Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Cartilage Diseases: Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Nasal Cartilages: Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Ear Cartilage: Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.Laryngeal Cartilages: The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.Hyaline Cartilage: A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Matrilin Proteins: PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Arytenoid Cartilage: One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.Cricoid Cartilage: The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Thyroid Cartilage: The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.Osteochondritis: Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.Matrix Metalloproteinase 13: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Lubrication: The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Procollagen N-Endopeptidase: An extracellular endopeptidase which excises a block of peptides at the amino terminal, nonhelical region of the procollagen molecule with the formation of collagen. Absence or deficiency of the enzyme causes accumulation of procollagen which results in the inherited connective tissue disorder--dermatosparaxis. EC 3.4.24.14.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Arthroplasty, Subchondral: Surgical techniques used to correct or augment healing of chondral defects in the joints (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). These include abrasion, drilling, and microfracture of the subchondral bone to enhance chondral resurfacing via autografts, allografts, or cell transplantation.Matrix Metalloproteinase 3: An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Collagen Type IX: A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Collagen Type X: A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Osteochondrodysplasias: Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.Rhinoplasty: A plastic surgical operation on the nose, either reconstructive, restorative, or cosmetic. (Dorland, 28th ed)Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Collagen Type XI: A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.Joint DiseasesIoxaglic Acid: A low-osmolar, ionic contrast medium used in various radiographic procedures.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)ArthritisElastic Cartilage: A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains ELASTIC FIBERS and elastic lamellae, in addition to the normal components of HYALINE CARTILAGE matrix. Elastic cartilage is found in the EXTERNAL EAR; EUSTACHIAN TUBE; EPIGLOTTIS; and LARYNX.Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Chondrosarcoma: A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)Matrix Metalloproteinases: A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Carpus, Animal: The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Alcian Blue: A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Hyalin: A clear, homogenous, structureless, eosinophilic substance occurring in pathological degeneration of tissues.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)ADAM Proteins: A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Talus: The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.Osteophyte: Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.Fibrocartilage: A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Osteochondritis Dissecans: A type of osteochondritis in which articular cartilage and associated bone becomes partially or totally detached to form joint loose bodies. Affects mainly the knee, ankle, and elbow joints.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Osteoarthritis, Hip: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Osteochondrosis: Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chondroma: A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. It may remain within the substance of a cartilage or bone (true chondroma or enchondroma) or may develop on the surface of a cartilage (ecchondroma or ecchondrosis). (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Tissue Transplantation: Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Chondrocalcinosis: Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Achondroplasia: An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, GENU VARUM, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Matrix Metalloproteinase 1: A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.GlucosamineModels, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Polychondritis, Relapsing: An acquired disease of unknown etiology, chronic course, and tendency to recur. It is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of cartilage and can result in deformities such as floppy ear and saddle nose. Loss of cartilage in the respiratory tract can lead to respiratory obstruction.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Oncostatin M: A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Metalloproteases: Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.Branchial Region: A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.Guided Tissue Regeneration: Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.Ear, External: The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.SOXD Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. In addition to a conserved HMG-BOX DOMAIN, members of this group contain a leucine zipper motif which mediates protein DIMERIZATION.HexosaminesMandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Aminopropionitrile: Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Patellofemoral Joint: The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Sternum: A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Hyaluronoglucosaminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Collagen Type VI: A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Tarsus, Animal: The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)SepharoseBony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Hemarthrosis: Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.Skeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.Bone Marrow DiseasesMetatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Bone Diseases, DevelopmentalTympanoplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the hearing mechanism of the middle ear, with restoration of the drum membrane to protect the round window from sound pressure, and establishment of ossicular continuity between the tympanic membrane and the oval window. (Dorland, 28th ed.)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (1/3372)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Fibrocartilage in tendons and ligaments--an adaptation to compressive load. (2/3372)

Where tendons and ligaments are subject to compression, they are frequently fibrocartilaginous. This occurs at 2 principal sites: where tendons (and sometimes ligaments) wrap around bony or fibrous pulleys, and in the region where they attach to bone, i.e. at their entheses. Wrap-around tendons are most characteristic of the limbs and are commonly wider at their point of bony contact so that the pressure is reduced. The most fibrocartilaginous tendons are heavily loaded and permanently bent around their pulleys. There is often pronounced interweaving of collagen fibres that prevents the tendons from splaying apart under compression. The fibrocartilage can be located within fascicles, or in endo- or epitenon (where it may protect blood vessels from compression or allow fascicles to slide). Fibrocartilage cells are commonly packed with intermediate filaments which could be involved in transducing mechanical load. The ECM often contains aggrecan which allows the tendon to imbibe water and withstand compression. Type II collagen may also be present, particularly in tendons that are heavily loaded. Fibrocartilage is a dynamic tissue that disappears when the tendons are rerouted surgically and can be maintained in vitro when discs of tendon are compressed. Finite element analyses provide a good correlation between its distribution and levels of compressive stress, but at some locations fibrocartilage is a sign of pathology. Enthesis fibrocartilage is most typical of tendons or ligaments that attach to the epiphyses of long bones where it may also be accompanied by sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilages. It is characteristic of sites where the angle of attachment changes throughout the range of joint movement and it reduces wear and tear by dissipating stress concentration at the bony interface. There is a good correlation between the distribution of fibrocartilage within an enthesis and the levels of compressive stress. The complex interlocking between calcified fibrocartilage and bone contributes to the mechanical strength of the enthesis and cartilage-like molecules (e.g. aggrecan and type II collagen) in the ECM contribute to its ability to withstand compression. Pathological changes are common and are known as enthesopathies.  (+info)

The use of variable lactate/malic dehydrogenase ratios to distinguish between progenitor cells of cartilage and bone in the embryonic chick. (3/3372)

The activities of LDH and MDH have been studied, both in differentiated cartilage and bone from the embryonic chick, and in the pool of mixed osteogenic and chondrogenic stem cells found on the quadratojugal, a membrane bone. In confirmation of the model proposed by Reddi & Huggins (1971) we found that the LDH/MDH ratio was greater than 1 in cartilage and less than 1 in bone. Furthermore we established, for the first time, that ratios occurred in the chondrogenic and osteogenic stem cells, similar to the ratios in their differentiated counterparts. Alteration in LDH/MDH resulted from variations in the level of LDH/mug protein. MDH/mug protein remained constant, even when LDH/MDH was changing. We interpret these results in terms of adaptation of chondrogenic progenitor cells for anaerobic metabolism and anticipate that our model will be applicable to other skeletal systems where stem cells are being studied.  (+info)

Generation and characterization of aggrecanase. A soluble, cartilage-derived aggrecan-degrading activity. (4/3372)

A method was developed for generating soluble, active "aggrecanase" in conditioned media from interleukin-1-stimulated bovine nasal cartilage cultures. Using bovine nasal cartilage conditioned media as a source of the aggrecanase enzyme, an enzymatic assay was established employing purified aggrecan monomers as a substrate and monitoring specific aggrecanase-mediated cleavage products by Western analysis using the monoclonal antibody, BC-3 (which recognizes the new N terminus, ARGS, on fragments produced by cleavage between amino acid residues Glu373 and Ala374). Using this assay we have characterized cartilage aggrecanase with respect to assay kinetics, pH and salt optima, heat sensitivity, and stability upon storage. Aggrecanase activity was inhibited by the metalloprotease inhibitor, EDTA, while a panel of inhibitors of serine, cysteine, and aspartic proteinases had no effect, suggesting that aggrecanase is a metalloproteinase. Sensitivity to known matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as well as to the endogenous tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, TIMP-1, further support the notion that aggrecanase is a metalloproteinase potentially related to the ADAM family or MMP family of proteases previously implicated in the catabolism of the extracellular matrix.  (+info)

gas2 is a multifunctional gene involved in the regulation of apoptosis and chondrogenesis in the developing mouse limb. (5/3372)

The growth-arrest-specific 2 (gas2) gene was initially identified on account of its high level of expression in murine fibroblasts under growth arrest conditions, followed by downregulation upon reentry into the cell cycle (Schneider et al., Cell 54, 787-793, 1988). In this study, the expression patterns of the gas2 gene and the Gas2 peptide were established in the developing limbs of 11.5- to 14. 5-day mouse embryos. It was found that gas2 was expressed in the interdigital tissues, the chondrogenic regions, and the myogenic regions. Low-density limb culture and Brdu incorporation assays revealed that gas2 might play an important role in regulating chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, it might play a similar role during limb myogenesis. In addition to chondrogenesis and myogeneis, gas2 is involved in the execution of the apoptotic program in hindlimb interdigital tissues-by acting as a death substrate for caspase enzymes. TUNEL analysis demonstrated that the interdigital tissues underwent apoptosis between 13.5 and 15.5 days. Exactly at these time points, the C-terminal domain of the Gas2 peptide was cleaved as revealed by Western blot analysis. Moreover, pro-caspase-3 (an enzyme that can process Gas2) was cleaved into its active form in the interdigital tissues. The addition of zVAD-fmk, a caspase enzyme inhibitor, to 12.5-day-old hindlimbs maintained in organ culture revealed that the treatment inhibited interdigital cell death. This inhibition correlated with the absence of the Gas2 peptide and pro-caspase-3 cleavage. The data suggest that Gas2 might be involved in the execution of the apoptotic process.  (+info)

Midpalatal suture of osteopetrotic (op/op) mice exhibits immature fusion. (6/3372)

The midpalatal suture was observed histologically in both toothless osteopetrotic (op/op) and normal (control) mice. The normal mice had a mature sutural structure, which consists of a well-developed cartilage cell zone and palatal bone. In contrast, the thickness of the cartilage cell zone was substantially greater in the op/op mice than that in the controls. Moreover, the cartilage cells in the op/op mice were frequently found in the palatal bone as well as in the sutural space, exhibiting an imperfect fusion. It seems that immature fusion at the sutural interface in the op/op mice is related to a decrease in biting or masticatory force accompanied by the failure of tooth eruption in addition to an essential defect in osteoclast differentiation, which is a congenital symptom in op/op mice.  (+info)

Regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by Cbfa1. (7/3372)

Cbfa1, a developmentally expressed transcription factor of the runt family, was recently shown to be essential for osteoblast differentiation. We have investigated the role of Cbfa1 in endochondral bone formation using Cbfa1-deficient mice. Histology and in situ hybridization with probes for indian hedgehog (Ihh), collagen type X and osteopontin performed at E13.5, E14.5 and E17.5 demonstrated a lack of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the anlagen of the humerus and the phalanges and a delayed onset of hypertrophy in radius/ulna in Cbfa1-/- mice. Detailed analysis of Cbfa1 expression using whole mount in situ hybridization and a lacZ reporter gene reveled strong expression not only in osteoblasts but also in pre-hypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. Our studies identify Cbfa1 as a major positive regulator of chondrocyte differentiation.  (+info)

Strong induction of members of the chitinase family of proteins in atherosclerosis: chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 expressed in lesion macrophages. (8/3372)

Atherosclerosis is initiated by the infiltration of monocytes into the subendothelial space of the vessel wall and subsequent lipid accumulation of the activated macrophages. The molecular mechanisms involved in the anomalous behavior of macrophages in atherogenesis have only partially been disclosed. Chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 (HC gp-39) are members of the chitinase family of proteins and are expressed in lipid-laden macrophages accumulated in various organs during Gaucher disease. In addition, as shown in this study, chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 can be induced with distinct kinetics in cultured macrophages. We investigated the expression of these chitinase-like genes in the human atherosclerotic vessel wall by in situ hybridizations on atherosclerotic specimens derived from femoral artery (4 specimens), aorta (4 specimens), iliac artery (3 specimens), carotid artery (4 specimens), and coronary artery (1 specimen), as well as 5 specimens derived from apparently normal vascular tissue. We show for the first time that chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 expression was strongly upregulated in distinct subsets of macrophages in the atherosclerotic plaque. The expression patterns of chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 were compared and shown to be different from the patterns observed for the extracellular matrix protein osteopontin and the macrophage marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Our data emphasize the remarkable phenotypic variation among macrophages present in the atherosclerotic lesion. Furthermore, chitotriosidase enzyme activity was shown to be elevated up to 55-fold in extracts of atherosclerotic tissue. Although a function for chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 has not been identified, we hypothesize a role in cell migration and tissue remodeling during atherogenesis.  (+info)

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The Meckelian Cartilage, also known as "Meckels Cartilage", is a piece of cartilage from which the mandibles (lower jaws) of vertebrates evolved. Originally it was the lower of two cartilages which supported the first branchial arch in early fish. Then it grew longer and stronger, and acquired muscles capable of closing the developing jaw.[1]. In early fish and in chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fish such as sharks), the Meckelian Cartilage continued to be the main component of the lower jaw. But in the adult forms of osteichthyans (bony fish) and their descendants (amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals), the cartilage was covered in bone - although in their embryos the jaw initially develops as the Meckelian Cartilage. In all tetrapods the cartilage partially ossifies (changes to bone) at the rear end of the jaw and becomes the articular bone, which forms part of the jaw joint in all tetrapods except mammals.[1]. In some extinct mammal groups like eutriconodonts, the Meckels cartilage still ...
There are many causes for painful worn cartilage in the knee joint: arthritis, arthrosis, traumas with bone- or cartilage lesions or metabolic disorders like gout or hemochromatosis. © bilderzwerg @ fotolia. Osteoarthritis (worn cartilage) is the most common joint condition. The most common form of osteoarthritis is osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis of the knee causes chronic pain and limits movement. The cartilage in the knee wears away over many years. Since the cartilage has no sensitive nerve endings (pain sensors), damage is only noticed when the defects already affect the bone beneath the cartilage.. A cartilage transplant, or cartilage cell or chondrocyte transplant, is a new surgical procedure: in which cartilage damage is repaired using cartilage cells from the patients own body. Few knee specialists in Germany successfully perform this procedure. Dr Baum was the first physician in the world to perform an entirely arthroscopic cartilage transplant of the knee. He co-developed ...
Wilson R, Norris EL, Brachvogel B, Angelucci C, Zivkovic S, Gordon L, Bernardo BC, Stermann J, Sekiguchi K, Gorman JJ, Bateman JF. Changes in the Chondrocyte and Extracellular Matrix Proteome during Post-natal Mouse Cartilage Development. Molecular and cellular proteomics (2011) PubMed ...
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BioAssay record AID 606382 submitted by ChEMBL: Biodistribution in Sprague-Dawley rat cartilage at 3.2 to 18.6 MBq, iv after 120 mins by micro PET analysis.
A robust method for proteomic characterization of mouse cartilage using solubility-based sequential fractionation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
Cartilage cells are formed by the division of chondrocytes, which produce and maintain the extracellular matrix of cartilage. At E16.5, chondrocytes in the middle portion of Meckels cartilage become hypertrophic and degenerate.. ...
In a large scale screen for mutants that affect the early development of the zebrafish, 109 mutants were found that cause defects in the formation of the jaw and the more posterior pharyngeal arches. Here we present the phenotypic description and results of the complementation analysis of mutants belonging to two major classes: (1) mutants with defects in the mandibular and hyoid arches and (2) mutants with defects in cartilage differentiation and growth in all arches. Mutations in four of the genes identified during the screen show specific defects in the first two arches and leave the more posterior pharyngeal arches largely unaffected (schmerle, sucker, hoover and sturgeon). In these mutants ventral components of the mandibular and hyoid arches are reduced (Meckels cartilage and ceratohyal cartilage) whereas dorsal structures (palatoquadrate and hyosymplectic cartilages) are of normal size or enlarged. Thus, mutations in single genes cause defects in the formation of first and second arch ...
Chondroblasts, or perichondrial cells, is the name given to mesenchymal progenitor cells in situ which, from endochondral ossification, will form chondrocytes in the growing cartilage matrix. Another name for them is subchondral cortico-spongious progenitors. They have euchromatic nuclei and stain by basic dyes. These cells are extremely important in Chondrogenesis due to their role in forming both the Chondrocytes and cartilage matrix which will eventually form cartilage. Use of the term is technically inaccurate since mesenchymal progenitors can also technically differentiate into osteoblasts or fat. Chondroblasts are called Chondrocytes when they embed themselves in the cartilage matrix, consisting of proteoglycan and collagen fibers, until they lie in the matrix lacunae. Once they embed themselves into the cartilage matrix, they grow the cartilage matrix by growing more cartilage extracellular matrix rather than by dividing further.[citation needed] As suggested in the name, mesenchymal ...
Cellguard Liquid Cartilage is 100% bio available concentrated natural liquid bovine tracheal cartilage manufactured by the Australian Cartilage Company -
Synonyms for cartilage cell in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cartilage cell. 24 synonyms for cell: room, chamber, lock-up, compartment, cavity, cubicle, dungeon, stall, unit, group, section, core, nucleus, caucus, coterie, electric cell. What are synonyms for cartilage cell?
In adult healthful cartilage, chondrocytes are within a quiescent phase seen as a an excellent balance between anabolic and catabolic activities. activate mobile and molecular procedures, regulating the useful behavior of cartilage in both physiological and pathological circumstances. These networks could be relevant in the crosstalk among joint compartments and elevated knowledge within this field can lead to the introduction of more effective approaches for inducing cartilage restoration. for IGF-I, FGF-2, and TGF- [26]. Among these substances those of the TGF- family members play a prominent part (evaluated by [27]). The TGF- superfamily can be comprised of a lot more than forty people, also like the BMPs [28]. It really is noteworthy that TGF-1 is among the main substances regarded as anabolic for cartilage [29C31], as well as Insulin Growth Element (IGF)-1 [32], Fibroblast Development Element (FGF)-2 [33] and BMP-7 [34]. Conversely, TGF- offers been proven to be engaged in cartilage ...
The objective of this study was to immunohistochemically elucidate the major extracellular matrix constituents of rabbit tracheal cartilage. The impetus for this project is the need for crucial design and validation criteria for tissue engineering juxtaposed with the conspicuous lack of trachea extracellular matrix data in the literature. Tracheal tissue specimens were harvested from New Zealand White rabbits, and were immunostained for collagen I, collagen II, aggrecan and decorin; and a Verhoeff-Van Gieson stain was performed to visualize elastin. The most striking result was the highly organized relationship between distinct fibrous (containing collagen I, decorin and elastin) and hyaline-like (containing collagen II and aggrecan) regions of the tracheal wall. The tracheal cartilage stained strongly with collagen II throughout, with periodic bands of aggrecan in the tracheal arches, meaning that there were areas void of aggrecan immunostaining alternating with areas with strong aggrecan
Connective tissue - Connective tissue - Cartilage: Cartilage is a form of connective tissue in which the ground substance is abundant and of a firmly gelated consistency that endows this tissue with unusual rigidity and resistance to compression. The cells of cartilage, called chondrocytes, are isolated in small lacunae within the matrix. Although cartilage is avascular, gaseous metabolites and nutrients can diffuse through the aqueous phase of the gel-like matrix to reach the cells. Cartilage is enclosed by the perichondrium, a dense fibrous layer lined by cells that have the capacity to secrete hyaline matrix. Cartilage grows by formation of additional matrix and incorporation of new cells
The unparalleled liquid strength of cartilage, which is about 80 percent water, withstands some of the toughest forces on our bodies.. Synthetic materials couldnt match it-until "Kevlartilage" was developed by researchers at the University of Michigan and Jiangnan University.. "We know that we consist mostly of water-all life does-and yet our bodies have a lot of structural stability," said Nicholas Kotov, the Joseph B. and Florence V. Cejka Professor of Engineering at U-M, who led the study. "Understanding cartilage is understanding how life forms can combine properties that are sometimes unthinkable together.". Many people with joint injuries would benefit from a good replacement for cartilage, such as the 850,000 patients in the U.S. who undergo surgeries removing or replacing cartilage in the knee.. While other varieties of synthetic cartilage are already undergoing clinical trials, these materials fall into two camps that choose between cartilage attributes, unable to achieve that unlikely ...
Define Ensiform cartilage. Ensiform cartilage synonyms, Ensiform cartilage pronunciation, Ensiform cartilage translation, English dictionary definition of Ensiform cartilage. See Xiphisternum. See also: Ensiform
Cartilage markers in synovial fluid in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.: The higher aggrecan/COMP ratios in osteoarthritis could reflect increased cartilage mat
The composition of the extracellular matrix of cartilage dictates its mechanical properties. Proteoglycans (PG) and collagen are two important structural components of the cartilage extracellular matrix. The ability to measure changes both in the amount and distribution of cartilage matrix constituents is essential in understanding early pathological changes of joint diseases. Previous studies hav
Cartilage is a type of hard, thick, slippery tissue that coats the ends of bones where they meet with other bones to form a joint. Cartilage lines the joint space between bones throughout the body, including the spine and the rib cage. It acts as a protective cushion between bones to absorb the stress applied to joints during movement.. Cartilage is made up of protein strands called collagen that form a tough, mesh-like framework. The mesh is filled with substances that hold water, much like a sponge. When weight is placed on cartilage, water is squeezed out of the mesh. When weight is taken off, the water returns. Cartilage does not contain blood vessels or nerves. ...
Light microscopy of cartilage showing chondrocytes surrounded by the cartilage matrix that they synthesize and secrete. This is developing hyaline cartilage in which the young chondrocytes typically contain a high content of lipids seen as green-stained fat droplets. The pale halo-type region around the cells is an artefact of tissue preparation. The matrix has collagen, and proteoglycan molecules that attract and bind water. Cartilage is tough yet flexible and is reversibly resistant to compression. Magnification x 200 when printed at 10cm. - Stock Image C028/6636
Tiny Clear CZ Stone Cartilage Earring, Black Stone Ear Piercing, Barbell Cartilage, Cartilage Stud, Tragus Ear Piercing, 16 Gauge, Cartilage Earring, Single Earring, Tragus earring, Screw Back, Barbell Cartilage, Helix earring_P118This listing is for one piercing. If you like to place an order of a pair, please order 2
In cartilage cells as well as in other cell types, IGF2 is considered as a growth factor mainly mimicking the effect of IGF1 through IGF1-receptor. Since cartilage cells contain both types I and II IGF-receptors, it is still unknown wether IGF2 may have specific effects mediated through the IGF2-Mannose-6-Phosphate receptor (IGF2/M6P-R). This bifunctional protein also binds glycosylated proteins such as newly synthesized acid protease enzymes being responsible of their targeting from me Golgi to the lysosomes. Our purpose was to investigate the possibility for IGF2, by comparison with IGF1, to interact with the storage of chondrocyte lysosomal enzymes. Cultured chondrocytes from prepuberial, fetal or adult rabbits were used and their content of acid phosphatase. cathepsin B and L activities was quantified by using a colorimetric reaction with appropriate substrates. In basal conditions, the acid protease activities localized by histochemistry and electron microscopy, were observed in the RER. in the
Fibrocartilage is exactly what the name implies, mostly fibers. Unlike hyaline cartilages uniform structure, the fibers in this type of cartilage are more open and have a spongy-like architecture. This makes them perfect for shock absorption. As such, you can find them between your vertebrae, and in the joints of your knee, shoulders, and mandible.. All types of cartilage grow in one of two ways; interstitial, and appositional. Interstitial growth happens when cartilage is formed by chondrocytes within the cartilage, forming additional matrix. Appositional growth happens by adding new cartilage on the surface. This is formed from chondrocytes in a dense layer of connective tissue surrounding the cartilage, called the perichondrium.. The question then becomes: does this interstitial and appositional growth, cause the mass of our cartilage, and its size, to increase as we age? The result being bigger ears and noses. The answer is no. Studies have shown the numbers of cells present in our ...
Stem cells could one day be stimulated to make a special type of cartilage to help repair large, hard-to-heal bone fractures - a potential boon for doctors treating big-money athletes, USC researchers say.. Gage Crump, senior author, and his colleagues used the regeneration of zebrafish jawbone to show that the processes required for embryonic development are not necessarily repeated during regeneration of damaged body parts like fractured bones. The study was published online in Development last month.. "An exciting finding from our work is that, somewhat counterintuitively, cartilage is critical for healing full-thickness bone injuries," said Crump, associate professor of stem cell and regenerative medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC. "By understanding how this bone-producing cartilage is generated in the simpler zebrafish model, we hope to find ways to create more of this unique cartilage tissue in patients to better heal their bones.". Zebrafish are vertebrates that have bones ...
Osteoarthritis is a progressive disease that can be caused by a traumatic injury such as tearing a ligament; it can also result from gradual wearing down of cartilage as people age. A smooth connective tissue that protects the joints, cartilage is produced by cells called chondrocytes but is not easily replaced once it is damaged.. Previous studies have shown that IGF-1 can help regenerate cartilage in animals. However, many osteoarthritis drugs that showed promise in animal studies have not performed well in clinical trials.. The MIT team suspected that this was because the drugs were cleared from the joint before they could reach the deep layer of chondrocytes that they were intended to target. To overcome that, they set out to design a material that could penetrate all the way through the cartilage.. The sphere-shaped molecule they came up with contains many branched structures called dendrimers that branch from a central core. The molecule has a positive charge at the tip of each of its ...
Meckels cartilages are the cartilaginous precursors of the mandible. These cartilaginous bars of the first branchial arch become surrounded with a fibrous membrane. These membranous covered cartilage bars are attached to the otic or ear capsules at their proximal end and to each other via mesodermal tissue at their distal extremities. The only portion of Meckels cartilage that contributes to the mandible is the distal end. This end, invaded by bone, contributes to the part of the mandible between the two canine teeth. The major portion of the mandible forms intramembranously in the membrane surrounding Meckels cartilage. During the sixth week of embryonic life a center arises near what will be the mental foramen. By the tenth week the anterior portion of the cartilage is invaded by the developing bone. The bone continues to spread posteriorly and superiorly to form the mandibular outline. At birth the bone is in two halves, separated by a fibrous symphysis at the anterior midline. The two ...
Looking for cartilage lacuna? Find out information about cartilage lacuna. 1. Biology a cavity or depression, such as any of the spaces in the matrix of bone 2. another name for coffer In animals and man, the interstices between... Explanation of cartilage lacuna
Looking for epiglottic cartilage? Find out information about epiglottic cartilage. : see larynx larynx , organ of voice in mammals. Commonly known as the voice box, the larynx is a tubular chamber about 2 in. high, consisting of walls of... Explanation of epiglottic cartilage
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Cartilage regeneration involved making small cuts underneath an injured cartilage in the bone, so that the resultant blood encourages cartilage cell growth.
J W Stevens, K J Noonan, P P Bosch, T B Rapp, J A Martin, G L Kurriger, J A Maynard, K J Daniels, M Solursh, R Tammi, M Tammi, R J Midura
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Make a circular incision with a sharp knife through the forehead, temples, and occiput, penetrating to the skull. At the ring made by this incisvion, cut through the skull with a saw; do not worry about damaging the brain or dividing the skull a little too high or too low, since at this point the only purpose is to preserve the bones and cartilages for inspection. After the skull is cut apart, 6 the brain should be removed from it using nothing but the hands and put in the container. The part of the skull removed from the rest of the head is put in the cooking pot after the skin of the vertex has been removed. Now cut away each ear very close to the temporal bone and set it aside on the plank 7 where the cartilages are placed, together with the eyelids and the end of the nose, which is made of cartilage; these must be resected very close to the bones to which they are connected, along with the skin. Then with a small knife you will free the lower maxilla from its connection with the bones of the ...
A redifferentiated dermal fibroblast cell that exhibits at least one characteristic of a chondrocyte. A proteoglycan is used to induce re-differentiation of the cell. In some embodiments, the cell expresses of at least one cartilage proteoglycan marker. The proteoglycan may comprise aggrecan and the cell may differentiate from the fibroblast along the chondrogenic lineage. A method of inducing chondrogenesis in a fibroblast cell comprises culturing the fibroblast cell on a surface containing at least one cartilage-derived proteoglycan other than perlecan. A three-dimensional scaffold may be coated with the proteoglycan and seeded with fibroblast cells. The fibroblast cells may be contacted with at least one chondrogenic growth factor or cytokine prior to said culturing.
There are three types of cartilage in connective tissue. The most common kind of cartilage is hyaline cartilage. It contains a semisolid matrix, collagenous
Research Grant Recipient: Jennifer Westendorf, PhD. Award Value: $250,000. Research Focus: Osteoarthritis. Project Summary: This project will help determine how proteins called Girk2 and Girk3 contribute to cartilage formation and repair in the setting of osteoarthritis. The investigators believe that osteoarthritis can be prevented if these proteins are absent or inactive. This work will lead to the development of better strategies to treat osteoarthritis.. Dr. Westendorf studies the molecular the epigenetic basis for skeltal formation, the regeneration of bone and cartilage, and the growth of pirmary and metastatic bone tumors. She is the vice chair of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and a consultant for the Department of Orthopedic Surgery at Mayo Clinic.. ...
Locomotion is generally brought about by a system of muscles in conjugation with a skeleton. The skeleton may be an endoskeleton, an exoskeleton or a hydrostatic skeleton. The support system will be adapted to methods of locomotion for a particular animal (e.g, flying, swimming, climbing, and walking). The skeleton It consists of bone, cartilage, tendons and ligaments. Its functions are: Support. Protection of soft tissue. Movement - a point of attachment for muscles. Production of red blood cells and some white blood cells. A source (sink) for calcium and phosphate. Cartilage structure Cartilage is firm but elastic. Cartilage cells are called chondrocytes. They secrete a hard, rubbery matrix around themselves. They also secrete collagen fibres that become embedded in the matrix to strengthen it. The cells themselves live in small cavities in the matrix called lacunae. No blood vessels, nerves or lymph vessels run through cartilage so the cells rely on diffusion for any
The physical properties of cartilage depend on electrostatic bonds between type II collagen fibrils, hyaluronan, and the sulfated GAGs on densely packed proteoglycans. Its semi-rigid consistency is attributable to water bound to the negatively charged hyaluronan and GAG chains extending from proteoglycan core proteins, which in turn are enclosed within a dense meshwork of thin type II collagen fibrils. The high content of bound water allows cartilage to serve as a shock absorber, an important functional role. ...
Cartilage Histology Lab Cartilage is a connective tissue in which the cells are relatively sparse and embedded in a large amount of firm characteristic matrix. The matrix is composed of ground substance bound together with characteristic fibers which vary in composition and orientation according to the type of cartilage. Note the distinguishing characteristics in each…
Cartilage is a white tissue linings at the end of bones. Cartilage tear is treated using arthroplasty method. Cartilage-restoration is done in OSS in Torrance.
In this paper we present a model of growth for cartilaginous tissues in which there exists a saturated solid matrix composed of multiple constituents that may grow and remodel independently of each other. Klisch and Hoger recently developed a general theory of volumetric growth for a mixture of ν-1 growing elastic materials and an inviscid fluid, which included a treatment of two special types of internal constraints that are relevant to cartilage. Here, that theory is specialized to construct a cartilage growth model. This theory allows the constituents of the solid matrix to grow independently of each other, and can model the evolution of the constituent pre-stresses and the tissues mechanical properties during developmental growth and degeneration. A simple example is presented which illustrates these features of the theory.
This teeny heart labret cartilage stud is a strong (yet tiny) reminder of the power of love. A perfect fit for most cartilage piercings, this gold heart is so simple, yet chic and comfortable, youll never want to take it off. Handcrafted from solid 14k gold, and featuring an internally threaded 2mm disc backing, this gold cartilage earring is also suitable to wear as a nose ring and lip ring, just be sure to pick the right size for your body piercing.
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The connective tissue that makes up the cartilage of tendons and the non-mineral parts of bones, as well as a layers of skin, is made up of proteins (collagen) and polysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans, GAGs), e.g. heparan sulfate, hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate, produced by chondrocytes or fibroblasts. These proteins and polysaccharides are synthesized and then secreted by cells. This process goes on continuously, since the connective tissue is alive and literally crawling with cells that make the cartilage. To keep the connective tissue healthy, the old tissue has to be digested, so that new material can replace it. Thus, the cells that live in cartilage also eat cartilage. These cells get all of their nutrients, e.g. protein and carbs, from eating cartilage. They dont get glucose and amino acids, or even oxygen (they ferment), from the blood, because there are no blood vessels in cartilage. The photomicrograph at left shows the red chondrocytes surrounded by a light capsule of heparan ...
in Developmental Dynamics : An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists (1999), 216(3), 233-43. To define genes specifically expressed in cartilage and during chondrogenesis, we compared by differential display-polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) the mRNA populations of differentiated sternal ... [more ▼]. To define genes specifically expressed in cartilage and during chondrogenesis, we compared by differential display-polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) the mRNA populations of differentiated sternal chondrocytes from chicken embryos with mRNA species modulated in vitro by retinoic acid (RA). Chondrocyte-specific gene expression is downregulated by RA, and PCR-amplified cDNAs from both untreated and RA-modulated cells were differentially displayed. Amplification products only from RNA of untreated chondrocytes were further analyzed, and a cDNA-fragment of the chondromodulin-I (ChM-I) mRNA was isolated. After obtaining full length cDNA clones, we have analyzed the mRNA ...
Researchers in the Athanasiou group have been maintaining native cartilage in the lab and culturing cartilage cells, or chondrocytes, to produce engineered cartilage.. "In engineered tissues the cells produce initially an immature matrix, and the maturation process makes it tougher," Makris said. Knee joints are normally low in oxygen, so the researchers looked at the effect of depriving native or engineered cartilage of oxygen. In both cases, low oxygen led to more cross-linking and stronger material. They also found that an enzyme called lysyl oxidase, which is triggered by low oxygen levels, promoted cross-linking and made the material stronger. "The ramifications of the work presented in the PNAS paper are tremendous with respect to tissue grafts used in surgery, as well as new tissues fabricated using the principles of tissue engineering," Athanasiou said. Grafts such as cadaveric cartilage, tendons or ligaments - notorious for losing their mechanical characteristics in storage - can now be ...
Cartilage grows by one of two methods: 1 . Interstitial growth , in which the cartilage cells themselves retain their capacity to divide. This capacity is retained by young cartilage cells only. These ce1\s are responsible for the addition of intercellular substance, which enables the cartilage to expand from within. 2. Appositional growth is defined as the adding of new carti- lage to a preexisting surface, and is caused by differentiation of the deep perichondrial cells into chondroblasts and later to chon- drocytes. In doses exceeding 3000 or 4000 rads, additional deleterious effects upon the central nervous system occur. Fortunately, dramatic protection is afforded the body by shielding even a part of it from ionizing radiation. For example, if only one leg is thoroughly shielded, the chance of survival is markedly increased; and of course, irradiation of only a small part of the body has far less dramatic effects. In therapeutic radiology, it is not uncommon to administer 5000 to 6000 rads ...
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Lu on cartilage softening: Grade 3 chrondromalcia basically means early arthritis of your kneecap. Extremely common.You need to discuss w/ your ORS and not your radiologist.(2) fissures? How do u know...? In order to have any fissures chrondromalcia is present . At any rate, articuclar cartilage does not heal but I would not worry about it. See ORS for remedies to avoid progression. Best of Luck!
Signaling pathway components such as Ihh/Pthrp, TGF?, BMPs, Wnt/?-catenin, FGFs, and Sox-related proteins represent important regulators of cartilage formation...
Disclosed are systems, methods, devices and products to identify suitable donor sites for harvesting bone-cartilage grafts and to implant such bone-cartilage grafts. In some embodiments, a method includes providing a computer having access to a donor database, the donor database comprising information on each of a plurality of donor joint sites of the body, receiving first data relating to a defect of a joint of a patient, the defect comprising an area of bone, a portion of which includes at least one of, for example, missing and/or damaged cartilage, and identifying, based on the first data, at least one donor site from the donor database of joints for harvesting a graft of bone and cartilage to repair the defect.
Cartilage Tear Treatment in Encino, CA. Damaging this tissue is relatively common. The majority of cases involve damage to the cartilage in the knee joint.
Cartilage Tear Treatment in Youngstown, OH. Damaging this tissue is relatively common. The majority of cases involve damage to the cartilage in the knee joint.
Cartilage restoration technique is safe and medically acclaimed. In order to prevent your joints from damage take certain positive measures to preserve your cartilages.. #559234
Cartilage cushions joints and helps them move smoothly and easily. A lifetime of walking, exercising, and moving takes a toll on your cartilage.
Regenexx Lab Research looking into which things can be added to your stem cells to encourage them to produce more cartilage and better cartilage.
Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that provides structure and support to the other tissues. If cartilage is damaged, then...
Since cartilage contains neither blood nor lymph vessels, diffusion is the most important transport process for the supply of cartilage with nutrients and for the removal of metabolic waste products....
Cartilage inflammation is a condition in which cartilage anywhere in the body becomes swollen and painful. Its most often caused...
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Infected cartilage piercing can cause severe damage to the ear. Lets see the causes, symptoms & treatments for cartilage piercing infection.
9ct Yellow Gold 5mm Dumb Bell Helix Cartilage Body Piercing Stud Striking cartilage stud that has been expertly crafted from 9ct yellow gold Front ball measures 2.2mm in ...
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Artificial Cartilage - Health information, community forum discussions, expert doctor answers, and important news about artificial cartilage
Cartilage bumps are very common but also extremely unsightly. We delve into the mysteries of a cartilage bump, and advise on their causes & best treatments.
Chondrocyte Turnover in Lung Cartilage. By Yareth Gopar-Cuevas, Alberto Niderhauser-García, Adriana Ancer- Arellano, Ivett C. Miranda-Maldonado, María-de-Lourdes Chávez- Briones, Laura E. Rodríguez-Flores, Marta Ortega-Martínez and Gilberto Jaramillo-Rangel. Cartilage is a highly differentiated connective tissue that forms mechanical support to soft tissues and is important for bone development from fetal period to puberty. It is conformed by chondrocytes and extracellular matrix. It is generally believed that adult cartilage has no capacity to renewal. A delicate balance between cell proliferation and cell death ensures the maintenance of normal tissue morphology and function. Stem cells play essential roles in this process. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can give rise to multiple lineages including bone, adipose and cartilage. Nestin protein was initially identified as a marker for neural stem cells, but its expression has also been detected in many types of cells, including MSCs. In vivo, ...
Cartilage Skeletal Cartilage - softer than bone, precedes bones in human embryos Surrounded by perichondrium, which: resists expansion of the cartilage and feeds the cells in the cartilage matrix via its blood vessels
Grade I - tracheal membrane is slightly pendulous, cartilage maintains normal [email protected] shape, lumen reduced approximately 25% Grade II - tracheal membrane widened and pendulous, cartilage is partially flattened, lumen reduced approximately 50% Grade III - tracheal membrane is almost in contact with dorsal trachea, cartilage is nearly flat, lumen is reduced approximately 75% Grade IV - tracheal membrane is lying on dorsal cartilage, cartilage is flattened and may invert, lumen is essentially obliterated The result of tracheal collapse is an extremely small cross-sectional area of functional tracheal lumen and high airway resistance. This increase in resistance along with chronic hypoxia causes increased right ventricular work and can lead to enlargement (hypertrophy) of the right side of the heart.. Extra-luminal prosthesis techniques were the most widely used technique until 10 years ago. Both ring and spiral prosthesis has been described for this use. Ring prostheses are made by either making ...
Liquid Bovine Cartilage Brands: Artricillin, Bovita, Cartrin, Cellguard, Flex, Hyaline and TLC Do you know which of the above LBTC brands are manufact...
The 2019 Gordon Research Seminar on Cartilage Biology and Pathology (GRS) will be held in Galveston, TX. Apply today to reserve your spot.
Before getting any piercing done, it is always better to know about it in detail. This story gives you all the details on cartilage piercings.
... compounds such as Glucosamine and Type II Chicken Collagen, botanicals to ease pain
Dave, Thank you so very much for sending the case of Freeze It to us in Michigan. My husband has for a long time suffered pain in his knee joints due to lack of cartilage and arthritis. While he has tried many products, none have given him the relief that Freeze It has. The product is reasonably priced and ver
Cartilage is a crucial connective tissue found throughout our bodies. once damaged within the joints, it will result in pain, inflammation, limited range of motion and stiffness which will eventually attain osteoarthritis -the most typical variety of arthritis. once used as a part of a bigger, comprehensive treatment p
FYI ULTRA from Garden of Life is the ultimate joint and cartilage formula, providing clinically studied amounts of glucosamine, along with curcumin, pomegranate, selenium, and other carefully selected natural antioxidants that assist the body?s response to everyday wear and tear and support joint and connective tissue health.
Humans Can Regrow Cartilage in Joints Using Salamander-like Ability : Opinions | What happened on the way to Khashoggis horrifying final seconds? This is a...
Capsules that Promote Functioning of Bones and Cartilage Manufacturer: Pinisan Presentation: 30 Sachets Dosage: 1 sachet per day diluted in a glass of water or
How to Get a Septum (Nose Cartilage Wall) Piercing. Plan ahead before you get your septum pierced to make sure it is done safely and professionally. Choosing the right location and knowing how to care for your new piercing can prevent...
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Last week we began our discussion of joint pain and cartilage care with things you can do at home. When you have been treating your knee or hip pain yourself and getting no relief it is time to see medical care. You must be careful, however, that your sports doc understands that your goal is to...
Hi!I gonna get a chin + nose fractional CO2 treatment for acne scars. However, Im afraid that my doc will go too deep on the nose and hence damage the cartilage.Is this possible?What is the maximum depth he can go? 1mm?Many thanks for your help!
I got to go back to the ENT again about the cartilage I think and we need to investigate possible biopsies or other tests because its so hard to catch it. He thinks its an autoimmune problem and says he needs to document it to get it treated, but since I already see a rheumy, maybe he can help. It itches too. I have a real problem with infections in the hollow encapsulated areas in my neck because I was stabbed in the head ages ago during a home invasion and it got all infected. So I get pockets of infection, andthey sometimes haveto cut me open and clean itout. The problemis the area. My ENT is also an excellent plastic and head and neck surgeon, so we may be at a point where I needto do something. Antibiotics dont work in these areas because there is too little bloodflow. They are areas that arent mant to be compromised ...
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Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Nose Cartilage in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of professional healthcare and anatomy chart templates that you can modify and make your own.
My best friend was injured in the war five years or so ago and now has no cartilage in his ankle. He underwent surgery including pins in his ankle and had physical therapy. He was told he would walk with a cane most of his days but so far is doing fine walking and functioning normally. I would like to know what his limitations might be.. I dont want him to overdo it yet he is adamant about going hiking, skiing, etc with me which in my opinion may hurt him in the long run. Any expert advice? Anything we can do to help aid his healing process? Herbs? Therapy ...
I got my cartilidge pierced i got a hello kitty earring in it from claires. i folowed all the rules i left it in and cleaned it all the time. when i could take it out i did i put in my siliver 2 stud earring . the 2 stud the other part of earring you dont pierce it in ear. i then put clean the earring and holder thing and i put in a littler stud. it wasnt bleeding. two days later i woke and 8th period i felt my ear was crusty so i check my ear in gym it had dry blood all around it. i was scared so i took it out. it was bleeding. i went to the nurse and used soap and water to clean it. then i went home and cleaned everything and put it back in my ear. next day i saw blood again around my ear. i clean it and put back in my hello kitty earring ...
  80% of people over the age of 60 are negatively influenced by cartilage disease in Australia every year. At present, the solutions to repair cartila...
Blue green fire opal stud cartilage earring, tragus or helix piercing. 316L surgical steel barbell piercing is 18 gauge with a 1/4 long post. Genuine opal ston
Thickness: 1.2mm -Length: 6mm -Ball(s): 3mm -Material: Make a choice -Color: Crysta This surgical steel cartilage barbell features beautifully-textured CZ ar...
Scientists have developed an artificial cartilage from Kevlar - a material used for making bulletproof vests - that can withstand forces within the body without getting damaged.
I have my ears pierced twice in both ears but this will be my first cartilage piercing, I am fine with pain but I think I am more scared than anything... # How much does it hurt and how long does it hurt/ache for after?
Hello all...I am in my 40s now an for more than 5 years have been getting pain in legs but over last year gone has now worsened and am getting daily pain in right side cartilage which is now roughly
​Currently, in order to reshape cartilage such as that within the nose, incisions and sutures are typically required. Not only is the procedure invasive, but it can also result in scarring. Now, however, scientists have demonstrated a new method of cartilage-reshaping that requires no cutting.
This cartilage piercing is made of 316L surgical steel and is placed on the edge of the ear. Once in place a curved shield falls over the edge of the ear. The shield is decorated with several crystal stars. The finishing touch comes from the dangling star
In general, costal cartilages are hyaline cartilage extensions from the anterior end of the ribs. The first 7 cartilages are flattened bars that connect the ribs to the sternum and are referred to as the costal cartilages of the true ribs. The 8th, 9th, and 10th costal cartilages each attach to the inferior margin of the cartilage above. These cartilages are referred to as the cartilages of the false ribs. The last two costal cartilages form small pointed projections that end in the body wall. The 11th and 12th ribs with their associated cartilages are called the floating ribs ...
What is triple cartilage piercing Multiple ear piercings are stirring interest in most passionate body piercing enthusiasts looking for representing a unique style of fashion. There is no dearth of locations on the ear cartilage for getting a piercing besides the earlobe. Triple cartilage piercing is another creative modification of cartilage piercing involving triple perforations of any area of the ear cartilage. Since there is an availability of a wide variety of cartilage jewelry, you can think of different ways to deck the ear. The price of the piercing will vary according to its location. Triple Cartilage Piercing Triple Cartilage Piercings Triple cartilage piercing pain As ear cartilage piercings are generally painful, you might get hurt while undergoing the process. Soreness, swelling, and redness may prevail for a couple of days. However, these are the normal signs of healing, not leading to any complications. Triple Ear Cartilage Piercing Triple Piercing Cartilage Spiral Triple cartilage
My schedule at About Face in Bondi Junction is almost always filled with a variety of rhinoplasty surgeries. Some are medical necessities; others are purely cosmetic. In both cases, I often have to use cartilage from another part of the patients body to create a beautiful proportionate nose.. As part of the procedure, a nasal graft is almost always needed to maintain stability and create a balanced, natural looking appearance. I find artificial materials to be impermanent and unreliable, so whenever possible, I like to use only my patients own cartilage or bone to make the grafts.. The benefits of using rib cartilage are tremendous. When used properly, rib cartilage provides superb building material right from a patients own body. I dont need to implant synthetic materials to achieve a pleasingly aesthetic, long-lasting result.. Let me tell you more…. Three Types of Cartilage Used in Rhinoplasty. The wonderful thing about using my patients own cartilage for rhinoplasty is that the results ...
Until now, nothing has been known about the role of COMP during human development. COMP has been shown to be located in porcine joints, where high levels were seen in the proliferating zones and low levels were seen in the hypertrophic zones [5], which differs from what we found for human embryonic development. During human bone development investigated here, the strongest staining for COMP was seen in areas where joint development had taken place. This differs from mouse development, in which COMP is seen mainly in the perichondrium, but is in line with the present results, which demonstrate COMP-positive hypertrophic cartilage zones also during human development [27]. We were able to show COMP-positive superficial cartilage zones, as already described for mice [24]. Additionally, we detected COMP in the middle zones and in deep cartilage zones near the tidemark. Furthermore, COMP was detected in the basement membrane zones of the AER, the earliest signs of limb bud formation, but not in the ...
Looking for online definition of elastic cartilage in the Medical Dictionary? elastic cartilage explanation free. What is elastic cartilage? Meaning of elastic cartilage medical term. What does elastic cartilage mean?
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and limitations of autologous osteochondral grafting for the treatment of articular cartilage defects in the knee. Methods: The subjects were 40 patients who had undergone autologous osteochondral grafting. Fifteen knees had cartilage defects combined with anterior cruciate ligament tears (ACL group), 15 knees had cartilage defects combined with osteoarthritis (OA group), and 10 knees had cartilage defects combined with osteochondral dissecans (OCD group). From one to five osteochondral pegs were harvested from the less-weight-bearing periphery of the articular surface of the femoral condyle and grafted to cartilage defects. The clinical results were assessed based on the Lysholm score and radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image assessment. Results: The median follow-up duration was 24 months (range from 12 to 41 months). The mean Lysholm score following treatment was improved in all groups. The patients who had cartilage defects combined ...
Several methods for auricular cartilage engineering use tissue engineering techniques. However, an ideal method for engineering auricular cartilage has not been reported. To address this issue, we developed a strategy to engineer auricular cartilage using silk fibroin (SF) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel. We constructed different hydrogels with various ratios of SF and PVA by using salt leaching, silicone mold casting, and freeze-thawing methods. We characterized each of the hydrogels in terms of the swelling ratio, tensile strength, pore size, thermal properties, morphologies, and chemical properties. Based on the cell viability results, we found a blended hydrogel composed of 50% PVA and 50% SF (P50/S50) to be the best hydrogel among the fabricated hydrogels. An intact 3D ear-shaped auricular cartilage formed six weeks after the subcutaneous implantation of a chondrocyte-seeded 3D ear-shaped P50/S50 hydrogel in rats. We observed mature cartilage with a typical lacunar structure both in ...
Looking for online definition of apex of arytenoid cartilage in the Medical Dictionary? apex of arytenoid cartilage explanation free. What is apex of arytenoid cartilage? Meaning of apex of arytenoid cartilage medical term. What does apex of arytenoid cartilage mean?
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the predictive value of serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (sCOMP) levels over 20 years on the development of radiographic (RKOA) and painful knee osteoarthritis (KOA) in a longitudinal cohort of middle-aged women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred and ninety-three women with no baseline KOA underwent 5-year knee radiographs over 20-years and were asked about knee pain a month before each assessment. A repeated measures logistic regression model was used where the outcomes were recorded at 5, 10, 15 and 20-years follow-up. RESULTS: The highest quartile of sCOMP was associated with increased risk of RKOA with overall OR of 1.97 (95% CI: 1.33-2.91) over 20 years when compared with the lowest sCOMP quartile. The association with painful KOA was similar and also independent, but only when the fourth and third sCOMP quartiles were compared. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that sCOMP levels are predictive of subsequent structural changes and
The Meckelian Cartilage, also known as "Meckel's Cartilage", is a piece of cartilage from which the mandibles (lower jaws) of ... Meckel's cartilage arises from the first pharyngeal arch.. The dorsal end of each cartilage is connected with the ear-capsule ... the cartilage was covered in bone - although in their embryos the jaw initially develops as the Meckelian Cartilage. In all ... Johann Friedrich Meckel, the Younger discovered this cartilage in 1820.. This article incorporates text in the public domain ...
Cartilage inflammation[edit]. Cartilage inflammation (technically known as chondritis) that is relapsing is very characteristic ... Biopsy of nasal cartilage revealed loss of the cartilage matrix and a hyperplastic mucous membrane. Jaksch von Wartenhorst ... Inflammation of the cartilage of the ear is a specific symptom of the disease and affects most people.[3] It is present in ... The inflammation of the cartilage of the nose involves the bridge of the nose and is often less marked than the ears.[3] ...
Articular cartilage research[edit]. In addition to meniscus replacement, Stone focused on articular cartilage regeneration for ... "Articular Cartilage Paste Grafting to Full-Thickness Articular Cartilage Knee Joint Lesions: A 2-12 year Follow Up". ... the first stem cell articular cartilage repair procedure called Articular Cartilage Paste Grafting which in long-term studies ... Xenograft ligament cartilage, bone, and tendon transplantation.. FDA-Approved ACL Replacement Study 2003 - PRESENT. CE Mark ...
In the human female, the urethra is about 1.9 inches (4.8 cm) to 2 inches (5.1 cm) long and exits the body between the clitoris and the vagina, extending from the internal to the external urethral orifice. The meatus is located below the clitoris. It is placed behind the symphysis pubis, embedded in the anterior wall of the vagina, and its direction is obliquely downward and forward; it is slightly curved with the concavity directed forward. The proximal 2/3rds is lined by transitional epithelium cells while distal 1/3rd is lined by stratified squamous epithelium cells.[10] The urethra consists of three coats: muscular, erectile, and mucous, the muscular layer being a continuation of that of the bladder. Between the superior and inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm, the female urethra is surrounded by the urethral sphincter. Somatic (conscious) innervation of the external urethral sphincter is supplied by the pudendal nerve. ...
In humans, the esophagus generally starts around the level of the sixth cervical vertebra behind the cricoid cartilage of the ... At the start of the esophagus, where the laryngopharynx joins the esophagus, behind the cricoid cartilage ...
The gustatory cortex is the primary receptive area for taste. The word taste is used in a technical sense to refer specifically to sensations coming from taste buds on the tongue. The five qualities of taste detected by the tongue include sourness, bitterness, sweetness, saltiness, and the protein taste quality, called umami. In contrast, the term flavor refers to the experience generated through integration of taste with smell and tactile information. The gustatory cortex consists of two primary structures: the anterior insula, located on the insular lobe, and the frontal operculum, located on the frontal lobe. Similarly to the olfactory cortex, the gustatory pathway operates through both peripheral and central mechanisms.[clarification needed] Peripheral taste receptors, located on the tongue, soft palate, pharynx, and esophagus, transmit the received signal to primary sensory axons, where the signal is projected to the nucleus of the solitary tract in the medulla, or the gustatory nucleus of ...
Because the beta cells in the pancreatic islets are selectively destroyed by an autoimmune process in type 1 diabetes, clinicians and researchers are actively pursuing islet transplantation as a means of restoring physiological beta cell function, which would offer an alternative to a complete pancreas transplant or artificial pancreas.[14][15] Islet transplantation emerged as a viable option for the treatment of insulin requiring diabetes in the early 1970s with steady progress over the last three decades.[16] Recent clinical trials have shown that insulin independence and improved metabolic control can be reproducibly obtained after transplantation of cadaveric donor islets into patients with unstable type 1 diabetes.[15] Islet transplantation for type 1 diabetes currently requires potent immunosuppression to prevent host rejection of donor islets.[17] An alternative source of beta cells, such insulin-producing cells derived from adult stem cells or progenitor cells would contribute to ...
Skeletal system: structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons. ...
As the vocal folds vibrate, the resulting vibration produces a "buzzing" quality to the speech, called voice or voicing or pronunciation. Sound production that involves moving the vocal folds close together is called glottal.[3] English has a voiceless glottal transition spelled "h". This sound is produced by keeping the vocal folds spread somewhat, resulting in non-turbulent airflow through the glottis.[3] In many accents of English the glottal stop (made by pressing the folds together) is used as a variant allophone of the phoneme /t/ (and in some dialects, occasionally of /k/ and /p/); in some languages, this sound is a phoneme of its own.[citation needed] Skilled players of the Australian didgeridoo restrict their glottal opening in order to produce the full range of timbres available on the instrument.[4] The vibration produced is an essential component of voiced consonants as well as vowels. If the vocal folds are drawn apart, air flows between them causing no vibration, as in the ...
In equine anatomy, the term sesamoid bone usually refers to the two sesamoid bones found at the back of the fetlock or metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal joints in both hindlimbs and forelimbs. Strictly these should be termed the proximal sesamoid bones whereas the navicular bone should be referred to as the distal sesamoid bone. The patella is also a form of sesamoid bone in the horse. Although many carnivores have radial sesamoid bones,[14] the giant panda and red panda independently evolved to have an enlarged radial sesamoid bone.[14][15] This evolution has caused the two species to diverge from other carnivores.[14] The red panda likely originally evolved the "pseudo-thumb" in order to assist in arboreal locomotion.[15][14] When the red panda later evolved to consume a bamboo diet, the enlarged bone underwent exaptation to assist in grasping bamboo.[16][14][17][15] The giant panda, however, evolved the enlarged radial sesamoid bone around the same time as it evolved a bamboo diet.[15] ...
The pituitary gland is found in all vertebrates, but its structure varies among different groups. The division of the pituitary described above is typical of mammals, and is also true, to varying degrees, of all tetrapods. However, only in mammals does the posterior pituitary have a compact shape. In lungfish, it is a relatively flat sheet of tissue lying above the anterior pituitary, but in amphibians, reptiles, and birds, it becomes increasingly well developed. The intermediate lobe is, in general, not well developed in any species and is entirely absent in birds.[21] The structure of the pituitary in fish, apart from the lungfish, is generally different from that in other animals. In general, the intermediate lobe tends to be well developed, and may equal the remainder of the anterior pituitary in size. The posterior lobe typically forms a sheet of tissue at the base of the pituitary stalk, and in most cases sends irregular finger-like projection into the tissue of the anterior pituitary, ...
... (TA) is the international standard on human anatomic terminology. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) and was released in 1998.[1] It supersedes the previous standard, Nomina Anatomica.[2] Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross (macroscopic) anatomical structures.[3] In April 2011, Terminologia Anatomica was published online[4] by the Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminologies (FIPAT), the successor of FCAT. ...
Cartilage. 0.01[32]. 0.003[32]. Ice. Ice. 0.02-0.09[33]. Polyethene. Steel. 0.2[25][33]. 0.2[25][33]. ...
... contraction of the smooth muscle in the airway walls narrows the trachea by pulling the ends of the cartilage plates together ...
The primary function of lymph nodes is the filtering of lymph to identify and fight infection. In order to do this, lymph nodes contain lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, which includes B cells and T cells. These circulate through the bloodstream and enter and reside in lymph nodes.[10] B cells produce antibodies. Each antibody has a single predetermined target, an antigen, that it can bind to. These circulate throughout the bloodstream and if they find this target, the antibodies bind to it and stimulate an immune response. Each B cell produces different antibodies, and this process is driven in lymph nodes. B cells enter the bloodstream as "naive" cells produced in bone marrow. After entering a lymph node, they then enter a lymphoid follicle, where they multiply and divide, each producing a different antibody. If a cell is stimulated, it will go on to produce more antibodies (a plasma cell) or act as a memory cell to help the body fight future infection.[11] If a cell is not stimulated, ...
The skeleton, which forms the support structure inside the fish, is either made of cartilage, in cartilaginous fish, or bone in ... The main types are loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, fibrous connective tissue, cartilage and bone. The extracellular ... including skeletons composed of cartilage. Their bodies tend to be dorso-ventrally flattened, they usually have five pairs of ...
Incomplete rings of cartilage in the trachea and smaller plates of cartilage in the bronchi, keep these airways open.[13] ... The bronchioles have no cartilage and are surrounded instead by smooth muscle.[17] Air is warmed to 37 °C (99 °F), humidified ... The bronchi in the conducting zone are reinforced with hyaline cartilage in order to hold open the airways. ... cuts the anterior border on a level with the sternal end of the fourth costal cartilage; on the mediastinal surface it may be ...
Average urine production in adult humans is about 1-2 litres (L) per day, depending on state of hydration, activity level, environmental factors, weight, and the individual's health. Producing too much or too little urine requires medical attention. Polyuria is a condition of excessive urine production (, 2.5 L/day). Oliguria when , 400 mL (millilitres) are produced, and anuria one of , 100 mL per day. The first step in urine formation is the filtration of blood in the kidneys. In a healthy human the kidney receives between 12 and 30% of cardiac output, but it averages about 20% or about 1.25 L/min. The basic structural and functional unit of the kidney is the nephron. Its chief function is to regulate the concentration of water and soluble substances like sodium by filtering the blood, reabsorbing what is needed and excreting the rest as urine. In the first part of the nephron, Bowman's capsule filters blood from the circulatory system into the tubules. Hydrostatic and osmotic pressure ...
The ancient Greeks believed that small penises were ideal.[54] Scholars believe that most ancient Greeks probably had roughly the same size penises as most other Europeans,[54] but Greek artistic portrayals of handsome youths show them with inordinately small, uncircumcised penises with disproportionately large foreskins,[54] indicating that these were seen as ideal.[54] Large penises in Greek art are reserved exclusively for comically grotesque figures,[54][55] such as satyrs, a class of hideous, horse-like woodland spirits, who are shown in Greek art with absurdly massive penises.[54] Actors portraying male characters in ancient Greek comedy wore enormous, fake, red penises, which dangled underneath their costumes;[59] these were intended as ridiculous and were meant to be laughed at.[59] In Aristophanes's comedy The Clouds, "Mr. Good Reason" gives the character Pheidippides a description of the ideal youth: "A glistening chest and glowing skin,/Broad shoulders, a small tongue,/A mighty bottom ...
The general structure of lymphatics is based on that of blood vessels. There is an inner lining of single flattened epithelial cells (simple squamous epithelium) composed of a type of epithelium that is called endothelium, and the cells are called endothelial cells. This layer functions to mechanically transport fluid and since the basement membrane on which it rests is discontinuous; it leaks easily.[1] The next layer is that of smooth muscles that are arranged in a circular fashion around the endothelium, which by shortening (contracting) or relaxing alter the diameter (caliber) of the lumen. The outermost layer is the adventitia that consists of fibrous tissue. The general structure described here is seen only in larger lymphatics; smaller lymphatics have fewer layers. The smallest vessels (lymphatic or lymph capillaries) lack both the muscular layer and the outer adventitia. As they proceed forward and in their course are joined by other capillaries, they grow larger and first take on an ...
... separated on the x-rays by a layer of invisible cartilage where most of the growth is occurring. As sex steroid levels rise ...
Damaging the cartilage of joints (articular cartilage) or the bones and muscles that stabilize the joints can lead to joint ... cartilaginous joint - joined by cartilage. There are two types: primary cartilaginous joints composed of hyaline cartilage, and ... following an infection of the joint or simply as a result of aging and the deterioration of articular cartilage. Furthermore, ... secondary cartilaginous joints composed of hyaline cartilage covering the articular surfaces of the involved bones with ...
Incomplete tracheal rings of cartilage and smaller plates of cartilage in the bronchi, keep these airways open.[13] Bronchioles ... The bronchioles have no cartilage and are surrounded instead by smooth muscle.[21] Air is warmed to 37 °C (99 °F), humidified ... The bronchi in the conducting zone are reinforced with hyaline cartilage in order to hold open the airways. ... The absence of cartilage in the terminal bronchioles gives them an alternative name of membranous bronchioles.[14] ...
The flap is made of elastic cartilage covered with a mucous membrane, attached to the entrance of the larynx. It projects ... The body of the epiglottis consists of elastic cartilage. The epiglottis has two surfaces, a forward-facing surface facing the ... It can be seen as a distinct structure later than the other cartilage of the pharynx, visible around the fifth month of ... 1=vocal folds, 2=vestibular fold, 3=epiglottis, 4=plica aryepiglottica, 5=arytenoid cartilage, 6=sinus piriformis, 7=dorsum of ...
Cartilage. Menisci (Knee), Intervertebral discs (Spine), Acetabulum (Hip). Management[edit]. R.I.C.E Method: (Rest, Ice, ...
The apex (prev.vertex) is directed forward toward the upper part of the pubic symphysis, and from there the median umbilical ligament continues upward on the back of the anterior abdominal wall to the umbilicus. The peritoneum is carried by it from the apex on to the abdominal wall to form the middle umbilical fold. The neck of the bladder is the area at the base of the trigone that surrounds the internal urethral orifice that leads to the urethra.[3] In males the neck of the urinary bladder is adjacent to the prostate gland. The three openings, two ureteric orifices, and the internal urethral orifice mark the triangular area called the trigone of the bladder. These openings have mucosal flaps in front of them that act as valves in preventing the backflow of urine into the ureters,[4] known as vesicoureteral reflux. Between the two ureteric openings is a raised area of tissue called the interureteric crest.[3] This makes the upper boundary of the trigone. The trigone is a smooth-muscle area that ...
What is arytenoid cartilage corniculate process? Meaning of arytenoid cartilage corniculate process as a finance term. What ... Definition of arytenoid cartilage corniculate process in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and ... does arytenoid cartilage corniculate process mean in finance? ... arytenoid articular surface of lamina of cricoid cartilage. * ... Related to arytenoid cartilage corniculate process: muscular process of arytenoid cartilage, vocal process of arytenoid ...
We observed mature cartilage with a typical lacunar structure both in vitro and in vivo via histological analysis. This study ... Artificial Auricular Cartilage Using Silk Fibroin and Polyvinyl Alcohol Hydrogel. by Physicians Weekly , Aug 7, 2017 , 0 ... An intact 3D ear-shaped auricular cartilage formed six weeks after the subcutaneous implantation of a chondrocyte-seeded 3D ear ... However, an ideal method for engineering auricular cartilage has not been reported. To address this issue, we developed a ...
Antonyms for arytenoid cartilage corniculate process. 69 synonyms for process: procedure, means, course, system, action, ... What are synonyms for arytenoid cartilage corniculate process? ... Synonyms for arytenoid cartilage corniculate process in Free ... Related to arytenoid cartilage corniculate process: muscular process of arytenoid cartilage, vocal process of arytenoid ... redirected from arytenoid cartilage corniculate process). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia. ...
In some people these cartilages are quite soft whereas in other people the cartilage is quite firm and resistant to collapse. ... Lower lateral cartilage strut grafting. A very powerful method of enhancing tip shape, support and function is by using lower ... If these cartilages are concave the tip will appear more pinched. When you see the underlying structure of an aesthetically ... LLC strut grafts are composed of a straight, relatively strong piece of cartilage (usually septal or rib) that is carved into a ...
Without a blood supply, the potential for healing damage to the articular cartilage is minimal. Therefore, when this tissue is ...
Often requires cartilage grafts from the ears, ribs, or septum to augment the nose ...
These techniques removed too much cartilage or bone, based on the theory of reducing size or sculpting the nose. This is what ... we had to add cartilage back to the nose because too much had already been removed," said Dr. Binder. ... simultaneous evaluation are functional problems such as a deviated nasal septum or a collapse of the nasal valvular cartilage ...
This patient needs cartilage added to the tip to make it strong, so that the cartilage can exert its one force on the heavy ... The patient came to me, and I added cartilage to make it strong. As you can see in the after picture, the cartilage is now ... the before picture shows what happens to a patient with thick skin and weak cartilage when you fail to strengthen the cartilage ... it is of great use within treating cancer patients whove lost section of the nose and cartilege. Cartilege and skin grafts can ...
Cartilage, soft tissue and bones will be reshaped during this procedure to achieve an attractive and desired nasal shape. For a ... A small incision is made in the base of the nose and the nasal skin is lifted up over the cartilages and bone structure to ... Mulholland to accurately visualize the nose cartilages and bones and to correct more accurately and for greater durability. ...
Also changes can occur with time where the cartilage in the nose warps or changes shape. This is caused by internal elasticity ... of the cartilage and can require the need for reoperation in the future. Fortunately, most patients do not have this problem. ...
Pneumothorax (rib cartilage harvest only). If rib cartilage is used, there is a very small risk of puncturing the lining over ... The grafts are cartilage which is usually taken from the nasal septum. If this cartilage is unavailable, which occurs mainly in ... Rib cartilage is harvested through an incision near the crease under the breast in women, and in a similar location in men. ... Ear (conchal) cartilage is usually harvested from the bowl of the ear, occasionally a composite graft is needed which is ...
Ear cartilage is commonly harvest from one or sometimes both ears to be used in the nose. Harvesting ear cartilage is often ... Major Risks of Revision Rhinoplasty Using Rib Cartilage?. The risks are not very different from the risks of primary ... We work with your skin, fat, cartilage and facial angles and we improve them. Occasionally, the patient expects something in ... We work with your skin, fat, cartilage and facial angles and we improve them. Occasionally, the patient expects something in ...
... scarring and distortion due to overly zealous resection of nasal cartilage and lining. ...
When will cartilage reabsorb after a rhinoplasty?. Cartilage reabsorption in a graft is not ideal as this cartilage was placed ... However, upper lateral cartilages may need to be bolstered via a cartilage graft from the septum or the ear. It is best to ... However, if rib cartilage was used, then this may remain noticeably more firm than the rest of the cartilage in the nose (which ... Additional reinforcements may be needed in the form of cartilage grafts at the base of the septum. Trimming the cartilage near ...
... extensive cartilage grafting, immunocompromised patients, concurrent medical condition requiring antibiotics (e.g., ...
Cartilage grafts (portions of cartilage from the septum, ear, or a rib) are often necessary to accomplish the cosmetic and ... It is very common for the primary procedure to have depleted much of the nasal cartilage. A lack of septal cartilage is the ... These segments of cartilage are then shaped into structural and shaping pieces for use in the nose. As with primary rhinoplasty ... These factors include the remaining structure of your nasal bones and cartilage, the shape of your face, the thickness of your ...
Rhinoplasty is a major surgery which involves cutting of large sections of skin, cartilage and bone tissues. It helps to ... Thereafter, the skin is separated from the cartilage tissue. This technique is preferred when it is necessary to reconstruct ... The complete recovery of cartilage and bone tissues takes about 8-12 months. ... the nose cartilages, install the implants or perform correction after unsuccessfully performed operation. ...
Sports injuries and other disorders can cause cartilage problems. Learn how to take care of your cartilage. ... Cartilage is the tough but flexible tissue that covers the ends of your bones at a joint. It also gives shape and support to ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Cartilage Diseases (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Polychondritis, Relapsing ( ... Healthy cartilage helps you move by allowing your bones to glide over each other. It also protects bones by preventing them ...
The Meckelian Cartilage, also known as "Meckels Cartilage", is a piece of cartilage from which the mandibles (lower jaws) of ... Meckels cartilage arises from the first pharyngeal arch.. The dorsal end of each cartilage is connected with the ear-capsule ... the cartilage was covered in bone - although in their embryos the jaw initially develops as the Meckelian Cartilage. In all ... Johann Friedrich Meckel, the Younger discovered this cartilage in 1820.. This article incorporates text in the public domain ...
Shark cartilage is a dietary supplement made from the dried and powdered cartilage of a shark; that is, from the tough material ... "Shark Cartilage for Joint Relief". "Shark Cartilage Shows No Benefit as a Therapeutic Agent for Lung Cancer". University of ... "Shark Cartilage, Not a Cancer Therapy". New York Times. June 3, 2007. "Facts endangering sharks: Cartilage". Shark Foundation, ... "Shark Cartilage". American Cancer Society. November 1, 2008. Szabo, Liz (June 4, 2007). "Shark cartilage flounders; flaxseed ...
... Cartilage. Say: kar-tel-ij. Touch the tip of your nose or the top of your ear - thats cartilage. Its ...
Can different cartilage jewelry be used for different areas of the ear? Im looking to change my tragus piercing, could I use ... Cartilage piercings? Can different cartilage jewelry be used for different areas of the ear? Im looking to change my tragus ...
Source for information on cricoid cartilage: A Dictionary of Nursing dictionary. ... the cartilage, shaped like a signet ring, that forms part of the anterior and lateral walls and most of the posterior wall of ... cricoid cartilage (kry-koid) n. the cartilage, shaped like a signet ring, that forms part of the anterior and lateral walls and ... cricoid cartilage A Dictionary of Nursing © A Dictionary of Nursing 2008, originally published by Oxford University Press 2008. ...
The cells of cartilage, called chondrocytes, are isolated in small lacunae within the matrix. Although cartilage is avascular, ... Cartilage: Cartilage is a form of connective tissue in which the ground substance is abundant and of a firmly gelated ... Cartilage is enclosed by the perichondrium, a dense fibrous layer lined by cells that have the capacity to secrete hyaline ... Cartilage grows by formation of additional matrix and incorporation of new cells ...
Cartilage Creation. New joint tissue could keep people moving, reducing need for knee or hip replacements. ... Cartilage, the shock absorber of the body, has been bearing the brunt of a modern lifestyle. ...
  • Ear (conchal) cartilage is usually harvested from the bowl of the ear, occasionally a composite graft is needed which is cartilage and skin together, and in this situation a small skin graft is taken from behind the ear to cover the graft site. (entsunshinecoast.com.au)
  • If this cartilage is unavailable, which occurs mainly in revision surgery, cartilage can be taken from the ear, or occasionally the rib. (entsunshinecoast.com.au)
  • However, some of these individuals may well have looked good in the months following their operations only to have their appearance degenerate with shrinkage, scarring and distortion due to overly zealous resection of nasal cartilage and lining. (my-plastic-surgeon.com)
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