Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II: The form of fatty acid synthase complex found in BACTERIA; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Catalytic steps are like the animal form but the protein structure is different with dissociated enzymes encoded by separate genes. It is a target of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which result in disruption of the CELL MEMBRANE and CELL WALL.3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Synthase: An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.Pantetheine: An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Malonyltransferase: This enzyme catalyzes the transacylation of malonate from MALONYL CoA to activated holo-ACP, to generate malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein), which is an elongation substrate in FATTY ACIDS biosynthesis. It is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of FATTY ACIDS in all BACTERIA.Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase: A 3-oxoacyl reductase that has specificity for ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN-derived FATTY ACIDS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Triclosan: A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Polyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Carbon-Sulfur Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Reduced Folate Carrier Protein: A ubiquitously expressed folic acid transporter that functions via an antiporter mechanism which is coupled to the transport of organic phosphates.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Coenzyme AThiolester HydrolasesBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier Protein) Reductase (NADPH, B-Specific): An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. It has a preference for acyl derivatives with carbon chain length from 4 to 16.Heterozygote Detection: Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cerulenin: An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.MalonatesGalactosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes: A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Proton-Coupled Folate Transporter: A symporter protein that couples the transport of FOLIC ACID with HYDROGEN IONS. The transporter functions most effectively under acidic conditions.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Coriandrum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are the source of cilantro and the seeds are the source of coriander, both of which are used in SPICES.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.HemocyaninMultienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Fatty Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that interfere with FATTY ACID SYNTHASE resulting in a reduction of FATTY ACIDS. This is a target mechanism in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS and of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which interfere with CELL WALL and CELL MEMBRANE formation.Thioctic Acid: An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Phosphate-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.Mycolic AcidsSaccharopolyspora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Dansyl Compounds: Compounds that contain a 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl group.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Carboxyl and Carbamoyl Transferases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Peptide Biosynthesis, Nucleic Acid-Independent: The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Hedera: A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Members contain hederin (olean-12-ene) type TRITERPENES.Ubiquitins: A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Biotinylation: Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.Castor Bean: Common name for Ricinus communis, a species in the family EUPHORBIACEAE. It is the source of CASTOR OIL.Nitrophenylgalactosides: Includes ortho-, meta-, and para-nitrophenylgalactosides.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Stearates: Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Acetyltransferase: A enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL CoA to acyl-carrier protein to form COENZYME A and acetyl-acyl-carrier protein.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Succinic Anhydrides: A subclass of anhydrides with the general structure of dihydrofurandione. They can be substituted on any carbon atom. They modify and inhibit proteins and enzymes and are used in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.Acetyl-CoA C-Acyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Glycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.EstersPlasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.ThiophenesDiphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.SqualenePolysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Glycine Decarboxylase Complex H-Protein: A LIPOIC ACID-containing protein that plays the pivotal role in the transfer of methylamine groups and reducing equivalents between the three enzymatic components of the glycine decarboxylase complex.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Stigmatella aurantiaca: A species of STIGMATELLA usually isolated from rotting wood. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Genes, BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Neorickettsia sennetsu: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus NEORICKETTSIA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, causing Sennetsu fever and found in the FAR EAST and SOUTHEAST ASIA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Decarboxylation: The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.Somatomedins: Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Naphthacenes: Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Apoenzymes: The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Genes, Essential: Those genes found in an organism which are necessary for its viability and normal function.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Zinostatin: An enediyne that alkylates DNA and RNA like MITOMYCIN does, so it is cytotoxic.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Rhodotorula: A red yeast-like mitosporic fungal genus generally regarded as nonpathogenic. It is cultured from numerous sources in human patients.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Phytanic Acid: A 20-carbon branched chain fatty acid. In phytanic acid storage disease (REFSUM DISEASE) this lipid may comprise as much as 30% of the total fatty acids of the plasma. This is due to a phytanic acid alpha-hydroxylase deficiency.Nucleotide Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.Tetanus ToxoidPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Caprylates: Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Methylmalonyl-CoA Decarboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that catalyzes the decarboxylation of (S)-2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoyl-CoA to propanoyl-CoA. In microorganisms the reaction can be coupled to the vectorial transport of SODIUM ions across the cytoplasmic membrane.Polyketides: Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.

The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors. (1/44195)

BACKGROUND: The adaptor protein Gads is a Grb2-related protein originally identified on the basis of its interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the docking protein Shc. Gads protein expression is restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Gads contains a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, which has previously been shown to have a similar binding specificity to that of Grb2. Gads also possesses two SH3 domains, but these have a distinct binding specificity to those of Grb2, as Gads does not bind to known Grb2 SH3 domain targets. Here, we investigated whether Gads is involved in T-cell signaling. RESULTS: We found that Gads is highly expressed in T cells and that the SLP-76 adaptor protein is a major Gads-associated protein in vivo. The constitutive interaction between Gads and SLP-76 was mediated by the carboxy-terminal SH3 domain of Gads and a 20 amino-acid proline-rich region in SLP-76. Gads also coimmunoprecipitated the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the linker for activated T cells (LAT) adaptor protein following cross-linking of the T-cell receptor; this interaction was mediated by the Gads SH2 domain. Overexpression of Gads and SLP-76 resulted in a synergistic augmentation of T-cell signaling, as measured by activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and this cooperation required a functional Gads SH2 domain. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Gads plays an important role in T-cell signaling via its association with SLP-76 and LAT. Gads may promote cross-talk between the LAT and SLP-76 signaling complexes, thereby coupling membrane-proximal events to downstream signaling pathways.  (+info)

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma. (2/44195)

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma.  (+info)

Leptin suppression of insulin secretion and gene expression in human pancreatic islets: implications for the development of adipogenic diabetes mellitus. (3/44195)

Previously we demonstrated the expression of the long form of the leptin receptor in rodent pancreatic beta-cells and an inhibition of insulin secretion by leptin via activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine pancreatic islets isolated from pancreata of human donors for their responses to leptin. The presence of leptin receptors on islet beta-cells was demonstrated by double fluorescence confocal microscopy after binding of a fluorescent derivative of human leptin (Cy3-leptin). Leptin (6.25 nM) suppressed insulin secretion of normal islets by 20% at 5.6 mM glucose. Intracellular calcium responses to 16.7 mM glucose were rapidly reduced by leptin. Proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in islets was inhibited by leptin at 11.1 mM, but not at 5.6 mM glucose. Leptin also reduced proinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels that were increased in islets by treatment with 10 nM glucagon-like peptide-1 in the presence of either 5.6 or 11.1 mM glucose. These findings demonstrate direct suppressive effects of leptin on insulin-producing beta-cells in human islets at the levels of both stimulus-secretion coupling and gene expression. The findings also further indicate the existence of an adipoinsular axis in humans in which insulin stimulates leptin production in adipocytes and leptin inhibits the production of insulin in beta-cells. We suggest that dysregulation of the adipoinsular axis in obese individuals due to defective leptin reception by beta-cells may result in chronic hyperinsulinemia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of adipogenic diabetes.  (+info)

Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast. (4/44195)

Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself.  (+info)

Socs1 binds to multiple signalling proteins and suppresses steel factor-dependent proliferation. (5/44195)

We have identified Socs1 as a downstream component of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway. We show that the expression of Socs1 mRNA is rapidly increased in primary bone marrow-derived mast cells following exposure to Steel factor, and Socs1 inducibly binds to the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Previous studies have shown that Socs1 suppresses cytokine-mediated differentiation in M1 cells inhibiting Janus family kinases. In contrast, constitutive expression of Socs1 suppresses the mitogenic potential of Kit while maintaining Steel factor-dependent cell survival signals. Unlike Janus kinases, Socs1 does not inhibit the catalytic activity of the Kit tyrosine kinase. In order to define the mechanism by which Socs1-mediated suppression of Kit-dependent mitogenesis occurs, we demonstrate that Socs1 binds to the signalling proteins Grb-2 and the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors Vav. We show that Grb2 binds Socs1 via its SH3 domains to putative diproline determinants located in the N-terminus of Socs1, and Socs1 binds to the N-terminal regulatory region of Vav. These data suggest that Socs1 is an inducible switch which modulates proliferative signals in favour of cell survival signals and functions as an adaptor protein in receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways.  (+info)

The role of RBF in the introduction of G1 regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis. (6/44195)

The first appearance of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis, at cell cycle 17, is accompanied by the down-regulation of E2F-dependent transcription. Mutant alleles of rbf were generated and analyzed to determine the role of RBF in this process. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic RBF products show constitutive expression of PCNA and RNR2, two E2F-regulated genes, indicating that RBF is required for their transcriptional repression. Despite the ubiquitous expression of E2F target genes, most epidermal cells enter G1 normally. Rather than pausing in G1 until the appropriate time for cell cycle progression, many of these cells enter an ectopic S-phase. These results indicate that the repression of E2F target genes by RBF is necessary for the maintenance but not the initiation of a G1 phase. The phenotype of RBF-deficient embryos suggests that rbf has a function that is complementary to the roles of dacapo and fizzy-related in the introduction of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis.  (+info)

The splicing factor-associated protein, p32, regulates RNA splicing by inhibiting ASF/SF2 RNA binding and phosphorylation. (7/44195)

The cellular protein p32 was isolated originally as a protein tightly associated with the essential splicing factor ASF/SF2 during its purification from HeLa cells. ASF/SF2 is a member of the SR family of splicing factors, which stimulate constitutive splicing and regulate alternative RNA splicing in a positive or negative fashion, depending on where on the pre-mRNA they bind. Here we present evidence that p32 interacts with ASF/SF2 and SRp30c, another member of the SR protein family. We further show that p32 inhibits ASF/SF2 function as both a splicing enhancer and splicing repressor protein by preventing stable ASF/SF2 interaction with RNA, but p32 does not block SRp30c function. ASF/SF2 is highly phosphorylated in vivo, a modification required for stable RNA binding and protein-protein interaction during spliceosome formation, and this phosphorylation, either through HeLa nuclear extracts or through specific SR protein kinases, is inhibited by p32. Our results suggest that p32 functions as an ASF/SF2 inhibitory factor, regulating ASF/SF2 RNA binding and phosphorylation. These findings place p32 into a new group of proteins that control RNA splicing by sequestering an essential RNA splicing factor into an inhibitory complex.  (+info)

Cyclin D-CDK subunit arrangement is dependent on the availability of competing INK4 and p21 class inhibitors. (8/44195)

The D-type cyclins and their major kinase partners CDK4 and CDK6 regulate G0-G1-S progression by contributing to the phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene product, pRB. Assembly of active cyclin D-CDK complexes in response to mitogenic signals is negatively regulated by INK4 family members. Here we show that although all four INK4 proteins associate with CDK4 and CDK6 in vitro, only p16(INK4a) can form stable, binary complexes with both CDK4 and CDK6 in proliferating cells. The other INK4 family members form stable complexes with CDK6 but associate only transiently with CDK4. Conversely, CDK4 stably associates with both p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1) in cyclin-containing complexes, suggesting that CDK4 is in equilibrium between INK4 and p21(CIP1)- or p27(KIP1)-bound states. In agreement with this hypothesis, overexpression of p21(CIP1) in 293 cells, where CDK4 is bound to p16(INK4a), stimulates the formation of ternary cyclin D-CDK4-p21(CIP1) complexes. These data suggest that members of the p21 family of proteins promote the association of D-type cyclins with CDKs by counteracting the effects of INK4 molecules.  (+info)

Compare WW domain binding protein 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Rabbit polyclonal WW domain binding protein 4 antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
Complete information for MYBPC3 gene (Protein Coding), Myosin Binding Protein C3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PGLYRP1/PGRP-S Antibody (188C424) [HRP]. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse. 100% Guaranteed.
WBP11 antibody, N-term (WW domain binding protein 11) for IHC-P, IP, WB. Anti-WBP11 pAb (GTX46466) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Complete information for SH3BP5 gene (Protein Coding), SH3 Domain Binding Protein 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
SH3BP1 antibody, C-term (SH3-domain binding protein 1) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-SH3BP1 pAb (GTX10103) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Secretory Carrier Membrane Proteins (SCAMPs) are a group of tetraspanning integral membrane proteins evolutionarily conserved from insects to mammals and plants. Mammalian genomes contain five SCAMP genes SCAMP1-SCAMP5 that regulate membrane dynamics, most prominently membrane-depolarization and Ca2+-induced regulated secretion, a key mechanism for neuronal and neuroendocrine signaling. However, the biological role of SCAMPs has remained poorly understood primarily owing to the lack of appropriate model organisms and behavior assays. Here we generate Drosophila Scamp null mutants and show that they exhibit reduced lifespan and behavioral abnormalities including impaired climbing, deficiency in odor associated long-term memory, and a susceptibility to heat-induced seizures. Neuron-specific restoration of Drosophila Scamp rescues all Scamp behavioral phenotypes, indicating that the phenotypes are due to loss of neuronal Scamp. Remarkably, neuronal expression of human SCAMP genes rescues selected
Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is required for the assembly and cellular secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB) -containing lipoproteins from the liver and intestine. The secretion pattern of apoB-containing lipoproteins is likely to influence the VLDL and LDL levels in plasma. By initial opportunistic screening for polymorphic sites in the regulatory region of the MTP gene by gene sequencing in 20 healthy male subjects, a common functional G/T polymorphism was detected 493 bp upstream from the transcriptional start point. There was differential binding of unique nuclear proteins at this site, as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The G variant seemed to bind two or three nuclear proteins that do not bind to the T variant. Expression studies with minimal promoter constructs linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter and transfected into HepG2 cells revealed marked enhancement of transcriptional activity with the T variant. The prevalence of the MTP promoter
Heritable cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the leading cause of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in young people, affecting 1 in 500 individuals. HCM is chiefly caused by mutations in myofibrillar proteins of the cardiac sarcomere, and cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C, encoded by MYBPC3) is one of the most commonly affected. cMyBP-C, an accessory protein that binds tightly to myosin, has an important role in thick filament regulation. Mice with genetic ablation of MYBPC3 exhibit cardiac hypertrophy, reduced ejection fraction, and increased relaxation times in vivo. Experiments with explanted hearts from these mice exhibit greater susceptibility to arrhythmias compared to WT, suggesting derangement of Ca2+ handling. The molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of HCM are poorly understood, and are difficult to tease apart in constitutive knock out models due to potential compensatory changes that can mask important aspects of the disease phenotype. We used a tamoxifen-induced conditional MYBPC3 ...
Rationale: A stable 40 kD fragment is produced from cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) when the heart is stressed, using a stimulus such as ischemia reperfusion injury. Elevated levels of the fragment can be detected in both the diseased mouse and human heart but its ability to interfere with normal cardiac function in the intact animal is unexplored. Objective: To understand the potential pathogenicity of the 40 kD fragment in vivo and to investigate the molecular pathways that could be targeted for potential therapeutic intervention. Methods and Results: We generated cardiac myocyte-specific transgenic mice (TG) using a Tet-Off inducible system to permit controlled expression of the 40 kD fragment in cardiomyocytes. When 40 kD protein expression is induced by crossing the responder animals with tetracycline transactivator (tTA) mice under conditions where substantial quantities approximating those observed in disease hearts are reached, the double TG (DTG) mice subsequently develop ...
The present invention relates to the use of fibroblast growth factor-binding protein (FGF-BP) polypeptides, and functional variants of these polypeptides, respectively, or of nucleic acids encoding th
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphoregulation of Cardiac Inotropy via Myosin Binding Protein-C during Increased Pacing Frequency or β1-Adrenergic Stimulation. AU - Tong, Carl W.. AU - Wu, Xin. AU - Liu, Yang. AU - Rosas, Paola C.. AU - Sadayappan, Sakthivel. AU - Hudmon, Andy. AU - Muthuchamy, Mariappan. AU - Powers, Patricia A.. AU - Valdivia, Héctor H.. AU - Moss, Richard L.. PY - 2015/5/4. Y1 - 2015/5/4. N2 - Background-Mammalian hearts exhibit positive inotropic responses to β-adrenergic stimulation as a consequence of protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation or as a result of increased beat frequency (the Bowditch effect). Several membrane and myofibrillar proteins are phosphorylated under these conditions, but the relative contributions of these to increased contractility are not known. Phosphorylation of cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) by protein kinase A accelerates the kinetics of force development in permeabilized heart muscle, but its role in vivo is unknown. Such understanding is ...
Growth hormone-binding protein (GHBP) is a soluble carrier protein for growth hormone (GH). The function of GHBP is still unknown. Current research suggests that the protein is associated with regulation of the GH supply in the circulatory system as well as GH receptor function. In humans, GHBP is formed by post-translational modification after the complete transcription and translation of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene into the cell-surface receptor protein. The gene that codes for GHR (and inherently GHBP) is on Chromosome 5. A precursor messenger RNA (mRNA) from the complete gene first is transcribed and then spliced to encode the full receptor protein. This mature mRNA is composed of exons. Exons are peptide encoding regions of DNA genes that remain in the transcript after splicing and during the maturation of mRNA. The mRNA transcript encodes for a receptor protein that is made up of three distinct parts: an intracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and an extracellular domain. ...
Myomegalin has been characterized as a protein with the properties of a scaffold or structural protein that is expressed at high levels in skeletal and cardiac tissue, suggesting an important function in muscle, and which interacts with a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase [13]. However, the precise function and interactions of this protein, and its five isoforms, have been largely unknown. We here describe how the smallest MMGL isoform, isoform 4, binds to known and predicted PKA targets in the cardiac myocyte, including some sarcomeric proteins, viz. cMyBPC, cTNI, ENO1, ENO3, CARP and COMMD4 (Tables 1 and 2). Moreover, we show that MMGL isoform 4 interacts with two regulatory subunits of PKA (Figure 3). Together these results describe MMGL isoform 4 as a novel sarcomeric AKAP, which, like mAKAP [14], is involved in assembling a PKA/PDE cAMP signalling module.. In addition to interacting with both types of regulatory subunits, viz. RI and RII, which qualifies MMGL isoform 4 as a dual-specific AKAP ...
Mutations in the cardiac myosin binding protein C gene (MYBPC3) are common causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in humans. Even though the MYBPC3 E258K missense mutation is among the most prevalent HCM-causing mutations, the mechanism through which it causes disease remains unclear. We developed a novel neonatal murine 3D engineered cardiac tissue (ECT) model and previously presented data showing that Mybpc3 ablation (Mybpc3−/−) accelerates the kinetics of contraction and relaxation in the absence of hypertrophic remodeling in ECT. Furthermore, we showed that expression of wild type human MYBPC3 in Mybpc3−/− ECT (MYBPC3WT) restores contractile function. We hypothesized that adenoviral mediated expression of human E258K MYBPC3 in Mybpc3−/− ECT (MYBPC3E258K) would accelerate contractile kinetics and blunt the effect of dobutamine by abolishing phosphorylation-regulated inhibitory interactions between the C2-M-domain region of cMyBPC and myosin S2. The contractile characteristics ...
Copines make up a multigene family of calcium-dependent, phospholipid-binding proteins. Copine proteins consists of two C2 domains at the N terminus followed by an "A domain" similar to the von Willebrand-Integrin A domain. Mutant studies of copines suggest that copines may be involved in signaling pathways and may play a significant role in cell differentiation, programmed cell death, and cell development. Copines need to be studied further to have a clear understanding of the function they play in organismal life processes. We are studying copine protein function in the model organism protozoan Dictyostelium discoideum. Previous research showed that the copine A (cpnA-) knockout strain of Dictyostelium exhibited normal growth rates, a slight cytokinesis defect, a developmental defect, and a defect in contractile vacuole function. Furthermore, real-time reverse transcription-PCR data suggested that all of the copine genes except cpnF may be important regulators of Dictyostelium development. To ...
We have reported studies characterizing small-molecule inhibitors that selectively inhibit PLTP activity and concomitantly reduce apoB secretion. In the present study, we identified small molecules that inhibit both PLTP and MTP activities, which are known to regulate apoB secretion. This is the first report to identify dual inhibitors for PLTP and MTP activities. The discovery was not expected based on the lack of homology of PLTP and MTP at protein sequence levels. Although CETP and PLTP have 40% homology and belong to the family of lipid transfer/lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins (Tollefson et al., 1988; Day et al., 1994), none of these compounds inhibit CETP activity (Luo et al., 2010). MTP and apoB belong to the vitellogenin family of lipid transfer proteins. Read et al. (2000) predicted the three-dimensional structure of the C-terminal lipid binding cavity of MTP based on the crystal structure of lipoviellin. The lipid cavity in MTP bears a resemblance to the lipid binding domain of ...
Heparin-binding protein which binds to FGF2, prevents binding of FGF2 to heparin and probably inhibits immobilization of FGF2 on extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans, allowing its release and subsequent activation of FGFR signaling which leads to increased vascular permeability ...
Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is an endogenous inhibitor of the antioxidant thioredoxin, and a critical agent in the in vivo regulation of glucose. The well-described induction of TXNIP by high glucose may represent an important pathogenic trigger of complications arising in the diabetic environment, with sustained overexpression of TXNIP triggering the increased production of reactive oxygen species and collagen, both major contributors to the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). To examine a possible therapeutic role for targeted TXNIP inhibition in DN, transgenic (mRen-2)27 rats were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin and then treated with 20 μ,smlcap,M,/smlcap, TXNIP deoxyribozyme (DNAzyme) delivered continuously over 12 weeks by an implanted osmotic mini-pump. Renal injury was measured using biochemical parameters of kidney function along with histological markers of damage. Catalytic activity of TXNIP DNAzyme was determined by TXNIP gene and peptide expression in the rat ...
Compare peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
lipid transfer protein: accelerates glycolipid exchange; catalyzes net transfer of glycosphingolipids from brush border membrane vesicles; also facilitates transfer of glucosyl-, galactosyl- & lactosylceramide from liposomal vesicles to red ghost cells; see also record for phospholipid exchange protein
Figure 3. Identification of cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) as a cardiac myocyte-specific PKGIα anti-remodeling substrate through molecular screen for PKGIa-LZ binding proteins. From Thoonen et al, 2015. (A) Outline of screening strategy. GST-fusion proteins were generated containing the PKGIa LZ domain (PKG1-59), the PKGIα mutated LZ domain (PKGLZM), or GST alone. The separate bait proteins were incubated with left ventricular protein lysates, followed by SDS PAGE and Coomassie staining. Protein bands selectively precipitating with PKG1-59 were removed and identified by mass spectroscopy. (B) Representative Coomassie stain from left ventricular protein lysates incubated with GST-fusion proteins. The 150 kDa band visible only in PKG1-59 precipitate (denoted by arrow) was excised and subjected to mass spectroscopy, revealing cMyBP-C as the predominant species. The thick bands between 25 and 30 kDa represent GST fusion proteins. Representative of 3 independent experiments. (C) Model ...
Blotting techniques allow the transfer of proteins and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) from polyacrylamide or agarose gels onto carrier membranes. Additional these techniques allow immobilization of those components from solutions onto carrier membranes. On the membrane the proteins and nucleic acids offer open access (compared to in-gel techniques) for detection methods for specific molecules (e. g. antibodies). ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
19. 1.Carrier Concept - According to this hypothesis the carrier protein picks up an ion from one side of the membrane and discharges it on the other side. The picking up and discharge of the ion requires energy. Energy is obtained by hydrolysis of ATP. - ATP changes into ADP and energy released is used to change the conformation of the carrier which may be ATPase itself, so that the ion is picked up on one side of the membrane and released on the other. - After discharge of an ion, carrier protein is reprimed to pick up an other ion. The carrier protein may carry one ion inwards and may exchange it with another ion at the inner surface of membrane, so that the other ion is carried by the same carrier outwards. ...
19. 1.Carrier Concept - According to this hypothesis the carrier protein picks up an ion from one side of the membrane and discharges it on the other side. The picking up and discharge of the ion requires energy. Energy is obtained by hydrolysis of ATP. - ATP changes into ADP and energy released is used to change the conformation of the carrier which may be ATPase itself, so that the ion is picked up on one side of the membrane and released on the other. - After discharge of an ion, carrier protein is reprimed to pick up an other ion. The carrier protein may carry one ion inwards and may exchange it with another ion at the inner surface of membrane, so that the other ion is carried by the same carrier outwards. ...
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02/20/2008 0tbrewer None 1041:45 0:25 0:00 0:25 -- *CG 5stox1 u 0.04 55.61 d 1.15 106.13 u 0.45 47.12 d 0.03 50.35 u 0.68 23.58 *CG 5stox2 u 0.33 18.39 u 0.06 26.50 d 0.72 40.02 u 0.26 21.55 d 0.10 6.75 *CG 5stox3 u 0.60 49.48 u 0.06 25.91 u 0.33 13.04 u 1.54 74.47 u 0.09 20.99 *CG 5stox4 d 0.02 71.12 u 0.10 22.47 u 1.54 74.47 d 0.11 1.61 u 0.04 12.61 S BREAK-3 -- ...
CG amstox D 120.96 13110.05 D 25.81 2618.51 D 241.69 15154.61 *CG 6stox1 d 0.56 35.27 u 0.05 72.27 d 0.02 46.24 d 1.65 44.08 d 0.01 10.09 *CG 6stox2 d 1.19 34.26 d 1.34 37.71 u 0.13 90.68 d 0.70 38.31 d 0.41 26.84 *CG 6stox3 d 0.41 63.84 d 0.32 27.69 u 0.14 50.11 u 0.08 4.20 d 1.03 48.75 *CG 6stox4 d >> 2.20 68.70 d 0.48 43.04 d 2.07 40.28 d 0.31 46.20 d 0.44 81.16 ...
MKDEAGERDREVSSLNSKLLSLQLDIKNLHDVCKRQRKTLQDNQLCMEEAMNSSHDKKQAQALAFEESEV 1 - 70 EFGSSKQCHLRQLQQLKKKLLVLQQELEFHTEELQTSYYSLRQYQSILEKQTSDLVLLHHHCKLKEDEVI 71 - 140 LYEEEMGNHNENTGEKLHLAQEQLALAGDKIASLERSLNLYRDKYQSSLSNIELLECQVKMLQGELGGIM 141 - 210 GQEPENKGDHSKVRIYTSPCMIQEHQETQKRLSEVWQKVSQQDDLIQELRNKLACSNALVLEREKALIKL 211 - 280 QADFASCTATHRYPPSSSEECEDIKKILKHLQEQKDSQCLHVEEYQNLVKDLRVELEAVSEQKRNIMKDM 281 - 350 MKLELDLHGLREETSAHIERKDKDITILQCRLQELQLEFTETQKLTLKKDKFLQEKDEMLQELEKKLTQV 351 - 420 QNSLLKKEKELEKQQCMATELEMTVKEAKQDKSKEAECKALQAEVQKLKNSLEEAKQQERLAGEAPAAQQ 421 - 490 AAQCKEEAALAGCHLEDTQRKLQKGLLLDKQKADTIQELQRELQMLQKESSMAEKEQTSNRKRVEELSLE 491 - 560 LSEALRKLENSDKEKRQLQKTVAEQDMKMNDMLDRIKHQHREQGSIKCKLEEDLQEATKLLEDKREQLKK 561 - 630 SKEHEKLMEGELEALRQEFKKKDKTLKENSRKLEEENENLRAELQCCSTQLESSLNKYNTSQQVIQDLNK 631 - 700 EIALQKESLMSLQAQLDKALQKEKHYLQTTITKEAYDALSRKSAACQDDLTQALEKLNHVTSETKSLQQS 701 - 770 LTQTQEKKAQLEEEIIAYEERMKKLNTELRKLRGFHQESELEVHAFDKKLEEMSCQVLQWQKQHQNDLKM 771 - 840 ...
Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein large subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTTP gene. MTP encodes the large subunit of the heterodimeric microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) completes the heterodimeric microsomal triaglyceride transfer protein, which has been shown to play a central role in lipoprotein assembly. Mutations in MTP can cause abetalipoproteinemia. Apolipoprotein B48 on chylomicra and Apolipoprotein B100 on LDL, IDL, and VLDL are important for MTP binding. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [[File: [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] ,px,alt=Statin Pathway edit]] The interactive pathway map can be edited at ...
Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein large subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTTP gene.[1][2] MTP encodes the large subunit of the heterodimeric microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) completes the heterodimeric microsomal triaglyceride transfer protein, which has been shown to play a central role in lipoprotein assembly. Mutations in MTP can cause abetalipoproteinemia.[2] Apolipoprotein B48 on chylomicra and Apolipoprotein B100 on LDL, IDL, and VLDL are important for MTP binding. ...
Oxaliplatin transport mediated by organic cation/carnitine transporters OCTN1 and OCTN2 in overexpressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells and rat dorsal root ganglion neurons
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of "NTU Repository" with "Academic Hub" to form NTU Scholars.. ...
Although mutations in cMyBP‐C are one of the most frequent causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy on a per gene basis with ,150 individual mutations being documented, the majority of these mutations (≈60%) result not in a full‐length, mutated protein, but in a truncated peptide and these mutated alleles exhibit autosomal dominance.29, 30 We have shown that a truncated form of cMyBP‐C is produced from endogenous, normal cMyBP‐C as a result of ischemia-reperfusion injury and/or general cardiovascular stress and is generated from Ca2+ activated μ‐calpain activity.2 This fragment is stable, can be expressed inducibly in cardiomyocytes and causes cardiac disease, fibrosis, and eventually heart failure and death.4 This model displays pathology that is often seen in human cardiac fibrosis and myocardial disease: the hearts develop hypertrophy and show extensive interstitial fibrosis and perivascular fibrosis while maintaining systolic function. Thus, in terms of a fibrotic response, the ...
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Lipid-transfer proteins (LTP) are type of proteins, 9-kDa proteins present in high quantity as much as 4 percent of the total soluble protein in higher plants. Lipid-transfer proteins (LTP) are responsible for transfer (in vitro), of phospholipids between membranes as well as binds to acyl chains. Some important roles played by LTP are embryogenesis, participation in cutin formation, symbiosis, and the adaptation of plants to various environmental conditions and defense reactions against phytopathogens, though the validity of some these roles is needs to be determined. Recent studies show several important functions in the cell. Biosynthesis of many membrane lipids occurs at the (ER) endoplasmic reticulum, then they are dispensed by vesicular transport and lipid transfer proteins. Lysosomal lipid transfer proteins are types of proteins are multifunctional in nature. Though the mechanism and functions of most LTPs are yet to be determined, lipid transfer proteins in plants are involved in surface ...
SummaryThe main objective was to evaluate the association between SNPs and haplotypes of the FABP1-4 genes and type 2 diabetes, as well as its interaction with fat intake, in one general Spanish population. The association was replicated in a second population in which HOMA index was also evaluated.Methods1217 unrelated individuals were selected from a population-based study [Hortega study: 605 women; mean age 54 y; 7.8% with type 2 diabetes]. The replication population included 805 subjects from Segovia, a neighboring region of Spain (446 females; mean age 52 y; 10.3% with type 2 diabetes). DM2 mellitus was defined in a similar way in both studies. Fifteen SNPs previously associated with metabolic traits or with potential influence in the gene expression within the FABP1-4 genes were genotyped with SNPlex and tested. Age, sex and BMI were used as covariates in the logistic regression model.ResultsOne polymorphism (rs2197076) and two haplotypes of the FABP-1 showed a strong association with the ...
MYBPC3 encodes the cardiac isoform of myosin-binding protein C. Myosin-binding protein C is a myosin-associated protein found in the cross-bridge-bearing zone (C region) of A bands in striated muscle. MYBPC3, the cardiac isoform, is expressed exclussively in heart muscle. MYBPC gene is linked to CMH4 and demonstrated a splice donor mutationin 1 family with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a duplication mutation in a second. Both mutations were predicted to disrupt the high-affinity, C-terminal myosin-binding domain of cardiac MyBP-C. Again, findings demonstrated that as in the case of the 3 forms that had been defined in molecular terms previously, familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a disease of the sarcomere.
protease inhibitor/seed storage/lipid transfer protein (LTP) family protein; FUNCTIONS IN: lipid binding; INVOLVED IN: lipid transport; LOCATED IN: endomembrane system; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Bifunctional inhibitor/plant lipid transfer protein/seed storage (InterPro:IPR016140), Plant lipid transfer protein/seed storage/trypsin-alpha amylase inhibitor (InterPro:IPR003612), Plant lipid transfer protein and hydrophobic protein, helical (InterPro:IPR013770); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: protease inhibitor/seed storage/lipid transfer protein (LTP) family protein (TAIR:AT4G12510.1); Has 534 Blast hits to 530 proteins in 51 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria - 0; Metazoa - 0; Fungi - 0; Plants - 534; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 0 (source: NCBI BLink ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acyl-CoA binding protein is an essential protein in mammalian cell lines. AU - Knudsen, Jens. AU - Færgeman, Nils J.. PY - 2002/12/15. Y1 - 2002/12/15. N2 - In the present work, small interference RNA was used to knock-down acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) in HeLa, HepG2 and Chang cells. Transfection with ACBP-specific siRNA stopped growth, detached cells from the growth surface and blocked thymidine and acetate incorporation. The results show that depletion of ACBP in mammalian cells results in lethality, suggesting that ACBP is an essential protein.. AB - In the present work, small interference RNA was used to knock-down acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) in HeLa, HepG2 and Chang cells. Transfection with ACBP-specific siRNA stopped growth, detached cells from the growth surface and blocked thymidine and acetate incorporation. The results show that depletion of ACBP in mammalian cells results in lethality, suggesting that ACBP is an essential protein.. KW - Acetates. KW - ...
Lipid droplet (LD) utilization is an important cellular activity that regulates energy balance and release of lipid second messengers. Because fatty acids exhibit both beneficial and toxic properties, their release from LDs must be controlled. Here we demonstrate that yeast Sfh3, an unusual Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, is an LD-associated protein that inhibits lipid mobilization from these particles. We further document a complex biochemical diversification of LDs during sporulation in which Sfh3 and select other LD proteins redistribute into discrete LD subpopulations. The data show that Sfh3 modulates the efficiency with which a neutral lipid hydrolase-rich LD subclass is consumed during biogenesis of specialized membrane envelopes that package replicated haploid meiotic genomes. These results present novel insights into the interface between phosphoinositide signaling and developmental regulation of LD metabolism and unveil meiosis-specific aspects of Sfh3 (and ...
We have purified a 38 kDa protein from bovine brain which is cross-reactive with an affinity purified antibody against the 35 kDa phosphatidylino-sitol transfer protein from the same source. Controlled trypsinization of the 38 kDa protein yielded an immunoreactive protein of 35 kDa which displayed a 6-fold increase in phosphatidylinositol transfer activity and a IO-fold higher affinity for this phospholipid. The possibility that the 38 kDa protein is a precursor of the phosphatidylinositol transfer protein is discussed.(C) 1990 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved ...
Read "Comparative study of the genomic organization of DNA repeats within the 5′-flanking region of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene (NRAMP1) between humans and great apes, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
El Archivo Digital UPM alberga en formato digital la documentacion academica y cientifica (tesis, pfc, articulos, etc..) generada en la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid.Los documentos del Archivo Digital UPM son recuperables desde buscadores: Google, Google Academics, Yahoo, Scirus, etc y desde recolectores OAI: E-ciencia, DRRD, Recolecta (REBIUN-FECYT), Driver, Oaister, etc.
1FK0: Structural basis of non-specific lipid binding in maize lipid-transfer protein complexes revealed by high-resolution X-ray crystallography.
1FK7: Structural basis of non-specific lipid binding in maize lipid-transfer protein complexes revealed by high-resolution X-ray crystallography.
What is Ligand Binding Protein Gene? Definition of Ligand Binding Protein Gene. Ligand Binding Protein Gene FAQ. Learn more about Ligand Binding Protein Gene. Ligand Binding Protein Gene facts.
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MAYWOOD, Ill. - A new blood test can detect heart attacks hours faster than the current gold-standard blood test, according to a study led by Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine researchers.. The new test measures a protein that is released to the bloodstream by dying heart muscle. The protein is called cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C). The study found that cMyBP-C is released to the blood within just 15 minutes of cardiac damage, and rises to significant levels in three hours.. "This is a potential ultra-early biomarker that could confirm whether a patient has had a heart attack, leading to faster and more effective treatment," said Sakthivel Sadayappan, PhD, senior author of the study, published Dec. 13, 2013 in the American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology.. Between 60 and 70 percent of all patients who complain of chest pain do not have heart attacks. Many of these patients are admitted to the hospital, at considerable time and expense, ...
In the present work, small interference RNA was used to knock-down acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) in HeLa, HepG2 and Chang cells. Transfection with ACBP-specific siRNA stopped growth, detached cells from the growth surface and blocked thymidine and acetate incorporation. The results show that depletion of ACBP in mammalian cells results in lethality, suggesting that ACBP is an essential protein.. ...
LBP [LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein] was discovered approximately 25 years ago. Since then, substantial progress has been made towards our understanding of its function in health and disease. Furthermore, the discovery of a large protein family sharing functional and structural attributes has helped in our knowledge. Still, key questions are unresolved, and here an overview on the old and new findings on LBP is given. LBP is an acute-phase protein of the liver, but is also synthesized in other cells of the organism. While LBP is named after the ability to bind to LPS of Gram-negative bacteria, it also can recognize other bacterial compounds, such as lipopeptides. It has been shown that LBP is needed to combat infections; however, the main mechanism of action is still not clear. New findings on natural genetic variations of LBP leading to functional consequences may help in further elucidating the mechanism of LBP and its role in innate immunity and disease. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Integral membrane proteins (SCAMPs), tetraspan vesicle membrane proteins) that act as carriers, recycling proteins to the cell surface. At least three members of the family have been identified in humans: SCAMP1 (338 aa), SCAMP2 (329 aa), and SCAMP3 (347 aa). ...
DBI - DBI (untagged)-Human diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-CoA binding protein) (DBI), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Recombinant GRB2-Related Adaptor Protein (GRAP) Protein (Myc-DYKDDDDK Tag). Species: Human. Source: HEK-293 Cells. Order product ABIN2722222.
View all contributions by Dr. Filip Casselman from AalstBelgium in the field of interventional cardiology and cardiovascular disease on PCRonline.
... , Authors: Kate E Lines, Tatjana Crnogorac-Jurcevic. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Looks like i did it guys! I finally made a build on my own that did a GR 70! (Note i have never done a GR 70 before but specifically wanted to design my own build to do it) I know it might share some similarities to other builds but ultimately the only thing other builds influenced is choosing Mirinae over Bane of the powerful. I needed the healing to keep me alive. I manged to do a GR70 with just over 5 minutes remaining and only 3 deaths. I dont really know how to do a build guide but i just focoused on CHC and CHD as well as max essence. Beyond that the skills and items speak for themselves.. ...
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IP3-mediated Ca2+ release from WT and Homer 2−/− cells. Cells from (A) WT and (B) Homer 2−/− mice were permeabilized with SLO and allowed to reduce [Ca2
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Plasmid pDONR223-HIPK3 from Dr. William Hahns lab contains the insert HIPK3 and is published in Nature. 2010 Nov 24. ():. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - An intrinsic gut leptin-melanocortin pathway modulates intestinal microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and lipid absorption. AU - Iqbal, Jahangir. AU - Li, Xiaosong. AU - Chang, Benny Hung Junn. AU - Chan, Lawrence. AU - Schwartz, Gary J.. AU - Chua, Streamson C.. AU - Hussain, M. Mahmood. PY - 2010/7/1. Y1 - 2010/7/1. N2 - Fat is delivered to tissues by apoB-containing lipoproteins synthesized in the liver and intestine with the help of an intracellular chaperone, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, acts in the brain and on peripheral tissues to regulate fat storage and metabolism. Our aim was to identify the role of leptin signaling in MTP regulation and lipid absorption using several mouse models deficient in leptin receptor (LEPR) signaling and downstream effectors. Mice with spontaneous LEPR B mutations or targeted ablation of LEPR B in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) or agouti gene related peptide (AGRP) expressing ...
Rat kallikrein-binding protein is a novel serine-proteinase inhibitor that forms a covalent complex with tissue kallikrein. We have purified rat kallikrein-binding protein and cloned the cDNA and the gene encoding rat kallikrein-binding protein [Chao, Chai, Chen, Xiong, Chao, Woodley-Miller, Wang, Lu and Chao (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 16394-16401; Chai, Ma, Murray, Chao and Chao (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 16029-16036]. In the present study, we have expressed rat kallikrein-binding protein in Escherichia coli with a T7-polymerase/promoter expression system. A high level of expression was detected by an e.l.i.s.a. with an average of 24.2 mg of recombinant rat kallikrein-binding protein per 1 of culture. The recombinant protein appeared as a major protein in a crude extract of Escherichia coli on SDS/PAGE. It showed a molecular mass of 43 kDa and was recognized by polyclonal antibody to the native rat kallikrein-binding protein in Western-blot analysis. The recombinant rat kallikrein-binding ...
Bacterial binding protein-dependent transport systems are the best characterized members of a superfamily of transporters which are structurally, functionally, and evolutionary related to each other.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins and Lysozyme. AU - Dziarski, Roman. AU - Royet, Julien. AU - Gupta, Dipika. PY - 2016/4/27. Y1 - 2016/4/27. N2 - Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs or PGLYRPs) are evolutionarily conserved innate immunity molecules homologous to bacteriophage type 2 amidases. Mammalian PGRPs are soluble secreted proteins and bind muramyl peptide fragments of bacterial peptidoglycan. Mammalian PGLYRP1, PGLYRP3, and PGLYRP4 are directly bactericidal and kill bacteria by inducing an exaggerated envelope stress response, which causes oxidative, thiol, and metal stress, membrane depolarization, inhibition of biosynthetic reactions, and bacterial death. Mammalian PGLYRP2 is an enzyme, peptidoglycan amidohydrolase. In vivo, mammalian PGRPs maintain a healthy gut microbiome, which protects animals from experimental colitis. Mammalian PGRPs also modulate sensitivity to skin and joint inflammation and allergic asthma. Human PGRP variants are associated with ...
An absence of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP, protein; CETP, gene) results in an increase of the apolipoprotein AI levels and a decrease in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. Thus, the CETP polymorphism is important in the assessment of risk of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to elucidate the genotype distributions of the CETP polymorphism and association with plasma lipid levels in Koreans. The genotypes of the TaqI A and B polymorphic loci were associated with plasma triglyceride levels in the control and coronary artery disease (CAD) groups. There was linkage disequilibrium between TaqI A and B loci in the control group (χ2 = 5.58, p | 0.05). Association studies of the CETP polymorphism have been carried out mainly with Caucasian populations; however, the results have not been consistent among different populations. A possible explanation for this diversity among populations may be differences in genetic backgrounds, which may be more important than environmental factors.
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Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are pattern recognition molecules of innate immunity. In this study, a long-form PGRP, designated as gcPGRP6, was identified from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. The deduced amino acid sequence of gcPGRP6 is composed of 464 residues with a conserved PGRP domain at the C-terminus. The gcPGRP6 gene consists of four exons and three introns, spacing approximately 2.7 kb of genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that gcPGRP6 is clustered closely with zebrafish PGLYRP6, and formed a long-type PGRP subfamily together with PGLYRP2 members identified in teleosts and mammals. Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses revealed that gcPGRP6 is constitutively expressed in organs/tissues examined, and its expression was significantly induced in liver and intestine of grass carp in response to PGN stimulation and in CIK cells treated with lipoteichoic acid (LTA), polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) and peptidoglycan (PGN). Immunofluorescence ...
Hollenbach, B., Schreiber, L., Hartung, W., & Dietz, K. - J. (1997). Cadmium leads to stimulated expression of the lipid transfer protein genes in barley: Implications for the involvement of lipid transfer proteins in wax assembly. Planta, 203(1), 9-19. doi:10.1007/ ...
van den Thillart, Guido, Dufour, Sylvie and Rankin, J. Cliff, eds. (2008) Spawning Migration of the European Eel. Fish & Fisheries Series, 30 . Springer Netherlands, London, UK. ISBN 978-1-4020-9095-0 (Online) Ababou, Abdessamad, Gautel, Mathias and Pfuhl, Mark (2007) Disecting the N-terminal myosin binding site of human cardiac myosin binding protein C : Structure and myosin binding of domain C2. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 282 (12). pp. 9204-9215. ISSN 00219258 Ahmed, Naveed, Tsang, Wing Y. and Page, Michael I. (2004) Acyl vs Sulfonyl Transfer in N-Acyl β-Sultams and 3-Oxo-β sultams. Organic Letters, 6 (2). pp. 201-203. ISSN 15237060 Akbar, Sirwan, Rout, Simon and Humphreys, Paul (2015) Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PS3 and Citrobacter freundii Strain SA79 Obtained from a Wound DressingAssociated Biofilm. Genome Announcements, 3 (3). ISSN 2169-8287 Al-Nuaimi, Yusur, Hardman, Jonathan A., Bíró, Tamás, Haslam, Iain S., Philpott, Michael P., Tóth, Balázs I., ...
Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, fatty acid-binding protein, FABP, liver, intestine, FLUORESCENT-PROBE ADIFAB, HEART, TRANSPORT, LIGAND, ADIPOCYTE, EXCHANGE, VESICLES ...
How is Fatty Acid Binding protein 2 abbreviated? FABP2 stands for Fatty Acid Binding protein 2. FABP2 is defined as Fatty Acid Binding protein 2 frequently.
The SCOP classification for the Glycolipid transfer protein, GLTP superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
In patients with HoFH, lomitapide led to a significant reduction of LDL-c levels and to achievement of EAS targets in many patients, while CV event rates correlated with LDL-c levels.
Previous experiments indicated that secreted (s) and membrane (m) forms of folate binding protein (FBP) are present in the intrauterine environment of the pig. Our previous studies indicated that the two forms were produced sequentially; the secreted form was present in the intrauterine glands until Day 20 of gestation, whereas binding analysis indicated that folate binding increased dramatically in placental membranes until Day 50 of gestation. However, the cell types expressing mFBP have not been investigated. In this experiment, uterine wall sections from Day 20, 35, 50, 70, 90, and 105 of gestation were collected at slaughter and fixed, and subjected to in situ hybridization analysis for mFBP expression. The mFBP mRNAwas expressed by both columnar and cuboidal epithelia of the placental folds and expression appeared to be similar throughout gestation. Therefore, the placenta expressed mFBP from Day 35 of gestation onward, consistent with the concept that sFBP and mFBP occur sequentially during
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum concentrations of myoglobin vs human heart-type cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein in early detection of acute myocardial infarction. AU - Ishii, J.. AU - Wang, J.. AU - Naruse, H.. AU - Taga, S.. AU - Kinoshita, M.. AU - Kurokawa, H.. AU - Iwase, M.. AU - Kondo, T.. AU - Nomura, M.. AU - Nagamura, Y.. AU - Watanabe, Y.. AU - Hishida, H.. AU - Tanaka, T.. AU - Kawamura, K.. PY - 1997/8/19. Y1 - 1997/8/19. N2 - We compared the diagnostic utility of serum concentrations of human heart-type cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABPc), myoglobin, and their ratio for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 104 healthy volunteers and 165 patients at admission within 6 h of the onset of chest pain. The ROC curves of the H-FABPc [0.946, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.913-0.979] and myoglobin (0.895, 95% CI = 0.8460.944) between patients with AMI and healthy volunteers were significantly greater than the area under the ratio of myoglobin to H-FABPc ...
The notion that CETP may be a potential target for reducing CVD originated from reports of a Japanese population of apparently healthy individuals that lacked a functional copy of the CETP gene (34,35). Compared with unaffected individuals, those who were CETP-deficient and who had no measurable CETP activity in plasma exhibited substantial increases in HDL-C (209%) and large decreases in LDL-C (44%). In individuals with heterozygous deficiency who possessed half the normal CETP activity, changes in HDL-C and LDL-C were less dramatic (+25% and −5%, respectively).. While CETP gene mutations are common in Japanese populations (49) and have clearly helped to establish the link between reduced CETP function and elevated HDL-C levels, the effect of decreased CETP activity on the development of atherosclerosis is less clear. For example, in a study of 201 patients with markedly elevated HDL-C levels (≥100 mg/dl), a subgroup of 12 patients (6%) was identified with atherosclerotic CVD. Of these, 10 ...
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrial encounter structure (ERMES) physically links the membranes of the ER and mitochondria in yeast. Although the ER and mitochondria cooperate to synthesize glycerophospholipids, whether ERMES directly facilitates the lipid exchange between the two organelles remains controversial. Here, we compared the x-ray structures of an ERMES subunit Mdm12 from Kluyveromyces lactis with that of Mdm12 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found that both Mdm12 proteins possess a hydrophobic pocket for phospholipid binding. However in vitro lipid transfer assays showed that Mdm12 alone or an Mmm1 (another ERMES subunit) fusion protein exhibited only a weak lipid transfer activity between liposomes. In contrast, Mdm12 in a complex with Mmm1 mediated efficient lipid transfer between liposomes. Mutations in Mmm1 or Mdm12 impaired the lipid transfer activities of the Mdm12-Mmm1 complex and furthermore caused defective phosphatidylserine transport from the ER to mitochondrial ...
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TXNIP is a member of the α-arrestin family that functions as an intracellular scaffold, which participates in cellular signaling by formation of signaling complexes and localization of signaling components in the cell.11,12 VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling in EC seems to be dependent on TXNIP as shown in the present study. We showed previously that TXNIP was required for VEGFR2 activation and EC survival in response to low concentrations of H2O2 and tumor necrosis factor-α.15 These data support our concept that TXNIP plays a critical role in regulating VEGFR2 signaling and angiogenesis in EC.. A novel finding of the present study is that TXNIP seems to be required for the earliest stage of VEGFR2 internalization. Receptor tyrosine kinases are regulated by endocytosis through the internalization of plasma membrane receptors.25-27 For example, the internalization of epidermal growth factor receptor is mediated by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is essential for sustained epidermal growth factor receptor ...
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Herein are described two antibodies that can inhibit CETP-lipoproteins interaction and CETP activity. Presently described are an antibody or fragment thereof capable of specifically binding to an epitope of the N-terminal or C-terminal domains of CETP and methods of using these antibodies for separation, identification, diagnosis and therapy.
Outer membrane (OM) proteins 5, 6, 7, 20, 22, 37, 40, and 70 are subunits of the TOM system that transports proteins across the outer membrane. Proteins 9, 10, 12, 22 and 54 are subunits of the TIM system that mediates import of multispanning carrier proteins into the inner membrane (IM). A carrier precursor exiting the TOM channel is captured by the 70 kDa Tim9/10-complex in the intermembrane space and transferred to the 300 kDa inner membrane complex that contains Tim9p, Tim10p, Tim12p, Tim22p and Tim54p. Binding to the Tim22-complex triggers the membrane potential dependent insertion of mulitspanning carrier into the inner membrane. Inner membrane proteins 11, 17, 23 and 44 are members of, or closely adjacent to, the second TIM system (Tim17-complex)that mediates transport of precursors carrying a targeting presequence ...
Shop FERM and PDZ domain-containing protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and FERM and PDZ domain-containing protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
heparin-binding growth-associated molecule; osteoblastic cells; mechanical loading; mechanotransduction; signal transduction; PKC; PKA; MAPK; gene-expression; bone-cells; mc3t3-e1 osteoblasts; in-vivo; c-fos; strain; kinase; release; protein; ...
Noggin protein is a potent bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist capable of inhibiting vasculogenesis even in the presence of provasculogenic VEGF and FGF-2. We found that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) do not express Noggin in culture and used these cells for modeling of antivasculogenesis. We hypothesized that high-efficiency transduction of HUVECs with bicistronic lentiviral vector encoding Noggin and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) enables direct visualization of Noggin effects in homogenous primary cell populations in vitro and in vivo. By comparing HUVECs transduced with a control GFP and GFP/Noggin expression cassettes, we showed that constitutive and orthotopic Noggin protein expression did not influence cell proliferation, down-regulated BMP-2 expression, and showed no effect on BMP receptor transcripts. We demonstrated that in contrast to GFP-only control, Noggin expression in endothelial cells abrogated endothelial migration in response to monolayer injury,
ubiquitin carrier protein kinase: a 300 kDa kinase consisting of 3 subunits of MWs 70, 105 & 120; requires Mg2+ but inhibited by high concentration; from HeLa cells
Rehberg EF et al. (1996) A novel abetalipoproteinemia genotype. Identification of a missense mutation in the 97-kDa subunit of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that prevents complex formation with protein disulfide isomerase.. [^] ...
In this study, we provide evidence based on both functional assays and structural modeling that is consistent with EsLBP1 functioning as an LBP-like protein. Most notably, EsLBP1 binds Gram-negative bacterial LOS and LPS with nanomolar or higher avidity under in vitro conditions, i.e., when LPS/LOS is presented as part of supramolecular assemblies containing LPS-rich lipid-water interfaces, as in aggregates of purified LPS/LOS. eslbp1 gene expression is regulated by exposure to the peptidoglycan monomer TCT, which synergizes with LPS in the triggering of V. fischeri-induced morphogenesis of the host symbiotic tissues. The gene is expressed and the protein produced across the organs epithelia-from the point where V. fischeri initially gathers, along the path of its migration, to where it takes up permanent residence in the crypts. The protein is also abundant along the apical surfaces of other epithelial tissues, where colonization by bacteria does not occur.. Although EsLBP1 has only ~25% ...
Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) had been previously isolated from cotton fiber but their functions were unclear so far. Bioinformatic analysis of the tetraploid cotton genome database identified 138 nsLTP genes, falling into the 11 groups as reported previously. Different from Arabidopsis, cacao, and other crops, cotton type XI genes were considerably expanded and diverged earlier on chromosome At11, Dt11, and Dt08. Corresponding to the type XI genes, the type XI proteins (GhLtpXIs) all contained an extra N-terminal cap resulting in larger molecular weight. The research revealed that the expression of type XI genes was dramatically increased in fibers of tetraploid cotton compared with the two diploid progenitors. High-level of GhLtpXIs expression was observed in long-fibered cotton cultivars during fiber elongation. Ectopic expression of GhLtpXIs in Arabidopsis significantly enhanced trichome length, suggesting that GhLtpXIs promoted fiber elongation. Overall, the findings of this
BACKGROUND/AIMS Fascin is an actin-bundling protein that is important in cell motility. Fascin expression has been shown to have a potential role in tumor progression for some epithelial tumors. However, there are only a few studies related to its expression in mesenchymal tumors. We investigated fascin expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. METHODS Thirty gastrointestinal stromal tumors, which were very low (n=6), low (n=2), moderate (n=4), and high (n=18) risk, constituted our series. Immunohistochemical expression of fascin was studied in all cases. RESULTS Immunoreactivity was observed in only five cases, all of which were in the high-risk group. The remaining cases (25/30) showed no immunoreactivity, and the difference did not seem statistically important (p=0.261). Fascin expression was stronger in epithelioid cells than spindle-shaped cells (p=0.003). In addition, gastrointestinal stromal tumors in the small bowel showed higher fascin expression than those in the other localizations
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship between cholesteryl ester transfer activity and high density lipoprotein composition in hyperlipidemic patients. AU - Sparks, D. L.. AU - Frohlich, J.. AU - Lacko, A. G.. AU - Pritchard, P. H.. PY - 1989/6. Y1 - 1989/6. N2 - Cholesteryl ester transfer from solid-phase bound HDL to endogenous plasma HDL or VLDL/LDL was determined in 50 patients with primary disorders of lipid metabolism and 27 normolipidemic subjects. Transfer to the plasma HDL pool was significantly reduced in familial hypercholesterolemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia, hypoalphalipoproteinemia and dysbetalipoproteinemia. Subfractionation of HDL revealed that the lipid transfer to HDL3 was significantly reduced in all patient groups while transfer to HDL2 was increased in those with dysbetalipoproteinemia and familial hypertriglyceridemia. Transfer to LDL and VLDL was increased only in patients with dysbetalipoproteinemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia. Reduced transfer to HDL occurred in samples ...
Looking for online definition of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes in the Medical Dictionary? cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes explanation free. What is cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes? Meaning of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes medical term. What does cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes mean?
The mechanism of the regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary fats and cholesterol was investigated using human cholesterol ester transfer protein transgenic mice fed monounsaturated fatty acid and saturated fatty acid enriched diets with or without cholesterol. Cholesterol inhibited protein activity and hepatic mRNA abundance in the monounsaturated fatty acid diet. However, cholesterol enhanced protein activity but had no effect on hepatic mRNA abundance in the saturated fatty acid diet. The molecular mechanisms of dietary lipid mediated regulation of the promoter activity of this gene were investigated using chimeric gene constructs harbouring sequential deletions of the gene promoter in SW 872 cell culture. Oleic acid and stearic acid had opposite effects indicating that the type of dietary fat alters gene regulation. There was interaction between cholesterol and fatty acids to regulate cholesterol ester transfer protein.. ...
Transporters influence the disposition of chemicals within the body by participating in absorption, distribution, and elimination. Transporters of the solute carrier family (SLC) comprise a variety of proteins, including organic cation transporters (OCT) 1 to 3, organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTN) 1 to 3, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1 to 7, various organic anion transporting polypeptide isoforms, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, peptide transporters (PEPT) 1 and 2, concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT) 1 to 3, equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1 to 3, and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters (MATE) 1 and 2, which mediate the uptake (except MATEs) of organic anions and cations as well as peptides and nucleosides. Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, such as ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), multidrug resistance proteins (MDR) 1 and 2, bile salt export pump, multidrug ...
... acyl-carrier-protein] reductase, beta-hydroxyacyl-[acylcarrier-protein] dehydrase, and enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase ... Other names in common use include beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein](ACP) reductase, beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein (ACP ... 3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NADP+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + ... beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl ACP reductase, NADPH- ...
Occupation and downregulation of carrier proteins[edit]. Protein binding of testosterone in women[6] Group. Free. Albumin. SHBG ... Danazol is known to bind to two steroid hormone carrier proteins: sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which binds androgens ... to and occupation of steroid hormone carrier proteins and consequent displacement of steroid hormones from these proteins.[5][6 ... Ulrich Westphal (6 December 2012). Steroid-Protein Interactions II. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 256-. ISBN 978-3-642 ...
"Transferrin is an insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 binding protein". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... regulation of protein stability. • transferrin transport. • iron ion homeostasis. • platelet degranulation. • ion transport. • ... The protein is composed of alpha helices and beta sheets that form two domains.[8] The N- and C- terminal sequences are ... protein binding. • ferric iron transmembrane transporter activity. • ferrous iron binding. • transferrin receptor binding. ...
"Protein Engineering Design and Selection. 12 (6): 439-446. doi:10.1093/protein/12.6.439. PMID 10388840.. ... They also serve as carriers for molecules of low water solubility this way isolating their hydrophobic nature, including lipid- ... The albumins (/ˈælbjʊmɪn/) (formed from Latin: albumen[3] "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, ... Protein Engineering Design and Selection. 12 (6): 439-446. doi:10.1093/protein/12.6.439. PMID 10388840.. .mw-parser-output cite ...
... (ORM) or alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGp,[1] AGP or AAG) is an acute phase (acute phase protein) plasma alpha- ... The only established function of ORM is to act as a carrier of basic and neutrally charged lipophilic compounds. In medicine, ... The effect of these changes on drug protein binding and drug delivery, however, appear to be minimal.[4] AGP shows a complex ... It is synthesized primarily in hepatocytes and has a normal plasma concentration between 0.6-1.2 mg/mL (1-3% plasma protein).[2 ...
... producing the oxygen-carrier hemoglobin; breaking down proteins; and turning nitrogenous waste products into ammonia and urea ... Investigations showed that ragworm jaws are made of unusual proteins that bind strongly to zinc.[47] ... Phylogenetic analyses based on 79 ribosomal proteins indicated a position of Sipuncula within Annelida.[17] Subsequent analysis ...
He was known for his researches on vitamin-carrier proteins and Lathyrus sativus[3] and was an elected fellow of the Indian ... he worked on vitamin-carrying proteins which demonstrated how the proteins carried vitamins such as thiamin and riboflavin to ...
enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein reductase (NADPH, B-specific) activity]. • protein binding. • 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein ... acyl-carrier-protein dehydratase activity]. • protein homodimerization activity. • catalytic activity. • [acyl-carrier-protein ... 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein synthase activity]. • acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase activity]. • hydrolase activity. • ... acyl-carrier-protein S-malonyltransferase activity]. • 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein dehydratase activity]. • fatty acid ...
Grazoprevir is transported by the solute carrier proteins SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3. Drugs that inhibit this proteins, such as ... Elbasvir targets the NS5A protein, which effectively prevents the transcription of the HCV RNA and also prevents virion ... an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus's NS5A protein) and grazoprevir (an NS3/4A inhibitor). It is used to treat chronic hepatitis ...
Entrez Gene: UCP1 uncoupling protein 1 (mitochondrial, proton carrier). . Abgerufen am 25. Februar 2011. ... Thermogenin (auch entkoppelndes Protein, engl. Uncoupling Protein 1 bzw. UCP1 genannt[1]) ist ein Transmembranprotein, das sich ... The uncoupling protein homologues: UCP1, UCP2, UCP3, StUCP and AtUCP. . In: Biochem. J.. . 345 Pt 2, 2000, S. 161-79. PMID ... Entdeckt wurde das Enzym 1979 als Uncoupling Protein[2], 1988 wurde es zum ersten Mal kloniert.[3][4] ...
... and denaturation of proteins before delivery. In one study, a short amphipathic peptide carrier, Pep-1, and protein complexes ... CPP mediated delivery of proteins[edit]. The development of therapeutic proteins that has presented a valuable method to treat ... Several groups have successfully delivered CPP fused proteins in vitro. TAT was able to deliver different proteins, such as ... The size range of proteins with effective delivery is from 30kDa to 120-150kDa. In one study, TAT-fused proteins are rapidly ...
The cargo carrier is transported to the TGN by motor proteins such as dynein. Tethering of the cargo carrier to the recipient ... Once the cargo carriers are matured, the carrier scission is then catalyzed by dynamin-II or EHD1,[21] together with the ... Retromer is a complex of proteins that has been shown to be important in recycling transmembrane receptors from endosomes to ... However, it is clear that there are other complexes and proteins that act in this retrieval process. So far it is not clear ...
This precursor protein also includes the oxytocin carrier protein neurophysin I.[21] The inactive precursor protein is ... The oxytocin peptide is synthesized as an inactive precursor protein from the OXT gene.[18][19][20] ... It belongs to the rhodopsin-type (class I) group of G-protein-coupled receptors.[citation needed] ... The oxytocin receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor that requires magnesium and cholesterol. ...
Fetuins are carrier proteins like albumin. Fetuin-A forms soluble complexes with calcium and phosphate and thus is a carrier of ... The protein is commonly present in the cortical plate of the immature cerebral cortex and bone marrow hemopoietic matrix, and ... alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) also known as fetuin-A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AHSG gene. Fetuin-A belongs ... 2003). "Novel insights into uremic vascular calcification: role of matrix Gla protein and alpha-2-Heremans Schmid glycoprotein/ ...
Elovson J, Vagelos PR (July 1968). "Acyl carrier protein. X. Acyl carrier protein synthetase". J. Biol. Chem. 243 (13): 3603-11 ... Acyl carrier proteins (ACP) (such as ACP synthase and ACP degradation) are also used to produce 4′-phosphopantetheine. This ... Strickland KC, Hoeferlin LA, Oleinik NV, Krupenko NI, Krupenko SA (January 2010). "Acyl carrier protein-specific 4'- ... is also the source of the phosphopantetheine group that is added as a prosthetic group to proteins such as acyl carrier protein ...
One known example of these transport proteins is the melibiose, or melB, carrier protein derived from the melB gene of E. coli ... "Melibiose Carrier Protein". UniProt. UniProt Consortium. Retrieved 21 May 2017. Paoletti, Rodolfo; Kritchevsky, David (1966). ... The protein is part of a system whose main function is to catalyze the accumulation and transport of lactose and other beta- ... Galactoside permease is a protein coded for by the lacY gene of the "lac" operon, and is found bound to the membrane of a cell ...
... is an essential prosthetic group of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP) and aryl carrier proteins ( ... Fatty acid synthase Pantothenic acid Elovson J, Vagelos PR (July 1968). "Acyl carrier protein. X. Acyl carrier protein ... Strickland KC, Hoeferlin LA, Oleinik NV, Krupenko NI, Krupenko SA (January 2010). "Acyl carrier protein-specific 4'- ...
Abbreviations: ACP - Acyl carrier protein, CoA - Coenzyme A, NADP - Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Note that ... PKC is a multifunctional protein kinase which phosphorylates serine and threonine residues in many target proteins. However PKC ... through specific transport proteins, such as the SLC27 family fatty acid transport protein. Red blood cells do not contain ... Anderson, Courtney M.; Stahl, Andreas (April 2013). "SLC27 fatty acid transport proteins". Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 34 (2 ...
... specific transmembrane carrier proteins are required. These proteins have receptors that bind to specific molecules (e.g., ... Phosphorylation of the carrier protein and the binding of a hydrogen ion induce a conformational (shape) change that drives the ... Carrier Proteins and Active Membrane Transport. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26896/ Alberts B, Johnson ... Carrier Proteins and Active Membrane Transport. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26896/ Alberts B, Johnson ...
Seedorf U, Ellinghaus P, Roch Nofer J (Jun 2000). "Sterol carrier protein-2". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1486 (1): 45-54. ... The encoded protein catalyzes the last step of the mitochondrial fatty acid beta oxidation spiral. Unlike most mitochondrial ... The ACAA2 gene encodes a 41.9 kDa protein that is composed of 397 amino acids and contains 88 observed peptides. ... "3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, mitochondrial". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Cao W, Liu N, Tang S, Bao L, ...
Seedorf U, Ellinghaus P, Roch Nofer J (2000). "Sterol carrier protein-2". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1486 (1): 45-54. doi:10.1016/ ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... The protein encoded by this gene is the first enzyme of the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway, which catalyzes the desaturation ...
EC 6.2.1.46: [[L-allo-isoleucine--holo-[CmaA peptidyl-carrier protein] ligase]] ... Category:EC 1.7.7 (with an iron-sulfur protein as acceptor). *Category:EC 1.7.99 (with other acceptors) *Nitrite reductase EC ... Category:EC 1.18 (act on iron-sulfur proteins as donors)Edit. *Category:EC 1.18.6 *Nitrogenase EC 1.18.6.1 ... EC 6.2.1.53: [[L-proline--[L-prolyl-carrier protein] ligase]]. *EC 6.2.1.54: [[D-alanine--[D-alanyl-carrier protein] ligase]] ...
"Identification of the ubiquitin carrier proteins, E2s, involved in signal-induced conjugation and subsequent degradation of ... protein complex. • extracellular exosome. Biological process. • ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process. • protein ... protein autoubiquitination. • protein ubiquitination. • MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Sources:Amigo ... ubiquitin-protein transferase activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • ubiquitin conjugating enzyme activity. ...
Carrier ionophores may be proteins or other molecules. Channel formers that introduce a hydrophilic pore into the membrane, ... Synthetic ion carriers have also been prepared. Ionophores selective for cations and anions have found many applications in ... Ionophore means "ion carrier" as these compounds catalyze ion transport across hydrophobic membranes such as liquid polymeric ... Ionophores can disrupt the membrane potential by conducting ions through a lipid membrane in the absence of a protein pore, and ...
The domains outlined in red represent carrier proteins. The following abbreviations correspond to the figure below: GNAT, GCN5- ... This ten module PsyD protein is, to date, the protein with the highest reported number of PKS modules. Large portions of the ...
... s are carrier proteins which bind cobalamin (B12). Transcobalamin I (TCN1), also known as haptocorrin, R-factor, ... and R-protein, is a glycoprotein produced by the salivary glands of the mouth. It primarily serves to protect cobalamin ( ...
Atromentin and leucomelone possess antibacterial activity, inhibiting the enzyme enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, ( ... S. pneumoniae resides asymptomatically in healthy carriers typically colonizing the respiratory tract, sinuses, and nasal ... and Maclyn McCarty demonstrated that the transforming factor in Griffith's experiment was not protein, as was widely believed ... pneumoniae is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress and increased expression of the RecA protein, a key ...
Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MCAT gene. The ... Malonyltransferase and acyl carrier protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (41): 40067-74. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... The human Malonyl CoA-acel carrier protein transacylase in human mitochondria associates with respiratory complex one, such ... where it catalyzes the transfer of a malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein. The encoded ...
... acyl-carrier-protein] reductase, beta-hydroxyacyl-[acylcarrier-protein] dehydrase, and enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase ... Other names in common use include beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein](ACP) reductase, beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein (ACP ... 3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NADP+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + ... beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl ACP reductase, NADPH- ...
Fatty acid synthesis in S. erythraea has previously been proposed to involve a discrete acyl carrier protein (ACP), as in most ... and high-level expression in Escherichia coli of the Saccharopolyspora erythraea gene encoding an acyl carrier protein ... and high-level expression in Escherichia coli of the Saccharopolyspora erythraea gene encoding an acyl carrier protein ... and high-level expression in Escherichia coli of the Saccharopolyspora erythraea gene encoding an acyl carrier protein ...
... a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase highly expressed in high-oil maize inbred lines, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology ... SAD, a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase highly expressed in high-oil maize inbred lines. SAD, a stearoyl-acyl carrier ... SAD, a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase highly expressed in high-oil maize inbred lines. Liu, Zh.; Yang, X.; Fu, Y. ... Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD) is a key enzyme that converts stearic acid to oleic acid. In this study, two- ...
Pantothenic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, which is a component of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl-carrier proteins. Pantothenic ...
These antigens are poor immunogens unless conjugated to proteins.. The role of the carrier protein is to enhance immunogenicity ... and Neisseria outer membrane protein. Access to clinically-proven, safe, and efficacious carrier proteins is critical for ... The number of carrier proteins used in licensed vaccines is relatively limited and includes tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, ... Carrier proteins both increase the magnitude of the immune response as well as engender B-cell "memory." ...
as the carrier for surface proteins of HIV. A trial of these particles for. potential use in immune therapy is in progress. ... the coat protein from the virus on the carrier and plans to test it in rabbit. soon. ... To test the ceramic carriers, the researchers attached to them a common. protein from the blood transferrin. They then examined ... an electron microscope after labelling the coated carriers with a gold-bound. antibody. The antibodies recognised the protein, ...
Protein Sci. 1993 Mar;2(3):348-56. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support ... S-peptide has distinct advantages over existing carriers in fusion proteins in that it combines a small size (, or = 15 ... Recombinant DNA technology was used to produce a fusion protein having three parts: carrier, spacer, and target. The two ... Ribonuclease S-peptide as a carrier in fusion proteins.. Kim JS1, Raines RT. ...
Protein expression data [Model Organism Protein Expres...] Protein expression data. Model Organism Protein Expression Database ... This gene encodes a member of the P(I/L)W subfamily of mitochondrial carrier family transport proteins. The encoded protein ... mitochondrial folate transporter/carrier [Homo sapiens]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_110407.2. Identical Proteins FASTA ... mitochondrial folate transporter/carrier [Homo sapiens] mitochondrial folate transporter/carrier [Homo sapiens]. gi,21314739, ...
... is a acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] (CHEBI:16018) ... acyl-carrier-protein] (CHEBI:84648). (R)-3-Hydroxyhexanoyl-[acp] (CHEBI:326) is a (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] ( ... CHEBI:84648 - (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... An acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] where the acyl group is substituted at the pro-3R position by a hydroxy group.. ...
The carrier according to the invention is prepared from a sulfochlorinated macroporous crosslinked styrene resin by reacting ... thioisocyanate or aldehyde groups as protein-binding groups and may or may not contain sulfonic acid groups--which may also be ... which in turn fix a biologically active protein by covalent bonds. ... used as a carrier for covalently binding proteins, which resin contains isocyanate, ...
... Arpita I. Mehta,1,2 Sally Ross,2,3 Mark S. Lowenthal,2 Vincent Fusaro ... This study examined the proportion of LMM biomarkers, which are bound to circulating carrier proteins. Mass spectroscopic ... Several insights emerged: a) Accumulation of LMM biomarkers on circulating carrier proteins greatly amplifies the total serum/ ... These findings shift the focus of biomarker detection to the carrier protein and its biomarker content. ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ...
... Click the appropriate protein name to get information about the ... The TIM complexes mediating import of mitochondrial carrier proteins. Outer membrane (OM) proteins 5, 6, 7, 20, 22, 37, 40, and ... Proteins 9, 10, 12, 22 and 54 are subunits of the TIM system that mediates import of multispanning carrier proteins into the ... Tim9p, an essential partner subunit of Tim10p for the import of mitochondrial carrier proteins.. EMBO-J. 17:6477-6486. ...
Toxoplasma gondii apicoplast-targeted acyl carrier protein.. Lunin, V.V., Wernimont, A., Lew, J., Qiu, W., Lin, L., Hassanali, ... Protein Workshop , Ligand Explorer. Global Symmetry: Asymmetric - C1 Global Stoichiometry: Monomer - A1 Find Similar Assemblies ...
A study reports that low blood protein levels are found to be associated with reduced insulin resistance and thus risk of ... A protein in blood called retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), when reduced by the effect of modified diet and good exercise ... Kahns group of researchers found RBP4, a protein that transports vitamin A in the blood may be a cause for insulin resistance ... A study reports that low blood protein levels are found to be associated with reduced insulin resistance and thus risk of ...
View protein in InterPro. IPR002113 Aden_trnslctor. IPR002067 Mit_carrier. IPR018108 Mitochondrial_sb/sol_carrier. IPR023395 Mt ... View protein in InterPro. IPR002113 Aden_trnslctor. IPR002067 Mit_carrier. IPR018108 Mitochondrial_sb/sol_carrier. IPR023395 Mt ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... ATP/ADP carrier proteinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> , ...
Browse our Sterol carrier protein 2 Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Sterol carrier protein 2 Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ... SCP-CHI protein, SCP-X protein, SCPX protein, sterol carrier protein 2EC 2.3.1.176 protein, Sterol carrier protein X protein ... Sterol carrier protein 2 Proteins. We offer Sterol carrier protein 2 Peptides and Sterol carrier protein 2 Proteins for use in ...
The formulation comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable admixture of an osteogenic protein; and formulations comprising oste ... An injectable formulation is disclosed for delivery of osteogenic proteins. ... Recombinant proteins are preferred over naturally occurring isolated proteins. The amount of osteogenic protein useful herein ... INJECTABLE CARRIER FORMULATIONS OF HYALURONIC ACID DERIVATIVES FOR DELIVERY OF OSTEOGENIC PROTEINS ...
Purification and characterization of β-ketacyl-facyl-carrier-protein] reductase, β-hydroxyacyl-[acylcarrier-protein] dehydrase ... Acyl Carrier Protein Fatty Acid Synthetase Lower Specific Activity Incorporated Label Brassica CAMPESTRIS These keywords were ... Barley chloroplasts contain two acyl carrier proteins coded for by different genes. Carlsberg.Res.Commun., 49: 483-492.CrossRef ... Malonyl-CoA: acyl carrier protein transacylase from spinach. Fed.Proc., 41: 1192.Google Scholar ...
Structural modification of acyl carrier protein by butyryl group.. Wu, B.N., Zhang, Y.M., Rock, C.O., Zheng, J.J.. (2009) ... Acyl carrier protein (ACP) shuttles the acyl intermediates between individual pathway enzymes. In this study, we determined the ... Acyl carrier protein (ACP) shuttles the acyl intermediates between individual pathway enzymes. In this study, we determined the ... Structural modification of acyl carrier protein by butyryl group. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2K92/pdb ...
ubiquitin carrier proteins: E2-C is cyclin-selective ... ubiquitin carrier proteins. Subscribe to New Research on ... Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: 2*Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes: 45*ubiquitin carrier proteins: 9 ... induces protein catabolism in skeletal muscle by increasing expression of proteasome subunits and the ubiquitin carrier protein ... induces protein catabolism in skeletal muscle by increasing expression of proteasome subunits and the ubiquitin carrier protein ...
KLH serving as protein carrier in several vaccines, the homing profile of KLH-specific response may be applicable to the cancer ... Humoral Immune Response to Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin, the Protein Carrier in Cancer Vaccines. A. Kantele,1,2,3 M. P. Häkkinen, ... Keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) appears to be a promising protein carrier for tumor antigens in numerous cancer vaccine ...
K(1) = [A-carrier out]/[A out][carrier out]. K(2) = [A-carrier in]/[A-carrier out]. K(3) = [A in][carrier in]/[A-carrier in]. ... 1: A out + carrier out < A-carrier out 2: A-carrier out < A-carrier in 3: A-carrier in < A in + carrier in Each of ... 4: carrier in < carrier out; K(4)=[carrier out]/[carrier in] Without A bound, the "carrier out" conformation is probably ... Re: How can protein carriers change shape in facilitated diffusion with no ATP Date: Wed Nov 11 09:24:32 2009. Posted By: Eli ...
Carrier proteins explanation free. What is Carrier proteins? Meaning of Carrier proteins medical term. What does Carrier ... Looking for online definition of Carrier proteins in the Medical Dictionary? ... carrier protein. (redirected from Carrier proteins). Also found in: Encyclopedia. carrier protein. a multiunit transmembrane ... See also: protein. carrier protein. membrane proteins that have a high affinity for particular solutes, e.g. glucose, and which ...
The carrier proteins are use useful as components of vaccines that can elicit a T-cell dependent immune response. These ... The invention relates to polyepitope carrier proteins that comprise at least five CD4+ T cell epitopes, for conjugation to ... 5. The carrier protein according to claim 1, wherein the carrier protein is in an oligomeric form.. 6. The carrier protein ... 2. The carrier protein according to claim 1, that further comprises an hsp70CD4+ T cell epitope.. 3. The carrier protein ...
  • We have cloned and sequenced the structural gene for this ACP and find that it does encode a discrete small protein. (asm.org)
  • The phosphatase reaction is strongly inhibited by the addition of P-ePrv and enzyme I. Protein kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of the enzyme constituents of the phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli has also been demonstrated. (pnas.org)
  • The FabA and FabB proteins were similar in size and amino acid composition to their counterparts from Escherichia coli and to the putative homologs from Haemophilus influenzae. (asm.org)
  • D'Agnolo G, Rosenfeld IS, Vagelos PR: Multiple forms of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase in Escherichia coli. (acronymattic.com)
  • Pneumolysin from Streptococcus pneumoniae was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein and purified by affinity and hydroxylapatite chromatography. (asm.org)
  • Therefore we conjugated fimbrial protein with a core oligosaccharide fraction obtained from Escherichia coli K-12 lipopolysaccharide, which has been found to contain an epitope common for several enterobacterial species [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Peptide mapping at 97.4% sequence coverage shows high similarity between the two proteins. (genengnews.com)
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (nih.gov)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • Although CSPs share no sequence similarity with OBPs, these two groups of carrier proteins are characterized structurally by a hydrophilic surface and a hydrophobic core, respectively, to make them soluble in the sensillar lymph and to enable them to bind and carry olfactory ligands. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The sequence of ENR is highly conserved within higher plants and a homology model of Arabidopsis ENR was derived from the crystal structure of the protein from Brassica napus . (plantphysiol.org)
  • A macroporous crosslinked styrene resin, used as a carrier for covalently binding proteins, which resin contains isocyanate, thioisocyanate or aldehyde groups as protein-binding groups and may or may not contain sulfonic acid groups--which may also be in the form of the sodium salt or of sulfonic acid. (google.com)
  • Central to FA synthesis, the ACP (acyl carrier protein) represents the cofactor protein that covalently binds all fatty acyl intermediates via a phosphopantetheine linker during the synthesis process. (biochemj.org)
  • Ribonuclease S-peptide as a carrier in fusion proteins. (nih.gov)
  • S-peptide (residues 1-20) and S-protein (residues 21-124) are the enzymatically inactive products of the limited digestion of ribonuclease A by subtilisin. (nih.gov)
  • S-peptide binds S-protein with high affinity to form ribonuclease S, which has full enzymatic activity. (nih.gov)
  • The two carriers used were the first 15 residues of S-peptide (S15) and a mutant S15 in which Asp 14 had been changed to Asn (D14N S15). (nih.gov)
  • The interaction between the S-peptide portion of the fusion protein and immobilized S-protein allowed for affinity purification of the fusion protein under denaturing (S15 as carrier) or nondenaturing (D14N S15 as carrier) conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Nano-liposomes are the newly developed delivery systems for cancer therapy that are finding a position particularly suitable as peptide and protein carriers. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The overall pharmacological properties of commonly used protein and peptide in cancer therapy can be improved by the incorporation of protein and peptide into the nano-liposome. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This review also explores latest work intended for targeted treatment of cancer by nano-liposomal protein and peptide delivery system. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This type of delivery is targeting protein and peptide to tumor site by avoiding the reticuloendothelial system. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Methods of nano-liposome delivery containing protein and peptide are also highlighted. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Tapan Kumar Giri, Ayan Giri, Tapan Kumar Barman and Subhasis Maity, "Nanoliposome is a Promising Carrier of Protein and Peptide Biomolecule for the Treatment of Cancer", Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2016) 16: 816. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The harsh hydrolytic environment of the GI tract and the epithelial barriers to absorption, however, pose major challenges to the success of this mode of drug delivery for peptide and protein drugs. (begellhouse.com)
  • In this review, the evidence supporting the colon as an attractive site for peptide and protein drug delivery will be discussed. (begellhouse.com)
  • Translocation of glutamate transporter subtype excitatory amino acid carrier 1 protein in kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We examined the temporal expression of the sodium-dependent neuronal glutamate transporter, excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1), in KA-induced rat epilepsy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The ortholog of human solute carrier family 35 member B1 (UDP-galactose transporter-related protein 1) is involved in maintenance of ER homeostasis and essential for larval development in Caenorhabditis elegans. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The functional characteristics of human proton coupled folate transporter (hPCFT)/heme carrier protein (HCP) 1 were investigated. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT)/heme carrier protein (HCP) 1 is another folate transporter identified quite recently. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Solute Carrier Family 22 Member 12 (Organic Anion Transporter 4 Like Protein or Renal Specific Transporter or RST or Urate Anion Exchanger 1 or SLC22A12) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016', provides in depth analysis on Solute Carrier Family 22 Member 12 (Organic Anion Transporter 4 Like Protein or Renal Specific Transporter or RST or Urate Anion Exchanger 1 or SLC22A12) targeted pipeline therapeutics. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • TC #2.A.1) and the Amino Acid/Polyamine/Organocation (APC) Family (TC #2.A.3), were correctly predicted with high accuracy while others, such as the Mitochondrial Carrier (MC) (TC #2.A.29) and the K(+) transporter (Trk) families (TC #2.A.38), were predicted with much lower accuracy. (escholarship.org)
  • Abstract -Deficiencies of antithrombin (AT), protein C (PC) or protein S (PS), and activated protein C resistance (APCR) are very well-established coagulation defects predisposing to venous thromboembolism (VTE). (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus carrier proteins released to the media during the binding incubation modulate the binding of IGF-I tracer to cell receptors, suggesting that the carrier proteins may play an important role in regulating cellular responsiveness to the IGFs. (jci.org)
  • Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest. (uniprot.org)
  • The stability, protein-loading rate, and in vitro release of BAY 55-9837 from CS-SeNPs were also quantified. (dovepress.com)
  • Direct association of these two proteins was further supported by co-immunolocalization and co-immunoprecipitation analyses using transfected cells, by their co-sedimentation in membrane fractions resolved on sucrose density gradients, and by in vitro protein binding assays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The protein is expressed in the inactive apo form and the 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety must be post-translationally attached to a conserved serine residue on the ACP by the action of holo- acyl carrier protein synthase (ACPS) a phosphopantetheinyl transferase. (wikidoc.org)
  • A series of comparability studies were performed, comparing both the structure and function of P. fluorescens recombinant CRM 197 to the protein produced in the native organism, C. diphtheriae . (genengnews.com)
  • CRM 197 , which has a single amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for glycine, is a well-characterized carrier protein and is utilized in a number of approved conjugate vaccines for diseases such as meningitis and pneumococcal bacterial infection. (genengnews.com)
  • Structurally, the ACPs are small negatively charged α-helical bundle proteins with a high degree of structural and amino acid similarity. (wikidoc.org)
  • FGF basic is a member of the FGF family of at least 23 related mitogenic proteins which show 35 - 60% amino acid conservation. (neuromics.com)
  • Purified and activated forms of ovalbumin (OVA) from egg whites for use as a carrier protein to prepare immunogens for antibody production or secondary target for screening. (thermofisher.com)
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • Riboflavin carrier proteins (RFCPs) together with human serum albumin transport flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in the blood circuit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purified forms of cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA) that has been cationized (positively-charged) for the preparation of hapten-carrier protein conjugates having enhanced immunogenicity compared to BSA. (thermofisher.com)
  • Through disulfide reconfiguration to hybridize hemoglobin and albumin, tumor-targeted hybrid protein oxygen carriers (HPOCs) were fabricated, serving as nanomedicines for precise tumor oxygenation and simultaneous enhancement of hypoxia-dampened chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. (thno.org)
  • For example, microscopic beads of polystyrene can be used as carriers but they change the conformation of many compounds. (newscientist.com)
  • Carrier proteins are chosen based on immunogenicity, solubility, and whether an adequate level of hapten-carrier conjugation can be achieved. (thermofisher.com)
  • Each of these steps has its own equilibrium constant, which for the first and third steps are equivalent to the affinity constant for A and the different conformations of the protein. (madsci.org)
  • KLH, isolated from the hemolymphs of the molllusk Megathura crenulata, belongs to a large family of giant respiratory proteins called hemocyanins, which are found in mollusks and arthropods. (4adi.com)