The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).
The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
One of the paired, but seldom symmetrical, air spaces located between the inner and outer compact layers of the FRONTAL BONE in the forehead.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.
A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
A condition caused by dysfunctions related to the SINOATRIAL NODE including impulse generation (CARDIAC SINUS ARREST) and impulse conduction (SINOATRIAL EXIT BLOCK). It is characterized by persistent BRADYCARDIA, chronic ATRIAL FIBRILLATION, and failure to resume sinus rhythm following CARDIOVERSION. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired, particularly after surgical correction for heart defects.
A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.
Loss of consciousness due to a reduction in blood pressure that is associated with an increase in vagal tone and peripheral vasodilation.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CRANIAL SINUSES, large endothelium-lined venous channels situated within the SKULL. Intracranial sinuses, also called cranial venous sinuses, include the superior sagittal, cavernous, lateral, petrous sinuses, and many others. Cranial sinus thrombosis can lead to severe HEADACHE; SEIZURE; and other neurological defects.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
The numerous (6-12) small thin-walled spaces or air cells in the ETHMOID BONE located between the eyes. These air cells form an ethmoidal labyrinth.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
Rhythmic compression of the heart by pressure applied manually over the sternum (closed heart massage) or directly to the heart through an opening in the chest wall (open heart massage). It is done to reinstate and maintain circulation. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The removal or interruption of some part of the autonomic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.
The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.
An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
Simple rapid heartbeats caused by rapid discharge of impulses from the SINOATRIAL NODE, usually between 100 and 180 beats/min in adults. It is characterized by a gradual onset and termination. Sinus tachycardia is common in infants, young children, and adults during strenuous physical activities.
The sounds heard over the cardiac region produced by the functioning of the heart. There are four distinct sounds: the first occurs at the beginning of SYSTOLE and is heard as a "lubb" sound; the second is produced by the closing of the AORTIC VALVE and PULMONARY VALVE and is heard as a "dupp" sound; the third is produced by vibrations of the ventricular walls when suddenly distended by the rush of blood from the HEART ATRIA; and the fourth is produced by atrial contraction and ventricular filling.
Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Tumors or cancer of the MAXILLARY SINUS. They represent the majority of paranasal neoplasms.
The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.
An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
The circulation in a portion of the body of one individual of blood supplied from another individual.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
A characteristic symptom complex.
A hair-containing cyst or sinus, occurring chiefly in the coccygeal region.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The two large endothelium-lined venous channels that begin at the internal occipital protuberance at the back and lower part of the CRANIUM and travels laterally and forward ending in the internal jugular vein (JUGULAR VEINS). One of the transverse sinuses, usually the right one, is the continuation of the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS. The other transverse sinus is the continuation of the straight sinus.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
The long large endothelium-lined venous channel on the top outer surface of the brain. It receives blood from a vein in the nasal cavity, runs backwards, and gradually increases in size as blood drains from veins of the brain and the DURA MATER. Near the lower back of the CRANIUM, the superior sagittal sinus deviates to one side (usually the right) and continues on as one of the TRANSVERSE SINUSES.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.
The act of constricting.

Reduction in baroreflex cardiovascular responses due to venous infusion in the rabbit. (1/508)

We studied reflex bradycardia and depression of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) during left aortic nerve (LAN) stimulation before and after volume infusion in the anesthetized rabbit. Step increases in mean right atrial pressure (MRAP) to 10 mm Hg did not result in a significant change in heart rate or MAP. After volume loading, responses to LAN stimulation were not as great and the degree of attenuation was propoetional to the level of increased MRAP. A change in responsiveness was observed after elevation of MRAP by only 1 mm Hg, corresponding to less than a 10% increase in average calculated blood volume. after an increase in MRAP of 10 mm Hg, peak responses were attenuated by 44% (heart rate) and 52% (MAP), and the initial slopes (rate of change) were reduced by 46% (heart rate) and 66% (MAP). Comparison of the responses after infusion with blood and dextran solutions indicated that hemodilution was an unlikely explanation for the attenuation of the reflex responses. Total arterial baroreceptor denervation (ABD) abolished the volume-related attenuation was still present following bilateral aortic nerve section or vagotomy. It thus appears that the carotid sinus responds to changes inblood volume and influences the reflex cardiovascular responses to afferent stimulation of the LAN. On the other hand, cardiopulmonary receptors subserved by vagal afferents do not appear to be involved.  (+info)

Quantification of baroreceptor influence on arterial pressure changes seen in primary angiotension-induced hypertension in dogs. (2/508)

We studied the role of the sino-aortic baroreceptors in the gradual development of hypertension induced by prolonged administration of small amounts of angiotensin II (A II) in intact dogs and dogs with denervated sino-aortic baroreceptors. Short-term 1-hour infusions of A II(1.0-100 ng/kg per min) showed that conscious denervated dogs had twice the pressor sensitivity of intact dogs. Long-term infusions of A II at 5.0 ng/kg per min (2-3 weeks) with continuous 24-hour recordings of arterial pressure showed that intact dogs required 28 hours to reach the same level of pressure attained by denervated dogs during the 1st hour of infusion. At the 28th hour the pressure in both groups was 70% of the maximum value attained by the 7th day of infusion. Both intact and denervated dogs reached nearly the same plateau level of pressure, the magnitude being directly related both the the A II infusion rate and the daily sodium intake. Cardiac output in intact dogs initially decreased after the onset of A II infusion, but by the 5th day of infusion it was 38% above control, whereas blood volume was unchanged. Heart rate returned to normal after a reduction during the 1st day of infusion in intact dogs. Plasma renin activity could not be detected after 24 hours of A II infusion in either intact or denervated dogs. The data indicate that about 35% of the hypertensive effect of A II results from its acute pressor action, and an additional 35% of the gradual increase in arterial pressure is in large measure a result of baroreceptor resetting. We conclude that the final 30% increase in pressure seems to result from increased cardiac output, the cause of which may be decreased vascular compliance. since the blood volume remains unaltered.  (+info)

Hypoxia inhibits baroreflex vagal bradycardia via a central action in anaesthetized rats. (3/508)

It is known that arterial baroreflexes are suppressed in stressful conditions. The present study was designed to determine whether and how hypoxia affects arterial baroreflexes, especially the heart rate component, baroreflex vagal bradycardia. In chloralose-urethane-anaesthetized rats, baroreflex vagal bradycardia was evoked by electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve, and the effect of 15 s inhalation of hypoxic gas (4% O2) was studied. Inhalation of hypoxic gas was found to inhibit baroreflex vagal bradycardia. The inhibition persisted after bilateral transection of the carotid sinus nerve. Cervical vagus nerves were cut bilaterally and their peripheral cut ends were stimulated to provoke vagal bradycardia of peripheral origin so as to determine whether hypoxia could inhibit vagal bradycardia by acting on a peripheral site. In contrast to baroreflex vagal bradycardia, the vagus-induced bradycardia was not affected by hypoxic gas inhalation. It is concluded that baroreflex vagal bradycardia is inhibited by hypoxia and the inhibition is largely mediated by its direct central action.  (+info)

Responses of abdominal vascular capacitance in the anaesthetized dog to changes in carotid sinus pressure. (4/508)

1. The abdominal circulation of anaesthetized dogs was vascularly isolated without opening the abdomen, by cutting or tying all structures immediately above the diaphragm and tying the proximal ends of the hind limbs. The region was perfused at constant flow through the aorta and drained at constant pressure from the inferior vena cava. 2. Vascular resistance responses were expressed as the changes in perfusion pressure and capacitance responses were determined by integrating changes in vena caval outflow. 3. Decreasing the pressure in the isolated carotid sinuses over the whole baroreceptor sensitivity range increased mean perfusion pressure from 91 to 149 mmHg (a 67% increase in resistance) and decreased mean capacitance by 111 ml. (5 ml. kg-1). 4. The range of carotid sinus pressures over which capacitance responses occurred was at a significantly higher level than the corresponding range for resistance responses. 5. Comparison of the reflex responses with the responses to direct stimulation of efferent sympathetic nerves shows that quantitatively similar responses of resistance and capacitance to those induced by a large step decrease in carotid pressure could be produced by stimulating maximally the efferent sympathetic nerves at 5 Hz. These results also suggest that at all levels of carotid sinus pressure there is no difference in the impulse traffic to resistance and capacitance vessels.  (+info)

Carotid sinus hypersensitivity--a modifiable risk factor for fractured neck of femur. (5/508)

BACKGROUND: the potential impact on morbidity, mortality and health care economics makes it important to identify patients at risk of fracture, in particular fractured neck of femur (FNOF). Older patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) are more likely to have unexplained falls and to experience fractures, particularly FNOF. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of CSH in patients with FNOF. DESIGN: case-controlled prospective series. METHODS: consecutive cases were admissions over 65 years with FNOF. Controls were consecutive patients admitted for elective hip surgery, frail elderly people admitted to hospital medical wards and day-hospital patients. All patients had a clinical assessment of cognitive function, physical abilities and history of previous syncope, falls and dizziness, in addition to repeated carotid sinus massage with continuous heart rate and phasic blood pressure measurement. RESULTS: heart rate slowing and fall in systolic blood pressure was greater for patients with FNOF than those admitted for elective hip surgery (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). CSH was present in 36% of the FNOF group, none of the elective surgery group, 13% of the acutely ill controls and 17% of the outpatients. It was more likely to be present in FNOF patients with a previous history of unexplained falls or an unexplained fall causing the index fracture. The heart rate and systolic blood pressure responses to carotid sinus stimulation were reproducible. CONCLUSION: older patients with an acute neck of femur fracture who do not give a clear history of an accidental fall or who have had previously unexplained falls are likely to have CSH. CSH may be a modifiable risk factor for older patients at risk of hip fracture.  (+info)

New analytic framework for understanding sympathetic baroreflex control of arterial pressure. (6/508)

The sympathetic baroreflex is an important feedback system in stabilization of arterial pressure. This system can be decomposed into the controlling element (mechanoneural arc) and the controlled element (neuromechanical arc). We hypothesized that the intersection of the two operational curves representing their respective functions on an equilibrium diagram should define the operating point of the arterial baroreflex. Both carotid sinuses were isolated in 16 halothane-anesthetized rats. The vagi and aortic depressor nerves were cut bilaterally. Carotid sinus pressure (CSP) was sequentially altered in 10-mmHg increments from 80 to 160 mmHg while sympathetic efferent nerve activity (SNA) and systemic arterial pressure (SAP) were recorded simultaneously under various hemorrhagic conditions. The mechanoneural arc was characterized by the response of SNA to CSP and the neuromechanical arc by the response of SAP to SNA. We parametrically analyzed the relationship between input and output for each arc using a four-parameter logistic equation model. In baseline states, the two arcs intersected each other at the point at which the instantaneous gain of each arc attained its maximum. Severe hemorrhage lowered the gain and offset of the neuromechanical arc and moved the operating point, whereas the mechanoneural arc remained unchanged. The operating points measured under the closed-loop conditions were indistinguishable from those estimated from the intersections of the two arc curves on the equilibrium diagram. The average root mean square errors of estimate for arterial pressure and SNA were 2 and 3%, respectively. Such an analytic approach could explain a mechanism for the determination of the operating point of the sympathetic baroreflex system and thus helps us integratively understand its function.  (+info)

Carotid baroreflex function during prolonged exercise. (7/508)

The present investigation was designed to uncouple the hemodynamic physiological effects of thermoregulation from the effects of a progressively increasing central command activation during prolonged exercise. Subjects performed two 1-h bouts of leg cycling exercise with 1) no intervention and 2) continuous infusion of a dextran solution to maintain central venous pressure constant at the 10-min pressure. Volume infusion resulted in a significant reduction in the decrement in mean arterial pressure seen in the control exercise bout (6.7 +/- 1.8 vs. 11.6+/- 1.3 mmHg, respectively). However, indexes of central command such as heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion rose to a similar extent during both exercise conditions. In addition, the carotid-cardiac baroreflex stimulus-response relationship, as measured by using the neck pressure-neck suction technique, was reset from rest to 10 min of exercise and was further reset from 10 to 50 min of exercise in both exercise conditions, with the operating point being shifted toward the reflex threshold. We conclude that the progressive resetting of the carotid baroreflex and the shift of the reflex operating point render the carotid-cardiac reflex ineffectual in counteracting the continued decrement in mean arterial pressure that occurs during the prolonged exercise.  (+info)

Chronic hypoxia enhances the phrenic nerve response to arterial chemoreceptor stimulation in anesthetized rats. (8/508)

Chronic exposure to hypoxia results in a time-dependent increase in ventilation called ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. Increased O(2) sensitivity of arterial chemoreceptors contributes to ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia, but other mechanisms have also been hypothesized. We designed this experiment to determine whether central nervous system processing of peripheral chemoreceptor input is affected by chronic hypoxic exposure. The carotid sinus nerve was stimulated supramaximally at different frequencies (0.5-20 Hz, 0.2-ms duration) during recording of phrenic nerve activity in two groups of anesthetized, ventilated, vagotomized rats. In the chronically hypoxic group (7 days at 80 Torr inspired PO(2)), phrenic burst frequency (f(R), bursts/min) was significantly higher than in the normoxic control group with carotid sinus nerve stimulation frequencies >5 Hz. In the chronically hypoxic group, peak amplitude of integrated phrenic nerve activity ( integral Phr, percent baseline) or change in integral Phr was significantly greater at stimulation frequencies between 5 and 17 Hz, and minute phrenic activity ( integral Phr x f(R)) was significantly greater at stimulation frequencies >5 Hz. These experiments show that chronic hypoxia facilitates the translation of arterial chemoreceptor afferent input to ventilatory efferent output through a mechanism in the central nervous system.  (+info)

Carotid sinus reflex interactions were studied in 10 dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. The right and left carotid sinus regions were isolated and perfused at controlled pressures. Pressure in the right and left carotid sinuses were independently varied, and the resulting steady-state reflex changes in arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory frequency, tidal volume, and total ventilation were measured. Reflex changes when carotid sinus pressure was changed on one side were strongly influenced by pressure in the contralateral carotid sinus (P less than 0.05). Right carotid sinus gain was found to be 0.628 +/- 0.058 at a left carotid sinus pressure of 50 mmHg and 0.148 +/- 0.027 when left carotid sinus pressure was 200 mmHg. Similar results were found for left carotid sinus gain. Suppression was also found for heart rate, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and total ventilation. The hypothesis that rapid resetting of one carotid sinus baroreflex might influence responses from the other ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aortic depressor nerve stimulation does not impede the dynamic characteristics of the carotid sinus baroreflex in normotensive or spontaneously hypertensive rats. AU - Kawada, Toru. AU - Turner, Michael J.. AU - Shimizu, Shuji. AU - Fukumitsu, Masafumi. AU - Kamiya, Atsunori. AU - Sugimachi, Masaru. PY - 2017/5/30. Y1 - 2017/5/30. N2 - Recent clinical trials in patients with drug-resistant hypertension indicate that electrical activation of the carotid sinus baroreflex (baroreflex activation therapy) can reduce arterial pressure (AP) for more than a year. To examine whether the electrical stimulation from one baroreflex system impedes normal short-term AP regulation via another unstimulated baroreflex system, we electrically stimulated the left aortic depressor nerve (ADN) while estimating the dynamic characteristics of the carotid sinus baroreflex in anesthetized normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY, n=8) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, n=7). Isolated carotid sinus ...
Synonyms for Carotid sinus reflex in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Carotid sinus reflex. 26 synonyms for reflex: automatic, spontaneous, instinctive, involuntary, impulsive, knee-jerk, unthinking, automatic, impulsive, instinctive, involuntary.... What are synonyms for Carotid sinus reflex?
The carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex was studied in 11 normotensive subjects, using a variable pressure neck chamber and correcting for imperfect pressure transmission to the carotid sinus. Decreased carotid baroreceptor stimulation caused a sustaineded rise in arterial pressure, and increased carotid baroreceptor stimulation caused a sustain fall. The responses were in linear relation to the stimulus, and, after reaching the steady state, greater for the reduced than for the increased baroreceptor stimulation. Thus the carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex of the normotensive man is an effective antihypotensive and antihypertensive feedback system, though the former function may have more sensitivity. The increased and decreased baroreceptor stimulation by the neck chamber also caused bradycardia and tachycardia which were modest in magnitude and often transient. In eight subjects the reflex changes in heart rate induced by the neck chamber were compared with those induced by altering transmural ...
In human anatomy, the carotid sinus is a dilated area at the base of the internal carotid artery just superior to the bifurcation of the internal carotid and external carotid at the level of the superior border of thyroid cartilage. The carotid sinus extends from the bifurcation to the true internal carotid artery. The carotid sinus is sensitive to pressure changes in the arterial blood at this level. It is the major baroreception site in humans and most mammals. The carotid sinus is the reflex area of the carotid artery, consisting of various nerve receptors for baroregulation (pressure regulation of the body in sync to external conditions). The carotid sinus contains numerous baroreceptors which function as a sampling area for many homeostatic mechanisms for maintaining blood pressure. The carotid sinus baroreceptors are innervated by the sinus nerve of Hering, which is a branch of cranial nerve IX (glossopharyngeal nerve). The glossopharyngeal nerve synapses in the nucleus tractus ...
The major new finding obtained from conscious rats was the clear-cut demonstration that chemoreceptors, as well as baroreceptors, were transiently activated during combined electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and the carotid sinus nerve in conscious rats. The results have shown that when the carotid bifurcation was intact (ie, in the CONT group), combined electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and the carotid sinus nerve elicited a significant hypotensive response. This finding is in line with results obtained in dogs21,22 and drug-resistant hypertensive patients.1,2 Nevertheless, unlike the results seen in dogs23 and drug-resistant hypertensive patients,4 HR did not significantly decrease in intact conscious rats (the CONT group).. It is of interest to note that bilateral carotid body denervation (as in the CHEMO-X group) hampered the hemodynamic influences of the carotid chemoreceptors during combined electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and the carotid sinus nerve in conscious ...
Objective: To determine the frequency, age distribution and clinical presentation of carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) among 373 patients (age range 15-92 years) referred to two autonomic referral centres during a 10-year period.. Methods: Carotid sinus massage (CSM) was performed both supine and during 60° head-up tilt. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, heart rate and a three-lead electrocardiography were recorded continuously. CSH was classified as cardioinhibitory (asystole ⩾3 s), vasodepressor (systolic blood pressure fall ⩾50 mm Hg) or mixed. All patients additionally underwent autonomic screening tests for orthostatic hypotension and autonomic failure.. Results: CSH was observed in 13.7% of all patients. The diagnostic yield of CSM was nil in patients aged ,50 years (n = 65), 2.4% in those aged 50-59 years (n = 82), 9.1% in those aged 60-69 years (n = 77), 20.7% in those aged 70-79 years (n = 92) and reached 40.4% in those ,80 years (n = 57). Syncope was the leading clinical symptom in ...
Neurological complications following carotid sinus massage for diagnosis of the carotid sinus syndrome are uncommon and usually transient. Contraindications to carotid sinus massage should be respected and the standardized technique used.
The goal of this study was to determine whether nitric oxide (NO) and the NO donor, S-nitrosocysteine (cysNO), modulate the activity of carotid sinus baroreceptors. Baroreceptor activity was recorded from the vascularly isolated carotid sinus in anesthetized rabbits. Baroreceptor activity decreased in a dose-dependent manner after injection of either NO or cysNO as constant pressure was maintained, and activity recovered spontaneously over time, within seconds to minutes. The baroreceptor pressure-activity relation was shifted significantly to the right by cysNO, with a profound suppression of activity at high pressure. Baroreceptor activity at 160 mm Hg averaged 76 +/- 8%, 60 +/- 6%, and 36 +/- 5% of the control maximum during exposure to 10(-4), 2 to 3 x 10(-4), and 10(-3) mol/L cysNO, respectively. The inhibition of activity by the L and D isomers of cysNO was equivalent and was blocked by reduced hemoglobin, suggesting that the effect was mediated by NO. The suppression of baroreceptor activity by
Introduction: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on MRI are common in older people and are associated with cognitive impairment, falls and depression. They are believed to represent cerebrovascular small vessel disease but as frank infarction is not always seen it is suggested that WMH represent damage resulting from hypoperfusion. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) is an exaggerated fall in blood pressure (BP) or heart rate (HR) in response to stimulation of the carotid sinus. It is defined as a ≥50 mmHg drop in systolic BP & / or ≥3 second asystole in response to carotid sinus massage (CSM). CSH, is often associated with syncope & presyncope, thought to indicate cerebral hypoperfusion.. Aim: To examine, over a ten year follow-up, if CSH is associated with WMH volume.. Method: In 2002, 274 people age ≥65 underwent CSM. BP & HR response were recorded using beat to beat monitoring. Symptoms suggestive of cerebral hypoperfusion e.g. syncope or presyncope were recorded. In 2012, 53 of ...
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1. Carotid baroreceptor manipulation (neckchamber technique) and passive head-up tilting were used in ten patients with renovascular hypertension and in five subjects with essential hypertension under diuretic treatment to study reflex control of renin secretion at high basal-renin production rates.. 2. Reflex effects of carotid baroreceptor manipulation on renin secretion were only minor. During baroreceptor deactivation there was a moderate increase in mean arterial pressure, but an inconsistent change in the renal venous-arterial difference in plasma renin activity (PRA).. 3. During baroreceptor stimulation there was a modest fall in mean arterial pressure and a marked rise in the renal venous-arterial difference in PRA. This was opposite to the fall which might have been predicted as a result of the sympathetic depressor influence of the baroreceptor stimulus. Conversely, tilting increased the venous-arterial PRA difference by about 200%.. 4. It is concluded that when renin production rate ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of carotid sinus and cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors in the reflex control of adrenal medullary catecholamine secretion. Afferent input from carotid sinus and cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors was decreased by carotid occlusion or cervical vagal cold block, respectively. Increases in arterial pressure were significantly greater when either intervention was tested in the presence of the other, with the role of the carotid sinus baroreflex being dominant. Neither carotid occlusion nor vagal cold block resulted in a significant increase in plasma epinephrine or norepinephrine concentrations. However, carotid occlusion during vagal block caused a significant increase in plasma epinephrine (+87%) and norepinephrine concentrations (+128%). Likewise, vagal block during carotid occlusion increased plasma epinephrine (+82%) and norepinephrine concentrations (+73%). Similar experiments performed in a group of chemically sympathectomized animals ...
The goal of the present study was to determine whether oxygen-derived free radicals contribute to baroreceptor dysfunction in atherosclerosis. Baroreceptor activity was measured from the carotid sinus nerve during pressure ramps in isolated carotid sinuses of anesthetized rabbits. Rabbits fed a 0.5% to 1.0% cholesterol diet for 7.9 +/- 0.4 months (mean +/- SE; range, 5.5 to 10) developed atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid sinuses. Maximum baroreceptor activity measured at 140 mm Hg and the slope of the pressure-activity curve were reduced in atherosclerotic (n = 15) compared with normal (n = 13) rabbits (425 +/- 34 versus 721 +/- 30 spikes per second and 6.2 +/- 0.6 versus 10.8 +/- 0.8 spikes per second per mm Hg, respectively, P | .05). The level of activity was inversely related to plasma cholesterol concentration (r = .86, P | .001) and total cholesterol load (plasma concentration x duration of diet, r = .92). Mean arterial pressure was normal in both groups. Exposure of the carotid sinus to the
Title:The Future of Interventional Management of Hypertension: Threats and Opportunities. VOLUME: 12 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Alexandros Briasoulis and George Bakris. Affiliation:5841 S. Maryland Ave MC 1027, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.. Keywords:Resistant hypertension, baroreflex activation therapy, renal sympathetic denervation.. Abstract:In about 48% hypertensive patients in the United States, blood pressure remains higher than accepted treatment targets despite broad availability of effective pharmaceutical agents. Of these 48%, recent estimates define about 10-11% have treatment-resistant hypertension (TR-HTN). Compensatory changes in sympathetic nervous system function are an important component of HTN. Recent technical advances targeting the sympathetic activity of the carotid sinuses (Baroreflex Activation Therapy-BAT) and the renal sympathetic nerves (Renal Denervation Therapy-RDT) have renewed interest in invasive therapy for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension. Encouraging results ...
The use of baroreflex stimulation devices (also known as baroreflex activation therapy) is a potential alternative treatment for resistant hypertension and heart failure. Both hypertension and heart failure are relatively common conditions and are initially treated with medications and lifestyle changes. A substantial portion of patients are unresponsive to conventional therapy and treating these patients is often challenging and can lead to high costs and adverse effects. As a result, there is a large unmet need for additional treatments.. New treatment options are being explored to treat drug-resistant hypertension. One such approach is the electrical activation of the carotid sinus baroreflex. Baroreceptors are pressure sensors contained within the walls of the carotid arteries. They are part of the autonomic nervous system that regulates basic physiologic functions such as heart rate and blood pressure (BP). When these receptors are stretched, as occurs with increases in BP, the baroreflex ...
The hypothesis that we have formulated to explain the relationship between denervation and abnormal response to carotid sinus massage has been extensively described6 and is based on the theory of central gating.14 Briefly, chronic denervation of the muscle leaves the central nervous system without any moment-to-moment information about the contractile state of the muscle. On the other hand, the midbrain centers receive normal information from the stretch receptors of the carotid sinus. In a normal individual, carotid sinus massage, because of the anatomic position of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, results in a pressure on both the muscle and the sinus, and these signals are integrated by the centers as an external stretching of the sinus. In the case of proprioceptive defect of the muscle, the massage of the sinus is considered as a stretching of the sinus only and is integrated by the centers as an abrupt increase in blood pressure, resulting through the baroreflex pathways in an ...
An implantable device (20) uses the carotid baroreflex in order to control systemic blood pressure. The implant includes sampling and pulse stimulation electrodes (44) preferably located on the carotid sinus nerve branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, adjacent and distal to the carotid sinus baroreceptors. The stimulators have an external control unit, which communicates with the implant for determining appropriate operational parameters, and for retrieving telemetry information from the devices data bank. Typically two internal devices are implanted, one at each side of the patients neck.
A quick reference on Carotid sinus syncope, covering the clinical presentation, investigative approach, and key principles of management
There are four main sinus cavities in the body. They are located on either side of the nose, behind and in-between the eyes, and in the forehead. Each sinus cavity has an opening into the nose for the exchange of air and mucous. When the cavities get filled with mucous it creates a perfect breeding ground for bacteria.. Some of the most common sinus pressure symptoms include severe nasal congestion and yellowish green discharge which is thick because it contains pus. Pain in the teeth is also very normal. This pain increases when you bend over. Symptoms may vary however, depending on the sinuses involved.. Sinus pressure symptoms normally occur for about ten days and they may carry on for a longer period if a cold or flu occurs. They normally worsen after five to seven days. In some cases fever also occurs. Fever is more common in children than in adults therefore it is not a very reliable way of diagnosing sinus pressure.. Far more severe sinus pressure symptoms are terrible headaches, pain or ...
The present experiments were designed to measure the direct effects of propranolol on carotid sinus pressoreceptor nerve activity in the semi-isolated, superfused sinus of the cat. Propranolol (5 microgram/ml) significantly enhanced carotid sinus nerve activity at perfusion pressures of 100, 150 and 250 mm Hg. The enhancement was due primarily to the recruitment of new fibers. In similar preparations, perfused at constant flow, propranolol increased sinus resistance in parallel with the increase in sinus discharge. These effects were rapidly dissipated by rinsing with drug-free perfusion solution. The evidence suggests that propranolol may produce a change in either the elastic or autoregulatory modalities of sinus smooth muscle. This may produce a functional resetting of the sinus and provide a mechanism to explain the antihypertensive effect of propranolol. ...
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Why is the Dim Mak effective? The carotid sinus is a special sensory organ regulating the pressure of blood flow to the brain. The carotid sinus is located over internal and external carotid arteries. When blood pressure is too high, the carotid sinus signals the vasomotor center of the brain to decrease the blood pressure by dilating peripheral blood vessels and slowing down heart rate. Thats why it can result in a loss of consciousness along with a build up of plaques in the carotid arteries. By striking this area, small tears can result in the carotid arteries and blood clots. Death can occur by striking this area. Thats why doctors look for a pulse because the carotid artery is a major indicator of life. A very helpful resource in understanding more on Dim Mak is Dr. Michael Kellys (a sports medical doctor) book Death Touch: The Science of Dim Mak (1). In this book, he explains that stimulating a nerve through a Dim Mak point connected to an internal organ can cause damage ...
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The results from these studies demonstrate that afferent input from peripheral chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors contributes little to the systemic hemodynamic and sympathetic responses after term delivery by cesarean section. Furthermore, birth-related increases in circulating norepinephrine but not epinephrine appear dependent on afferent input from the carotid sinus or aortic depressor nerves, which carry both chemo- and baroreceptor afferents from the carotid sinus and aortic arch, respectively. Finally, we observed that vagal afferent activity regulates basal fetal plasma ANG II levels and exerts a tonic inhibitory effect on AVP release after birth.. Both peripheral chemoreceptors and baroreceptors have been shown to be functional during fetal life. The fetal cardiovascular response to acute hypoxemia is well described, consisting of a decrease in heart rate and increase in peripheral vascular resistance (7). Carotid denervation abolishes these responses to hypoxemia and NaCN, a chemical ...
For the past week I have been fighting off what I thought was a sinus infection (sinus pressure, drainage, plugged up ears, headache, and an off/on fever). Starting about two or three days ago the fev...
Ways to relieve sinus pressure in the ears include nasal irrigation, drinking water, turmeric tea, and peppermint tea. Apply warm compress and inhale steam.
Why do you have a Spine?. You have a spine to connect the upper and lower portions of your body together. Through your spine runs your spinal cord which is the major thoroughfare between your brain and the rest of your body. Your spine is one of the most important aspects of your whole body.. What does your spine look like?. Your spine is made up of three main curves and the sacrum. There are twenty four vertebrae; 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, and 5 lumbar. The cervical are curved in a what is called a lordotic curve, the thoracic are curved the opposite direction or, kyphotic, and the lumbar are curved like the cervical, in a lordotic curve. A kyphotic curve is the primary curve and the lordotic curve is a secondary, or functional curve. A functional curve is one that does not show up until movement occurs.. The curves of your spine not only act as shock absorbers between your head and tail, but allow the head to be over your pelvis. Your spine allows you to stand upright and see the horizon! The ...
Alas! All is not a bed of roses in the world of cone beam imaging. With the improved technologies come increased responsibilities. A dentist might use his cone beam image for the reasons specific to his specialty, such as assessment for the adequacy of bone for implant placement, but if he or she does not recognize abnormal anatomical structures, he or she could be held legally responsible if the patient suffers future injuries relating to that missed observation. For example, if an adenocarcinoma has caused visible distortion or disintegration of any bony structure seen in the scan, the dentist is responsible for notifying the patient and referring the patient to an appropriate specialist, or baring that, for enlisting the help of a board certified radiologist to assess the images.. This also means that if the image includes the entire sinus region, the dentist is responsible for recognizing abnormalities in the sinus, even though this lies outside of his area of expertise and he has no ...
Breathe freely again by clearing blocked passageways and easing sinus pressure. According to research or other evidence, the following self-care steps may be helpful. Wipe out irritantsKeep your environment free of irritants and allergens that can trigger sinus congestion, such as dust, mold, smoke, chemical fumes, and...
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Looking for online definition of carotid sinus reflex in the Medical Dictionary? carotid sinus reflex explanation free. What is carotid sinus reflex? Meaning of carotid sinus reflex medical term. What does carotid sinus reflex mean?
Looking for online definition of carotid sinus in the Medical Dictionary? carotid sinus explanation free. What is carotid sinus? Meaning of carotid sinus medical term. What does carotid sinus mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carotid baroreceptor function in dogs with chronic norepinephrine infusion. AU - Wang, Jie. AU - Ochoa, Manuel. AU - Patel, Mrugesh B.. AU - Zucker, Irving H.. AU - Loud, Alden V.. AU - Zeballos, Guillermo A.. AU - Hintze, Thomas H.. PY - 1991/6. Y1 - 1991/6. N2 - Carotid baroreceptor function, the compliance of the carotid sinus wall, and the structure of the carotid artery were examined in dogs with elevated plasma norepinephrine (2, 000-4, 000 pg/ml) for 28 days. The dogs with high nonepinephrine were normotensive (100±4.0 versus 98±4.0 mm Hg; p,0.05) with bradycardia (65 ±4.0 versus 87 ±16 beats/m in; p,0.05) compared with normal dogs in the conscious state. However, after pentobarbital anesthesia blood pressure was significantly higher in dogs with chronic norepinephrine infusion (165±6 mm Hg) compared with normal dogs (132±6 mm Hg). To assess baroreceptor sensitivity, multiunit carotid baroreceptor activity was recorded from the right carotid sinus nerve, and the ...
Clinical trials on carotid receptor stimulation by an implantable device showed a significant reduction in both office systolic (22 or 34 mmHg) and diastolic (18 or 20 mmHg) blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (14/9 mmHg), and heart rate (12 bpm), which was evident from study onset and was maintained at follow-up. Available data suggest a beneficial effect of carotid baroreceptor stimulation on the reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac structure and function, with attenuated mitral A-valve velocity and reduced left atrial dimensions; also carotid baropacing does not impair the renal function of patients with resistant hypertension, even during prolonged follow-up periods (13-18).. ...
Arterial baroreceptors are mechanical sensors that detect blood pressure changes. It has long been suggested that the two arterial baroreceptors, aortic and carotid baroreceptors, have different pressure sensitivities. However, there is no consensus as to which of the arterial baroreceptors are more sensitive to changes in blood pressure. In the present study, we employed independent methods to compare the pressure sensitivity of the two arterial baroreceptors. Firstly, pressure-activated action potential firing was measured by whole-cell current clamp with a high-speed pressure clamp system in primary cultured baroreceptor neurons. The results show that aortic depressor neurons possessed a higher percentage of mechano-sensitive neurons. Furthermore, aortic baroreceptor neurons show a lower pressure threshold than that of carotid baroreceptor neurons. Secondly, uniaxial stretching of baroreceptor neurons, that mimics the forces exerted on blood vessels, elicited a larger increase in intracellular Ca2+
1. The carotid baroreceptors were stimulated for 2 min by neck suction at −30 and −60 mmHg in 19 normotensive subjects and 12 patients with moderate essential hypertension.. 2. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer and heart rate was derived from beat-to-beat analysis of the electrocardiogram. Blood flow was measured simultaneously at calf and finger with venous occlusion plethysmography and the vascular resistance was calculated.. 3. During neck suction at − 30 and − 60 mmHg there was a significant decrease in arterial blood pressure and heart rate. There was a transient vasodilatation of the calf blood vessels, while there was a sustained vasoconstriction of the finger blood vessels. These results were qualitatively similar in both groups; however, there were quantitative differences.. 4. These experiments show that there is a selective autonomic control of the different peripheral vascular beds by the carotid baroreceptors in both normotension and mild essential ...
1. Tachyphylaxis occurs when renin is repeatedly injected into dogs and cats regardless of whether they are normal, anesthetized, pithed, hepatectomized, suprarenalectomized, nephrectomized, or eviscerated.. 2. The pressor response to renin in brief experiments is independent of the height of the arterial pressure or the presence of the suprarenals. Evisceration and large doses of ergotamine reduce the response. It is largely uninfluenced by pithing, intracisternal injection of renin, cocaine, strychnine, caffeine, and infusion of sodium bicarbonate or hydrochloric acid. It may be slightly increased by large blood transfusions or hepatectomy but the result is short lived.. 3. There is no parallelism between the pressor responses to carotid sinus stimulation, adrenine, and tyramine on the one hand and renin on the other.. 4. Section of the brain may be followed by depressor responses to renin.. 5. Intracisternal injection of renin elicits no significant rise in blood pressure or other circulatory ...
The sick sinus syndrome is a disease of the sinus node and occurs in middle-aged and older patients, with some exceptions. The most probable predominant etiology is a degenerative process of the...
1. There are baroreceptors (pressure receptors) in the neck near the carotid artery. Activation of these receptors activates vagal tone. Increased vagal tone results in lowered heart rate, and in some people can cause fainting. So you might artificially (or more quickly) lower your HR, and if youre in the minority of people with carotid sinus hypersensitivity you might pass out. Falling and cracking your head is not conducive to what youre trying to achieve with PT. Plus its damned embarrassing ...
Adrenergic blocking action has been measured in a series of eighteen dibenzazepine derivatives. Maximal action was found in the allyl dibenzazepine derivative, Ro 2-3248. Compounds with side-chains longer than propyl were inactive. The quaternary salts were inactive.. The allyl dibenzazepine derivative, Ro 2-3248, is a strong, short-acting adrenergic blocking agent which causes a prolonged fall of blood pressure. It is orally active. Ro 2-3248 blocked the stimulatory action of epinephrine on blood pressure, nictitating membrane and isolated seminal vesicles. It blocked the stimulatory effects of arterenol. It also blocked the effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation on the nictitating membrane and the carotid sinus reflex. It did not block the inhibitory actions of epinephrine on blood pressure, isolated tracheal rings and isolated intestine or the inhibitory action of isopropylarterenol on blood pressure. The compound has a relatively low toxicity.. ...
Multidisciplinary assessment of the reason for the fall will reduce the risk of further fractures, and the components of such assessments are well described.11 12 Nearly all patients with hip fracture meet the criteria for such an assessment, which should be performed routinely as part of inpatient rehabilitation care (box 4). A medical cause for the fall should be sought; specifically, hypotension, postural hypotension, arrhythmia, vasovagal syncope, and carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Examination should include lying and standing blood pressure and a 12 lead electrocardiogram.. About 3% of hip fractures are related to localised bone weakness at the fracture site, secondary to tumour, bone cysts, or Pagets disease. More than half of the remaining patients have osteoporosis, and nearly all are osteopenic. Over the age of 80, a woman with normal bone mineral density for her age will have a T score of around - 2.5 (the diagnostic threshold for osteoporosis). Thus, assessment of bone density is ...
Systems and methods provide baroreflex activation to treat or reduce pain and/or to cause or enhance sedation or sleep. Methods involve activating the baroreflex system to provide pain reduction, sedation, improved sleep or some combination thereof. Systems include at least one baroreflex activation device, at least one sensor for sensing physiological activity of the patient, and a processor coupled with the baroreflex activation device(s) and the sensor(s) for processing sensed data received from the sensor and for activating the baroreflex activation device. In some embodiments, the system is fully implantable within a patient, such as in an intravascular, extravascular or intramural location.
The carotid body is located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery (C4) and consists of chemoreceptors, partially derived from neural crest cells, which are capable of detecting partial pressure of oxygen and pH.. The carotid sinus is also located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery but is visible as a dilatation of the internal carotid artery. It consists of baroreceptors innervated by the sinus branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve which are capable of detecting changes in blood pressure. In addition, there are barorecptors in the aortic arch but these are innervated by the vagus nerve). The carotid sinus can be massaged in order to slow the heart rate.. ...
Free, official coding info for 2021 ICD-10-CM G90.01 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Afferent fibres from CNIX and CNX travel to the NTS in the medulla. Effector neurons from the RVLM are GABAergic and therefore inhibitory, i.e. increased baroreceptor discharge reduces tonic sympathetic tone and increases vagal tone.. Increased baroreceptor activity therefore results in:. ...
1. Irrigate your nasal passageways. Allergen particles, like bacteria, dust, pollen and others are washed off when a nasal rinse is done because it cleans out our mucus membranes and prevents the formation of more bacteria. The purpose of the mucus on our faces is to fight infections and, thereby, eliminate the incidence of sinusitis. Over the counter medications and nasal irrigation products are available and most have been found to be very effective. To know if a particular nasal irrigation product is fit for you, consult an ear, nose and throat doctor.When doing an assignment on Sinus Pressure, it is always better to look up and use matter like the one given here. Your assignment turns out to be more interesting and colorful this way ...
Looking for Baroreceptors? Find out information about Baroreceptors. sensory nerve terminals in blood vessels that perceive changes in blood pressure and reflexly regulate its level. Baroreceptors become stimulated when the... Explanation of Baroreceptors
If the error occurs frequently, request an RMA in order to replace the 6148A module, and mark the module for EFA.%LTL-SP-2-LTL_PARITY_CHECK: LTL parity check request for 0x[hex]ExplanationThis is the result of The outputs of the atrial and ventricular sensing circuits, 82 and 84, are connected to the microcontroller 60 which, in turn, are able to trigger or inhibit the atrial and ventricular No. 4,788,980 (Mann et al.). See the illustration on the side access panel for the correct memory configurations, and reseat the DIMMs accordingly. 216-Memory Size Exceeds Maximum Supported The amount of memory installed exceeds that supported The error is thus corrected and processing returns to FIG. 3. As used herein, the phrase coronary sinus region refers to the vasculature of the left ventricle, including any portion of the coronary sinus, great cardiac vein, left marginal vein, left posterior The switch was still under warranty from the used hardware > reseller, so the blade was replaced. Imprecise ...
As this is a potentially perilous procedure, the doctor usually performs it in conditions that take into consideration test sensitivity. For example, the massage table would be tilted at an angle of 70 degrees. Explaining to the patient the possible side effects and checking for contraindications should be done before the message.. The physician would ask the patient to relax and lie down on their back having extended the neck and turn the head so that the side that is being rubbed is facing upwards. A cardiac monitor would also be attached to the patient in order to monitor the heart rate. Once the patient has been in this position for five minutes, the massage can be performed. Imagine a horizontal line that begins about an inch and a half below the earlobe. Place the tips of the index and middle finger here. Applying the amount of pressure you would use to indent a tennis ball, massage the area in a counter-clockwise circle. Identify the carotid sinus and massage gently applying steady ...
I dont get sinus infection issues, so I dont know if thats related to the flu/common cold brain fog. My pet neurological theory is that the dopamine levels in the system go down, but if thats true I dont have any idea why that happens -- or maybe thats how the body forces one to rest and the brain fog and irritability is a side effect. Also side effects from any medication taken shouldnt be ruled out -- antihistamines can have a sort of brain fog effect (the 70s antihistimine du jour Actifed comes to mind ...
How to Massage Your Sinuses. If you are suffering from sinus pressure or congestion, massaging your sinuses may help to alleviate some of your irritation. Massaging the sinuses and the tissues surrounding the sinuses can help relieve the...
Nasal trauma can cause a deviated septum, but some people are simply born with the condition. Some of the symptoms or side effects of this condition include:
Hi ladies Thanks again for all your replies in this forum. I never thought I would make it to pass the 6 mo mark... DD is almost 10mo!!! Anyway, DD has been sick this week, pink eye/congestion and this morning I woke up with sore throat and a lot of sinus pressure. Im thinking is allergies because of all the crazy pollen out there now! Ive been feeling not very well through the day and I was wondering if there is anything at all I could take to at least calm the sinus pressure or the
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Doctor, I have been experiencing something for over a week now. Its a pressure in my head, feels very similar to sinus pressure, but paired with it is a shortness of breath, a difficulty seeing, slight cough at times, feeling faint and di
Nasty snot in the mask is a common issue and another one of the unladylike things I suffer with. I experience often. I am one of those many people across America and especially in Florida who struggle with sinus pressure and pain. Rich will tell you that I can tell him when a good strong…
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In the cavernous sinus it runs alongside the internal carotid artery. It then enters the orbit through the superior orbital ... cavernous sinus diseases and various neuropathies. Perhaps the most common overall cause of sixth nerve impairment is diabetic ... At the tip of the petrous part of the temporal bone it makes a sharp turn forward to enter the cavernous sinus. ... as can aneurysms of the intracavernous carotid artery. Mass lesions that push the brainstem downward can damage the nerve by ...
Chapleau MW, Hajduczok G, Abboud FM (July 1992). "Suppression of baroreceptor discharge by endothelin at high carotid sinus ... Wallbach, M; Koziolek, MJ (9 November 2017). "Baroreceptors in the carotid and hypertension-systematic review and meta-analysis ...
Fainting may result from subclavian steal syndrome or carotid sinus hypersensitivity. There is also often anemia and marked ... Due to obstruction of the main branches of the aorta, including the left common carotid artery, the brachiocephalic artery, and ...
... the rapidity of death can be affected by the susceptibility to carotid sinus stimulation. Carotid sinus reflex death is ... Passig, K. Carotid Sinus reflex death - a theory and its history. www.datenschlag.org. URL last accessed February 28, 2006. ... Stimulation of the carotid sinus reflex-causing bradycardia, hypotension, or both. Depending on the particular method of ... Incomplete occlusion of the carotid arteries is expected and, in cases of homicide, the victim may struggle for a period of ...
... which is the portion of the internal carotid plexus in the cavernous sinus. The plant genus Waltheria from the family ...
"BestBets: Comparing Valsalva manoeuvre with carotid sinus massage in adults with supraventricular tachycardia". Archived from ...
High pressure receptors are the baroreceptors found within the aortic arch and carotid sinus. They are only sensitive to blood ...
Carotid sinus massage Vagal maneuver Lang S, Lanigan D, van der Wal M (1991). "Trigeminocardiac reflexes: maxillary and ... This often results in the restoration of normal sinus rhythm of the heart. If not, the use of atropine or glycopyrrolate will ...
The cavernous sinus also contains the carotid artery, which supplies blood to the brain; occasionally, compression of the ... Adjacent to the pituitary lies a part of the skull base known as the cavernous sinus. This contains a number of nerves that ... and surrounding structures such as the optic nerve and the contents of the cavernous sinus are compressed. The raised pressure ...
... the OA branches just before the internal carotid exits the cavernous sinus. The OA arises from the internal carotid along the ... The ophthalmic artery (OA) is the first branch of the internal carotid artery distal to the cavernous sinus. Branches of the OA ... The OA emerges from the internal carotid artery usually just after the latter emerges from the cavernous sinus although in some ... The posterior ethmoidal artery enters the nose via the posterior ethmoidal canal and supplies the posterior ethmoidal sinuses ...
Alternatively, carotid sinus hypersensitivity can cause episodes of dizziness and collapse on head turning if the neck brushes ...
For those susceptible to carotid sinus syncope, of which most people would be unaware until it occurred, this can be an ... Unconsciousness may be induced by other methods although these are controversial: pressure over the carotid sinus may induce ... that pressure on the vagus nerve causes changes to pulse rate and blood pressure and is dangerous in cases of carotid sinus ... Pressing on the carotid arteries also presses on baroreceptors. These bodies then cause vasodilatation in the brain leading to ...
The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus sense this increase in blood pressure and relay the information to the cardiovascular ...
... circumscribing the presence of baroreceptors to the carotid sinus, but that of chemoreceptors to the carotid body, for the ... working under Heymans at Ghent University were looking for the anatomical basis of the respiratory reflex at the carotid sinus ... Towards the sensory nature of the carotid body: Hering, De Castro and Heymans. Front. Neuroanat. 3: 23 (1-11) (doi:10.3389/ ... described in detail the innervation of the aorta-carotid region, ...
Carotid sinus syncope is due to pressure on the carotid sinus in the neck.[2] The underlying mechanism involves the nervous ... Carotid sinus syncope[edit]. Pressing upon a certain spot in the neck.[5] This may happen when wearing a tight collar, shaving ... Vasovagal, situational, carotid sinus syncope[1]. Diagnostic method. Based on symptoms after ruling out other possible causes[3 ... Reflex syncope is divided into three types: vasovagal, situational, and carotid sinus.[2] Vasovagal syncope is typically ...
... pattern and an ipsilateral dural AVF fed by branches of the external carotid artery and draining into the transverse sinus. ... External Carotid-Internal Carotid) bypass. All of these operations have in common the concept of a blood and oxygen "starved" ... branches of the internal carotid artery inside the skull. When the internal carotid artery becomes completely blocked, the fine ... Mainly, occlusion of the distal internal carotid artery occurs. On angiography, a "puff of smoke" appearance is seen, and the ...
It digs the blade of the wrist into the carotid sinus similar to the hand clasp method and uses a lever motion helped by the ... or carotid restraints / sleeper holds) are a form of strangulation that compress one or both carotid arteries and/or the ... It is not an air choke but a carotid choke created entirely by the attacker's arms. Von Flue choke - this choke is mostly used ... In contrast, if the airway rather than the carotid arteries is blocked, the subject cannot breathe, but his brain is still ...
It digs the blade of the wrist into the carotid sinus similar to the hand clasp method and uses a lever motion helped by the ... It is not an air choke but a carotid choke created entirely by the attacker's arms. Hadaka Jime is also recognized as Hadaka- ... This variant is considered to be a "blood choke" because it restricts blood flow to the brain via the carotid arteries. When ...
... but the most sensitive baroreceptors are in the carotid sinuses and aortic arch. While the carotid sinus baroreceptor axons ... The system relies on specialized neurons, known as baroreceptors chiefly in the aortic arch and carotid sinuses to monitor ... When blood pressure rises, the carotid and aortic sinuses are distended further, resulting in increased stretch and, therefore ... Wallbach, M; Koziolek, MJ (9 November 2017). "Baroreceptors in the carotid and hypertension-systematic review and meta-analysis ...
Single powerful blows to the head (particularly the jawline and temple) can produce a cerebral concussion or a carotid sinus ...
Similarly, baroreceptors are stretch receptors located in the aortic sinus, carotid bodies, the venae cavae, and other ... The normal sinus rhythm of the heart rate is generated by the SA node. It is also influenced by central factors through ... Normal sinus rhythm is established by the sinoatrial (SA) node, the heart's pacemaker. The SA node is a specialized grouping of ... It seems that it moves in a radial way, but Bachmann's bundle and coronary sinus muscle play a role in conduction between the ...
... carotid sinuses, etc. Bezold-Jarisch reflex - involves a variety of cardiovascular and neurological processes which cause ...
... it is in relation with the internal carotid artery and the posterior part of the cavernous sinus. The motor root runs in front ... The ganglion receives, on its medial side, filaments from the carotid plexus of the sympathetic. It gives off minute branches ...
... of the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus and marks the point at which the internal carotid artery enters the cavernous sinus ... The cavernous section of the internal carotid artery begins at the superior aspect of the petrolingual ligament. For surgeons ... Anatomically, the petrolingual ligament demarcates two of the segments of the internal carotid artery: The petrolingual ... it is important to be oriented to the location of this ligament in cases of possible dissection of the internal carotid artery ...
Sensitive carotid sinus P-THORAX Pleuritic pain Tracheal deviation Hyperresonance Onset sudden Reduced breath sounds (and ...
... carotid sinus syncope)-see Carotid sinus § Disease of the carotid sinus Chessington South railway station, a National Rail ... the syndrome resulting from the blood flow problem called coronary steal Carotid sinus syndrome ( ...
... especially the carotid sinus), or from electrodes placed on the chest and the upper back or crossing over the heart". The ...
The resultant lowering of blood pressure is sensed by carotid sinus baroreceptors, and stimulates the baroreflex to inhibit ... The Bezold-Jarisch reflex is thought to be responsible for the sinus bradycardia that commonly occurs within the first hour ...
Dementia increases the likelihood of falls Cardiovascular causes Orthostatic hypotension Postprandial hypotension Carotid sinus ...
... but are particularly plentiful in the sinuses of the carotid arteries and in the arch of the aorta. These specialized receptors ... which integrates the inverse of carotid artery pressure, pain, posture, and probably emotion (anxiety, fear, and hostility) ( ... amount of plasma renin secreted is an indirect function of the serum potassium as probably determined by sensors in the carotid ...
Surgery (e.g. septoplasty and functional endoscopic sinus surgery). Systemic factors[edit]. Most common factors[edit]. * ... More rarely the maxillary or a branch of the external carotid artery can be ligated. The bleeding can also be stopped by intra- ...
Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva. *Aortic dissection. *Coronary artery aneurysm. *head / neck *Intracranial aneurysm ...
Carotid duplex: A carotid duplex is an ultrasound study that assesses whether or not you have atherosclerosis (narrowing) of ... cerebral venous sinus thrombosis). Nonpenetrating and penetrating cranial trauma can also be common causes of intracerebral ... the carotid arteries. These arteries are the large blood vessels in your neck that feed your brain. Transcranial Doppler (TCD ...
The left and right internal carotid arteries arise from the left and right common carotid arteries. ... The posterior communicating artery is given off as a branch of the internal carotid artery just before it divides into its ... In another variation the anterior communicating artery is a large vessel, such that a single internal carotid supplies both ... Blood flows up to the brain through the vertebral arteries and through the internal carotid arteries. ...
Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva. *Aortic dissection. *Aortic rupture. *Coronary artery aneurysm ...
Sinus tachycardia, which originates from the sino-atrial (SA) node, near the base of the superior vena cava ... Hyperthyroidism can also cause tachycardia.[5] The upper limit of normal rate for sinus tachycardia is thought to be 220 bpm ... ECG showing sinus tachycardia with a rate of about 100 beats per minute. ... Sinus tachycardia, Atrial tachycardia, AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. ...
Beberapa ahli lain mempertimbangan klasifikasi berdasarkan fenotipe seperti keberadaan internal carotid artery plaque, intima- ... cerebral venous sinus thrombosis; stroke saat kehamilan, stroke akibat penggunaan hormon pasca menopause, penggunaan senyawa ... extracranial carotid ultrasonography, dan jika memungkinkan, cerebral angiography. ...
The coronary arteries start in the right and left aortic sinus and provide blood to the heart muscle in a similar fashion to ... The ophthalmic rete is analogous to the carotid rete found in mammals, as it also facilitates transfer of heat from arterial ... The brain was found to maintain a warmer temperature when compared to carotid arterial blood supply. Researchers hypothesize ...
Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva. *Aortic dissection. *Coronary artery aneurysm. *head / neck *Intracranial aneurysm ...
... and measured by stretch receptors in the walls of the aortic arch and carotid sinuses at beginnings of the internal carotid ... High pressure receptors called baroreceptors in the walls of the aortic arch and carotid sinus (at the beginning of the ... in the carotid artery and aortic arch. A change in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is detected as altered pH in the ... internal carotid artery) monitor the arterial blood pressure.[46] Rising pressure is detected when the walls of the arteries ...
The ascending cervical artery is a small branch which arises from the inferior thyroid artery as it passes behind the carotid ... It then turns medially behind the carotid sheath and its contents, and also behind the sympathetic trunk, the middle cervical ...
There is no direct connection between the internal carotid artery and the vessels of the brain.[72] Their circulatory system ... Vaquita (P. sinus). *Burmeister's porpoise (P. spinipinnis). Phocoenoides. *Dall's porpoise (P. dalli) ...
Since early in the 1980s, fetal, porcine, carotid or retinal tissues have been used in cell transplants, in which dissociated ...
Carotid sinus syncope. *Heat syncope. *Vasovagal episode. Other. *Amnesia *Anterograde amnesia. *Retrograde amnesia ...
Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva. *Aortic dissection. *Aortic rupture. *Coronary artery aneurysm ...
... which are called the aortic sinuses or the sinuses of Valsalva. The left aortic sinus contains the origin of the left coronary ... Left common carotid artery. Left subclavian artery. Descending aorta, thoracic part: Left bronchial arteries. esophageal ... For example, the left vertebral artery may arise from the aorta, instead of the left common carotid artery.[9]:188 ... Combination of coronary sinus, superior vena cava and inferior vena cava. Supplies. The systemic circulation. (entire body with ...
At its origin, the internal carotid artery is somewhat dilated. This part of the artery is known as the carotid sinus or the ... The internal carotid runs vertically upward in the carotid sheath, and enters the skull through the carotid canal. During this ... the external carotid artery. The cervical segment, or C1, or cervical part of the internal carotid, extends from the carotid ... Unlike the external carotid artery, the internal carotid normally has no branches in the neck. The petrous segment, or C2, of ...
The other type, carotid artery dissection, involves the carotid arteries. Vertebral artery dissection is further classified as ... It is therefore possible for the symptoms to occur on both sides, or for symptoms of carotid artery dissection to occur at the ... Prior to this, there had been isolated case reports about carotid dissection. In 1971, C. Miller Fisher, a Canadian neurologist ... While dissection of the carotid and vertebral arteries accounts for only 2% of strokes (which are usually caused by high blood ...
Internal carotid artery. *Tip of basilar artery. Saccular aneurysms tend to have a lack of tunica media and elastic lamina ... Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva. *Aortic dissection. *Coronary artery aneurysm. *head / neck *Intracranial aneurysm ...
A very small proportion is due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Risk factors for ICH include:[12] ...
Lateral surface: Carotid groove. *Sphenoidal lingula. *Anterior surface: Sphenoidal sinuses. Great wings. *foramina *Rotundum ...
common carotid. *External carotid. *Internal carotid. *Carotid body. *Carotid sinus. *Carotid bifurcation ...
Q18.0) Sinus, fistula and cyst of branchial cleft *Congenital preauricular fistula: A small pit in front of the ear. Also known ... H05.81) Carotid cavernous fistula. *(H70.1) Mastoid fistula *Craniosinus fistula: between the intracranial space and a ... with only one open end; blind fistulas may also be called sinus tracts ...
carotid sinus. petrous. *Vidian. *caroticotympanic. cavernous/. ophthalmic. *orbital group:anterior ethmoidal. *posterior ...
common carotid. *External carotid. *Internal carotid. *Carotid body. *Carotid sinus. *Carotid bifurcation ... left common carotid artery (directly from arch of aorta on left mostly)[edit]. internal carotid artery[edit]. *ophthalmic ... external carotid artery[edit]. *Arising in carotid triangle[1] *Superior thyroid artery *Hyoid (infrahyoid) artery ... 2.2 left common carotid artery (directly from arch of aorta on left mostly) *2.2.1 internal carotid artery ...
The groove is curved like the italic letter f, and lodges the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus.[citation needed] ... The carotid groove is a anatomical groove in the sphenoid bone located above the attachment of each great wing of the sphenoid ... Sphenoid bone is in yellow, and carotid groove is labeled at center of sphenoid. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carotid_groove&oldid=915856032" ...
bruit over one or both carotid arteries or abdominal aorta. *arteriographic narrowing of aorta, its primary branches, or large ... paranasal sinus abnormalities. *vessel biopsy showing eosinophils in extravascular areas. Microscopic polyarteritis/ ...
The most important arterial baroreceptors are located in the left and right carotid sinuses and in the aortic arch.[70] ...
The lingual artery arises from the external carotid between the superior thyroid artery and facial artery. It can be located ...
Contraindications to carotid sinus massage should be respected and the standardized technique used. ... Neurological complications following carotid sinus massage for diagnosis of the carotid sinus syndrome are uncommon and usually ... Conclusions: Neurological complications following carotid sinus massage for diagnosis of the carotid sinus syndrome are ... Contraindications to carotid sinus massage were the presence of carotid bruits, recent myocardial or cerebral ischemia, or ...
... carotid body artery; CC, carotid canal; CCA, common carotid artery; CS, carotid sinus; CSN, carotid sinus nerve; ECA, external ... 18 was adapted to stimulate the carotid sinus. Thus, simultaneous electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and carotid sinus ... Moreover, combined electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and the carotid sinus nerve in the absence of the carotid ... of the carotid sinus and carotid sinus nerve in conscious rats during 20 s. BARO-X indicates denervated carotid baroreceptor; ...
Carotid Sinus Reflex Control of Renin Release in Hypertensive Subjects with High Renin Secretion. G. Mancia, A. Ferrari, G. ... Carotid Sinus Reflex Control of Renin Release in Hypertensive Subjects with High Renin Secretion ... Carotid Sinus Reflex Control of Renin Release in Hypertensive Subjects with High Renin Secretion ... Carotid Sinus Reflex Control of Renin Release in Hypertensive Subjects with High Renin Secretion ...
Methods: Carotid sinus massage (CSM) was performed both supine and during 60° head-up tilt. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, heart ... Objective: To determine the frequency, age distribution and clinical presentation of carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) among ... Unexplained syncope-is screening for carotid sinus hypersensitivity indicated in all patients aged ,40 years? ... Unexplained syncope-is screening for carotid sinus hypersensitivity indicated in all patients aged ,40 years? ...
Carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) is an exaggerated fall in blood pressure (BP) or heart rate (HR) in response to ... It is defined as a ≥50 mmHg drop in systolic BP & / or ≥3 second asystole in response to carotid sinus massage (CSM). CSH, is ... Abstract T MP113: Symptoms During Carotid Sinus Massage, but Not the Magnitude of Haemodynamic Change, are Associated with ... Abstract T MP113: Symptoms During Carotid Sinus Massage, but Not the Magnitude of Haemodynamic Change, are Associated with ...
The Role of Vagus and Carotid Sinus Nerves on Systemic and Renal Responses to Somatic Afferent Stimulation in the Rat. G Davis ... The Role of Vagus and Carotid Sinus Nerves on Systemic and Renal Responses to Somatic Afferent Stimulation in the Rat ... The Role of Vagus and Carotid Sinus Nerves on Systemic and Renal Responses to Somatic Afferent Stimulation in the Rat ... The Role of Vagus and Carotid Sinus Nerves on Systemic and Renal Responses to Somatic Afferent Stimulation in the Rat ...
A quick reference on Carotid sinus syncope, covering the clinical presentation, investigative approach, and key principles of ... Carotid massage or slight pressure at the carotid sinus will reproduce the symptoms and signs of CSS. Before performing carotid ... Carotid Sinus Syndrome: Treatment by Carotid Sinus Denervation Ann Surg [online] 1979 May, 189(5):575-580 [viewed 04 November ... Carotid Sinus Syndrome: Treatment by Carotid Sinus Denervation Ann Surg [online] 1979 May, 189(5):575-580 [viewed 05 November ...
Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity. The difference between carotid sinus syndrome and carotid sinus hypersensitivity is the lack of ... Carotid Sinus Massage. Carotid sinus massage was performed in all patients by the same physician (J.-J.B.) in a quiet room ( ... Hyperactive carotid sinus reflex and carotid sinus syncope. Mayo Clin Proc. 1969;44:127-139. ... interest in carotid sinus syndrome has been rekindled by the evidence of an association between carotid sinus syndrome and ...
Antonyms for Carotid sinus reflex. 26 synonyms for reflex: automatic, spontaneous, instinctive, involuntary, impulsive, knee- ... jerk, unthinking, automatic, impulsive, instinctive, involuntary.... What are synonyms for Carotid sinus reflex? ... Synonyms for Carotid sinus reflex in Free Thesaurus. ... Carotid Sinus Nerve Discharge. *Carotid Sinus Nerve Transection ... Carotid sinus reflex synonyms, Carotid sinus reflex antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com https://www.freethesaurus.com/Carotid+sinus+ ...
Right carotid sinus gain was found to be 0.628 +/- 0.058 at a left carotid sinus pressure of 50 mmHg and 0.148 +/- 0.027 when ... Carotid sinus reflex interactions were studied in 10 dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. The right and left carotid ... left carotid sinus pressure was 200 mmHg. Similar results were found for left carotid sinus gain. Suppression was also found ... when carotid sinus pressure was changed on one side were strongly influenced by pressure in the contralateral carotid sinus (P ...
... preferably located on the carotid sinus nerve branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, adjacent and distal to the carotid sinus ... uses the carotid baroreflex in order to control systemic blood pressure. The implant includes sampling and pulse stimulation ... A carotid sinus baroreceptor 60 is situated at the bifurcation 54, and transmits impulses over a carotid sinus nerve 62. The ... The carotid sinus is a small widening of the internal carotid artery just above the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. ...
114.7±10.3 mmHg in SHR, P = 0.009). The slope of dynamic gain in the neural arc transfer function from carotid sinus pressure ... 114.7±10.3 mmHg in SHR, P = 0.009). The slope of dynamic gain in the neural arc transfer function from carotid sinus pressure ... 114.7±10.3 mmHg in SHR, P = 0.009). The slope of dynamic gain in the neural arc transfer function from carotid sinus pressure ... 114.7±10.3 mmHg in SHR, P = 0.009). The slope of dynamic gain in the neural arc transfer function from carotid sinus pressure ...
carotid sinus synonyms, carotid sinus pronunciation, carotid sinus translation, English dictionary definition of carotid sinus ... n. A dilated area located at the bifurcations of the carotid arteries and containing numerous baroreceptors that function in ... Related to carotid sinus: carotid artery, Baroreceptors, carotid sinus massage, Carotid sinus reflex ... Carotid sinus - definition of carotid sinus by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/carotid+sinus ...
... Gautam Bir Singh,1,2 Anil K. Rai,3 Sarvejeet Singh,3 and ... Gautam Bir Singh, Anil K. Rai, Sarvejeet Singh, and Mukul Sinha, "A Rare Case of Lateral Sinus Thrombosis with Carotid Space ...
In this article, we discuss the use of carotid sinus mas ... In this article, we discuss the use of carotid sinus massage ( ... 24607007 - Tension to passively cinch the mitral annulus through coronary sinus access: an ex vivo.... 9403167 - Mechanisms and ...
Branch of glossopharyngeal nerve to carotid sinus Hypoglossal nerve, cervical plexus, and their ... Branch of glossopharyngeal nerve to carotid sinus Nerve: ... The branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve to the carotid sinus ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Branch_of_glossopharyngeal_nerve_to_carotid_sinus". A list of authors is available ... nucleus ambiguus • ganglia (superior, petrous) • tympanic (tympanic plexus, lesser petrosal) • carotid sinus • pharyngeal ...
2011, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/ and http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/legalcode. ...
Inhibition of the Carotid Sinus Reflex by Stimulation of the Inferior Olive ... Inhibition of the Carotid Sinus Reflex by Stimulation of the Inferior Olive ... Inhibition of the Carotid Sinus Reflex by Stimulation of the Inferior Olive ... Inhibition of the Carotid Sinus Reflex by Stimulation of the Inferior Olive ...
What is Carotid sinus baroreflex? Meaning of Carotid sinus baroreflex medical term. What does Carotid sinus baroreflex mean? ... Looking for online definition of Carotid sinus baroreflex in the Medical Dictionary? Carotid sinus baroreflex explanation free ... Related to Carotid sinus baroreflex: Carotid sinus reflex, Carotid sinus baroreceptor stimulation, Carotid sinus stimulation ... Synonym(s): sinus caroticus [TA], carotid bulb. carotid sinus. n.. A dilated area located at the bifurcations of the carotid ...
What is carotid sinus reflex? Meaning of carotid sinus reflex medical term. What does carotid sinus reflex mean? ... Looking for online definition of carotid sinus reflex in the Medical Dictionary? carotid sinus reflex explanation free. ... carotid sinus reflex. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia.. Related to carotid sinus reflex: gag reflex, ... carotid sinus. a dilatation of the proximal portion of the internal carotid or distal portion of the common carotid artery, ...
Paranasal Sinuses, & Nasopharynx - Download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Deep ... This space includes the extracranial carotid artery. the tongue base. Carotid Space * Includes carotid artery. internal. ... Obstructs sinuses. Fungiform papilloma: Arises from nasal septum. * Mucocele: an obstructed sinus. and maxillary). the finding ... external carotid artery. The retromandibular vein in external carotid arteries also pass through this space. ...
Home , December 2018 - Volume 85 - Issue 6 , Re: Prediction of traumatic carotid-cavernous sinus fistula... ... Prediction of traumatic carotid-cavernous sinus fistula via noncontrast computed tomography by fracture pattern and abnormality ... Re: Prediction of traumatic carotid-cavernous sinus fistula via noncontrast computed tomography by fracture pattern and ...
... was also found to activate the carotid sinus reflexes as an increase in sinus nerve activity occurred which coincided with ... CAROTID SINUS REFLEX CHANGES PRODUCED BY DIGITALIS Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... CAROTID SINUS REFLEX CHANGES PRODUCED BY DIGITALIS. JOHN A. QUEST and RICHARD A. GILLIS ... CAROTID SINUS REFLEX CHANGES PRODUCED BY DIGITALIS. JOHN A. QUEST and RICHARD A. GILLIS ...
Carotid body Carotid sinus nerve Glucose tolerance Insulin resistance KHFAC modulation Neuromodulation Type 2 diabetes ... Bioelectronic modulation of carotid sinus nerve activity in the rat: a potential therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes. ... Carotid sinus nerve (CSN) denervation has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant and glucose-intolerant ... the carotid sinus nerve (CSN), restores insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in high-energy-fed animal models of insulin ...
Rhinoscopic Clinic). by Ear, Nose and Throat Journal; Health, general Carotid sinus Abnormalities Optic nerve Sphenoid bone ... The optic nerve and the internal carotid artery in the sphenoid sinus. ( ... APA style: The optic nerve and the internal carotid artery in the sphenoid sinus. (Rhinoscopic Clinic).. (n.d.) >The Free ... The endoscopic sinus surgeon should remember the anatomic relationship of the optic nerve and the internal carotid artery in ...
Find out information about Carotid Sinus. An enlargement at the bifurcation of each carotid artery that is supplied with ... Related to Carotid Sinus: carotid artery, Baroreceptors, carotid sinus massage, Carotid sinus reflex ... Carotid body tumor presenting with carotid sinus syndrome.. A Rare Case of Carotid Body Tumor Presenting with Internal Carotid ... Carotid Sinus , Article about Carotid Sinus by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Carotid+Sinus ...
Restoring PSVT to sinus rhythm. Valsalva 16.7% vs Carotid sinus massage 0%. Operator bias, small numbers, lack of blinding, ... Valsalva 12.0% vs carotid sinus massage 6.3%; p. Total instances of PSVT sucessfully treated by vagal manoeuvres without ... Right and left carotid sinus massage and the diving reflex were considerably less effective than the valsalva manoeuvre. ... overal sucess rate: Valsalva 18.0% vs Carotid sinus massage 11.8%; p=NS; CI [-2.8% to 20.7%]. Outcomes were not assessed blind ...
"Carotid Sinus" by people in this website by year, and whether "Carotid Sinus" was a major or minor topic of these publications ... "Carotid Sinus" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Phase resetting of the respiratory oscillator by carotid sinus nerve stimulation in cats. J Physiol. 1998 Jan 15; 506 ( Pt 2): ... Raiciulescu N, Bittman E, Voinescu S. [Influence of the mesencephalic reticular formation on carotid sinus baroceptor reflexes ...
A patient is presented in whom rupture of an aneurysm wholly within the cavernous sinus caused a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The ... Aneurysms arising from the intracavernous portion of the internal carotid artery very rarely rupture. ... Carotid Artery Diseases / complications*. Carotid Artery, Internal / radiography, surgery. Cavernous Sinus. Female. Humans. ... A patient is presented in whom rupture of an aneurysm wholly within the cavernous sinus caused a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The ...
The sick sinus syndrome is a disease of the sinus node and occurs in middle-aged and older patients, with some exceptions. The ... Carotid sinus syndrome and falls in older adults. Am J Geriatr Cardiol 2001;10:97-9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... the carotid sinus syndrome, which is different from the sick sinus syndrome, is briefly discussed. ... The sick sinus syndrome is a disease of the sinus node and occurs in middle-aged and older patients, with some exceptions. The ...
Patel A K, Yap V U, Fields J, Thomsen J H. Carotid sinus syncope induced by malignant tumors in the neck. Arch Intern Med. 1979 ... Glossopharyngeal and Limited Vagal Neurectomy for Cancer-Related Carotid Sinus Syncope. Harrison W. Lin, M.D.,1,2 Michael B. ... Frank J I, Ropper A H, Zuniga G. Vasodepressor carotid sinus syncope associated with a neck mass. Neurology. 1992;42(6):1194- ... Muntz H R, Smith P G. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity: a cause of syncope in patients with tumors of the head and neck. ...
MANUAL COMPRESSION OF THE CAROTID VESSELS, CAROTID SINUS HYPERSENSITIVITY AND CAROTID ARTERY OCCLUSIONS1 ALLEN SILVERSTEIN, M.D ... MANUAL COMPRESSION OF THE CAROTID VESSELS, CAROTID SINUS HYPERSENSITIVITY AND CAROTID ARTERY OCCLUSIONS1. Ann Intern Med. 1960; ... BUCKLING OF THE CAROTID ARTERY DEMONSTRATED BY ANGIOCARDIOGRAPHY1 Annals of Internal Medicine; 44 (5): 1003-1007 ... "Subclavian Steal Syndrome" with Reversal of Blood Flow in the Right Carotid Artery Annals of Internal Medicine; 64 (1): 142-144 ...
Superior Petrosal Sinus Catheterization for Transvenous Embolization of a Dural Carotid Cavernous Sinus Fistula. Charbel ... Superior Petrosal Sinus Catheterization for Transvenous Embolization of a Dural Carotid Cavernous Sinus Fistula ... Superior Petrosal Sinus Catheterization for Transvenous Embolization of a Dural Carotid Cavernous Sinus Fistula ... Superior Petrosal Sinus Catheterization for Transvenous Embolization of a Dural Carotid Cavernous Sinus Fistula ...
carotid-cavernous fistula; dural cavernous sinus fistula; intracavernous carotid artery; cavernous sinus; angiography; arterial ... Lie TA: Congenital Anomalies of the Carotid Arteries, Including the Carotid-Basilar and Carotid-Vertebral Anastomoses. An ... Bennett DR, , Van Dyk HJL, & Davis DO: Carotid cavernous sinus fistula closure following angiography. JAMA 224:1637-1639, 1973 ... Mullan S: Treatment of carotid-cavernous fistulas by cavernous sinus occlusion. J Neurosurg 50:131-144, 1979 Mullan S: ...
Isolated trochlear nerve palsy secondary to dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistula. J Neuroophthalmol 1994;14:52-54. ... Krisht AF, Burson T. Combined pretemporal and endovascular approach to the cavernous sinus for the treatment of carotid- ... are high-flow shunts between the cavernous portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the cavernous sinus (CS) and are ... and the entrance of the sphenoid sinus was enlarged. The mucosa of the sphenoid sinus was preserved. The pointer of the ...
Carotid sinus hypersensitivity syncope: is there a possible alternative approach to pacemaker implantation in young patients?. ... Carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) is frequently found in about one third of elderly patients with syncope and trauma, but it ... "Carotid sinus hypersensitivity syncope: is there a possible alternative approach to pacemaker implantation in young patients ... "Carotid sinus hypersensitivity syncope: is there a possible alternative approach to pacemaker implantation in young patients ...
Sphenoid septal attachment to the ICA protuberance within the sphenoid sinus was... ... Introduction Internal carotid artery (ICA) injury is the most dangerous and life-threatening complication in patients operated ... Sphenoid sinus septations and their interconnections with parasphenoidal internal carotid artery protuberance: radioanatomical ... "Sphenoid sinus septations and their interconnections with parasphenoidal internal carotid artery protuberance: radioanatomical ...
  • Sympathetic denervation of the carotid sinus region had no effect. (mcw.edu)
  • Clinical topic regarding diagnosis and management of resistant hypertension via the American College of Cardiology states: At this time, the benefits of renal denervation, carotid baroreceptor stimulation , and central arteriovenous anastomosis remain inconclusive, and these procedures should not be adopted in routine clinical practice. (wellmark.com)
  • Carotid sinus reflex interactions were studied in 10 dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. (mcw.edu)
  • Pressure in the right and left carotid sinuses were independently varied, and the resulting steady-state reflex changes in arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory frequency, tidal volume, and total ventilation were measured. (mcw.edu)
  • Reflex changes when carotid sinus pressure was changed on one side were strongly influenced by pressure in the contralateral carotid sinus (P less than 0.05). (mcw.edu)
  • An additional inhibitory summation between the right and left carotid sinuses was found such that simultaneous excitation of both receptors resulted in a smaller reflex response than did the sum of individual responses. (mcw.edu)
  • Right carotid sinus gain was found to be 0.628 +/- 0.058 at a left carotid sinus pressure of 50 mmHg and 0.148 +/- 0.027 when left carotid sinus pressure was 200 mmHg. (mcw.edu)
  • It consisted of chronically stimulating the carotid sinus nerves using implanted nerve electrodes with an implantable radiofrequency controlled receiver. (wellmark.com)
  • Newer devices are now being developed, first-generation and second-generation devices, which bilaterally activate the carotid sinus baroreflex by electrically stimulating the carotid sinus wall. (wellmark.com)
  • To examine whether the electrical stimulation from one baroreflex system impedes normal short-term AP regulation via another unstimulated baroreflex system, we electrically stimulated the left aortic depressor nerve (ADN) while estimating the dynamic characteristics of the carotid sinus baroreflex in anesthetized normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY, n=8) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, n=7). (elsevier.com)
  • Neurological complications following carotid sinus massage for diagnosis of the carotid sinus syndrome are uncommon and usually transient. (nih.gov)
  • To review the incidence of neurological complications occurring after carotid sinus massage performed for diagnostic purposes. (nih.gov)
  • Carotid sinus massage performed for 5 seconds in both supine and erect postures, both before and after atropine. (nih.gov)
  • Contraindications to carotid sinus massage were the presence of carotid bruits, recent myocardial or cerebral ischemia, or previous ventricular tachyarrhythmias. (nih.gov)
  • Contraindications to carotid sinus massage should be respected and the standardized technique used. (nih.gov)
  • Isolated carotid sinus regions were perturbed for 20 min using a Gaussian white noise signal with a mean of 120 mmHg for WKY and 160 mmHg for SHR. (elsevier.com)
  • Interaction of right and left carotid sinus baroreflexes in the dog. (mcw.edu)
  • The right and left carotid sinus regions were isolated and perfused at controlled pressures. (mcw.edu)
  • Similar results were found for left carotid sinus gain. (mcw.edu)
  • The electrodes are placed on the carotid arteries and the leads run under the skin and are connected to a battery powered implanted impulse generator device. (wellmark.com)
  • Recent clinical trials in patients with drug-resistant hypertension indicate that electrical activation of the carotid sinus baroreflex (baroreflex activation therapy) can reduce arterial pressure (AP) for more than a year. (elsevier.com)
  • The hypothesis that rapid resetting of one carotid sinus baroreflex might influence responses from the other side was also tested. (mcw.edu)
  • The system consists of a unilateral electrode and lead that is attached to the carotid sinus and a pulse generator that is implanted subcutaneously in the chest wall. (wellmark.com)
  • ClickPress, Fri Jul 04 2014] GlobalData's clinical trial report, " Carotid Sinus Syncope Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2014" provides data on the Carotid Sinus Syncope clinical trial scenario. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The occurrence of almost all episodes just after turning the head to one side, and the symptoms patient described before the falls, raised the suspicion of syncope and the diagnosis of carotid sinus syncope was confirmed by performing carotid massage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • carotid sinus syncope (from pressure on the carotid sinus , e. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Head and neck cancer patients with cervical disease involving the glossopharyngeal or vagus nerves can experience dangerous cardiovascular phenomena, including carotid sinus syncope (CSS). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The associated array of signs and symptoms, such as bradycardia, hypotension, and syncope, have collectively been described as "carotid sinus syncope" (CSS), 1 "glossopharyngeal neuralgia-asystole syndrome," 2 and "glossopharyngeal neuralgia with syncope," 3 , 4 among others. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Carotid sinus hypersensitivity syncope: is there a possible alternative approach to pacemaker implantation in young patients? (termedia.pl)
  • Palamà Z, Ruvo E, Grieco D, Borrelli A, Sciarra L, Calò L. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity syncope: is there a possible alternative approach to pacemaker implantation in young patients? (termedia.pl)
  • Carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) is frequently found in about one third of elderly patients with syncope and trauma, but it may also be a common finding in younger patients. (termedia.pl)
  • A few reports are currently available in neurally mediated syncope and functional atrioventricular block [3, 4], but no previous experiences are available in carotid sinus hypersensitivity syncope. (termedia.pl)
  • Reflex syncope is divided into three types: vasovagal, situational, and carotid sinus. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Carotid sinus syncope is due to pressure on the carotid sinus in the neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carotid sinus hyperresponsiveness to these stimuli leads to an exaggerated response resulting in bradycardia, hypotension, syncope etc. (explainmedicine.com)
  • Carotid sinus hypersensitivity in patients presenting with syncope. (explainmedicine.com)
  • BRIGNOLE M., MENOZZI C.. The natural history of carotid sinus syncope and the effect of cardiac pacing. (explainmedicine.com)
  • How common is carotid sinus syncope? (livesstar.com)
  • Drugs known to aggravate carotid sinus syncope are digitalis, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers. (livesstar.com)
  • When structural heart disease is excluded, tests for neurogenic reflex-mediated syncope, such as head-up tilt-table testing and carotid sinus massage, should be performed. (aafp.org)
  • The use of tests such as head computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, carotid and transcranial ultrasonography, and electroencephalography to detect cerebrovascular causes of syncope should be reserved for those few patients with syncope whose history suggests a neurologic event or who have focal neurologic signs or symptoms. (aafp.org)
  • Patients with syncope who have a history or physical finding suggesting a neurologic cause should receive HUTT testing, carotid sinus massage, and/or implantable loop recorder. (aafp.org)
  • To further understand the relationship between carotid mechanoreceptors and sternocleidomastoid denervation, the present study investigated the relation between the results of carotid sinus massage and electromyographic activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscles in patients without syncope. (ahajournals.org)
  • Carotid sinus syndrome is a well-established cause of syncope 1 usually treated by pacemaker implantation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Need help in choosing carotid sinus syncope doctor in Kolkata? (credihealth.com)
  • As previously noted, reflex syncope includes: VVS, carotid hypersensitivity syncope, as well as several, so-called, "situational" syncope syndromes ( Table 1 ). (medscape.com)
  • In this correspondence, the pathophysiology of reflex syncope (vasovagal syncope, carotid sinus syndrome, and situational syncope) is reviewed, including clarification of the nomenclature. (medscape.com)
  • Vasovagal syncope (VVS) and carotid sinus syndrome (CSS) are specific forms of reflex syncope. (medscape.com)
  • We retrieved electronic records concerning 3127 consecutive patients who had undergone carotid sinus massage (CSM) in the Syncope Unit of Careggi Hospital, Florence, and Ospedali del Tigullio, Lavagna, in the period 2004-2014.The study population included patients who had received cardiac pacing for CI-CSS. (onlinejacc.org)
  • This is a multi-center, prospective, observational study enrolling 400 patients with suspected or certain neurally-mediated syncope, who undergo carotid sinus massage, tilt testing and Implantable Loop Recorder (ILR)implantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Older adults are more likely to have orthostatic, carotid sinus hypersensitivity, or cardiac syncope, whereas younger adults are more likely to have vasovagal syncope. (aafp.org)
  • Moreover, alteration of the carotid sinus pressure resulting from neck palpation or electric stimulation may cause carotid baroreflex (Filippone & Bisognano, 2007). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Electric carotid baroreflex activation has been used to treat patients with resistant hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 , 2 The rationale for supporting this approach is that electric activation of the carotid baroreflex leads to activation of the cardiac parasympathetic drive and inhibition of sympathetic activity to the heart and peripheral vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • The hypothesis that rapid resetting of one carotid sinus baroreflex might influence responses from the other side was also tested. (mcw.edu)
  • An implantable device (20) uses the carotid baroreflex in order to control systemic blood pressure. (google.es)
  • Recent clinical trials in patients with drug-resistant hypertension indicate that electrical activation of the carotid sinus baroreflex (baroreflex activation therapy) can reduce arterial pressure (AP) for more than a year. (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicate that the tonic ADN stimulation does not significantly modify the dynamic characteristics of the carotid sinus baroreflex. (elsevier.com)
  • These results demonstrate that the digitalis preparations studied can directly activate the carotid sinus baroreceptor mechanism and that this activation is a major determinant of their cardiovascular effects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 1. Carotid baroreceptor manipulation (neckchamber technique) and passive head-up tilting were used in ten patients with renovascular hypertension and in five subjects with essential hypertension under diuretic treatment to study reflex control of renin secretion" at high basal-renin production rates. (clinsci.org)
  • 2. Reflex effects of carotid baroreceptor manipulation on renin secretion were only minor. (clinsci.org)
  • Hypotension and hypertension as consequences of baroreceptor dysfunction following carotid endarterectomy. (springermedizin.at)
  • It is concluded that the prolongation of the R-R interval produced by stimulation of the carotid sinus nerves is secondary to augmented parasympathetic activity, and the attenuation of this response during erect exercise appears to be due to a centrally mediated reduction in the responsiveness of the parasympathetic nervous system to baroreceptor stimuli. (ahajournals.org)
  • Low-pressure-sensitive baroreceptor fibers recorded from rabbit carotid sinus nerves. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex control and epinephrine. (elsevier.com)
  • To quantify the importance of the carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex and the interaction with epinephrine infusion on total pulmonary vascular capacity and resistance, I have simultaneously measured total pulmonary vascular compliance, changes in pulmonary blood volumes, and changes in resistances in seven sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, aortic baroreceptor neurons show a lower pressure threshold than that of carotid baroreceptor neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Secondly, uniaxial stretching of baroreceptor neurons, that mimics the forces exerted on blood vessels, elicited a larger increase in intracellular Ca 2+ rise in aortic baroreceptor neurons than in carotid baroreceptor neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aim of our study was to investigate whether dissection of the carotid bifurcation during eversion carotid endarterectomy (eCEA) causes a histologically proven compromise of the CSN and how the postoperative BP was affected thereby. (springermedizin.at)
  • In all patients, histological specimens of the periadventitial tissue within the carotid bifurcation were taken during eCEA. (springermedizin.at)
  • Nerval structures of the CSN within the carotid bifurcation were detected by immunohistochemistry. (springermedizin.at)
  • Diseases of the Sinuses: Diagnosis and Management. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Indications for electrophysiologic testing in the diagnosis and assessment of sinus node dysfunction. (springer.com)
  • coronary sinus the dilated terminal portion of the great cardiac vein, receiving blood from other veins draining the heart muscle and emptying into the right atrium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The others are of cardiac origin, orthostatic hypotension, carotid sinus hypersensitivity, neurological and endocrinological causes and psychiatric disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • cavernous sinus an irregularly shaped venous channel between the layers of dura mater of the brain, one on either side of the body of the sphenoid bone and communicating across the midline. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Several structures can bulge into the sphenoid sinus. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Depending on the degree of pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus, these bulges can be either barely noticeable or quite obvious. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 1.) Yanagisawa E. Endoscopic view of sphenoid sinus cavity. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Sphenoid septal attachment to the ICA protuberance within the sphenoid sinus was found to be one of the anatomical risk factors for ICA injury during transsphenoidal surgery. (termedia.pl)
  • Out of 100 sphenoid sinuses, 49 (49%) had at least one septum inserted at the ICA prominence. (termedia.pl)
  • Blind instrumentation of sphenoid sinus could result in an injury to the carotid. (sinusvideos.com)
  • Sphenoid sinus is surrounded by many vital vascular and nervous structures. (kowsarpub.com)
  • In more than 20% of patients with chronic sinusitis, involvement of sphenoid sinus has been observed. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Besides, sphenoid sinus is an appropriate route to access anterior and middle cranial fossa in surgery. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Therefore, it is important to have an adequate knowledge about the contents of sphenoid sinus and its proximity for nasal endoscopy, sinus surgeries and neurosurgeries. (kowsarpub.com)
  • In this prospective study, computerized tomographic images of sphenoid sinus of patients referred to Imam Khomeini and Apadana hospitals were studied. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Among 468 coronal and axial CT scan images of sphenoid sinus, 365 (78%) showed post-sellar pneumatization and 103 (22%) pre-sellar pneumatization. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Due to variability of sphenoid sinus pneumatization and the separator blade of the two sinus cavities, careful attention is required during sinus surgery to avoid damage to neural and vascular structures in its proximity. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Sphenoid sinus is the most unaccessible paranasal sinus. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Dural carotid cavernous fistulas (DCCFs) are a rare cause of eye redness. (ajnr.org)
  • An anatomical-angiographic classification for carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas is introduced and a series of 14 patients with spontaneous carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas is reviewed to illustrate the usefulness of such a classification for patient evaluation and treatment. (thejns.org)
  • The anatomy, clinical manifestations, angiographic evaluation, indications for therapy, and therapeutic options for spontaneous carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas are discussed. (thejns.org)
  • Carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas (CCF) result from abnormal connections between the carotid arterial system and the cavernous sinus, leading to ophthalmic complications due to arterialization of the ocular venous system [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Carotid sinus stimulation may either cause a vasodepressor reaction or a predominant vasovagal reaction, or both. (livesstar.com)
  • Central venous cannulation--Stimulation of carotid sinus reflexes due to pressure from fingers during jugular vein cannulation and excess insertion of the central venous catheter into the right atrium may also lead to arrhythmias. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • circular sinus the venous channel encircling the pituitary gland, formed by the two cavernous sinuses and the anterior and posterior intercavernous sinuses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • occipital sinus a venous sinus between the layers of dura mater, passing upward along the midline of the cerebellum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • petrosal sinus, inferior a venous channel arising from the cavernous sinus and draining into the internal jugular vein. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To our knowledge, this retrograde venous route via the superior petrosal sinus has not been previously described. (ajnr.org)
  • We report a case of a DCCF that was treated by embolization after venous retrograde access to the superior petrous sinus (SPS) was achieved. (ajnr.org)
  • Venous-phase lateral left common carotid arteriogram. (ajnr.org)
  • Unlike cardioinhibition, which results from an increase in vagal stimulation of the sinus node or AV node or both, vasodepression results from a decrease in sympathetically mediated arteriolar and/or venous vasoconstriction (Figure 1). (medscape.com)
  • Raiciulescu N, Bittman E, Voinescu S. [Influence of the mesencephalic reticular formation on carotid sinus baroceptor reflexes]. (umassmed.edu)
  • Cerebral angiography revealed a right-sided direct CCF draining mainly by the superior ophthalmic vein, the petrous sinus, cortical veins, and predominately the contralateral CS ( Fig 1 ). (ajnr.org)
  • citation needed] At the tip of the petrous part of the temporal bone it makes a sharp turn forward to enter the cavernous sinus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The petrous carotid terminates in the lacerum segment shortly after turning superiorly out of the carotid canal. (neurosurgicalatlas.com)
  • Experiments show that electric stimulation of efferent sympathetic pathways to the carotid sinus leads to blood pressure fall and decrease of the carotid sinus hypertensive reflex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Results: In the group of patients who used the sinus-saving modification in the 1st day after operation was lower hemodynamic parameters: systolic, diastolic, pulse blood pressure and heart rate compared with the control group and a more significant decrease in sympathetic pressor impact on the rhythm. (ascvts2018.org)
  • After 20 min, a new CSM showed suprahisian atrioventricular block with normal HV (RR max of 2608 ms) (Figure 1 B). Inferior right CNA (35 W, 43°C, 1 min and 30 s of RF delivery) posterior to the coronary sinus ostium was performed, in a region previously reported to be involved in AV conduction neuromodulation (located between the inferior vena cava and the right/left atrium) [1-3]. (termedia.pl)
  • Which conduction structure is situated at the opening of the coronary sinus? (brainscape.com)
  • A , Arterial-phase right internal carotid arteriogram shows the DCCF at the right posterosuperior aspect of the CS ( solid arrow ) fed by dural branches of the carotid siphon. (ajnr.org)
  • But, 5('-)-N was found in large quantities in the endothelial cells and the tunica adventitia of both the branches of the carotid rete and the cavernous sinus, though it was absent in the tunica media of the carotid rete branches. (iastate.edu)
  • It is hypothesized that, in conscious rats, combined activation of carotid baro- and chemoreceptors afferences attenuates the reflex hypotension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hypotension that result from carotid sinus stimulation leads to a transient brain hypoperfusion leading to loss of consciousness. (explainmedicine.com)
  • Conclusions: the practical application of the sinus-saving modification of eversion carotid endarterectomy allows to reduce the risk of postoperative hemodynamic complications associated with the instability of arterial hypertension. (ascvts2018.org)
  • petrosal sinus, superior one arising from the cavernous sinus and draining into the transverse sinus of the dura mater. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • B, Lateral angiogram of the right ICA shows CCF drainage by the right superior ophthalmic vein, both CS, the inferior petrosal sinus, and pterygoid sinus. (ajnr.org)
  • DSA disclosed a CCF on the left side with drainage into the cavernous sinus and petrosal sinus on both sides. (bmj.com)
  • Control by the superior cervical ganglion of the state of contraction and pulsatile expansion of the carotid sinus arterial wall. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Kezdi1954ControlBT, title={Control by the superior cervical ganglion of the state of contraction and pulsatile expansion of the carotid sinus arterial wall. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The cervical portions of the common carotids resemble each other so closely that one description will apply to both. (wikidoc.org)
  • Fatal myocardial infarction following carotid endarterectomy: three hundred thirty-five patients followed 6-11 years after operation. (springermedizin.at)
  • Mehta AV, Chidambaram B, Garrett A. Familial symptomatic sinus bradycardia: autosomal dominant inheritance. (springer.com)
  • These may cause mechanical dysruption to the carotid sinus region and cause carotid baroraceptor hypersentivity. (explainmedicine.com)
  • The pituitary gland rests within the sella turcica and is enclosed by dura mater containing intercavernous sinuses. (neurosurgicalatlas.com)
  • Assessment and management of sinus node dysfunction. (springer.com)
  • Electrophysiologic characteristics of the atrium in sinus node dysfunction: atrial refractoriness and conduction. (springer.com)
  • It is also referred to as sinus node disease or sinus node dysfunction. (medindia.net)