Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The form of fatty acid synthase complex found in BACTERIA; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Catalytic steps are like the animal form but the protein structure is different with dissociated enzymes encoded by separate genes. It is a target of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which result in disruption of the CELL MEMBRANE and CELL WALL.
An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC
An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.
This enzyme catalyzes the transacylation of malonate from MALONYL CoA to activated holo-ACP, to generate malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein), which is an elongation substrate in FATTY ACIDS biosynthesis. It is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of FATTY ACIDS in all BACTERIA.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
A 3-oxoacyl reductase that has specificity for ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN-derived FATTY ACIDS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
A ubiquitously expressed folic acid transporter that functions via an antiporter mechanism which is coupled to the transport of organic phosphates.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. It has a preference for acyl derivatives with carbon chain length from 4 to 16.
Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
A symporter protein that couples the transport of FOLIC ACID with HYDROGEN IONS. The transporter functions most effectively under acidic conditions.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are the source of cilantro and the seeds are the source of coriander, both of which are used in SPICES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Compounds that interfere with FATTY ACID SYNTHASE resulting in a reduction of FATTY ACIDS. This is a target mechanism in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS and of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which interfere with CELL WALL and CELL MEMBRANE formation.
An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Compounds that contain a 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl group.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Members contain hederin (olean-12-ene) type TRITERPENES.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.
Common name for Ricinus communis, a species in the family EUPHORBIACEAE. It is the source of CASTOR OIL.
Includes ortho-, meta-, and para-nitrophenylgalactosides.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL CoA to acyl-carrier protein to form COENZYME A and acetyl-acyl-carrier protein.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A subclass of anhydrides with the general structure of dihydrofurandione. They can be substituted on any carbon atom. They modify and inhibit proteins and enzymes and are used in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.
Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A LIPOIC ACID-containing protein that plays the pivotal role in the transfer of methylamine groups and reducing equivalents between the three enzymatic components of the glycine decarboxylase complex.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A species of STIGMATELLA usually isolated from rotting wood. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus NEORICKETTSIA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, causing Sennetsu fever and found in the FAR EAST and SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.
Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
Those genes found in an organism which are necessary for its viability and normal function.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
An enediyne that alkylates DNA and RNA like MITOMYCIN does, so it is cytotoxic.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A red yeast-like mitosporic fungal genus generally regarded as nonpathogenic. It is cultured from numerous sources in human patients.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A 20-carbon branched chain fatty acid. In phytanic acid storage disease (REFSUM DISEASE) this lipid may comprise as much as 30% of the total fatty acids of the plasma. This is due to a phytanic acid alpha-hydroxylase deficiency.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A carboxy-lyase that catalyzes the decarboxylation of (S)-2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoyl-CoA to propanoyl-CoA. In microorganisms the reaction can be coupled to the vectorial transport of SODIUM ions across the cytoplasmic membrane.
Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.

The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors. (1/44195)

BACKGROUND: The adaptor protein Gads is a Grb2-related protein originally identified on the basis of its interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the docking protein Shc. Gads protein expression is restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Gads contains a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, which has previously been shown to have a similar binding specificity to that of Grb2. Gads also possesses two SH3 domains, but these have a distinct binding specificity to those of Grb2, as Gads does not bind to known Grb2 SH3 domain targets. Here, we investigated whether Gads is involved in T-cell signaling. RESULTS: We found that Gads is highly expressed in T cells and that the SLP-76 adaptor protein is a major Gads-associated protein in vivo. The constitutive interaction between Gads and SLP-76 was mediated by the carboxy-terminal SH3 domain of Gads and a 20 amino-acid proline-rich region in SLP-76. Gads also coimmunoprecipitated the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the linker for activated T cells (LAT) adaptor protein following cross-linking of the T-cell receptor; this interaction was mediated by the Gads SH2 domain. Overexpression of Gads and SLP-76 resulted in a synergistic augmentation of T-cell signaling, as measured by activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and this cooperation required a functional Gads SH2 domain. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Gads plays an important role in T-cell signaling via its association with SLP-76 and LAT. Gads may promote cross-talk between the LAT and SLP-76 signaling complexes, thereby coupling membrane-proximal events to downstream signaling pathways.  (+info)

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (2/44195)

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (3/44195)

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast. (4/44195)

Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself.  (+info)

Socs1 binds to multiple signalling proteins and suppresses steel factor-dependent proliferation. (5/44195)

We have identified Socs1 as a downstream component of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway. We show that the expression of Socs1 mRNA is rapidly increased in primary bone marrow-derived mast cells following exposure to Steel factor, and Socs1 inducibly binds to the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Previous studies have shown that Socs1 suppresses cytokine-mediated differentiation in M1 cells inhibiting Janus family kinases. In contrast, constitutive expression of Socs1 suppresses the mitogenic potential of Kit while maintaining Steel factor-dependent cell survival signals. Unlike Janus kinases, Socs1 does not inhibit the catalytic activity of the Kit tyrosine kinase. In order to define the mechanism by which Socs1-mediated suppression of Kit-dependent mitogenesis occurs, we demonstrate that Socs1 binds to the signalling proteins Grb-2 and the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors Vav. We show that Grb2 binds Socs1 via its SH3 domains to putative diproline determinants located in the N-terminus of Socs1, and Socs1 binds to the N-terminal regulatory region of Vav. These data suggest that Socs1 is an inducible switch which modulates proliferative signals in favour of cell survival signals and functions as an adaptor protein in receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways.  (+info)

The role of RBF in the introduction of G1 regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis. (6/44195)

The first appearance of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis, at cell cycle 17, is accompanied by the down-regulation of E2F-dependent transcription. Mutant alleles of rbf were generated and analyzed to determine the role of RBF in this process. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic RBF products show constitutive expression of PCNA and RNR2, two E2F-regulated genes, indicating that RBF is required for their transcriptional repression. Despite the ubiquitous expression of E2F target genes, most epidermal cells enter G1 normally. Rather than pausing in G1 until the appropriate time for cell cycle progression, many of these cells enter an ectopic S-phase. These results indicate that the repression of E2F target genes by RBF is necessary for the maintenance but not the initiation of a G1 phase. The phenotype of RBF-deficient embryos suggests that rbf has a function that is complementary to the roles of dacapo and fizzy-related in the introduction of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis.  (+info)

The splicing factor-associated protein, p32, regulates RNA splicing by inhibiting ASF/SF2 RNA binding and phosphorylation. (7/44195)

The cellular protein p32 was isolated originally as a protein tightly associated with the essential splicing factor ASF/SF2 during its purification from HeLa cells. ASF/SF2 is a member of the SR family of splicing factors, which stimulate constitutive splicing and regulate alternative RNA splicing in a positive or negative fashion, depending on where on the pre-mRNA they bind. Here we present evidence that p32 interacts with ASF/SF2 and SRp30c, another member of the SR protein family. We further show that p32 inhibits ASF/SF2 function as both a splicing enhancer and splicing repressor protein by preventing stable ASF/SF2 interaction with RNA, but p32 does not block SRp30c function. ASF/SF2 is highly phosphorylated in vivo, a modification required for stable RNA binding and protein-protein interaction during spliceosome formation, and this phosphorylation, either through HeLa nuclear extracts or through specific SR protein kinases, is inhibited by p32. Our results suggest that p32 functions as an ASF/SF2 inhibitory factor, regulating ASF/SF2 RNA binding and phosphorylation. These findings place p32 into a new group of proteins that control RNA splicing by sequestering an essential RNA splicing factor into an inhibitory complex.  (+info)

Cyclin D-CDK subunit arrangement is dependent on the availability of competing INK4 and p21 class inhibitors. (8/44195)

The D-type cyclins and their major kinase partners CDK4 and CDK6 regulate G0-G1-S progression by contributing to the phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene product, pRB. Assembly of active cyclin D-CDK complexes in response to mitogenic signals is negatively regulated by INK4 family members. Here we show that although all four INK4 proteins associate with CDK4 and CDK6 in vitro, only p16(INK4a) can form stable, binary complexes with both CDK4 and CDK6 in proliferating cells. The other INK4 family members form stable complexes with CDK6 but associate only transiently with CDK4. Conversely, CDK4 stably associates with both p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1) in cyclin-containing complexes, suggesting that CDK4 is in equilibrium between INK4 and p21(CIP1)- or p27(KIP1)-bound states. In agreement with this hypothesis, overexpression of p21(CIP1) in 293 cells, where CDK4 is bound to p16(INK4a), stimulates the formation of ternary cyclin D-CDK4-p21(CIP1) complexes. These data suggest that members of the p21 family of proteins promote the association of D-type cyclins with CDKs by counteracting the effects of INK4 molecules.  (+info)

cMyBP-C [cardiac (MyBP-C) myosin-binding protein-C)] is a sarcomeric protein involved both in thick filament structure and in the regulation of contractility. It is composed of eight IgI-like and three fibronectin-3-like domains (termed C0-C10). Mutations in the gene encoding cMyBP-C are a principal
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Mouse Myosin Binding Protein C, Slow Type (MYBPC1) in samples from Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species ...
Compare WW domain binding protein 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Rabbit polyclonal WW domain binding protein 4 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
In order to characterize expression of Homers in mouse brain and peripheral tissues we have developed a coupled reverse transcription (RT)-PCR/restriction digestion approach. This has allowed us to determine the molecular composition and relative levels of the constitutive expression of the Homer-1, -2 and -3 mRNAs across mouse tissues. We report here that mammalian brain constitutively expresses high levels of the Homer-1, -2 and -3 mRNAs. Expression of the Homer-1 mRNAs reaches 66% of the brain total Homer mRNAs expression, followed by Homer-3 mRNA (22%) and Homer-2 mRNAs (12%). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis and the Western blotting using pan-Homer antibody revealed that mouse heart, skeletal muscle and diaphragm constitutively express high levels of the Homer proteins and their mRNAs. We have shown that the molecular profile of expression of Homer-1, -2 and -3 mRNAs in muscle containing tissues resembles that obtained for mammalian brain.
Complete information for MYBPC3 gene (Protein Coding), Myosin Binding Protein C3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PGLYRP1/PGRP-S Antibody (188C424) [HRP]. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse. 100% Guaranteed.
WBP11 antibody, N-term (WW domain binding protein 11) for IHC-P, IP, WB. Anti-WBP11 pAb (GTX46466) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Complete information for SH3BP5 gene (Protein Coding), SH3 Domain Binding Protein 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
SH3BP1 antibody, C-term (SH3-domain binding protein 1) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-SH3BP1 pAb (GTX10103) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Secretory Carrier Membrane Proteins (SCAMPs) are a group of tetraspanning integral membrane proteins evolutionarily conserved from insects to mammals and plants. Mammalian genomes contain five SCAMP genes SCAMP1-SCAMP5 that regulate membrane dynamics, most prominently membrane-depolarization and Ca2+-induced regulated secretion, a key mechanism for neuronal and neuroendocrine signaling. However, the biological role of SCAMPs has remained poorly understood primarily owing to the lack of appropriate model organisms and behavior assays. Here we generate Drosophila Scamp null mutants and show that they exhibit reduced lifespan and behavioral abnormalities including impaired climbing, deficiency in odor associated long-term memory, and a susceptibility to heat-induced seizures. Neuron-specific restoration of Drosophila Scamp rescues all Scamp behavioral phenotypes, indicating that the phenotypes are due to loss of neuronal Scamp. Remarkably, neuronal expression of human SCAMP genes rescues selected
Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is required for the assembly and cellular secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB) -containing lipoproteins from the liver and intestine. The secretion pattern of apoB-containing lipoproteins is likely to influence the VLDL and LDL levels in plasma. By initial opportunistic screening for polymorphic sites in the regulatory region of the MTP gene by gene sequencing in 20 healthy male subjects, a common functional G/T polymorphism was detected 493 bp upstream from the transcriptional start point. There was differential binding of unique nuclear proteins at this site, as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The G variant seemed to bind two or three nuclear proteins that do not bind to the T variant. Expression studies with minimal promoter constructs linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter and transfected into HepG2 cells revealed marked enhancement of transcriptional activity with the T variant. The prevalence of the MTP promoter
Cardiac contractility is regulated by dynamic phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins by kinases such as cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA). Efficient phosphorylation requires that PKA be anchored close to its targets by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C (cMyBPC) and cardiac troponin I (cTNI) are hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)-causing sarcomeric proteins which regulate contractility in response to PKA phosphorylation. During a yeast 2-hybrid (Y2H) library screen using a trisphosphorylation mimic of the C1-C2 region of cMyBPC, we identified isoform 4 of myomegalin (MMGL) as an interactor of this N-terminal cMyBPC region. As MMGL has previously been shown to interact with phosphodiesterase 4D, we speculated that it may be a PKA-anchoring protein (AKAP). To investigate this possibility, we assessed the ability of MMGL isoform 4 to interact with PKA regulatory subunits R1A and R2A using Y2H-based direct protein-protein interaction assays. Additionally, to further
Heritable cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the leading cause of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in young people, affecting 1 in 500 individuals. HCM is chiefly caused by mutations in myofibrillar proteins of the cardiac sarcomere, and cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C, encoded by MYBPC3) is one of the most commonly affected. cMyBP-C, an accessory protein that binds tightly to myosin, has an important role in thick filament regulation. Mice with genetic ablation of MYBPC3 exhibit cardiac hypertrophy, reduced ejection fraction, and increased relaxation times in vivo. Experiments with explanted hearts from these mice exhibit greater susceptibility to arrhythmias compared to WT, suggesting derangement of Ca2+ handling. The molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of HCM are poorly understood, and are difficult to tease apart in constitutive knock out models due to potential compensatory changes that can mask important aspects of the disease phenotype. We used a tamoxifen-induced conditional MYBPC3 ...
Rationale: A stable 40 kD fragment is produced from cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) when the heart is stressed, using a stimulus such as ischemia reperfusion injury. Elevated levels of the fragment can be detected in both the diseased mouse and human heart but its ability to interfere with normal cardiac function in the intact animal is unexplored. Objective: To understand the potential pathogenicity of the 40 kD fragment in vivo and to investigate the molecular pathways that could be targeted for potential therapeutic intervention. Methods and Results: We generated cardiac myocyte-specific transgenic mice (TG) using a Tet-Off inducible system to permit controlled expression of the 40 kD fragment in cardiomyocytes. When 40 kD protein expression is induced by crossing the responder animals with tetracycline transactivator (tTA) mice under conditions where substantial quantities approximating those observed in disease hearts are reached, the double TG (DTG) mice subsequently develop ...
The present invention relates to the use of fibroblast growth factor-binding protein (FGF-BP) polypeptides, and functional variants of these polypeptides, respectively, or of nucleic acids encoding th
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphoregulation of Cardiac Inotropy via Myosin Binding Protein-C during Increased Pacing Frequency or β1-Adrenergic Stimulation. AU - Tong, Carl W.. AU - Wu, Xin. AU - Liu, Yang. AU - Rosas, Paola C.. AU - Sadayappan, Sakthivel. AU - Hudmon, Andy. AU - Muthuchamy, Mariappan. AU - Powers, Patricia A.. AU - Valdivia, Héctor H.. AU - Moss, Richard L.. PY - 2015/5/4. Y1 - 2015/5/4. N2 - Background-Mammalian hearts exhibit positive inotropic responses to β-adrenergic stimulation as a consequence of protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation or as a result of increased beat frequency (the Bowditch effect). Several membrane and myofibrillar proteins are phosphorylated under these conditions, but the relative contributions of these to increased contractility are not known. Phosphorylation of cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) by protein kinase A accelerates the kinetics of force development in permeabilized heart muscle, but its role in vivo is unknown. Such understanding is ...
Growth hormone-binding protein (GHBP) is a soluble carrier protein for growth hormone (GH). The function of GHBP is still unknown. Current research suggests that the protein is associated with regulation of the GH supply in the circulatory system as well as GH receptor function. In humans, GHBP is formed by post-translational modification after the complete transcription and translation of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene into the cell-surface receptor protein. The gene that codes for GHR (and inherently GHBP) is on Chromosome 5. A precursor messenger RNA (mRNA) from the complete gene first is transcribed and then spliced to encode the full receptor protein. This mature mRNA is composed of exons. Exons are peptide encoding regions of DNA genes that remain in the transcript after splicing and during the maturation of mRNA. The mRNA transcript encodes for a receptor protein that is made up of three distinct parts: an intracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and an extracellular domain. ...
Myomegalin has been characterized as a protein with the properties of a scaffold or structural protein that is expressed at high levels in skeletal and cardiac tissue, suggesting an important function in muscle, and which interacts with a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase [13]. However, the precise function and interactions of this protein, and its five isoforms, have been largely unknown. We here describe how the smallest MMGL isoform, isoform 4, binds to known and predicted PKA targets in the cardiac myocyte, including some sarcomeric proteins, viz. cMyBPC, cTNI, ENO1, ENO3, CARP and COMMD4 (Tables 1 and 2). Moreover, we show that MMGL isoform 4 interacts with two regulatory subunits of PKA (Figure 3). Together these results describe MMGL isoform 4 as a novel sarcomeric AKAP, which, like mAKAP [14], is involved in assembling a PKA/PDE cAMP signalling module.. In addition to interacting with both types of regulatory subunits, viz. RI and RII, which qualifies MMGL isoform 4 as a dual-specific AKAP ...
Browsing Doctoral Degrees (Molecular Biology and Human Genetics) by Title An investigation of myosin binding protein C mutations in South Africa and a search for ligands binding to myosin binding protein C ...
Cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBPC) is a modular protein consisting of 11 domains whose precise function and sarcomeric arrangement are incompletely understood. Identification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)--causing missense mutations in cMyBPC has highlighted the significance of certain domains. Of particular interest is domain C5, an immunoglobulin-like domain with a cardiac-specific insert, which is of unknown function yet is the site of two HCM-causing missense mutations. To identify interactors with this region, a human cardiac cDNA library was screened in a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay using the C5 sequence as bait. Screening |7x10(6) clones surprisingly revealed that domain C5 preferentially bound to clones encoding C-terminal fragments of cMyBPC; the interacting region was narrowed to domain C8 by deletion mapping. A surface plasmon resonance assay using purified recombinant cMyBPC domains was used to measure the affinity of C5 and C8 in vitro (K(a)=1x10(5) mol/L(-1)). This affinity
Mutations in the cardiac myosin binding protein C gene (MYBPC3) are common causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in humans. Even though the MYBPC3 E258K missense mutation is among the most prevalent HCM-causing mutations, the mechanism through which it causes disease remains unclear. We developed a novel neonatal murine 3D engineered cardiac tissue (ECT) model and previously presented data showing that Mybpc3 ablation (Mybpc3−/−) accelerates the kinetics of contraction and relaxation in the absence of hypertrophic remodeling in ECT. Furthermore, we showed that expression of wild type human MYBPC3 in Mybpc3−/− ECT (MYBPC3WT) restores contractile function. We hypothesized that adenoviral mediated expression of human E258K MYBPC3 in Mybpc3−/− ECT (MYBPC3E258K) would accelerate contractile kinetics and blunt the effect of dobutamine by abolishing phosphorylation-regulated inhibitory interactions between the C2-M-domain region of cMyBPC and myosin S2. The contractile characteristics ...
Copines make up a multigene family of calcium-dependent, phospholipid-binding proteins. Copine proteins consists of two C2 domains at the N terminus followed by an A domain similar to the von Willebrand-Integrin A domain. Mutant studies of copines suggest that copines may be involved in signaling pathways and may play a significant role in cell differentiation, programmed cell death, and cell development. Copines need to be studied further to have a clear understanding of the function they play in organismal life processes. We are studying copine protein function in the model organism protozoan Dictyostelium discoideum. Previous research showed that the copine A (cpnA-) knockout strain of Dictyostelium exhibited normal growth rates, a slight cytokinesis defect, a developmental defect, and a defect in contractile vacuole function. Furthermore, real-time reverse transcription-PCR data suggested that all of the copine genes except cpnF may be important regulators of Dictyostelium development. To ...
We have reported studies characterizing small-molecule inhibitors that selectively inhibit PLTP activity and concomitantly reduce apoB secretion. In the present study, we identified small molecules that inhibit both PLTP and MTP activities, which are known to regulate apoB secretion. This is the first report to identify dual inhibitors for PLTP and MTP activities. The discovery was not expected based on the lack of homology of PLTP and MTP at protein sequence levels. Although CETP and PLTP have 40% homology and belong to the family of lipid transfer/lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins (Tollefson et al., 1988; Day et al., 1994), none of these compounds inhibit CETP activity (Luo et al., 2010). MTP and apoB belong to the vitellogenin family of lipid transfer proteins. Read et al. (2000) predicted the three-dimensional structure of the C-terminal lipid binding cavity of MTP based on the crystal structure of lipoviellin. The lipid cavity in MTP bears a resemblance to the lipid binding domain of ...
Heparin-binding protein which binds to FGF2, prevents binding of FGF2 to heparin and probably inhibits immobilization of FGF2 on extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans, allowing its release and subsequent activation of FGFR signaling which leads to increased vascular permeability ...
Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is an endogenous inhibitor of the antioxidant thioredoxin, and a critical agent in the in vivo regulation of glucose. The well-described induction of TXNIP by high glucose may represent an important pathogenic trigger of complications arising in the diabetic environment, with sustained overexpression of TXNIP triggering the increased production of reactive oxygen species and collagen, both major contributors to the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). To examine a possible therapeutic role for targeted TXNIP inhibition in DN, transgenic (mRen-2)27 rats were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin and then treated with 20 μ,smlcap,M,/smlcap, TXNIP deoxyribozyme (DNAzyme) delivered continuously over 12 weeks by an implanted osmotic mini-pump. Renal injury was measured using biochemical parameters of kidney function along with histological markers of damage. Catalytic activity of TXNIP DNAzyme was determined by TXNIP gene and peptide expression in the rat ...
Compare peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
lipid transfer protein: accelerates glycolipid exchange; catalyzes net transfer of glycosphingolipids from brush border membrane vesicles; also facilitates transfer of glucosyl-, galactosyl- & lactosylceramide from liposomal vesicles to red ghost cells; see also record for phospholipid exchange protein
Figure 3. Identification of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) as a cardiac myocyte-specific PKGIα anti-remodeling substrate through molecular screen for PKGIa-LZ binding proteins. From Thoonen et al, 2015. (A) Outline of screening strategy. GST-fusion proteins were generated containing the PKGIa LZ domain (PKG1-59), the PKGIα mutated LZ domain (PKGLZM), or GST alone. The separate bait proteins were incubated with left ventricular protein lysates, followed by SDS PAGE and Coomassie staining. Protein bands selectively precipitating with PKG1-59 were removed and identified by mass spectroscopy. (B) Representative Coomassie stain from left ventricular protein lysates incubated with GST-fusion proteins. The 150 kDa band visible only in PKG1-59 precipitate (denoted by arrow) was excised and subjected to mass spectroscopy, revealing cMyBP-C as the predominant species. The thick bands between 25 and 30 kDa represent GST fusion proteins. Representative of 3 independent experiments. (C) Model ...
Recombinant human HIPK1 (156-555) was expressed in Sf9 cells using an N-terminal GST tag. HIPK1 or homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 1 is a ser/thr protein kinase and a member of the HIPK family.
|strong|Goat anti Human TRIM5 alpha antibody|/strong| recognizes an epitope within the N-terminal (NT) region of human TRIM5alpha, otherwise known as RNF88 (RING finger protein 88), a cytoplasmic pro…
Jones Day represented Balderton Capital, as co-investor along with Ventech, in connection with their purchase of €7.5 million (US$10 million) of Series B Convertible B Preferred Stock in a private placement by Vestiaire de Copines, an online luxury resale store for second-hand fashion products.
Blotting techniques allow the transfer of proteins and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) from polyacrylamide or agarose gels onto carrier membranes. Additional these techniques allow immobilization of those components from solutions onto carrier membranes. On the membrane the proteins and nucleic acids offer open access (compared to in-gel techniques) for detection methods for specific molecules (e. g. antibodies). ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
19. 1.Carrier Concept - According to this hypothesis the carrier protein picks up an ion from one side of the membrane and discharges it on the other side. The picking up and discharge of the ion requires energy. Energy is obtained by hydrolysis of ATP. - ATP changes into ADP and energy released is used to change the conformation of the carrier which may be ATPase itself, so that the ion is picked up on one side of the membrane and released on the other. - After discharge of an ion, carrier protein is reprimed to pick up an other ion. The carrier protein may carry one ion inwards and may exchange it with another ion at the inner surface of membrane, so that the other ion is carried by the same carrier outwards. ...
19. 1.Carrier Concept - According to this hypothesis the carrier protein picks up an ion from one side of the membrane and discharges it on the other side. The picking up and discharge of the ion requires energy. Energy is obtained by hydrolysis of ATP. - ATP changes into ADP and energy released is used to change the conformation of the carrier which may be ATPase itself, so that the ion is picked up on one side of the membrane and released on the other. - After discharge of an ion, carrier protein is reprimed to pick up an other ion. The carrier protein may carry one ion inwards and may exchange it with another ion at the inner surface of membrane, so that the other ion is carried by the same carrier outwards. ...
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Buy our Recombinant Human TRIM35 protein. Ab161529 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA. Abcam provides free…
Lola Collignon tait une gamine de 11 ans avec plein de lucioles dans la t te et des r ves de petite fille en devenir. Elle marchait avec trois de ses copines sur le macadam dun passage prot g de Thionville, le c ur gai et l ger lapproche des f tes de No l. Lola Collignon na pas crois le p re No l mais une voiture de pompiers d glingu e qui zigzaguait dangereusement, la fauchant mortellement et blessant gri vement ses amies...
02/20/2008 0tbrewer None 1041:45 0:25 0:00 0:25 -- *CG 5stox1 u 0.04 55.61 d 1.15 106.13 u 0.45 47.12 d 0.03 50.35 u 0.68 23.58 *CG 5stox2 u 0.33 18.39 u 0.06 26.50 d 0.72 40.02 u 0.26 21.55 d 0.10 6.75 *CG 5stox3 u 0.60 49.48 u 0.06 25.91 u 0.33 13.04 u 1.54 74.47 u 0.09 20.99 *CG 5stox4 d 0.02 71.12 u 0.10 22.47 u 1.54 74.47 d 0.11 1.61 u 0.04 12.61 S BREAK-3 -- ...
CG amstox D 120.96 13110.05 D 25.81 2618.51 D 241.69 15154.61 *CG 6stox1 d 0.56 35.27 u 0.05 72.27 d 0.02 46.24 d 1.65 44.08 d 0.01 10.09 *CG 6stox2 d 1.19 34.26 d 1.34 37.71 u 0.13 90.68 d 0.70 38.31 d 0.41 26.84 *CG 6stox3 d 0.41 63.84 d 0.32 27.69 u 0.14 50.11 u 0.08 4.20 d 1.03 48.75 *CG 6stox4 d >> 2.20 68.70 d 0.48 43.04 d 2.07 40.28 d 0.31 46.20 d 0.44 81.16 ...
Does anyone use Trimus picks? Im curious to see peoples assessments. Also, does anyone use really round-edged picks (like mando-style picks)?
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Cross-species mechanical fingerprinting of cardiac myosin binding protein-C. AU - Karsai, Árpád. AU - Kellermayer, Miklós S Z. AU - Harris, Samantha P.. PY - 2013/6/4. Y1 - 2013/6/4. N2 - Cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily of proteins and consists of 8 Ig- and 3 fibronectin III (FNIII)-like domains along with a unique regulatory sequence referred to as the MyBP-C motif or M-domain. We previously used atomic force microscopy to investigate the mechanical properties of murine cMyBP-C expressed using a baculovirus/insect cell expression system. Here, we investigate whether the mechanical properties of cMyBP-C are conserved across species by using atomic force microscopy to manipulate recombinant human cMyBP-C and native cMyBP-C purified from bovine heart. Force versus extension data obtained in velocity-clamp experiments showed that the mechanical response of the human recombinant protein was remarkably similar to that of ...
Cardiac myosin binding protein C phosphorylation affects cross-bridge cycles elementary steps in a site-specific manner.: Based on our recent finding that card
Carnitine β-hydroxy-γ-(trimethylammonio)butyrate - a compound necessary in the peripheral tissues for a transfer of fatty acids for their oxidation within the cell, accumulates in the brain despite low β-oxidation in this organ. In order to enter the brain, carnitine has to cross the blood-brain barrier formed by capillary endothelial cells which are in close interaction with astrocytes. Previous studies, demonstrating expression of mRNA coding two carnitine transporters - organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (OCTN2) and B|SUP|0,+|/SUP| in endothelial cells, did not give any information on carnitine transporters polarity in endothelium. Therefore more detailed experiments were performed on expression and localization of a high affinity carnitine transporter OCTN2 in an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry. The amount of mRNA was comparable in endothelial cells and kidney, when referred to housekeeping genes, it was, however,
Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein large subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTTP gene. MTP encodes the large subunit of the heterodimeric microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) completes the heterodimeric microsomal triaglyceride transfer protein, which has been shown to play a central role in lipoprotein assembly. Mutations in MTP can cause abetalipoproteinemia. Apolipoprotein B48 on chylomicra and Apolipoprotein B100 on LDL, IDL, and VLDL are important for MTP binding. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [[File: [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] ,px,alt=Statin Pathway edit]] The interactive pathway map can be edited at ...
Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein large subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTTP gene.[1][2] MTP encodes the large subunit of the heterodimeric microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) completes the heterodimeric microsomal triaglyceride transfer protein, which has been shown to play a central role in lipoprotein assembly. Mutations in MTP can cause abetalipoproteinemia.[2] Apolipoprotein B48 on chylomicra and Apolipoprotein B100 on LDL, IDL, and VLDL are important for MTP binding. ...
It has been demonstrated previously that clinical phenotypes of HCM (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) caused by mutations in the cardiac MyBP-C (myosin-binding protein C) gene show late onset, low penetrance and favourable clinical course. However, we have encountered severe phenotypes in several carriers of the MyBP-C gene mutations. The aim of the present study was to screen novel MyBP-C gene mutations in patients with HCM and to investigate the genetic differences in affected subjects with severe phenotypes. The MyBP-C gene was screened in 292 Japanese probands with HCM, and a novel c.2067+1G→A mutation was present in 15 subjects in five families. Clinical phenotypes of carriers of the c.2067+1G→A mutation were compared with those of a previously identified Arg820Gln (Arg820→Gln) mutation in the MyBP-C gene. The disease penetrance in subjects aged ≥30 years was 90% in carriers of the c.2067+1G→A mutation and 61% in carriers of the Arg820Gln mutation. Sudden death occurred in four ...
Oxaliplatin transport mediated by organic cation/carnitine transporters OCTN1 and OCTN2 in overexpressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells and rat dorsal root ganglion neurons
Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder, which is characterized by defective assembly and secretion of plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins. ABL results from mutations in the gene encoding the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). We se …
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of NTU Repository with Academic Hub to form NTU Scholars.. ...
Although mutations in cMyBP‐C are one of the most frequent causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy on a per gene basis with ,150 individual mutations being documented, the majority of these mutations (≈60%) result not in a full‐length, mutated protein, but in a truncated peptide and these mutated alleles exhibit autosomal dominance.29, 30 We have shown that a truncated form of cMyBP‐C is produced from endogenous, normal cMyBP‐C as a result of ischemia-reperfusion injury and/or general cardiovascular stress and is generated from Ca2+ activated μ‐calpain activity.2 This fragment is stable, can be expressed inducibly in cardiomyocytes and causes cardiac disease, fibrosis, and eventually heart failure and death.4 This model displays pathology that is often seen in human cardiac fibrosis and myocardial disease: the hearts develop hypertrophy and show extensive interstitial fibrosis and perivascular fibrosis while maintaining systolic function. Thus, in terms of a fibrotic response, the ...
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Lipid-transfer proteins (LTP) are type of proteins, 9-kDa proteins present in high quantity as much as 4 percent of the total soluble protein in higher plants. Lipid-transfer proteins (LTP) are responsible for transfer (in vitro), of phospholipids between membranes as well as binds to acyl chains. Some important roles played by LTP are embryogenesis, participation in cutin formation, symbiosis, and the adaptation of plants to various environmental conditions and defense reactions against phytopathogens, though the validity of some these roles is needs to be determined. Recent studies show several important functions in the cell. Biosynthesis of many membrane lipids occurs at the (ER) endoplasmic reticulum, then they are dispensed by vesicular transport and lipid transfer proteins. Lysosomal lipid transfer proteins are types of proteins are multifunctional in nature. Though the mechanism and functions of most LTPs are yet to be determined, lipid transfer proteins in plants are involved in surface ...
SummaryThe main objective was to evaluate the association between SNPs and haplotypes of the FABP1-4 genes and type 2 diabetes, as well as its interaction with fat intake, in one general Spanish population. The association was replicated in a second population in which HOMA index was also evaluated.Methods1217 unrelated individuals were selected from a population-based study [Hortega study: 605 women; mean age 54 y; 7.8% with type 2 diabetes]. The replication population included 805 subjects from Segovia, a neighboring region of Spain (446 females; mean age 52 y; 10.3% with type 2 diabetes). DM2 mellitus was defined in a similar way in both studies. Fifteen SNPs previously associated with metabolic traits or with potential influence in the gene expression within the FABP1-4 genes were genotyped with SNPlex and tested. Age, sex and BMI were used as covariates in the logistic regression model.ResultsOne polymorphism (rs2197076) and two haplotypes of the FABP-1 showed a strong association with the ...
casSAR Dugability of A0AT31 | NLTP5 | Non-specific lipid-transfer protein 5 - Also known as NLTP5_LENCU, NLTP5. Plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins transfer phospholipids as well as galactolipids across membranes. May play a role in wax or cutin deposition in the cell walls of expanding epidermal cells and certain secretory tissues.
MYBPC3 encodes the cardiac isoform of myosin-binding protein C. Myosin-binding protein C is a myosin-associated protein found in the cross-bridge-bearing zone (C region) of A bands in striated muscle. MYBPC3, the cardiac isoform, is expressed exclussively in heart muscle. MYBPC gene is linked to CMH4 and demonstrated a splice donor mutationin 1 family with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a duplication mutation in a second. Both mutations were predicted to disrupt the high-affinity, C-terminal myosin-binding domain of cardiac MyBP-C. Again, findings demonstrated that as in the case of the 3 forms that had been defined in molecular terms previously, familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a disease of the sarcomere.
protease inhibitor/seed storage/lipid transfer protein (LTP) family protein; FUNCTIONS IN: lipid binding; INVOLVED IN: lipid transport; LOCATED IN: endomembrane system; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Bifunctional inhibitor/plant lipid transfer protein/seed storage (InterPro:IPR016140), Plant lipid transfer protein/seed storage/trypsin-alpha amylase inhibitor (InterPro:IPR003612), Plant lipid transfer protein and hydrophobic protein, helical (InterPro:IPR013770); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: protease inhibitor/seed storage/lipid transfer protein (LTP) family protein (TAIR:AT4G12510.1); Has 534 Blast hits to 530 proteins in 51 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria - 0; Metazoa - 0; Fungi - 0; Plants - 534; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 0 (source: NCBI BLink ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acyl-CoA binding protein is an essential protein in mammalian cell lines. AU - Knudsen, Jens. AU - Færgeman, Nils J.. PY - 2002/12/15. Y1 - 2002/12/15. N2 - In the present work, small interference RNA was used to knock-down acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) in HeLa, HepG2 and Chang cells. Transfection with ACBP-specific siRNA stopped growth, detached cells from the growth surface and blocked thymidine and acetate incorporation. The results show that depletion of ACBP in mammalian cells results in lethality, suggesting that ACBP is an essential protein.. AB - In the present work, small interference RNA was used to knock-down acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) in HeLa, HepG2 and Chang cells. Transfection with ACBP-specific siRNA stopped growth, detached cells from the growth surface and blocked thymidine and acetate incorporation. The results show that depletion of ACBP in mammalian cells results in lethality, suggesting that ACBP is an essential protein.. KW - Acetates. KW - ...
The aim of our study was to investigate the predictive value of the biomarkers interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) compared with clinical CRB and CRB-65 severity scores in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Samples and data were obtained from patients enrolled into the German CAPNETZ study group. Samples (blood, sputum and urine) were collected within 24 h of first presentation and inclusion in the CAPNETZ study, and CRB and CRB-65 scores were determined for all patients at the time of enrollment. The combined end point representative of a severe course of CAP was defined as mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit treatment and/or death within 30 days. Overall, a total of 1,000 patients were enrolled in the study. A severe course of CAP was observed in 105 (10.5%) patients. The highest IL-6, IL-10 and LBP concentrations were found in patients with CRB-65 scores of 3-4 or CRB scores of 2-3. IL-6 and LBP levels on enrollment in the
Lipid droplet (LD) utilization is an important cellular activity that regulates energy balance and release of lipid second messengers. Because fatty acids exhibit both beneficial and toxic properties, their release from LDs must be controlled. Here we demonstrate that yeast Sfh3, an unusual Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, is an LD-associated protein that inhibits lipid mobilization from these particles. We further document a complex biochemical diversification of LDs during sporulation in which Sfh3 and select other LD proteins redistribute into discrete LD subpopulations. The data show that Sfh3 modulates the efficiency with which a neutral lipid hydrolase-rich LD subclass is consumed during biogenesis of specialized membrane envelopes that package replicated haploid meiotic genomes. These results present novel insights into the interface between phosphoinositide signaling and developmental regulation of LD metabolism and unveil meiosis-specific aspects of Sfh3 (and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutations in Ribonucleic Acid Binding Protein Gene Cause Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy. AU - Brauch, Katharine M.. AU - Karst, Margaret L.. AU - Herron, Kathleen J.. AU - de Andrade, Mariza. AU - Pellikka, Patricia A.. AU - Rodeheffer, Richard J.. AU - Michels, Virginia V.. AU - Olson, Timothy M.. PY - 2009/9/1. Y1 - 2009/9/1. N2 - Objectives: We sought to identify a novel gene for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Background: DCM is a heritable, genetically heterogeneous disorder that remains idiopathic in the majority of patients. Familial cases provide an opportunity to discover unsuspected molecular bases of DCM, enabling pre-clinical risk detection. Methods: Two large families with autosomal-dominant DCM were studied. Genome-wide linkage analysis was used to identify a disease locus, followed by fine mapping and positional candidate gene sequencing. Mutation scanning was then performed in 278 unrelated subjects with idiopathic DCM, prospectively identified at the Mayo Clinic. ...
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We have purified a 38 kDa protein from bovine brain which is cross-reactive with an affinity purified antibody against the 35 kDa phosphatidylino-sitol transfer protein from the same source. Controlled trypsinization of the 38 kDa protein yielded an immunoreactive protein of 35 kDa which displayed a 6-fold increase in phosphatidylinositol transfer activity and a IO-fold higher affinity for this phospholipid. The possibility that the 38 kDa protein is a precursor of the phosphatidylinositol transfer protein is discussed.(C) 1990 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved ...
Read Comparative study of the genomic organization of DNA repeats within the 5′-flanking region of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene (NRAMP1) between humans and great apes, Mammalian Genome on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Transcriptional activity of p53, a central regulatory switch in a network controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis, is modulated by protein stability and post-translational modifications including phosphorylation and acetylation. Here we demonstrate that the human serine/threonine kinase homeodo …
Lipid Transfer Proteins (LTPs) are found in plants and foods that contain plants. Lipid Transfer Protein Syndrome is an allergy affecting people who have become sensitised to LTPs.
El Archivo Digital UPM alberga en formato digital la documentacion academica y cientifica (tesis, pfc, articulos, etc..) generada en la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid.Los documentos del Archivo Digital UPM son recuperables desde buscadores: Google, Google Academics, Yahoo, Scirus, etc y desde recolectores OAI: E-ciencia, DRRD, Recolecta (REBIUN-FECYT), Driver, Oaister, etc.
1FK0: Structural basis of non-specific lipid binding in maize lipid-transfer protein complexes revealed by high-resolution X-ray crystallography.
1FK4: Structural basis of non-specific lipid binding in maize lipid-transfer protein complexes revealed by high-resolution X-ray crystallography.
What is Ligand Binding Protein Gene? Definition of Ligand Binding Protein Gene. Ligand Binding Protein Gene FAQ. Learn more about Ligand Binding Protein Gene. Ligand Binding Protein Gene facts.
Monte S. Willis, MD, PhD - $50,000 Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies (FHC) are the most common underlying cause of sudden death in children and young adults, which result from mutations primarily in proteins responsible for heart contraction. It has been identified that the cardiac specific protein MuRF1 (Muscle Ring Finger-1), mediates the degradation of one of these proteins, the cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C (cMyBP-c). Since cMyBP-c is the most commonly mutated protein in patients with FHC, and cMyBP-c is degraded very rapidly by heart cells in these patients, this study proposes that MuRF1 may be a key regulator of this degradation as a mechanism to clear damaged proteins. Moreover, it has been identified that MURF1 regulates the turnover of proteins that transport energy (ATP) throughout the cell, and that MuRF1 inhibits increases in muscle size (cardiomyocyte hypertrophy). Therefore, the assumption is that MuRF1 is a unifying mechanism for the major underlying defects in FHC. The ...
Shop Glucokinase regulatory protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Glucokinase regulatory protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
MAYWOOD, Ill. - A new blood test can detect heart attacks hours faster than the current gold-standard blood test, according to a study led by Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine researchers.. The new test measures a protein that is released to the bloodstream by dying heart muscle. The protein is called cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C). The study found that cMyBP-C is released to the blood within just 15 minutes of cardiac damage, and rises to significant levels in three hours.. This is a potential ultra-early biomarker that could confirm whether a patient has had a heart attack, leading to faster and more effective treatment, said Sakthivel Sadayappan, PhD, senior author of the study, published Dec. 13, 2013 in the American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology.. Between 60 and 70 percent of all patients who complain of chest pain do not have heart attacks. Many of these patients are admitted to the hospital, at considerable time and expense, ...
In the present work, small interference RNA was used to knock-down acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) in HeLa, HepG2 and Chang cells. Transfection with ACBP-specific siRNA stopped growth, detached cells from the growth surface and blocked thymidine and acetate incorporation. The results show that depletion of ACBP in mammalian cells results in lethality, suggesting that ACBP is an essential protein.. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Signaling through the Hippo-Salvador-Warts (Wts) kinase cascade inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis by preventing nuclear accumulation of the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki in the fruit fly) or Yap (in vertebrates). Hippo-dependent phosphorylation of Yki by Wts prevents nuclear accumulation of Yki. In the nucleus, Yki cooperates with its partner Scalloped to promote expression of several target genes that inhibit apoptosis and promote mitosis. Two studies report that the serine-threonine kinase homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (Hipk) promotes Yki activity. Studies by Chen and Verheyen and by Poon et al. both demonstrate that, like overexpresison of yki or knockdown of wts, overexpresison of hipk in fly imaginal discs caused excessive cell proliferation, leading to tissue overgrowth, and stimulation of endogenous Yki transcriptional targets and reporter constructs. Reducing Hipk activity by mutation or RNA interference (RNAi) reduced both tissue size and expression ...
LBP [LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein] was discovered approximately 25 years ago. Since then, substantial progress has been made towards our understanding of its function in health and disease. Furthermore, the discovery of a large protein family sharing functional and structural attributes has helped in our knowledge. Still, key questions are unresolved, and here an overview on the old and new findings on LBP is given. LBP is an acute-phase protein of the liver, but is also synthesized in other cells of the organism. While LBP is named after the ability to bind to LPS of Gram-negative bacteria, it also can recognize other bacterial compounds, such as lipopeptides. It has been shown that LBP is needed to combat infections; however, the main mechanism of action is still not clear. New findings on natural genetic variations of LBP leading to functional consequences may help in further elucidating the mechanism of LBP and its role in innate immunity and disease. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Protein features are: Cellular retinaldehyde binding/alpha-tocopherol transport; Cellular retinaldehyde-binding/triple function, C-terminal; Phosphatidylinositol transfer protein-like, N-terminal ...
Integral membrane proteins (SCAMPs), tetraspan vesicle membrane proteins) that act as carriers, recycling proteins to the cell surface. At least three members of the family have been identified in humans: SCAMP1 (338 aa), SCAMP2 (329 aa), and SCAMP3 (347 aa). ...
DBI - DBI (untagged)-Human diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-CoA binding protein) (DBI), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Recombinant GRB2-Related Adaptor Protein (GRAP) Protein (Myc-DYKDDDDK Tag). Species: Human. Source: HEK-293 Cells. Order product ABIN2722222.
Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP ...
View all contributions by Dr. Filip Casselman from AalstBelgium in the field of interventional cardiology and cardiovascular disease on PCRonline.
... acyl-carrier-protein] reductase, beta-hydroxyacyl-[acylcarrier-protein] dehydrase, and enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase ... Other names in common use include beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein](ACP) reductase, beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein (ACP ... 3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NADP+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + ... beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl ACP reductase, NADPH- ...
Occupation and downregulation of carrier proteins[edit]. Protein binding of testosterone in women[6] Group. Free. Albumin. SHBG ... Danazol is known to bind to two steroid hormone carrier proteins: sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which binds androgens ... to and occupation of steroid hormone carrier proteins and consequent displacement of steroid hormones from these proteins.[5][6 ... Ulrich Westphal (6 December 2012). Steroid-Protein Interactions II. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 256-. ISBN 978-3-642 ...
"Transferrin is an insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 binding protein". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... regulation of protein stability. • transferrin transport. • iron ion homeostasis. • platelet degranulation. • ion transport. • ... The protein is composed of alpha helices and beta sheets that form two domains.[8] The N- and C- terminal sequences are ... protein binding. • ferric iron transmembrane transporter activity. • ferrous iron binding. • transferrin receptor binding. ...
"Protein Engineering Design and Selection. 12 (6): 439-446. doi:10.1093/protein/12.6.439. PMID 10388840.. ... They also serve as carriers for molecules of low water solubility this way isolating their hydrophobic nature, including lipid- ... The albumins (/ˈælbjʊmɪn/) (formed from Latin: albumen[3] "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, ... Protein Engineering Design and Selection. 12 (6): 439-446. doi:10.1093/protein/12.6.439. PMID 10388840.. .mw-parser-output cite ...
... (ORM) or alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGp,[1] AGP or AAG) is an acute phase (acute phase protein) plasma alpha- ... The only established function of ORM is to act as a carrier of basic and neutrally charged lipophilic compounds. In medicine, ... The effect of these changes on drug protein binding and drug delivery, however, appear to be minimal.[4] AGP shows a complex ... It is synthesized primarily in hepatocytes and has a normal plasma concentration between 0.6-1.2 mg/mL (1-3% plasma protein).[2 ...
... producing the oxygen-carrier hemoglobin; breaking down proteins; and turning nitrogenous waste products into ammonia and urea ... Investigations showed that ragworm jaws are made of unusual proteins that bind strongly to zinc.[47] ... Phylogenetic analyses based on 79 ribosomal proteins indicated a position of Sipuncula within Annelida.[17] Subsequent analysis ...
enoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase (NADPH, B-specific) Ja trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase Ja ...
He was known for his researches on vitamin-carrier proteins and Lathyrus sativus[3] and was an elected fellow of the Indian ... he worked on vitamin-carrying proteins which demonstrated how the proteins carried vitamins such as thiamin and riboflavin to ...
enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein reductase (NADPH, B-specific) activity]. • protein binding. • 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein ... acyl-carrier-protein dehydratase activity]. • protein homodimerization activity. • catalytic activity. • [acyl-carrier-protein ... 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein synthase activity]. • acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase activity]. • hydrolase activity. • ... acyl-carrier-protein S-malonyltransferase activity]. • 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein dehydratase activity]. • fatty acid ...
Grazoprevir is transported by the solute carrier proteins SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3. Drugs that inhibit this proteins, such as ... Elbasvir targets the NS5A protein, which effectively prevents the transcription of the HCV RNA and also prevents virion ... an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus's NS5A protein) and grazoprevir (an NS3/4A inhibitor). It is used to treat chronic hepatitis ...
Entrez Gene: UCP1 uncoupling protein 1 (mitochondrial, proton carrier). . Abgerufen am 25. Februar 2011. ... Thermogenin (auch entkoppelndes Protein, engl. Uncoupling Protein 1 bzw. UCP1 genannt[1]) ist ein Transmembranprotein, das sich ... The uncoupling protein homologues: UCP1, UCP2, UCP3, StUCP and AtUCP. . In: Biochem. J.. . 345 Pt 2, 2000, S. 161-79. PMID ... Entdeckt wurde das Enzym 1979 als Uncoupling Protein[2], 1988 wurde es zum ersten Mal kloniert.[3][4] ...
Elovson J, Vagelos PR (1968). „Acyl carrier protein. X. Acyl carrier protein synthetase". J. Biol. Chem. 243 (13): 3603-11. ... Strickland KC, Hoeferlin LA, Oleinik NV, Krupenko NI, Krupenko SA (2010). „Acyl carrier protein-specific 4'-phosphopantetheinyl ... što je acil prenosni protein i formiltetrahidrofolat dehidrogenaza.[6][7] ...
Interaction with enzyme proteins. *Interaction with structural proteins. *Interaction with carrier proteins ... Colchicine, a drug for gout, interferes with the function of the structural protein tubulin, while Digitalis, a drug still used ... in heart failure, inhibits the activity of the carrier molecule, Na-K-ATPase pump. The widest class of drugs act as ligands ...
This list covers carrier proteins. For other protein-related codes, see List of MeSH codes (D12.776). Codes before these are ... rap1 gtp-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.157.325.515.500 - ras proteins MeSH D12.776.157.325.515.500.300 - oncogene protein p21( ... smad1 protein MeSH D12.776. - smad2 protein MeSH D12.776. - smad3 protein MeSH D12.776. ... smad proteins, inhibitory MeSH D12.776. - smad6 protein MeSH D12.776. - smad7 protein ...
... and denaturation of proteins before delivery. In one study, a short amphipathic peptide carrier, Pep-1, and protein complexes ... CPP mediated delivery of proteins[edit]. The development of therapeutic proteins that has presented a valuable method to treat ... Several groups have successfully delivered CPP fused proteins in vitro. TAT was able to deliver different proteins, such as ... The size range of proteins with effective delivery is from 30kDa to 120-150kDa. In one study, TAT-fused proteins are rapidly ...
Fetuins are carrier proteins like albumin. Fetuin-A forms soluble complexes with calcium and phosphate and thus is a carrier of ... The protein is commonly present in the cortical plate of the immature cerebral cortex and bone marrow hemopoietic matrix, and ... Fetuin-A belongs to the fetuin class of plasma binding proteins and is more abundant in fetal than adult blood. Alpha2-HS ... alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG, Alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid Glycoprotein) also known as fetuin-A is a protein that in humans is ...
Elovson, J.; Vagelos, P. R. (July 1968). "Acyl carrier protein. X. Acyl carrier protein synthetase". J. Biol. Chem. 243 (13): ... Acyl carrier proteins (ACP) (such as ACP synthase and ACP degradation) are also used to produce 4′-phosphopantetheine. This ... Strickland, K. C.; Hoeferlin, L. A.; Oleinik, N. V.; Krupenko, N. I.; Krupenko, S. A. (January 2010). "Acyl carrier protein- ... is also the source of the phosphopantetheine group that is added as a prosthetic group to proteins such as acyl carrier protein ...
Fatty acid synthase Pantothenic acid Elovson J, Vagelos PR (July 1968). "Acyl carrier protein. X. Acyl carrier protein ... the peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP), as well as aryl carrier proteins (ArCP) of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). It is ... is a prosthetic group of several acyl carrier proteins including the acyl carrier proteins (ACP) of fatty acid synthases, ACPs ... Subsequent to the expression of the apo acyl carrier protein, 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety is attached to a serine residue. The ...
The cargo carrier is transported to the TGN by motor proteins such as dynein. Tethering of the cargo carrier to the recipient ... Once the cargo carriers are matured, the carrier scission is then catalyzed by dynamin-II or EHD1,[21] together with the ... Retromer is a complex of proteins that has been shown to be important in recycling transmembrane receptors from endosomes to ... However, it is clear that there are other complexes and proteins that act in this retrieval process. So far it is not clear ...
This precursor protein also includes the oxytocin carrier protein neurophysin I.[21] The inactive precursor protein is ... The oxytocin peptide is synthesized as an inactive precursor protein from the OXT gene.[18][19][20] ... It belongs to the rhodopsin-type (class I) group of G-protein-coupled receptors.[citation needed] ... The oxytocin receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor that requires magnesium and cholesterol. ...
Biotin carboxylase (BC) activity, biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyl transferase (CT) activity are each ... This protein may use the morpheein model of allosteric regulation.[20] Clinical implications[edit]. At the juncture of lipid ... Protein kinase A also has the ability to phosphorylate ACC, with a much greater ability to phosphorylate ACC2 than ACC1. ... When insulin binds to its receptors on the cellular membrane, it activates a phosphatase enzyme called protein phosphatase 2A ( ...
... specific transmembrane carrier proteins are required. These proteins have receptors that bind to specific molecules (e.g., ... Carrier Proteins and Active Membrane Transport. Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th ... Phosphorylation of the carrier protein and the binding of a hydrogen ion induce a conformational (shape) change that drives the ... Specialized transmembrane proteins recognize the substance and allow it to move across the membrane when it otherwise would not ...
Seedorf U, Ellinghaus P, Roch Nofer J (Jun 2000). "Sterol carrier protein-2". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular ... The encoded protein catalyzes the last step of the mitochondrial fatty acid beta oxidation spiral. Unlike most mitochondrial ... The ACAA2 gene encodes a 41.9 kDa protein that is composed of 397 amino acids and contains 88 observed peptides. ... "3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, mitochondrial". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Archived from the original on ...
Seedorf U, Ellinghaus P, Roch Nofer J (2000). "Sterol carrier protein-2". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1486 (1): 45-54. doi:10.1016/ ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... The protein encoded by this gene is the first enzyme of the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway, which catalyzes the desaturation ...
... s are small molecules that elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein; the carrier ... Carter, John (1 January 1996). "Conjugation of Peptides to Carrier Proteins via Glutaraldehyde". The Protein Protocols Handbook ... In general, these carrier proteins should be immmunogenic and contain enough amino acid residues in the reactive side chains to ... The most common carriers include serum globulin, albumins, ovalbumin and many others. Although proteins are mostly employed for ...
Carrier ionophores may be proteins or other molecules. Channel formers that introduce a hydrophilic pore into the membrane, ... Synthetic ion carriers have also been prepared. Ionophores selective for cations and anions have found many applications in ... An ionophore (from Greek ion and -phore, "ion carrier") is a chemical species that reversibly binds ions. Many ionophores are ... Channel forming ionophores are usually large proteins. This type of ionophores can maintain their ability to transfer ions at ...
The domains outlined in red represent carrier proteins. The following abbreviations correspond to the figure below: GNAT, GCN5- ... This ten module PsyD protein is, to date, the protein with the highest reported number of PKS modules. Large portions of the ...
... s are carrier proteins which bind cobalamin (B12). Transcobalamin I (TCN1), also known as haptocorrin, R-factor, ... and R-protein, is a glycoprotein produced by the salivary glands of the mouth. It primarily serves to protect cobalamin ( ... a vitamin B12 transport protein, by stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages". Biomédicine. 27 (6): 213-4. PMID 907799. ...
Integral membrane proteins are permanently attached to the cell membrane. The family includes the solute carrier (SLC) proteins ... Structural biology of human proteins - The SGC has so far contributed over 2000 protein structures of human proteins of ... These families include epigenetic signaling, solute transport, protein proteostasis, and protein phosphorylation. The protein ... To be counted toward these goals, the proteins had to derive from a pre-defined list and the protein structures were required ...
Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MCAT gene. The ... Malonyltransferase and acyl carrier protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (41): 40067-74. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... The human Malonyl CoA-acel carrier protein transacylase in human mitochondria associates with respiratory complex one, such ... where it catalyzes the transfer of a malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein. The encoded ...
Atromentin and leucomelone possess antibacterial activity, inhibiting the enzyme enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, ( ... S. pneumoniae resides asymptomatically in healthy carriers typically colonizing the respiratory tract, sinuses, and nasal ... and Maclyn McCarty demonstrated that the transforming factor in Griffith's experiment was not protein, as was widely believed ... pneumoniae is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress and increased expression of the RecA protein, a key ...
... which code for proteins with antiviral properties.[51] EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by ... Fruit bats are believed to be the normal carrier in nature, able to spread the virus without being affected by it.[1] Other ... which are then translated into structural and nonstructural proteins. The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, ... EBOV replication overwhelms protein synthesis of infected cells and the host immune defences. The GP forms a trimeric complex, ...
The exact process by which Candida species switch from acting as normal oral commensals (saprophytic) state in the carrier to ... This adhesion involves adhesins (e.g., hyphal wall protein 1), and extracellular polymeric materials (e.g., mannoprotein). ... With more sensitive detection techniques, this figure is reported to rise to 90%. This candidal carrier state is not considered ...
MeSH Enoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein)+reductase+(NADPH,+A-specific). *п. *р. *у ... Enoil-(acil-nosilac-protein) reduktaza (NADPH, A-specifična) (EC, acil-ACP dehidrogenaza, enoil-(acil nosilac protein ... acil-[acil-nosilac protein] + NADP+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. trans-2,3-dehidroacil-[acil-nosilac protein] + ... acil-nosilac-protein) reduktaza (NADPH2, A-specifična), acil-(acil-nosilac-protein):NADP+ oksidoreduktaza (A-specifična)) je ...
A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ... The winter tick which has affected moose populations in the 21st century is not a carrier of Lyme.[281] ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... A recombinant vaccine against Lyme disease, based on the outer surface protein A (ospA) of B. burgdorferi, was developed by ...
The adoption of joules as units of energy, FAO/WHO Ad Hoc Committee of Experts on Energy and Protein, 1971. A report on the ...
Recent experiments studying the growth of protein crystals have led to a technique using powerful magnets to allow growth in ... This formula takes into account the spin degeneracy of the carriers (spin ½ electrons). ... semiconductors the ratio between Landau and Pauli susceptibilities may change due to the effective mass of the charge carriers ...
The Function of Heat-Shock Proteins in Stress Tolerance: Degradation and Reactivation of Damaged Proteins. Annual Review of ... 1990年:George F. Carrier. *斯蒂芬·科尔·克莱尼 ...
Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase/Enoyl ACP reductase. *7-Dehydrocholesterol reductase. *Biliverdin reductase ...
TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ... Carriers with shorter TATA box sequences may produce lower levels of PG2 serum. ... "TATA-binding protein recognition and bending of a consensus promoter are protein species dependent". Biochemistry. 47 (27): ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription.[6] ...
... thir hormones maun bond tae carrier plasma glycoproteins (e.g., thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)) tae form ligand-protein ... Hormones hae diverse chemical structurs, mainly o 3 clesses: eicosanoids, steroids, an amino acid/protein derivatives (amines, ... Upon secretion, certaint hormones, includin protein hormones an catecholamines, are watter-soluble an are sicweys readily ... peptides, an proteins). The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine seegnalin system. The term hormone is whiles ...
This protein is associated with the primary cilia of the retinal pigment epithelial cells, fibroblasts and kidney tubular cells ... while women are carriers of the disease; it has an estimated prevalence of 1 in 500,000 people. Boys with Lowe syndrome are ...
... that transfers the amino acid isoleucine to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosome site of protein synthesis during ...
His mother is often a carrier; i.e., she has one abnormal and one normal IDS gene, and she passes along the abnormal gene to ... This matrix is made up of a variety of sugars and proteins and helps to form the architectural framework of the body. The ... In this second case, the mother is not a carrier and the risk of a spontaneous mutation occurring again in the future sibling ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators • GnRH and gonadotropins ... Gestational carrier. *In vitro maturation. *Intracytoplasmic sperm injection. *Oocyte selection. *Ovarian hyperstimulation ...
The mutations in the protein tend to cause the production of a shortened protein. Its real function is unclear, but it seems to ... one or several of whom was a carrier of the mutation. The Afrikaner, French Canadians, Lebanese Christians, and Finns have high ... About 1 in 300 to 500 people have mutations in the LDLR gene that encodes the LDL receptor protein, which normally removes LDL ... The mutation is located on a part of the protein that normally binds with the LDL receptor, and binding is reduced as a result ...
13,0 13,1 Bettelli E, Carrier Y, Gao W, Korn T, Strom TB, Oukka M, Weiner HL, Kuchroo VK (2006). "Reciprocal developmental ... IL-17(A) je protein sa 155-aminokiselina. On je disulfidno-vezan, homodimerni, sekretivni glikoprotein sa molekulskom masom od ...
... is brought into the mitochondria through carrier proteins, and the absence of these carriers prevents the drug from ... Distribution: When injected, pentamidine binds to tissues and proteins in the plasma. It accumulates in the kidney, liver, ... phospholipid and protein synthesis.[9][19] Pentamidine binds to adenine-thymine-rich regions of the Trypanosoma parasite DNA, ...
They also act as vitamin carriers. Food proteins[edit]. Main article: Protein (nutrient) ... Nuts, grains and legumes provide vegetable sources of protein, and protein combining of vegetable sources is used to achieve ... Proteins compose over 50% of the dry weight of an average living cell[citation needed][clarification needed] and are very ... Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Protein and Amino Acids, page 685, from ...
... fleas store muscle energy in a pad of the elastic protein named resilin before releasing it rapidly (like a human using a bow ... Carriers of plagueEdit. The Great Plague of London, in 1665, killed up to 100,000 people. ... "Adult Cat Flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Excretion of Host Blood Proteins in Relation to Larval Nutrition" (PDF). Journal of ...
G protein. A family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are implicated in transmitting signals from a ... electron carrier. Any of various molecules that are capable of accepting one or two electrons from one molecule and donating ... A biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids, bound to the proteins, which allow fats to move through the ... protein. A polypeptide chain of amino acids. It is a body-building nutrient.. protist. psychobiology. Also called behavioral ...
In order to induce an immune response, it needs to be attached to a large carrier molecule such as a protein (a complex of ... Immunoglobulin-binding protein - Proteins such as protein A, protein G, and protein L that are capable of binding to antibodies ... An autoantigen is usually a normal protein or protein complex (and sometimes DNA or RNA) that is recognized by the immune ... Lipids and nucleic acids are antigenic only when combined with proteins and polysaccharides.[citation needed] Non-microbial non ...
C. Zhi, W. Meng, T. Yamazaki, Y. Bando, C. TANG, D. Golberg, N. Hanagata : «BN nanospheres as CpG ODN carriers for activation ... C. Zhi, Y. Bando, C. Tang and D. Golberg : «Immobilization of Proteins on Boron Nitride Nanotubes» J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127[49] ( ... X. Li, D. Golberg : «Boron nitride nanotubes as drug carriers» Boron Nitride Nanotubes in Nanomedicine 1st Edition (2016) 79-94 ... Efficient disentanglement of boron nitride nanotubes using water-soluble polysaccharides for protein immobilization» RSC ...
All retroviral IN proteins contain three canonical domains, connected by flexible linkers: an N-terminal HH-CC zinc-binding ... Integration is a point of no return for the cell, which becomes a permanent carrier of the viral genome (provirus). Integration ... Human chromatin-associated protein LEDGF, which tightly binds HIV IN and directs HIV PIC towards highly expressed genes for ... This protein may use the morpheein model of allosteric regulation. Site-specific recombinase technology Masuda, Takao (2011-01- ...
ATP-dependent protein binding. • metal ion binding. • tubulin binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • copper ... the protective effects of variant V carriers have been found exclusively in Caucasians. The decreased risk in V allele carriers ... PRNP (prion protein) is the human gene encoding for the major prion protein PrP (proetase-resistant-protein, Pr for prion, and ... negative regulation of protein processing. • protein destabilization. • activation of protein kinase activity. • calcium- ...
Protein synthesis RNAs[change , change source]. Messenger RNA[change , change source]. The structure of a mature eukaryotic ... RNA is the carrier of genetic information in certain viruses, especially the retroviruses like the HIV virus. This is the only ... Genes code for proteins in bits called exons. The bits can be joined together in different ways to make different mRNAs. Thus, ... from one gene many proteins can be made. This is the process of alternative splicing. Any unwanted versions of the protein get ...
... protein transporters have been described that act as carriers to solubilize and transport the endocannabinoids through the ... These include the heat shock proteins (Hsp70s) and fatty acid binding proteins for anandamide (FABPs).[6][7] FABPs such as ... As reviewed in 2016; "Many of the AMT (EMT) proposals have fallen by the wayside." [18] To date a transmembrane protein ... The endocannabinoid transporters (eCBTs) are transport proteins for the endocannabinoids. Most neurotransmitters are water- ...
... anchored proteins: GPI-anchored proteins in liposomes and cells show similar behavior". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... A major event in the budding of vesicles, such as transport carriers from the Golgi, is the creation and subsequent narrowing ... The roles of lysoPA, PA, and DAG in promoting membrane curvature do not preclude a role in recruiting proteins to the membrane ... PA acts as a signaling lipid, recruiting cytosolic proteins to appropriate membranes (e.g., sphingosine kinase 1[8]). ...
IgE that can specifically recognise an allergen (typically this is a protein, such as dust mite Der p 1, cat Fel d 1, grass or ... Presence of a unique immunoglobulin as a carrier of reaginic activity". J. Immunol. 97 (1): 75-85. PMID 4162440.. ...
"Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein regulates the expression of aldose reductase and protein kinase C δ in a mouse ... electron carrier activity. • oxidoreductase activity. • glyceraldehyde oxidoreductase activity. • alditol:NADP+ 1- ... Protein[edit]. AKR1B1 consists of 316 amino acid residues and weighs 35853Da. It does not possess the traditional dinucleotide ... stress-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. • cellular response to peptide. • daunorubicin metabolic process. • ...
These antigens are poor immunogens unless conjugated to proteins.. The role of the carrier protein is to enhance immunogenicity ... and Neisseria outer membrane protein. Access to clinically-proven, safe, and efficacious carrier proteins is critical for ... The number of carrier proteins used in licensed vaccines is relatively limited and includes tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, ... Carrier proteins both increase the magnitude of the immune response as well as engender B-cell "memory." ...
Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (or ENR) (EC, is a key enzyme of the type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS) system.[1 ... acyl-carrier protein) reductase from Plasmodium falciparum". The Biochemical Journal. 381 (Pt 3): 735-41. doi:10.1042/ ... "Identification and characterization of inhibitors of bacterial enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase". Antimicrobial Agents and ... Retrieved from "" ...
as the carrier for surface proteins of HIV. A trial of these particles for. potential use in immune therapy is in progress. ... the coat protein from the virus on the carrier and plans to test it in rabbit. soon. ... To test the ceramic carriers, the researchers attached to them a common. protein from the blood transferrin. They then examined ... an electron microscope after labelling the coated carriers with a gold-bound. antibody. The antibodies recognised the protein, ...
... acyl-carrier-protein] reductase, beta-hydroxyacyl-[acylcarrier-protein] dehydrase, and enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase ... Other names in common use include beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein](ACP) reductase, beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein (ACP ... 3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NADP+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + ... beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl ACP reductase, NADPH- ...
Protein Sci. 1993 Mar;2(3):348-56. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support ... S-peptide has distinct advantages over existing carriers in fusion proteins in that it combines a small size (, or = 15 ... Recombinant DNA technology was used to produce a fusion protein having three parts: carrier, spacer, and target. The two ... Ribonuclease S-peptide as a carrier in fusion proteins.. Kim JS1, Raines RT. ...
Protein expression data [Model Organism Protein Expres...] Protein expression data. Model Organism Protein Expression Database ... This gene encodes a member of the P(I/L)W subfamily of mitochondrial carrier family transport proteins. The encoded protein ... mitochondrial folate transporter/carrier [Homo sapiens]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_110407.2. Identical Proteins FASTA ... mitochondrial folate transporter/carrier [Homo sapiens] mitochondrial folate transporter/carrier [Homo sapiens]. gi,21314739, ...
... is a acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] (CHEBI:16018) ... acyl-carrier-protein] (CHEBI:84648). (R)-3-Hydroxyhexanoyl-[acp] (CHEBI:326) is a (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] ( ... CHEBI:84648 - (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... An acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] where the acyl group is substituted at the pro-3R position by a hydroxy group.. ...
Proteins are carriers and players in vast majority of these processes. Analysis of their function, structure and interaction ... Proteini - nosilci življenja / Proteins, life carriers This video was recorded at Mednarodni posvet Biološka znanost in družba ...
The carrier according to the invention is prepared from a sulfochlorinated macroporous crosslinked styrene resin by reacting ... thioisocyanate or aldehyde groups as protein-binding groups and may or may not contain sulfonic acid groups--which may also be ... which in turn fix a biologically active protein by covalent bonds. ... used as a carrier for covalently binding proteins, which resin contains isocyanate, ...
... Arpita I. Mehta,1,2 Sally Ross,2,3 Mark S. Lowenthal,2 Vincent Fusaro ... This study examined the proportion of LMM biomarkers, which are bound to circulating carrier proteins. Mass spectroscopic ... Several insights emerged: a) Accumulation of LMM biomarkers on circulating carrier proteins greatly amplifies the total serum/ ... These findings shift the focus of biomarker detection to the carrier protein and its biomarker content. ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ...
Compare solute carrier family 22 member 1 Proteins from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations ... solute carrier family 22 member 1 Proteins. Recombinant proteins for solute carrier family 22 member 1 are available from ... Your search returned 6 Proteins solute carrier family 22 member 1 Recombinant Proteins across 3 suppliers. ... This protein is encoded by the gene SLC22A1. Other names also exist, such as: solute carrier family 22 member 1, organic cation ...
Compare solute carrier family 18 member B1 Proteins from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... solute carrier family 18 member B1 Proteins. Recombinant proteins for solute carrier family 18 member B1 are available from ... Your search returned 4 Proteins solute carrier family 18 member B1 Recombinant Proteins across 2 suppliers. ... In humans, this protein has a Uniprot ID of Q6NT16. This protein is 456 amino acids in length and 48.9 kilodaltons in mass. ...
Toxoplasma gondii apicoplast-targeted acyl carrier protein.. Lunin, V.V., Wernimont, A., Lew, J., Qiu, W., Lin, L., Hassanali, ... Protein Workshop , Ligand Explorer. Global Symmetry: Asymmetric - C1 Global Stoichiometry: Monomer - A1 Find Similar Assemblies ...
A study reports that low blood protein levels are found to be associated with reduced insulin resistance and thus risk of ... A protein in blood called retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), when reduced by the effect of modified diet and good exercise ... Kahns group of researchers found RBP4, a protein that transports vitamin A in the blood may be a cause for insulin resistance ... A study reports that low blood protein levels are found to be associated with reduced insulin resistance and thus risk of ...
View protein in InterPro. IPR002113 Aden_trnslctor. IPR002067 Mit_carrier. IPR018108 Mitochondrial_sb/sol_carrier. IPR023395 Mt ... View protein in InterPro. IPR002113 Aden_trnslctor. IPR002067 Mit_carrier. IPR018108 Mitochondrial_sb/sol_carrier. IPR023395 Mt ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... ATP/ADP carrier proteinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> , ...
Retrieved from "" ...
Browse our Sterol carrier protein 2 Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Sterol carrier protein 2 Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ... SCP-CHI protein, SCP-X protein, SCPX protein, sterol carrier protein 2EC protein, Sterol carrier protein X protein ... Sterol carrier protein 2 Proteins. We offer Sterol carrier protein 2 Peptides and Sterol carrier protein 2 Proteins for use in ...
4-Phosphopantetheine is a prosthetic group of several acyl carrier proteins including the acyl carrier proteins (ACP) of fatty ... the peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP), as well as aryl carrier proteins (ArCP) of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). Cronan ... The acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a cofactor of both fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis machinery. It is one of the most ... Acyl Carrier Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
A homologous protein, which can be rendered ineffective by the antibody to pure chicken riboflavin carrier protein, has been ... Riboflavin carrier proteins (RFCPs) together with human serum albumin transport flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in the blood ... Studies from India have identified a riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) present in bird (e.g., chicken) eggs, which is considered ... Karande, Anjali A.; Sridhar, Lakshmi; Gopinath, K. S.; Adiga, P. Radhakantha (2001). "Riboflavin carrier protein: A serum and ...
The formulation comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable admixture of an osteogenic protein; and formulations comprising oste ... An injectable formulation is disclosed for delivery of osteogenic proteins. ... Recombinant proteins are preferred over naturally occurring isolated proteins. The amount of osteogenic protein useful herein ... INJECTABLE CARRIER FORMULATIONS OF HYALURONIC ACID DERIVATIVES FOR DELIVERY OF OSTEOGENIC PROTEINS ...
Purification and characterization of β-ketacyl-facyl-carrier-protein] reductase, β-hydroxyacyl-[acylcarrier-protein] dehydrase ... Acyl Carrier Protein Fatty Acid Synthetase Lower Specific Activity Incorporated Label Brassica CAMPESTRIS These keywords were ... Barley chloroplasts contain two acyl carrier proteins coded for by different genes. Carlsberg.Res.Commun., 49: 483-492.CrossRef ... Malonyl-CoA: acyl carrier protein transacylase from spinach. Fed.Proc., 41: 1192.Google Scholar ...
Structural modification of acyl carrier protein by butyryl group.. Wu, B.N., Zhang, Y.M., Rock, C.O., Zheng, J.J.. (2009) ... Acyl carrier protein (ACP) shuttles the acyl intermediates between individual pathway enzymes. In this study, we determined the ... Acyl carrier protein (ACP) shuttles the acyl intermediates between individual pathway enzymes. In this study, we determined the ... Structural modification of acyl carrier protein by butyryl group. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2K92/pdb ...
ubiquitin carrier proteins: E2-C is cyclin-selective ... ubiquitin carrier proteins. Subscribe to New Research on ... Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: 2*Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes: 45*ubiquitin carrier proteins: 9 ... induces protein catabolism in skeletal muscle by increasing expression of proteasome subunits and the ubiquitin carrier protein ... induces protein catabolism in skeletal muscle by increasing expression of proteasome subunits and the ubiquitin carrier protein ...
Here, we present a new theory to describe ESI of native-state proteins and predict the number of excess charges on proteins in ... is essential to protein mass spectrometry, the underlying mechanism of multiple charging has not been explicated. ... Charge carrier field emission determines the number of charges on native state proteins in electrospray ionization J Am Chem ... Here, we present a new theory to describe ESI of native-state proteins and predict the number of excess charges on proteins in ...
ubiquitin carrier protein;. APC,. anaphase promoting complex;. C→S mutant,. cysteine → serine mutant. ... Ubiquitin is then transferred to one of several members of a family of E2 or ubiquitin carrier proteins (UBCs). Transfer of ... Dominant-negative cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein E2-C/UbcH10 blocks cells in metaphase. Fiona M. Townsley, ... In clam eggs, this process is catalyzed by a cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein, E2-C, and the cyclosome/anaphase ...
KLH serving as protein carrier in several vaccines, the homing profile of KLH-specific response may be applicable to the cancer ... Humoral Immune Response to Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin, the Protein Carrier in Cancer Vaccines. A. Kantele,1,2,3 M. P. Häkkinen, ... Keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) appears to be a promising protein carrier for tumor antigens in numerous cancer vaccine ...
K(1) = [A-carrier out]/[A out][carrier out]. K(2) = [A-carrier in]/[A-carrier out]. K(3) = [A in][carrier in]/[A-carrier in]. ... 1: A out + carrier out < A-carrier out 2: A-carrier out < A-carrier in 3: A-carrier in < A in + carrier in Each of ... 4: carrier in < carrier out; K(4)=[carrier out]/[carrier in] Without A bound, the "carrier out" conformation is probably ... Re: How can protein carriers change shape in facilitated diffusion with no ATP Date: Wed Nov 11 09:24:32 2009. Posted By: Eli ...
Carrier proteins explanation free. What is Carrier proteins? Meaning of Carrier proteins medical term. What does Carrier ... Looking for online definition of Carrier proteins in the Medical Dictionary? ... carrier protein. (redirected from Carrier proteins). Also found in: Encyclopedia. carrier protein. a multiunit transmembrane ... See also: protein. carrier protein. membrane proteins that have a high affinity for particular solutes, e.g. glucose, and which ...
The carrier proteins are use useful as components of vaccines that can elicit a T-cell dependent immune response. These ... The invention relates to polyepitope carrier proteins that comprise at least five CD4+ T cell epitopes, for conjugation to ... 5. The carrier protein according to claim 1, wherein the carrier protein is in an oligomeric form.. 6. The carrier protein ... 2. The carrier protein according to claim 1, that further comprises an hsp70CD4+ T cell epitope.. 3. The carrier protein ...
  • The number of carrier proteins used in licensed vaccines is relatively limited and includes tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, CRM 197 (a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin), Haemophilus influenzae protein D, and Neisseria outer membrane protein. (
  • 2. A membrane protein for facilitated diffusion of a specific substance into a cell. (
  • In recent years, progress in handling detergents for the solubilization and isolation of integral membrane protein has been outstanding. (
  • 1974). Our objective was to isolate the membrane protein not only in a pure but also in the native state. (
  • One binding partner we identified was SCAMP2, a member of the secretory carrier membrane protein (SCAMP) gene family. (
  • One possible application of the new carrier could be to carry an antigen from the giant Epstein-Barr virus and stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against it. (
  • KLH serving as protein carrier in several vaccines, the homing profile of KLH-specific response may be applicable to the cancer antigen parts in the same vaccines. (
  • Linking the antigens to immunogenic carrier proteins or making large, cross- linked peptide constructs can increase the immunogenicity of a synthetic antigen. (
  • Self amd Foreign 60-Kilodalton Heat Shock Protein T Cell Epitope Peptides Serve As Immunogenic Carriers for a T Cell-Independent Sugar Antigen", J. Immunol. (
  • These surface antigens may serve as carrier proteins and also as a common antigen for vaccine of broad specificity. (
  • Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (or ENR ) ( EC ), is a key enzyme of the type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS) system. (
  • Purification and characterization of β-ketacyl-facyl-carrier-protein] reductase, β-hydroxyacyl-[acylcarrier-protein] dehydrase, and enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase from Spinacea oleracea leaves. (
  • We report that this natural diphenyl ether inhibits Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) enoyl (acyl carrier protein) reductase (ENR). (
  • We offer Sterol carrier protein 2 Peptides and Sterol carrier protein 2 Proteins for use in common research applications: ELISA, Protein Array, Western Blot. (
  • Each Sterol carrier protein 2 Peptide and Sterol carrier protein 2 Protein is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (
  • Our Sterol carrier protein 2 Peptides and Sterol carrier protein 2 Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (
  • Choose from our Sterol carrier protein 2 Peptides and Proteins. (
  • Synthetic peptide within Human Sterol carrier protein 2 aa 1-100 (N terminal). (
  • also known as sterol carrier protein 2 deficiency. (
  • Three mammalian SCAMPs (secretory carrier membrane proteins) are highly related products of distinct genes having similar subcellular distributions. (
  • Secretory carrier membrane proteins interact and regulate trafficking of the organellar (Na+,K+)/H+ exchanger NHE7. (
  • Secretory Carrier Membrane Proteins (SCAMPs) are a group of tetraspanning integral membrane proteins evolutionarily conserved from insects to mammals and plants. (
  • Many of the individual component enzymes have been partially purified including malonyl-CoAracyl carrier protein (ACP) transacylase (4), β-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (5, 6), (β-hydroxylacyl-ACP dehydrase (6), enoyl ACP reductase (5, 6) and acetyl-CoA: ACP transacylase (ATA) (1). (
  • β-Ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) reductase (FabG) catalyzes the key reductive reaction in the elongation cycle of fatty acid synthesis (FAS), which is a vital metabolic pathway in bacteria and a promising target for new antibiotic development. (
  • An empirical relationship between the experimental inhibitory activities of triclosan derivatives and its computationally predicted Plasmodium falciparum enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (PfENR) dock poses was developed to model activities of known antimalarials. (
  • Partial purification and characterization of two forms of malonyl-coenzyme A-acyl carrier protein transacylase from soybean leaf tissue. (
  • Isolation of varied neuron-enriched membrane-bound transporters as SCAMP-binding proteins and characterization of SCAMPs' role as targeting regulators have provided additional insights. (
  • Fatty acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: cloning and characterization of the fabAB operon encoding beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase (FabA) and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I (FabB). (
  • Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Fatty Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Thioesterase Gene (BnFatB) in Brassica napus L. (
  • Characterization of a recombinant pneumolysin and its use as a protein carrier for pneumococcal type 18C conjugate vaccines. (
  • This review discusses the method of preparation and characterization of liposome based protein peptide delivery for the treatment of cancer. (
  • The crystal structure of diphtheria toxin (DT) reveals that the molecule consists of three domains: a catalytic domain (fragment A), a transmembrane domain, and a receptor-binding domain (both in fragment B). Mild trypsinization and reduction of the native molecule in vitro results in two fragments, A and B. Fragment A is a NAD+ binding enzyme that inhibits protein synthesis. (
  • The short answer is that the energy needed to change the conformation of the carrier protein is provided by the concentration gradient of the molecule being transported. (
  • In this mindset, you have a series of equilibria, each with their own constants, that govern the interaction between the protein carrier and the molecule(s) being transported. (
  • a multiunit transmembrane protein that possesses specific binding sites of a particular molecule and transports that substance across the cell membrane. (
  • Synthetic Peptide Representing a T-Cell Epitope of CRM197 Substitutes as Carrier Molecule in a Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (HIB) Conjugate Vaccine", Advances in Exper. (
  • Successful production of antibodies specific to small antigens (i.e., peptides or drug compounds) requires that these haptens be covalently conjugated to a larger, more complex molecule (usually a protein) to make them immunogenic. (
  • In facilitated diffusion, the carrier protein facilitate the molecule by changing its shape and move the molecule across the membrane. (
  • If the energy barrier between protein conformations is low, a protein can randomly pick up cargo on one side of the membrane and (THWACK with a solvent molecule) change conformation to release the cargo on the other side. (
  • We offer keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and other carrier proteins to conjugate peptides and haptens through sulfhydryl, amine or carboxyl groups to elicit the production of specific antibodies against almost any molecule. (
  • The number of binding sites on the protein molecule was ~1. (
  • 7 8 Activated protein C resistance (APCR) is caused by the presence of a mutant factor V molecule (factor V:Q 506 ) in which a single point mutation leads to a substitution of Arg506 by Gln in 1 of the APC cleavage sites. (
  • The report provides comprehensive information on the Solute Carrier Family 22 Member 12 (Organic Anion Transporter 4 Like Protein or Renal Specific Transporter or RST or Urate Anion Exchanger 1 or SLC22A12), targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (
  • In the case of NADH, this molecule is used by catabolic pathways as an electron carrier for the ultimate production of ATP. (
  • Ubiquitin is then transferred to one of several members of a family of E2 or ubiquitin carrier proteins (UBCs). (
  • This gene encodes a member of the P(I/L)W subfamily of mitochondrial carrier family transport proteins. (
  • This protein is encoded by the gene SLC22A1. (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (
  • The choices of species and reviewed settings are considered only if you query protein names, protein description or gene names. (
  • p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking at variations or changes in a gene product such as mutations or abnormal levels and includes techniques such as knockouts, overexpression, anti-sense experiments and use of specific protein inhibitors. (
  • This study demonstrated that the BnFatB gene had similar function as the FatB enzyme, preferentially releasing saturated fatty acid from the acyl carrier protein. (
  • This study describes Th lymphocyte reactivity in EIAV carrier horses to two proteins, p26 and p15, encoded by the relatively conserved EIAV gag gene. (
  • By whole genome sequencing, we identified a causal gene in the mutant as SUPPRESSOR OF SALICYLIC ACID INSENSITIVITY2 (SSI2), which encodes stearoyl‐acyl carrier protein desaturase that converts stearic acids to oleic acids in the chloroplasts. (
  • 4'- Phosphopantetheine is an essential prosthetic group of several acyl carrier proteins involved in pathways of primary and secondary metabolism including the acyl carrier proteins (ACP) of fatty acid synthases, ACP of polyketide synthases, and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP) and aryl carrier proteins (ArCP) of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). (
  • The ACP's are structural and mechanistically related to the peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP) from nonribosomal peptide synthases. (
  • 4'-Phosphopantetheine is a prosthetic group of several acyl carrier proteins including the acyl carrier proteins (ACP) of fatty acid synthases, ACPs of polyketide synthases, the peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP), as well as aryl carrier proteins (ArCP) of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). (
  • The acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase B1 from Arabidopsis (AtFATB1) was previously shown to exhibit in vitro hydrolytic activity for long chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins (P. Dörmann, T.A. Voelker, J.B. Ohlrogge [1995] Arch Biochem Biophys 316: 612-618). (
  • Plant fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase (FAT) is a major enzyme regulating the amount and composition of fatty acids in lipids. (
  • Within the rapidly growing vaccine space, conjugate vaccines-polysaccharide antigens covalently linked to carrier proteins-have been shown to be effective against several bacterial pathogens. (
  • Conjugate vaccines use carrier proteins to increase the immunogenicity of antigens (e.g., peptides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides) and other haptens. (
  • These antigens are poor immunogens unless conjugated to proteins. (
  • Keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) appears to be a promising protein carrier for tumor antigens in numerous cancer vaccine candidates. (
  • Imject Blue Carrier Protein is a highly soluble, mollusk-derived hemocyanin that enable simple preparation of effective immunogens with amine- or carboxyl-peptide antigens. (
  • Blue Carrier Protein is a purified preparation of Concholepas concholepas hemocyanin (CCH) that confers high immunogenicity to conjugated antigens for injection and immunization in antibody production procedures. (
  • Purified and activated forms of bovine serum albumin (BSA), a convenient, highly soluble protein for use as a carrier in preparing immunogens for antibody production from haptens and other non-immunogenic antigens. (
  • Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest. (
  • A series of comparability studies were performed, comparing both the structure and function of P. fluorescens recombinant CRM 197 to the protein produced in the native organism, C. diphtheriae . (
  • Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases play an essential role in chain termination during de novo fatty acid synthesis and in the channeling of carbon flux between the two lipid biosynthesis pathways in plants. (
  • Peptide mapping at 97.4% sequence coverage shows high similarity between the two proteins. (
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • Although CSPs share no sequence similarity with OBPs, these two groups of carrier proteins are characterized structurally by a hydrophilic surface and a hydrophobic core, respectively, to make them soluble in the sensillar lymph and to enable them to bind and carry olfactory ligands. (
  • The sequence of ENR is highly conserved within higher plants and a homology model of Arabidopsis ENR was derived from the crystal structure of the protein from Brassica napus . (
  • A cDNA encoding a protein having a 53% amino acid sequence homology in the PDGF-like region of VEGF has been isolated from a human placental cDNA library. (
  • For the purposes of the invention, proteins are biologically active substances, preferably enzymes. (
  • ATA has the lowest specific activity in comparison with the other enzymes in the system and has been reported as catalyzing the rate-limiting step in the plant fatty acid synthetase (FAS) system: the thioester transfer reaction between acetyl-CoA and acyl carrier protein to form acetyl-ACP. (
  • Acyl carrier protein (ACP) shuttles the acyl intermediates between individual pathway enzymes. (
  • Barley chloroplasts contain two acyl carrier proteins coded for by different genes. (
  • The Pseudomonas aeruginosa fabA and fabB genes, encoding beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I, respectively, were cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. (
  • The large protein exhibits most of the same immunogenic properties as the popular carrier protein, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). (
  • Purified and activated forms of Blue Carrier™ Protein, a highly immunogenic and soluble hemocyanin carrier protein for conjugation to peptides and other haptens to elicit a strong immune response and obtain high-yield antibody production. (
  • The family of P II signal transduction proteins (members GlnB, GlnK, NifI) plays key roles in various cellular processes related to nitrogen metabolism at different functional levels. (
  • P II proteins are small homotrimeric signal transduction proteins with binding sites for ATP/ADP and 2-OG at the three intersubunit-clefts and large flexible T-loops emanating from these sites, with the T-loop conformation reflecting the ligand binding status ( Forchhammer and Lüddecke, 2016 ). (
  • Ribonuclease S-peptide as a carrier in fusion proteins. (
  • S-peptide (residues 1-20) and S-protein (residues 21-124) are the enzymatically inactive products of the limited digestion of ribonuclease A by subtilisin. (
  • S-peptide binds S-protein with high affinity to form ribonuclease S, which has full enzymatic activity. (
  • The two carriers used were the first 15 residues of S-peptide (S15) and a mutant S15 in which Asp 14 had been changed to Asn (D14N S15). (
  • The interaction between the S-peptide portion of the fusion protein and immobilized S-protein allowed for affinity purification of the fusion protein under denaturing (S15 as carrier) or nondenaturing (D14N S15 as carrier) conditions. (
  • Nano-liposomes are the newly developed delivery systems for cancer therapy that are finding a position particularly suitable as peptide and protein carriers. (
  • The overall pharmacological properties of commonly used protein and peptide in cancer therapy can be improved by the incorporation of protein and peptide into the nano-liposome. (
  • This review also explores latest work intended for targeted treatment of cancer by nano-liposomal protein and peptide delivery system. (
  • This type of delivery is targeting protein and peptide to tumor site by avoiding the reticuloendothelial system. (
  • Methods of nano-liposome delivery containing protein and peptide are also highlighted. (
  • Tapan Kumar Giri, Ayan Giri, Tapan Kumar Barman and Subhasis Maity, "Nanoliposome is a Promising Carrier of Protein and Peptide Biomolecule for the Treatment of Cancer", Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2016) 16: 816. (
  • Tim9p, an essential partner subunit of Tim10p for the import of mitochondrial carrier proteins. (
  • The TIM complexes mediating import of mitochondrial carrier proteins. (
  • Abstract -Deficiencies of antithrombin (AT), protein C (PC) or protein S (PS), and activated protein C resistance (APCR) are very well-established coagulation defects predisposing to venous thromboembolism (VTE). (
  • The antibodies recognised the protein, which suggest that its shape had not changed. (
  • Because of their large size and molecular complexity, KLH and CCH hemocyanins are carrier proteins of choice for use as immunogens to produce antibodies against haptens and peptides. (
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (
  • membrane proteins that have a high affinity for particular solutes, e.g. glucose, and which facilitate the passage of these solutes through membrane barriers. (
  • The values obtained for the binding constants suggest a high affinity between proteins and FA. (
  • Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase), and KDR (kinase-insert-domain-containing receptor) proteins have been shown to bind VEGF with high affinity. (
  • Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] and NADP + , whereas its 3 products are 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] , NADPH , and H + . (
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]:NADP + oxidoreductase . (
  • Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular proteins that mediate AEA transport to its catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). (
  • HPr, a phosphate carrier protein of the streptococcal phosphotransferase system, is phosphorylated at the N-1 position of a single histidyl residue in a reaction requiring phosphoenolpyruvate (P-ePrv), Mg2+, and enzyme I (P-ePrv-HPr phosphotransferase, EC2.7.3.9). (
  • The phosphatase reaction is strongly inhibited by the addition of P-ePrv and enzyme I. Protein kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of the enzyme constituents of the phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli has also been demonstrated. (
  • More than one enzyme is involved in the release of 16:0 from 16:0 acyl carrier protein (ACP) and its incorporation into lipids. (
  • In this study, one type of cDNA, corresponding to the fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) thioesterase (Fat) enzyme, was isolated from the seed of Brassica napus cv. (
  • SARS-CoV-2 S Protein RBD was site-specifically biotinylated by enzyme BirA. (
  • Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD) is a key enzyme that converts stearic acid to oleic acid. (
  • The ortholog of human solute carrier family 35 member B1 (UDP-galactose transporter-related protein 1) is involved in maintenance of ER homeostasis and essential for larval development in Caenorhabditis elegans. (
  • Other names also exist, such as: solute carrier family 22 member 1, organic cation transporter 1, solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter), member 1. (
  • Other names also exist, such as: MFS-type transporter SLC18B1, MFS-type transporter C6orf192, solute carrier family 18, subfamily B, member 1. (
  • Translocation of glutamate transporter subtype excitatory amino acid carrier 1 protein in kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy. (
  • We examined the temporal expression of the sodium-dependent neuronal glutamate transporter, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1), in KA-induced rat epilepsy. (
  • The functional characteristics of human proton coupled folate transporter (hPCFT)/heme carrier protein (HCP) 1 were investigated. (
  • Proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT)/heme carrier protein (HCP) 1 is another folate transporter identified quite recently. (
  • Solute Carrier Family 22 Member 12 (Organic Anion Transporter 4 Like Protein or Renal Specific Transporter or RST or Urate Anion Exchanger 1 or SLC22A12) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016', provides in depth analysis on Solute Carrier Family 22 Member 12 (Organic Anion Transporter 4 Like Protein or Renal Specific Transporter or RST or Urate Anion Exchanger 1 or SLC22A12) targeted pipeline therapeutics. (
  • Riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) is an estrogen inducible protein that occupies a key position in riboflavin metabolism. (
  • Studies from India have identified a riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) present in bird (e.g., chicken) eggs, which is considered to be specific for riboflavin, and is essential for normal embryological development. (
  • A homologous protein, which can be rendered ineffective by the antibody to pure chicken riboflavin carrier protein, has been shown to occur in several mammalian species, including two species of monkeys, and also in humans. (
  • D'Agnolo G, Rosenfeld IS, Vagelos PR: Multiple forms of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase in Escherichia coli. (
  • A macroporous crosslinked styrene resin, used as a carrier for covalently binding proteins, which resin contains isocyanate, thioisocyanate or aldehyde groups as protein-binding groups and may or may not contain sulfonic acid groups--which may also be in the form of the sodium salt or of sulfonic acid. (
  • Central to FA synthesis, the ACP (acyl carrier protein) represents the cofactor protein that covalently binds all fatty acyl intermediates via a phosphopantetheine linker during the synthesis process. (
  • Wolf AM.A., Perchorowicz J.T. (1987) The Purification of Acetyl-CoA: Acyl Carrier Protein Transacylase from Brassica campestris Leaves. (
  • RNA and protein-blot analysis in Arabidopsis and rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) showed that the endogenous AtFATB1 expression was highest in flowers and lower in leaves. (
  • In humans, this protein has a Uniprot ID of O15245. (
  • In humans, this protein has a Uniprot ID of Q6NT16. (
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (
  • If you enter a valid Uniprot ID, UniProt accession number or RefSeq protein ID, the system will not consider the species and reviewed settings of your query. (
  • The acyl carrier protein (ACP) is an important component in both fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis with the growing chain bound during synthesis as a thiol ester at the distal thiol of a 4'-phophopantethiene moiety. (
  • During fatty-acid elongation the acyl-carrier protein (ACP) substrate transfers a fatty acid to the S atom of the catalytic cysteine of FabF. (
  • Recent studies implied that P II proteins may also be involved in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism, since GlnB proteins from Proteobacteria and from Arabidopsis thaliana were shown to interact with biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). (
  • The acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a cofactor of both fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis machinery. (
  • A generic term for a protein that reversibly binds to various small molecules, including amino acids, sugars, inorganic ions, vitamins and other molecules. (
  • Carrier proteins are large, complex molecules capable of stimulating an immune response upon injection. (
  • three molecules of the acyl carrier protein (ASP). (
  • Crystal structures of substrate binding to Bacillus subtilis holo-(acyl carrier protein) synthase reveal a novel trimeric arrangement of molecules resulting in three active sites. (
  • They then examined the protein under an electron microscope after labelling the coated carriers with a gold-bound antibody. (
  • 2. A process for fixing proteins wherein a carrier as set forth in claim 1 is stirred with the protein to be bound, in an aqueous solution, at from 0 to 50 C. for from 1/2 to 24 hours. (
  • The advantages of using bound proteins are their reusability, the ease with which they can be separated from the substrate or from its solution, their frequently greater stability compared to the soluble form, the avoidance of contamination of the reaction products, and the capability of carrying out continuous reactions in columns or similar reactors. (
  • This study examined the proportion of LMM biomarkers, which are bound to circulating carrier proteins. (
  • Mass spectroscopic analysis of human serum following molecular mass fractionation, demonstrated that the majority of LMM biomarkers exist bound to carrier proteins. (
  • Moreover, the pattern of LMM biomarkers bound specifically to albumin is distinct from those bound to non-albumin carriers. (
  • Several insights emerged: a) Accumulation of LMM biomarkers on circulating carrier proteins greatly amplifies the total serum/plasma concentration of the measurable biomarker, b) The total serum/plasma biomarker concentration is largely determined by the carrier protein clearance rate, not the unbound biomarker clearance rate itself, and c) Examination of the LMM species bound to a specific carrier protein may contain important diagnostic information. (
  • Separate from this, the carrier can also flip between the two conformations when A is not bound, and the likelihood of one conformation or the other is not as dependent on the concentration of A inside or out. (
  • Without A bound, the "carrier out" conformation is probably favored, but even if the two states are pretty much equally likely the same concentration gradient that powers steps 1-3 will lead to the empty carrier flipping back to be open to the outside. (
  • A diverse array of protein degradation fragments appear to accumulate in plasma, bound to carrier proteins such as albumin (18-20). (
  • The selectivity of binding of low-molecular-weight constituents for different classes of carrier proteins was explored further (17,18), revealing that subsets of bound low-molecular-weight peptides and sequenced protein fragments associated with albumin were different from those bound to immunoglobulin, apolipoprotein, and transferrin (18). (
  • 6) This is a significant number on its own, but the situation may be even worse when accounting for the fact that the majority of the hormone is bound to carrier proteins including sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin and, as such, may not be available for tissues to use. (
  • A deletion mutant of SCAMP2 lacking this region (SCAMP2/Delta184-208) bound weakly to NHE7, but caused a significant fraction of NHE7 and wild-type SCAMP2 to redistribute to a pool of scattered recycling vesicles without noticeably affecting the location of other resident TGN (syntaxin 6) or Golgi cisternae (GM130) proteins. (
  • Particle size distribution allowed to study the protein aggregation phenomenon induced by FA bound to the native proteins. (
  • Stromal cells are then added and the cells are cultured to immobilize the cells on the carriers containing the bound protein. (
  • When transfected into mammalian cells, mutant UbcH10 inhibits the destruction of both cyclin A and B, arrests cells in M phase, and inhibits the onset of anaphase, presumably by blocking the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of proteins responsible for sister chromatid separation. (
  • Antibody Responses to Haemophilus influenzae Type b and Diphtheria Toxin Induced by Conjugates of Oligosaccharides of the Type b Capsule with the Nontoxic Protein CRM",Infect. (
  • Effect of immunity to the carrier protein on antibody responses to Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines", Vaccine,11(1):546-551, (1993). (
  • Oligosaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccines Induce and Prime for Oligoclonal IgC Antibody Responses to the Haemophilus influenzae by Capsular Polysaccharide in Human Infants",J. Exp. (
  • Purified and activated forms of ovalbumin (OVA) from egg whites for use as a carrier protein to prepare immunogens for antibody production or secondary target for screening. (
  • If this protein is rendered ineffective (e.g., by immuno-neutralization) by treatment of the bird with a specific antibody, then embryonic development ceases and the embryo dies. (
  • The FabA and FabB proteins were similar in size and amino acid composition to their counterparts from Escherichia coli and to the putative homologs from Haemophilus influenzae. (
  • Pneumolysin from Streptococcus pneumoniae was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein and purified by affinity and hydroxylapatite chromatography. (
  • Therefore we conjugated fimbrial protein with a core oligosaccharide fraction obtained from Escherichia coli K-12 lipopolysaccharide, which has been found to contain an epitope common for several enterobacterial species [ 2 ]. (
  • CRM 197 , which has a single amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for glycine, is a well-characterized carrier protein and is utilized in a number of approved conjugate vaccines for diseases such as meningitis and pneumococcal bacterial infection. (
  • Structurally, the ACPs are small negatively charged α-helical bundle proteins with a high degree of structural and amino acid similarity. (
  • The cDNA contained a 1,245 bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a protein that contained 414 amino acid residues. (
  • SARS-CoV-2 S Protein RBD, amino acid Arg319-Phe541 (Accession # QHD43416.1), with a C-terminal 8-his tag and an Avi-tag was expressed in 293E cells. (
  • The 260 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 28.9 kD. (
  • Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein Delta9 desaturase (Delta9D) from Ricinus communis converts stearic acid into monounsaturated oleic acid and functions to maintain the lipid composition of the cell membrane. (
  • SAD, a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase highly expressed in high-oil maize inbred lines Liu, Zh. (
  • Palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase and the evolutionary origin of plant acyl-ACP thioesterases. (
  • Each of these steps has its own equilibrium constant, which for the first and third steps are equivalent to the affinity constant for A and the different conformations of the protein. (
  • In clam eggs, this process is catalyzed by a cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein, E2-C, and the cyclosome/anaphase promoting complex (APC), a 20S particle containing cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase activity. (
  • Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes. (
  • Dominant-negative clam E2-C and human UbcH10 proteins, created by altering the catalytic cysteine to serine, inhibit the in vitro ubiquitination and destruction of cyclin B in clam oocyte extracts. (
  • The stability, protein-loading rate, and in vitro release of BAY 55-9837 from CS-SeNPs were also quantified. (
  • Direct association of these two proteins was further supported by co-immunolocalization and co-immunoprecipitation analyses using transfected cells, by their co-sedimentation in membrane fractions resolved on sucrose density gradients, and by in vitro protein binding assays. (
  • The theory proposes that proteins are ionized as charged residues in ESI, as they retain residual excess charges after solvent evaporation and do not desorb from charged ESI droplets. (
  • The protein is expressed in the inactive apo form and the 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety must be post-translationally attached to a conserved serine residue on the ACP by the action of holo- acyl carrier protein synthase (ACPS) a phosphopantetheinyl transferase. (
  • The crystal structure of Acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) was solved at 1.95 Å ( 3hqj ). (
  • Dym O, Albeck S, Peleg Y, Schwarz A, Shakked Z, Burstein Y, Zimhony O. Structure-function analysis of the acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (
  • Furthermore, the structural and dynamic properties of an increasing number of acyl-ACPs have been described, leading to an improved comprehension of this central carrier protein. (
  • This coupling is mediated by acyl carrier protein synthase (ACPS), a 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase. (
  • Although it is known that these hydrophobic compounds can be transported in blood by albumin or lipoproteins, the intracellular carrier has not been identified. (
  • To gain insight into these processes, yeast two-hybrid methodology was used to screen a human brain cDNA library for proteins that interact with the cytoplasmic C-terminus of NHE7. (
  • For example, microscopic beads of polystyrene can be used as carriers but they change the conformation of many compounds. (
  • Access to clinically-proven, safe, and efficacious carrier proteins is critical for research in the field of conjugate vaccines. (
  • Carrier proteins are chosen based on immunogenicity, solubility, and whether an adequate level of hapten-carrier conjugation can be achieved. (
  • Purified forms of cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA) that has been cationized (positively-charged) for the preparation of hapten-carrier protein conjugates having enhanced immunogenicity compared to BSA. (
  • Click the appropriate protein name to get information about the corresponding protein of the pathway. (
  • Charge-state measurements of native-state proteins with molecular masses in the 5-76 kDa range in ammonium acetate and triethylammonium bicarbonate are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions and strongly support the mechanism of protein ESI proposed here. (
  • Whilst the protein components of the system are well-known, less attention has been turned to the role of low molecular weight electron carriers in the process. (
  • This review focuses on the participation of small molecular weight redox compounds in oxidative protein folding. (
  • Therefore, it is important to clarify the carrier-mediated folate transport mechanism, including its molecular entity, to achieve effective therapy using MTX. (
  • The purified recombinant pneumolysin (rPL), with a molecular mass of 53 kDa, had a specific activity of 3 x 10(5) hemolytic units per mg of protein on rabbit erythrocytes and reacted identically in immunodiffusion with the antisera against native pneumolysin. (
  • The purity was checked in SDS-PAGE, with silver staining specific for proteins and lipopolysaccharides as well as in mass spectrometry with MALDI-TOF technique, which allowed also to determine the precise molecular mass of fimbrial monomers. (