The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.
A species of fish in the cod family GADIDAE, known as the Atlantic cod. It is one of the most important commercial FISHES.
A family of lemon-shaped DNA viruses infecting ARCHAEA and containing one genus: Fusellovirus.
RNA virus infections refer to diseases caused by viruses that have RNA as their genetic material, which includes a wide range of pathogens affecting humans, animals, and plants, manifesting in various clinical symptoms and potentially leading to significant morbidity and mortality.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A ubiquitously expressed folic acid transporter that functions via an antiporter mechanism which is coupled to the transport of organic phosphates.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Sustained reduction in the carriage of Neisseria meningitidis as a result of a community meningococcal disease control programme. (1/3043)

The effect of a community intervention programme of antibiotics and meningitis vaccine on pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis was investigated. Carriage rates were determined in pupils at both secondary schools (ages 11-18 years) included in the community intervention programme and compared with two schools outside the area matched for socio-economic status. A total of 1869 pupils were studied 6 months after the programmes, and 2457 pupils after 11 months. Six months after the programme was completed there was a 72% reduction in pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in pupils attending the schools in the intervention area compared with pupils in the control schools. After 11 months this difference persisted in the 11-14 age group but not in the 15-18 age group. No resistance to the antibiotics used in the programme was found. A community intervention programme of antibiotics and vaccine for the control of meningococcal disease led to a long-term reduction in Neisseria meningitidis carriage in some age groups.  (+info)

Acquisition and carriage of meningococci in marine commando recruits. (2/3043)

Meningococcal acquisition is a prerequisite for invasive disease. Three hundred and eleven male marine commando recruits were studied throughout 29 weeks of basic training to identify factors influencing meningococcal carriage and acquisition including troop number, season, smoking, respiratory infection, antibiotic usage and nasopharyngeal bacterial interference flora. A high carriage rate on entry to training (118/311, 37.9%) and subsequent sustained high rates of meningococcal acquisition were found. Of the potential factors examined, only active and passive smoking were found to be associated significantly with meningococcal carriage on entry. The association between active smoking and meningococcal carriage was dose-dependent, with odds ratios (OR) of 2.2 (95% CIs 1.0-4.8) and 7.2 (95% CIs 2.3-22.9) for light and heavy smokers respectively. Passive smoking predisposed independently to carriage (OR 1.8, 95% CIs 1.1-3.0). Active and passive smoking combined to give an attributable risk for meningococcal carriage of 33%. In contrast, despite a high and sustained rate of meningococcal acquisition in the study population, none of the risk factors investigated, including active smoking, was associated significantly with meningococcal acquisition. No cases of meningococcal disease occurred during the 16-month study period. Therefore smoking may increase the duration of meningococcal carriage rather than the rate of acquisition, consistent with the increased risk of meningococcal disease from passive as opposed to active smoking. Public health measures that reduce the prevalence of smoking should reduce the risk of meningococcal disease.  (+info)

Previous respiratory tract infections and antibiotic consumption in children with long- and short-term carriage of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. (3/3043)

Previous respiratory tract infections (RTI) and antibiotics consumption as possible risk factors for extended duration of PRP carriage were investigated in 24 children (cases) with previous carriage of penicillin-resistant pneumococci (PRP) for a duration exceeding 120 days (median 168 days) and a control group of 53 children with a duration of PRP carriage less than 90 days (median 21 days). The cases had experienced 0.99 episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) per life-year compared to 0.79 episodes in the controls (P = 0.32). For antibiotic-treated RTI other than AOM, the corresponding numbers were 0.49 and 0.29 episodes per life-year, respectively (P = 0.01). No differences in antibiotic consumption in the 3 months preceding the carriage, nor during the carriage period were noted. Other factors than impaired host defence to respiratory tract pathogens or antibiotics consumption seem to be more important in determining the duration of PRP carriage.  (+info)

Core promoter mutations and genotypes in relation to viral replication and liver damage in East Asian hepatitis B virus carriers. (4/3043)

Virus load and liver damage, as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and histology activity index, were related to genotype and core promoter mutations in 43 chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers of East Asian origin. T-1762 mutants were more frequent in genotype C strains and were associated with more inflammation (P=.0036) and fibrosis (P=.0088) of the liver but not with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status or virus load. Conversely, precore mutations were associated with less liver inflammation (P=. 08), which was linked to HBeAg negativity and lower viral replication. Carriers with genotype C were more often HBeAg positive (P=.03) with precore wild type strains and more-severe liver inflammation (P=.009) than were those with genotype B. These findings suggest that pathogenic differences between genotypes may exist and that the T-1762 mutation may be useful as a marker for progressive liver damage but seem to contradict that down-regulation of HBeAg production is the major effect of this mutation.  (+info)

Carriage of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus RNA is associated with a slower immunologic, virologic, and clinical progression of human immunodeficiency virus disease in coinfected persons. (5/3043)

The prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is high in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. However, the long-term consequences of coinfection are unknown. HIV-positive persons with a well-defined duration of infection were screened on the basis of their GBV-C/hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA status and studied. GBV-C/HGV viremia was observed in 23, who carried the virus over a mean of 7.7 years. All parameters (survival, CDC stage B/C, HIV RNA load, CD4 T cell count) showed significant differences in terms of the cumulative progression rate between persons positive and negative for GBV-C/HGV RNA. When GBV-C/HGV RNA-positive and -unexposed subjects were matched by age, sex, baseline HIV RNA load, and baseline CD4 T cell count, HIV disease progression appeared worse in GBV-C/HGV RNA-negative subjects. The carriage of GBV-C/HGV RNA is associated with a slower progression of HIV disease in coinfected persons.  (+info)

Development of a serologic assay to detect Taenia solium taeniasis. (6/3043)

We developed a serologic assay to identify adult Taenia solium tapeworm carriers using excretory/secretory (TSES) antigens collected from in vitro cultured T. solium tapeworms. To identify taeniasis-specific antigens we used an immunoblot assay with serum samples from T. solium tapeworm carriers and cysticercosis patients. Antigens were identified that reacted with antibodies present in serum samples from taeniasis cases and not with those from cysticercosis patients. Using serum samples collected from persons with confirmed T. solium tapeworm infections, the test was determined to be 95% (69 of 73) sensitive. Serum samples (n = 193) from persons with other parasitic infections, including T. saginata tapeworm infections, do not contain cross-reacting antibodies to TSES, indicating that the assay is 100% specific. These data suggest that the immunoblot assay using TSES antigens can be used to identify persons with current or recent T. solium tapeworm infections and provides a new, important tool for epidemiologic purposes, including control and prevention strategies.  (+info)

Nosocomial group A streptococcal infections associated with asymptomatic health-care workers--Maryland and California, 1997. (7/3043)

Group A Streptococcus (GAS), a common cause of pharyngitis and uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections, can cause serious invasive infections (including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome [STSS]) and death. Since 1965, at least 15 postoperative or postpartum GAS outbreaks attributed to asymptomatic carriage in health-care workers (HCWs) have been reported. This report describes two nosocomial outbreaks of GAS infection in Maryland and California during 1996-1997; the findings suggest that early infection-control measures that include active surveillance may interrupt transmission and prevent morbidity and mortality.  (+info)

Factors associated with pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis among Israel Defense Force personnel at the end of their compulsory service. (8/3043)

In this 1 year cross-sectional study of personnel being discharged from compulsory military service, an available database of health-related information was used to examine the association of meningococcal carriage with socio-demographic factors. A representative, systematic sample of 1632 personnel was interviewed and had throat cultures taken. The overall meningococcal carriage rate was 16%. Serogroups B and Y accounted for 76% and 13% of the isolates respectively. In univariate analysis, carriage was associated with male gender (P < 0.0001), < 12 years school education (P = 0.002), smoking (P = 0.014), and service at a 'closed' base, reflecting greater interpersonal contact (P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, only service on a closed base and male gender retained significance. School education of < 12 years remained significant for females only. Variables not associated with carriage included number of siblings, intensity of smoking, and use of the contraceptive pill. In this setting, meningococcal carriage was associated with the type of base on which soldiers served; and smoking was not an independent risk factor for carriage.  (+info)

A carrier state is a condition in which a person carries and may be able to transmit a genetic disorder or infectious disease, but does not show any symptoms of the disease themselves. This occurs when an individual has a recessive allele for a genetic disorder or is infected with a pathogen, but does not have the necessary combination of genes or other factors required to develop the full-blown disease.

For example, in the case of cystic fibrosis, which is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, a person who carries one normal allele and one mutated allele for the disease is considered a carrier. They do not have symptoms of cystic fibrosis themselves, but they can pass the mutated allele on to their offspring, who may then develop the disease if they inherit the mutation from both parents.

Similarly, in the case of infectious diseases, a person who is infected with a pathogen but does not show any symptoms may still be able to transmit the infection to others. This is known as being an asymptomatic carrier or a healthy carrier. For example, some people who are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) may not develop any symptoms of liver disease, but they can still transmit the virus to others through contact with their blood or other bodily fluids.

It's important to note that in some cases, carriers of certain genetic disorders or infectious diseases may have mild or atypical symptoms that do not meet the full criteria for a diagnosis of the disease. In these cases, they may be considered to have a "reduced penetrance" or "incomplete expression" of the disorder or infection.

Heterozygote detection is a method used in genetics to identify individuals who carry one normal and one mutated copy of a gene. These individuals are known as heterozygotes and they do not typically show symptoms of the genetic disorder associated with the mutation, but they can pass the mutated gene on to their offspring, who may then be affected.

Heterozygote detection is often used in genetic counseling and screening programs for recessive disorders such as cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia. By identifying heterozygotes, individuals can be informed of their carrier status and the potential risks to their offspring. This information can help them make informed decisions about family planning and reproductive options.

Various methods can be used for heterozygote detection, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based tests, DNA sequencing, and genetic linkage analysis. The choice of method depends on the specific gene or mutation being tested, as well as the availability and cost of the testing technology.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Cystoviridae" is not a medical term or a term used to describe a human medical condition. It is actually the name of a family of bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. Cystoviridae viruses have a double-stranded RNA genome and are known to infect certain types of Gram-negative bacteria. They are not associated with human diseases or conditions.

Kanamycin resistance is a type of antibiotic resistance in which bacteria have the ability to grow in the presence of kanamycin, a type of aminoglycoside antibiotic. This resistance can be caused by various mechanisms, including:

1. Enzymatic inactivation: Bacteria can produce enzymes that modify or degrade kanamycin, rendering it ineffective.
2. Alteration of the drug target: Changes in the structure or function of the bacterial ribosome, the target of kanamycin, can prevent the antibiotic from binding and inhibiting protein synthesis.
3. Efflux pumps: Overexpression of efflux pumps can lead to increased expulsion of kanamycin from the bacterial cell, reducing its intracellular concentration and effectiveness.
4. Reduced permeability: Decreased uptake of kanamycin into the bacterial cell due to changes in membrane permeability or reduced expression of porin channels can also contribute to resistance.

The development and spread of antibiotic resistance, including kanamycin resistance, pose significant challenges for the treatment of bacterial infections and are a major public health concern.

"Gadus morhua" is the scientific name for the species of fish known as the Atlantic cod. It belongs to the Gadidae family and is a cold-water fish that is widely distributed in the North Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic cod is an important species economically, with its white flaky meat being highly sought after in many culinary traditions. Additionally, it has been extensively studied in fisheries science and ecology due to its historical importance as a target of commercial fishing.

Fuselloviridae is a family of viruses that infect archaea, particularly members of the order Thermoproteales within the domain Archaea. These viruses are characterized by their unique, lemon-shaped or spindle-shaped (fusiform) morphology and a linear, double-stranded DNA genome with covalently closed hairpin ends. The family Fuselloviridae is part of the order Ligamenvirales, which also includes other archaeal virus families like Lipothrixviridae and Rudiviridae.

Fuselloviruses are known to infect hyperthermophilic archaea, such as Sulfolobus species, living in extreme environments with high temperatures (70-105°C) and low pH values (2-4). The most well-studied member of this family is the Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV), which has a complex virion structure consisting of an icosahedral capsid with protruding turrets at the vertices.

Fuselloviruses have been found to play a role in the horizontal gene transfer among archaea, as they can carry and integrate foreign genes into their host's genome during infection. This ability contributes to the genetic diversity and evolution of archaeal communities in extreme environments.

RNA virus infections refer to diseases or conditions caused by the invasion and replication of RNA (Ribonucleic acid) viruses in host cells. These viruses use RNA as their genetic material, which is different from DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) viruses. Upon entering a host cell, the RNA virus releases its genetic material, which then uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components and replicate. This process can lead to various outcomes, depending on the specific virus and the host's immune response:

1. Asymptomatic infection: Some RNA virus infections may not cause any noticeable symptoms and may only be discovered through diagnostic testing.
2. Acute infection: Many RNA viruses cause acute infections, characterized by the rapid onset of symptoms that typically last for a short period (days to weeks). Examples include the common cold (caused by rhinoviruses), influenza (caused by orthomyxoviruses), and some gastrointestinal infections (caused by noroviruses or rotaviruses).
3. Chronic infection: A few RNA viruses can establish chronic infections, where the virus persists in the host for an extended period, sometimes leading to long-term health complications. Examples include HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), HCV (Hepatitis C Virus), and HTLV-1 (Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1).
4. Latent infection: Some RNA viruses, like herpesviruses, can establish latency in the host, where they remain dormant for extended periods but can reactivate under certain conditions, causing recurrent symptoms or diseases.
5. Oncogenic potential: Certain RNA viruses have oncogenic properties and can contribute to the development of cancer. For example, retroviruses like HTLV-1 can cause leukemia and lymphoma by integrating their genetic material into the host cell's DNA and altering gene expression.

Treatment for RNA virus infections varies depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Antiviral medications, immunotherapy, and supportive care are common treatment strategies. Vaccines are also available to prevent some RNA virus infections, such as measles, mumps, rubella, influenza, and hepatitis A and B.

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. The virus is transmitted through contact with infected blood, semen, and other bodily fluids. It can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby at birth.

Acute hepatitis B infection lasts for a few weeks to several months and often causes no symptoms. However, some people may experience mild to severe flu-like symptoms, yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, and fatigue. Most adults with acute hepatitis B recover completely and develop lifelong immunity to the virus.

Chronic hepatitis B infection can lead to serious liver damage, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. People with chronic hepatitis B may experience long-term symptoms such as fatigue, joint pain, and depression. They are also at risk for developing liver failure and liver cancer.

Prevention measures include vaccination, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing needles or other drug injection equipment, and covering wounds and skin rashes. There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B, but chronic hepatitis B can be treated with antiviral medications to slow the progression of liver damage.

Hepatitis B Surface Antigens (HBsAg) are proteins found on the surface of the Hepatitis B virus. They are present in the blood of individuals infected with the Hepatitis B virus and are used as a marker for the presence of a current Hepatitis B infection. The detection of HBsAg in the blood indicates that an individual is infectious and can transmit the virus to others. It is typically used in diagnostic tests to detect and diagnose Hepatitis B infections, monitor treatment response, and assess the risk of transmission.

Kanamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is derived from the bacterium Streptomyces kanamyceticus. It works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial cell death. Kanamycin is primarily used to treat serious infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It is also used in veterinary medicine to prevent bacterial infections in animals.

Like other aminoglycosides, kanamycin can cause ototoxicity (hearing loss) and nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) with prolonged use or high doses. Therefore, it is important to monitor patients closely for signs of toxicity and adjust the dose accordingly. Kanamycin is not commonly used as a first-line antibiotic due to its potential side effects and the availability of safer alternatives. However, it remains an important option for treating multidrug-resistant bacterial infections.

Typhoid fever is an acute illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. It is characterized by sustained fever, headache, constipation or diarrhea, rose-colored rash (in some cases), abdominal pain, and weakness. The bacteria are spread through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with an infected person's feces. If left untreated, typhoid fever can lead to severe complications and even be fatal. It is diagnosed through blood, stool, or urine tests and treated with antibiotics. Vaccination is available for prevention.

Hepatitis B antigens are proteins or particles present on the surface (HBsAg) or inside (HBcAg, HBeAg) the hepatitis B virus.

1. HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antigen): This is a protein found on the outer surface of the hepatitis B virus. Its presence in the blood indicates an active infection with hepatitis B virus. It's also used as a marker to diagnose hepatitis B infection and monitor treatment response.

2. HBcAg (Hepatitis B core antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core. It's not usually detected in the blood, but its antibodies (anti-HBc) are used to diagnose past or present hepatitis B infection.

3. HBeAg (Hepatitis B e antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core and is associated with viral replication. Its presence in the blood indicates high levels of viral replication, increased infectivity, and higher risk of liver damage. It's used to monitor disease progression and treatment response.

These antigens play a crucial role in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of hepatitis B infection.

A heterozygote is an individual who has inherited two different alleles (versions) of a particular gene, one from each parent. This means that the individual's genotype for that gene contains both a dominant and a recessive allele. The dominant allele will be expressed phenotypically (outwardly visible), while the recessive allele may or may not have any effect on the individual's observable traits, depending on the specific gene and its function. Heterozygotes are often represented as 'Aa', where 'A' is the dominant allele and 'a' is the recessive allele.

A Salmonella infection in animals refers to the presence and multiplication of Salmonella enterica bacteria in non-human animals, causing an infectious disease known as salmonellosis. Animals can become infected through direct contact with other infected animals or their feces, consuming contaminated food or water, or vertical transmission (from mother to offspring). Clinical signs vary among species but may include diarrhea, fever, vomiting, weight loss, and sepsis. In some cases, animals can be asymptomatic carriers, shedding the bacteria in their feces and acting as a source of infection for other animals and humans. Regular monitoring, biosecurity measures, and appropriate sanitation practices are crucial to prevent and control Salmonella infections in animals.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus that belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family and causes the infectious disease known as hepatitis B. This virus primarily targets the liver, where it can lead to inflammation and damage of the liver tissue. The infection can range from acute to chronic, with chronic hepatitis B increasing the risk of developing serious liver complications such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.

The Hepatitis B virus has a complex life cycle, involving both nuclear and cytoplasmic phases. It enters hepatocytes (liver cells) via binding to specific receptors and is taken up by endocytosis. The viral DNA is released into the nucleus, where it is converted into a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form, which serves as the template for viral transcription.

HBV transcribes several RNAs, including pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which is used as a template for reverse transcription during virion assembly. The pgRNA is encapsidated into core particles along with the viral polymerase and undergoes reverse transcription to generate new viral DNA. This process occurs within the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte, resulting in the formation of immature virions containing partially double-stranded DNA.

These immature virions are then enveloped by host cell membranes containing HBV envelope proteins (known as surface antigens) to form mature virions that can be secreted from the hepatocyte and infect other cells. The virus can also integrate into the host genome, which may contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic cases.

Hepatitis B is primarily transmitted through exposure to infected blood or bodily fluids containing the virus, such as through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth. Prevention strategies include vaccination, safe sex practices, and avoiding needle-sharing behaviors. Treatment for hepatitis B typically involves antiviral medications that can help suppress viral replication and reduce the risk of liver damage.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A drug carrier, also known as a drug delivery system or vector, is a vehicle that transports a pharmaceutical compound to a specific site in the body. The main purpose of using drug carriers is to improve the efficacy and safety of drugs by enhancing their solubility, stability, bioavailability, and targeted delivery, while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Drug carriers can be made up of various materials, including natural or synthetic polymers, lipids, inorganic nanoparticles, or even cells and viruses. They can encapsulate, adsorb, or conjugate drugs through different mechanisms, such as physical entrapment, electrostatic interaction, or covalent bonding.

Some common types of drug carriers include:

1. Liposomes: spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.
2. Polymeric nanoparticles: tiny particles made of biodegradable polymers that can protect drugs from degradation and enhance their accumulation in target tissues.
3. Dendrimers: highly branched macromolecules with a well-defined structure and size that can carry multiple drug molecules and facilitate their release.
4. Micelles: self-assembled structures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers that can solubilize hydrophobic drugs in water.
5. Inorganic nanoparticles: such as gold, silver, or iron oxide nanoparticles, that can be functionalized with drugs and targeting ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
6. Cell-based carriers: living cells, such as red blood cells, stem cells, or immune cells, that can be loaded with drugs and used to deliver them to specific sites in the body.
7. Viral vectors: modified viruses that can infect cells and introduce genetic material encoding therapeutic proteins or RNA interference molecules.

The choice of drug carrier depends on various factors, such as the physicochemical properties of the drug, the route of administration, the target site, and the desired pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Therefore, selecting an appropriate drug carrier is crucial for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Staphylococcal infections are a type of infection caused by Staphylococcus bacteria, which are commonly found on the skin and nose of healthy people. However, if they enter the body through a cut, scratch, or other wound, they can cause an infection.

There are several types of Staphylococcus bacteria, but the most common one that causes infections is Staphylococcus aureus. These infections can range from minor skin infections such as pimples, boils, and impetigo to serious conditions such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and toxic shock syndrome.

Symptoms of staphylococcal infections depend on the type and severity of the infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, either topical or oral, depending on the severity and location of the infection. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for more severe infections. It is important to note that some strains of Staphylococcus aureus have developed resistance to certain antibiotics, making them more difficult to treat.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) is a small, acidic protein that plays a crucial role in the fatty acid synthesis process. It functions as a cofactor by carrying acyl groups during the elongation cycles of fatty acid chains. The ACP molecule has a characteristic prosthetic group known as 4'-phosphopantetheine, to which the acyl groups get attached covalently. This protein is highly conserved across different species and is essential for the production of fatty acids in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

Staphylococcus aureus is a type of gram-positive, round (coccal) bacterium that is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals and humans. It is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen.

Staphylococcus aureus is known to cause a wide range of infections, from mild skin infections such as pimples, impetigo, and furuncles (boils) to more severe and potentially life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and sepsis. It can also cause food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome.

The bacterium is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, including methicillin, which has led to the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains that are difficult to treat. Proper hand hygiene and infection control practices are critical in preventing the spread of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 4, Human" (Epstein-Barr Virus)

"Herpesvirus 4, Human," also known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a member of the Herpesviridae family and is one of the most common human viruses. It is primarily transmitted through saliva and is often referred to as the "kissing disease."

EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), also known as glandular fever, which is characterized by symptoms such as fatigue, sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes. The virus can also cause other diseases, including certain types of cancer, such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Once a person becomes infected with EBV, the virus remains in the body for the rest of their life, residing in certain white blood cells called B lymphocytes. In most people, the virus remains dormant and does not cause any further symptoms. However, in some individuals, the virus may reactivate, leading to recurrent or persistent symptoms.

EBV infection is diagnosed through various tests, including blood tests that detect antibodies against the virus or direct detection of the virus itself through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. There is no cure for EBV infection, and treatment is generally supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms and managing complications. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and not sharing personal items such as toothbrushes or drinking glasses.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

The Reduced Folate Carrier Protein (RFC) is also known as the Folate Receptor Alpha (FR-α). It is a transmembrane protein responsible for the cellular influx of reduced folates, which are essential cofactors in various metabolic processes, particularly DNA synthesis and methylation. These processes are vital for cell growth, division, and development.

Reduced Folate Carrier Protein is widely expressed in many tissues, including the kidneys, liver, intestines, and choroid plexus. It plays a crucial role in maintaining intracellular folate homeostasis by facilitating the uptake of reduced folates from circulation into cells.

Dysfunctions or mutations in the RFC gene can lead to impaired folate transport, which may result in various clinical manifestations, such as megaloblastic anemia and neurological disorders. Proper folate status is essential for overall health, particularly during pregnancy and fetal development, as it helps prevent neural tube defects in newborns.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

  • If the department is not satisfied with the tax report as filed or no tax report was filed, it will give the motor carrier written notice of any proposed assessment of additional taxes or fees due. (oregon.gov)
  • The Motor Carrier Audit Section is responsible for checking that Oregon-based carriers are in compliance with IRP requirements related to their operations in Oregon as well as other states and provinces. (oregon.gov)
  • A motor carrier may request a reassessment and/or hearing if they disagree with a Highway Use Tax, International Fuel Tax Agreement or International Registration Plan audit assessment. (oregon.gov)
  • In the event an agreement is not reached, the motor carrier will be given at least 10 days notice of the time and place for the hearing. (oregon.gov)
  • A request for waiver or reduction is appropriate if the motor carrier agrees with the tax assessment but believes that consideration of other charges are warranted. (oregon.gov)
  • When a request for waiver or reduction is filed within the 30-day period, staff will review the request and a written response will be returned to the motor carrier. (oregon.gov)
  • No public motor carrier of property, household goods or passengers or private motor carrier of property shall operate or allow the operation of any motor vehicle on any public highway in this state except within the provisions of the rules and regulations adopted by the commission. (justia.com)
  • 2) Every driver of a public or private motor carrier, except the driver of a farm vehicle, operating as a carrier of intrastate commerce within this state, shall be at least 18 years of age. (justia.com)
  • 3) Minimum age requirements for every driver of a motor carrier, operating as a carrier of interstate commerce, shall be consistent with federal motor carrier regulations. (justia.com)
  • 6) Every motor carrier shall have attached to each unit or vehicle distinctive marking adopted by the commission. (justia.com)
  • 7) Motor carrier transportation requirements that are consistent with continuation of the federal motor carrier safety assistance program and other federal requirements concerning transportation of hazardous materials. (justia.com)
  • CASE 27647 - In the matter of motor carrier compliance with regulations contained in Title 17 of the New York Codes, Rules and Regulations, (NYCRR) Parts 154-1 (Non-divisible Load Permits), Part 154-2 (Divisible Load Overweight Permits), and Part 820.1-820.13 except 820.2 (Commercial Driver Licensing and Drug/Alcohol Testing). (dot.gov)
  • No motor carrier operating under the terms of this order shall operate a commercial motor vehicle of dimensions and weight which exceed thirteen feet six inches high, thirteen feet wide, one-hundred feet long, or more than one hundred twenty-five percent of legal weight. (dot.gov)
  • No motor carrier operating under the terms of this order shall operate a commercial motor vehicle which combined with its load, exceed posted bridge, tunnel, overpass or underpass height and weights limits. (dot.gov)
  • 2. Parts 390-399 of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations as adopted in 17 NYCRR Part 820 are waived. (dot.gov)
  • That no motor carrier operating under the terms of this order shall require or allow a fatigued or ill driver to operate a commercial motor vehicle. (dot.gov)
  • A driver who informs a motor carrier that he or she is not fit to drive shall be given a minimum of 10 consecutive off- duty hours before the driver may return to service. (dot.gov)
  • That motor carriers that have an Out-of-Service Order in effect, or a suspension or revocation of a New York State Certificate as a motor carrier, are not eligible to take advantage of the relief from the regulation that this order provides. (dot.gov)
  • That motor carrier vehicles shall not travel on any Parkways in New York where commercial vehicles are prohibited. (dot.gov)
  • WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) has ordered any motor carriers operated by Matthew Tabner, including two Belgrade, Montana-based companies - Vallise Automotive Group, USDOT No. 3547547, and Central Logistics, Inc, USDOT No. 3549608 - to immediately cease all interstate and intrastate transportation operations after state and federal investigators found the companies to pose an imminent hazard to public safety. (dot.gov)
  • The FMCSA order states that the "unacceptable safety compliance" by Tabner's motor carrier companies "significantly increase the likelihood of serious injury or death if not discontinued immediately. (dot.gov)
  • Now, in 2022, CVW-8 is again the first air wing to embark on this newest class of aircraft carriers. (navy.mil)
  • FILE - Weapons personnel work on a weapons elevator on the flight deck of the aircraft carrier USS Gerald R. Ford, Oct. 6, 2022, off the Virginia Coast. (wcia.com)
  • Note: A carrier primarily engaged in intrastate school-bus operations may ‎exempt its intrastate school buses from its fleet count. (ucr.gov)
  • Al Baker has also made some controversial comments over his career - including suggesting that women can't run airlines and for calling American carriers "crap" and that their passengers were "always being served by grandmothers. (pahomepage.com)
  • The Air Carrier Access Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in air travel and requires air carriers to accommodate the needs of passengers with disabilities. (hainanairlines.com)
  • Do you transport property, household goods, or passengers across state lines, or US national borders? (ucr.gov)
  • Do you transport property, household goods, or passengers that cross state or national borders at any point in their journey, including before you receive them or after you deliver them? (ucr.gov)
  • Some motor carriers or freight forwarders may operate only vehicles that are not classified as ‎commercial motor vehicles, typically because the vehicles are lighter or carry fewer passengers than ‎vehicles included in the definition of the term commercial motor vehicle. (ucr.gov)
  • You are NOT required to register with UCR since you are considered a Private Carrier of Passengers. (ucr.gov)
  • Modern United States Navy aircraft carrier air operations include the operation of fixed-wing and rotary aircraft on and around an aircraft carrier for performance of combat or noncombat missions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now more than ever, it is increasingly important for the United States Navy to reinforce our relationships with our allies and partners as we contribute to promote a peaceful, stable, and conflict-free Atlantic region. (navy.mil)
  • BIRMINGHAM - Federal Authorities today arrested a mail carrier on charges that he took bribes to deliver packages containing marijuana, announced U.S. Attorney Joyce White Vance, Assistant Special Agent in Charge Christopher Nugent, U.S. Postal Service - Office of Inspector General, Inspector in Charge Adrian Gonzalez, U.S. Postal Inspection Service, and Alabama Law Enforcement Agency Secretary Spencer Collier. (justice.gov)
  • The U.S. Postal Inspection Service has released a sketch of the suspect in the attack on a mail carrier. (wreg.com)
  • Acid was thrown on the mail carrier causing serious burns. (wreg.com)
  • After the attack, the Imperial Japanese Navy planned to invade and capture Midway Island by luring American aircraft carriers into an ambush. (wral.com)
  • 5.8 mi) horizontal radius from the carrier), and aircraft desiring to operate within the control zone must obtain his approval prior to entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Do you solely operate within the state of Hawaii? (ucr.gov)
  • The term "healthy carrier" has fallen out of favor because chronic HBV infection, even in the absence of clinically overt liver disease, conveys an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma . (medscape.com)
  • To assess the safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFalpha) therapy on the course of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in carriers of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) affected by chronic inflammatory arthropathies. (nih.gov)
  • Many countries have implemented infection control measures directed at carriers of multidrug-resistant organisms. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods used in study of ethics of infection control measures for carriers of antimicrobial-resistant organisms, the Netherlands, January 1, 2008-January 16, 2016. (cdc.gov)
  • Screening individuals or couples for specific genetic mutations or carrier status to assess the risk of passing on genetic disorders to their children. (imarcgroup.com)
  • Reproductive genetics helps assess the risk of transmitting genetic disorders to offspring by identifying carrier status or the presence of specific genetic mutations in individuals or couples. (imarcgroup.com)
  • Genetic testing may be performed to look for carriers, as well as to screen relatives of people who have cystic fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic testing, such as the carrier screening described above, may be done before or during pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • That all regulations pertaining to Commercial Driver License requirements, Controlled Substances and Alcohol Use and Testing requirements and Financial Responsibility requirements remain in force and effect for all motor carriers and drivers. (dot.gov)
  • In 2015, in the time between the initial case and its eventual appeal, net neutrality regulations re-classified broadband services as common-carrier. (tomshardware.com)
  • The baseline characteristics of the 110 inactive HBsAg carriers were similar to those of the 97 noncarriers. (nih.gov)
  • What were the characteristics and outcomes of gestational carrier cycles? (cdc.gov)
  • This example shows you how to perform Bluetooth® basic rate (BR) radio frequency (RF) physical layer (PHY) transmitter tests specific to modulation characteristics, carrier frequency offset, and drift using the Bluetooth® Toolbox. (mathworks.com)
  • This example includes transmitter tests relevant to modulation characteristics, carrier frequency offset, and drift. (mathworks.com)
  • This block diagram summarizes the test procedure for transmitter tests relevant to modulation characteristics, carrier frequency offset, and drift. (mathworks.com)
  • To determine whether inactive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers are at a higher risk of drug-induced hepatotoxicity than control subjects during antituberculosis treatment with standard short-course regimens of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and/or pyrazinamide. (nih.gov)
  • At the time of recruitment, 72 patients were anti-HBc carriers, 5 of whom were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and not included in the study. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatitis B is a serious public health problem that affects people of all ages in the United States and around the world. (cdc.gov)
  • Each year, more than 240,000 persons get hepatitis B in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • About 5% of persons in the United States will get hepatitis B sometime during their life. (cdc.gov)
  • What is the hepatitis B carrier state? (cdc.gov)
  • In the United States today, an estimated one million persons have life long hepatitis B virus infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Each year, approximately 5,000 persons in the United States die of cirrhosis of the liver related to hepatitis B, and another 1,500 die of liver cancer related to hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is the most common cause of liver cancer worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • DANANG, VIETNAM - MARCH 5: The United States aircraft carrier, USS Carl Vinson, anchored off the coast at Tien Sa Port on March 5, 2018 in Danang, Vietnam. (gettyimages.co.jp)
  • Traceback testing is a framework for identifying and genetically testing previously diagnosed but unreferred patients with ovarian cancer and other unrecognized mutation carriers to improve the detection of families at risk for breast or ovarian cancer. (nih.gov)
  • It is estimated that only 48,700 of over 348,000 women who are BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have been identified, 220,000 of which have not been diagnosed with cancer. (nih.gov)
  • People who have inherited a mutation of the CFTR gene from one parent are cystic fibrosis carriers. (nih.gov)
  • If one partner is a carrier for a cystic fibrosis gene mutation, then the next step is to test the partner if this has not been done. (nih.gov)
  • This patient can therefore be assumed to be in the inactive carrier state, or (in the older literature) a so-called "healthy carrier. (medscape.com)
  • If serum HBV DNA is absent, the patient is in the inactive carrier state. (medscape.com)
  • One hundred ten inactive HBsAg carriers with newly diagnosed active tuberculosis who had been treated with isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and/or pyrazinamide were included in the study population. (nih.gov)
  • NORFOLK, Va. - The first-in-class aircraft carrier USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN 78), flagship of the Gerald R. Ford Carrier Strike Group (GRFCSG), departed from Naval Station Norfolk on its first deployment to conduct operations and training exercises alongside NATO allies and partners throughout the Atlantic Ocean, Oct. 4. (navy.mil)
  • Greg Huffman, commander of Carrier Strike Group (CSG) 12. (navy.mil)
  • The U.S. commands and units participating in the Gerald R. Ford Carrier Strike Group (GRFCSG) deployment include Carrier Strike Group (CSG) 12, Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 8, Destroyer Squadron (DESRON) 2, USS Normandy (CG 60), USS Ramage (DDG 61), USS McFaul (DDG 74), USS Thomas Hudner (DDG 116), USNS Joshua Humpreys (T-AO 188), USNS Robert E. Peary (T-AKE 5), and USCGC Hamilton (WMSL 753). (navy.mil)
  • WASHINGTON (AP) - The Pentagon has ordered the Ford carrier strike group to sail to the Eastern Mediterranean to be ready to assist Israel, two U.S. officials said Sunday. (wkrn.com)
  • WASHINGTON (AP) - Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin said Sunday he has ordered the Ford carrier strike group to sail to the Eastern Mediterranean to be ready to assist Israel after the attack by Hamas that has left more than 1,000 dead on both sides. (wcia.com)
  • That would be up from 225 in 2016, when the state of Wyoming, among other areas, already had just one ACA marketplace competitor. (pjmedia.com)
  • In 2016, it sold MSP coverage in 32 states - fewer than half of what the law had envisioned at that point in time. (pjmedia.com)
  • She is still too young to understand what being a carrier means, but she tells everyone that she has the hemophilia gene (which is pretty cute). (hemophiliafed.org)
  • It's not easy being a father of a daughter who is a carrier of the hemophilia gene. (hemophiliafed.org)
  • The standard test to check for possible cystic fibrosis carriers looks for 23 of the most common disease-causing gene mutations. (nih.gov)
  • In states that test both IRT and DNA, if IRT is high, then the hospital will test the baby's DNA for some of the gene mutations that cause cystic fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • About 1 percent of the United States population carries one altered copy and one normal copy of the ATM gene in each cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carriers of a variant in the ATM gene also may have an increased risk of heart disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Please note: All interstate businesses that are located in non-participating states are still subject to UCR. (ucr.gov)
  • The carriers may also be assessed civil penalties of not less than $11,125 for providing transportation requiring federal operating authority registration and up to $15,691 for operating a commercial vehicle in interstate commerce without necessary USDOT registration. (dot.gov)
  • Rev. Rafael García de la Serrana Villalobos, Director of the Vatican Technical Services said: "The Carrier solution is the right response to our urgent need to establish a highly controlled microclimate as well as an effective reduction of pollutants. (carrier.com)
  • The basis for the appeal hinged on the interpretation of the FTC's jurisdictional authority over AT&T. It all boiled down to the definition of "common-carrier" services--something that the FTC cannot regulate. (tomshardware.com)
  • Although the broadband services that the FTC was targeting AT&T for weren't classified as common-carrier, AT&T argued that because it provided telecom services, which are classified as common-carrier, that status applied to itself as a company and negated the FTC's authority over them entirely. (tomshardware.com)
  • However, the reclassification shifted authority over broadband services from the FTC to the FCC, which does regulate common-carrier services. (tomshardware.com)
  • The net neutrality debate of 2017 threatened to undo all that by returning broadband services to non-common-carrier status. (tomshardware.com)
  • The federal court affirms that regulative authority for common-carrier and non-common-carrier services remain activity-based, and not company-based. (tomshardware.com)
  • Therefore, the FTC maintains jurisdiction over AT&T's non-common-carrier broadband services. (tomshardware.com)
  • The phrase "common carriers subject to the Acts to regulate commerce" thus provides immunity from FTC regulation only to the extent that a common carrier is engaging in common-carrier services. (tomshardware.com)
  • Reaffirming FTC jurisdiction over activities that fall outside of common-carrier services avoids regulatory gaps and provides consistency and predictability in regulatory enforcement. (tomshardware.com)
  • One of the easiest ways to track your package is by using the online services provided by the United States Postal Service. (mypostofficelocation.com)
  • SAN FRANCISCO & ERLANGEN, Germany--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Boku, Inc., the global leader in carrier billing-based mobile payments, and sunhill technologies, a leader in European parking and mobile ticketing services, today announced a partnership to make direct carrier billing available worldwide for sunhill's services. (businesswire.com)
  • Direct carrier billing further simplifies that experience for our customers, offering the best combination of ease-of-use, security, and access and through our partnership with Boku we can offer our services worldwide. (businesswire.com)
  • Carrier billing is a natural fit for parking and other ticketed services," continued Mr. Prideaux, "and we look forward to a fruitful partnership with one of the European leaders in the space. (businesswire.com)
  • We carefully study how the distance $d$ of the charge impurities from the graphene layer and an external bias affect the spatial distribution of the carrier density. (aps.org)
  • States Are Starting to Scrutinize Bias in Insurance Models. (riskandinsurance.com)
  • If Colorado's law proves effective, other states may follow suit, implementing rules of their own to require them to assess their algorithms for bias. (riskandinsurance.com)
  • In January, New York City postponed implementation of a similar law that would regulate AI bias in a number of industries because it was too vague to be implemented , City and State of New York reported. (riskandinsurance.com)
  • Transferring fewer embryos during ART cycles, including gestational carrier cycles, can reduce the risk for multiple births. (cdc.gov)
  • Our carrier billing solutions have become a popular choice for merchants in many different industries, from online and mobile games to app stores to software, and streaming music," said Jon Prideaux, Chief Business Officer for Boku. (businesswire.com)
  • To make the ruling, the judges looked at the FTC mandate, the original meaning of "common-carrier" when it was established in 1914, "decades of judicial interpretation," and the opinions of the FTC and FCC. (tomshardware.com)
  • The Norfolk, Virginia-based carrier was already in the Mediterranean. (wkrn.com)
  • These findings provide important information on the potential risks and benefits of gestational surrogacy for intended parents, babies, and gestational carriers. (cdc.gov)
  • Kaga and Akagi are two of four Japanese fleet carriers that sunk during the battle. (wral.com)
  • 4) Hours of service for operators of all motor carriers to which this act applies shall be fixed by the commission. (justia.com)
  • Because of limited information on the use of gestational carriers in the United States, data from CDC's National ART Surveillance System were used to describe trends and outcomes of gestational carrier cycles. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to Obamacare failing in those three states, the Wall Street Journal reports that more than 650 rural counties in the United States have only one insurance company servicing their exchanges. (pjmedia.com)
  • This upcoming year is critical because most insurance companies will determine whether they stay or go based on the rate increases granted by state insurance commissions. (pjmedia.com)
  • Today insurance carriers are being challenged with accelerating their digital transformation. (oracle.com)
  • Liberty Mutual Insurance said it completed the all-cash deal of about $1 billion for super-regional insurer State Auto Group. (iiat.org)
  • female carriers are particularly at risk for developing breast cancer . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sec. 1334 requires the federal government to contract with two multi-state plans, or MSPs. (pjmedia.com)
  • With some mobile devices and service plans, you can charge purchases to your carrier bill. (google.com)
  • Use of sulfadiazine in the prophylaxis of group A meningococcal carriers in Egypt. (nih.gov)
  • Our aim with this study was to examine the ethical context of multidrug-resistant organism carriage: what are the negative implications for carriers, and what is the ethical relevance? (cdc.gov)
  • Your MobilityPass Multi-Carriers eSIM consist of a QR code that include the SIM digital profile to be scanned and installed by the setting application of your device. (mobilitypass.com)
  • People who may decide to use a gestational carrier may include women with ovaries and no uterus or women who cannot carry a pregnancy because of a serious health problem. (cdc.gov)
  • A free source of state and federal court opinions, state laws, and the United States Code. (findlaw.com)
  • We have been working very closely with regulators and legislators to establish a long-term solution to make the market more sustainable and attract more insurers to the state," said a spokeswoman. (pjmedia.com)
  • I think other states are going to want to make sure this gets addressed in some way," Wang said. (riskandinsurance.com)
  • These cat carriers will keep your pet close to your body and make it easy to clean pet messes on the go. (wytv.com)
  • A ventilated design, reinforced zipper, two-sided pockets and an escape-proof leash make this carrier ideal for quick trips - whether walking to the vet around the corner or gliding through airport security. (wytv.com)
  • The Governate of the Vatican City State and Carrier today announced the start of the installation of a landmark heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for the Sistine Chapel, specially designed to address the challenges of protecting Michelangelo's masterpieces against deterioration. (carrier.com)
  • In addition, the Governate of the Vatican City State and United Technologies Corp. (UTC) have entered into an agreement to ensure the protection and safety of the Vatican Museums' artwork, spaces and visitors through the deployment of building technologies from UTC companies. (carrier.com)
  • A United States aircraft carrier, USS Carl Vinson, made a historic visit to Vietnam on Monday in the central city of Danang, marking the biggest U.S. military presence in Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War in 1975. (gettyimages.co.jp)
  • The Whisker City Two-door Pet Carrier is hard-sided, measures 19 inches by 12.6 inches by 10 inches and opens from the front and the top for easy loading. (wytv.com)
  • The applicable subheading for the garment bag will be 4202.92.4500 , Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS), which provides for travel, sports and similar bags, with outer surface of sheeting of plastic or of textile materials, other. (faqs.org)
  • That it is recommended that motor carriers performing relief activities under the terms of this order waiving certain height and weight restrictions, should check the Department's Oversize/Overweight Pre-Screening Tool located on the Permits website at www.nypermits.org and 511ny.org to verify that no travel restrictions or road closures are in place for the intended route of travel. (dot.gov)
  • One of the best carrier options for cats under travel duress is a hard-sided plastic carrier with openings in both the top and front. (wytv.com)
  • This travel carrier accommodates cats up to 18 pounds. (wytv.com)
  • Approximately 16% of intended parents using a gestational carrier were not US residents. (cdc.gov)
  • The USS Gerald R. Ford, the Navy's newest and most advanced aircraft carrier, and its approximately 5,000 sailors and deck of warplanes will be accompanied by cruisers and destroyers in a show of force that is meant to be ready to respond to anything, from possibly interdicting additional weapons from reaching Hamas and conducting surveillance. (wcia.com)
  • Le test de prolifération lymphocytaire en réponse aux différents mitogènes et antigènes a produit deux groupes: les patients répondants (cas aigus) et les patients non-répondants (cas chroniques). (who.int)
  • Les deux groupes étaient semblables en ce qui concerne leur réponse proliférative aux antigènes de surface de l'hépatite B (HBsAg) mais une réponse vigoureuse aux antigènes centraux de l'hépatite B (HBcAg) était une caractéristique importante chez les patients répondants. (who.int)
  • The International Registration Plan is a registration reciprocity agreement among states of the United States, the District of Columbia and provinces of Canada providing for payment of apportionable fees on the basis of total distance operated in all jurisdictions. (oregon.gov)
  • Every state and the District of Columbia begins with a blood test to check for levels of a chemical made by the pancreas called immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT). (nih.gov)
  • This deployment is an opportunity to further advance the operational capabilities of the Ford and demonstrate the advantages that Ford and Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 8 bring to the future of naval aviation, to the region and to our allies and partners," said Rear Adm. (navy.mil)
  • It's an exciting time to lead the aviators of Carrier Air Wing Eight as we embark on Ford's first deployment," said Capt. Daryl Trent, Commander, Carrier Air Wing Eight. (navy.mil)
  • It's the United States newest and most advanced aircraft carrier and this is its first full deployment. (wkrn.com)
  • Colorado's regulation may even be used as a model for states and cities struggling to create detailed legislation around artificial intelligence. (riskandinsurance.com)
  • Has the use of gestational carriers changed over time? (cdc.gov)
  • 5) Accidents arising from or in connection with the operation of motor carriers shall be reported to the commission within the time, in the detail and in the manner as the commission requires. (justia.com)
  • This cat carrier also moonlights as a bed, which can help your anxious cat create a positive association with it over time. (wytv.com)
  • In addition to Pay as you Go rates, The MobilityPass Multi-Carriers eSIM offers daily bundles for certain set amount of Data (100Mb, 400Mb or 1000Mb per day) with daily flat rates debited from your account balance. (mobilitypass.com)
  • This cat carrier can hold up to 17 pounds, and it features a unique, wide-tinted window that offers UV protection, blocking out bright light that could disrupt your cat. (wytv.com)
  • Note: PPI offers additional carriers, these are only the carriers highlighted for the 12 month health selling program. (peektraining.com)
  • This book describes a different approach to teacher education designed to create 'carriers of the torch'--teachers who have a sense of efficacy and the attitudes, dispositions, and skills necessary to teach students from diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds. (yahoo.com)
  • The state is concerned that by collecting these types of data and using them in pricing algorithms, insurers could unintentionally discriminate against protected classes. (riskandinsurance.com)
  • On an aircraft carrier flight deck, specialized crew are employed for the different roles utilized in managing air operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Auditors check that carriers accurately report the miles traveled and fuel purchased in all jurisdictions in order to verify the fuel taxes owed for those operations. (oregon.gov)
  • Wyoming has the smallest population of any state, while Alaska comes in at 48th. (pjmedia.com)
  • 4) Persons operating motor vehicles which have an ad valorem tax situs in and are registered in the state of Kansas, and used only to transport grain from the producer to an elevator or other place for storage or sale for a distance of not to exceed 50 miles. (justia.com)
  • It has been determined that action is necessary to address an emergency situation which could result in a threat to public health and safety and that certain rules should be temporarily waived in order to ensure adequate delivery of relief supplies including but not limited to medical supplies, medical waste, medical samples, and equipment transported to and within New York State. (dot.gov)
  • Learn what to look for, including types of carriers, key features, fit and safety tips. (rei.com)
  • Some mobile phone carriers can't be used to pay for subscriptions. (google.com)
  • Boku, the leading direct carrier billing mobile payments company, brings bank-grade payments technology and mobile users together, creating a trusted, accessible platform for consumers, merchants, and carriers alike. (businesswire.com)
  • Oregon participates in IFTA as a service to Oregon-based carriers operating outside the state by distributing fuel taxes on behalf of the motor carriers. (oregon.gov)
  • The U.S. Postal Inspection Service, the U.S. Postal Service - Office of Inspector General, in conjunction with ALEA's State Bureau of Investigation, investigated the case, which Assistant U.S. Attorney John B. Felton is prosecuting. (justice.gov)
  • 13 Best united states postal service jobs in redding, ct (Hiring Now! (simplyhired.com)
  • 20 Best united states postal service jobs in hackensack, nj (Hiring Now! (simplyhired.com)
  • In November 2020, a truck and trailer operated by one of Tabner's companies were ordered out-of-service by New York State Police after a roadside inspection revealed deficient brakes on the truck and inoperative brakes on the trailer. (dot.gov)
  • Despite the out-of-service order, the unsafe truck and trailer were moved, resulting in two additional citations issued by the New York State Police. (dot.gov)

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