhibition of sulphated glycosaminoglycan synthesis in all femoral heads studied. The results for flurbiprofen were less conclusive; this compound appears not to inhibit glycosaminoglycan synthesis over the concentration range used.  (+info)

Uridine diphosphate xylosyltransferase activity in cartilage from manganese-deficient chicks. (8/4540)

The glycosaminoglycan content of cartilage is decreased in manganese deficiency in the chick (perosis). The activity of xylosyltransferase, the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of sulphated glycosaminoglycans, was studied in the epiphysial cartilage of 4-week-old chicks which had been maintained since hatching on a manganese-deficient diet. Enzymic activity was measured by the incorporation of [14C]xylose from UDP-[14C]xylose into trichloroacetic acid precipitates. Optimal conditions for the xylosyltransferase assay were established and shown to be the same for both control and manganese-deficient cartilage. Assay of the enzyme by using an exogenous xylose acceptor showed no difference in xylosyltransferase activity between control and manganese-deficient tissue. Further, the extent of xylose incorporation was greater in manganese-deficient than in control cartilage preparations, suggesting an increase in xylose-acceptor sites on the endogenous acceptor protein in the deficient cartilage. 35S turnover in the manganese-deficient cartilage was also increased. The data suggest that the decreased glycosaminoglycan content in manganese-deficient cartilage is due to decreased xylosylation of the acceptor protein plus increased degradation of glycosaminoglycan.  (+info)

PURPOSE: The goal of the study was to report the prevalence of the lesions of the articular cartilage of the femoral condyles and tibial plateau in patients with a symptomatic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee undergoing day-case arthroscopy. TYPE OF STUDY: Case series study. METHODS: We studied 378 skeletally mature patients (average age, 27.3 years; range, 16-50 years; 282 men and 84 women), part of a sample of 1,978 patients undergoing a primary knee arthroscopy between January 1986 and August 1993. The articular cartilage lesions were classified according to Outerbridge by a single observer. We assessed the relationship between time of injury and articular cartilage lesions and between meniscal lesions and articular cartilage lesions. RESULTS: A complete ACL tear was found in all 378 knees. Of these, 157 showed at least one lesion of the articular cartilage. The medial femoral condyle (MFC) showed the highest frequency of articular cartilage lesions, especially in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of articular cartilage thickness of the humeral head. T2 - MR- anatomic correlation in cadavers. AU - Hodler, J.. AU - Loredo, R. A.. AU - Longo, C.. AU - Trudell, D.. AU - Yu, J. S.. AU - Resnick, D.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to evaluate several commonly used MR sequences to determine how accurately each demonstrates the thickness of the articular cartilage of the humeral head. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ten cadaveric shoulders (age at death, 58-92 years; mean, 79 years) were imaged with fat-suppressed transaxial T1-weighted spin-echo three-dimensional gradient-recalled sequences, both before and after injection of 12 ml of diluted gadopentetate dimeglumine. Articular cartilage was measured to the nearest 10th of a millimeter on the MR images and corresponding anatomic sections. RESULTS. Cartilage could not be differentiated from surrounding structures in 14 of 112 locations (13%) on the spin-echo images obtained without ...
BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage repair in the knee is aimed at young patients with area(s) of cartilage loss and no deformity of the knee. These patients arent indicated for a knee replacement. Articular cartilage repair leads to improvement of symptoms of pain, locking and function. Traditionally, articular cartilage repair has always involved exposing the entire knee joint with an arthrotomy. This, though effective, would lead to a large scar, longer hospital stay, longer rehabilitation and its associated complications. Also, the use of Bone Marrow Aspirate Cells (BMAC) for the purpose of cartilage repair has long been debated with both sides having valid arguments and good surgical results.. RATIONALE: Both procedures in this study are performed in one stage, arthroscopically and as day case procedures, which offers minimal scarring and quicker recovery. This automatically confers a significant advantage over the traditional surgical techniques.. To correct the articular cartilage defect, ...
Extracts of normal mature articular cartilage contain aggrecan molecules which bear the G1 domain (the N-terminal globular domain of aggrecan) and are C-terminally truncated by proteolysis at a number of sites. of mature bovine articular cartilage and establish the presence of a novel proteolytic pathway for aggrecanolysis in the cells and/or matrix of mature articular cartilages. EXPERIMENTAL Materials Porcine kidney m-calpain was purchased from Calbiochem. Chondroitinase ABC, endo-galactosidase and keratanase II were obtained from Seikagaku America (East Falmouth, MA, U.S.A.). Goat anti-mouse secondary antibody and mouse mAb isotyping kit were from Amersham Biosciences (Little Chalfont, Amersham, Bucks., U.K.). The affinity column HiTrap? Protein A HP and Sepharose CL-2B were from Amersham Biosciences (Uppsala, Sweden). Preparation of mAb SK-28 The antigen used for immunization was the ovalbumin-linked peptide aggrecan cleavages by m-calpain The Western-blot data (Figures ?(Figures1A,1A, ...
The hallmark feature of osteoarthritis is the breakdown in the articular cartilage of joints such as the knee and hip. Both animal and human research has consistently shown that corticosteroid injections into normal and degenerated knees accelerate the arthritic process. A summary of the effects of the intraarticular corticosteroids on articular cartilage includes: a decrease of protein and matrix synthesis, matrix hyaline appearance becomes fibrotic, clumping of collagen, alteration in chondrocyte cell shape, chondrocyte cell proliferation inhibited, chondrocyte cytoxicity enhanced, loss of chondrocytes, surface deterioration including edema, pitting, shredding, ulceration and erosions, inhibition of articular cartilage metabolism, articular cartilage necrosis, thinning of articular cartilage, decrease in cartilage growth and repair, formation of articular cartilage cysts, and ultimately articular cartilage destruction.. When researchers microscopically and radiologically examine human joints ...
Signals from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have typically been considered to provide catabolic activities in articular cartilage, and accordingly have been suggested to have a causal role in osteoarthritis progression. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo roles for endogenous EGFR signal activation in articular cartilage. Transgenic mice with conditional, limb-targeted deletion of the endogenous intracellular EGFR inhibitor Mig-6 were generated using CreLoxP (Mig-6-flox; Prx1Cre) recombination. Histology, histochemical staining and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm activation of EGFR signaling in the articular cartilage and joints, and to analyze phenotypic consequences of Mig-6 loss on articular cartilage morphology, proliferation, expression of progenitor cell markers, presence of chondrocyte hypertrophy and degradation of articular cartilage matrix. The articular cartilage of Mig-6-conditional knockout (Mig-6-cko) mice was dramatically and significantly thicker than
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Objective: To investigate the differences between chondrocytes of the superficial and underlying zones of articular cartilage at the level of gene expression. Methods: Messenger RNA (mRNA) was isolated from chondrocytes harvested from the superficial and deep zones of immature bovine articular cartilage. This mRNA was reverse transcribed, radiolabeled, and then each complementary DNA (cDNA) sample was used to screen duplicate filters of a bovine chondrocyte cDNA library. By comparing autoradiographic signals on matching filter sets, clones exclusively expressed in the superficial zone of articular cartilage were isolated and characterized further. Results: Of the superficial-specific gene clones isolated, 25% were found to be a single gene product, clusterin. Northern hybridization was used to show that clusterin is expressed specifically in the superficial zone of articular cartilage and that its expression is up-regulated in mature cartilage. In situ hybridization was used to precisely ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Degradation of proteoglycans in human osteoarthritic cartilage. AU - Altman, Roy D.. AU - Pita, Julio C.. AU - Howell, David S.. PY - 1973/1/1. Y1 - 1973/1/1. N2 - New ultramicro modifications of a hypertonic salt extraction and purification schemes for proteoglycans were applied to the study of proteoglycans in discolored marginal lesions cartilage of patients with osteoarthritis, and the results were compared to a control group of normal appearing cartilage samples from the same patients or from patients with relatively noninflammatory diseases involving the lower extremities. Histologic studies of portions of the same sample used for chemical analysis revealed only minor morphologic changes without leukocytic infiltration. Considerable aberrations from control bovine nasal cartilages were exhibited by normal human articular cartilage samples in respect to the proteoglycan fractionation. Additional abberations of behavior in respect to proteoglycan fractionation were observed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chondroprotective effects of zoledronic acid on articular cartilage in dogs with experimentally induced osteoarthritis. AU - Dearmin, Michael G.. AU - Trumble, Troy N.. AU - García, Ana Patricia. AU - Chambers, Jon N.. AU - Budsberg, Steven C.. PY - 2014/4. Y1 - 2014/4. N2 - Objective-To assess effects of zoledronic acid on biomarkers, radiographic scores, and gross articular cartilage changes in dogs with induced osteoarthritis. Animals-21 purpose-bred hound-type dogs. Procedures-The left stifle joint of each dog was examined arthroscopically to determine initial articular cartilage status, which was followed by cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) transection to induce osteoarthritis. Dogs were assigned to 3 groups (control group, low dose [10 μg of zoledronic acid/kg], or high dose [25 μg of zoledronic acid/kg). Treatments were administered SC every 3 months for 1 year beginning the day after CrCL transection. Serum and synovial fluid samples and radiographs were obtained 0, 1, ...
Published: Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015 Oct 28;17(10):e19594. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.19594. eCollection 2015. Authors: Kazemi D, Fakhrjou A.. Summary: Articular cartilage injuries of the knee are among the most debilitating injuries leading to osteoarthritis due to limited regenerative capability of cartilaginous tissue. The use of platelet concentrates containing necessary growth factors for cartilage healing has recently emerged as a new treatment method. This study investigated the efficacy of two types of different platelet concentrates were compared in the treatment of acute articular cartilage injuries of the knee in an animal model. The results of this study indicate that both L-PRP and L-PRF could be used to effectively promote the healing of articular cartilage defects of the knee.. Key words: Articular Cartilage; Cartilage; Dogs; Knee Joint; Platelet-Rich Plasma. Read the full study here. ...
During appendicular skeletal development, the bi-potential cartilage anlagen gives rise to transient cartilage, which is eventually replaced by bone, and to articular cartilage that caps the ends of individual skeletal elements. While the molecular mechanism that regulates transient cartilage differentiation is relatively well understood, the mechanism of articular cartilage differentiation has only begun to be unraveled. Furthermore, the molecules that coordinate the articular and transient cartilage differentiation processes are poorly understood. Here, we have characterized in chick the regulatory roles of two transcription factors, NFIA and GATA3, in articular cartilage differentiation, maintenance and the coordinated differentiation of articular and transient cartilage. Both NFIA and GATA3 block hypertrophic differentiation. Our results suggest that NFIA is not sufficient but necessary for articular cartilage differentiation. Ectopic activation of GATA3 promotes articular cartilage ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Growth factor gene transfer to articular chondrocytes may be capable of augmenting cell-based approaches to articular cartilage repair. Currently available data is insufficient to enable translation into clinical use. The purpose of this proposal is to help close the gap between present mechanistic knowledge and therapeutic application. We will focus on three related specific aims. Aim 1: Define a potentially therapeutic set of growth factor genes for articular cartilage repair by determining how interactions among selected growth factors regulate articular chondrocyte function. Hypothesis 1: IGF-I, FGF-2, BMP-2, and BMP-7, when employed for articular chondrcyte gene transfer, interact to differentially regulate the expression of genes that influence chondrocyte reparative functions. Aim 2: Determine whether genetic and tissue engineering methods, when applied to articular chondrocytes, are interdependent. Hypothesis 2: Chemically distinct biomaterials, ...
Treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) diminishes inflammation along with mediators of cartilage destruction. However, NSAIDs may exert adverse direct effects on cartilage, particularly if treatment is prolonged. We therefore compared the direct effects of indomethacin, naproxen, aceclofenac and celecoxib on matrix turnover in human OA cartilage tissue. Human clinically defined OA cartilage from five different donors was exposed for 7 days in culture to indomethacin, naproxen, aceclofenac and celecoxib - agents chosen based on their cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 selectivity. As a control, SC-560 (a selective COX-1 inhibitor) was used. Changes in cartilage proteoglycan turnover and prostaglandin E2 production were determined. OA cartilage exhibited characteristic proteoglycan turnover. Indomethacin further inhibited proteoglycan synthesis; no significant effect of indomethacin on proteoglycan release was found, and proteoglycan content tended to decrease. Naproxen
Dr Justin Hudson performs hip cartilage restoration in Eugene, Salem, Springfield and Corvallis, OR. He also offers treatment for articular cartilage damage.
The University of Virginia, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, is seeking adults with articular cartilage defects in the knee. The purpose of this study is to show if using an investigational tissue graft is better than the standard method of microfracture for the treatment of articular cartilage defects. This study will also document changes in knee pain and function after either surgery is performed.. The standard of care for treating articular cartilage defects in the knee is microfracture. This study is being done to observe if a graft is an efficient and more superior treatment option. For eligible participants, the defect will be treated with either microfracture or by using an investigational tissue graft.. This study involves 12 follow up visits over a 5 year period following surgery.. Study related clinic visits, research x-rays and MRI scans are provided free of charge. The study will also cover the costs of physical therapy that are not covered by your insurance up to $4,000 ...
Articular cartilage is a vital structure in any joint. It is comprised of layers of matrix a tough, smooth and flexible substance which is maintained by cells called chondrocytes which live in the matrix. The superficial layer of the cartilage is incredibly smooth, the deep layers are anchored to the underlying bone. This combination allows bones to slide and rotate against each other, allowing the joint to move. The articular cartilage can be damaged in injuries, it can also deteriorate (degenerate) over time. Damage to the articular cartilage is the key issue in the development of osteo-arthritis. As the joint surface becomes split or broken the ability of the joint to glide and flex slowly deteriorates. The damaged joint surface also causes the release of complex chemicals which stimulate inflammation in the joint. This can be a cause of pain and swelling. Another major cause of pain is the overload of bone under damaged articular cartilage surfaces. As damage worsens, the ability of the ...
re: full thickness articular cartilage damage .9cm right knee weight bearing area 30 year old very active athletic female want a LONG TERM solution! should i microfracture, aci, oats . . .
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spatial and temporal changes of subchondral bone proceed to microscopic articular cartilage degeneration in guinea pigs with spontaneous osteoarthritis. AU - Wang, T.. AU - Wen, Chunyi. AU - Yan, C. H.. AU - Lu, W. W.. AU - Chiu, K. Y.. PY - 2013/4/1. Y1 - 2013/4/1. N2 - Objective: This study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal subchondral bone change of Dunkin-Hartley (DH) strain guinea pigs spontaneous osteoarthritis (OA) model at early stage with three-dimensional Microfocal Computed Tomography (Micro-CT) analysis, histology and immunohistochemistry. Materials and methods: Knee joints of DH and Bristol Strain 2 (BS2) guinea pigs were analyzed at 1, 2 and 3 months of age for early staged subchondral bone ultrastructure change of OA by Micro-CT and histology. And cartilage degeneration was monitored by histological examination. In addition, expression of Osterix was quantified by immunohistochemistry. Results: Microscopic cartilage degeneration was not found at first 3 ...
Articular cartilage damage is a damage of the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints.
Objectives This experimental study aims to compare the effects of three techniques, tree autogenous periosteal graft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) combined with periosteal graft on the healing of full thickness joint cartilage defects in rabbits ...
This study proposes a method for measuring the refractive index of articular cartilage within a thin and small specimen slice. The cartilage specimen, with a thickness of about 50 μm, was put next to a thin film of immersion oil of similar thickness. Both the articular cartilage and immersion oil were scanned along the depth direction using a confocal microscope. The refractive index mismatch between the cartilage and the immersion oil induced a slight axial deformation in the confocal images of the cartilage specimen that was accurately measured by a subpixel edge-detection-based technique. A theoretical model was built to quantify the focal shift of confocal microscopy caused by the refractive index mismatch. With the quantitative deformations of cartilage images and the quantified function of focal shift, the refractive index of articular cartilage was accurately interpolated. At 561 nm, 0.1 MPa and 20 °C, the overall refractive index of the six cartilage plugs was 1.3975 ± 0.0156. The ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Investigating mechanical properties of porcine articular cartilage by flat plate compression tests. AU - Liou, N. S.. AU - Jeng, Y. R.. AU - Yen, S. H.. AU - Chen, S. F.. AU - Wu, K. T.. PY - 2011/12/1. Y1 - 2011/12/1. N2 - An inverse iterative finite element analysis procedure was developed to investigate mechanical properties of porcine articular cartilage under compression load. Specimen consists of articular cartilage and bone was cut from porcine femur for this study. The specimen was mounted on metal base plate and the compression tests were performed by using material test machine with flat compression plate. The ramp-hold compression tests with different ramping displacement rates and long-term compression test with very low displacement rate were performed on the specimens. The force and compression displacement as function of time were recorded. The profile of specimen was obtained from for generating the geometry model of specimen. The finite element model which ...
A gold standard treatment for articular cartilage injuries is yet to be found, and a cost-effective and predictable large animal model is needed to bridge the gap between in vitro studies and clinical studies. Ideally, the animal model should allow for testing of clinically relevant treatments and the biological response should be reproducible and comparable to humans. This allows for a reliable translation of results to clinical studies.This study aimed at verifying the Göttingen minipig as a pre-clinical model for articular cartilage repair by testing existing clinical cartilage repair techniques and evaluating the use of two defects per knee. Sixteen fully mature Göttingen minipigs were used. The minipigs received bilateral trochlear osteochondral drill-hole defects or chondral defects (Ø 6 mm), either one defect per knee or two defects per knee. The defects were treated with one of the following: Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI), microfracture (MFx), autologous-dual
Articular cartilage is an avascular connective soft tissue in the diarthrodial joints and functions in a highly demanding mechanical environment. The degeneration or wear of the cartilage is a huge problem that effects millions of people every year.. The long term objective of the present work is to develop an analytical articular cartilage growth model. A simplified 2D axisymmetric representation of the human knee joint, including cartilage layers, meniscus and underlying bones, was developed. The cartilage was modeled as a biphasic fluid saturated porous medium and an uniform growth was simulated by a thermal expansion of the solid phase.. The results obtained in the current work show that the cartilage was seen growing onto the implant with time. The deeper the implant, the higher the cartilage grew onto the implant, and into the gap between the cartilages. This and other results will be presented.. ...
Football, the most popular sport in the world, is played by more than 300 million people. Increasing participation is associated with an increase in articular cartilage injuries in the high-impact sport, particularly at the competitive and world class level.1 ,2 Injury of articular cartilage surfaces occurs in 36% of athletes, which is more than twice than that in the general population.3 Higher injury rates are noted in competitions than during practice, in athletes with body mass index (BMI) over 30, and in certain playing positions.4. Articular cartilage injury in athletes may occur in two separate pathways. Chronic repetitive loading of the articular cartilage during sports activity can lead to progressive articular cartilage degradation with accumulation of catabolic enzymes and cytokines, fragmentation of collagen and aggrecan, and resultant fissuring and progressive breakdown of the articular surface.5 The sports-associated chronic biochemical and metabolic changes are similar to the ...
The preponderance of scientific evidence shows that NSAIDs damage articular cartilage. Various scientific papers and consensus groups have stated that there is no convincing data to show that the widely used NSAIDs and recommended selective COX-2 inhibitors have favorable effects on cartilage.129-131 Even the main consensus paper from the International Cartilage Repair Society and Osteoarthritis Research Society International stated that NSAID use has to be limited to the short term. Specifically the recommendation was as follows: In patients with symptomatic hip or knee osteoarthritis, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be used at the lowest effective dose but their long-term use should be avoided if possible.132 They also noted that NSAIDs should not be first-line therapy for joint OA. Other groups have raised similar sentiments. The committees of the International League Against Rheumatism and the World Health Organization came up with guidelines for the testing of new ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitative analysis of shrinkage and swelling behavior of articular cartilage using high-frequency ultrasound. AU - Wnag, Qing. AU - Zheng, Yongping. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Articular cartilage provides joints with excellent lubrication, wearing characteristics and a smooth efficient weight-bearing system. Swelling of articular cartilage serves as an important biomechanical property and one of the early signs of osteoarthritis (OA). The aims of this study were to build a high-frequency ultrasound system and to investigate the transient osmosis-induced free shrinkage-swelling behavior of articular cartilage in a non-destructive and non-contact way. Cylindrical cartilage-bone specimens were prepared from the normal mature bovine patellae. The transient shrinkage (de-swelling) and swelling behaviors of cartilage were induced by changing the concentration of the bathing saline from 0.15 M to 2 M and then back to 0.15 M. The shrinkage and swelling phases were monitored ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of nitric oxide in proteoglycan turnover by bovine articular cartilage organ cultures. AU - Stefanovic-Racic, M.. AU - Morales, T. I.. AU - Taskiran, D.. AU - McIntyre, L. A.. AU - Evans, C. H.. PY - 1996/2/1. Y1 - 1996/2/1. N2 - Monolayer cultures of articular chondrocytes synthesize large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) following exposure to IL-1. The latter has antianabolic and procatabolic activities on these cells, but little is known about the role, if any, of NO in the integrated metabolic pathways of the chondrocyte. In the present study, the role of endogenously produced NO in both the synthesis and degradation of proteoglycans was investigated for the first time. Bovine articular cartilage slices exposed to 20 U/ml human rIL-1β (hrIL-1β) synthesized large amounts of NO for 1 to 2 days, after which production fell to a steady state level ~20% of the peak value for the remainder of the 14- day incubation. The NO synthase inhibitor, N-monomethyl L-arginine (L-NMA, ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Articular cartilage. AU - Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.. AU - Darling, Eric M.. AU - DuRaine, Grayson D.. AU - Hu, Jerry C.. AU - Reddi, A Hari. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - This book covers the latest research and advancements related to articular cartilage in biology, development, pathology, clinical applications and tissue engineering. The authors take an interdisciplinary approach that encompasses the breadth and depth of basic science, bioengineering, translational science and detailed methological approaches. It is designed to be an all encompassing encyclopedia of articular cartilage. Written at a level that allows wide accessibility, the books comprehensive focus on multiple aspects of articular cartilage sets it apart from other books.. AB - This book covers the latest research and advancements related to articular cartilage in biology, development, pathology, clinical applications and tissue engineering. The authors take an interdisciplinary approach that encompasses ...
Articular cartilage lesions occur commonly. Cartilage is relatively avascular and is unable to self-repair. A chondral lesion may become symptomatic. It may lead to osteoarthritis and increased morbidity. The aim of cartilage repair is to restore hyaline cartilage. There are many types of cartilage repair surgery, most of which result in fibrocartilage repair tissue that is suboptimal. Autologous chondrocyte implantation has been shown to produce hyaline-type repair tissue. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is performed preoperatively to define the ulcer and postoperatively to evaluate the technical success of implantation and the state of cartilage healing and to identify potential complications. Features of the autologous chondrocyte implantation graft that are assessed include the degree of filling by repair tissue, its integration with native cartilage and subchondral bone, the character of the graft substance and surface, and the underlying bone. MR arthrography is superior to unenhanced MR ...
Recent advances in MRI have enabled the quantitative assessment of articular cartilage morphology in human joints. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the precision of quantitative shoulder cartilage measurements is sufficient to detect changes between and within patients, and that shoulder cartilage thickness in paraplegic patients increases due to increased loading. We imaged the shoulders of seven healthy volunteers four times using a coronal 3D, fat-suppressed, gradient-echo sequence. The humeral head cartilage in seven paraplegic patients was evaluated soon after injury and 1 year post injury. A precision of 4.5% (root mean square (RMS) average coefficient of variation (CV) %) was found for shoulder cartilage thickness measurements in the humeral head. Whereas a significant decrease of cartilage thickness (-11%, P , 0.05) was observed in the knee, there was no significant change in articular cartilage thickness in the shoulder (-1.1%). Our data show, for the first time, that ...
OBJECTIVE: Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in articular cartilage can signal via two routes, the ALK5/Smad2/3P and the ALK1/Smad1/5/8P route, the first being protective and the latter favoring chondrocyte terminal differentiation. Since biomechanical factors are known to play an essential role in osteoarthritis (OA) initiation and progression, we investigated if excessive mechanical compression can alter TGF-beta signaling in cartilage shifting it from ALK5/Smad2/3P to ALK1/Smad1/5/8P pathway, favoring terminal differentiation of chondrocytes. DESIGN: Articular cartilage explants were harvested from bovine metacarpophalangeal joints. After equilibration, explants were subjected to unconfined dynamic mechanical compression (1 Hz) with 3 MPa (physiological) or 12 MPa (excessive) stress. After different time intervals samples were frozen and mRNA levels of selected genes were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: In articular cartilage compressed with 3 MPa and ...
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint disease, characterized by cartilage loss and subchondral bone remodeling in response to abnormal mechanical load. Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans bind to many proteins that regulate cartilage homeostasis, including growth factors, morphogens, proteases, and their inhibitors, and modulate their localization, retention, and biological activity. Changes in HS expression and structure may thus have important consequences for joint health. We analyzed normal and osteoarthritic human knee cartilage, and found HS biosynthesis was markedly disrupted in OA, with 45% of the 38 genes analyzed differentially regulated in diseased cartilage. The expression of several HS core proteins, biosynthesis, and modification enzymes was increased in OA cartilage, whereas the expression of the HS proteoglycans syndecan 4 and betaglycan was reduced. The structure of HS was also altered, with increased levels of 6-O-sulfation in osteoarthritic samples, which correlated with
Purpose: To compare 3D high-resolution MRI sequences in term of contrast, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), artefacts and cartilage thickness in knee artic..
Results from a Clinical Trial for Safety and Proof‐of‐Concept with 7 Years of Extended Follow‐Up. Few methods are available to regenerate articular cartilage defects in patients with osteoarthritis. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of articular cartilage regeneration by a novel medicinal product composed of allogeneic human umbilical cord blood‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB‐MSCs). Patients with Kellgren‐Lawrence grade 3 osteoarthritis and International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade 4 cartilage defects were enrolled in this clinical trial. The stem cell‐based medicinal product (a composite of culture‐expanded allogeneic hUCB‐MSCs and hyaluronic acid hydrogel [Cartistem]) was applied to the lesion site. Safety was assessed by the World Health Organization common toxicity criteria. The primary efficacy outcome was ICRS cartilage repair assessed by arthroscopy at 12 weeks.. Read more about cartilage regeneration and stem cells ...
The location of pyridinoline in 18-month-old bovine articular cartilage was investigated by fractionation of CNBr-derived peptides by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Two peptides, PCP1 and PCP2, were isolated and were shown to contain stoichiometric amounts of pyridinoline. From its amino acid composition and sequence studies, peptide PCP1 was shown to comprise two C-terminal non-helical chains (CB14) linked through pyridinoline to the alpha 1(II)-CB12 portion of the helix. The CB14 chains appeared to be labile at their C-terminal ends, resulting in lower-than-expected amounts of homoserine, and only the N-terminal portion of the peptide was sequenced. Similar studies of peptide PCP2 showed that it contained two N-terminal non-helical chains (CB4) linked to the alpha 1(II)-CB9,7 portion of the helix. The isolated peptides therefore confirmed the function of pyridinoline in stabilizing the 4D stagger of adjacent molecules. The possibility that the cross-link could act both as an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Current Concepts of Articular Cartilage Restoration Techniques in the Knee. AU - Camp, Christopher L.. AU - Stuart, Michael J.. AU - Krych, Aaron. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Context:Articular cartilage injuries are common in patients presenting to surgeons with primary complaints of knee pain or mechanical symptoms. Treatment options include comprehensive nonoperative management, palliative surgery, joint preservation operations, and arthroplasty.Evidence Acquisition:A MEDLINE search on articular cartilage restoration techniques of the knee was conducted to identify outcome studies published from 1993 to 2013. Special emphasis was given to Level 1 and 2 published studies.Study Design:Clinical review.Level of Evidence:Level 3.Results:Current surgical options with documented outcomes in treating chondral injuries in the knee include the following: microfracture, osteochondral autograft transfer, osteochondral allograft transplant, and autologous chondrocyte transplantation. ...
Articular cartilage is a critical component in the movement of one bone against another. It possesses unique chemical properties allowing it to serve as a bearing surface, capable of transferring loads from one bone to another while simultaneously allowing the load bearing surfaces to articulate with low friction. Patient-specific finite element (FE) models incorporating articular cartilage provide insight into articular joint mechanics [1, 2]. To date, the methods/tools available to create accurate FE mesh definitions of the articular cartilage are limited. Semi-automated morphing methods have been developed, but many intermediate steps have to be performed to get the final cartilage mesh definition [3]. Commercially available software [4] is capable of generating tetrahedral/shell/pyramid element based meshes of the cartilage from the underlying bony surface, but hexahedral meshes are preferred over tetrahedral meshes [5]. IA-FEMesh currently provides the ability to project a pre-defined set ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The evolution of articular cartilage imaging and its impact on clinical practice. AU - Winalski, Carl S.. AU - Rajiah, Prabhakar. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Over the past four decades, articular cartilage imaging has developed rapidly. Imaging now plays a critical role not only in clinical practice and therapeutic decisions but also in the basic research probing our understanding of cartilage physiology and biomechanics.. AB - Over the past four decades, articular cartilage imaging has developed rapidly. Imaging now plays a critical role not only in clinical practice and therapeutic decisions but also in the basic research probing our understanding of cartilage physiology and biomechanics.. KW - Arthrography. KW - Articular cartilage. KW - Computed tomography. KW - Imaging. KW - Magnetic resonance imaging. KW - Optical coherence tomography. KW - Radiography. KW - Ultrasound. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=80052058355&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of stem cells for articular cartilage regeneration.. AU - Hwang, Nathaniel S.. AU - Elisseeff, Jennifer. PY - 2009/1. Y1 - 2009/1. N2 - Articular cartilage is a highly organized tissue lacking self-regeneration capacity upon lesion. Current surgical intervention by application of in vitro-expanded autologous chondrocytes transplantation procedure is associated with several disadvantages, including donor-site morbidity and inferior fibrocartilage formation at the defect site. However, recent advancements in tissue engineering have provided notable strategies for stem cell-based therapies and articular cartilage tissue engineering. In this review, we discuss the current strategies to engineer cartilage tissues from adult stem cells and human embryonic stem cell-derived cells. The characteristics of adult stem cells, the microenvironmental control of cell fate determination, and the limitation imposed by the intrinsic nature of stem cells are discussed. The strategy to ...
Joints that have degenerated as a result of aging or injury contain dead chondrocytes and damaged cartilage. Some studies have suggested that chondrocyte death precedes cartilage damage, but how the loss of chondrocytes affects cartilage integrity is not clear. In this study, we examined whether chondrocyte death undermines cartilage integrity in aging and injury using a rapid 3D confocal cartilage imaging technique coupled with standard histology. We induced autonomous expression of diphtheria toxin to kill articular surface chondrocytes in mice and determined that chondrocyte death did not lead to cartilage damage. Moreover, cartilage damage after surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus of the knee was increased in mice with intact chondrocytes compared with animals whose chondrocytes had been killed, suggesting that chondrocyte death does not drive cartilage damage in response to injury. These data imply that chondrocyte catabolism, not death, contributes to articular cartilage damage ...
With the aim of providing information for modelling joint and limb systems, widely available constitutive hyperelastic laws are evaluated in this paper for their ability to predict the mechanical responses of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage. Load-displacement data from mechanical indentation were obtained for normal and osteoarthritic cartilage at 0.1 s(-1) and 0.025 s(-1) and converted to the stress-stretch ratio. The data were then fitted to the Arruda-Boyce, Mooney-Rivlin, neo-Hookean, Ogden, polynomial, and Yeoh hyperelastic laws in the MATLAB environment. Although each of the hyperelastic laws performed satisfactorily at the higher rate of loading, their ability to fit experimental data at the lower loading rate varied considerably. For the preferred models, coefficients were provided for stiff, soft, and average tissues to represent normal and degraded tissue at high and low loading rates. The present authors recommend the use of the Mooney-Rivlin or the Yeoh models for describing
Objective: Oxidative stress occurs when the metabolic balance of a cell is disrupted through exposure to excess pro-oxidant. Whilst it is known that unregulated production or exposure to exogenous sources of pro-oxidants induces chondrocyte cell death and degrades matrix components in vitro, relatively little is known of the effects of pro-oxidants on articular cartilage in situ. The objective of this study was to determine if a single exposure to the pro-oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces a degenerative phenotype. Methods: Articular cartilage explants were obtained from skeletally mature bovine steers and exposed to a single dose of hydrogen peroxide (0.1-1.0 mM) and cultured for up to 21 days. Cell death, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan loss into the medium and gene expression were quantitatively determined. Adoption of an abnormal chondrocyte phenotype was analyzed through the expression of 3B3(−), nitrotyrosine and procollagen type IIA epitopes in cartilage explants. Results: Cell ...
PURPOSE: To measure reproducibility, longitudinal and cross-sectional differences in T2* maps at 3 Tesla (T) in the articular cartilage of the knee in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy matched controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI data and standing radiographs were acquired from 33 subjects with OA and 21 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Reproducibility was determined by two sessions in the same day, while longitudinal and cross-sectional group differences used visits at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Each visit contained symptomological assessments and an MRI session consisting of high resolution three-dimensional double-echo-steady-state (DESS) and co-registered T2* maps of the most diseased knee. A blinded reader delineated the articular cartilage on the DESS images and median T2* values were reported. RESULTS: T2* values showed an intra-visit reproducibility of 2.0% over the whole cartilage. No longitudinal effects were measured in either group over 6 months. T2* maps revealed a 5
Complex cartilage lesions of the knee including large cartilage defects, kissing lesions, and osteoarthritis (OA) represent a common problem in orthopaedic surgery and a challenging task for the orthopaedic surgeon. As there is only limited data, we performed a prospective clinical study to investigate the benefit of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for this demanding patient population. Fifty-one patients displaying at least one of the criteria were included in the present retrospective study: (1.) defect size larger than 10 cm2; (2.) multiple lesions; (3.) kissing lesions, cartilage lesions Outerbridge grade III-IV, and/or (4.) mild/moderate osteoarthritis (OA). For outcome measurements, the International Cartilage Societys International Knee Documentation Committees (IKDC) questionnaire, as well as the Cincinnati, Tegner, Lysholm and Noyes scores were used. Radiographic evaluation for OA was done using the Kellgren score. Patients age was 36 years (13-61), defects size 7.25 (3-17.5) cm2,
Although various alterative models of therapy are used for cartilage repair, no definite conclusion has been reached. Glucosamine (GlcN) is widely used as a nutritional supplement. However, the clinical- evidence-based outcome of GlcN administration remains controversial. N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc), a derivative of GlcN, shows chondroprotective activity and mediates the activation of articular chondrocytes. Therefore, we investigated the effect of intra-articular administration of GlcNAc in rabbits knee joints with experimental full-thickness articular cartilage (FTAC) defects. Twelve male adult New Zealand white rabbits, providing 24 knees, were used in this study. FTAC defects were created in the high-weight-bearing area of the medial femoral condyles of bilateral knees. All rabbits were randomly allocated to analysis at postsurgical week 4 or postsurgical week 12. In the week 4 group, rabbits knees (six per group) were intra-articularly injected with normal saline or with GlcNAc twice per week
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrostatic pressure in articular cartilage tissue engineering. T2 - From chondrocytes to tissue regeneration. AU - Elder, Benjamin D.. AU - Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.. PY - 2009/3/1. Y1 - 2009/3/1. N2 - Cartilage has a poor intrinsic healing response, and neither the innate healing response nor current clinical treatments can restore its function. Therefore, articular cartilage tissue engineering is a promising approach for the regeneration of damaged tissue. Because cartilage is exposed to mechanical forces during joint loading, many tissue engineering strategies use exogenous stimuli to enhance the biochemical or biomechanical properties of the engineered tissue. Hydrostatic pressure (HP) is emerging as arguably one of the most important mechanical stimuli for cartilage, although no optimal treatment has been established across all culture systems. Therefore, this review evaluates prior studies on articular cartilage involving the use of HP, with a particular emphasis on the ...
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and limitations of autologous osteochondral grafting for the treatment of articular cartilage defects in the knee. Methods: The subjects were 40 patients who had undergone autologous osteochondral grafting. Fifteen knees had cartilage defects combined with anterior cruciate ligament tears (ACL group), 15 knees had cartilage defects combined with osteoarthritis (OA group), and 10 knees had cartilage defects combined with osteochondral dissecans (OCD group). From one to five osteochondral pegs were harvested from the less-weight-bearing periphery of the articular surface of the femoral condyle and grafted to cartilage defects. The clinical results were assessed based on the Lysholm score and radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image assessment. Results: The median follow-up duration was 24 months (range from 12 to 41 months). The mean Lysholm score following treatment was improved in all groups. The patients who had cartilage defects combined ...
The ability to heal soft tissue injuries and regenerate cartilage is the Holy Grail of musculoskeletal medicine. Articular cartilage repair and regeneration is considered to be largely intractable due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. Due to their low self-repair ability, cartilage defects that result from joint injury, aging, or osteoarthritis, are the most often irreversible and are a major cause of joint pain and chronic disability. However, current methods do not perfectly restore hyaline cartilage and may lead to the apparition of fibro- or continue hypertrophic cartilage. The lack of efficient modalities of treatment has prompted research into tissue engineering combining stem cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to repair, regenerate, and/or improve injured or diseased cartilage functionality, has evoked intense interest and holds great potential for improving cartilage therapy. Plasma-rich ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Altered mechanics of tibial cartilage following joint immobilization in a canine model. AU - Setton, Lori A.. AU - Perry, Charles H.. AU - LeRoux, Michelle A.. AU - Wang, Jean Y.. AU - Howell, David S.. AU - Cheung, Herman S.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - To study the effect of immobilization, the compressive and shear properties of articular cartilage were quantified at sites corresponding to those of elevated MMP staining on the tibial plateau of mongrel dogs. Cartilage samples were tested in compression and torsion on a displacement-controlled rheometer. The samples were weighed after testing and again after lyophilization to determine water content as the percentage of tissue wet weight. The results support the hypothesis that knee joint immobilization will produce deleterious changes in cartilage function at the tibial plateau.. AB - To study the effect of immobilization, the compressive and shear properties of articular cartilage were quantified at sites corresponding to those ...
Orthopedic knee surgeons at OrthoNorCal in Morgan Hill, Watsonville, Santa Cruz County and Santa Clara County, CA offers knee surgery to treat patellofemoral problems, knee osteoarthritis, knee pain, articular cartilage damage, patellar dislocation and patellar malalignment.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Frictional response of articular cartilage containing crystals. AU - Clift, Sally E. AU - Harris, B. AU - Dieppe, P A. AU - Hayes, A. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Many joint diseases are associated with the deposition of crystals in articular cartilage. Three main types are commonly found: calcium pyrophosphate, calcium hydroxyapatite and monosodium urate. The effects of these articular crystals on the frictional properties and the surface condition of the articular cartilage were studied. A total of 43 cartilage specimens cut from 19 post-mortem knee joints have been tested in purpose-designed apparatus. The results show that a high friction coefficient and a high level of crystal deposition tend to occur with a worsening of the surface quality of the articular cartilage. AB - Many joint diseases are associated with the deposition of crystals in articular cartilage. Three main types are commonly found: calcium pyrophosphate, calcium hydroxyapatite and monosodium urate. The effects ...
Destruction of articular cartilage is a characteristic feature of osteoarthritis (OA). Collagen hydrolysates are mixtures of collagen peptides and have gained huge public attention as nutriceuticals used for prophylaxis of OA. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether different bovine collagen hydrolysate preparations indeed modulate the metabolism of collagen and proteoglycans from human OA cartilage explants and determined the chemical composition of oligopeptides representing collagen fragments. Using biophysical techniques, like MALDI-TOF-MS, AFM, and NMR, the molecular weight distribution and aggregation behavior of collagen hydrolysates from bovine origin (CH-Alpha®, Peptan™ B 5000, Peptan™ B 2000) were determined. To investigate the metabolism of human femoral OA cartilage, explants were obtained during knee replacement surgery. Collagen synthesis of explants as modulated by 0-10 mg/ml collagen hydrolysates was determined using a novel dual radiolabeling procedure. Proteoglycans, NO,
Hopping provides efficient and energy saving locomotion for kangaroos, but it results in great forces in the knee joints. A previous study has suggested that a unique fibrous cartilage in the central region of the tibial cartilage could serve to decrease the peak stresses generated within kangaroo tibiofemoral joints. However, the influences of the microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the central fibrous and peripheral hyaline cartilage on the function of the knee joints are still to be defined. The present study showed that the fibrous cartilage was thicker and had a lower chondrocyte density than the hyaline cartilage. Despite having a higher PG content in the middle and deep zones, the fibrous cartilage had an inferior compressive strength compared to the peripheral hyaline cartilage. The fibrous cartilage had a complex three dimensional collagen meshwork with collagen bundles parallel to the surface in the superficial zone, and with collagen bundles both parallel and ...
Objective: To investigate the effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (EMF) on articular cartilage matrix biosynthesis with regard to age and cartilage damage using a matrix depleted cartilage explant model.. Methods: Cartilage explants were obtained from metacarpophalangeal joints of calves and adult cows. After depletion of the extracellular matrix by trypsin digestion, samples were maintained in serum-free basal medium with and without the addition of interleukin 1β (IL1β). Half the samples were subjected to an EMF for 24 minutes daily; the other half were left untreated. Undigested and untreated explants served as negative controls. After 7 days, biosynthesis of matrix macromolecules was assessed by [35S]sulphate incorporation and values were normalised to hydroxyproline content.. Results: The EMF increased matrix macromolecule synthesis in undigested, untreated explants (p,0.009). In matrix depleted samples the EMF had no stimulatory effect on proteoglycan biosynthesis. IL1β ...
Background: Recent studies have provided evidence that integrins play roles in recognition of mechanical stimuli and its translation into a cellular response. Integrin signaling may be regulated by a number of mechanisms including accessory proteins such as CD98 (4F2 antigen). Objectives: To determine CD98 expression by human articular chondrocytes and its involvement in human articular mechanotransduction. Methods: CD98 expression was assessed by immunostaining of cryostat sections of snap frozen articular cartilage and in cultured cells by western blotting. Chondrocytes enzymatically isolated from macroscopically normal and osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilage were grown in short term, primary monolayer culture and used in a resting state or following mechanical stimulation at 0.33Hz. Results: Human articular chondrocytes express CD98 and immunoreactivity revealed a similar heterogeneous pattern of CD98 in both normal and osteoarthritic (OA) human articular cartilage. No role of CD98 was detected
Purpose: To systematize the available scientific literature on the prevalence of articular cartilage and/or osteo- chondral lesions in football (soccer) players knees, and overview the surgical procedures and functional outcomes and return to sports. Methods: A comprehensive search using Pubmed, Cochrane Library, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases was carried out until September 30, 2015. All English language studies that assessed the outcomes of a surgical technique for the treatment of articular cartilage lesions in football players knees, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months, were included. The reference list of the most relevant papers was screened. The main outcomes of interest were the clinical, arthroscopy or imaging primary outcomes and the return to sports rate. The methodological and reporting qualities were assessed according to Coleman methodology score. Results: The search provided 485 titles and abstracts. Five studies were eligible for inclusion (mean Coleman score of 37.2 ...
ACI or autologous chondrocyte implantation is one way to biologically restore more normal functioning acticular cartilage tissue. In the picture above, there is a full thickness, large osteochondral defect in this case of the lateral femoral condyle. You can see the defect hematoma that develops which will lead to the development of scar cartilage. This is the bodys normal attempt to heal this injury, but we know that scar cartilage doesnt function like normal hyaline cartilage and will not last. ACI procedure will attempt to replace this scar cartilage with the patients own articular cartilage cells that have been grown in the lab. The following sequence of pictures will show steps of the procedure. Click image for larger view.. #gallery-1 { margin: auto; } #gallery-1 .gallery-item { float: left; margin-top: 10px; text-align: center; width: 50%; } #gallery-1 img { border: 2px solid #cfcfcf; } #gallery-1 .gallery-caption { margin-left: 0; } /* see gallery_shortcode() in wp-includes/media.php ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a one year programme of running training (up to 40 km/day for 15 weeks) on the spatial orientation pattern of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage in different parts of the knee (stifle) and shoulder joints of young beagle dogs. METHODS: Area specific measurements of the optical path difference (= retardation, gamma) and the cartilage zone thickness were performed using conventional procedures and a new computer based quantitative polarised light microscopy method. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the zonal volume density of collagen fibrils. The concentrations of collagen and hydroxypyridinium crosslinks were investigated biochemically. RESULTS: Running training decreased gamma by 24-34% (p , 0.05) in the superficial zone of the lateral femoral condyle articular cartilage and at the centre of the tibial condyles. Gamma of glycosaminoglycans decreased by 26% (p , 0.05) in the superficial zone of the lateral condyle ...
The efficacy of the biphasic poroviscoelastic (BPVE) theory [1] in constitutive modeling of articular cartilage biomechanics is well-established [2-4]. Indeed, this model has been used to simultaneously predict stress relaxation force across confined compression, unconfined compression, and indentation protocols [2,3]. Previous works have also demonstrated success in simultaneously curve-fitting the BPVE model to reaction force and lateral deformation data gathered from stress relaxation tests of articular cartilage in unconfined compression [4]. However, a potential limitation of practical applications of such a successful model is seen in some commonly-employed mechanical testing methods for articular cartilage, such as confined compression and unconfined compression. These methods require the excision of a disk of cartilage from its underlying subchondral base, which likely would compromise the structural integrity of the tissue, causing swelling and curling artifacts of the sample [5]. ...
Theoretical and experimental studies were performed to address the relationships between the microstructure, composition, and mechanical behaviors of articular cartilage and hydrogel-based engineered constructs for functional tissue engineering of articular cartilage. The contributions of the two major components of articular cartilage - negatively charged proteoglycans and bimodular collagen fibrils - to electromechanical properties was described by a triphasic model (Lai, Hou et al, 1991) that is incorporated with conewise linear elasticity constitutive model (Cumier, He et al 1995). The model was solved analytically for the unconfined compression stress relaxation. The fixed charge density of the tissue was successfully quantitatively calculated from stress-relaxation experiments on whole tissue samples. The interaction between collagen and proteoglycans, and the resulting residual stress and curling behaviors of cartilage strips were analyzed with a layeredinhomogeneous, orthotropic, ...
By Nathan K. Endres, MD. Chances are, anyone reading this right now has dealt with knee pain. Whether youre a skier, boarder, climber, hiker, runner, biker or maybe even a paddler - most of us have had a knee problem at some point.. Some knee problems seem to get better and go away, while others can linger and interfere with activities and, sometimes, just daily life.. There are lots of causes of knee pain. One of the most common causes is articular cartilage damage. Articular cartilage is a specialized tissue made up of water, collagen and cells (chondrocytes) surrounded by a matrix. Cartilage is the bearing surface of any joint. Normal cartilage provides a nearly frictionless interface to allow for smooth motion.. In the knee, cartilage covers the end of the femur (thigh bone), the top of the tibia (shin bone) and the back of the patella (knee cap). Normally, cartilage looks white and shiny - like the inside of a coconut, or a cue ball. It is good at resisting compression, but not as good at ...
Lubricin, a heavily O-glycosylated protein, is essential for boundary lubrication of articular cartilage. Strong surface adherence of lubricin is required given the extreme force it must withstand. Disulfide bound complexes of lubricin and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) have recently been identified in arthritic synovial fluid suggesting they may be lost from the cartilage surface in osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis. This investigation was undertaken to localise COMP-lubricin complexes within cartilage and investigate if other cartilage proteins are involved in anchoring lubricin to the joint. Immunohistochemical analysis of human cartilage biopsies showed lubricin and COMP co-localise to the cartilage surface. COMP knockout mice, however, presented with a lubricin layer on the articular cartilage leading to the further investigation of additional lubricin binding mechanisms. Proximity ligation assays (PLA) on human cartilage biopsies was used to localise additional lubricin ...
Lameness caused by osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common reason for failure to race among horses. Degenerative changes to the articular cartilage are commonly seen often with subchondral bone sclerosis. Cartilage is a connective tissue with tensile strength and resilience, consisting of cells and abundant extracellular matrix. The cells are adapting the matrix to environmental conditions by synthesis and degradation of the matrix structural elements. A change in the concentration of macromolecules in synovial fluid and serum can indicate early biochemical changes in the joint. This provides a tool for research into and monitoring pathogenic mechanisms of OA. The content of COMP, aggrecan and collagen type II was measured in serum and synovial fluid (sf) from trotters and riding horses with either normal joints or joints with different stages of cartilage pathology. The trotters with a training background and cartilage degeneration had low concentrations of COMP and aggrecan in synovial fluid ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The characterization of versican and its message in human articular cartilage and intervertebral disc. AU - Sztrolovics, Robert. AU - Grover, Judy. AU - Cs-Szabo, Gabriella. AU - Shi, Shui Liang. AU - Zhang, Yiping. AU - Mort, John S.. AU - Roughley, Peter J.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Splicing variation of the versican message and size heterogeneity of the versican core protein were analyzed in human articular cartilage and intervertebral disc. Splicing variation of the message was studied by PCR analysis to detect the presence or absence of exons 7 and 8, which encode large chondroitin sulfate attachment regions. At all ages in normal cartilage from the third trimester fetus to the mature adult, the presence of the versican isoform possessing exon 8 but not exon 7 (V1) could be readily detected. The message isoforms possessing neither exon 7 nor 8 (V3) or both exons 7 and 8 (V0) were only detectable in the fetus, and the isoform possessing only exon 7 (V2) was never detected. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Pure cartilage-based repair modalities of focal cartilage lesions. AU - Bárdos, T.. PY - 2013/6/1. Y1 - 2013/6/1. N2 - Focal cartilage lesions in diarthrodial joints have a limited capacity to heal, and repair techniques used at present are still unable to provide a universal solution. Osteochondral auto- and allografts are accepted and successful methods for the treatment of these lesions, but occasionally the osseal incorporation is delayed or insufficient and graft integration might be unsuccessful. Failure at this level generates a large osseos crater and the consequences can prove challenging. Until just a few years ago, it was a generally accepted dogma that when cartilage is detached from the subchondral bone it would fail to reintegrate to its bed and its surrounding cartilage. Recently, innovative approaches have been established to repair cartilage defects using pure cartilage-based implants, and so far they seem to have had considerable success. One of the available ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Imaging of immature articular cartilage using ultrasound backscatter microscopy at 50 MHz. AU - Kim, H. K W. AU - Babyn, P. S.. AU - Harasiewicz, K. A.. AU - Gahunia, H. K.. AU - Pritzker, K. P H. AU - Foster, F. S.. PY - 1995/11. Y1 - 1995/11. N2 - A high frequency sonographic technique-ultrasound backscatter microscopy-was used to visualize the subsurface structure of immature porcine articular cartilage from the knee joint. In 20‐week‐old pigs, all parts that were scanned, except the weight‐bearing regions of the femoral condyles, demonstrated heterogeneous ultrasound backscatter characteristics within the articular cartilage. A trilaminar pattern consisting of hypoechoic, hyperechoic, and anechoic layers ranging from superficial to deep generally was observed, except in the weight‐bearing regions of the femoral condyles, where a homogeneous anechoic pattern was seen. In the younger pigs (6 and 10 weeks old), the trilaminar backscatter pattern was not observed. Small, ...
Dr Suzanne Miller in Waltham, Dedham and Boston, MA offers osteochondral autograft transplantation to treat articular cartilage (AC) defects. Articular cartilage can be damaged by trauma such as accidents or mechanical injury.
Aigner, Thomas, Gebhard, Pia Margarethe, Schmid, Erik, Bau, Brigitte, Harley, Vincent and Poschl, Ernst (2003) SOX9 expression does not correlate with type II collagen expression in adult articular chondrocytes. Matrix Biology, 22 (4). pp. 363-372. ISSN 1569-1802 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Microfracture surgery is used to repair articular cartilage damage in the knee, is performed by Andrew L DeGruccio in Louisville, Kentucky.
Cartilage lesions are common injury and mostly affect the articular cartilage. Cartilage lesions treatment is offered at Texas Institute for Hip & Knee Surgery in Austin, Texas.
There are many causes for painful worn cartilage in the knee joint: arthritis, arthrosis, traumas with bone- or cartilage lesions or metabolic disorders like gout or hemochromatosis. © bilderzwerg @ fotolia. Osteoarthritis (worn cartilage) is the most common joint condition. The most common form of osteoarthritis is osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis of the knee causes chronic pain and limits movement. The cartilage in the knee wears away over many years. Since the cartilage has no sensitive nerve endings (pain sensors), damage is only noticed when the defects already affect the bone beneath the cartilage.. A cartilage transplant, or cartilage cell or chondrocyte transplant, is a new surgical procedure: in which cartilage damage is repaired using cartilage cells from the patients own body. Few knee specialists in Germany successfully perform this procedure. Dr Baum was the first physician in the world to perform an entirely arthroscopic cartilage transplant of the knee. He co-developed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression and regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 by IL-1β and fibronectin fragments in human articular chondrocytes. AU - Su, S. L.. AU - Tsai, C. D.. AU - Lee, C. H.. AU - Salter, D. M.. AU - Lee, Herng Sheng. PY - 2005/10. Y1 - 2005/10. N2 - Objective: The objective of this study was to examine expression and regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in human articular chondrocytes. Methods: Human articular chondrocytes were enzymatically isolated from normal and osteoarthritic knee cartilage. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to assess the expression of toll-like receptors. Following stimulation of chondrocytes in vitro by IL-1β and fibronectin proteolytic fragments, the relative levels of mRNA for TLR2 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. MyD88 activation and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation were evaluated by immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, ...
This causes it to heal very slowly. So, you can find hyaline cartilage in the larynx and trachea in the throat portion of the body, and then also in all of the joints where the surfaces of bones are articulating each other. Cartilage is a type of connective tissue found in the body. It has a capacity for rapid interstitial and appositional growth in young and growing tissues. Three types of cartilage(hyaline cartilage, white fibrocartilage, and yellow elastic cartilage) can be distinguished on the basis of the composition and structure of their extracellular matrices, but many features of the cells and matrix are common to all three types, and these features will be considered first. This smooth, transparent, glassy type of cartilage coats the ends … This cartilage is of three types as. Articular cartilage is a physiologically non-self-renewing avascular tissue with a singular cell type, the chondrocyte, which functions as the load-bearing surface of the arthrodial joint. Cartilage is a ...
Bioprinting is a promising tool to fabricate well-organized cell-laden constructs for repair and regener- ation of articular cartilage. The selection of a suitable bioink, in terms of composition and mechanical properties, is crucial for the development of viable cartilage substitutes. In this study, we focused on the use of one of the main cartilage components, hyaluronic acid (HA), to design and formulate a new bioink for cartilage tissue 3D bioprinting. Major characteristics required for this application such as printabil- ity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability were analyzed. To produce cartilage constructs with optimal mechanical properties, HA-based bioink was co-printed with polylactic acid (PLA). HA-based bioink was found to improve cell functionality by an increase in the expression of chondrogenic gene markers and specific matrix deposition and, therefore, tissue formation. These results indicate that it is a promising bioink candidate for cartilage tissue engineering based in 3D ...
0078] The histology of knee cartilage samples taken at different time points was analyzed to observe the repair role of rhMK revealed temporally (FIG. 2). rhMK was shown promoting the repair of rabbit knee full-thickness injuries with regenerated chondrocytes 2 weeks (FIGS. 2 A and B), 4 weeks (FIGS. 2 C and D), and 12 weeks (FIGS. 2 E and F) after the knee surgical operation creating the damage model. The rectangle in FIG. 2 A, C and E marks the areas which are enlarged and shown in FIG. 2 B, D and F, respectively. In Figure A and C, arrow points to the chondrocytes which are growing into the injury site. At 2 weeks after the surgery, although the central area of injury was filled with fibrous cells, incomplete hyaline cartilage layer appeared forming the cylindrical repair cartilage layer (FIG. 2A). The new cartilage layer contained the typical chondrocytes which resided in clusters in specific cartilage lacuna (FIG. 2B). At 4 weeks after the surgery, the complete cylindrical repair cartilage ...
Osteoarthritis (OA), a non-inflammatory, degenerative disease of articular cartilages, is a common cause of poor performance and early retirement in equine athletes. Pathologically, OA is characterized by matrix degradation and decreased chondrocyte numbers. A mechanical stress is believed to be the major etiologic factor of OA development. Recent studies have indicated that apoptosis is responsible for hypocellularity in OA cartilage and that chondrocyte death by apoptosis could directly contribute to matrix degradation. Increased nitric oxide (NO), a free radical, has been implicated as a cause of chondrocyte apoptosis. No studies, however, have been performed on chondrocyte apoptosis in equine OA. We investigated chondrocyte apoptosis in equine OA cartilage and its relationship to matrix degradation and NO production. Furthermore, we studied whether mechanical stress could induce chondrocyte apoptosis and how NO production and Bcl-2 and caspase-3 proteins contribute to chondrocyte apoptosis by using
Patellar luxations contribute to cartilage erosion which can be developing to cartilage degradation. This research divided to 2 studies. The objectives of the first study were to prevalence of cartilage erosion in dogs with patellar luxation and relation between cartilage erosion and severity of patellar luxation. Sixty dogs with patellar luxation, 48.65% was grade III patellar luxation and 35.14 was grade IV patellar luxation. There was a relation between cartilage erosion and severity of patellar luxation. In second study, the objective was to study of gene expression of osteoarthritis in articular cartilage from dogs with patellar luxation. 34 dogs divided into 4 groups, group 1 was dogs with normal articular cartilage (Nor) (n=5), group 2 stifle osteoarthritic dogs (OA) (n=13), group 3 was dogs with patellar luxation and not found cartilage erosion (PL) (n=6), and group 4 was dogs with patellar luxation and found cartilage erosion (PLCE) (n=10). HAS-1, HAS-2, COL2A1, MMP-3, IL-1, AGG-1 and ...
Polymer scaffold use has become commonplace in tissue engineering strategies. Scaffolds provide sturdy interfaces that securely anchor tissue engineered constructs to their designated locations. Researchers have used scaffolds to provide support to developing tissues as well as a growth template to aid the development of the desired phenotypic structure. In addition to using scaffolds for their mechanical support, scaffolds can be used as a diagnostic tool by attaching sensors. Strain gauge sensors have been attached to scaffolds to monitor compression and elongation. These polybutylterphalate (PBT) scaffolds were used in a cartilage tissue-engineering project for femoral cartilage repair. The aim of this project was to measure native cartilage pressure in normal canine stifle joints using strain gauge scaffolds. By using pressure sensitive films to confirm joint surface pressures determined with strain gauge measurements, sensate scaffolds were created to be able to provide in vivo joint ...
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease and a major cause of disability and pain.1 The OA prevalence has doubled since the mid-20th century2 with an expected higher incidence in the future.3 The annual total medical cost per person suffering from OA is on average €11 100.4 Articular cartilage breakdown is the hallmark of OA, with aggrecan loss being an early sign of tissue degeneration. Many factors such as age, body mass index (BMI), knee injury, inflammation, sex and family history independently, and as a result of their interaction, contribute to its development and progression.5 6 For example, approximately every second major knee injury from sports results in OA 10-15 years later,7-9 and it has been estimated that at least 12% of the total burden of knee OA originates from knee injury.10 Hypothetically, interventions targeting younger patients at increased risk of OA (eg, following sports injury), or in the early stages of the disease, increase the chances of slowing ...
Oral administration of doxycycline has been shown to reduce the severity of articular cartilage breakdown in various animal models of osteoarthritis (OA). This disease modifying effect is associated with reductions in the levels of active and total collagenase and gelatinase in extracts of articular …
It is key for successful auricular (AUR) cartilage tissue-engineering (TE) to ensure that the engineered cartilage mimics the mechanics of the native tissue. This study provides a spatial map of the mechanical and biochemical properties of human auricular cartilage, thus establishing a benchmark for the evaluation of functional competency in AUR cartilage TE. Stress-relaxation indentation (instantaneous modulus, Ein; maximum stress, σmax; equilibrium modulus, Eeq; relaxation half-life time, t1/2; thickness, h) and biochemical parameters (content of DNA; sulfated-glycosaminoglycan, sGAG; hydroxyproline, HYP; elastin, ELN) of fresh human AUR cartilage were evaluated. Samples were categorized into age groups and according to their harvesting region in the human auricle (for AUR cartilage only). AUR cartilage displayed significantly lower Ein, σmax, Eeq, sGAG content; and significantly higher t1/2, and DNA content than NAS cartilage. Large amounts of ELN were measured in AUR cartilage (,15% ELN ...
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Our findings show that OVX-induced cessation of endogenous oestrogen production influenced the integrity and morphology of articular cartilage, and EA and ERT prevented the further incidence of cartilage surface erosion in OVX rabbits. Furthermore, EA increased the OVX-induced reduction in serum oestrogens levels while decreasing MMP-13 mRNA and protein levels in OVX rabbits. In addition, the body weight of the rabbits decreased after acupuncture. All of these findings suggest that EA could exert chondroprotective effects by increasing oestrogen levels, inhibiting the production of MMP-13 and reducing body weight.. Studies have shown that OVX cynomolgus monkeys and OVX rats can be used to model postmenopausal OA, which presents OA-like pathological changes.5 ,28 The results are consistent with the results of our study. Several experimental studies have clearly shown that oestrogen increases cartilage turnover and surface erosion through complex molecular mechanisms on multiple levels. In studies ...
If an articular cartilage injury - better described as focal chondral defect - is suspected, your doctor may do a thorough clinical exam and ask about previous injuries and surgeries to the joint; x-rays and a MRI scan of the involved joint; and possibly arthroscopy of the joint.
INTRODUCTION: Lubricin, one of the main lubricating constituents of synovial fluid, has been targeted as a prospective therapeutic option to inhibit the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA) [1]. Prior in vitro studies have shown lubricin to reduce frictional forces at articular cartilage surfaces by as much as 70% [2]. Numerous analogues of this glycoprotein have been
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common debilitating disease resulting from the degeneration of articular cartilage. The major protein of cartilage is type II collagen, which is encoded by the COL2A1 gene. Mutations at this locus have been discovered in several individuals with inherited disorders of cartilage. We have identified 27 primary OA patients who are heterozygous for sequence dimorphisms located in the coding region of COL2A1. These dimorphisms were used to distinguish the mRNA output from each of the two COL2A1 alleles in articular cartilage obtained from each patient. Three patients demonstrated differential allelic expression and produced | 12% of the normal level of mRNA from one of their COL2A1 alleles. The same allele shows reduced expression in all three patients, and this allele is more frequent in a well-defined OA population than in a control group, suggesting the possible existence of a rare COL2A1 allele that predisposes to OA.
Since articular cartilage does not have a blood supply and chondrocytes (cells in articular cartilage) have limited mobility, ... Though articular cartilage damage is not life-threatening, it does strongly affect one's quality of life. Articular cartilage ... Articular cartilage damage may also be found in the shoulder causing pain, discomfort and limited movement. Articular cartilage ... Articular Cartilage Repair of the Knee MRI-scans are becoming more valuable in the analysis of articular cartilage but their ...
... treatment is focused on the restoration of the surface of an articular joint's hyaline cartilage. ... Rehabilitation following any articular cartilage repair procedure is paramount for the success of any articular cartilage ... scientists have striven to replace damaged articular cartilage with healthy articular cartilage. Previous repair procedures, ... First, cartilage cells are extracted arthroscopically from the patient's healthy articular cartilage that is located in a non ...
... not true hyaline articular cartilage. Knowing that fibrocartilage was not as durable as articular cartilage and that its ... "Articular cartilage paste grafting to full-thickness articular cartilage knee joint lesions: a 2- to 12-year follow-up". ... Articular cartilage is a connective tissue overlying the ends of bones that provides smooth joint surfaces. Healthy cartilage ... Stone, KR; Walgenbach, A (1997). "Surgical technique for articular cartilage transplantation to full-thickness cartilage ...
They reported a case study in which a full-thickness defect in the articular cartilage of a human knee was successfully ... Saw, KY; Anz A; Merican S; Tay YG; Ragavanaidu K; Jee CS; McGuire DA (April 2011). "Articular cartilage regeneration with ... Recent research demonstrates that articular cartilage may be able to be repaired via percutaneous introduction of mesenchymal ... Johnstone B, Yoo JU (1999). "Autologous mesenchymal progenitor cells in articular cartilage repair". Clin Orthop Relat Res. 367 ...
Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.; Darling, Eric M.; Hu, Jerry C.; DuRaine, Grayson D.; Reddi, A. Hari (2013). Articular Cartilage. CRC ... Osteoarthritis begins in the cartilage and eventually causes the two opposing bones to erode into each other. The condition ... In rheumatoid arthritis, most damage occurs to the joint lining and cartilage which eventually results in erosion of two ... For more severe cases of osteoarthritis, intra-articular corticosteroid injections may also be considered. The drugs to treat ...
Much of his scientific work relates to osteogenesis, articular cartilage lesions and articular cartilage repair surgery. ... Articular Cartilage. In: Principles of regenerative medicine. Atala A, Lanza R, Nerem R, Thomson JA (Eds.) Elsevier Science & ...
Abazari A, Jomha NM, Elliott JA, McGann LE (2013). "Cryopreservation of articular cartilage". Cryobiology. 66 (3): 201-209. doi ... central nervous system Immune privilege is also believed to occur to some extent or able to be induced in articular cartilage. ... Fujihara Y, Takato T, Hoshi K (2014). "Macrophage-inducing FasL on chondrocytes forms immune privilege in cartilage tissue ...
Scott, C. Corey; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A. (2006). "Mechanical Impact and Articular Cartilage". Critical Reviews in Biomedical ... cartilage, ligaments, and tendons. Bone and cartilage, as load-bearing biological materials, are of interest to both a medical ... Cartilage damage and fracture can contribute to osteoarthritis, a joint disease that results in joint stiffness and reduced ... Studying bone and cartilage can motivate the design of resilient synthetic materials that could aid in joint replacements. ...
"Nonlinear optical microscopy of articular cartilage". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 13 (4): 345-352. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2004.12 ... Also, pathologies in cartilage such as osteoarthritis can be probed by polarization-resolved SHG microscopy,. SHIM was later ... It can be found in tendon, skin, bone, cornea, aorta, fascia, cartilage, meniscus, intervertebral disks... Myosin can also be ... "Collagen fiber arrangement in normal and diseased cartilage studied by polarization sensitive nonlinear microscopy". Journal of ...
Though articular cartilage damage is not life-threatening, it does strongly affect the quality of life. Articular cartilage ... Inflammation of cartilage in the ribs, causing chest pain. Osteoarthritis: The cartilage covering bones (articular cartilage) ... that contribute to articular cartilage repair. However, these procedures do not treat osteoarthritis. Marcarelli, Marco; Zappia ... Chondropathy refers to a disease of the cartilage. It is frequently divided into 5 grades, with 0-2 defined as normal and 3-4 ...
... one of the most affected tissues is the articular cartilage. The cartilage covering bones (articular cartilage-a subset of ... The compression of the articular cartilage or flexion of the elastic cartilage generates fluid flow, which assists the ... Other type of cartilage found in Limulus polyphemus is the endosternite cartilage, a fibrous-hyaline cartilage with ... The cephalopod cranial cartilage is the invertebrate cartilage that shows more resemblance to the vertebrate hyaline cartilage ...
Roughley PJ, White RJ (September 1989). "Dermatan sulphate proteoglycans of human articular cartilage. The properties of ...
Articular cartilage damage may also affect function of the skeletal system, and it can cause posttraumatic osteoarthritis. ... "Understanding Articular Cartilage Injury and Potential Treatments". Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma. 33 Suppl 6 (3): S6-S12. doi: ... Injuries of the external ear are typically lacerations of the cartilage or the formation of a hematoma. Injuries of the middle ... Unlike most bodily structures, cartilage cannot be healed once it is damaged. Injuries to the nervous system include brain ...
... is an important component of articular cartilage, where it is present as a coat around each cell (chondrocyte ... 1988). "Hyaluronic acid in human articular cartilage. Age-related changes in content and size". Biochem. J. 250 (2): 435-441. ... and that intra-articular injection of HA could possibly cause adverse effects. A 2020 meta-analysis found that intra-articular ... Hyaluronan is used in treatment of articular disorders in horses, in particular those in competition or heavy work. It is ...
Non-glycanated forms of biglycan (no GAG chains) increase with age in human articular cartilage. The composition of GAG chains ... Roughley PJ, White RJ (September 1989). "Dermatan sulphate proteoglycans of human articular cartilage. The properties of ... "Non-proteoglycan forms of biglycan increase with age in human articular cartilage". Biochem. J. 295 (2): 421-6. doi:10.1042/ ... Vynios DH, Papageorgakopoulou N, Sazakli H, Tsiganos CP (September 2001). "The interactions of cartilage proteoglycans with ...
The articular surfaces are coated with hyaline cartilage. In the cervical vertebral column, the articular processes ... The actual region of contact is called the articular facet. Articular processes spring from the junctions of the pedicles and ... The articular processes or zygapophyses (Greek ζυγον = "yoke" (because it links two vertebrae) + απο = "away" + φυσις = " ... The superior processes or prezygapophysis project upward from a lower vertebra, and their articular surfaces are directed more ...
Immediately afterwards, she again received articular cartilage surgery. After a few months of recovery, she participated in the ...
... a cell-based articular cartilage repair procedure that aims to provide complete hyaline repair tissues for articular cartilage ... forcing the patient to reengage in articular cartilage repair. The effectiveness of cartilage growth after microfracture ... "Articular cartilage repair of the knee" by Karen Hambly. www.cartilagehealth.com/acr.html Saris, D. B.; Vanlauwe, J.; Victor, J ... Microfracture surgery is an articular cartilage repair surgical technique that works by creating tiny fractures in the ...
Organization, chromosomal location, and expression in articular cartilage". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (37): ...
Replacement of hyaline cartilage (articular cartilage) is the most common application of synthetic cartilage. Cartilage is an ... Researchers have been exploring the use of hydrogels as a cartilage substitute since the 1970s. Natural articular cartilage is ... There are three types of cartilage in the human body: fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage and elastic cartilage. Each type of ... Tribological properties: The second main function of articular cartilage is that it can have little to no wear over the course ...
The most caudal portion of the mandibular cartilage ossifies to form the articular bone, while the remainder of the mandibular ... It is analogous to, but not homologous to the articular process of the lower jaw. After the loss of the quadrate-articular ... In mammals, the articular bone evolves to form the malleus, one of the mammalian ossicles of the middle ear. This is an ... The articular bone is part of the lower jaw of most vertebrates, including most jawed fish, amphibians, birds and various kinds ...
"Biomechanical properties of human articular cartilage under compressive loads". Biorheology. 41 (3-4): 159-166. ISSN 0006-355X ... Mansour, J. M. (2003). Biomechanics of cartilage. Kinesiology: the mechanics and pathomechanics of human movement, 2, 66-79. ...
... articular cartilage mechanics, drug delivery, and pathomechanisms of osteoarthritis. She is currently the Department Chair as ... "In situ crosslinking elastin-like polypeptide gels for application to articular cartilage repair in a goat osteochondral defect ... "Photocrosslinkable hyaluronan as a scaffold for articular cartilage repair". Ann Biomed Eng. 32 (3): 391-397. doi:10.1023/b: ... development of injectable hydrogels for articular cartilage repair, and development of injectable drug delivery vehicles for ...
These gels became very successful articular cartilage replacement systems. In 1978, he developed the same systems for in situ ... N.A. Peppas: "Hydrogels for Synthetic Articular Cartilage Applications," SPE Techn. Papers (NATEC), 62-63 (1977) Peppas, N. A ... 1979). "Characterization of homogeneous and pseudocomposite homopolymers and copolymers for articular cartilage replacement". ...
Self-assembling engineered articular cartilage was introduced by Jerry Hu and Kyriacos A. Athanasiou in 2006 and applications ... Hu JC, Athanasiou KA (April 2006). "A self-assembling process in articular cartilage tissue engineering". Tissue Engineering. ... Cartilage: lab-grown cartilage, cultured in vitro on a scaffold, was successfully used as an autologous transplant to repair ... Scaffold-free cartilage: Cartilage generated without the use of exogenous scaffold material. In this methodology, all material ...
Articular cartilage is the connective tissue that protects bones of load-bearing joints like knee, shoulder by providing a ... This mechanical responsiveness of articular cartilage is due to its biphasic nature; it contains both the solid and fluid ... Wong, M; Carter, D.R (July 2003). "Articular cartilage functional histomorphology and mechanobiology: a research perspective". ... "Comparison of the equilibrium response of articular cartilage in unconfined compression, confined compression and indentation ...
... and biochemical properties of this engineered cartilage approach those of native articular cartilage. More recently, the ... Athanasiou and his colleagues published the book Articular Cartilage. He published one of the first papers on the use of ... Athanasiou, K.A.; Darling, E.; DuRaine, G.; Hu, J.; Reddi, A.H.: Articular Cartilage, Second Edition, ISBN 978-1-4987-0622-3, ... His group has also demonstrated the fabrication of entire sections of articular cartilage by self-assembly of cells, without ...
"Mechanisms for asporin function and regulation in articular cartilage". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (44): 32185-92 ... ASPN belongs to a family of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins associated with the cartilage matrix. The name asporin reflects ...
One of the main mechanical functions of articular cartilage is to act as a low-friction, load-bearing surface. Due to its ... Behrens, Fred; Kraft, Ellen L.; Oegema, Theodore R. (1989). "Biochemical changes in articular cartilage after joint ... articular cartilage experiences a range of static and dynamic forces that include shear, compression and tension. These ... "Effect of Compressive Strain on Cell Viability in Statically Loaded Articular Cartilage". Biomechanics and Modeling in ...
The load now was distributed directly to the articular cartilage. In light of these findings, it is essential to preserve the ... In joints with intact menisci, the force was applied through the menisci and articular cartilage; however, a lesion in the ... While the ends of the thigh bone and the shin bone have a thin covering of soft hyaline cartilage, the menisci are made of ... When doctors and patients refer to "torn cartilage" in the knee, they actually may be referring to an injury to a meniscus at ...
Mesenchymal stem cell delivery scaffold with magnetic actuating system for articular cartilage regeneration. With size of 200~ ...
... osteolysis recessive Carpotarsal osteochondromatosis Carrington syndrome Cartilage hair hypoplasia like syndrome Cartilage-hair ... articular syndrome Chudley-Lowry-Hoar syndrome Chudley-Rozdilsky syndrome Chudley-Mccullough syndrome Churg-Strauss syndrome ... malformations hypertrichosis claw hands Cerebral palsy Cerebral thrombosis Cerebral ventricle neoplasms Cerebro facio articular ... vessels Congenital antithrombin III deficiency Congenital aplastic anemia Congenital arteriovenous shunt Congenital articular ...
These include cartilage/meniscus injuries, bone bruises, ACL tears, fractures, posterolateral injuries and collateral ligament ... toward the posterior of the tibia just below its articular surface. Although each PCL is a unified unit, they are described as ... An arthroscope allows a complete evaluation of the entire knee joint, including the knee cap (patella), the cartilage surfaces ...
Intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid are used to mitigate pain and treat symptoms of osteoarthritis in the knee, but ... Keratan sulfate is a heparinoid that is a component of cartilage. It is found in the cornea. Chitin, a component of insect ...
In all tetrapods the cartilage partially ossifies (changes to bone) at the rear end of the jaw and becomes the articular bone, ... Johann Friedrich Meckel, the Younger discovered this cartilage in 1820. Meckel's cartilage is a piece of cartilage from which ... Meckel's cartilage arises from the first pharyngeal arch. The dorsal end of each cartilage is connected with the ear-capsule ... the cartilage is covered in bone - although in their embryos the jaw initially develops as the Meckelian Cartilage. ...
However, an injury sustained during pre-season training, diagnosed as articular cartilage damage, kept him out for the whole ...
Manipulation of the fracture frequently results in osteonecrosis and the acute loss of articular cartilage (chondrolysis) ... While trauma has a role in the manifestation of the fracture, an intrinsic weakness in the physeal cartilage also is present. ... The fracture occurs at the hypertrophic zone of the physeal cartilage. Stress on the hip causes the epiphysis to move ...
... and other substances that contribute to damage the cartilage matrix and cause death of articular chondrocytes. A recent review ... More particularly, on the articular tissue, Ronca et al. reported that chondroitin sulfate is not rapidly absorbed in the ... Chondroitin sulfate is an important structural component of cartilage, and provides much of its resistance to compression. ... Ronca F, Palmieri L, Panicucci P, Ronca G. "Anti-inflammatory activity of chondroitin sulfate" Osteoarthritis and Cartilage ...
Articular cartilage, most notably that which is found in the knee joint, is generally characterized by very low friction, high ... Osteochondral Grafting of Articular Cartilage Injury at eMedicine (CS1 German-language sources (de), Implants (medicine), ... Saw, KY; Anz A; Merican S; Tay YG; Ragavanaidu K; Jee CS; McGuire DA (April 2011). "Articular cartilage regeneration with ... Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis, which is also known as AMIC, is a biological treatment option for articular cartilage ...
On the right side it had torsion of its humeral shaft, three bony tumors on its radius, a truncated articular surface of its ... such as cartilage, ligaments, and muscles) than what would be indicated by manipulation of bare bones. They found that the ... The mandible was slender and delicate at the front, but the articular region (where it connected with the skull) was massive, ...
Hansson AS, Lu S, Holmdahl R (2002). "Extra-articular cartilage affected in collagen-induced, but not pristane-induced, ... Loughlin J, Irven C, Sykes B (1995). "Exclusion of the cartilage link protein and the cartilage matrix protein genes as the ... 1999). "Enhancement of cell adhesion and spreading by a cartilage-specific noncollagenous protein, cartilage matrix protein ( ... Matrilin 1, cartilage matrix protein, also known as MATN1, is a matrilin protein which in humans is encoded by the MATN1 gene. ...
Any form of injury Articular cartilage damage Brain damage Cell damage, to a biological cell Nerve damage Somatic damage ( ...
... and the articular cartilage. In an experiment performed on rat muscles after twenty sessions of treadmill low intensity ...
The articular bone in one specimen was stouter than those in other ophthalmosaurids, which were nearly as thick as it was long ... The mid-line surface was unfinished and had deep pits, indicating the presence of a thick layer of cartilage. At the front, the ... The lower part of the scapula was expanded from front to back, forming a wide, rugose, articular, tear-drop-shaped surface that ... The top surfaces of the neural spines were often pitted, indicating they had a cartilage covering. The ribs were distinct in ...
"The fabella can lead to posterolateral knee pain either due to cartilage softening (chondromalacia fabellae) or other ... osteoarthritic changes on its articular surface." Fabella sign Berthaume, Michael A.; Di Federico, Erica; Bull, Anthony M. J. ( ...
However, several other injection studies have compared intra-articular with extra-articular injection, and indicate that the ... In this joint, hyaline cartilage on the sacral side moves against fibrocartilage on the iliac side. The sacroiliac joint ... 2007). "Effect of peri-articular and intra-articular lidocaine injections for sacroiliac joint pain: prospective comparative ... insights gained from a study comparing standard intra-articular injection with a technique combining intra- and peri-articular ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce the growth of bone and cartilage. BMP6 is able to induce all ... 2003). "Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 6 in healthy and osteoarthritic human articular chondrocytes and stimulation ...
... makes the articular cartilage becomes more hyperintense, while bone becomes hypointense. T2*-weighted sequences can be used ... weighted sequences are very useful for evaluation of articular cartilages and ligaments because a relatively long T2* ...
... commonly used in patients with Arthritis as it acts like a cushion to the bones which have depleted the articular cartilage ...
The lower articular surface was somewhat asymmetric and bent to the inner side from the left one, along with a wide and deep ... Near the scapulocoracoid suture, this edge turned very thin and possibly into cartilage along with the periphery of the ... The upper articular area was divided into inner and outer lateral sides. The lateral side had a triangular-shaped border and ... The upper articular facets were very symmetrical and had a crest-particularly taller in the first phalanx. The top border of ...
Proteins involved in autophagy are reduced with age in both human and mouse articular cartilage. Mechanical injury to cartilage ... Autophagy is constantly activated in normal cartilage but it is compromised with age and precedes cartilage cell death and ... Caramés B, Taniguchi N, Otsuki S, Blanco FJ, Lotz M (March 2010). "Autophagy is a protective mechanism in normal cartilage, and ... Caramés B, Olmer M, Kiosses WB, Lotz MK (June 2015). "The relationship of autophagy defects to cartilage damage during joint ...
The articular surface (the part that joints to another vertebra) of the axis (C2) is slightly concave on the front side, and ... Like many marsupials, most of the nasal septum is made of bone rather than cartilage. The nose would have been quite mobile. ... The front dorsals unusually match the short proportions of the cervicals, and the articular surface is flat. At the beginning ...
Blau syndrome Chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular syndrome Familial cold urticaria (familial cold ... Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (McKusick type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia) Cerebral dysgenesis-neuropathy-ichthyosis-keratoderma ... Morphea profunda Morphea-lichen sclerosus et atrophicus overlap Mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage syndrome ( ...
The mandibular fossa develops from condylar cartilage. This may be stimulated by SOX9 or ALK2, as has been seen in mouse models ... In the temporal bone, the mandibular fossa is bounded anteriorly by the articular tubercle and posteriorly by the tympanic ...
The fibrocartilage on the upper part of the ligament is continuous with the hyaline cartilage of the radial notch. At the ... together with which it forms the articular surface that surrounds the head and neck of the radius. The ligament is strong and ...
August 2021). "Long-term structural and symptomatic effects of intra-articular sprifermin in patients with knee osteoarthritis ... November 2017). "Sprifermin (rhFGF18) enables proliferation of chondrocytes producing a hyaline cartilage matrix". ... may need to be sustained over a period of multiple years to prevent recurrence of cartilage loss. Improvement in WOMAC, a ... Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 25 (11): 1858-1867. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2017.08.004. PMID 28823647. "Sprifermin - Merck". Adis ...
Hakala BE, White C, Recklies AD (December 1993). "Human cartilage gp-39, a major secretory product of articular chondrocytes ... Chitinase activity can also be detected in human blood and possibly cartilage. As in plant chitinases this may be related to ... Recklies AD, White C, Ling H (July 2002). "The chitinase 3-like protein human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC-gp39) stimulates ...
... articular cartilage may atrophy,: 46 leading to narrowed joint spaces. Depending on the degree of spasticity, a person with CP ...
Each carries two articular facets, a superior and an inferior. The superior facets are of large size, oval, concave, and ... At birth, the anterior arch consists of cartilage; in this a separate center appears about the end of the first year after ... The inferior articular facets are circular in form, flattened or slightly convex and directed downward and medially, ... The lines of union extend across the anterior portions of the superior articular facets. Occasionally there is no separate ...
... improving outcomes in articular cartilage surgery and hastening return to play for many athletes ... Treatments for articular cartilage problems have come a long way. As I outlined in my last column, not every knee with a ... Cite this: Orthobiologics: A New Era for Articular Cartilage Surgery? - Medscape - Mar 18, 2016. ... a surgical technique used to repair damaged articular cartilage by making multiple small holes in the surface of the joint to ...
... imaging appearance of articular cartilage, spin-echo MR images of normal bovine patellar specimens were obtained with the ... Effects of collagen orientation on MR imaging characteristics of bovine articular cartilage Radiology. 1993 Jul;188(1):219-26. ... To determine the influence of collagen orientation on the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of articular cartilage, ... Because of the preferential alignment of water molecules associated with collagen, angular rotation of the cartilage in the ...
Articular cartilage injuries can occur as a result of either traumatic mechanical destruction or progressive mechanical ... Articular Cartilage Injury , Diagnosis & Treatments. How does a doctor know my child has an articular cartilage injury?. The ... In other words, articular cartilage is a very thin shock absorber.. Articular cartilage injuries can occur as a result of ... Mechanical degeneration of articular cartilage. Mechanical degeneration (wear and tear) of articular cartilage occurs with the ...
... to a clinical setting to provide beneficial information to surgeons trying to determine the quality of damaged cartilage in ... To better understand the progression of cartilage healing, this work used Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT- ... In this study, we determined the feasibility of IFOP assessment of cartilage repair tissue and support further development of ... To better understand the progression of cartilage healing, this work used Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT- ...
Articular cartilage repair (Characterised Chondrocyte Implantation) - . Choose Spire Leeds Hospital. ... Articular cartilage is the weight-bearing surface in joints, and cannot repair itself. Injury to articular cartilage typically ... Articular cartilage repair (Characterised Chondrocyte Implantation) at Spire Leeds Hospital. Enquire about this treatment Find ... This allows the consultant to fully assess the joint and remove a small sample of healthy articular cartilage cells. The cells ...
Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue, with limited ability to repair and self-renew. Defects in articular cartilage can ... articular cartilage; chondrocyte; microenvironment; regenerative medicine; articular cartilage repair; osteoarthritis. Dates:. ... Liu, Y., Shah, K.M. orcid.org/0000-0001-9909-6409 and Luo, J. (2021) Strategies for articular cartilage repair and regeneration ... In this review, we discuss the factors that affect cartilage homeostasis and function, and describe the emerging regenerative ...
Articular cartilage is the soft tissue that lines contacting surfaces of bones in synovial joints. Cartilage functions as a low ... Articular cartilage is the soft tissue that covers contacting surfaces of bones in synovial joints. Cartilage is composed of ... Temperature effects in articular cartilage biomechanics Ronald K. June, Ronald K. June * ... Articular cartilage structure, composition, and function. . In Orthopaedic Basic Science: Biology and Biomechanics of the ...
Treating Articular Cartilage Lesions in the Elbow with BioCartilage® Extracellular Matrix. Asheesh Bedi, MD, (Ann Arbor, MI) ...
... and Articular cartilage group (arthrotomy and MMx and ACLT followed by ESWT on medial articular cartilage). Evaluations ... cartilage grading score and grading of synovium changes by compared with OA and Articular cartilage groups (P , 0.05) in the ... articular cartilage and subchondral bone, and compared with ESWT on the meniscus, medial tibial subchondral bone and articular ... MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5 in the cartilage by compared with OA group and Articular cartilage group (P , 0.05). Our results showed ...
Articular cartilage is an avascular and flexible connective tissue found in joints. It produces a cushioning effect at the ... One of the common forms of articular cartilage disease which has a huge impact on patients life is arthritis. Research on ... Cell and tissue engineering of articular cartilage via regulation and alignment of primary chondrocyte using manipulated ... Cartilage cell, called chondrocyte is embedded in the matrix (Lacunae) and has round shape in vivo. The in vitro monolayer ...
M24.19 Other articular cartilage disorders, other specified site. ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Codes. ... M24.19 - Other articular cartilage disorders, other specified site. The above description is abbreviated. This code description ...
Articular cartilage lesions of the knee - a prospective arthroscopic study Details about the project - category. Details about ... Articular cartilage lesions in 993 consecutive knee arthroscopies Årøen, Asbjørn; Løken, Sverre; Heir, Stig; Alvik, Elling; ... Information about project titled Articular cartilage lesions of the knee - a prospective arthroscopic study. Return to ... Cartilage defects of the athletes knee implies serious limitations for further career at the top level and could result in pain ...
SR-OCSA was used to visualize and measure the viscoelastic properties of articular cartilage via attenuation coefficient of ... The purpose of this study was to establish an approach for measuring mechanical properties of articular cartilage using SR-OCSA ... and to investigate the distribution of viscoelastic properties of articular cartilage in early osteoarthritis. Anterior ... As cartilage degeneration progressed, ACSR increased, whereas relaxation time decreased in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, ...
These processes are known as articular cartilage restoration.. OVERVIEW. Articular cartilage restoration is a broad term used ... They can be eased through procedures called articular cartilage restoration.. ANATOMY. Articular cartilage is a relatively soft ... ARTICULAR CARTILAGE RESTORATION. Once cartilage is damaged, it is slow to heal. Physicians have created many methods to help ... Damaged articular cartilage often produces a noticeable amount of pain. Such discomfort can worsen when you engage in certain ...
... on proteoglycan metabolism by bovine articular cartilage in explant culture. When these growth factors were added to articular ... on proteoglycan metabolism by bovine articular cartilage in explant culture. When these growth factors were added to articular ... on proteoglycan metabolism by bovine articular cartilage in explant culture. When these growth factors were added to articular ... on proteoglycan metabolism by bovine articular cartilage in explant culture. When these growth factors were added to articular ...
... isolated from young mice-rejuvenates the knee articular cartilage (AC) of naturally aged mice. This intervention reduced ... in aged cartilage. Treatment with young MDSPCs also increased expression of pro-regenerative (,i,Col2a1,/i, and ,i,Acan,/i,) ... cartilage growth, and telomere protection. Indeed, the AC of MDSPC-treated mice exhibited reduced age-related histological ...
IN SITU TISSUE ENGINEERING USING STEM CELLS AND FUNCTIONAL BIOMATERIALS TO REPAIR ARTICULAR CARTILAGE: AN "IN VIVO MODEL" ... "in situ tissue engineering using stem cells and functional biomaterials to repair articular cartilage: an "in vivo model" ( ...
Basic Science of Articular Cartilage. Camila B Carballo, Yusuke Nakagawa, Ichiro Sekiya, Scott A Rodeo ... Basic Science of Articular Cartilage. Clinics in sports medicine. 2017 Jul;36(3):413-425 ... The most challenging aspects in treating articular cartilage injury include identifying the cellular and molecular mechanism(s ... and understanding how they affect the structural integrity of the articular cartilage and tissue remodeling. Several treatment ...
Here, based on the cartilage matrix, biomimetic hydrogels for articular cartilage defects repairment were developed. For ... Biomimetic photo-responsive hydrogels for articular cartilage defects repair. dc.contributor.advisor. Shipston, Michael. ... Cartilage defects are important pathological features of OA. Challenges remain in both partial-thickness cartilage defects and ... partial-thickness cartilage defect repair. Mimicking the natural cartilage, the tissue adhesive hydrogel "joint paint" is ...
Articular Cartilage Regeneration in Osteoarthritis. Livia Roseti, Giovanna Desando, Carola Cavallo, Mauro Petretta, Brunella ... Roseti, L., Desando, G., Cavallo, C., Petretta, M., & Grigolo, B. (2019). Articular Cartilage Regeneration in Osteoarthritis. ... Roseti, L, Desando, G, Cavallo, C, Petretta, M & Grigolo, B 2019, Articular Cartilage Regeneration in Osteoarthritis, Cells, ... Articular Cartilage Regeneration in Osteoarthritis. / Roseti, Livia; Desando, Giovanna; Cavallo, Carola et al. ...
A homeostatic function of CXCR2 signalling in articular cartilage. In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 2015 ; Vol. 74, No. 12 ... A homeostatic function of CXCR2 signalling in articular cartilage. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 2015 Dec;74(12):2207-2215 ... A homeostatic function of CXCR2 signalling in articular cartilage. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance ... Dive into the research topics of A homeostatic function of CXCR2 signalling in articular cartilage. Together they form a ...
... and is hallmarked by articular cartilage damage. An accurate, noninvasive method for measuring cartilage thickness would be ... beneficial to screen for cartilage injury and allow for prompt initiation of ... and is hallmarked by articular cartilage damage. An accurate, noninvasive method for measuring cartilage thickness would be ... Articular cartilage thickness was measured in nine regions of the third metacarpal bone and proximal phalanx on sagittal plane ...
The addition of RAP to porcine cartilage explants in culture increased the basal level of aggrecan degradation, as well as ... We found 2- to 3-fold reduced aggrecanase activity when ADAMTS-5 was incubated with live porcine cartilage, resulting from its ... Notably, LRP-1-mediated endocytosis of ADAMTS-5 is impaired in chondrocytes of OA cartilage, with ∼90% reduction in protein ... Thus, LRP-1 dictates physiological and pathological catabolism of aggrecan in cartilage as a key modulator of the extracellular ...
Clinical diagnosis of potentially treatable early articular cartilage degeneration using optical coherence tomography ... Clinical diagnosis of potentially treatable early articular cartilage degeneration using optical coherence tomography SPIE ... Clinical optical coherence tomography of early articular cartilage degeneration in persons with degenerative meniscal tears ... clinically to diagnose potentially reversible early cartilage degeneration. A human cadaver study was performed to confirm the ...
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Cartilage explants were incubated in irrigation solutions (saline and balanced salt) with different osmolarities (180, 280, 380 ... In situ dead chondrocytes were mainly localized to the superficial tangential region of injured cartilage edge after mechanical ... assay was performed to detect apoptosis index of injured cartilage. The contents of proteoglycan elution were determined by ... ultimately preventing cartilage degeneration and promoting integrative repair. ...
The T1ρ and T2 values in the full thickness of the articular cartilage in each region were measured by two observers. The two ... The T1ρ and T2 values in the full thickness of the articular cartilage in each region were measured by two observers. The two ... The T1ρ and T2 values in the full thickness of the articular cartilage in each region were measured by two observers. The two ... The T1ρ and T2 values in the full thickness of the articular cartilage in each region were measured by two observers. The two ...
SILVA, Estela Fernandes e et al. Articular cartilage tissue engineering with emphasis in dentistry. RFO UPF []. 2015, 20, 3, pp ... Literature review: The articular cartilage is a highly specialized tissue that reduces joint friction and distributes forces ... Thus, trauma and certain inflammatory diseases that affect the articular cartilage may severely compromise quality of life, ... Moreover, one should consider the application of mechanical stimuli and surface properties to produce an articular cartilage ...
The poor regenerative ability of articular cartilage remains osteochondral defects are a tricky problem to deal with. The ... ICS together with HA could promote repair of the cartilage defect and increase the neoformation of cartilage. These results ... Rabbits were treated with intra-articular injection of 0.5 mL normal saline (NS), ICS, HA and ICS + HA in the right knee joint ... Femoral condyle from rabbits treated by ICS together with HA was observed to be integrated with native cartilage and more ...
These results demonstrate a relationship between ROS and VEGF as multiplex mediators in articular cartilage degeneration. ... Cartilage explants produced similar results, but VEGFR-1 was only detectable after stimulation with SIN-1. Stimulation with PMA ... Immortalized C28/I2 chondrocytes and human knee cartilage explants were exposed to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA; 0-20 μg/ml ... Common RT-PCR revealed that the splice variants were present in both immortalized chondrocytes and cartilage discs. In ...
  • As the loss of the articular cartilage lining continues, the underlying bone has no protection from the normal wear and tear of daily living and begins to break down, leading to osteoarthritis. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Defects in articular cartilage can induce debilitating degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis involve cartilage deterioration, resulting in painful and cumbersome joint motion. (biologists.com)
  • Our study compared the effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) on the subchondral bone and the articular cartilage in the treatment of early osteoarthritis (OA) of rat knee. (medsci.org)
  • Our results showed that subchondral bone was an excellent target than articular cartilage for ESWT on early knee osteoarthritis. (medsci.org)
  • Conclusions Our study demonstrates an important physiological role for CXCR1/2 signalling in maintaining cartilage homeostasis and suggests that the loss of ELR+ CXC chemokines during cartilage breakdown in osteoarthritis contributes to the characteristic loss of chondrocyte phenotypic stability. (elsevier.com)
  • Osteoarthritis of the metacarpophalangeal joint is common cause of lameness in equine athletes, and is hallmarked by articular cartilage damage. (avmi.net)
  • Aggrecan is a major matrix component of articular cartilage, and its degradation is a crucial event in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Purpose: We compared the diagnostic performance of T1ρ and T2 mappings in the evaluation of denatured articular cartilage with osteoarthritis of the knee. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: T1ρ mapping is superior to T2 mapping for the evaluation of denatured articular cartilage with osteoarthritis of the knee. (elsevier.com)
  • Aspirates of synovial fluid from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were examined for intra-articular VEGF using ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a breakdown of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of articular cartilage in the affected joints. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Osteoarthritis (in the knees and elsewhere) occurs when the cartilage that "cushions" the bones starts to break down. (vanthielmd.com)
  • These pre-clinical data suggest that TPCA-1 and Tofa preserve and help maintain cartilage ECM under inflammatory conditions and could be investigated further as DMOADs for inflammation-driven osteoarthritis. (nordicbioscience.com)
  • The small pieces of a tissue sample taken from the human donor are essential to study the articular cartilage regeneration for treating joint disease, i.e. osteoarthritis. (iium.edu.my)
  • Once the cartilage is torn it will not heal easily and can lead to degeneration of the articular surface, leading to the development of osteoarthritis. (paulremd.com)
  • Cartilage loss is shown to be a risk factor for Osteoarthritis (OA) which is one of the main causes of disability in older people. (edu.hk)
  • Osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative disorder characterised by cartilage loss. (bmj.com)
  • Intra-articular injections are sometimes used to relieve pain for people with osteoarthritis. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1, 9] Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (a pro-inflammatory cytokine), MMP-13 (an enzyme), and MMP-2 (a gelatinase) are major factors in inflammation and cartilage destruction in Osteoarthritis. (dragoosoilblends.com)
  • We have attempted to prove the efficacy and safety of hUCB-MSC treatment in a comprehensive analysis by including all subjects with knee articular cartilage defect or osteoarthritis who have undergone cartilage repair surgery using hUCB-MSCs. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the future, comparative studies with other stem cell therapies or cartilage repair procedures should be published to support the superior effect of hUCB-MSC therapy to improve treatment of cartilage defect or osteoarthritis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Winston's Joint System and Winston's Pain Formula, two products for dogs developed by a naturopathic doctor, offer support and relief for many conditions affecting the joints, including hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory diseases which also are common in dogs, attacking the cartilage, muscles and membrane linings of cartilage and joints. (dogshealth.com)
  • The addition of pro-inflammatory molecules to cartilage cell cultures has enabled scientists to generate a working model of osteoarthritis and understand the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis. (original-asu.com)
  • In osteoarthritic joints, cartilage and synovial cells secrete IL-1ß which is thought to be one of the most damaging factors in osteoarthritis. (original-asu.com)
  • In osteoarthritis, subchondral bone cells also called osteoblasts could contribute to abnormal bone and cartilage remodeling by releasing various molecules. (original-asu.com)
  • Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2008;373 84. (original-asu.com)
  • Epistasis of polymorphisms related to the articular cartilage extracellular matrix in knee osteoarthritis: Analysis-based multifactor dimensionality reduction. (cdc.gov)
  • In the 2000s, we learned that the benefits wane after 2 years, perhaps because the newly generated fibrocartilaginous tissue has inferior biochemical and biomechanical properties compared with normal hyaline cartilage. (medscape.com)
  • Articular cartilage is a complex, living tissue that lines the bony surface of joints. (childrenshospital.org)
  • To better understand the progression of cartilage healing, this work used Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) to analyze harvested repair tissue. (wpi.edu)
  • In this study, we determined the feasibility of IFOP assessment of cartilage repair tissue and support further development of the IFOP technique for clinical applications. (wpi.edu)
  • Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue, with limited ability to repair and self-renew. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Articular cartilage is the soft tissue that covers contacting surfaces of bones in synovial joints. (biologists.com)
  • The ESWT (0.25 mJ/mm ² and 800 impulses) did not cause any damages on the cartilage of the meniscus and the tissue of the joint when compared with Sham group. (medsci.org)
  • Articular cartilage is an avascular and flexible connective tissue found in joints. (bl.uk)
  • Research on cartilage cell/tissue engineering will help patients to improve their physical activity by replacing or treating the diseased/damaged cartilage tissue. (bl.uk)
  • It is an estimated considerable risk for degenerative changes of knee due to the fact cartilage tissue is not able to selfrepair. (ostrc.no)
  • When added to the medium of cultures of articular cartilage over 5 days, IGF‐II‐BP complex induced high rates of synthesis and low rates of catabolism of proteoglycans, giving rise to tissue levels of proteoglycan similar to those observed in fresh tissue. (monash.edu)
  • When articular cartilage was maintained in culture with the same concentration of IGF‐I‐BP complex, tissue levels of proteoglycans fell over the culture period because of lower rates of proteoglycan synthesis. (monash.edu)
  • This project is a complementary action dedicated to complete the work described in the project entitled "in situ tissue engineering using stem cells and functional biomaterials to repair articular cartilage: an "in vivo model" (PLE2009-0144) mentioned above. (csic.es)
  • Two-step' photo-responsive biomimetic tissue-adhesive hydrogel for partial-thickness cartilage defect repair. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Mimicking the natural cartilage, the tissue adhesive hydrogel "joint paint" is comprised of a gelatin methacrylate (GelMA)/ hyaluronic acid (HA) surface layer and a chondroitin sulfate (CS) layer that can bridge the surface layer and the cartilage. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Being able to keep main cartilage matrix components such as glycosaminoglycan and inhibit cell apoptosis, this hydrogel functions well in rabbit partial-thickness cartilage defect models with good tissue integration and regeneration capability. (ed.ac.uk)
  • 2. One-step photoresponsive biomimetic tissue adhesive hydrogel for partial-thickness cartilage defect repair Based on the strategy of in situ photoresponsive adhesive hydrogels for partial-thickness cartilage defects repairment, the material formulation was improved to avoid the two-step usage in Chapter 3, making it more suitable for clinical application and translation. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Literature review: The articular cartilage is a highly specialized tissue that reduces joint friction and distributes forces related to high mechanical loads between bone ends. (bvsalud.org)
  • Accordingly, tissue engineering could overcome these limitations by producing in vitro cartilage substitutes. (bvsalud.org)
  • While there have been numerous attempts to develop tissue-engineered grafts or patches to repair focal chondral and osteochondral defects, there remain significant challenges in the clinical application of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. (elsevier.com)
  • This paper reviews the current state of cartilage tissue engineering with respect to different cell sources and their potential genetic modification, biomaterial scaffolds and growth factors, as well as preclinical testing in various animal models. (elsevier.com)
  • Numerous tissue-engineering studies for articular cartilage injuries are ongoing worldwide. (medscape.com)
  • Some of these studies have demonstrated that bioengineered cartilage tissue can regenerate when implanted in patients with cartilage injuries. (medscape.com)
  • Articular cartilage is the smooth, shiny, white tissue covering the ends of bones that form a joint. (ohiokneesurgery.com)
  • Healthy cartilage tissue (graft) is taken from the bone that bears less weight and is transferred to the injured joint place. (ohiokneesurgery.com)
  • A cartilage tissue (graft) is taken from a donor and transplanted to the site of the injury. (ohiokneesurgery.com)
  • Articular cartilage is the smooth, rubbery tissue that coats the surfaces of the bones that make up a joint. (vanthielmd.com)
  • Knee cartilage is composed of different layers of tissue. (vanthielmd.com)
  • This paper reclaims the term "mechanotherapy" and presents the current scientific knowledge underpinning how load may be used therapeutically to stimulate tissue repair and remodelling in tendon, muscle, cartilage and bone. (bmj.com)
  • 1 - 4 But what happens at the tissue level to promote repair and remodelling of tendon, muscle, articular cartilage and bone? (bmj.com)
  • In articular cartilage tissue engineering (ACTE) experimentation, the researchers have utilised cells and tissues sampled from the human donor for research purposes. (iium.edu.my)
  • The articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. (paulremd.com)
  • In this work, we provide a multiscale constitutive model of cartilage to elucidate the effect of two plausible fibril degradation mechanisms on the aggregate tissue: tropocollagen crosslink failure (β) and a generalized surface degradation (δ). (elsevier.com)
  • Using our model, the mechanics of aggregate tissue shows differed yield stress and post-yield behavior after crosslink failure and surface degradation compared to intact cartilage, and the tissue-level aggregate behaviors are different from the fibrillar behaviors observed in the molecular dynamics simulations. (elsevier.com)
  • We also compared the effect of fibrillar defects in terms of crosslink failure and surface degradation in different layers of cartilage within the macroscale tissue construct during a simulated nanoindentation test. (elsevier.com)
  • The cartilage tissue appeared to withstand more strain than the fibrils. (elsevier.com)
  • The understanding of the aggregate stress-strain behavior of cartilage tissue, cartilage degradation and its underlying biomechanical factors is important for developing engineering approaches and therapeutic interventions for cartilage pathologies. (elsevier.com)
  • These holes connect to the bone marrow to release cells that can build new cartilage to replace the damaged tissue. (medlineplus.gov)
  • sought to evaluate the utility and limitations of OCT by immediate, high-resolution microstructural analysis of articular repair tissue following allogeneic chondrocyte implantation without excising or sectioning the specimen in a mammalian animal model. (aktinhibitor.com)
  • The authors found that OCT enabled the micro-structural evaluation of articular repair tissue and the detection of surface fibrillation, tissue hypertrophy, and cartilage integration similar to low power microscopy without damaging the repair. (aktinhibitor.com)
  • Most importantly, OCT was able to detect subsurface gaps between the repair tissue and native cartilage that were undetectable by arthroscopic assessment [25]. (aktinhibitor.com)
  • Clinically proven to stimulate the regeneration of cartilage tissue. (profound-performance.com)
  • Articular' cartilage is a tough layer of smooth white connective tissue that covers the ends of the bones where they articulate with each other within a joint. (profound-performance.com)
  • Because there is no blood supply, oral supplements can't be delivered through the body to the articular cartilage, whereas JointPro™ joint cream penetrates the skin and tissue to get to where it is needed. (profound-performance.com)
  • Plain radiographic classification systems can describe clinical progression of arthropathy, but MRI has advantages over radiography because it can visualize soft tissue and cartilage changes in hemophilic joints. (medscape.com)
  • Hemophilic arthropathy is caused by recurrent hemorrhage into joints and results in an arthritis that is characterized by soft tissue changes of proliferation of hemosiderin-laden synovium and osteochondral changes of subchondral erosions, cyst formation, and cartilage loss. (medscape.com)
  • Articular cartilage is the dense connective tissue which covers the ends of bones. (openorthopaedicsjournal.com)
  • Tissue engineering is an experimental treatment alternative with the potential to regenerate healthy hyaline cartilage tissue, alleviate pain, and restore normal function. (openorthopaedicsjournal.com)
  • Two studies evaluated the modified Magnetic Resonance Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue (M-MOCART) score and confirmed sufficient improvement. (bvsalud.org)
  • It was also found that ASU Expanscience TM can increase the production of molecules involved in tissue regeneration (TGF-ß1, TGF-ß2, PAI-1), and hence may be involved in cartilage homeostasis and repair 3 . (original-asu.com)
  • Recently, many studies have focused on the repair and regeneration of damaged articular cartilage using tissue engineering. (elsevier.com)
  • In tissue engineering therapy, cells are cultured in vitro to create a three-dimensional (3-D) tissue designed to replace the damaged cartilage. (elsevier.com)
  • Although tissue engineering is a useful approach to regenerating cartilage, mechanical anisotropy has not been reconstructed from a cellular organization level. (elsevier.com)
  • A Single-Cell Culture System for Dissecting Microenvironmental Signaling in Development and Disease of Cartilage Tissue. (sc-ctsi.org)
  • It supports the joint tissue by preventing the breakdown of cartilage. (naturelifenutrition.com)
  • Abstract: The extracellular matrix is present in every tissue, but it is specially abundant in tendons and cartilages. (uchile.cl)
  • Small proteoglycans, as the fibromodulin and decorin, are differentially distributed in the articular cartilage sub-regions, suggesting a relation among the expression of those molecules and the presence of different biomechanical properties of the tissue. (uchile.cl)
  • The goal is to resurface defects with hyaline cartilage in a one-step procedure. (medscape.com)
  • The goal of cartilage replacement procedures is to stimulate the growth of new hyaline cartilage. (paulremd.com)
  • Thus grade III and IV focal chondral lesions occur in a sizeable population of relatively young patients who might benefit from hyaline cartilage restoration. (openorthopaedicsjournal.com)
  • The articular surfaces are covered with fibrocartilage (rather than hyaline cartilage as in most other synovial joints ). (pacs.de)
  • These are made up of two or more articular surfaced bones and are covered by hyaline cartilage and lubricated by synovial fluid. (winspiremagazine.com)
  • Cartilage is composed of chondrocytes and an extracellular matrix containing numerous biopolymers, cations and water. (biologists.com)
  • Cartilage cells (chondrocytes) are then extracted and multiplied inside a laboratory setting for several weeks. (floridaortho.com)
  • Notably, LRP-1-mediated endocytosis of ADAMTS-5 is impaired in chondrocytes of OA cartilage, with ∼90% reduction in protein levels of LRP-1 without changes in its mRNA levels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Common RT-PCR revealed that the splice variants were present in both immortalized chondrocytes and cartilage discs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our findings indicate ROS-mediated induction of VEGF and VEGF receptors in chondrocytes and cartilage explants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The investigation of DNA synthesis, as assessed by tritiated thymidine labelling, revealed that few chondrocytes had undergone DNA replication during the culture period in control and hyaluronidase-treated cartilage (about 4% in two weeks). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Laboratory studies have shown that Glucosamine has a protective, reparative and anti-inflammatory action on chondrocytes and articular cartilage (Chan et al. (springeropen.com)
  • Cartilage is made of water (70%) and a type II collagen framework with proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans (consisting mainly of aggrecan and also chondroitin), produced by chondrocytes. (bmj.com)
  • To understand the mechanism of cartilage degeneration and remodeling, it is important to know the mechanical stimuli to chondrocytes for physiological loading conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Avocado/soya unsaponifiables enhance the expression of transforming growth factor beta1 and beta2 in cultured articular chondrocytes. (original-asu.com)
  • Author Correction: gp130/STAT3 signaling is required for homeostatic proliferation and anabolism in postnatal growth plate and articular chondrocytes. (sc-ctsi.org)
  • Long-term repair of porcine articular cartilage using cryopreservable, clinically compatible human embryonic stem cell-derived chondrocytes. (sc-ctsi.org)
  • We assessed whether local anaesthetics caused inhibition of proteoglycan metabolism in human articular cartilage and whether the addition of Glucosamine sulphate could prevent or allow recovery from this adverse effect on articular cartilage metabolism. (springeropen.com)
  • Glucosamine is a normal component of human articular cartilage. (springeropen.com)
  • This in vitro study was carried out to test the hypothesis that commonly used local anaesthetic solutions inhibit proteoglycan metabolism in human articular cartilage, and that the addition of glucosamine can protect against these harmful effects. (springeropen.com)
  • Assessment of the inherent chondrogenic potential of human articular cartilage-derived chondroprogenitors in pellet culture using a novel whole pellet processing approach. (instem.res.in)
  • After intra-articular contrast administration, the measurements were repeated on sagittal plane MRA and sagittal CTA reformations. (avmi.net)
  • In an effort to increase cartilage conspicuity, the volume of intra-articular contrast was increased from 14.5 ml, to maximal distention for the second set of seven limbs. (avmi.net)
  • Even with the use of intra-articular contrast, cartilage surfaces were difficult to differentiate in regions where the cartilage surfaces of the proximal phalanx and third metacarpal bone were in close contact with each other. (avmi.net)
  • Intra-articular injection of local anaesthetics requires careful consideration of risks and benefits. (springeropen.com)
  • Intra-articular hemarthroses affect approximately 90% of patients with severe hemophilia, with the most frequently involved joints being the ankles, knees, and elbows. (medscape.com)
  • Intra-articular bleeding produces a direct chemical effect on the synovium, cartilage, and bone. (medscape.com)
  • And this is a key point: We have to think of orthobiologics as something we use in preparation for surgery, during surgery, and then after surgery, all of which make them a supportive adjunct to improve regeneration of the cartilage. (medscape.com)
  • This double-network hydrogel can gel rapidly on cartilage surface in a single step and shows good efficacy for partial-thickness cartilage defects regeneration in large animal models. (ed.ac.uk)
  • In this pathology, the entire joint is involved and the regeneration of articular cartilage still remains one of the main challenges, particularly in an actively inflammatory environment. (elsevier.com)
  • ACTE researchers may utilise the biological samples from living donors as alternatives in studying articular cartilage regeneration. (iium.edu.my)
  • A major next step in enhancing mammalian regeneration is to address regeneration of a joint, a structure that contains articular cartilage which displays poor regenerative capabilities 9 . (nature.com)
  • Background and Objectives: Human umbilical-cord-blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) have recently been used in clinical cartilage regeneration procedures with the expectation of improved regeneration capacity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Biopolymer composites allow the creation of an optimal environment for the regeneration of chondral and osteochondral defects of articular cartilage, where natural regeneration potential is limited. (nurch.sk)
  • It becomes like putty, and you can use it to patch the cartilage defect. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with a full thickness cartilage defect will be followed with clinical reexamination at five and ten years. (ostrc.no)
  • Partial-thickness cartilage defect is the most common symptom of OA but till now it is less focused with no proven clinical treatments and relatively less research on partial-thickness cartilage defect repair. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The first step is performed arthroscopically to evaluate the cartilage defect. (uppervalleyortho.com)
  • If the defect is appropriate for an ACI procedure, the healthy cartilage cells are harvested from the non-weight-bearing area of the bone. (uppervalleyortho.com)
  • This periosteal patch that is harvested is cut appropriately to match the size of the cartilage defect. (uppervalleyortho.com)
  • The patch is then sewn over the cartilage defect and the cultured cells are injected underneath the periosteal patch, which holds the new cartilage cells around the cartilage defect. (uppervalleyortho.com)
  • What is an Articular Cartilage Defect? (paulremd.com)
  • The CT scan revealed a low regenerative potential in the bone zone of the defect compared to the cartilage zone. (nurch.sk)
  • MRI examination revealed that the healingosteochondral defect was comparable to the intact cartilage signal on the surface of the defect. (nurch.sk)
  • Hyaline-like cartilage was observed in most of the treated animals, except for one, where the defect was repaired withfibrocartilage. (nurch.sk)
  • Changes in the Articular Cartilage Defect [Time Frame: Cartilage defect will be measure before and after treatment at the month 6 and 12. (who.int)
  • When these growth factors were added to articular cartilage explants complexed with their native serum binding proteins (BPs), both IGF‐I‐BP complex and IGF‐II‐BP complex stimulated proteoglycan synthesis to different degrees over a 3‐day period. (monash.edu)
  • The addition of RAP to porcine cartilage explants in culture increased the basal level of aggrecan degradation, as well as ADAMTS-5-induced aggrecan degradation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cartilage explants produced similar results, but VEGFR-1 was only detectable after stimulation with SIN-1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DESIGN: Bovine cartilage explants were cultured with oncostatin M (OSM) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) either alone or combined with the small molecule inhibitors: SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), R406 (Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitor), TPCA-1 (Inhibitor of κB kinase (Ikk) inhibitor), or Tofacitinib (Tofa) (Janus kinases (Jak) inhibitor). (nordicbioscience.com)
  • Cartilage explants obtained from 13 femoral heads from fracture neck of femur patients (average age 80 years, 10 female) were exposed to either 1% Lidocaine, 2% Lidocaine, 0.25% Bupivacaine, 0.5% Bupivacaine, 0.5% Levo-bupivacaine or a control solution (M199 culture medium). (springeropen.com)
  • The collagen, fibronectin and hyaluronic acid could be recruited for the fabrication of a biodegradable scaffold that promotes chondrocyte growth for autologous chondrocyte implantation or for formation of cartilage. (bl.uk)
  • Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation: Often abbreviated as ACI, cells are formed to create new cartilage and then placed into the damaged joints. (floridaortho.com)
  • Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a procedure to treat the articular cartilage defects of the knee. (uppervalleyortho.com)
  • The rats were divided into 5 groups which included Sham group, Meniscus group (ESWT applied on medial meniscus), OA group (arthrotomy and medial menisectomy (MMx) and anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT), T(M) group (arthrotomy and MMx and ACLT followed by ESWT on medial tibial subchondral bone) and Articular cartilage group (arthrotomy and MMx and ACLT followed by ESWT on medial articular cartilage). (medsci.org)
  • Evaluations included the pathological changes of the synovium, articular cartilage and subchondral bone, and compared with ESWT on the meniscus, medial tibial subchondral bone and articular cartilage. (medsci.org)
  • When he came to me, the articular cartilage of the knee joint where the meniscus tear was has become worn out. (orthopaedicsports.com)
  • Knee is a complex structure of your body made up of bones, ligaments, tendons, articular cartilage, muscles and meniscus. (lybrate.com)
  • Premier League Physiotherapist Neal Reynolds speaks about the different types of cartilage injury - both meniscus tears and articular cartilage damage. (midgetaaacanada.com)
  • If the meniscus is torn, or the articular cartilage is damaged, then such damage can be tidied up or repaired during the same procedure. (timspalding.com)
  • Healthy cartilage functions biomechanically to provide smooth and stable joint movement. (biologists.com)
  • The first phase involves the removal of a small amount of healthy cartilage. (floridaortho.com)
  • Results CXCL6 was expressed in healthy cartilage and was retained through binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans. (elsevier.com)
  • In this method, a piece of healthy cartilage from another site is removed using an arthroscopic technique and is cultured in the laboratory. (ohiokneesurgery.com)
  • The healthy cartilage cells are then sent to the laboratory where the cells are cultured and multiplied over a 3- to 5-week period. (uppervalleyortho.com)
  • The damaged cartilage needs to be replaced with healthy cartilage. (paulremd.com)
  • Healthy cartilage transmits and dampens joint loads and provides a smooth, almost frictionless bearing surface. (openorthopaedicsjournal.com)
  • For smaller cartilage lesions that don't extend to the bone, I have had good success with microfracture, a surgical technique used to repair damaged articular cartilage by making multiple small holes in the surface of the joint to stimulate a healing response. (medscape.com)
  • Adult articular cartilage exhibits little capacity for intrinsic repair, and thus even minor injuries or lesions may lead to progressive damage and osteoarthritic joint degeneration, resulting in significant pain and disability. (elsevier.com)
  • Cartilage lesions are debrided sharply back to a circumferentially stable articular cartilage. (medscape.com)
  • Cartilage of the knee is frequently injured, often as a result of sports related trauma, but focal articular cartilage lesions do not heal spontaneously. (openorthopaedicsjournal.com)
  • LRP-1-mediated endocytosis regulates extracellular activity of ADAMTS-5 in articular cartilage. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, LRP-1 dictates physiological and pathological catabolism of aggrecan in cartilage as a key modulator of the extracellular activity of ADAMTS-5. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Tofacitinib and TPCA-1 Exert Chondroprotective Effects on Extracellular Matrix Turnover in Bovine Articular Cartilage Ex vivo. (nordicbioscience.com)
  • According to that, this work was focused on the biochemical analysis of the extracellular matrix articular cartilages from scapular-humerus, ulnar-humerus and radial-humerus articulations of chicken, aiming to analyze small proteoglycans and identify the type of glycosaminoglycans present in each cartilage. (uchile.cl)
  • The type VI collagen is an extracellular protein forming a distinct myofibrillar network of most interstitial connective tissues, existing in the cellular matrices of muscle, skin, tendon, cartilage, intervertebral discs, blood vessels and eyes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, ibuprofen treatment was effective in attenuating HRHF-induced inflammation and early articular cartilage degeneration. (cdc.gov)
  • Articular cartilage is a relatively soft material cushioning bones where they contact the joints holding them together. (floridaortho.com)
  • When cartilage is healthy and abundant, your bones can move with greater ease and encounter less friction. (floridaortho.com)
  • Cartilage damage often results from some type of acute, traumatic injury that impacts bones and joints. (floridaortho.com)
  • Drilling: Surgeons drill holes into the bones beneath the affected cartilage - the subchondral region. (floridaortho.com)
  • Abrasion Arthroplasty: During this procedure, surgeons use tools (burrs) to extract injured cartilage and create openings in subchondral bones. (floridaortho.com)
  • This fluid lubricates and nourishes the cartilage and bones inside the joint capsule. (aclstudygroup.org)
  • Articular cartilage reduces friction when bones glide over each other, making the movements smooth and painless. (ohiokneesurgery.com)
  • The surface of cartilage is slick, which helps the bones move smoothly inside the joint. (vanthielmd.com)
  • Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of your body during activities such as running and jumping. (paulremd.com)
  • Cartilage helps cushion and cover the area where bones meet in the joints. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The surfaces of the ankle bones are covered with articular cartilage. (davidbeckmd.com)
  • A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. (bvsalud.org)
  • The surface of the ankle bones is covered with an articular cartilage. (atlantaorthopaedicinstitute.com)
  • The ends of the bones are covered in tough cartilage, and lined with synovial membrane, with contains a small amount of synovial fluid as lubricant. (dogshealth.com)
  • As this happens, the articular (working) surfaces of the two bones lose contact with each other. (dogshealth.com)
  • However, in rheumatoid arthritis, new capillary blood vessels invade the joints from the emerging synovial pannus and aid in the destruction of articular cartilage [ 5 ], even in the absence of a causative factor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Articular cartilage damage can occur from normal wear and tear of the knee joints, increasing age, injury, or other disease conditions. (ohiokneesurgery.com)
  • Most cartilage restoration procedures can be performed arthroscopically, a minimally invasive surgery that involves making 3 small keyhole incisions around the knee joint using an arthroscope, a small flexible tube with a light and video camera at the end that enables your surgeon to view inside of the joints and perform surgery. (ohiokneesurgery.com)
  • In a perfect world, our cartilage would be able to regenerate and heal itself rapidly to keep our joints moving without pain or stiffness. (vanthielmd.com)
  • Within joints, the subchondral bone layer is a supporting structure for the overlying articular cartilage. (faoj.org)
  • Are not enough joint modules available with age or by lack of exercise, congestion and inflammation, then atrophies the cartilage loses its elasticity and the joints at each start as a result Movement to hurt. (tat2009.com)
  • He underscored, "Joint distraction will find a more mainstream role in the management of osteoarthritic joints as articular cartilage restoration techniques evolve. (hss.edu)
  • Damage to the bone and articular cartilage appears later. (medscape.com)
  • Once damaged, articular cartilage has a poor capacity for intrinsic repair. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the precise signalling pathways in the degradation of articular cartilage ECM and development of OA are still not fully understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent investigations have revealed the participation of free radicals in the pathogenesis of articular cartilage degradation [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study aimed to investigate how small molecule inhibitors of intracellular signaling modulate cartilage degradation and formation as a pre-clinical model for structural effects. (nordicbioscience.com)
  • Cartilage turnover was assessed with the biomarkers of degradation (AGNx1 and C2M), and type II collagen formation (PRO-C2) using ELISA. (nordicbioscience.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Using a pre-clinical model we found that the inhibitors TPCA-1 and Tofa inhibited cartilage degradation and rescue formation of type II collagen under inflammatory conditions, while R406 and SB203580 only inhibited cartilage degradation, and SB203580 only partially. (nordicbioscience.com)
  • The pathogenesis and pathophysiological underpinnings of cartilage degradation are not well understood. (elsevier.com)
  • Either mechanically or enzymatically mediated degeneration at the fibril level can lead to acute focal injuries that will, overtime, cause significant cartilage degradation. (elsevier.com)
  • The degeneration mechanisms of fibril differentially influenced the aggregate mechanics of cartilage, and the deviation may be attributed to fiber-matrix interplay, depth-dependent fiber orientation and fibrillar defects with different degradation mechanisms. (elsevier.com)
  • Faisal, TR, Adouni, M & Dhaher, YY 2019, ' The effect of fibrillar degradation on the mechanics of articular cartilage: a computational model ', Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology , vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 733-751. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, ASU Expanscience TM might prevent cartilage degradation by acting directly on osteoblasts. (original-asu.com)
  • Cartilage functions as a low-friction-bearing surface to enable smooth articulation during joint motion ( Wright and Dowson, 1976 ). (biologists.com)
  • To reduce this friction, all articulating surfaces involved in movement are covered with a white, shiny, slippery layer called articular cartilage. (aclstudygroup.org)
  • The search for high quality implants initiated the research on cartilage replacement by hydrogels, which should assume the role of contact and friction in the joint implants. (anton-paar.com)
  • If there was no articular cartilage the bone surfaces would rapidly wear away due the friction that occurs when bone rubs against bone. (profound-performance.com)
  • Articular cartilage is self-lubricating because of its high fluid content which gives it the lowest coefficient of friction of any natural or man-made material. (profound-performance.com)
  • To determine the influence of collagen orientation on the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of articular cartilage, spin-echo MR images of normal bovine patellar specimens were obtained with the specimens rotated in 5 degrees increments between +75 degrees and -130 degrees. (nih.gov)
  • Samples of middle-zone bovine calf patellofemoral cartilage were tested in unconfined compression first at 24°C and then again after heating to 60°C. The data reveal that when temperature increases: (1) both peak and equilibrium stiffness increase by 150 and 8%, respectively, and (2) stress relaxation is faster at higher temperature, as shown by a 60% decrease in the time constant. (biologists.com)
  • This article describes the effects of bound forms of insulin‐like growth factors (IGFs) on proteoglycan metabolism by bovine articular cartilage in explant culture. (monash.edu)
  • The object of the present study was to investigate the effect of matrix depletion on the morphology, ultrastructure and metabolism of adult bovine cartilage in explant culture. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Articular cartilage injuries can occur as a result of either traumatic mechanical destruction or progressive mechanical degeneration (wear and tear). (childrenshospital.org)
  • With mechanical destruction, a direct blow or other trauma can injure the articular cartilage. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Because articular cartilage has no direct blood supply, it has little or no capacity to repair itself from mechanical destruction. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Mechanical degeneration (wear and tear) of articular cartilage occurs with the progressive loss of the normal cartilage structure and function. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Temperature is a fundamental quantity in mechanics, yet the effects of temperature on cartilage mechanical behavior are unknown. (biologists.com)
  • In addition, to address the main challenges for the production of functional cartilage: mechanical and lubricant properties. (bvsalud.org)
  • Moreover, one should consider the application of mechanical stimuli and surface properties to produce an articular cartilage with satisfactory characteristics for in vivo application. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hydrogels are considered as potential candidates for cartilage replacement because they are biocompatible and have mechanical properties similar to the joint cartilage [3] . (anton-paar.com)
  • Because of its avascular nature (absence of blood supply), cartilage cannot repair itself and therefore surgical treatment is usually required to restore cartilage function and prevent progression of the damage into arthritis. (ohiokneesurgery.com)
  • Here we show the contribution of tribology, surface charge, and nanoindentation for characterization of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel and porcine articular joint cartilage. (anton-paar.com)
  • This procedure is effective for treating small areas of cartilage damage that causes pain and swelling and restricts range of motion. (uppervalleyortho.com)
  • It is a surgical procedure performed to replace the worn-out cartilage and is usually performed to treat small areas of cartilage damage usually caused by sports or traumatic injuries. (paulremd.com)
  • 2. Natural history of a full thickness cartilage injury. (ostrc.no)
  • Challenges remain in both partial-thickness cartilage defects and osteochondral defects: it is difficult to fix the materials used for partial-thickness cartilage defects and the scaffolds for osteochondral defects require high performance in biological properties as well as structural properties. (ed.ac.uk)
  • An accurate, noninvasive method for measuring cartilage thickness would be beneficial to screen for cartilage injury and allow for prompt initiation of interventional therapy. (avmi.net)
  • The objective of this methods comparison study was to compare computed tomographic arthrography (CTA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) measurements of articular cartilage thickness with gross measurements in the metacarpophalangeal joint of Thoroughbred horses. (avmi.net)
  • Articular cartilage thickness was measured in nine regions of the third metacarpal bone and proximal phalanx on sagittal plane MRI sequences. (avmi.net)
  • Mean and standard deviation values were calculated, and linear regression analysis was used to determine correlations between gross and imaging measurements of cartilage thickness. (avmi.net)
  • This study failed to identify one imaging test that consistently yielded measurements correlating with gross cartilage thickness. (avmi.net)
  • The T1ρ and T2 values in the full thickness of the articular cartilage in each region were measured by two observers. (elsevier.com)
  • This invention, consisting of methods in image segmentation, 3D reconstruction, morphological quantification, and 3D visualization, is a system for automatic mapping of articular cartilage thickness. (edu.hk)
  • It can be used for articular cartilage thickness measurement and full-thickness cartilage loss quantification. (edu.hk)
  • Changes in Femoral Cartilage thickness [Time Frame: Mean femoral cartilage will be measured before and after treatment at the month 6, and12. (who.int)
  • Adamalysin-like metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 (ADAMTS-5) is a major aggrecan-degrading enzyme in cartilage, but there is no clear correlation between ADAMTS-5 mRNA levels and OA progression. (ox.ac.uk)
  • What progression of symptoms occur when articular cartilage damage is left untreated? (vanthielmd.com)
  • Physicians have created many methods to help cartilage regenerate. (floridaortho.com)
  • Macroscopically, the surface of the treated regenerate corresponded to the niveau of the surrounding cartilage. (nurch.sk)
  • They can be eased through procedures called articular cartilage restoration. (floridaortho.com)
  • These processes are known as articular cartilage restoration. (floridaortho.com)
  • Articular cartilage restoration is a broad term used to describe any number of surgical procedures. (floridaortho.com)
  • Knee cartilage restoration is a surgical technique to repair damaged articular cartilage in the knee joint by stimulating new growth of cartilage or by transplanting cartilage into areas with defects in order to relieve pain and restore normal function to the knee. (ohiokneesurgery.com)
  • Even though cartilage isn't great at repairing itself on its own, there are cartilage restoration procedures that can help. (vanthielmd.com)
  • Dr. Van Thiel is a leader in state-of-the-art cartilage restoration treatments. (vanthielmd.com)
  • Brian Cole, MD. Dr. Cole is the head of the cartilage restoration center, a multidisciplinary program specializing in the restoration of articular cartilage and meniscal deficiency, and a professor in the department of orthopedics at Rush University in Chicago. (painchicago.com)
  • Because of the preferential alignment of water molecules associated with collagen, angular rotation of the cartilage in the direction of minimum dipolar coupling (55 degrees to the magnetic field) caused the cartilage to have a homogeneous appearance. (nih.gov)
  • Both chondrocyte insensitivity to growth factors and microstructural loss of collagen organization are seen in the earliest stages of cartilage degeneration and therefore give support to OCT as a nondestructive imaging modality for early diagnosis of cartilage pathology [5, 7]. (aktinhibitor.com)
  • Increases and maintains type II collagen, the essential protein building block in your cartilage. (profound-performance.com)
  • Was examined in a new American research, whether also known as Chondroprotektiva" designated joint modules GlucosaminHCl and chondroitin sulfate of support protein production can increase collagen in cartilage cells. (tat2009.com)
  • The results were convincing: the cartilage cells supplied with construction materials produced significantly more collagen than the underserved cells. (tat2009.com)
  • Data have shown that ASU Expanscience TM restore normal levels of cartilage matrix molecules (e.g. aggrecan and collagen II) by counteracting the inhibitory effects of osteoblasts on matrix component production 5 . (original-asu.com)
  • The physiological role of cartilage depends on the integrity of the matrix, made mainly by type 11 collagen fibers, proteoglycans and non collagen glycoproteins. (uchile.cl)
  • This new patch will allow you to harness the rejuvenating power of the synthetic growth hormone 'secretagogue' MK-677 aka 'Ibutamoren', we're proudly introducing the 'MK-677 + Collagen, Cartilage and Ligament patch. (phd10.com)
  • In view of the fact that berberine is primarily known for its therapeutic potential in cardio-metabolic disease, you might wonder why it made it into the 'MK677 + Collagen & Cartilage Patch' formula. (phd10.com)
  • The 'MK-677 + Collagen, Cartilage and Ligament Patch' has also been specifically formulated to help you optimize and rejuvenate your body's own (endogenous) growth hormone production. (phd10.com)
  • Analysis of the proteoglycans synthesized by articular cartilage in the presence of free or bound IGF‐I or IGF‐II showed that these growth factors stimulated the rate of synthesis of the large proteoglycan species present in cartilage but did not affect the synthesis of the small proteoglycans. (monash.edu)
  • The superficial zone of articular cartilage contributes to smooth joint motion through the production of proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), also known as lubricin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results showed that all local anaesthetic solutions inhibited proteoglycan metabolism in articular cartilage and the addition of Glucosamine was able to reduce the inhibition of metabolism caused by 0.5% Bupivacaine. (springeropen.com)
  • superficial structural changes (e.g., pannus) and reduced proteoglycan staining were observed in wrist articular cartilages. (cdc.gov)
  • Treatments for articular cartilage problems have come a long way. (medscape.com)
  • Currently, clinical treatments have limited ability to repair, for they often result in the formation of mechanically inferior cartilage. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Further studies of cartilage polymer dynamics may yield additional insight into mechanisms of cartilage material behavior that could improve treatments for cartilage degeneration. (biologists.com)
  • Final considerations: Current treatments for articular cartilage repair have major limitations. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study will map the incidence of cartilage defects of the knee diagnosed at knee arthroscopy during a six months prospective registration of cartilage injury at three hospitals (Central hospital of Akershus, Martina Hansen Hospital, Ullevål Hospital) here in Oslo serving primary care for about 500 000 inhabitants. (ostrc.no)
  • 1. Incidence and symptoms related to cartilage defects of the knee will be documented. (ostrc.no)
  • The platelet-rich plasma provides growth factors and other cytokines that stimulate healing of bone and cartilage. (medscape.com)
  • In a study analyzing a group treated with bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC), there was no significant difference in clinical outcome or M-MOCART score, and the post-treatment International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade increased. (bvsalud.org)
  • While the current body of evidence of in vitro cartilage repair and regenerative medicine is rapidly growing, there are perhaps other more readily available methods of treating OA which may ultimately demonstrate equal benefit to patients. (faoj.org)
  • Cartilage defects are important pathological features of OA. (ed.ac.uk)
  • In the present study, we have demonstrated the pathological change of the articular cartilage in the mandibular head of five Sprague-Dawley rats administered with the immunosuppressant FK 506 for 28 days. (elsevier.com)
  • When cartilage is damaged, it can cause severe pain, inflammation, stiffness, and decreased range of motion of the knee. (ohiokneesurgery.com)
  • Most studies have measured the in vitro effects of ASU Expanscience TM on cartilage, bone, synovial cell cultures which have been exposed to substances known to cause inflammation such as interleukins. (original-asu.com)
  • Patellofemoral pain syndrome is caused by inflammation or irritation of the synovium, while chondromalacia patellae occur when there is softening of articular cartilage under your patella. (physicaltherapyproductreviews.com)
  • 2007 ). Recent in vitro and animal in vivo studies have demonstrated that even a single exposure of Lidocaine, Bupivacaine or Ropivacaine can be harmful to articular cartilage (Chu et al. (springeropen.com)
  • In vitro studies have identified a potential role of ASU Expanscience TM in cartilage repair and destruction. (original-asu.com)
  • Thus, in vitro data suggest that ASU Expanscience TM might potentially mitigate cartilage destruction and repair processes. (original-asu.com)
  • How does Boston Children's Hospital approach articular cartilage injuries? (childrenshospital.org)
  • Surgery is only used in the most severe cases of articular cartilage injuries. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Injuries to the cartilage that do not extend to the bone generally do not heal on their own. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Injuries that penetrate to the bone may heal, but the type of cartilage that is laid down is structurally unorganized and does not function as well as the original articular cartilage. (childrenshospital.org)
  • The use of an infrared fiber-optic probe (IFOP) has the potential for translation to a clinical setting to provide beneficial information to surgeons trying to determine the quality of damaged cartilage in patients with joint injuries. (wpi.edu)
  • Sports injuries are the prime cause of cartilage damage in 16-50 year olds. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • This procedure is also used to treat knee pain due to cartilage injuries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Unlike our skin and other tissues, articular cartilage has no blood vessels of its own to bring in nutrients. (vanthielmd.com)
  • In summary, our DEP cell patterning and gel-sheet lamination techniques would be useful for reconstructing mechanically anisotropic cartilage tissues. (elsevier.com)
  • Reactive arthritis represents a sterile inflammatory process that may be triggered by an extra-articular infection. (medscape.com)
  • In 1868, the physician Volkmann defined the role of hemorrhage in the pathogenesis of the articular findings in hemophilia. (medscape.com)
  • This study addressed the questions of whether cartilage stiffness and stress relaxation change with temperature. (biologists.com)
  • The symptoms of articular cartilage damage include joint pain, swelling, stiffness and a decrease in the range of motion of the knee. (paulremd.com)
  • Osteochondral Autograft Transplantation: Surgeons remove cartilage from a healthy joint and transplant it into the damaged joint. (floridaortho.com)
  • Knee microfracture surgery is a common procedure used to repair damaged knee cartilage. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cartilage breakdown over time -- The new cartilage made by microfracture surgery is not as strong as the body's original cartilage. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When a joint is injured, the body releases enzymes that may further break down the already damaged articular cartilage. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Injury to articular cartilage typically causes pain on activity, catching and swelling of the joint. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • Cartilage defects of the athletes knee implies serious limitations for further career at the top level and could result in pain and reduced function in the affected joint. (ostrc.no)
  • Lots of factors contribute to healthy joint function, but one of the biggest influences is your articular cartilage. (vanthielmd.com)
  • It's called "articular" cartilage because it plays an important role in articulation, or normal joint movement. (vanthielmd.com)
  • How does articular cartilage contribute to the knee joint? (vanthielmd.com)
  • The regenerated joint includes a synovial cavity and a skeletal element lined with articular cartilage that articulates with the amputated bone stump. (nature.com)
  • Such setup allows for characterization of cartilage replacement materials with lubrication fluids, comparing artificial with human joint cartilage, and to study the fundamentals of the lubrication mechanisms of cartilage. (anton-paar.com)
  • Recurrent hyperemia of the joint in the growing child causes juxta-articular osteoporosis and overgrowth of the epiphysis. (medscape.com)
  • Once the cartilage is worn out and the underlying bone is exposed, the knee joint becomes painful . (orthopaedicsports.com)
  • The sternoclavicular joint is a synovial joint between the medial clavicle , manubrium and the first costal cartilage that joins the upper limb with the axial skeleton . (pacs.de)
  • Glucosamine is a naturally occurring substance that helps in developing and renewing cartilage for joint mobility. (naturelifenutrition.com)
  • JOINT CARTILAGE: Glucosamine helps form several chemical compounds involved in the creation of articular cartilage and synovial fluid. (naturelifenutrition.com)
  • The implications of this R&D work are that the manipulation of TGF-β by combination of TGF-β1, 2, and 3 can be utilized in production of superficial zone of cartilage and perichondrium. (bl.uk)
  • As I outlined in my last column , not every knee with a cartilage injury should have surgery. (medscape.com)
  • Depending on the extent of the damage and location of the injury, it is sometimes possible for the articular cartilage cells to heal. (childrenshospital.org)
  • If the injury penetrates the bone beneath the cartilage, the underlying bone provides some blood to the area, improving the rate of healing. (childrenshospital.org)
  • What are the symptoms of an articular cartilage injury? (childrenshospital.org)
  • Depending on the severity of your child's articular cartilage injury, treatment may be surgical or non-surgical. (childrenshospital.org)
  • How does a doctor know my child has an articular cartilage injury? (childrenshospital.org)
  • Symptoms and findings will be registered at the international ICRS form for cartilage injury. (ostrc.no)
  • Cartilage damage usually results from one of three common causes: a major injury, gradual wear and tear, and a lack of movement. (floridaortho.com)
  • A significant percentage of cartilage damage results from some type of dramatic and direct injury. (floridaortho.com)
  • Innovative: NEM® - Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM®) is a new novel dietary supplement that contains naturally occurring glycosaminoglycans and proteins essential for maintaining healthy articular cartilage and the surrounding synovium. (phd10.com)