A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.
The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.
A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
Breaks in CARTILAGE.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.
The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.
The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.
The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.
Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
An extracellular endopeptidase which excises a block of peptides at the amino terminal, nonhelical region of the procollagen molecule with the formation of collagen. Absence or deficiency of the enzyme causes accumulation of procollagen which results in the inherited connective tissue disorder--dermatosparaxis. EC
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
Surgical techniques used to correct or augment healing of chondral defects in the joints (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). These include abrasion, drilling, and microfracture of the subchondral bone to enhance chondral resurfacing via autografts, allografts, or cell transplantation.
An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.
A plastic surgical operation on the nose, either reconstructive, restorative, or cosmetic. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.
A low-osmolar, ionic contrast medium used in various radiographic procedures.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains ELASTIC FIBERS and elastic lamellae, in addition to the normal components of HYALINE CARTILAGE matrix. Elastic cartilage is found in the EXTERNAL EAR; EUSTACHIAN TUBE; EPIGLOTTIS; and LARYNX.
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
A clear, homogenous, structureless, eosinophilic substance occurring in pathological degeneration of tissues.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.
Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.
A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
A type of osteochondritis in which articular cartilage and associated bone becomes partially or totally detached to form joint loose bodies. Affects mainly the knee, ankle, and elbow joints.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A dead body, usually a human body.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. It may remain within the substance of a cartilage or bone (true chondroma or enchondroma) or may develop on the surface of a cartilage (ecchondroma or ecchondrosis). (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.
An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, GENU VARUM, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
An acquired disease of unknown etiology, chronic course, and tendency to recur. It is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of cartilage and can result in deformities such as floppy ear and saddle nose. Loss of cartilage in the respiratory tract can lead to respiratory obstruction.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.
Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.
A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.
Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.
The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. In addition to a conserved HMG-BOX DOMAIN, members of this group contain a leucine zipper motif which mediates protein DIMERIZATION.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC
A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.
The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Surgical reconstruction of the hearing mechanism of the middle ear, with restoration of the drum membrane to protect the round window from sound pressure, and establishment of ossicular continuity between the tympanic membrane and the oval window. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (1/3372)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Fibrocartilage in tendons and ligaments--an adaptation to compressive load. (2/3372)

Where tendons and ligaments are subject to compression, they are frequently fibrocartilaginous. This occurs at 2 principal sites: where tendons (and sometimes ligaments) wrap around bony or fibrous pulleys, and in the region where they attach to bone, i.e. at their entheses. Wrap-around tendons are most characteristic of the limbs and are commonly wider at their point of bony contact so that the pressure is reduced. The most fibrocartilaginous tendons are heavily loaded and permanently bent around their pulleys. There is often pronounced interweaving of collagen fibres that prevents the tendons from splaying apart under compression. The fibrocartilage can be located within fascicles, or in endo- or epitenon (where it may protect blood vessels from compression or allow fascicles to slide). Fibrocartilage cells are commonly packed with intermediate filaments which could be involved in transducing mechanical load. The ECM often contains aggrecan which allows the tendon to imbibe water and withstand compression. Type II collagen may also be present, particularly in tendons that are heavily loaded. Fibrocartilage is a dynamic tissue that disappears when the tendons are rerouted surgically and can be maintained in vitro when discs of tendon are compressed. Finite element analyses provide a good correlation between its distribution and levels of compressive stress, but at some locations fibrocartilage is a sign of pathology. Enthesis fibrocartilage is most typical of tendons or ligaments that attach to the epiphyses of long bones where it may also be accompanied by sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilages. It is characteristic of sites where the angle of attachment changes throughout the range of joint movement and it reduces wear and tear by dissipating stress concentration at the bony interface. There is a good correlation between the distribution of fibrocartilage within an enthesis and the levels of compressive stress. The complex interlocking between calcified fibrocartilage and bone contributes to the mechanical strength of the enthesis and cartilage-like molecules (e.g. aggrecan and type II collagen) in the ECM contribute to its ability to withstand compression. Pathological changes are common and are known as enthesopathies.  (+info)

The use of variable lactate/malic dehydrogenase ratios to distinguish between progenitor cells of cartilage and bone in the embryonic chick. (3/3372)

The activities of LDH and MDH have been studied, both in differentiated cartilage and bone from the embryonic chick, and in the pool of mixed osteogenic and chondrogenic stem cells found on the quadratojugal, a membrane bone. In confirmation of the model proposed by Reddi & Huggins (1971) we found that the LDH/MDH ratio was greater than 1 in cartilage and less than 1 in bone. Furthermore we established, for the first time, that ratios occurred in the chondrogenic and osteogenic stem cells, similar to the ratios in their differentiated counterparts. Alteration in LDH/MDH resulted from variations in the level of LDH/mug protein. MDH/mug protein remained constant, even when LDH/MDH was changing. We interpret these results in terms of adaptation of chondrogenic progenitor cells for anaerobic metabolism and anticipate that our model will be applicable to other skeletal systems where stem cells are being studied.  (+info)

Generation and characterization of aggrecanase. A soluble, cartilage-derived aggrecan-degrading activity. (4/3372)

A method was developed for generating soluble, active "aggrecanase" in conditioned media from interleukin-1-stimulated bovine nasal cartilage cultures. Using bovine nasal cartilage conditioned media as a source of the aggrecanase enzyme, an enzymatic assay was established employing purified aggrecan monomers as a substrate and monitoring specific aggrecanase-mediated cleavage products by Western analysis using the monoclonal antibody, BC-3 (which recognizes the new N terminus, ARGS, on fragments produced by cleavage between amino acid residues Glu373 and Ala374). Using this assay we have characterized cartilage aggrecanase with respect to assay kinetics, pH and salt optima, heat sensitivity, and stability upon storage. Aggrecanase activity was inhibited by the metalloprotease inhibitor, EDTA, while a panel of inhibitors of serine, cysteine, and aspartic proteinases had no effect, suggesting that aggrecanase is a metalloproteinase. Sensitivity to known matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as well as to the endogenous tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, TIMP-1, further support the notion that aggrecanase is a metalloproteinase potentially related to the ADAM family or MMP family of proteases previously implicated in the catabolism of the extracellular matrix.  (+info)

gas2 is a multifunctional gene involved in the regulation of apoptosis and chondrogenesis in the developing mouse limb. (5/3372)

The growth-arrest-specific 2 (gas2) gene was initially identified on account of its high level of expression in murine fibroblasts under growth arrest conditions, followed by downregulation upon reentry into the cell cycle (Schneider et al., Cell 54, 787-793, 1988). In this study, the expression patterns of the gas2 gene and the Gas2 peptide were established in the developing limbs of 11.5- to 14. 5-day mouse embryos. It was found that gas2 was expressed in the interdigital tissues, the chondrogenic regions, and the myogenic regions. Low-density limb culture and Brdu incorporation assays revealed that gas2 might play an important role in regulating chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, it might play a similar role during limb myogenesis. In addition to chondrogenesis and myogeneis, gas2 is involved in the execution of the apoptotic program in hindlimb interdigital tissues-by acting as a death substrate for caspase enzymes. TUNEL analysis demonstrated that the interdigital tissues underwent apoptosis between 13.5 and 15.5 days. Exactly at these time points, the C-terminal domain of the Gas2 peptide was cleaved as revealed by Western blot analysis. Moreover, pro-caspase-3 (an enzyme that can process Gas2) was cleaved into its active form in the interdigital tissues. The addition of zVAD-fmk, a caspase enzyme inhibitor, to 12.5-day-old hindlimbs maintained in organ culture revealed that the treatment inhibited interdigital cell death. This inhibition correlated with the absence of the Gas2 peptide and pro-caspase-3 cleavage. The data suggest that Gas2 might be involved in the execution of the apoptotic process.  (+info)

Midpalatal suture of osteopetrotic (op/op) mice exhibits immature fusion. (6/3372)

The midpalatal suture was observed histologically in both toothless osteopetrotic (op/op) and normal (control) mice. The normal mice had a mature sutural structure, which consists of a well-developed cartilage cell zone and palatal bone. In contrast, the thickness of the cartilage cell zone was substantially greater in the op/op mice than that in the controls. Moreover, the cartilage cells in the op/op mice were frequently found in the palatal bone as well as in the sutural space, exhibiting an imperfect fusion. It seems that immature fusion at the sutural interface in the op/op mice is related to a decrease in biting or masticatory force accompanied by the failure of tooth eruption in addition to an essential defect in osteoclast differentiation, which is a congenital symptom in op/op mice.  (+info)

Regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by Cbfa1. (7/3372)

Cbfa1, a developmentally expressed transcription factor of the runt family, was recently shown to be essential for osteoblast differentiation. We have investigated the role of Cbfa1 in endochondral bone formation using Cbfa1-deficient mice. Histology and in situ hybridization with probes for indian hedgehog (Ihh), collagen type X and osteopontin performed at E13.5, E14.5 and E17.5 demonstrated a lack of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the anlagen of the humerus and the phalanges and a delayed onset of hypertrophy in radius/ulna in Cbfa1-/- mice. Detailed analysis of Cbfa1 expression using whole mount in situ hybridization and a lacZ reporter gene reveled strong expression not only in osteoblasts but also in pre-hypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. Our studies identify Cbfa1 as a major positive regulator of chondrocyte differentiation.  (+info)

Strong induction of members of the chitinase family of proteins in atherosclerosis: chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 expressed in lesion macrophages. (8/3372)

Atherosclerosis is initiated by the infiltration of monocytes into the subendothelial space of the vessel wall and subsequent lipid accumulation of the activated macrophages. The molecular mechanisms involved in the anomalous behavior of macrophages in atherogenesis have only partially been disclosed. Chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 (HC gp-39) are members of the chitinase family of proteins and are expressed in lipid-laden macrophages accumulated in various organs during Gaucher disease. In addition, as shown in this study, chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 can be induced with distinct kinetics in cultured macrophages. We investigated the expression of these chitinase-like genes in the human atherosclerotic vessel wall by in situ hybridizations on atherosclerotic specimens derived from femoral artery (4 specimens), aorta (4 specimens), iliac artery (3 specimens), carotid artery (4 specimens), and coronary artery (1 specimen), as well as 5 specimens derived from apparently normal vascular tissue. We show for the first time that chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 expression was strongly upregulated in distinct subsets of macrophages in the atherosclerotic plaque. The expression patterns of chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 were compared and shown to be different from the patterns observed for the extracellular matrix protein osteopontin and the macrophage marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Our data emphasize the remarkable phenotypic variation among macrophages present in the atherosclerotic lesion. Furthermore, chitotriosidase enzyme activity was shown to be elevated up to 55-fold in extracts of atherosclerotic tissue. Although a function for chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 has not been identified, we hypothesize a role in cell migration and tissue remodeling during atherogenesis.  (+info)

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The Meckelian Cartilage, also known as Meckels Cartilage, is a piece of cartilage from which the mandibles (lower jaws) of vertebrates evolved. Originally it was the lower of two cartilages which supported the first branchial arch in early fish. Then it grew longer and stronger, and acquired muscles capable of closing the developing jaw.[1]. In early fish and in chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fish such as sharks), the Meckelian Cartilage continued to be the main component of the lower jaw. But in the adult forms of osteichthyans (bony fish) and their descendants (amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals), the cartilage was covered in bone - although in their embryos the jaw initially develops as the Meckelian Cartilage. In all tetrapods the cartilage partially ossifies (changes to bone) at the rear end of the jaw and becomes the articular bone, which forms part of the jaw joint in all tetrapods except mammals.[1]. In some extinct mammal groups like eutriconodonts, the Meckels cartilage still ...
Collagen from bovine tracheal cartilage Bornstein and Traub Type II, powder; CAS Number: 9007-34-5; EC Number: 232-697-4; find Sigma-Aldrich-C1188 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
There are many causes for painful worn cartilage in the knee joint: arthritis, arthrosis, traumas with bone- or cartilage lesions or metabolic disorders like gout or hemochromatosis. © bilderzwerg @ fotolia. Osteoarthritis (worn cartilage) is the most common joint condition. The most common form of osteoarthritis is osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis of the knee causes chronic pain and limits movement. The cartilage in the knee wears away over many years. Since the cartilage has no sensitive nerve endings (pain sensors), damage is only noticed when the defects already affect the bone beneath the cartilage.. A cartilage transplant, or cartilage cell or chondrocyte transplant, is a new surgical procedure: in which cartilage damage is repaired using cartilage cells from the patients own body. Few knee specialists in Germany successfully perform this procedure. Dr Baum was the first physician in the world to perform an entirely arthroscopic cartilage transplant of the knee. He co-developed ...
This causes it to heal very slowly. So, you can find hyaline cartilage in the larynx and trachea in the throat portion of the body, and then also in all of the joints where the surfaces of bones are articulating each other. Cartilage is a type of connective tissue found in the body. It has a capacity for rapid interstitial and appositional growth in young and growing tissues. Three types of cartilage(hyaline cartilage, white fibrocartilage, and yellow elastic cartilage) can be distinguished on the basis of the composition and structure of their extracellular matrices, but many features of the cells and matrix are common to all three types, and these features will be considered first. This smooth, transparent, glassy type of cartilage coats the ends … This cartilage is of three types as. Articular cartilage is a physiologically non-self-renewing avascular tissue with a singular cell type, the chondrocyte, which functions as the load-bearing surface of the arthrodial joint. Cartilage is a ...
Wilson R, Norris EL, Brachvogel B, Angelucci C, Zivkovic S, Gordon L, Bernardo BC, Stermann J, Sekiguchi K, Gorman JJ, Bateman JF. Changes in the Chondrocyte and Extracellular Matrix Proteome during Post-natal Mouse Cartilage Development. Molecular and cellular proteomics (2011) PubMed ...
Unscramble cartilages, Unscramble letters cartilages, Point value for cartilages, Word Decoder for cartilages, Word generator using the letters cartilages, Word Solver cartilages, Possible Scrabble words with cartilages, Anagram of cartilages
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BioAssay record AID 606382 submitted by ChEMBL: Biodistribution in Sprague-Dawley rat cartilage at 3.2 to 18.6 MBq, iv after 120 mins by micro PET analysis.
A robust method for proteomic characterization of mouse cartilage using solubility-based sequential fractionation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
Cartilage cells are formed by the division of chondrocytes, which produce and maintain the extracellular matrix of cartilage. At E16.5, chondrocytes in the middle portion of Meckels cartilage become hypertrophic and degenerate.. ...
The extracellular matrix of cartilage is secreted by chondroblasts, (chondro = cartilage), which are found in the outer covering layer of cartilage. As the chondroblasts secrete matrix and fibres, they become trapped inside it, and mature into cells called chondrocytes. (See diagram opposite) In growing cartilage, the chondrocytes can divide, and the daughter cells remain close together in groups, forming a nest of 2-4 cells. The matrix enclosed compartments that they sit in are called lacunae. (lacunae = little lakes/small pits). The active chondrocytes are large secretory cells with basophilic cytoplasm because they have lots of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Older chondrocytes contain fat droplets.. (Fixation of cartilage usually causes some shrinkage between the cell border and the lacunar wall, so that these lacunae look more prominent in fixed tissue.). The surface of most cartilage is covered by a layer of dense irregular connective tissue called the perichondrium (peri = around). The ...
In a large scale screen for mutants that affect the early development of the zebrafish, 109 mutants were found that cause defects in the formation of the jaw and the more posterior pharyngeal arches. Here we present the phenotypic description and results of the complementation analysis of mutants belonging to two major classes: (1) mutants with defects in the mandibular and hyoid arches and (2) mutants with defects in cartilage differentiation and growth in all arches. Mutations in four of the genes identified during the screen show specific defects in the first two arches and leave the more posterior pharyngeal arches largely unaffected (schmerle, sucker, hoover and sturgeon). In these mutants ventral components of the mandibular and hyoid arches are reduced (Meckels cartilage and ceratohyal cartilage) whereas dorsal structures (palatoquadrate and hyosymplectic cartilages) are of normal size or enlarged. Thus, mutations in single genes cause defects in the formation of first and second arch ...
Chondroblasts, or perichondrial cells, is the name given to mesenchymal progenitor cells in situ which, from endochondral ossification, will form chondrocytes in the growing cartilage matrix. Another name for them is subchondral cortico-spongious progenitors. They have euchromatic nuclei and stain by basic dyes. These cells are extremely important in Chondrogenesis due to their role in forming both the Chondrocytes and cartilage matrix which will eventually form cartilage. Use of the term is technically inaccurate since mesenchymal progenitors can also technically differentiate into osteoblasts or fat. Chondroblasts are called Chondrocytes when they embed themselves in the cartilage matrix, consisting of proteoglycan and collagen fibers, until they lie in the matrix lacunae. Once they embed themselves into the cartilage matrix, they grow the cartilage matrix by growing more cartilage extracellular matrix rather than by dividing further.[citation needed] As suggested in the name, mesenchymal ...
Cellguard Liquid Cartilage is 100% bio available concentrated natural liquid bovine tracheal cartilage manufactured by the Australian Cartilage Company -
Synonyms for cartilage cell in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cartilage cell. 24 synonyms for cell: room, chamber, lock-up, compartment, cavity, cubicle, dungeon, stall, unit, group, section, core, nucleus, caucus, coterie, electric cell. What are synonyms for cartilage cell?
Ligament is a connective tissue which connects bone to bone. Tendon connects Bones to muscles. Cartilage is a type of connective tissue which is involved in supportive framework of our body , cartilage are of various types like Hyaline cartilage which is weakest , Elastic cartilage which is elastic in nature and Fibrous cartilage which is strongest among all cartilage.. ...
The aim of this project is to fully characterise the trypsin-like serine proteinase SPUVE (also known as PRRS23). SPUVE is predicted to promote cartilage resorption in osteoarthritis since it is one of the most significantly up-regulated genes in cartilage from OA patients compared to non-diseased cartilage ...
In adult healthful cartilage, chondrocytes are within a quiescent phase seen as a an excellent balance between anabolic and catabolic activities. activate mobile and molecular procedures, regulating the useful behavior of cartilage in both physiological and pathological circumstances. These networks could be relevant in the crosstalk among joint compartments and elevated knowledge within this field can lead to the introduction of more effective approaches for inducing cartilage restoration. for IGF-I, FGF-2, and TGF- [26]. Among these substances those of the TGF- family members play a prominent part (evaluated by [27]). The TGF- superfamily can be comprised of a lot more than forty people, also like the BMPs [28]. It really is noteworthy that TGF-1 is among the main substances regarded as anabolic for cartilage [29C31], as well as Insulin Growth Element (IGF)-1 [32], Fibroblast Development Element (FGF)-2 [33] and BMP-7 [34]. Conversely, TGF- offers been proven to be engaged in cartilage ...
The objective of this study was to immunohistochemically elucidate the major extracellular matrix constituents of rabbit tracheal cartilage. The impetus for this project is the need for crucial design and validation criteria for tissue engineering juxtaposed with the conspicuous lack of trachea extracellular matrix data in the literature. Tracheal tissue specimens were harvested from New Zealand White rabbits, and were immunostained for collagen I, collagen II, aggrecan and decorin; and a Verhoeff-Van Gieson stain was performed to visualize elastin. The most striking result was the highly organized relationship between distinct fibrous (containing collagen I, decorin and elastin) and hyaline-like (containing collagen II and aggrecan) regions of the tracheal wall. The tracheal cartilage stained strongly with collagen II throughout, with periodic bands of aggrecan in the tracheal arches, meaning that there were areas void of aggrecan immunostaining alternating with areas with strong aggrecan
Connective tissue - Connective tissue - Cartilage: Cartilage is a form of connective tissue in which the ground substance is abundant and of a firmly gelated consistency that endows this tissue with unusual rigidity and resistance to compression. The cells of cartilage, called chondrocytes, are isolated in small lacunae within the matrix. Although cartilage is avascular, gaseous metabolites and nutrients can diffuse through the aqueous phase of the gel-like matrix to reach the cells. Cartilage is enclosed by the perichondrium, a dense fibrous layer lined by cells that have the capacity to secrete hyaline matrix. Cartilage grows by formation of additional matrix and incorporation of new cells
The unparalleled liquid strength of cartilage, which is about 80 percent water, withstands some of the toughest forces on our bodies.. Synthetic materials couldnt match it-until Kevlartilage was developed by researchers at the University of Michigan and Jiangnan University.. We know that we consist mostly of water-all life does-and yet our bodies have a lot of structural stability, said Nicholas Kotov, the Joseph B. and Florence V. Cejka Professor of Engineering at U-M, who led the study. Understanding cartilage is understanding how life forms can combine properties that are sometimes unthinkable together.. Many people with joint injuries would benefit from a good replacement for cartilage, such as the 850,000 patients in the U.S. who undergo surgeries removing or replacing cartilage in the knee.. While other varieties of synthetic cartilage are already undergoing clinical trials, these materials fall into two camps that choose between cartilage attributes, unable to achieve that unlikely ...
Arthritis, the leading cause of disability in the United States, involves the loss of a special type of cartilage cell lining the joints.. In a study appearing on the cover of the latest issue of Developmental Cell, first author Amjad Askary - a doctoral student in the USC Stem Cell lab of Gage Crump - and his colleagues identify roles for a family of genes, called Iroquois (Irx) genes, in protecting these joint cartilage cells.. While some types of cartilage serve as temporary scaffolds that are later replaced by bone, joint cartilage remains perpetually cushiony, flexible and immature. In order to better understand how this works, the researchers took advantage of the fact that a joint in the zebrafish jaw, called the hyoid joint, contains high levels of one member of the Irx family, Irx7.. When the researchers used gene editing to create mutant zebrafish lacking this gene, the wrong type of cartilage formed at this joint. They then showed that Irx genes promote joint flexibility by turning ...
Define Ensiform cartilage. Ensiform cartilage synonyms, Ensiform cartilage pronunciation, Ensiform cartilage translation, English dictionary definition of Ensiform cartilage. See Xiphisternum. See also: Ensiform
TY - JOUR. T1 - HES factors regulate specific aspects of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy during cartilage development. AU - Rutkowski, Timothy P.. AU - Kohn, Anat. AU - Sharma, Deepika. AU - Ren, Yinshi. AU - Mirando, Anthony J.. AU - Hilton, Matthew J.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported in part by the following United States National Institutes of Health grants (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases): R01 grants [grant numbers AR057022 and AR063071 to M.J.H.]; R21 grant [grant number AR059733 to M.J.H.]; a P30 Core Center grant [grant number AR061307]; a T32 training grant that supported both T.P.R. and A.K. [grant number AR053459]. The work was also supported by departmental funds from the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Duke University School of Medicine. Deposited in PMC for release after 12 months.. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - RBPjκ-dependent Notch signaling regulates multiple processes during cartilage development, ...
The hospitals segment accounted for the largest share of the end user segment in the cartilage repair market in 2019.. Based on end users, the cartilage regeneration market is segmented into hospitals and ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) and clinics. The hospitals segment accounted for the largest share of the market in 2019. This can be attributed to the large number of minimally invasive surgeries performed in hospitals and the growing number of hospitals in emerging economies.. The Asia Pacific region is the fastest growing region of the cartilage repair and regeneration market in 2019.. The Asia Pacific region is estimated to grow at the highest CAGR in the cartilage repair market during the forecast period, this is mainly due to the rising geriatric population and the subsequent increase in the incidence of various disorders and injuries. Recent developments in tissue engineering and stem cell therapy will further fuel market growth.. Request Sample Report ...
Cartilage markers in synovial fluid in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.: The higher aggrecan/COMP ratios in osteoarthritis could reflect increased cartilage mat
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The composition of the extracellular matrix of cartilage dictates its mechanical properties. Proteoglycans (PG) and collagen are two important structural components of the cartilage extracellular matrix. The ability to measure changes both in the amount and distribution of cartilage matrix constituents is essential in understanding early pathological changes of joint diseases. Previous studies hav
Cartilage is a type of hard, thick, slippery tissue that coats the ends of bones where they meet with other bones to form a joint. Cartilage lines the joint space between bones throughout the body, including the spine and the rib cage. It acts as a protective cushion between bones to absorb the stress applied to joints during movement.. Cartilage is made up of protein strands called collagen that form a tough, mesh-like framework. The mesh is filled with substances that hold water, much like a sponge. When weight is placed on cartilage, water is squeezed out of the mesh. When weight is taken off, the water returns. Cartilage does not contain blood vessels or nerves. ...
Light microscopy of cartilage showing chondrocytes surrounded by the cartilage matrix that they synthesize and secrete. This is developing hyaline cartilage in which the young chondrocytes typically contain a high content of lipids seen as green-stained fat droplets. The pale halo-type region around the cells is an artefact of tissue preparation. The matrix has collagen, and proteoglycan molecules that attract and bind water. Cartilage is tough yet flexible and is reversibly resistant to compression. Magnification x 200 when printed at 10cm. - Stock Image C028/6636
The hidden interior architecture always has a bearing on the outside appearance. Three of the smallest bones of the body are found in the middle ear; they are called the malleus, the incus and the stapes. Nose piercings involve manual penetration of needle in the skin, flesh, and cartilage. This tissue is responsible for lump like sensation. A broken nose, also called a nasal fracture, is a break or crack in a bone in your nose - often the bone over the bridge of your nose. Sep 20, 2017 - Pimple inside nose causes, cartilage, bleeds, wont go away, after septoplasty and how to get rid of it using various remedies and treatment. It got to the point where I couldnt stand to have it in. ACES + Zinc. Once i started working at piercing pagoda i switched my cartilage earrings to a pair of tiny gold hoops. Bump inside Nose: Cartilage, White, Hurts, Painful, after. The bridge or dorsum of the nose is made up of the nasal bones and middle cartilages. If the skin is cut this requires cleaning and then ...
Tiny Clear CZ Stone Cartilage Earring, Black Stone Ear Piercing, Barbell Cartilage, Cartilage Stud, Tragus Ear Piercing, 16 Gauge, Cartilage Earring, Single Earring, Tragus earring, Screw Back, Barbell Cartilage, Helix earring_P118This listing is for one piercing. If you like to place an order of a pair, please order 2
Synonyms for interosseous cartilage in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for interosseous cartilage. 1 synonym for cartilage: gristle. What are synonyms for interosseous cartilage?
In cartilage cells as well as in other cell types, IGF2 is considered as a growth factor mainly mimicking the effect of IGF1 through IGF1-receptor. Since cartilage cells contain both types I and II IGF-receptors, it is still unknown wether IGF2 may have specific effects mediated through the IGF2-Mannose-6-Phosphate receptor (IGF2/M6P-R). This bifunctional protein also binds glycosylated proteins such as newly synthesized acid protease enzymes being responsible of their targeting from me Golgi to the lysosomes. Our purpose was to investigate the possibility for IGF2, by comparison with IGF1, to interact with the storage of chondrocyte lysosomal enzymes. Cultured chondrocytes from prepuberial, fetal or adult rabbits were used and their content of acid phosphatase. cathepsin B and L activities was quantified by using a colorimetric reaction with appropriate substrates. In basal conditions, the acid protease activities localized by histochemistry and electron microscopy, were observed in the RER. in the
We have investigated proteinases that degrade cartilage collagen. We show that pro-inflammatory cytokines act synergistically with oncastatin M to promote cartilage collagen resorption by the up-regulation and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The precise mechanisms are not known, but involve the up-regulation of c-fos, which binds to MMP promoters at a proximal activator protein-1 (AP-1) site. This markedly up-regulates transcription and leads to higher levels of active MMP proteins. ...
Fibrocartilage is exactly what the name implies, mostly fibers. Unlike hyaline cartilages uniform structure, the fibers in this type of cartilage are more open and have a spongy-like architecture. This makes them perfect for shock absorption. As such, you can find them between your vertebrae, and in the joints of your knee, shoulders, and mandible.. All types of cartilage grow in one of two ways; interstitial, and appositional. Interstitial growth happens when cartilage is formed by chondrocytes within the cartilage, forming additional matrix. Appositional growth happens by adding new cartilage on the surface. This is formed from chondrocytes in a dense layer of connective tissue surrounding the cartilage, called the perichondrium.. The question then becomes: does this interstitial and appositional growth, cause the mass of our cartilage, and its size, to increase as we age? The result being bigger ears and noses. The answer is no. Studies have shown the numbers of cells present in our ...
Sex- and joint compartment-related differences in cartilage development may be one explanation for variations in the pattern of knee OA seen in later life. Furthermore, the physical activity associations suggest that cartilage development is amenable to modification.
Stem cells could one day be stimulated to make a special type of cartilage to help repair large, hard-to-heal bone fractures - a potential boon for doctors treating big-money athletes, USC researchers say.. Gage Crump, senior author, and his colleagues used the regeneration of zebrafish jawbone to show that the processes required for embryonic development are not necessarily repeated during regeneration of damaged body parts like fractured bones. The study was published online in Development last month.. An exciting finding from our work is that, somewhat counterintuitively, cartilage is critical for healing full-thickness bone injuries, said Crump, associate professor of stem cell and regenerative medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC. By understanding how this bone-producing cartilage is generated in the simpler zebrafish model, we hope to find ways to create more of this unique cartilage tissue in patients to better heal their bones.. Zebrafish are vertebrates that have bones ...
Osteoarthritis is a progressive disease that can be caused by a traumatic injury such as tearing a ligament; it can also result from gradual wearing down of cartilage as people age. A smooth connective tissue that protects the joints, cartilage is produced by cells called chondrocytes but is not easily replaced once it is damaged.. Previous studies have shown that IGF-1 can help regenerate cartilage in animals. However, many osteoarthritis drugs that showed promise in animal studies have not performed well in clinical trials.. The MIT team suspected that this was because the drugs were cleared from the joint before they could reach the deep layer of chondrocytes that they were intended to target. To overcome that, they set out to design a material that could penetrate all the way through the cartilage.. The sphere-shaped molecule they came up with contains many branched structures called dendrimers that branch from a central core. The molecule has a positive charge at the tip of each of its ...
Meckels cartilages are the cartilaginous precursors of the mandible. These cartilaginous bars of the first branchial arch become surrounded with a fibrous membrane. These membranous covered cartilage bars are attached to the otic or ear capsules at their proximal end and to each other via mesodermal tissue at their distal extremities. The only portion of Meckels cartilage that contributes to the mandible is the distal end. This end, invaded by bone, contributes to the part of the mandible between the two canine teeth. The major portion of the mandible forms intramembranously in the membrane surrounding Meckels cartilage. During the sixth week of embryonic life a center arises near what will be the mental foramen. By the tenth week the anterior portion of the cartilage is invaded by the developing bone. The bone continues to spread posteriorly and superiorly to form the mandibular outline. At birth the bone is in two halves, separated by a fibrous symphysis at the anterior midline. The two ...
Looking for cartilage lacuna? Find out information about cartilage lacuna. 1. Biology a cavity or depression, such as any of the spaces in the matrix of bone 2. another name for coffer In animals and man, the interstices between... Explanation of cartilage lacuna
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of cyclic deformation and solute binding on solute transport in cartilage. AU - Zhang, L.. AU - Gardiner, Bruce. AU - Smith, David. AU - Pivonka, Peter. AU - Grodzinsky, A.. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Diffusive transport must play an important role in transporting nutrients into cartilage due to its avascular nature. Recent theoretical studies generally support the idea that cyclic loading enhances large molecule transport through advection. However, to date, reactive transport, i.e. the effects of solute binding, has not yet been taken into consideration in cyclically deformed cartilage. In the present study, we develop a reactive transport model to describe the potential role of binding of solute within cyclically deformed cartilage. Our results show that binding does have a significant effect on transport, particularly for the low IGF-I concentrations typical of synovial fluid. A dynamic loading regime of high strain magnitudes (up to 10%) in combination with high ...
The main difference between bone and cartilage is that bone is a hard and rigid tissue, whereas the cartilage is a soft, elastic and flexible tissue. The cartilage is present in the ears, nose, and joints of the body, whereas bones make up the skeletal system of the body.
Cartilage provides protection for your body, especially when you are moving, but because it doesnt contain blood vessels, cartilage doesnt heal itself as well as other parts of the body. If you want to keep moving it is important to do your best to protect the cartilage in your body.. There are a few things you can do avoid injuries to the cartilage in your body.. ...
Because the cartilage does not have a good blood supply, it can take longer to heal. That said, you cant get away with not wearing your earrings for a few days if the piercing is on the cartridge. I know some people do alright with them-thats them and not the majority. The healing process of cartilage piercing is very slow and it can be up to one year but if you feel your piercing is not completely sure, you should consult your piercing consultant. Piercings take months to heal even after the soreness dissipates. This has got to do with the fact that cartilage is a thick tissue , and thus takes longer to heal. Perhaps its because Im physically incapable of not sleeping on my left side, but more than a year later, my cartilage piercings continue to be … The pierced portion of the helix takes around six to eight months to heal. Kirstyns been an online writer for over eight years. Despite what youve read over the internet it is general recommended to start stretching your piercing after 1 ...
Looking for epiglottic cartilage? Find out information about epiglottic cartilage. : see larynx larynx , organ of voice in mammals. Commonly known as the voice box, the larynx is a tubular chamber about 2 in. high, consisting of walls of... Explanation of epiglottic cartilage
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Cartilage regeneration involved making small cuts underneath an injured cartilage in the bone, so that the resultant blood encourages cartilage cell growth.
J W Stevens, K J Noonan, P P Bosch, T B Rapp, J A Martin, G L Kurriger, J A Maynard, K J Daniels, M Solursh, R Tammi, M Tammi, R J Midura
CARTILAGE... that has cancer? lol i dnno but i say permission to freak out confirmed. ...
Your ligaments or cartilage may have issues. It could also be.........arthritis.... Might be worth having a discussion with a ...
... shock absorbing foot ware can be helpful to compensate for the loss of cartilage.. If medication is tricky for you it can be ...
... displaced cartilage, courtesy of a sports accident in my youth). But Im one of the lucky ones -- about to turn 70 with a ...
BC the pathogens can hide under a blanket of fibrin the body lays down or within the cartilage, where there is very limited ...
I was aware enough so I could feel the implant being installed, could feel/hear the bone/cartilage being broken, could hear the ...
Tinnitus Vertigo Vomiting Sweating Symptoms Adverse Moveri Nefasto En Cellulitis On Ear Cartilage Tattoo What Is A Regimented ...
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Even thyroid cartilage. And the skull itself is not crushed. It turns out that this weight had no effect on the bones.. SN: ... We even found the notorious thyroid cartilage (!) and it was not damaged.. Buttons are simple plastic, black. Cheap, no studs. ...
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the nasal cartilage is flattened.. Alexander -* the nose cartilage is soft when palpated and has unusual mobility. The base ... The neck is long and thin, and deformed in the area of the thyroid cartilage. ... When palpating the neck, there is extraordinary mobility of the thyrohyal and thyroid cartilages. ...
Always heavy prednisone cartilage, initiatives plot gravis. Last post by obeyeohibi « Fri Sep 24, 2021 10:34 pm. Posted in ...
Usually leader site: derivatives fibro-cartilage children. Last post by oyazeruke « Wed Sep 22, 2021 6:35 pm. Posted in General ...
Glucosamine alters cartilage turnover in OA patients Last post by galapogos « Mon Aug 15, 2016 5:08 pm. ...
... they are knee-cartilage destroyers. Steep, relentless, slippery, full of downed trees, loose rock, blow-outs, and finally ...
Cartilage (FIN) - In Godly Flesh Demo 1 1991. #163. Casket (USA) - Demo 1991. #5. Castle (HOL) - In Purple Visions Demo 1992. # ... Cartilage, Morpheus Descends, Supuration, Putrid Offal, Paraxism, Algol, Human Waste, Enchantment, Séance, Godsend, Ritual ...
Glucosamine is the main compound of glucosamine sulfate (proteoglycan). It acts like a spring within the joint cartilage. After ...
Cartilage is the part of the joint that cushions the ends of bones. Cartilage breakdown causes bones to rub against each other ... It is characterized by a breakdown of the joints cartilage. ...
... when they get a second set of teeth and their calcium is too busy to make ear cartilage.. So, what say you? How do I make 1U1D ...
the bridge of the nose is straight; the nose cartilage is soft when palpated and has unusual mobility; the base of the nose is ... That might account for the one person who bit his finger joint cartilage off and it was found in his mouth. The groups were ... That might account for the one person who bit his finger joint cartilage off and it was found in his mouth. The groups were ...
Cartilage and Ligament Tissue Engineering: Biomaterials, Cellular Interactions, and Regenerative Strategies. In Ratner BD, ...
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  • Cartilage is enclosed by the perichondrium, a dense fibrous layer lined by cells that have the capacity to secrete hyaline matrix. (britannica.com)
  • Hyaline cartilage , the most widely distributed form, has a pearl-gray semitranslucent matrix containing randomly oriented collagen fibrils but relatively little elastin. (britannica.com)
  • This variant of cartilage is more flexible than hyaline cartilage and is found principally in the external ear and in the larynx and epiglottis. (britannica.com)
  • The costal cartilage is a set of hyaline cartilage bands that attach the medial end of the seven true ribs to the lateral border of the sternum (breastbone). (innerbody.com)
  • It is the articulating portion of the epiphysis that is coated with a layer of hyaline cartilage. (innerbody.com)
  • But this is weaker than natural hyaline cartilage. (newscientist.com)
  • Biopsies showed that 11 out of 15 transplants looked like hyaline cartilage. (newscientist.com)
  • Damage to the knee can cause lesions to the articular lining cartilage or hyaline cartilage, which covers the bony surfaces of the knee, or sometimes to both the cartilage and the bone. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Cartilage is found in many places in the body and is classified as either "hyaline," "elastic," or "fibrous" cartilage. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In hyaline cartilage, type II collagen makes up 40 percent of its dry weight and is arranged in cross-striated fibers, 15-45 nanometers in diameter that do not assemble into large bundles. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Fibrous cartilage contains more collagen than hyaline cartilage, and elastic cartilage, as its name implies, contains elastic fibers, which lend it a greater deal of flexibility. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Hyaline cartilage is the most abundant type of cartilage. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • It is avascular hyaline cartilage that is made predominantly of type II collagen. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Hyaline cartilage is found lining bones in joints (articular cartilage or, commonly, gristle) and is also present inside bones, serving as a center of ossification, or bone growth. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In addition, hyaline cartilage forms most of the embryonic skeleton. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Hyaline cartilage accounted for almost two thirds of the market share of cartilage repair in 2017. (openpr.com)
  • What is Hyaline Cartilage? (wisegeek.com)
  • Hyaline cartilage is a type of body tissue, also called gristle. (wisegeek.com)
  • Hyaline cartilage appears on the ends of bones where they form joints, between the ribs and the sternum or breastplate, in the trachea and bronchii of the lungs, and in the ear and the larynx or voice box. (wisegeek.com)
  • Hyaline cartilage becomes bone in a process called endochondral ossification . (wisegeek.com)
  • In the ear, hyaline cartilage helps to absorb loud sounds. (wisegeek.com)
  • Hyaline cartilage, like elastic cartilage, is usually lined with perichardium, a layer of irregular connective tissue that aids in the growth and repair of cartilage. (wisegeek.com)
  • Damaged hyaline cartilage is often replaced by scar tissue consisting of the tougher and less flexible fibrocartilage, which can impair joint performance. (wisegeek.com)
  • How does the thickness of hyaline cartilage increase? (wisegeek.com)
  • Focal arthritic defects are defined as areas of complete hyaline cartilage loss exposing the underlying bone ringed by areas of intact hyaline cartilage. (google.ca)
  • Cartilage is classified in three types, elastic cartilage, hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage, which differ in relative amounts of collagen and proteoglycan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, because hyaline cartilage does not have a blood supply, the deposition of new matrix is slow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Can Glucosamine Supplements Protect My Knee Cartilage from Osteoarthritis? (medlineplus.gov)
  • SWEDISH doctors have repaired injured knee joints in over a dozen patients - two of them professional athletes - by implanting cells cultured from the patients' own cartilage. (newscientist.com)
  • The doctors took healthy cartilage from an undamaged area of the patient's knee, separated it into individual cells, and grew them for between two and three weeks in the laboratory. (newscientist.com)
  • Henry Mankin of Massachusetts General Hospital speculates that the problem may be the greater stresses borne by knee cartilage. (newscientist.com)
  • Biological glues, such as those based on fibrin - the sticky component of blood - are too weak to fix parts of the body that have to withstand strong forces, such as an injured meniscal cartilage, found in the knee. (newscientist.com)
  • There is a great need for something strong enough to withstand the forces in the knee to hold the cartilage together until it repairs," says biomaterials expert Rolfe Howlett of the University of New South Wales in Sydney. (newscientist.com)
  • In the sheep experiment, orthopaedic surgeon George Murrell of the University of New South Wales made a tear in the meniscal knee cartilage of ten sheep, treated each with frog glue, and reconstructed the joints. (newscientist.com)
  • cartilage strain in knee? (yahoo.com)
  • I strained my left knee cartilage in PE on Thursday but I have a football match on Sunday evening wich is the last game of the season im one of the best goal scorers on my team and we are playing the second team in the league we are 1 point ahead my team mates say I must play for the sake of the team my knee is. (yahoo.com)
  • Cartilage in his left knee tore, and everything changed for both Webber and the Kings. (dictionary.com)
  • Hangody L, Kárpáti Z. New possibilities in the management of severe circumscribed cartilage damage in the knee. (springer.com)
  • Rebound Cartilage Custom is an external knee brace that provides support for knee instability due to ligament injuries and osteoarthritis. (fda.gov)
  • The algorithm assumes that stresses exceeding a certain threshold during walking will cause local degeneration in the articular cartilage of the knee. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If a piece of cartilage or bone has become detached in the knee and the injury is not treated immediately, the loose part can 'swim around' in the joint. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Cartilage is a stiff yet flexible connective tissue found in many areas in the bodies of humans and other animals, including the joints between bones, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the elbow, the knee, the ankle, the bronchial tubes and the intervertebral discs. (news-medical.net)
  • The cartilage constructs could eventually be clinically applied using a blueprint from an MRI scan of a knee, for example, from which a matching construct could be created. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Reuters Health) - Many middle-aged and older adults with torn cartilage and pain in their knee are not likely to benefit from so-called arthroscopic surgery, a review of past studies suggests. (reuters.com)
  • In the current analysis, all of the trial participants who got knee operations had a partial meniscectomy, removing only some of this cartilage. (reuters.com)
  • When cartilage, an elastic, biphasic material covering the surfaces of joints (such as the knee joint) wears out, it is painful and may require surgical intervention to replace the worn area. (mscsoftware.com)
  • Repetitive weight loss and gain in overweight or obese patients with knee osteoarthritis is associated with significantly greater cartilage and bone marrow edema degeneration than stable weight or steady weight loss, research suggests. (medscape.com)
  • We know, for example, that obese women with knee OA have significantly higher levels of the adipokine leptin, compared to men, and leptin is involved in cartilage degeneration," Carlesso said. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Weight Cycling Linked to Cartilage Degeneration in Knee OA - Medscape - May 04, 2021. (medscape.com)
  • Isolated femoral condyle lesions account for 75% of the cartilage repair procedures performed in the knee joint, and physicians have a variety of techniques to consider as part of surgical treatment. (prweb.com)
  • What Causes a Knee Cartilage Tear? (medic8.com)
  • The knee cartilage supports your weight when you move, ensuring your weight is distributed evenly across the knee joints when they bend. (medic8.com)
  • If you twist sharply when the knee joint is bearing weight, the cartilage can get jammed between the bones, causing a tear. (medic8.com)
  • If the cartilage is torn, the knee will be swollen, painful and movement in the joint will be limited. (medic8.com)
  • The surgeon will use an arthroscope (a camera that allows the surgeon to see the inside of the knee) and trim away the torn cartilage. (medic8.com)
  • A unique biomaterial developed by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology could be available in as few as five years for patients needing artery or knee cartilage replacement. (eurekalert.org)
  • As a knee cartilage replacement, Salubria looks and feels like the white, shiny cartilage at the top of a drumstick. (eurekalert.org)
  • Also, Salubria shows great promise for meeting the large demand for knee cartilage replacement in patients suffering from sports injuries, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, Ku said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Non-wearing parts of cartilage tissues were harvested from one osteoarthritic patient during the total knee arthroplasty surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Human cartilage tissues were harvested from osteoarthritic patient during total knee arthroplasty surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • CHARLOTTE HORNETS forward Scott Burrell is scheduled for surgery to remove torn knee cartilage today, marking the fourth time in as many pro seasons he will miss significant playing time. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Burrell, who injured his right knee Sunday, will have the damaged cartilage removed in an arthroscopic procedure. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Due to the great stress on the patellofemoral joint during resisted knee extension, the articular cartilage of the patella is among the thickest in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanical properties of articular cartilage in load-bearing joints such as the knee and hip have been studied extensively at macro, micro, and nano-scales. (wikipedia.org)
  • A tear of the meniscus of the knee cartilage can often be surgically trimmed to reduce problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is normally found on surfaces of joints and in the cartilage making up the fetal skeleton. (britannica.com)
  • Cartilage is a thin, tough tissue that covers the ends of bones, lubricating joints when they move and cushioning the bones from damage. (newscientist.com)
  • The inability of cartilage to repair itself means that any damage can cause joints to degenerate or seize up. (newscientist.com)
  • Cartilage is a connective tissue that coats joints allowing for friction-free movement. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Articular, or unhealthy, cartilage is the result of wear and tear on the facet joints. (spine-health.com)
  • A Duke research team has developed a better recipe for synthetic replacement cartilage in joints. (redorbit.com)
  • Articular cartilage is the tissue on the ends of bones where they meet at joints in the body - including in the knees, shoulders and hips. (redorbit.com)
  • The first joints to be treated this way would likely be hips and shoulders, though the approach should work for cartilage damage in any joint. (medgadget.com)
  • Our joints are one of the first body parts to suffer the inevitable ravages of aging: cartilage may be torn in overzealous basketball games or slowly worn away over years of use. (technologyreview.com)
  • The printer was used to make cartilage constructs which could eventually be implanted into specific areas of injured patients, such as joints, to help regrow cartilage. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • While human joints are also built to withstand heavy loads, friction damage to bone-buffering cartilage is all too common. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • However, we've demonstrated that molecular interactions at the cartilage surface also play a crucial role, giving rise to the remarkable lubrication that enables low friction in the major joints. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • In lubrication layers-like those coating the surface of cartilage in our joints-sub-nanometer-sized hydration 'shells' surround charged molecules, resulting in an extremely low level of friction when surfaces slide past each other. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Cartilage is tough, yet flexible tissue located at the ends of joints. (healthline.com)
  • Cartilage is a strong, fibrous tissue that covers the surface of joints, preventing damage and reducing friction when bones slide over each other. (medic8.com)
  • Bell Shark Cartilage is a joint pain relief supplement that comes with active, bio-available nutrients that helps in nourishing the cartilage as well as making the joints healthy. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Chondroitin is an effective raw material for the connective tissues, cartilages as well as lubricating factors in the joints. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Cartilage inflammation in the joints can be especially troublesome because it can inhibit movement and affect one's ability to participate in daily activities. (wisegeek.com)
  • Cartilage inflammation in the joints can inhibit movement. (wisegeek.com)
  • A damaged cartilage also often causes pain as the joints move and the irritation causes swelling. (rcinet.ca)
  • A smooth connective tissue that protects the joints, cartilage is produced by cells called chondrocytes but is not easily replaced once it is damaged. (medindia.net)
  • In the animal studies, the researchers found that cartilage in injured joints treated with the nanoparticle-drug combination was far less damaged than cartilage in untreated joints or joints treated with IGF-1 alone. (medindia.net)
  • Cartilage in rat joints is about 100 microns thick, but the researchers also showed that their particles could penetrate chunks of cartilage up to 1 millimeter -- the thickness of cartilage in a human joint. (medindia.net)
  • Cartilage (cartilaginous tissue) is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints and nerves, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components. (wikipedia.org)
  • This structure, called an extracellular matrix, allows cartilage to flex and absorb shock. (nih.gov)
  • Without any extra prompting, the cells created a cartilage-like extracellular matrix within 4 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • In an effort to truly regenerate cartilage rather than simply patch it, Tuan and his colleagues have developed a nanofiber scaffold that's structurally similar to the extracellular matrix, a fibrous material that provides support to connective tissue in the body.The scaffold is generated via electrospinning, a process adopted from the textiles industry. (technologyreview.com)
  • Ultimately, it's important for this new tissue to have an extracellular matrix made of native cartilage molecules so that, in the long term, the properties of new tissue will emulate that of real cartilage," says Alan Grodzinsky , director of the Center for Biomedical Engineering , at MIT, who was not involved in the work. (technologyreview.com)
  • This molecule fills all the spaces between the collagen fibers and holds water, thus plumping out the extracellular matrix and giving articular cartilage its resistance to compression and its resilience (ability to spring back into shape after load). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • By developing a hybrid hydrogel combination, we were able to form an engineered extracellular matrix that could support cartilage-template formation. (eurekalert.org)
  • All types of cartilage gain most of their physical properties from the extracellular matrix, the material surrounding the cells, than from the cells themselves. (wisegeek.com)
  • Cartilage is composed of specialized cells called chondrocytes that produce a large amount of collagenous extracellular matrix, abundant ground substance that is rich in proteoglycan and elastin fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to other connective tissues, cartilage has a very slow turnover of its extracellular matrix and is documented to repair at only a very slow rate relative to other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chondrification (also known as chondrogenesis) is the process by which cartilage is formed from condensed mesenchyme tissue, which differentiates into chondroblasts and begins secreting the molecules (aggrecan and collagen type II) that form the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The articular cartilage function is dependent on the molecular composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cartilage growth thus refers to the matrix deposition, but can also refer to both the growth and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells of cartilage, called chondrocytes , are isolated in small lacunae within the matrix. (britannica.com)
  • Chondrocytes, cells found throughout cartilage, produce and maintain the structure. (nih.gov)
  • Or treatment involves transplants of cartilage cells, called chondrocytes, collected from a healthy joint, then grown in culture and injected into the damaged area. (technologyreview.com)
  • The matrix component of cartilage contains collagenous fibers, and/or elastin fibers, and cells called "chondrocytes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Chondrocytes and their precursors, known as chondroblasts, are the only cells found in cartilage. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The composite material can be used as a scaffold for supporting chondrocytes or progenitor cells differentiating thereto and is useful for an implant for cartilage tissue regeneration. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. An implant for use in cartilage tissue regeneration, comprising chondrocytes or progenitor cells differentiating thereto and a scaffold which comprises the material according to any one of claims 1 to 4. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Science 1993, 14;260 (5110):920-926) Tissue engineering combining biodegradable porous scaffold and chondrocytes or multipotential chondral progenitor cells has emerged as one promising alternative approach for cartilage repair (Boyan, B. D. et al. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The researchers anticipate that cartilage templates with hypertrophic chondrocytes will release bone and vessel forming factors and will also initiate vascularized bone formation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 enhances the expression of type II collagen and aggrecan in chondrocytes embedded in alginate beads," Osteoarthritis and Cartilage , vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 559-567, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Cartilage repair is a process that covers the treatment of damaged cartilage through different modalities, such as chondroplasty, implantation of autologous chondrocytes, osteochondral allograft and juvenile allograft fragments to restore normal connective tissue functions. (openpr.com)
  • It involves taking a small biopsy of the patient's own cartilage, and then certain cells (chondrocytes) ,are used to actually grow healthy new cartilage which can then be inserted back into the patient. (rcinet.ca)
  • Once the particles reach the chondrocytes, the IGF-1 molecules bind to receptors on the cell surfaces and stimulate the cells to start producing proteoglycans, the building blocks of cartilage and other connective tissues. (medindia.net)
  • 5. The articular cartilage paste of claim 3 wherein the cells comprise a plurality of cloned chondrocytes. (google.ca)
  • The compression of the articular cartilage or flexion of the elastic cartilage generates fluid flow, which assists the diffusion of nutrients to the chondrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cartilage has limited repair capabilities: Because chondrocytes are bound in lacunae, they cannot migrate to damaged areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • In elastic cartilage, on the other hand, the matrix has a pale yellow appearance owing to the abundance of elastic fibres embedded in its substance. (britannica.com)
  • a small nonarticulating rod of elastic cartilage in the aryepiglottic fold anterolateral and somewhat superior to the corniculate cartilage. (drugs.com)
  • And, after eight weeks, they appeared to have developed the same structures and properties as elastic cartilage, meaning they'd be suitable for insertion into a patient. (tgdaily.com)
  • Within eight weeks of being implanted, the constructs had developed the structures and properties that are typically found in elastic cartilage, demonstrating their potential for use in injured humans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cartilage is composed of collagen (type II) and elastic fibers. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The vocal ligament is one edge of a sheet of elastic connective tissue known as the conus elasticus (cricothyroid membrane), which is connected to the cricoid, the thyroid, and the arytenoid cartilages. (healthline.com)
  • This cartilage is one of the three main types of cartilage in the body, the others being elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage. (wisegeek.com)
  • Other efforts to regenerate cartilage have met with little success. (newscientist.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that IGF-1 can help regenerate cartilage in animals. (medindia.net)
  • The presence of so many varieties of tissues, connective tissues, and cartilage, all providing different functions and working together harmoniously-and with some cartilage needed by embryos to even give rise to bones in adults-reflects the intricacy and complex coordination in living organisms. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • cricoid cartilage ( kry -koid) n. the cartilage, shaped like a signet ring, that forms part of the anterior and lateral walls and most of the posterior wall of the larynx. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Shows the thyroid cartilage above and the cricoid below both viewed from the side. (dictionary.com)
  • The thyroid sits on top of the cricoid cartilage , the inferior cornu sitting on top of facets on either side of the cricoid lamina . (everything2.com)
  • both originate at the lateral surface of the cricoid cartilage. (everything2.com)
  • The antagonist of the cricothyroid muscle is the thyroarytenoid , which originates at the lamina of thyroid cartilage just below the thyroid notch and attaches to the arytenoid cartilages (which rest on the cricoid, remember? (everything2.com)
  • Located just above the trachea and shaped like a signet ring , the cricoid cartilage is the only completely cartilaginous ( composed all of cartilage ) ring in the respiratory system . (everything2.com)
  • If you find that your thirst for cricoid knowledge has not been slaked by this node, there is a goey picture of the friendly cartilage at www.fmcc.org.uk/~nds4/tutorials/larynx/text/p1oc.html. (everything2.com)
  • The arytenoid cartilage is located on the dorsal (back) side of the larynx above the cricoid lamina, a signet ring-shaped cartilage that lies near the bottom of the larynx. (healthline.com)
  • The arytenoid cartilage is two of the nine pieces of cartilage that make up the structure of the larynx, the others are: one cricoid, one thyroid, two corniculate, two epiglottal, and two cuneiform cartilages. (healthline.com)
  • The secondary function of the cricoid, thyroid, and arytenoid cartilages is to keep the airway through the larynx open allowing air to pass over the vocal cords. (healthline.com)
  • Examples include the rings of the trachea, such as the cricoid cartilage and carina. (wikipedia.org)
  • the portion immediately adjacent to the malleus is replaced by fibrous membrane, which constitutes the sphenomandibular ligament , while from the connective tissue covering the remainder of the cartilage the greater part of the mandible is ossified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drilling holes in the bone allows marrow cells to reach the damaged zone, where they form a fibrous cartilage. (newscientist.com)
  • Both procedures trigger growth of new tissue, a scarlike version of cartilage that is more fibrous than regular cartilage and doesn't seem to have the same durability. (technologyreview.com)
  • Although MF-activated SSCs tended to form fibrous tissues, localized co-delivery of BMP2 and soluble VEGFR1 (sVEGFR1), a VEGF receptor antagonist, in a hydrogel skewed differentiation of MF-activated SSCs toward articular cartilage. (nature.com)
  • High failure rate of a decellularized osteochondral allograft for the treatment of cartilage lesions. (springer.com)
  • An arthroscopy may show up subtle surface articular cartilage lesions not visualised by an MRI scan. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Our laboratory engineers microenvironments to control the fate of cells being used in tissue repair, with the main application being cartilage lesions and microcracks. (brighttalk.com)
  • 0005] Articular cartilage defect caused by osteoarthritis or traumatic lesions is a major problem in orthopedic surgery due to the limited capacity for repair and self-regeneration. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Our study demonstrated that the modern OCA transplantation technique, which utilizes thin, dowel type grafts, was very effective in treating patients with femoral condyle cartilage lesions. (prweb.com)
  • The modern technique of OCA transplantation for treating isolated femoral condyle lesions offers patient better results over other cartilage repair procedures," commented Tírico. (prweb.com)
  • These results appear to be equal or superior to any other cartilage repair procedure for the treatment of femoral condyle lesions and leads us to consider whether fresh OCA should be viewed as the current gold standard in cartilage repair for focal femoral condyle lesions. (prweb.com)
  • This third volume provides insight into current and future treatment strategies for repair of cartilage lesions. (springer.com)
  • The scaffolds are seeded with mesenchymal stem cells-adult stem cells derived from bone marrow, fatty tissue, and other sources, and which can be differentiated into muscle, bone, fat, and cartilage. (technologyreview.com)
  • 4. The articular cartilage paste of claim 3 wherein the cells comprise a plurality of undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells. (google.ca)
  • It is situated below the thyroid cartilage, with which it is connected by a membrane, the crico-thyroid. (dictionary.com)
  • The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the cartilages of the larynx . (everything2.com)
  • The thyroid cartilage is made of two plates (the thyroid lamina ) set at an obtuse angle. (everything2.com)
  • When contracted, these muscles pull the front of the thyroid cartilage downwards, pivoting over the cricothyroid joint. (everything2.com)
  • These two muscles rocking the thyroid cartilage back and forth are the primary of controllers of pitch in the human voice . (everything2.com)
  • Where the lamina and the arch meet there's this "articular facet" for the inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage. (everything2.com)
  • In 2007 Guilak and his team developed a three-dimensional fabric "scaffold" into which stem cells could be injected and successfully "grown" into articular cartilage tissue. (redorbit.com)
  • Researchers developed a 3-D scaffold that guides the development of stem cells into specialized cartilage-producing cells. (nih.gov)
  • Marrow stimulant procedures are used to release stem cells from the bone marrow to encourage healing of these articular cartilage defects. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • In the near future, surgeons will be able to impregnate custom-designed scaffolds with cartilage-forming stem cells and chemicals that stimulate their growth and then implant them into patients during a single procedure, the researchers said. (medgadget.com)
  • It may be because the stem cells proliferate better than cartilage cells, or because they are more receptive to molecular signals coming from the wounded tissues. (technologyreview.com)
  • Researchers from Duke Medicine managed to engineer cartilage from induced pluripotent stem cells , which were grown and sorted for use in the repair of tissue of patients with osteoarthritis or injuries. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The scientists added that iPSCs (induved pluripotent stem cells ) could eventually be used effectively for patients with specific cartilage tissue injuries or defects. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Polish doctors are using an experimental therapy to treat cartilage damage, using stem cells derived from human umbilical cords, as Matthew Stock reports. (reuters.com)
  • Cartilage tissue engineering using differentiated and purified induced pluripotent stem cells," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 109, no. 47, pp. 19172-19177, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • While stem cell research continues with promising results in other areas of medicine, Dr Getgood notes that with cartilage, the problem is to get the stem cells to create the specific cells desired. (rcinet.ca)
  • Chen H, Chevrier A, Hoemann CD, Sun J, Ouynag W, Buschmann MD. Characterization of subchondral bone repair for marrow-stimulated chondral defects and its relationship to articular cartilage resurfacing. (springer.com)
  • Chen H, Chevrier A, Hoemann CD, Sun J, Lascau-Coman V, Buschmann MD. Bone marrow stimulation induces greater chondrogenesis in trochlear vs condylar cartilage defects in skeletally mature rabbits. (springer.com)
  • Existing treatment for small cartilage defects typically involves inflicting additional damage on the injured joint, to encourage cell-rich blood and bone marrow to clot in the area. (technologyreview.com)
  • Methods of repairing cartilage defects are provided. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Focal arthritic defects may occur as the result of trauma or other conditions, such as loss of the protective meniscus cartilage or osteoarthritis. (google.ca)
  • In animal models, these transplants appear to spur regeneration of cartilage that better resembles native tissue. (technologyreview.com)
  • Fig. 4: Regeneration of human articular cartilage in a preclinical xenograft model. (nature.com)
  • 0003] The present invention relates generally to tissue regeneration, particularly cartilage tissue regeneration for repairing cartilage lesion caused by, for example, accidents or diseases, including osteoarthritis. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A novel cartilage degeneration algorithm can predict the progression of osteoarthritis in individual patients, according to new research from the University of Eastern Finland. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A research group from the University of Eastern Finland tested the ability of a cartilage degeneration algorithm, created earlier by the same group, to predict the progression of osteoarthritis in individual patients and to grade the severity of their disease by using the Kellgren-Lawrence classification. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Using a magnetic field and hydrogels, a team of researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania have demonstrated a new possible way to rebuild complex body tissues, which could result in more lasting fixes to common injuries, such as cartilage degeneration. (news-medical.net)
  • Weight cyclers had significantly greater progression of cartilage degeneration and bone marrow edema degeneration - as measured by whole-organ magnetic resonance score - than did noncyclers, regardless of their overall weight gain or loss by the end of the study period. (medscape.com)
  • It has opened up new lines of inquiry to be examined to mechanistically explain the relationship between cycling and worse cartilage and bone marrow degeneration," Carlesso said. (medscape.com)
  • The optimal loading protocols for the functional development of joint cartilage, however, remain to be identified. (mscsoftware.com)
  • Therefore, the strategy plan includes a comparison between tissue engineered constructs and joint cartilage regarding the spatial patterns of mechanical field variables. (mscsoftware.com)
  • Combining two innovative technologies they each helped develop, lead authors Farshid Guilak , a professor of orthopedic surgery and biomedical engineering, and Xuanhe Zhao , assistant professor of mechanical engineering and materials science, found a way to create artificial replacement tissue that mimics both the strength and suppleness of native cartilage. (redorbit.com)
  • While replacing the tissue could bring relief to millions, replicating the properties of native cartilage -- which is strong and load-bearing, yet smooth and cushiony -- has proven a challenge. (redorbit.com)
  • Materials supple enough to simulate native cartilage have been too squishy and fragile to grow in a joint and withstand loading. (redorbit.com)
  • It has all the mechanical properties of native cartilage and can withstand wear and tear without fracturing. (redorbit.com)
  • In laboratory tests, the fabric scaffold that the researchers have created had the same mechanical properties as native cartilage. (medgadget.com)
  • Six months later, new tissue had formed, with a smooth surface and mechanical properties similar to those of native cartilage. (technologyreview.com)
  • Healthy cartilage helps you move by allowing your bones to glide over each other. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We need healthy cartilage for smooth pain-free joint movement. (rcinet.ca)
  • Cryopreservation of intact human articular cartilage. (springer.com)
  • The forms available contain different amounts of shark cartilage. (breastcancer.org)
  • Include magnesium and potassium for mineral balance if taking large amounts of shark cartilage. (spineuniverse.com)
  • In some extinct mammal groups like eutriconodonts , the Meckel's cartilage still connected otherwise entirely modern ear bones to the jaw. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cartilage is the tough but flexible tissue that covers the ends of your bones at a joint. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cartilage is the slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint. (nih.gov)
  • Cartilage is a type of hard, thick, slippery tissue that coats the ends of bones where they meet with other bones to form a joint. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Cartilage lines the joint space between bones throughout the body, including the spine and the rib cage. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Sometimes surgeons remove all of the meniscus, the cartilage that works as a cushion between the shin and thigh bones, and other times they only remove part of it. (reuters.com)
  • Cartilage serves several functions, including providing a framework upon which bone deposition can begin and supplying smooth surfaces for the movement of articulating bones. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Articular cartilage is responsible for the almost friction-free movement of our bones against one another. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Recent studies, including one conducted by Johns Hopkins University, have disproved those clai-ms. Hopkins professor Gary Ostrander and his research team found 40 cases of tumors in sharks and other elasmobranchs -- sea creatures with skeletons made of cartilage instead of bones. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The major important points are that, just like you see when carving a turkey or chicken leg, the bones themselves are not in direct contact, but there is sometimes a fair amount of cartilage between them," says Holtz. (abc.net.au)
  • The frog glue had held the cut fragments together, and collagen, the main component of cartilage, had filled the gap. (newscientist.com)
  • Cartilage is made up of protein strands called collagen that form a tough, mesh-like framework. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Chondroinduction is the main cartilage repair response to microfracture and microfracture with BST-CarGel: results as shown by ICRS-II histological scoring and a novel zonal collagen type scoring method of human clinical biopsy specimens. (nature.com)
  • Immunohistochemical staining was abundantly positive for type II collagen in neo-cartilage regions of cartilage fragment-fibrin glue-MSC constructs, while the constructs without cartilage fragments were negative in staining for type II collagen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Conversely, constructs without cartilage fragments failed to express type II collagen, which indicated that MSCs could not differentiate into a chondrogenic lineage. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Type II collagen degradation and its regulation in articular cartilage in osteoarthritis," Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases , vol. 61, supplement 2, pp. ii78-ii81, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • The matrix of this type of cartilage is rich in type II collagen and proteoglycans, which contribute to its elasticity. (wisegeek.com)
  • By modality, chondroplasty and micro fracture accounted for more than a quarter of the global market for cartilage repair in 2017. (openpr.com)
  • North America was the main contributor of revenue to the global market in 2017, due to the high rate of adoption of cartilage repair products. (openpr.com)
  • North America accounted for more than a third of the global cartilage repair market in 2017. (openpr.com)
  • Le procédé de la formation de cartilage est chondrification appelé ou chondrogenesis. (news-medical.net)
  • In this study, the investigators explored the hypothesis that osteoarthritic cartilage fragments can promote chondrogenesis of MSCs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this study, we explored the hypothesis that osteoarthritic cartilage matrix can promote chondrogenesis of MSCs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In acute injuries where the structure is large and involves articular surface cartilages can be repaired back onto the underlying bone with anchors or sutures. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • A new hybrid printer can print out cartilage for implantation into victims of sporting and other injuries, say its developers. (tgdaily.com)
  • The triradiate cartilage (in Latin cartilago ypsiloformis) is the 'Y'-shaped epiphyseal plate between the ilium , ischium and pubis to form the acetabulum of the os coxae . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the study did not see any significant differences in meniscus progression between cyclers and noncyclers, and cartilage thickness decreased in all groups over the 4 years with no significant effects associated with weight gain, loss, or cycling. (medscape.com)
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage is the official journal of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International . (elsevier.com)
  • Authors are also welcome to submit their manuscripts to the journal?s open access companion title, Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Open . (elsevier.com)
  • H. M. Van Beuningen, H. L. Glansbeek, P. M. Van Der Kraan, and W. B. Van Den Berg, "Differential effects of local application of BMP-2 or TGF- β 1 on both articular cartilage composition and osteophyte formation," Osteoarthritis and Cartilage , vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 306-317, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • My 14 year old son has a lump just off center of his chest that a surgeon and his pediatrician has called an inflammation of the cartilage. (druginfonet.com)
  • Costochondritis is inflammation of the cartilage between the ribs and the breastbone. (wisegeek.com)
  • In that study, sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, "researchers did not find a statistical difference in survival" between patients receiving shark cartilage and those taking a placebo. (wikipedia.org)
  • This book addresses Professors, researchers and PhD students who are interested in musculoskeletal and cartilage biology and pathobiology. (springer.com)
  • The researchers tested their strength by loading them with variable weights and, checked them after a week to see if the cartilage cells were still alive - which they were. (tgdaily.com)
  • In a recent pilot experiment in pigs, researchers sutured the cell-laden scaffolds over damaged cartilage in the animals' knees. (technologyreview.com)
  • A new hybrid printer has simplified the process of making implantable cartilage, researchers from Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine reported in the journal Biofabrication . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Since cartilage is a body tissue in which no blood vessels are present, researchers guessed that certain molecules isolated from shark cartilage could inhibit the growth of blood vessels. (mskcc.org)
  • To verify this, researchers have undertaken specific studies on the effects of shark cartilage in cancer patients. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Cartilage, the shock absorber of the body, has been bearing the brunt of a modern lifestyle. (sciencenews.org)
  • Finally, the costal cartilage may act as a shock absorber to prevent blows to the anterior portion of the chest from resulting in rib fractures. (innerbody.com)
  • Meniscal cartilage acts as the knee's shock absorber. (newscientist.com)
  • It helps in supporting the plump, cushion acting, hydrated cartilage known as shock absorber and helps in healthy joint movements. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • For joint replacement & arthritis surgery or cartilage restoration & transplantation , please contact the clinical office of William Bugbee, MD at Scripps Clinic, or the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at UCSD . (google.com)
  • Therapies for cartilage detects include transplantation of autografts, allografts and artificial prosthetic substitutes. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Normally after the bone at the base of the articular cartilage defect has been stimulated in this way, patients are treated by a physiotherapy programme, normally non-weight bearing, for six weeks. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • A careful selection of scaffold material for each patient's construct would allow the implant to withstand mechanical forces while encouraging new cartilage to organize and fill the defect,' they added. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • [ 2 ] The genetic defect in cartilage-hair hypoplasia has been confirmed to be mutations in the RMRP gene. (medscape.com)
  • The genetic defect in cartilage-hair hypoplasia has been identified as a mutation in the gene for RNAase RMRP, mapped to 9p12. (medscape.com)
  • This suggests a common cell proliferation defect in cartilage-hair hypoplasia. (medscape.com)
  • Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is a rare defect. (medscape.com)
  • The cartilage defect is identified and shaped to prepare the cartilage defect for a localized therapy. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The cartilage defect is isolated with an isolation device. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The localized therapy is then delivered to the cartilage defect through the isolation device. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • and d. providing the localized therapy to the cartilage defect with the isolation device. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein shaping the cartilage defect further comprises removing the damaged cartilage to create a defined region at the cartilage defect. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein shaping the cartilage defect comprises removing the damaged tissue to provide a placement area for a barrier device region of the isolation device. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 3, wherein isolating the cartilage defect comprises placing a barrier device on the cartilage defect wherein the barrier device is sized to fit about and contain the cartilage defect. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 1, wherein isolating the cartilage defect comprises isolating the cartilage defect from at least one of an ambient fluid and a surrounding tissue. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The method of claim 1, wherein the localized therapy is selected from the group consisting of: delivery of a therapeutic agent, withdrawal of blood from an underlying bone, applying a negative pressure to the cartilage defect, aspirating the cartilage defect, delivery of a UV curable composition, and combinations thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 7, wherein the localized therapy is delivery of a therapeutic agent and the therapeutic agent comprises separated components further wherein the separated components are combined in a mixing shaft on the isolation device immediately prior to delivery to the cartilage defect. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 9. The method of claim 1, wherein delivering localized therapy comprises drawing blood from within a bone underlying the cartilage defect. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 11. The method of claim 10, wherein shaping the cartilage defect comprises creating a defined region at the cartilage defect to provide a placement area for the barrier device. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 12. The method of claim 11, wherein the barrier device is sized to fit about and contain the cartilage defect. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 14. The method of claim 13, further comprising flexing the syringe to place the syringe at the cartilage defect. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In early fish and in chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fish such as sharks ), the Meckelian Cartilage continued to be the main component of the lower jaw. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, shark cartilage supplements are still marketed using the misconception that sharks do not get cancer, a myth that was as popularized by the 1992 book Sharks Don't Get Cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous cancers in sharks, including tumors in shark cartilage, were documented by Gary Ostrander and his colleagues from the University of Hawaii in research published in 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cartilage supplements come from cows (bovine cartilage) or sharks (shark cartilage). (spineuniverse.com)
  • That sharks can and do get cancer makes it clear that ingesting their cartilage in a health-food supplement won't cure the disease in humans. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The media is quick to jump on a 'miracle cancer cure' and did just that in 1993 when a '60 Minutes' episode featured a book that touted the use of the cartilage, titled 'Sharks Don't Get Cancer. (howstuffworks.com)
  • However, shark cartilages in this supplement are just the by-products of the food industry and no sharks are killed for their cartilage. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Cartilage Consultants is run by I. William Lane, Mr. Lane's father, who wrote the 1992 book ''Sharks Don't Get Cancer. (nytimes.com)
  • Most notable among these was a breast-cancer trial conducted by the Mayo Clinic that stated that the trial "was unable to demonstrate any suggestion of efficacy for this shark cartilage product in patients with advanced cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A purified shark cartilage product called Neovastat (AE-941) can reduce tumor size in animals. (mskcc.org)
  • The Cartilage Tissue Engineering Laboratory in the Department of Bioengineering at the University of California, San Diego was formed in July, 1992 by Prof. Robert Sah . (google.com)
  • Replacing cartilage in this and other situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. (nih.gov)
  • Scaffold-mediated lentiviral transduction for functional tissue engineering of cartilage. (nih.gov)
  • By taking a synthetic material that already has the properties of cartilage and combining it with living cells, we can build a human tissue that can be integrated rapidly into the body, representing a new approach in the field of tissue engineering," Moutos said. (medgadget.com)
  • Ultimately, these insights may contribute to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, allowing doctors to repair damaged cartilage, rather than replacing hips and knees entirely. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • What is the best source of cells for tissue engineering of both bone and cartilage? (google.com)
  • In functional tissue engineering, controlled mechanical loads are applied to cartilage cells seeded in a scaffold in an attempt to stimulate the growth of cartilage that will be able to withstand the loads placed on it when it is implanted in the human body. (mscsoftware.com)
  • This book outlines the biomechanical, biochemical, and anatomical characteristics of the disc and condylar cartilage, and also provides a historical perspective of past and current TMJ treatments and previous tissue engineering efforts. (worldcat.org)
  • This is a move forward to even more challenging (organs) , " said Ivan Martin, a professor of tissue engineering at University Hospital Basel in Switzerland, and co-author of the nasal cartilage study. (cnn.com)
  • The arytenoid cartilage is a pair of pyramid-shaped pieces of cartilage found in the larynx (voice box), which are essential to the production of vocal sound. (healthline.com)
  • The muscular process: The muscular process extends laterally (to the side) and is attached to the muscles of phonation, which allow the movement of the arytenoid cartilage to adjust the tension of the vocal ligament and thus change sound pitch. (healthline.com)
  • Manufacturers of shark cartilage supplements provide anecdotal testimonials from those who claim to have experienced relief from arthritis symptoms and pain, as a result of taking shark cartilage supplements. (wikipedia.org)
  • In osteoarthritis (the most common type of arthritis), cartilage breaks down and wears away. (nih.gov)
  • It's like a pothole filler," says Rocky Tuan , chief of the Cartilage Biology and Orthopedics Branch at the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, in Baltimore. (technologyreview.com)
  • It is anticipated that the cartilage repair market will grow considerably in the near future, due to different factors such as the increase in obesity and the sedentary lifestyle among the population, the increase in the elderly population and the increase in the prevalence of arthritis. (openpr.com)
  • cartilage inflammation can happen for a variety of reasons, including arthritis or simple overuse. (wisegeek.com)
  • Tougher than muscle and ligament tissue, cartilage is not quite as strong as bone, so if cartilage inflammation occurs, it is usually an indicator of another, more serious problem such as arthritis. (wisegeek.com)
  • Arthritis may be a cause of cartilage inflammation. (wisegeek.com)
  • Injectable material made of nanoscale particles designed by MIT engineers can deliver arthritis drugs throughout cartilage. (medindia.net)
  • This also justifies the non-coding RNAs' contribution in various cartilage-dependent pathological conditions such as arthritis, and so on. (wikipedia.org)
  • The approach could allow for the creation of orthopedic implants to replace cartilage, bone, and other tissues. (nih.gov)
  • The successful candidate will join a research lab that is unique for its multidisciplinary microscopic imaging studies of cartilage and related musculoskeletal tissues. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Central to TMJ afflictions are the cartilaginous tissues of the TMJ, especially those of the disc and condylar cartilage, which play crucial roles in normal function of this unusual joint. (worldcat.org)
  • Cartilage does not grow as fast or as easily as some other body tissues because it does not have a blood supply. (wisegeek.com)
  • Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is a disease of the whole joint, however, one of the most affected tissues is the articular cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once implanted, the cartilage cells will grow throughout the scaffold, and over time the scaffold will slowly dissolve, leaving the new cartilage tissue" he said. (medgadget.com)
  • Also, since the scaffold is a woven material, there are tiny spaces where cartilage cells can nestle and grow. (medgadget.com)
  • Starting with a FEM-macromodel of the cartilage cell-scaffold construct, the local load history of a selected element of the FE macro-mesh provides the boundary conditions for a FE-micromodel with a single cell and its neighborhood. (mscsoftware.com)
  • The poroelastic features of MSC.Marc have been used to account for this biphasic material behavior of the artificial cartilage construct (cartilage cells embedded in a porous polyurethane scaffold). (mscsoftware.com)
  • Moreover, the investigators will collect the discard cartilage to develop an acellular cartilage ECM-derived scaffold in the joint replacement surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The costal cartilage forms a semi-movable joint between the true ribs and the sternum. (innerbody.com)
  • The flexibility of the costal cartilage allows the ribcage to expand along with the lungs during deep inhalation. (innerbody.com)
  • After a direct impact, the costal cartilage can become separated from the end of the rib that it is normally attached to. (innerbody.com)
  • The costal cartilage may also become inflamed in a condition known as costochondritis . (innerbody.com)
  • The costal cartilage are segments of cartilage that connect the sternum to the ribs and help to extend the ribs into a forward motion. (healthline.com)
  • There are twelve costal cartilage sections. (healthline.com)
  • Seven pairs of the costal cartilage are connected to the sternum. (healthline.com)
  • Two of the costal cartilage sections are pointed, ending in the walls of the abdomen. (healthline.com)
  • Three pairs of costal cartilage are articulated (connected) with the preceding ribs. (healthline.com)
  • The eleventh and twelfth costal cartilage segments are pointed and are free of attachments. (healthline.com)
  • Once a person reaches age 65 and beyond, their costal cartilage becomes prone to superficial ossification, or hardening into a bony substance. (healthline.com)
  • And though the resulting material did not quite meet the standards of natural cartilage, it easily outperformed all other known potential artificial replacements across the board, including the hydrogel and scaffolding by themselves. (redorbit.com)
  • It's a very promising candidate for artificial cartilage in the future. (redorbit.com)
  • Biological engineering techniques are being developed to generate new cartilage, using a cellular "scaffolding" material and cultured cells to grow artificial cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cartilage is a form of connective tissue in which the ground substance is abundant and of a firmly gelated consistency that endows this tissue with unusual rigidity and resistance to compression. (britannica.com)
  • Cartilage in turn is a form of connective tissue, which also includes bone, blood, and fat. (wisegeek.com)
  • In future, says the team, MRI scans could be used to create a blueprint, and cartilage constructs printed out to match. (tgdaily.com)
  • Share on Pinterest They managed to produce, in this hybrid system, cartilage constructs that were much more mechanically stable compared to those an ink jet printer could produce using just gel material. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Histological analysis showed a round and elongated cell appearance with positive Alcian blue staining of cartilage matrix formation in the constructs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Scientists have engineered tissue grafts that, in pigs, regenerated both bone and cartilage in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), a part of the jaw that can cause debilitating pain and disability when damaged. (news-medical.net)
  • There are three different types of cartilage, each with special characteristics adapted to their function. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • One of the most common types of cartilage inflammation is costochondritis, which occurs when the cartilage of the ribs becomes inflamed. (wisegeek.com)
  • Very uncommon, it sounds like he has some disorder that leads to growth of cartilage or soft tissue masses. (druginfonet.com)
  • Nasal bumps occur when there is an uneven amount of cartilage, causing part of the bridge to be higher than the rest. (newbeauty.com)
  • So in order to correctly figure out the lengths and shapes of the different limbs of dinosaurs, we need to estimate the amount of cartilage. (abc.net.au)
  • These mechanical properties include the response of cartilage in frictional, compressive, shear and tensile loading. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main proteoglycan in cartilage is aggrecan, which, as its name suggests, forms large aggregates with hyaluronan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Controlled trials have shown no benefit to shark cartilage supplements, and shark cartilage contains potentially toxic compounds linked to Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • On examination, a smooth mucosa covered dark-coloured mass was seen in the left nasal cavity completely blocking whole of the vestibule and displacing the left lateral alar cartilage outwards. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Current imaging methods, such as MRI or X-ray, only provide information on the thickness or composition of the cartilage, but they fail to provide data on the risk of osteoarthritis or tools to predict its progression. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The ongoing consumption of shark cartilage supplements has been linked to a significant decline in shark populations and the popularity of these supplements has been described as a triumph of pseudoscience and marketing over scientific evaluation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when these extracts were given by mouth (how all over-the-counter shark cartilage supplements are taken), no anti-tumor effect occurred in mice or in humans. (mskcc.org)
  • So while shark-cartilage supplements won't cure cancer, there may be some things we can learn by studying the predator. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Some people have a small cartilage sitting atop the superior cornu, called the tritical cartilages . (everything2.com)
  • Anti-inflammatory medications may help treat cartilage inflammation. (wisegeek.com)
  • A sticky substance secreted from glands on the back of two little-known species of burrowing Australian frog has been used to repair torn cartilage in the knees of sheep. (newscientist.com)
  • Larger tears require surgery to remove the torn cartilage, which is known as a meniscetomy. (medic8.com)
  • Results were poorer for seven patients with damage to cartilage in the kneecap. (newscientist.com)
  • Studies have shown that shark cartilage has no impact on tumor progression, and many patients had adverse side effects from using it. (spineuniverse.com)
  • G, which occurs in 30-50% of patients with cartilage-hair hypoplasia and causes an alteration in ribosomal processing. (medscape.com)
  • As a treatment for advanced cancer, shark cartilage fails to benefit patients and its adverse effects lead to poor compliance. (scienceblog.com)
  • A clinical trial published in the July 1, 2005 issue of CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, finds there was no difference in overall survival or quality of life between patients who received shark cartilage and those who received a placebo. (scienceblog.com)
  • Interest in shark cartilage grew after a television news magazine aired a segment in 1993 that showed patients with advanced cancer in Cuba who had gone into remission after being treated with shark cartilage. (scienceblog.com)
  • In fact, some quality of life measurements tended to worsen among patients treated with shark cartilage. (scienceblog.com)
  • The authors conclude, "shark cartilage did not demonstrate any efficacy in patients with advanced breast or colorectal cancers. (scienceblog.com)
  • Scientists in the United States, Mexico and Switzerland grew reproductive organs and nasal cartilage in labs, and successfully implanted them in patients, according to two studies released in The Lancet on Thursday. (cnn.com)
  • A new technology under study may provide a much better solution to current methods by growing the patients own cartilage in a lab. (rcinet.ca)