The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).
The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
One of the paired, but seldom symmetrical, air spaces located between the inner and outer compact layers of the FRONTAL BONE in the forehead.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.
A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
A condition caused by dysfunctions related to the SINOATRIAL NODE including impulse generation (CARDIAC SINUS ARREST) and impulse conduction (SINOATRIAL EXIT BLOCK). It is characterized by persistent BRADYCARDIA, chronic ATRIAL FIBRILLATION, and failure to resume sinus rhythm following CARDIOVERSION. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired, particularly after surgical correction for heart defects.
A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.
Loss of consciousness due to a reduction in blood pressure that is associated with an increase in vagal tone and peripheral vasodilation.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CRANIAL SINUSES, large endothelium-lined venous channels situated within the SKULL. Intracranial sinuses, also called cranial venous sinuses, include the superior sagittal, cavernous, lateral, petrous sinuses, and many others. Cranial sinus thrombosis can lead to severe HEADACHE; SEIZURE; and other neurological defects.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
The numerous (6-12) small thin-walled spaces or air cells in the ETHMOID BONE located between the eyes. These air cells form an ethmoidal labyrinth.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
Rhythmic compression of the heart by pressure applied manually over the sternum (closed heart massage) or directly to the heart through an opening in the chest wall (open heart massage). It is done to reinstate and maintain circulation. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The removal or interruption of some part of the autonomic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.
The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.
An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
Simple rapid heartbeats caused by rapid discharge of impulses from the SINOATRIAL NODE, usually between 100 and 180 beats/min in adults. It is characterized by a gradual onset and termination. Sinus tachycardia is common in infants, young children, and adults during strenuous physical activities.
The sounds heard over the cardiac region produced by the functioning of the heart. There are four distinct sounds: the first occurs at the beginning of SYSTOLE and is heard as a "lubb" sound; the second is produced by the closing of the AORTIC VALVE and PULMONARY VALVE and is heard as a "dupp" sound; the third is produced by vibrations of the ventricular walls when suddenly distended by the rush of blood from the HEART ATRIA; and the fourth is produced by atrial contraction and ventricular filling.
Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Tumors or cancer of the MAXILLARY SINUS. They represent the majority of paranasal neoplasms.
The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.
An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
The circulation in a portion of the body of one individual of blood supplied from another individual.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
A characteristic symptom complex.
A hair-containing cyst or sinus, occurring chiefly in the coccygeal region.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The two large endothelium-lined venous channels that begin at the internal occipital protuberance at the back and lower part of the CRANIUM and travels laterally and forward ending in the internal jugular vein (JUGULAR VEINS). One of the transverse sinuses, usually the right one, is the continuation of the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS. The other transverse sinus is the continuation of the straight sinus.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
The long large endothelium-lined venous channel on the top outer surface of the brain. It receives blood from a vein in the nasal cavity, runs backwards, and gradually increases in size as blood drains from veins of the brain and the DURA MATER. Near the lower back of the CRANIUM, the superior sagittal sinus deviates to one side (usually the right) and continues on as one of the TRANSVERSE SINUSES.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.
The act of constricting.

Reduction in baroreflex cardiovascular responses due to venous infusion in the rabbit. (1/508)

We studied reflex bradycardia and depression of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) during left aortic nerve (LAN) stimulation before and after volume infusion in the anesthetized rabbit. Step increases in mean right atrial pressure (MRAP) to 10 mm Hg did not result in a significant change in heart rate or MAP. After volume loading, responses to LAN stimulation were not as great and the degree of attenuation was propoetional to the level of increased MRAP. A change in responsiveness was observed after elevation of MRAP by only 1 mm Hg, corresponding to less than a 10% increase in average calculated blood volume. after an increase in MRAP of 10 mm Hg, peak responses were attenuated by 44% (heart rate) and 52% (MAP), and the initial slopes (rate of change) were reduced by 46% (heart rate) and 66% (MAP). Comparison of the responses after infusion with blood and dextran solutions indicated that hemodilution was an unlikely explanation for the attenuation of the reflex responses. Total arterial baroreceptor denervation (ABD) abolished the volume-related attenuation was still present following bilateral aortic nerve section or vagotomy. It thus appears that the carotid sinus responds to changes inblood volume and influences the reflex cardiovascular responses to afferent stimulation of the LAN. On the other hand, cardiopulmonary receptors subserved by vagal afferents do not appear to be involved.  (+info)

Quantification of baroreceptor influence on arterial pressure changes seen in primary angiotension-induced hypertension in dogs. (2/508)

We studied the role of the sino-aortic baroreceptors in the gradual development of hypertension induced by prolonged administration of small amounts of angiotensin II (A II) in intact dogs and dogs with denervated sino-aortic baroreceptors. Short-term 1-hour infusions of A II(1.0-100 ng/kg per min) showed that conscious denervated dogs had twice the pressor sensitivity of intact dogs. Long-term infusions of A II at 5.0 ng/kg per min (2-3 weeks) with continuous 24-hour recordings of arterial pressure showed that intact dogs required 28 hours to reach the same level of pressure attained by denervated dogs during the 1st hour of infusion. At the 28th hour the pressure in both groups was 70% of the maximum value attained by the 7th day of infusion. Both intact and denervated dogs reached nearly the same plateau level of pressure, the magnitude being directly related both the the A II infusion rate and the daily sodium intake. Cardiac output in intact dogs initially decreased after the onset of A II infusion, but by the 5th day of infusion it was 38% above control, whereas blood volume was unchanged. Heart rate returned to normal after a reduction during the 1st day of infusion in intact dogs. Plasma renin activity could not be detected after 24 hours of A II infusion in either intact or denervated dogs. The data indicate that about 35% of the hypertensive effect of A II results from its acute pressor action, and an additional 35% of the gradual increase in arterial pressure is in large measure a result of baroreceptor resetting. We conclude that the final 30% increase in pressure seems to result from increased cardiac output, the cause of which may be decreased vascular compliance. since the blood volume remains unaltered.  (+info)

Hypoxia inhibits baroreflex vagal bradycardia via a central action in anaesthetized rats. (3/508)

It is known that arterial baroreflexes are suppressed in stressful conditions. The present study was designed to determine whether and how hypoxia affects arterial baroreflexes, especially the heart rate component, baroreflex vagal bradycardia. In chloralose-urethane-anaesthetized rats, baroreflex vagal bradycardia was evoked by electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve, and the effect of 15 s inhalation of hypoxic gas (4% O2) was studied. Inhalation of hypoxic gas was found to inhibit baroreflex vagal bradycardia. The inhibition persisted after bilateral transection of the carotid sinus nerve. Cervical vagus nerves were cut bilaterally and their peripheral cut ends were stimulated to provoke vagal bradycardia of peripheral origin so as to determine whether hypoxia could inhibit vagal bradycardia by acting on a peripheral site. In contrast to baroreflex vagal bradycardia, the vagus-induced bradycardia was not affected by hypoxic gas inhalation. It is concluded that baroreflex vagal bradycardia is inhibited by hypoxia and the inhibition is largely mediated by its direct central action.  (+info)

Responses of abdominal vascular capacitance in the anaesthetized dog to changes in carotid sinus pressure. (4/508)

1. The abdominal circulation of anaesthetized dogs was vascularly isolated without opening the abdomen, by cutting or tying all structures immediately above the diaphragm and tying the proximal ends of the hind limbs. The region was perfused at constant flow through the aorta and drained at constant pressure from the inferior vena cava. 2. Vascular resistance responses were expressed as the changes in perfusion pressure and capacitance responses were determined by integrating changes in vena caval outflow. 3. Decreasing the pressure in the isolated carotid sinuses over the whole baroreceptor sensitivity range increased mean perfusion pressure from 91 to 149 mmHg (a 67% increase in resistance) and decreased mean capacitance by 111 ml. (5 ml. kg-1). 4. The range of carotid sinus pressures over which capacitance responses occurred was at a significantly higher level than the corresponding range for resistance responses. 5. Comparison of the reflex responses with the responses to direct stimulation of efferent sympathetic nerves shows that quantitatively similar responses of resistance and capacitance to those induced by a large step decrease in carotid pressure could be produced by stimulating maximally the efferent sympathetic nerves at 5 Hz. These results also suggest that at all levels of carotid sinus pressure there is no difference in the impulse traffic to resistance and capacitance vessels.  (+info)

Carotid sinus hypersensitivity--a modifiable risk factor for fractured neck of femur. (5/508)

BACKGROUND: the potential impact on morbidity, mortality and health care economics makes it important to identify patients at risk of fracture, in particular fractured neck of femur (FNOF). Older patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) are more likely to have unexplained falls and to experience fractures, particularly FNOF. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of CSH in patients with FNOF. DESIGN: case-controlled prospective series. METHODS: consecutive cases were admissions over 65 years with FNOF. Controls were consecutive patients admitted for elective hip surgery, frail elderly people admitted to hospital medical wards and day-hospital patients. All patients had a clinical assessment of cognitive function, physical abilities and history of previous syncope, falls and dizziness, in addition to repeated carotid sinus massage with continuous heart rate and phasic blood pressure measurement. RESULTS: heart rate slowing and fall in systolic blood pressure was greater for patients with FNOF than those admitted for elective hip surgery (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). CSH was present in 36% of the FNOF group, none of the elective surgery group, 13% of the acutely ill controls and 17% of the outpatients. It was more likely to be present in FNOF patients with a previous history of unexplained falls or an unexplained fall causing the index fracture. The heart rate and systolic blood pressure responses to carotid sinus stimulation were reproducible. CONCLUSION: older patients with an acute neck of femur fracture who do not give a clear history of an accidental fall or who have had previously unexplained falls are likely to have CSH. CSH may be a modifiable risk factor for older patients at risk of hip fracture.  (+info)

New analytic framework for understanding sympathetic baroreflex control of arterial pressure. (6/508)

The sympathetic baroreflex is an important feedback system in stabilization of arterial pressure. This system can be decomposed into the controlling element (mechanoneural arc) and the controlled element (neuromechanical arc). We hypothesized that the intersection of the two operational curves representing their respective functions on an equilibrium diagram should define the operating point of the arterial baroreflex. Both carotid sinuses were isolated in 16 halothane-anesthetized rats. The vagi and aortic depressor nerves were cut bilaterally. Carotid sinus pressure (CSP) was sequentially altered in 10-mmHg increments from 80 to 160 mmHg while sympathetic efferent nerve activity (SNA) and systemic arterial pressure (SAP) were recorded simultaneously under various hemorrhagic conditions. The mechanoneural arc was characterized by the response of SNA to CSP and the neuromechanical arc by the response of SAP to SNA. We parametrically analyzed the relationship between input and output for each arc using a four-parameter logistic equation model. In baseline states, the two arcs intersected each other at the point at which the instantaneous gain of each arc attained its maximum. Severe hemorrhage lowered the gain and offset of the neuromechanical arc and moved the operating point, whereas the mechanoneural arc remained unchanged. The operating points measured under the closed-loop conditions were indistinguishable from those estimated from the intersections of the two arc curves on the equilibrium diagram. The average root mean square errors of estimate for arterial pressure and SNA were 2 and 3%, respectively. Such an analytic approach could explain a mechanism for the determination of the operating point of the sympathetic baroreflex system and thus helps us integratively understand its function.  (+info)

Carotid baroreflex function during prolonged exercise. (7/508)

The present investigation was designed to uncouple the hemodynamic physiological effects of thermoregulation from the effects of a progressively increasing central command activation during prolonged exercise. Subjects performed two 1-h bouts of leg cycling exercise with 1) no intervention and 2) continuous infusion of a dextran solution to maintain central venous pressure constant at the 10-min pressure. Volume infusion resulted in a significant reduction in the decrement in mean arterial pressure seen in the control exercise bout (6.7 +/- 1.8 vs. 11.6+/- 1.3 mmHg, respectively). However, indexes of central command such as heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion rose to a similar extent during both exercise conditions. In addition, the carotid-cardiac baroreflex stimulus-response relationship, as measured by using the neck pressure-neck suction technique, was reset from rest to 10 min of exercise and was further reset from 10 to 50 min of exercise in both exercise conditions, with the operating point being shifted toward the reflex threshold. We conclude that the progressive resetting of the carotid baroreflex and the shift of the reflex operating point render the carotid-cardiac reflex ineffectual in counteracting the continued decrement in mean arterial pressure that occurs during the prolonged exercise.  (+info)

Chronic hypoxia enhances the phrenic nerve response to arterial chemoreceptor stimulation in anesthetized rats. (8/508)

Chronic exposure to hypoxia results in a time-dependent increase in ventilation called ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. Increased O(2) sensitivity of arterial chemoreceptors contributes to ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia, but other mechanisms have also been hypothesized. We designed this experiment to determine whether central nervous system processing of peripheral chemoreceptor input is affected by chronic hypoxic exposure. The carotid sinus nerve was stimulated supramaximally at different frequencies (0.5-20 Hz, 0.2-ms duration) during recording of phrenic nerve activity in two groups of anesthetized, ventilated, vagotomized rats. In the chronically hypoxic group (7 days at 80 Torr inspired PO(2)), phrenic burst frequency (f(R), bursts/min) was significantly higher than in the normoxic control group with carotid sinus nerve stimulation frequencies >5 Hz. In the chronically hypoxic group, peak amplitude of integrated phrenic nerve activity ( integral Phr, percent baseline) or change in integral Phr was significantly greater at stimulation frequencies between 5 and 17 Hz, and minute phrenic activity ( integral Phr x f(R)) was significantly greater at stimulation frequencies >5 Hz. These experiments show that chronic hypoxia facilitates the translation of arterial chemoreceptor afferent input to ventilatory efferent output through a mechanism in the central nervous system.  (+info)

Carotid sinus reflex interactions were studied in 10 dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. The right and left carotid sinus regions were isolated and perfused at controlled pressures. Pressure in the right and left carotid sinuses were independently varied, and the resulting steady-state reflex changes in arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory frequency, tidal volume, and total ventilation were measured. Reflex changes when carotid sinus pressure was changed on one side were strongly influenced by pressure in the contralateral carotid sinus (P less than 0.05). Right carotid sinus gain was found to be 0.628 +/- 0.058 at a left carotid sinus pressure of 50 mmHg and 0.148 +/- 0.027 when left carotid sinus pressure was 200 mmHg. Similar results were found for left carotid sinus gain. Suppression was also found for heart rate, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and total ventilation. The hypothesis that rapid resetting of one carotid sinus baroreflex might influence responses from the other ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aortic depressor nerve stimulation does not impede the dynamic characteristics of the carotid sinus baroreflex in normotensive or spontaneously hypertensive rats. AU - Kawada, Toru. AU - Turner, Michael J.. AU - Shimizu, Shuji. AU - Fukumitsu, Masafumi. AU - Kamiya, Atsunori. AU - Sugimachi, Masaru. PY - 2017/5/30. Y1 - 2017/5/30. N2 - Recent clinical trials in patients with drug-resistant hypertension indicate that electrical activation of the carotid sinus baroreflex (baroreflex activation therapy) can reduce arterial pressure (AP) for more than a year. To examine whether the electrical stimulation from one baroreflex system impedes normal short-term AP regulation via another unstimulated baroreflex system, we electrically stimulated the left aortic depressor nerve (ADN) while estimating the dynamic characteristics of the carotid sinus baroreflex in anesthetized normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY, n=8) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, n=7). Isolated carotid sinus ...
Synonyms for Carotid sinus reflex in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Carotid sinus reflex. 26 synonyms for reflex: automatic, spontaneous, instinctive, involuntary, impulsive, knee-jerk, unthinking, automatic, impulsive, instinctive, involuntary.... What are synonyms for Carotid sinus reflex?
The carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex was studied in 11 normotensive subjects, using a variable pressure neck chamber and correcting for imperfect pressure transmission to the carotid sinus. Decreased carotid baroreceptor stimulation caused a sustaineded rise in arterial pressure, and increased carotid baroreceptor stimulation caused a sustain fall. The responses were in linear relation to the stimulus, and, after reaching the steady state, greater for the reduced than for the increased baroreceptor stimulation. Thus the carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex of the normotensive man is an effective antihypotensive and antihypertensive feedback system, though the former function may have more sensitivity. The increased and decreased baroreceptor stimulation by the neck chamber also caused bradycardia and tachycardia which were modest in magnitude and often transient. In eight subjects the reflex changes in heart rate induced by the neck chamber were compared with those induced by altering transmural ...
In human anatomy, the carotid sinus is a dilated area at the base of the internal carotid artery just superior to the bifurcation of the internal carotid and external carotid at the level of the superior border of thyroid cartilage. The carotid sinus extends from the bifurcation to the true internal carotid artery. The carotid sinus is sensitive to pressure changes in the arterial blood at this level. It is the major baroreception site in humans and most mammals. The carotid sinus is the reflex area of the carotid artery, consisting of various nerve receptors for baroregulation (pressure regulation of the body in sync to external conditions). The carotid sinus contains numerous baroreceptors which function as a sampling area for many homeostatic mechanisms for maintaining blood pressure. The carotid sinus baroreceptors are innervated by the sinus nerve of Hering, which is a branch of cranial nerve IX (glossopharyngeal nerve). The glossopharyngeal nerve synapses in the nucleus tractus ...
The major new finding obtained from conscious rats was the clear-cut demonstration that chemoreceptors, as well as baroreceptors, were transiently activated during combined electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and the carotid sinus nerve in conscious rats. The results have shown that when the carotid bifurcation was intact (ie, in the CONT group), combined electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and the carotid sinus nerve elicited a significant hypotensive response. This finding is in line with results obtained in dogs21,22 and drug-resistant hypertensive patients.1,2 Nevertheless, unlike the results seen in dogs23 and drug-resistant hypertensive patients,4 HR did not significantly decrease in intact conscious rats (the CONT group).. It is of interest to note that bilateral carotid body denervation (as in the CHEMO-X group) hampered the hemodynamic influences of the carotid chemoreceptors during combined electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and the carotid sinus nerve in conscious ...
Objective: To determine the frequency, age distribution and clinical presentation of carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) among 373 patients (age range 15-92 years) referred to two autonomic referral centres during a 10-year period.. Methods: Carotid sinus massage (CSM) was performed both supine and during 60° head-up tilt. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, heart rate and a three-lead electrocardiography were recorded continuously. CSH was classified as cardioinhibitory (asystole ⩾3 s), vasodepressor (systolic blood pressure fall ⩾50 mm Hg) or mixed. All patients additionally underwent autonomic screening tests for orthostatic hypotension and autonomic failure.. Results: CSH was observed in 13.7% of all patients. The diagnostic yield of CSM was nil in patients aged ,50 years (n = 65), 2.4% in those aged 50-59 years (n = 82), 9.1% in those aged 60-69 years (n = 77), 20.7% in those aged 70-79 years (n = 92) and reached 40.4% in those ,80 years (n = 57). Syncope was the leading clinical symptom in ...
Neurological complications following carotid sinus massage for diagnosis of the carotid sinus syndrome are uncommon and usually transient. Contraindications to carotid sinus massage should be respected and the standardized technique used.
The goal of this study was to determine whether nitric oxide (NO) and the NO donor, S-nitrosocysteine (cysNO), modulate the activity of carotid sinus baroreceptors. Baroreceptor activity was recorded from the vascularly isolated carotid sinus in anesthetized rabbits. Baroreceptor activity decreased in a dose-dependent manner after injection of either NO or cysNO as constant pressure was maintained, and activity recovered spontaneously over time, within seconds to minutes. The baroreceptor pressure-activity relation was shifted significantly to the right by cysNO, with a profound suppression of activity at high pressure. Baroreceptor activity at 160 mm Hg averaged 76 +/- 8%, 60 +/- 6%, and 36 +/- 5% of the control maximum during exposure to 10(-4), 2 to 3 x 10(-4), and 10(-3) mol/L cysNO, respectively. The inhibition of activity by the L and D isomers of cysNO was equivalent and was blocked by reduced hemoglobin, suggesting that the effect was mediated by NO. The suppression of baroreceptor activity by
Introduction: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on MRI are common in older people and are associated with cognitive impairment, falls and depression. They are believed to represent cerebrovascular small vessel disease but as frank infarction is not always seen it is suggested that WMH represent damage resulting from hypoperfusion. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) is an exaggerated fall in blood pressure (BP) or heart rate (HR) in response to stimulation of the carotid sinus. It is defined as a ≥50 mmHg drop in systolic BP & / or ≥3 second asystole in response to carotid sinus massage (CSM). CSH, is often associated with syncope & presyncope, thought to indicate cerebral hypoperfusion.. Aim: To examine, over a ten year follow-up, if CSH is associated with WMH volume.. Method: In 2002, 274 people age ≥65 underwent CSM. BP & HR response were recorded using beat to beat monitoring. Symptoms suggestive of cerebral hypoperfusion e.g. syncope or presyncope were recorded. In 2012, 53 of ...
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Pacemaker implantation for carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) (costs for program #148615) ✔ University Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich ✔ Department of Cardiology ✔
TY - JOUR. T1 - Medullary projections of rabbit carotid sinus nerve. AU - Blessing, W. W.. AU - Yu, Y. H.. AU - Nalivaiko, E.. PY - 1999/1/23. Y1 - 1999/1/23. N2 - In New Zealand white rabbits, cholera-toxin HRP was injected into the carotid sinus nerve just proximal to the carotid sinus. After survival periods of 3-5 days the rabbits were anesthetized and the brain fixed with aldehyde solution. Transverse sections were cut on a sledge microtome and the sections reacted with the tetramethylbenzidine procedure. HRP-positive fibers entered the ipsilateral dorsolateral medulla at the level of the acoustic tubercle, joining the tractus Solitarius. Positive fibres were found principally ipsilaterally in four regions of the medulla: in the caudal two thirds of the nucleus tractus solitarius, in its dorsolateral regions and, more caudally, in its commissural subdivision; in the dorsolateral aspect of the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve; in the region ventral and ventrolateral to the tractus ...
1. Carotid baroreceptor manipulation (neckchamber technique) and passive head-up tilting were used in ten patients with renovascular hypertension and in five subjects with essential hypertension under diuretic treatment to study reflex control of renin secretion at high basal-renin production rates.. 2. Reflex effects of carotid baroreceptor manipulation on renin secretion were only minor. During baroreceptor deactivation there was a moderate increase in mean arterial pressure, but an inconsistent change in the renal venous-arterial difference in plasma renin activity (PRA).. 3. During baroreceptor stimulation there was a modest fall in mean arterial pressure and a marked rise in the renal venous-arterial difference in PRA. This was opposite to the fall which might have been predicted as a result of the sympathetic depressor influence of the baroreceptor stimulus. Conversely, tilting increased the venous-arterial PRA difference by about 200%.. 4. It is concluded that when renin production rate ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of carotid sinus and cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors in the reflex control of adrenal medullary catecholamine secretion. Afferent input from carotid sinus and cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors was decreased by carotid occlusion or cervical vagal cold block, respectively. Increases in arterial pressure were significantly greater when either intervention was tested in the presence of the other, with the role of the carotid sinus baroreflex being dominant. Neither carotid occlusion nor vagal cold block resulted in a significant increase in plasma epinephrine or norepinephrine concentrations. However, carotid occlusion during vagal block caused a significant increase in plasma epinephrine (+87%) and norepinephrine concentrations (+128%). Likewise, vagal block during carotid occlusion increased plasma epinephrine (+82%) and norepinephrine concentrations (+73%). Similar experiments performed in a group of chemically sympathectomized animals ...
The goal of the present study was to determine whether oxygen-derived free radicals contribute to baroreceptor dysfunction in atherosclerosis. Baroreceptor activity was measured from the carotid sinus nerve during pressure ramps in isolated carotid sinuses of anesthetized rabbits. Rabbits fed a 0.5% to 1.0% cholesterol diet for 7.9 +/- 0.4 months (mean +/- SE; range, 5.5 to 10) developed atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid sinuses. Maximum baroreceptor activity measured at 140 mm Hg and the slope of the pressure-activity curve were reduced in atherosclerotic (n = 15) compared with normal (n = 13) rabbits (425 +/- 34 versus 721 +/- 30 spikes per second and 6.2 +/- 0.6 versus 10.8 +/- 0.8 spikes per second per mm Hg, respectively, P | .05). The level of activity was inversely related to plasma cholesterol concentration (r = .86, P | .001) and total cholesterol load (plasma concentration x duration of diet, r = .92). Mean arterial pressure was normal in both groups. Exposure of the carotid sinus to the
Title:The Future of Interventional Management of Hypertension: Threats and Opportunities. VOLUME: 12 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Alexandros Briasoulis and George Bakris. Affiliation:5841 S. Maryland Ave MC 1027, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.. Keywords:Resistant hypertension, baroreflex activation therapy, renal sympathetic denervation.. Abstract:In about 48% hypertensive patients in the United States, blood pressure remains higher than accepted treatment targets despite broad availability of effective pharmaceutical agents. Of these 48%, recent estimates define about 10-11% have treatment-resistant hypertension (TR-HTN). Compensatory changes in sympathetic nervous system function are an important component of HTN. Recent technical advances targeting the sympathetic activity of the carotid sinuses (Baroreflex Activation Therapy-BAT) and the renal sympathetic nerves (Renal Denervation Therapy-RDT) have renewed interest in invasive therapy for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension. Encouraging results ...
The use of baroreflex stimulation devices (also known as baroreflex activation therapy) is a potential alternative treatment for resistant hypertension and heart failure. Both hypertension and heart failure are relatively common conditions and are initially treated with medications and lifestyle changes. A substantial portion of patients are unresponsive to conventional therapy and treating these patients is often challenging and can lead to high costs and adverse effects. As a result, there is a large unmet need for additional treatments.. New treatment options are being explored to treat drug-resistant hypertension. One such approach is the electrical activation of the carotid sinus baroreflex. Baroreceptors are pressure sensors contained within the walls of the carotid arteries. They are part of the autonomic nervous system that regulates basic physiologic functions such as heart rate and blood pressure (BP). When these receptors are stretched, as occurs with increases in BP, the baroreflex ...
The hypothesis that we have formulated to explain the relationship between denervation and abnormal response to carotid sinus massage has been extensively described6 and is based on the theory of central gating.14 Briefly, chronic denervation of the muscle leaves the central nervous system without any moment-to-moment information about the contractile state of the muscle. On the other hand, the midbrain centers receive normal information from the stretch receptors of the carotid sinus. In a normal individual, carotid sinus massage, because of the anatomic position of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, results in a pressure on both the muscle and the sinus, and these signals are integrated by the centers as an external stretching of the sinus. In the case of proprioceptive defect of the muscle, the massage of the sinus is considered as a stretching of the sinus only and is integrated by the centers as an abrupt increase in blood pressure, resulting through the baroreflex pathways in an ...
An implantable device (20) uses the carotid baroreflex in order to control systemic blood pressure. The implant includes sampling and pulse stimulation electrodes (44) preferably located on the carotid sinus nerve branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, adjacent and distal to the carotid sinus baroreceptors. The stimulators have an external control unit, which communicates with the implant for determining appropriate operational parameters, and for retrieving telemetry information from the devices data bank. Typically two internal devices are implanted, one at each side of the patients neck.
A quick reference on Carotid sinus syncope, covering the clinical presentation, investigative approach, and key principles of management
There are four main sinus cavities in the body. They are located on either side of the nose, behind and in-between the eyes, and in the forehead. Each sinus cavity has an opening into the nose for the exchange of air and mucous. When the cavities get filled with mucous it creates a perfect breeding ground for bacteria.. Some of the most common sinus pressure symptoms include severe nasal congestion and yellowish green discharge which is thick because it contains pus. Pain in the teeth is also very normal. This pain increases when you bend over. Symptoms may vary however, depending on the sinuses involved.. Sinus pressure symptoms normally occur for about ten days and they may carry on for a longer period if a cold or flu occurs. They normally worsen after five to seven days. In some cases fever also occurs. Fever is more common in children than in adults therefore it is not a very reliable way of diagnosing sinus pressure.. Far more severe sinus pressure symptoms are terrible headaches, pain or ...
The present experiments were designed to measure the direct effects of propranolol on carotid sinus pressoreceptor nerve activity in the semi-isolated, superfused sinus of the cat. Propranolol (5 microgram/ml) significantly enhanced carotid sinus nerve activity at perfusion pressures of 100, 150 and 250 mm Hg. The enhancement was due primarily to the recruitment of new fibers. In similar preparations, perfused at constant flow, propranolol increased sinus resistance in parallel with the increase in sinus discharge. These effects were rapidly dissipated by rinsing with drug-free perfusion solution. The evidence suggests that propranolol may produce a change in either the elastic or autoregulatory modalities of sinus smooth muscle. This may produce a functional resetting of the sinus and provide a mechanism to explain the antihypertensive effect of propranolol. ...
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Why is the Dim Mak effective? The carotid sinus is a special sensory organ regulating the pressure of blood flow to the brain. The carotid sinus is located over internal and external carotid arteries. When blood pressure is too high, the carotid sinus signals the vasomotor center of the brain to decrease the blood pressure by dilating peripheral blood vessels and slowing down heart rate. Thats why it can result in a loss of consciousness along with a build up of plaques in the carotid arteries. By striking this area, small tears can result in the carotid arteries and blood clots. Death can occur by striking this area. Thats why doctors look for a pulse because the carotid artery is a major indicator of life. A very helpful resource in understanding more on Dim Mak is Dr. Michael Kellys (a sports medical doctor) book Death Touch: The Science of Dim Mak (1). In this book, he explains that stimulating a nerve through a Dim Mak point connected to an internal organ can cause damage ...
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The results from these studies demonstrate that afferent input from peripheral chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors contributes little to the systemic hemodynamic and sympathetic responses after term delivery by cesarean section. Furthermore, birth-related increases in circulating norepinephrine but not epinephrine appear dependent on afferent input from the carotid sinus or aortic depressor nerves, which carry both chemo- and baroreceptor afferents from the carotid sinus and aortic arch, respectively. Finally, we observed that vagal afferent activity regulates basal fetal plasma ANG II levels and exerts a tonic inhibitory effect on AVP release after birth.. Both peripheral chemoreceptors and baroreceptors have been shown to be functional during fetal life. The fetal cardiovascular response to acute hypoxemia is well described, consisting of a decrease in heart rate and increase in peripheral vascular resistance (7). Carotid denervation abolishes these responses to hypoxemia and NaCN, a chemical ...
For the past week I have been fighting off what I thought was a sinus infection (sinus pressure, drainage, plugged up ears, headache, and an off/on fever). Starting about two or three days ago the fev...
Ways to relieve sinus pressure in the ears include nasal irrigation, drinking water, turmeric tea, and peppermint tea. Apply warm compress and inhale steam.
Why do you have a Spine?. You have a spine to connect the upper and lower portions of your body together. Through your spine runs your spinal cord which is the major thoroughfare between your brain and the rest of your body. Your spine is one of the most important aspects of your whole body.. What does your spine look like?. Your spine is made up of three main curves and the sacrum. There are twenty four vertebrae; 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, and 5 lumbar. The cervical are curved in a what is called a lordotic curve, the thoracic are curved the opposite direction or, kyphotic, and the lumbar are curved like the cervical, in a lordotic curve. A kyphotic curve is the primary curve and the lordotic curve is a secondary, or functional curve. A functional curve is one that does not show up until movement occurs.. The curves of your spine not only act as shock absorbers between your head and tail, but allow the head to be over your pelvis. Your spine allows you to stand upright and see the horizon! The ...
Alas! All is not a bed of roses in the world of cone beam imaging. With the improved technologies come increased responsibilities. A dentist might use his cone beam image for the reasons specific to his specialty, such as assessment for the adequacy of bone for implant placement, but if he or she does not recognize abnormal anatomical structures, he or she could be held legally responsible if the patient suffers future injuries relating to that missed observation. For example, if an adenocarcinoma has caused visible distortion or disintegration of any bony structure seen in the scan, the dentist is responsible for notifying the patient and referring the patient to an appropriate specialist, or baring that, for enlisting the help of a board certified radiologist to assess the images.. This also means that if the image includes the entire sinus region, the dentist is responsible for recognizing abnormalities in the sinus, even though this lies outside of his area of expertise and he has no ...
Breathe freely again by clearing blocked passageways and easing sinus pressure. According to research or other evidence, the following self-care steps may be helpful. Wipe out irritantsKeep your environment free of irritants and allergens that can trigger sinus congestion, such as dust, mold, smoke, chemical fumes, and...
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Looking for online definition of carotid sinus reflex in the Medical Dictionary? carotid sinus reflex explanation free. What is carotid sinus reflex? Meaning of carotid sinus reflex medical term. What does carotid sinus reflex mean?
Looking for online definition of carotid sinus in the Medical Dictionary? carotid sinus explanation free. What is carotid sinus? Meaning of carotid sinus medical term. What does carotid sinus mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carotid baroreceptor function in dogs with chronic norepinephrine infusion. AU - Wang, Jie. AU - Ochoa, Manuel. AU - Patel, Mrugesh B.. AU - Zucker, Irving H.. AU - Loud, Alden V.. AU - Zeballos, Guillermo A.. AU - Hintze, Thomas H.. PY - 1991/6. Y1 - 1991/6. N2 - Carotid baroreceptor function, the compliance of the carotid sinus wall, and the structure of the carotid artery were examined in dogs with elevated plasma norepinephrine (2, 000-4, 000 pg/ml) for 28 days. The dogs with high nonepinephrine were normotensive (100±4.0 versus 98±4.0 mm Hg; p,0.05) with bradycardia (65 ±4.0 versus 87 ±16 beats/m in; p,0.05) compared with normal dogs in the conscious state. However, after pentobarbital anesthesia blood pressure was significantly higher in dogs with chronic norepinephrine infusion (165±6 mm Hg) compared with normal dogs (132±6 mm Hg). To assess baroreceptor sensitivity, multiunit carotid baroreceptor activity was recorded from the right carotid sinus nerve, and the ...
Clinical trials on carotid receptor stimulation by an implantable device showed a significant reduction in both office systolic (22 or 34 mmHg) and diastolic (18 or 20 mmHg) blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (14/9 mmHg), and heart rate (12 bpm), which was evident from study onset and was maintained at follow-up. Available data suggest a beneficial effect of carotid baroreceptor stimulation on the reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac structure and function, with attenuated mitral A-valve velocity and reduced left atrial dimensions; also carotid baropacing does not impair the renal function of patients with resistant hypertension, even during prolonged follow-up periods (13-18).. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Baroreceptor function is preserved following field stimulation of carotid baroreceptors in normotensive and hypertensive rats. AU - Kouchaki, Z.. AU - Butlin, M.. AU - Georgakopoulos, D.. AU - Avolio, A. P.. PY - 2015/5. Y1 - 2015/5. N2 - Background: Field stimulation of the carotid baroreceptors has been used successfully to induce long-term reduction in blood pressure. However, whether baroreceptor stimulation may affect the short-term blood pressure regulation function of the baroreceptors in normotensive and hypertensive conditions is not well established. Aim: To determine the effect of field stimulation of carotid baroreceptors on blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Methods: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY, n=7) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, n=7), each 15-19 weeks old, were anesthetized (urethane, 1.3 g/kg) and unilaterally vagotomized. Thoracic and aortic pressure was measured by an intravascular dual catheter tip pressure sensor (Science, 1.6F). ...
Arterial baroreceptors are mechanical sensors that detect blood pressure changes. It has long been suggested that the two arterial baroreceptors, aortic and carotid baroreceptors, have different pressure sensitivities. However, there is no consensus as to which of the arterial baroreceptors are more sensitive to changes in blood pressure. In the present study, we employed independent methods to compare the pressure sensitivity of the two arterial baroreceptors. Firstly, pressure-activated action potential firing was measured by whole-cell current clamp with a high-speed pressure clamp system in primary cultured baroreceptor neurons. The results show that aortic depressor neurons possessed a higher percentage of mechano-sensitive neurons. Furthermore, aortic baroreceptor neurons show a lower pressure threshold than that of carotid baroreceptor neurons. Secondly, uniaxial stretching of baroreceptor neurons, that mimics the forces exerted on blood vessels, elicited a larger increase in intracellular Ca2+
1. The carotid baroreceptors were stimulated for 2 min by neck suction at −30 and −60 mmHg in 19 normotensive subjects and 12 patients with moderate essential hypertension.. 2. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer and heart rate was derived from beat-to-beat analysis of the electrocardiogram. Blood flow was measured simultaneously at calf and finger with venous occlusion plethysmography and the vascular resistance was calculated.. 3. During neck suction at − 30 and − 60 mmHg there was a significant decrease in arterial blood pressure and heart rate. There was a transient vasodilatation of the calf blood vessels, while there was a sustained vasoconstriction of the finger blood vessels. These results were qualitatively similar in both groups; however, there were quantitative differences.. 4. These experiments show that there is a selective autonomic control of the different peripheral vascular beds by the carotid baroreceptors in both normotension and mild essential ...
1. Tachyphylaxis occurs when renin is repeatedly injected into dogs and cats regardless of whether they are normal, anesthetized, pithed, hepatectomized, suprarenalectomized, nephrectomized, or eviscerated.. 2. The pressor response to renin in brief experiments is independent of the height of the arterial pressure or the presence of the suprarenals. Evisceration and large doses of ergotamine reduce the response. It is largely uninfluenced by pithing, intracisternal injection of renin, cocaine, strychnine, caffeine, and infusion of sodium bicarbonate or hydrochloric acid. It may be slightly increased by large blood transfusions or hepatectomy but the result is short lived.. 3. There is no parallelism between the pressor responses to carotid sinus stimulation, adrenine, and tyramine on the one hand and renin on the other.. 4. Section of the brain may be followed by depressor responses to renin.. 5. Intracisternal injection of renin elicits no significant rise in blood pressure or other circulatory ...
The sick sinus syndrome is a disease of the sinus node and occurs in middle-aged and older patients, with some exceptions. The most probable predominant etiology is a degenerative process of the...
1. There are baroreceptors (pressure receptors) in the neck near the carotid artery. Activation of these receptors activates vagal tone. Increased vagal tone results in lowered heart rate, and in some people can cause fainting. So you might artificially (or more quickly) lower your HR, and if youre in the minority of people with carotid sinus hypersensitivity you might pass out. Falling and cracking your head is not conducive to what youre trying to achieve with PT. Plus its damned embarrassing ...
Adrenergic blocking action has been measured in a series of eighteen dibenzazepine derivatives. Maximal action was found in the allyl dibenzazepine derivative, Ro 2-3248. Compounds with side-chains longer than propyl were inactive. The quaternary salts were inactive.. The allyl dibenzazepine derivative, Ro 2-3248, is a strong, short-acting adrenergic blocking agent which causes a prolonged fall of blood pressure. It is orally active. Ro 2-3248 blocked the stimulatory action of epinephrine on blood pressure, nictitating membrane and isolated seminal vesicles. It blocked the stimulatory effects of arterenol. It also blocked the effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation on the nictitating membrane and the carotid sinus reflex. It did not block the inhibitory actions of epinephrine on blood pressure, isolated tracheal rings and isolated intestine or the inhibitory action of isopropylarterenol on blood pressure. The compound has a relatively low toxicity.. ...
Multidisciplinary assessment of the reason for the fall will reduce the risk of further fractures, and the components of such assessments are well described.11 12 Nearly all patients with hip fracture meet the criteria for such an assessment, which should be performed routinely as part of inpatient rehabilitation care (box 4). A medical cause for the fall should be sought; specifically, hypotension, postural hypotension, arrhythmia, vasovagal syncope, and carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Examination should include lying and standing blood pressure and a 12 lead electrocardiogram.. About 3% of hip fractures are related to localised bone weakness at the fracture site, secondary to tumour, bone cysts, or Pagets disease. More than half of the remaining patients have osteoporosis, and nearly all are osteopenic. Over the age of 80, a woman with normal bone mineral density for her age will have a T score of around - 2.5 (the diagnostic threshold for osteoporosis). Thus, assessment of bone density is ...
Systems and methods provide baroreflex activation to treat or reduce pain and/or to cause or enhance sedation or sleep. Methods involve activating the baroreflex system to provide pain reduction, sedation, improved sleep or some combination thereof. Systems include at least one baroreflex activation device, at least one sensor for sensing physiological activity of the patient, and a processor coupled with the baroreflex activation device(s) and the sensor(s) for processing sensed data received from the sensor and for activating the baroreflex activation device. In some embodiments, the system is fully implantable within a patient, such as in an intravascular, extravascular or intramural location.
The carotid body is located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery (C4) and consists of chemoreceptors, partially derived from neural crest cells, which are capable of detecting partial pressure of oxygen and pH.. The carotid sinus is also located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery but is visible as a dilatation of the internal carotid artery. It consists of baroreceptors innervated by the sinus branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve which are capable of detecting changes in blood pressure. In addition, there are barorecptors in the aortic arch but these are innervated by the vagus nerve). The carotid sinus can be massaged in order to slow the heart rate.. ...
Free, official coding info for 2021 ICD-10-CM G90.01 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Afferent fibres from CNIX and CNX travel to the NTS in the medulla. Effector neurons from the RVLM are GABAergic and therefore inhibitory, i.e. increased baroreceptor discharge reduces tonic sympathetic tone and increases vagal tone.. Increased baroreceptor activity therefore results in:. ...
Learn about the potential side effects of Nexafed Sinus Pressure + Pain (acetaminophen/pseudoephedrine). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
1. Irrigate your nasal passageways. Allergen particles, like bacteria, dust, pollen and others are washed off when a nasal rinse is done because it cleans out our mucus membranes and prevents the formation of more bacteria. The purpose of the mucus on our faces is to fight infections and, thereby, eliminate the incidence of sinusitis. Over the counter medications and nasal irrigation products are available and most have been found to be very effective. To know if a particular nasal irrigation product is fit for you, consult an ear, nose and throat doctor.When doing an assignment on Sinus Pressure, it is always better to look up and use matter like the one given here. Your assignment turns out to be more interesting and colorful this way ...
Looking for Baroreceptors? Find out information about Baroreceptors. sensory nerve terminals in blood vessels that perceive changes in blood pressure and reflexly regulate its level. Baroreceptors become stimulated when the... Explanation of Baroreceptors
If the error occurs frequently, request an RMA in order to replace the 6148A module, and mark the module for EFA.%LTL-SP-2-LTL_PARITY_CHECK: LTL parity check request for 0x[hex]ExplanationThis is the result of The outputs of the atrial and ventricular sensing circuits, 82 and 84, are connected to the microcontroller 60 which, in turn, are able to trigger or inhibit the atrial and ventricular No. 4,788,980 (Mann et al.). See the illustration on the side access panel for the correct memory configurations, and reseat the DIMMs accordingly. 216-Memory Size Exceeds Maximum Supported The amount of memory installed exceeds that supported The error is thus corrected and processing returns to FIG. 3. As used herein, the phrase coronary sinus region refers to the vasculature of the left ventricle, including any portion of the coronary sinus, great cardiac vein, left marginal vein, left posterior The switch was still under warranty from the used hardware > reseller, so the blade was replaced. Imprecise ...
As this is a potentially perilous procedure, the doctor usually performs it in conditions that take into consideration test sensitivity. For example, the massage table would be tilted at an angle of 70 degrees. Explaining to the patient the possible side effects and checking for contraindications should be done before the message.. The physician would ask the patient to relax and lie down on their back having extended the neck and turn the head so that the side that is being rubbed is facing upwards. A cardiac monitor would also be attached to the patient in order to monitor the heart rate. Once the patient has been in this position for five minutes, the massage can be performed. Imagine a horizontal line that begins about an inch and a half below the earlobe. Place the tips of the index and middle finger here. Applying the amount of pressure you would use to indent a tennis ball, massage the area in a counter-clockwise circle. Identify the carotid sinus and massage gently applying steady ...
I dont get sinus infection issues, so I dont know if thats related to the flu/common cold brain fog. My pet neurological theory is that the dopamine levels in the system go down, but if thats true I dont have any idea why that happens -- or maybe thats how the body forces one to rest and the brain fog and irritability is a side effect. Also side effects from any medication taken shouldnt be ruled out -- antihistamines can have a sort of brain fog effect (the 70s antihistimine du jour Actifed comes to mind ...
How to Massage Your Sinuses. If you are suffering from sinus pressure or congestion, massaging your sinuses may help to alleviate some of your irritation. Massaging the sinuses and the tissues surrounding the sinuses can help relieve the...
Nasal trauma can cause a deviated septum, but some people are simply born with the condition. Some of the symptoms or side effects of this condition include:
Hi ladies Thanks again for all your replies in this forum. I never thought I would make it to pass the 6 mo mark... DD is almost 10mo!!! Anyway, DD has been sick this week, pink eye/congestion and this morning I woke up with sore throat and a lot of sinus pressure. Im thinking is allergies because of all the crazy pollen out there now! Ive been feeling not very well through the day and I was wondering if there is anything at all I could take to at least calm the sinus pressure or the
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Doctor, I have been experiencing something for over a week now. Its a pressure in my head, feels very similar to sinus pressure, but paired with it is a shortness of breath, a difficulty seeing, slight cough at times, feeling faint and di
Nasty snot in the mask is a common issue and another one of the unladylike things I suffer with. I experience often. I am one of those many people across America and especially in Florida who struggle with sinus pressure and pain. Rich will tell you that I can tell him when a good strong…
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Massage of the carotid sinus, carotid sinus massage is used to diagnose carotid sinus syncope and is sometimes useful for ... a condition known as carotid sinus hypersensitivity, carotid sinus syndrome or carotid sinus syncope, in which manual ... The carotid sinus extends from the bifurcation to the "true" internal carotid artery. The carotid sinus is sensitive to ... The carotid sinus baroreceptors are innervated by the carotid sinus nerve, which is a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN ...
... carotid sinus nerve or Hering's nerve) is a small branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve that innervates the carotid sinus and ... and then divides in the angle of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery to innervate the carotid body and carotid sinus. ... It carries impulses from the baroreceptors in the carotid sinus to the vasomotor center in the brainstem (to help maintain a ... It is a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve that runs downwards, anterior to the internal carotid artery. It communicates with ...
... s (most commonly carotid sinus massage) are used to diagnose carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Therapeutic: Vagal ... A list of vagal maneuvers are listed below: Valsalva maneuver Carotid sinus massage or Czermak-Hering test Cold water immersion ... Common maneuvers that activate the vagus nerve include the Valsalva maneuver and carotid sinus massage, which can serve ... Rivasi, Giulia; Rafanelli, Martina; Ungar, Andrea (1 August 2018). "Usefulness of Tilt Testing and Carotid Sinus Massage for ...
"Apparatus and method for measurement of digital pressure applied to carotid sinus for causing carotid sinus syndrome". Acta ... Johann Nepomuk Czermak stated that mechanical compression of the carotid artery due to the carotid sinus reflex initiates a ... The Czermak-Hering test is a vagal maneuver consisting of the application of external digital pressure to the carotid sinus. ... Carotid sinus massage Takino, Masuichi; Takino, Yoshitada; Sugahara, Kunikazu (March 1964). " ...
Rarely, a malignant neuroblastoma may originate from the carotid body. "Carotid Body and Carotid Sinus -- General Information ... They are innervated by axons of the glossopharyngeal nerve which collectively are called the carotid sinus nerve. Glomus type ... The carotid body is located in the adventitia, in the bifurcation (fork) of the common carotid artery, which runs along both ... Impulse rate for carotid bodies is particularly sensitive to changes in arterial PO2 in the range of 60 down to 30 mm Hg, a ...
Angiography is used on rare occasions for TBIs i.e. when there is suspicion of an aneurysm, carotid sinus fistula, traumatic ... "Endovascular treatment of carotid cavernous sinus fistula: A systematic review". World Journal of Radiology. 5 (4): 143-155. ... It can still be found in the root of the term 'carotid'. Thomas Sydenham (1624-89) mentioned the term 'coma' in several cases ...
Chapleau MW, Hajduczok G, Abboud FM (July 1992). "Suppression of baroreceptor discharge by endothelin at high carotid sinus ... Wallbach, M; Koziolek, MJ (9 November 2017). "Baroreceptors in the carotid and hypertension-systematic review and meta-analysis ...
Fainting may result from subclavian steal syndrome or carotid sinus hypersensitivity. There is also often anemia and marked ... Due to obstruction of the main branches of the aorta, including the left common carotid artery, the brachiocephalic artery, and ...
Mancia, G.; Shepherd, J. T.; Donald, D. E. (1976). "Interplay among carotid sinus, cardiopulmonary, and carotid body reflexes ... Bevegård, B. S.; Shepherd, J. T. (1966). "Circulatory effects of stimulating the carotid arterial stretch receptors in man at ...
... the rapidity of death can be affected by the susceptibility to carotid sinus stimulation. Carotid sinus reflex death is ... Passig, K. Carotid Sinus reflex death - a theory and its history. URL last accessed 28 February 2006. ... Stimulation of the carotid sinus reflex-causing bradycardia, hypotension, or both. Depending on the particular method of ... Incomplete occlusion of the carotid arteries is expected and, in cases of homicide, the victim may struggle for a period of ...
Carotid sinus syncope is due to pressure on the carotid sinus in the neck. The underlying mechanism involves the nervous system ... Reflex syncope is divided into three types: vasovagal, situational, and carotid sinus. Vasovagal syncope is typically triggered ...
He suffered a basilar skull fracture, damaged his carotid artery and sinus. He recovered and returned to race the entire 2000 ...
This loss of pressure is interpreted by baroreceptors in the carotid sinus. It can also be activated by a decrease in the ...
... which is the portion of the internal carotid plexus in the cavernous sinus. The plant genus Waltheria from the family ...
"BestBets: Comparing Valsalva manoeuvre with carotid sinus massage in adults with supraventricular tachycardia". Archived from ...
Carotid sinus massage is used to diagnose carotid sinus syncope and is sometimes useful for differentiating supraventricular ... "Comparison of treatment of supraventricular tachycardia by Valsalva maneuver and carotid sinus massage". Annals of Emergency ...
"Comparison of Treatment of Supraventricular Tachycardia by Valsalva Maneuver and Carotid Sinus Massage". Annals of Emergency ... or to clear the ears and sinuses (that is, to equalize pressure between them) when ambient pressure changes, as in scuba diving ... the existence of a connection between the oral cavity and the maxillary sinus. The Valsalva maneuver is used to aid diagnosis ...
External Manual Carotid Compression is Effective in Patients with Cavernous Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistulaetreatment. The ... DAVFs may also be asymptomatic (e.g. cavernous sinus DAVFs). Most commonly found adjacent to dural sinuses in the following ... Type II: dural arterial supply drains into venous sinus. High pressure in sinus results in both anterograde drainage and ... and it is associated with transverse-sigmoid sinus DAVFs. Carotid-cavernous DAVFs, on the other hand, are more closely ...
... are the baroreceptors found within the aortic arch and carotid sinus. They are only sensitive to blood ...
The cavernous sinus also contains the carotid artery, which supplies blood to the brain; occasionally, compression of the ... Adjacent to the pituitary lies a part of the skull base known as the cavernous sinus. This contains a number of nerves that ... and surrounding structures such as the optic nerve and the contents of the cavernous sinus are compressed. The raised pressure ...
It uses an implanted device to electrically stimulate baroreceptors in the carotid sinus region. This elicits a reflex response ... Electrical stimulation of the external surfaces of the carotid sinus activates baroreceptors believed to be in the adventitia ... First, an incision is made in the neck to visualize the carotid bifurcation. The electrode is placed over the carotid artery ... The location of the electrode, on the carotid artery, carries a theoretical risk of disturbing plaque inside the carotid artery ...
It is the first branch of the internal carotid artery distal to the cavernous sinus. Branches of the ophthalmic artery supply ... This is usually just after the internal carotid artery emerges from the cavernous sinus. In some cases, the ophthalmic artery ... branches just before the internal carotid exits the cavernous sinus. The ophthalmic artery emerges along the medial side of the ... The posterior ethmoidal artery enters the nose via the posterior ethmoidal canal and supplies the posterior ethmoidal sinuses ...
... the internal carotid plexus. Sympathetic fibers supplying the eye separate from the carotid plexus within the cavernous sinus. ... The oculomotor nerve passes through the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus and enters the orbit through the superior orbital ... Their axons ascend with the internal carotid artery as a plexus of nerves, ... originate in the superior cervical ganglion are carried by the nasociliary nerve or directly extend from the internal carotid ...
The carotid sinus nerve is the branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve which innervates them. Alternatively, the glomus type I ... In the carotid body the respiratory chemoreceptors need a period of time postnatally in order to reach functional maturity. ... When there is a decrease in the blood's pH, a decrease in oxygen (pO2), or an increase in carbon dioxide (pCO2), the carotid ... The glomus type I cells of the carotid body are innervated by the sensory neurons found in the inferior ganglion of the ...
Neurally mediated syncope may also occur when an area in the neck known as the carotid sinus is pressed. The third type of ... This is sensed by stretch receptors in the walls of vessels in the carotid sinus and aortic arch. These receptors then trigger ... A normal response to carotid sinus massage is reduction in blood pressure and slowing of the heart rate. Especially in people ... More specific tests such as implantable loop recorders, tilt table testing or carotid sinus massage may be useful in uncertain ...
At its origin, the internal carotid artery is somewhat dilated. This part of the artery is known as the carotid sinus or the ... The internal carotid runs vertically upward in the carotid sheath and enters the skull through the carotid canal. During this ... the external carotid artery. The cervical segment, or C1, or cervical part of the internal carotid, extends from the carotid ... The internal carotid artery is a terminal branch of the common carotid artery; it arises around the level of the fourth ...
Horses lack a carotid rete and instead use their sinuses to cool blood around the brain. These factors suggest that the ... Many ungulates have a specialized network of blood vessels called the carotid rete, which keeps the brain cool while the body ...
... it lodges the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, and is named the carotid sulcus. Along the posterior part of the ... On either side of the crest is an irregular opening leading into the corresponding sphenoidal air sinus. These sinuses are two ... the sphenoidal sinuses, which are separated from each other by a septum. The superior surface of the body [Fig. 1] presents in ... leaving in the articulated skull a round opening at the upper part of each sinus by which it communicates with the upper and ...
This destimulates baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch which link to the nucleus tractus solitarii. This center ...
... such as carotid sinus nerves, across the chest, or across the brain; caution in the use during pregnancy, menstruation, and ...
427.8 Other specified cardiac dysrhythmias 427.81 Sick sinus syndrome 427.89 Sinus bradycardia, NOS 427.9 Cardiac dysrhythmia ... 443.2 Other arterial dissection 443.21 Dissection of carotid artery 443.22 Dissection of iliac artery 443.23 Dissection of ... and stenosis of precerebral arteries 433.0 Occlusion and stenosis of basilar artery 433.1 Occlusion and stenosis of carotid ... aneurysm nonruptured 437.4 Cerebral arteritis 437.5 Moyamoya disease 437.6 Nonpyogenic thrombosis of intracranial venous sinus ...
Additionally, the nasolacrimal duct and sinuses are connected to the nasal passage. The horse's respiratory system not only ... the carotid artery and part of the sympathetic trunk Knee: the carpus of the horse (equivalent to the human wrist), the large ...
1 Aortic arch gives rise to: Brachiocephalic trunk Left Common Carotid Left Subclavian Toilet Paper My Ass, or They Pay Me ... hyperthyroid Endocarditis Sick sinus syndrome ABCD:p. 30 Anti-coagulate Beta-block to control rate Cardiovert Digoxin 3 D's:p. ...
... deafness Caudal duplication Caudal regression syndrome Causalgia Cavernous hemangioma Cavernous lymphangioma Cavernous sinus ... Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency Carnosinase deficiency Carnosinemia Caroli disease Carotenemia Carotid artery ...
Neurons that innervate the SN mediate the gag reflex, the carotid sinus reflex, the aortic reflex, the cough reflex, the ... Additional minor GVA input from the nasal cavity, soft palate and sinus cavities enters via the facial nerve. ... in the carotid body via glossopharyngeal nerve, aortic bodies, and the sinoatrial node, via the vagus nerve Chemically and ...
Once an odontogenic infection involves the maxillary sinus, it is possible that it may then spread to the orbit or to the ... abscess of the carotid sheath and jugular thrombophlebitis, hematogenous dissemination to distant organs, and coagulation ... Odontogenic sinusitis is an inflammatory condition of the paranasal sinuses that is the result of dental pathology, most often ... Sinusitis is inflammation of the paranasal air sinuses. ... ethmoid sinus. Odontogenic infection can be managed relatively ...
Carotid duplex: A carotid duplex is an ultrasound study that assesses whether or not you have atherosclerosis (narrowing) of ... cerebral venous sinus thrombosis). Nonpenetrating and penetrating cranial trauma can also be common causes of intracerebral ... the carotid arteries. These arteries are the large blood vessels in your neck that feed your brain. Transcranial Doppler (TCD ...
... cardiac pacing for those with carotid sinus hypersensitivity, and tai chi. Resistance exercise two or three times a week with ...
If the decrease in blood pressure is systemic (rather than occlusion of the renal artery) baroreceptors in the carotid sinus ...
Stam J (April 2005). "Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses". The New England Journal of Medicine. 352 (17): 1791-8. doi ... Flint AC, Duckwiler GR, Budzik RF, Liebeskind DS, Smith WS (2007). "Mechanical thrombectomy of intracranial internal carotid ... Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Unusual causes such as gas embolism from rapid ascents in scuba diving. Even in cases where ...
Alternatively, carotid sinus hypersensitivity can cause episodes of dizziness and collapse on head turning if the neck brushes ...
... postganglionic fibres also join the nerve from the plexus on the internal carotid artery in the wall of the cavernous sinus and ... It traverses the cavernous sinus, above the other orbital nerves receiving in its course one or two filaments from the ...
GNE Sick sinus syndrome 1; 608567; SCN5A Sick sinus syndrome 2; 163800; HCN4 Sickle cell anemia; 603903; HBB Silver spastic ... SLC22A5 Carotid intimal medial thickness 1; 609338; PPARG Carpal tunnel syndrome, familial; 115430; TTR Carpenter syndrome; ...
... while MRA may show narrowing of cavernous sinus internal carotid artery (ICA).[citation needed] Ultrasonographic findings On ... In Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, findings include enhancement and fullness of the anterior cavernous sinus and superior orbital fissure ... Another disease variant is Sclerosing pseudotumor, which more often presents bilaterally and may extend into the sinuses.[ ... orbital cellulitis and carotid-cavernous fistula. The best imaging modality for idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease is ...
It is a branch of the cavernous carotid artery, itself from the internal carotid artery. It supplies the posterior pituitary of ... It passes across the middle of the cavernous sinus. It reaches the lateral surface of the posterior pituitary. It merges with ... The inferior hypophysial artery is a branch of the cavernous carotid artery, itself from the internal carotid artery. ...
... carotid carotid bifurcation carotid body carotid canal carotid groove carotid plexus carotid sheath carotid sinus carotid ... ciliary nerves shoulder shoulder blade shin sight sigmoid colon sigmoid sinus Simian crease simian shelf sinoatrial node sinus ... petrosal sinus inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle inferior pubic ramus inferior rectus muscle inferior sagittal sinus ... cervical nerve transverse colon transverse facial artery transverse pericardial sinus transverse process transverse sinus ...
... occurs commonly from bacterial infection spread via the paranasal sinuses, usually from a previous sinus ... carotid cavernous fistula) Malformation (congenital, vascular) Immediate treatment is very important, and it typically involves ... It is most commonly caused by an acute spread of infection into the eye socket from either the adjacent sinuses or through the ... Upper respiratory infection, sinus infection, trauma to the eye, ocular or periocular infection, and systemic infection all ...
The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus sense this increase in blood pressure and relay the information to the cardiovascular ...
More rarely the maxillary or a branch of the external carotid artery can be ligated. The bleeding can also be stopped by intra- ... septoplasty and functional endoscopic sinus surgery) Nasal bleeds may be due to fracture of facial bones namely maxilla and ... Vascular Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu disease) Angioma Aneurysm of the carotid artery The nasal ... cystic carcinoma Melanoma Nasopharyngeal carcinoma Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma Nosebleeds can be a sign of cancer in the sinus ...
This presentation indicates either compression of structures in the superior orbital fissure or the cavernous sinus. Superior ... Inferior ophthalmic veins and sympathetic nerves arising from the plexus that accompanies the internal carotid artery The ... particularly blowout fractures through the floor of the orbit into the maxillary sinus. These structures are: superior and ...
... paranasal sinus neoplasms MeSH C04.588.443.665.650.693.575 - maxillary sinus neoplasms MeSH C04.588.443.665.710 - pharyngeal ... carotid body tumor MeSH C04.557.465.625.650.700.705.340 - glomus jugulare tumor MeSH C04.557.465.625.650.700.705.360 - glomus ... carotid body tumor MeSH C04.557.580.625.650.700.705.340 - glomus jugulare tumor MeSH C04.557.580.625.650.700.705.360 - glomus ... endodermal sinus tumor MeSH C04.557.465.625 - neuroectodermal tumors MeSH C04.557.465.625.200 - craniopharyngioma MeSH C04.557. ...
Sensitive carotid sinus P-THORAX Pleuritic pain Tracheal deviation Hyperresonance Onset sudden Reduced breath sounds (and ...
The bone between the floor of the maxillary sinus and the roots of the upper back teeth is very thin, and frequently the apices ... Local and distant structures (such as ear, brain, carotid artery, or heart) can also refer pain to the teeth.: 80, 81 Other non ... Outside of the mouth, the sinuses, muscles of the face and neck, the temporomandibular joints, and cervical lymph nodes are ... Consequently, acute or chronic maxillary sinusitis can be perceived as maxillary toothache, and neoplasms of the sinus (such as ...
... while the latter refers to measurement of the pulse of the carotid artery. "Corrigan's pulse" is named for Sir Dominic Corrigan ... lesions Aortic regurgitation Patent ductus arteriosus Systolic hypertension Bradycardia Aortopulmonary window Aneurysm of sinus ...
... for Student Innovation Scholars in Medicine Excellence in Mentoring Awards He was the first to describe the carotid sinus ...
Carotid angiography showed direct carotid-cavernous sinus fistu … ... Carotid angiography showed direct carotid-cavernous sinus fistula concomitant with an intracavernous aneurysm on the right side ... Direct carotid-cavernous sinus fistula due to ruptured intracavernous aneurysm treated with electrodetachable coils--case ... GDC embolization via the transarterial route may be an alternative for the treatment of direct carotid-cavernous sinus fistula ...
H. H. Trout, L. L. Brown and J. E. Thompson, "Carotid Sinus Syndrome: Treatment by Carotid Sinus Denervation," Annals of ... L. Gould, C. V. Reddy, W. H. Becker, K. C. Oh and S. G. Kim, "Usefulness of Carotid Sinus Pressure in Detecting the Sick Sinus ... C. A. Morley, W. M. Hudson, E. J. Perrins and R. Sutton, "Is There a Difference between Sick Sinus Syndrome and Carotid Sinus ... Clinical Results of Carotid Denervation by Adventitial Stripping in Carotid Sinus Syndrome," European Journal of Vascular and ...
... followed by carotid occlusion. Low-risk patients underwent carotid occlusion alone. Our entire carotid occlusion with selective ... Local Cavernous Sinus Aneurysm Symptom Control after Carotid Occlusion. Treatment indications in our study for patients with ... Symptomatic Cavernous Sinus Aneurysms: Management and Outcome After Carotid Occlusion and Selective Cerebral Revascularization ... Symptomatic Cavernous Sinus Aneurysms: Management and Outcome After Carotid Occlusion and Selective Cerebral Revascularization ...
Cerebellum and carotid sinus reflex activity. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1972 Jul; 60(7): 1107-10. ...
Distention in the Carotid Sinus w/ an increase in Blood Pressure will stimulate. Carotid sinus massage Carotid sinus massage ( ... Carotid sinus hypersensitivity is an exaggerated response to pressure applied to the carotid sinus located in the carotid ... Due to its location the carotid sinus is an intimately related but distinct organ from the carotid body. The carotid sinus is ... internal carotid artery. Carotid Sinus. If the application of pressure to the carotid sinus is being considered for either ...
... carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex pathway and its alteration of Carotid . carotid sinus nerve synonyms, carotid sinus nerve ... The carotid sinus is a widened portion of the carotid artery where (The carotid sinus is a widened portion of the carotid ... Carotid Sinus Reflexes. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) consists of the observation that stimulation of the carotid artery ... in the carotid sinus. Carotid Sinus Reflex begins with. n. A dilated area located at the bifurcations of the carotid arteries ...
Carotid sinus syncope * Cough (posttussive) syncope * Defecation syncope * Micturition syncope * Postprandial syncope ...
Complications of carotid sinus pressure, which are rare, include cardiac arrhythmias and cerebrovascular accidents. A 79-year- ... Complications of carotid sinus pressure, which are rare, include cardiac arrhythmias and cerebrovascular accidents. A 79-year- ... Atheromatous embolism following carotid sinus pressure has not been previously documented. Most sudden stroke deficits ... Cerebral Atheromatous Embolism Following Carotid Sinus Pressure. Arch Neurol. 1981;38(5):310-312. doi:10.1001/archneur. ...
A seizure is an episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by abnormal neuronal activity that results in a sudden change in behavior, sensory perception, or motor activity. The clinical spectrum of seizures includes simple and complex focal or partial seizures and generalized seizures.
Carotid sinus syndrome. Carotid sinus syndrome is confirmed if carotid sinus massage causes bradycardia (asystole) and/or ... Persistent sinus bradycardia ,40 b.p.m. or sinus pauses ,3 s in the awake state and in the absence of physical training. ...
Carotid Sinus Syncope. *Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. *Cerebral Artery Thrombosis. *Cerebral Hemorrhage. *Cerebral Palsy ...
Mean aortic pressure (MAP) was fixed at approximately 100 mm Hg and the pressure in the isolated carotid sinus (ISP) was varied ... Mean aortic pressure (MAP) was fixed at approximately 100 mm Hg and the pressure in the isolated carotid sinus (ISP) was varied ... Mean aortic pressure (MAP) was fixed at approximately 100 mm Hg and the pressure in the isolated carotid sinus (ISP) was varied ... Mean aortic pressure (MAP) was fixed at approximately 100 mm Hg and the pressure in the isolated carotid sinus (ISP) was varied ...
The Newcastle protocols for head-up tilt table testing in the diagnosis of vasovagal syncope, carotid sinus hypersensitivity, ...
keywords = "Carotid sinus pressure, Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, Murmurs",. author = "Klein, {Herman O.} and Gad ... Dive into the research topics of Transient bradycardia induced by carotid sinus pressure increases outflow obstruction in ... title = "Transient bradycardia induced by carotid sinus pressure increases outflow obstruction in hypertrophic obstructive ... T1 - Transient bradycardia induced by carotid sinus pressure increases outflow obstruction in hypertrophic obstructive ...
Since carotid sinus hypersensitivity may be fairly common in the older population, a comment regarding safe use of stethoscope ... So the point is that a positive result on CSM does not necessarily mean that the patient with syncope has carotid sinus ... The editorialist make a good point about the contraindications for carotid sinus massage (CSM) as a diagnostic maneuver. The ... The article, itself,showed that among community dwelling older folks in England, carotid sinus hypersensitivity was seen in 35 ...
A new transvenous approach to the carotid-cavernous sinus via the inferior petrooccipital vein Clinical article ... Devices in use range from carotid artery stents for treatment of cervical carotid artery stenoocclusive disease (an area in ... Of these aneurysms, 36 arose from the internal carotid artery, 12 from the middle cerebral artery, eight from the ... Medical application of an infrared free-electron laser: selective removal of cholesterol ester in carotid artery atheromatous ...
Avoid in Cerebrovascular Disease or Carotid Bruit!. *Used in neurally mediated Syncope to diagnose Carotid Sinus ... Carotid Sinus Syncope Carotidynia Chest Pain Chest Wall Pain Costochondritis Dizziness Epidemic Pleurodynia Exercise Induced ... Carotid Sinus Syncope Vasodepressor Syncope Aortic Stenosis Aortic Dissection Subclavian Steal Syndrome Superior Vena Cava ... Carotid Sinus Massage Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy ACC-AHA Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment Dizziness Vasovagal Syncope ...
Sudden rate drop intervention rate level in patients with new clarity pacemakers and carotid sinus syndrome Sinisa U. ... Sudden rate drop intervention rate level in patients with new clarity pacemakers and carotid sinus syndrome Sinisa U. ... Efficacy of sequential antiarrhythmic treatment in sinus rhythm maintenance after successful electrocardioversion in patients ... Efficacy of sequential antiarrhythmic treatment in sinus rhythm maintenance after successful electrocardioversion in patients ...
Blood samples were aspirated postmortem from the carotid artery, heart, or orbital venous sinus, resulting in ,1 blood sample ...
Particular attention should be paid to palpation of the carotid arteries and auscultation for bruits. Carotid sinus massage in ... and syncope caused by carotid sinus syndrome.1. Neurocardiogenic, or vasovagal, syncope is characterized by reflexive ... sinus pause of 2 seconds or longer, symptomatic sinus bradycardia or supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, third- ... palpation and auscultation of carotid arteries for evidence of carotid stenosis, measurement of orthostatic blood pressure, and ...
Carotid Sinus Hypersensibility: A Concept on the Way (Articles) Alfonso Lagi International Journal of Clinical Medicine Vol.4 ...
Carotid sinus hypersensitivity, defecation, and cough syncope occur almost exclusively in the elderly population.[18] ... Abnormal reflex responses in carotid sinus hypersensitivity, vasovagal syncope, and other neuro-meditated syncopes; and ... Neurally mediated (reflex) syncope includes vasovagal, carotid sinus, situational (cough, swallowing, micturition) syncope. It ...
Carotid sinus hypersensitivity associated with focal alpha-synucleinopathy of the autonomic nervous system. Journal of ...
1987) Long term effect of carotid endarterectomy on carotid sinus baroreceptor function and blood pressure control. Br J Surg ... 1976) Neurophysiology of the carotid sinus receptors in normal and hypertensive animals and man. Cardiology 61 (suppl) 31-45. ... Its afferents are located mainly in the carotid sinus and aortic arch. A major factor is their stimulation by distension, which ... In experimental studies, reduction of afferent carotid sinus nerve activity has been associated with development of ...
Rhino-orbital mucormycosis causing cavernous sinus and internal carotid thrombosis treated with posaconazole. Arch Ophthalmol. ... thromboses of the cavernous sinus or internal carotid artery may occur. [73] All areas of involvement must be understood, to ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the facial sinuses and brain is superior to a CT scan in assessing the degree of tissue ... CT scans may show sinusitis of the ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses, as well as orbital and intracranial extension. As the disease ...
Cavernous sinus disease (giant carotid aneurysm, fistula, or thrombosis). *. Intraorbital structural lesions (eg, orbital ... Cavernous sinus disease and orbital mucormycosis require immediate MRI imaging for timely treatment. ...
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AgedBradycardiaCarotid SinusClinical ProtocolsFemaleHumansHypotension, OrthostaticMaleNitroglycerinSensitivity and Specificity ... The protocol included carotid sinus massage in decubitus and after passive orthostatism. Tilt testing was performed with ... The protocol included carotid sinus massage in decubitus and after passive orthostatism. Tilt testing was performed with ... Usefulness of a protocol for carotid sinus massage in supine and erect postures in patients with syncope without other ...
  • The stripping of adventitia from the common carotid artery, the bifurcation, and for about 1 cm up both the external and internal carotid arteries was used to treat CSS with excellent results due to the fact that 85% of patients remained asymptomatic. (
  • Therapeutic internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion for symptomatic intracavernous artery aneurysms can result in ischemic infarction despite normal clinical balloon test occlusion (BTO). (
  • One patient in the moderate-risk group developed right hemiparesis and a left posterior middle cerebral artery infarction by CT 2 months after carotid occlusion. (
  • Therapeutic internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion is a common treatment in the management of symptomatic intracavernous carotid artery aneurysms (cavernous sinus aneurysms), giant ICA aneurysms, and certain skull base neoplasms. (
  • In the past, these lesions were often treated by means of open cervical carotid artery sacrifice, with or without cerebral revascularization, or by open intracranial approaches ( 1 - 4 ). (
  • A single case report describes the induction of coronary artery spasm by carotid sinus massage. (
  • High-pressure baroreceptors are present in the aortic arch and carotid sinus of the carotid artery. (
  • The carotid sinus is an enlarged area in the neck at the point of bifurcation of the carotid artery which contains baroreceptors (pressure receptors). (
  • Carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) consists of the observation that stimulation of the carotid artery baroreceptors results in a greater than expected fall in heart rate and drop in blood pressure. (
  • The carotid sinus, also known as the carotid bulb, is a neurovascular structure that appears as a dilation at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery, and the beginning of the internal carotid artery. (
  • carotid sinus reflex slowing of the heartbeat when pressure is applied to the carotid artery at the level of the cricoid cartilage. (
  • Of these aneurysms, 36 arose from the internal carotid artery, 12 from the middle cerebral artery, eight from the vertebrobasilar distribution, and six from the anterior cerebral artery. (
  • OBJECTIVE To determine impairment of baroreceptor afferent activity, which may affect cardiovascular autonomic function in patients with unilateral and bilateral carotid artery stenosis. (
  • 1 2 In patients with carotid artery stenosis (CAS), there may be substantial impairment of baroreceptor afferent activity, especially if it is bilateral. (
  • As most patients with CAS were hypertensive and taking drugs, comparisons were made with a group with a similar degree of hypertension who were taking similar antihypertensive drugs, but in whom there was no evidence of carotid artery stenosis. (
  • The way carotid sinus massage works is that the carotid sinus is in the carotid artery, which takes blood from the heart to the brain. (
  • It is a small group of pressure‑-sensitive cells in a little pouch, or sinus, and it regulates the pulse, fast or slow depending on the blood pressure it senses in the artery. (
  • Carotico-cavernous fistula is an abnormal connection between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus ( 1 ). (
  • A transarterial cerebral angiogram was performed via femoral artery, which showed evidence of left carotico-cavernous from the ascending portion of the C4 segment of the left internal carotid artery. (
  • Direct carotico-cavernous fistula represents direct connections between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus and may occur as a result of a ruptured aneurysm, trauma, collagen deficiency syndromes, fibro muscular dysplasia, arterial dissection or direct surgical trauma. (
  • Indirect carotico-cavernous fistula are usually supplied by dural branches of the external carotid artery but can be supplied by dural branches of the internal carotid artery. (
  • Hydraulic stimulation of carotid artery baroreceptors as a likely cause of transient asystolic cardiac arrest during diagnostic angiography or surgical endarterectomy. (
  • There is a widening of each carotid artery (the carotid sinus), where the artery branches to supply blood either to the face or the brain. (
  • On each side of the neck there is a carotid body , a small nodule, about the size of a grain of rice, that lies by the artery next to each carotid sinus. (
  • The carotid sinus is located where the carotid artery (red) splits. (
  • Bradycardia and Asystole in Patients Undergoing Symptomatic Chronically Occluded Internal Carotid Artery Recanalization. (
  • BACKGROUND: Reports have emerged describing the successful endovascular recanalization of the chronically occluded internal carotid artery (COICA). (
  • Infection can erode locally and spread to the cavernous sinus, the internal carotid artery, and the brain. (
  • The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. (
  • Other less common types of anomalous carotid/basilar anastomoses include persistent hypoglossal artery (adjacent to cranial nerve XII), persistent otic artery, and proatlantal intersegment artery. (
  • a vascular surgeon in Mumbai India specializes in varicose veins, deep vein thrombosis also deals with carotid artery, Reynaud's, Cong. (
  • Carotid angiography showed direct carotid-cavernous sinus fistula concomitant with an intracavernous aneurysm on the right side. (
  • Intraaneurysmal GDC embolization via the transarterial route may be an alternative for the treatment of direct carotid-cavernous sinus fistula due to rupture of intracavernous aneurysm. (
  • We evaluated outcomes in patients with symptomatic cavernous sinus aneurysms in whom clinical BTO was normal, who underwent carotid occlusion with selective bypass surgery guided by physiologic BTO using quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) analysis by means of stable xenon-enhanced CT. (
  • After a normal clinical BTO, 26 consecutive patients with symptomatic cavernous sinus aneurysms underwent a baseline xenon-enhanced CT CBF analysis followed by a second CBF analysis, during which repeat BTO was performed. (
  • A Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the head showed multiple flow voids with left-sided cavernous sinus larger than the right. (
  • It drained anteriorly into the superior ophthalmic vein and posteriorly into the petrosal venous plexus, inferior petrosal sinus and through intercommunication to the opposite cavernous sinus. (
  • however, factors associated with their development include pregnancy, sinusitis, trauma, surgical procedures and cavernous sinus thrombosis ( 4 ). (
  • Dandy and Follis reported the association of pregnancy with carotid cavernous fistula in 17 of 41 spontaneous cases, but Hamby had only 2 out of 27. (
  • After the oculomotor nerve emerges from the interpeduncular fossa, it enters the cavernous sinus slightly lateral and anterior to the dorsum sellae. (
  • It enters the orbit through the superior orbital fissure, after exiting the cavernous sinus, to innervate the extraocular muscles. (
  • empties into the cavernous sinus that also receives flow from the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). (
  • This review examines the pathogenesis of Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity (CSH) by describing the different hypotheses that exist in literature. (
  • Carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) becomes a disease when it becomes responsible of falls and syncope. (
  • In recent years, the scientific basis of the current diagnostic criteria for carotid sinus hypersensitivity (ie, blood pressure drop of ≥50 mm Hg and/or asystole of ≥3 s with carotid sinus massage) are called into question. (
  • Pacing in elderly recurrent fallers with carotid sinus hypersensitivity: a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. (
  • Carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) is an exaggerated response to carotid sinus baroreceptor stimulation. (
  • 83 However, less than 50 percent of patients with carotid hypersensitivity have syncope as a result. (
  • Symptoms were reproduced in 34 patients (73.9%): 19.6% during passive tilting (neurocardiogenic vasodepressor response--3 patients, carotid sinus hypersensitivity--1 patient, orthostatic hypotension--1 patient, dysautonomic profile--4 patients) and 54.3% after nitroglycerin (neurocardiogenic vasodepressor response--12 patients, mixed--5 patients, cardioinhibitory--2 patients and exaggerated response to nitrates--6 patients). (
  • History of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or carotid bruit on auscultation are relative contraindications to carotid sinus massage. (
  • in rare instances, carotid sinus massage may initiate ventricular tachycardia. (
  • It also can result from tachyarrhythmias (eg, ventricular tachycardia, torsade de pointes, supraventricular tachycardia) or bradyarrhythmias (eg, sinus node disease, second- or third-degree heart block, drug-induced bradycardia). (
  • Increased carotid sinus sensitivity, frequent ventricular premature contractions or ventricular tachycardia. (
  • n\nThe most important cardiac selleck inhibitor arrhythmias including ventricular tachycardia, sinus arrest, and sinus exit block. (
  • The carotid sinus is an area located within a major intersection of arteries and nerve points, and each patient should be aware of this tiny hub of activity. (
  • Clogged carotid arteries have trouble delivering oxygen and nutrients to vital brain structures that are responsible for your day-to-day functioning. (
  • A dilated area located at the bifurcations of the carotid arteries and containing numerous baroreceptors that function in the control of blood pressure. (
  • There are two main carotid arteries, one on each side of the neck. (
  • CTA has proven to be clinically useful in the evaluation of the carotid arteries in the neck, intracranial arteries, veins, and dural venous sinuses. (
  • Developmental variation when there are double segments involving portions of the vertebral, basilar, or carotid arteries. (
  • Multiple tortuous contrast-enhancing vessels involving choroidal and thalamoperforate arteries, internal cerebral veins, vein of Galen (aneurysmal formation), straight and transverse venous sinuses, and other adjacent veins and arteries. (
  • Dr. Welna periodically refers patients to their primary-care physicians because he suspects they have blockages in their carotid arteries, which run through the face and neck. (
  • Therefore, a clinician who finds a sensitive carotid sinus should consider other prognostically important causes of syncope and the presence of comorbid conditions. (
  • pressure response to carotid sinus massage may be mild hypotension induced by a decrease in vascular tone.4 In evaluation of the cause of syncope, a ventricular pause lasting 3 seconds or The mean input pressure imposed on the arterial baroreceptors is a chief determinant of the baroreflex responses. (
  • Syncope related to carotid sinus syndrome is part of the so-called reflex syncope family. (
  • and syncope caused by carotid sinus syndrome. (
  • It activates the carotid baroreflex through electrical stimulation of the carotid sinus wall. (
  • Indeed, the question arises whether the answer in bradycardia and hypotension that you get with the massage of the carotid sinus (MSC) is really just a physiological response that grows up to cause symptoms when the age progresses. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Bradycardia associated with angioplasty of the carotid bulb was observed in the majority of patients receiving COICA revascularization. (
  • 8. Intermittent or persistent 2nd or 3rd degree atrioventricular block, sinus node dysfunction with clinically significant bradycardia or sinus pauses, not treated with a pacemaker. (
  • Sinus bradycardia and atrial fibrillation were detected more commonly in patients with history of urinary dysfunction. (
  • The carotid sinus contains baroreceptors (stretch receptors), which are sensitive to pressure changes in the arterial blood pressure. (
  • reflexes that bring about changes in arterial pressure, heart action, and respiration in response to the stimulation of nerve endings (baroreceptors or chemoreceptors) in the carotid sinus. (
  • The carotid sinus reflex occurs with changes in transmural pressure of the baroreceptors at the carotid sinus. (
  • The carotid sinus is an important site for baroreceptors, which are specialised pressure detectors in blood vessels and in the heart. (
  • The impact this restoration of flow has on the sensitive carotid sinus baroreceptors has not been previously described. (
  • Our results suggest that carotid sinus baroreceptors remain active while residing in a complete arterial occlusion, and close monitoring is necessary during balloon angioplasty of the proximal COICA. (
  • The protocol included carotid sinus massage in decubitus and after passive orthostatism. (
  • The carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex was studied in 11 normotensive subjects, using a variable pressure neck chamber and correcting for imperfect pressure transmission to the carotid sinus. (
  • Abstract The combined and individual carotid sinus and aortic baroreceptor control of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were studied by direct measurement in groups of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Kyoto Wistar rats (WKY) of 5 to 40 weeks of age. (
  • To quantitatively understand how the carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex modifies the Starling curve (i.e., the aortic flow (AF) mean right atrial pressure (MRAP) relationship), experiments were performed in closed chest, naturally breathing, and anesthetized dogs before and after vagotomy. (
  • Kostiuk, DP, Sagawa, K & Shoukas, AA 1976, ' Modification of the flow generating capability of the canine heart lung compartment by the carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex ', Circulation research , vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 546-553. (
  • This was not due to sympathetic vasoconstrictor or cardiac parasympathetic failure, thus suggesting impaired afferent baroreceptor activity, probably secondary to involvement of the carotid sinus. (
  • In this case the diction carotid sinus syndrome (CSS) is preferred. (
  • Seifer C. Carotid sinus syndrome. (
  • Carotid sinus syndrome as the presenting symptom of cystadenolymphoma. (
  • Carotid sinus syndrome is a serious manifestation of head and neck malignancy . (
  • The purpose of this study was to clarify the presence of carotid sinus syndrome in a patient with cystadenolymphoma. (
  • To our knowledge carotid sinus syndrome secondary to cystadenolymphoma has not been reported to date. (
  • Here we report on a clinical case of carotid sinus syndrome associated with cystadenolymphoma. (
  • To our knowledge carotid sinus syndrome secondary to cystadenolymphoma has not been reported to date, and is made more remarkable as a possible differential diagnosis after clarification of all possible causes. (
  • Direct stimulations of the carotid sinus nerve have been performed in man during operations of tumours in the neck. (
  • Overstimulation of nerve endings in the carotid sinus or adjacent arterial sheath may be brought about by direct pressure from fingers, or from a ligature during strangulation or hanging - or from a blow directed at the side of the neck. (
  • I put two fingers on the right side of Mr. D's neck where the carotid sinus should be and then rubbed pretty hard. (
  • To treat hiccups that do not go away, the provider may perform gastric lavage or massage of the carotid sinus in the neck. (
  • By removing nerves from this tissue through neck surgery, the new study posits that it is possible to interrupt signals from the carotid body to cardiovascular control centres in the brain, and therefore better regulate blood pressure. (
  • They compared the response to removing clusters of nerves from a carotid body on one side of the neck, with removal of these nerves on both sides of the neck. (
  • In their experiments, they found that removing carotid body nerves from both sides of the neck led to a large fall in blood pressure. (
  • He ordered a neck/carotid Ultrasound, and a Holter Monitor test. (
  • Carotid sinus massage is the diagnostic maneuver of choice, but the technique has not been standardized. (
  • The patient should lie supine for a minimum of 5 minutes before carotid sinus massage is applied. (
  • Massage over the point of maximal carotid impulse, medial to the sternomastoid muscle at the upper border level of the thyroid cartilage. (
  • Massage for 5-10 seconds on each carotid sinus consecutively, with a 1-minute interval between massages. (
  • Carotid sinus massage is preferably applied to first the right carotid sinus, as CSH is more prevalent on the right than on the left side. (
  • A less frequently used method consists of carotid sinus massage performed for 5 seconds on each side in the supine and 60º positions using the head-up tilt table. (
  • Substantial evidence shows that sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of carotid sinus massage can be enhanced by performing the test with the patient in an upright position. (
  • Do not perform a carotid sinus massage if the patient is known to have transient ischemic attack, stroke, or myocardial infarction in the preceding 3 months. (
  • Some authors describe the use of carotid Doppler ultrasonography to guide carotid sinus massage in patients who have a carotid bruit on auscultation. (
  • Carotid sinus massage is performed only in patients with a carotid bruit when there is less than 70% stenosis on Doppler examination. (
  • Although carotid sinus massage is usually a benign bedside procedure, a few case reports describe rare neurological deficit symptoms following the massage. (
  • Rare case reports describe the induction of atrial or ventricular arrhythmias by carotid sinus massage. (
  • Carotid massage has its greatest clinical utility in elderly patients aged 60-80 years. (
  • The positive predictive value of carotid massage remains undefined. (
  • 6 s and/or asystole of ≥6 s with carotid sinus massage). (
  • So I decided to try carotid sinus massage. (
  • Dr. S, sorry to bother you again, but he's back in V‑tach and I tried carotid massage but it didn't work. (
  • DO NOT try carotid massage by yourself. (
  • Its afferents are located mainly in the carotid sinus and aortic arch. (
  • Stimulation of the sinus nerve resulted in a decreased cardiac output which Holt5 attributed to peripheral pooling of blood consequent to venodilation. (
  • In experimental studies, reduction of afferent carotid sinus nerve activity has been associated with development of hypertension. (
  • Visceral sensory nerve fibers originate from the carotid body (oxygen tension measurement) and carotid sinus (blood pressure changes). (
  • They also compared the effects of removing nerves from the carotid body alone with removing nerve supply for the kidneys. (
  • Unlike drug treatment, effects of removing nerves from the carotid body, if greater than desirable, or associated with troublesome complications, could at best be reversed only very gradually - and then only in those patients in whom the nerve supply from the carotid body grows back. (
  • Bilateral carotid sinus nerve transection exacerbates morphine-induced respiratory depression. (
  • However, there were no effects of removing nerves only from the left or right carotid body. (
  • The carotid sinus is sensitive to pressure changes in the arterial blood at this level. (
  • Carotid bodies (CBs) are the major sensory organs for monitoring the chemical composition of arterial blood, particularly in hypoxemia and to a lesser extent hypercarbia. (
  • Disorders such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, arterial occlusions, and dural venous sinus thromboses can be seen with CTA. (
  • Moderate-risk patients underwent cerebral revascularization followed by proximal carotid occlusion. (
  • Atrial fibrillation, * atrial flutter , * sinus node dysfunction/atrial asystole, arrhythmias, atrial septal aneurysms, and the Chiari network are associated with left atrial thrombi. (
  • Complications of carotid sinus pressure, which are rare, include cardiac arrhythmias and cerebrovascular accidents. (
  • CT angiography (CTA) can also be used to evaluate patency or occlusion of intracranial venous sinuses and veins. (
  • Decreased heart rate and enhanced sinus arrhythmia during interictal sleep demonstrate autonomic imbalance in generalized epilepsy. (
  • granulomatous, inflammatory and infectious processes such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, giant cell granuloma, sphenoid sinus mucoceles and others [4]. (
  • Permanent central diabetes insipidus as a complication of sphenoid sinus mucocele. (
  • This does not concern the sinus node and suggests that the abnormality lies in some place of the reflex arc or at the level of the carotid sinus receptors [5]. (
  • The carotid sinus has dense innervation of many types of receptors that play a role in the control of blood pressure. (
  • Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls. (
  • MeSH terms Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic / diagnosis* Carotid Sinus / physiology* Heart Valve Diseases / diagnosis* Mcq Added by: admin. (
  • As a result, these technologies have not been universally accepted, leaving some centers to advocate prophylactic extracranial-intracranial revascularization in all patients undergoing therapeutic carotid occlusion to minimize the risk of postocclusion ischemic stroke ( 16 - 17 ). (
  • Mechanisms that initiate obesity-induced sodium retention include kidney compression by visceral, perirenal and renal sinus fat, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, aldosterone-independent mineralocorticoid receptor activation and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • Most centers now manage these lesions with endovascular carotid occlusion with or without cerebral revascularization. (
  • Det var nødvendigt, at den spanske neurohistolog Fernando de Castro Rodríguez (1898-1967), i detaljer beskrev innervationen af aorta-carotid regionen, der indskrænkede tilstedeværelsen af baroreceptorer til carotid sinus, mens at kemoreceptorer var ved carotidkroppen, for at den belgiske gruppe kunne flytte deres fokus fra den første til den meget lille anden struktur, for fysiologisk at kunne dokumentere arten og funktionen af det første kemoreceptorer i blodet. (
  • Background: The murmur of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) increases in intensity in about 80% of those patients in whom carotid sinus pressure (CSP) slows the heart rate. (
  • Rhino-orbital-cerebral disease - Patients present with unilateral facial pain, headaches, fever, nasal or sinus congestion and discharge, and black, necrotic ulcerations, usually involving the palate. (
  • Indeed, patients with CSS usually have normal sinus node function [3], nor is there a clear demonstration that the heart is patient when the subject is symptomatic carrier (CSS) or asymptomatic to CSH. (
  • Computerized tomography (CT) showed a large mass extending into the carotid space and protruding into the parapharyngeal space . (
  • Neurogenic suppression of carotid sinus reflexes by vagal afferents in sodium-depleted dogs Abstract Reduction of sodium intake affects both the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems, but the effects on the latter are less well understood. (
  • Low-risk patients underwent carotid occlusion alone. (
  • Patients were clinically followed up for at least 3 months after carotid occlusion. (
  • All patients underwent head CT at least 1 month after carotid occlusion. (
  • In this series, BTO combined with quantitative CBF analysis was a safe and reliable technique for identification of patients at risk for ischemic infarction after carotid occlusion, despite a normal clinical BTO. (
  • Before clinical BTO, approximately 25% of patients developed infarctions after carotid occlusion and 12% died as a result of abrupt carotid occlusion ( 6 ). (
  • Yet despite passing a clinical BTO, a significant percentage of patients will still develop infarction as a complication of permanent carotid occlusion ( 6 ). (
  • And sometimes what a patients thinks is a toothache is actually a problem with their sinuses. (
  • Infection occurs via airborne fungal spores found ubiquitously in dust, soil, and decaying organic materials that are inhaled through the nasopharynx entering into the lungs, sinuses, and gastrointestinal tract. (
  • I had already been suffering for some time with a sinus infection. (
  • 2. Oct. 12, 05 Dr. Kitai at Mazotti's ofc, S. 9th Street, 215 334 4049 - puts me on Cipro in October, for sinus infection. (
  • Concurrent with the advancements in endovascular techniques, many diagnostic tests have been developed to evaluate the risk of ischemic infarction from carotid occlusion before permanent ICA sacrifice. (
  • However, confounding factors such as tumor-related neurologic deficit or infarction, subarachnoid hemorrhage or vasospasm related-infarction, and embolic infarction have made it difficult to determine whether such technologies aide in the prediction of ischemic infarction after carotid occlusion. (
  • By incorporating clinical BTO, the stroke rate after carotid occlusion has markedly improved. (
  • Most sudden stroke deficits following carotid sinus pressure are probably caused by this mechanism. (
  • Beal MF, Park TS, Fisher CM. Cerebral Atheromatous Embolism Following Carotid Sinus Pressure. (