A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The new and thickened layer of scar tissue that forms on a PROSTHESIS, or as a result of vessel injury especially following ANGIOPLASTY or stent placement.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).

Recombinant human interleukin-10 inhibits proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells stimulated by advanced glycation end products and neointima hyperplasia after carotid injury in the rat. (1/431)

The purposes of this study was to determine the effects of recombinant human interleukin-10 (rhIL-10) on proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by advanced glycation end products (AGE) and neointima hyperplasia after rat carotid arterial injury. Rat aortic VSMCs were cultured and treated with rhIL-10 or AGE respectively, and then co-treated with rhIL-10 and AGE. Proliferation of VSMCs was quantified by colormetric assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytomertry. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with recombinant human IL-10 (rhIL-10) for 3 d after carotid arteries injury. The ratio of neointima to media area at the site of arterial injury was measured 28 d after balloon injury. The p44/42 MAPK activity was evaluated by the immunoblotting technique using anti-p44/42 phospho-MAPK antibody. Compared to control, AGE stimulated VSMCs proliferation. rhIL-10 alone had no effect on VSMCs growth. With AGE stimulation, rhIL-10, at dose as low as 10 ng/ml, inhibited VSMCs growth (P<0.05). The cell number in G(0)/G(1) phase of AGE and rhIL-10 co-treatment group was higher than that of AGE treatment alone (P<0.01) by flow cytometry analysis. Compared with the control group of neointima hyperplasia in rats, the ratio of neointima to media area of recombinant human IL-10 group was reduced by 45% (P<0.01). The p44/42 MAPK activity was significantly enhanced by AGE. The AGE effects were opposed by rhIL-10. The anti-inflammatory cytokine rhIL-10 inhibits AGE-induced VSMCs proliferation. Recombinant human IL-10 also inhibited neointima hyperplasia after carotid artery injury in rats. The results suggest the possibility that recombinant human IL-10, as a potential therapeutic approach, prevents neointimal hyperplasia.  (+info)

Epidermal fatty-acid-binding protein: a new circulating biomarker associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors and carotid atherosclerosis. (2/431)

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Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol. (3/431)

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Medical decision-making system of ultrasound carotid artery intima-media thickness using neural networks. (4/431)

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The age correlation of the carotid intima-media thickness according to sex and side in asymptomatic subjects. (5/431)

PURPOSE: Reports concerning carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and linear correlation to age in healthy subjects did not distinguish the side and sex of the subjects. The purpose of this investigation attempts to clarify these issues. METHODS: 2402 asymptomatic persons, age 35-64, are separated into men's left (Lt) and right (Rt) and women's Lt and Rt carotid arteries for difference of CIMT between them and analysis of CIMT vs. age. RESULTS: There are significant difference between men's CIMT of Lt(CIMTML) vs Rt (CIMTMR), women's Lt(CIMTWL) vs. Rt (CIMTWR), Lt side CIMT of men vs women, and Rt side CIMT of men vs. women. The regression equation of CIMT vs. age for all four groups is determinated. CONCLUSION: We found an excellent linear correlation of CIMT to age and CIMT is significantly higher in men than women, so as higher in Lt than Rt. Further grouping of data into about 5-year period showed more clearly stepwise increasing of CIMT, so as the ratios of Lt CIMT different than Rt. CIMT study is served as highly efficient examination in therapy, prevention, clinic, or research survey about atherosclerosis and risk of stroke. Future study design concerning CIMT in separation groups of men and women, so as Lt and Rt is highly recommended.  (+info)

Atherogenic lipid profile and systolic blood pressure are associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness in children with Turner syndrome. (6/431)

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Polymorphic variation in choline transporter gene (CHT1) is associated with early, subclinical measures of carotid atherosclerosis in humans. (7/431)

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Real-time co-registration using novel ultrasound technology: ex vivo validation and in vivo applications. (8/431)

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Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a measurement of the thickness of the inner two layers of the carotid artery, which are the intima and media layers. This measurement is used as a marker for assessing cardiovascular disease risk, particularly the risk of atherosclerosis, or the buildup of plaque in the arteries.

CIMT can be measured using ultrasound imaging, and it is typically measured at several points along the length of the common carotid artery, as well as at the bifurcation where the common carotid artery divides into the internal and external carotid arteries. Increased CIMT has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke.

It is important to note that while CIMT can provide valuable information about a person's cardiovascular health, it should not be used as the sole determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. Other factors, such as age, family history, smoking status, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and diabetes status, should also be taken into account when assessing cardiovascular disease risk.

Tunica intima, also known as the intima layer, is the innermost layer of a blood vessel, including arteries and veins. It is in direct contact with the flowing blood and is composed of simple squamous endothelial cells that form a continuous, non-keratinized, stratified epithelium. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating the passage of molecules and immune cells between the blood and the vessel wall, as well as contributing to the maintenance of blood fluidity and preventing coagulation.

The tunica intima is supported by a thin layer of connective tissue called the basement membrane, which provides structural stability and anchorage for the endothelial cells. Beneath the basement membrane lies a loose network of elastic fibers and collagen, known as the internal elastic lamina, that separates the tunica intima from the middle layer, or tunica media.

In summary, the tunica intima is the innermost layer of blood vessels, primarily composed of endothelial cells and a basement membrane, which regulates various functions to maintain vascular homeostasis.

The tunica media is the middle layer of the wall of a blood vessel or hollow organ in the body. It is primarily composed of smooth muscle cells and elastic fibers, which allow the vessel or organ to expand and contract. This layer helps regulate the diameter of the lumen (the inner space) of the vessel or organ, thereby controlling the flow of fluids such as blood or lymph through it. The tunica media plays a crucial role in maintaining proper organ function and blood pressure regulation.

The carotid arteries are a pair of vital blood vessels in the human body that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. Each person has two common carotid arteries, one on each side of the neck, which branch off from the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

The right common carotid artery originates from the brachiocephalic trunk, while the left common carotid artery arises directly from the aortic arch. As they ascend through the neck, they split into two main branches: the internal and external carotid arteries.

The internal carotid artery supplies oxygenated blood to the brain, eyes, and other structures within the skull, while the external carotid artery provides blood to the face, scalp, and various regions of the neck.

Maintaining healthy carotid arteries is crucial for overall cardiovascular health and preventing serious conditions like stroke, which can occur when the arteries become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque or fatty deposits (atherosclerosis). Regular check-ups with healthcare professionals may include monitoring carotid artery health through ultrasound or other imaging techniques.

The common carotid artery is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the head and neck. It originates from the brachiocephalic trunk or the aortic arch and divides into the internal and external carotid arteries at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage. The common carotid artery is an important structure in the circulatory system, and any damage or blockage to it can have serious consequences, including stroke.

Carotid artery diseases refer to conditions that affect the carotid arteries, which are the major blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the head and neck. The most common type of carotid artery disease is atherosclerosis, which occurs when fatty deposits called plaques build up in the inner lining of the arteries.

These plaques can cause the arteries to narrow or become blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain and increasing the risk of stroke. Other carotid artery diseases include carotid artery dissection, which occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining of the artery, and fibromuscular dysplasia, which is a condition that affects the muscle and tissue in the walls of the artery.

Symptoms of carotid artery disease may include neck pain or pulsations, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or "mini-strokes," and strokes. Treatment options for carotid artery disease depend on the severity and type of the condition but may include lifestyle changes, medications, endarterectomy (a surgical procedure to remove plaque from the artery), or angioplasty and stenting (procedures to open blocked arteries using a balloon and stent).

Atherosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of plaques, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood, on the inner walls of the arteries. This process gradually narrows and hardens the arteries, reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to various parts of the body. Atherosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, including those that supply blood to the heart (coronary arteries), brain, limbs, and other organs. The progressive narrowing and hardening of the arteries can lead to serious complications such as coronary artery disease, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and aneurysms, which can result in heart attacks, strokes, or even death if left untreated.

The exact cause of atherosclerosis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be associated with several risk factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the condition. Atherosclerosis can often progress without any symptoms for many years, but as the disease advances, it can lead to various signs and symptoms depending on which arteries are affected. Treatment typically involves lifestyle changes, medications, and, in some cases, surgical procedures to restore blood flow.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Carotid stenosis is a medical condition that refers to the narrowing or constriction of the lumen (inner space) of the carotid artery. The carotid arteries are major blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. Carotid stenosis usually results from the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances, on the inner walls of the artery. This process is called atherosclerosis.

As the plaque accumulates, it causes the artery to narrow, reducing blood flow to the brain. Severe carotid stenosis can increase the risk of stroke, as a clot or debris from the plaque can break off and travel to the brain, blocking a smaller blood vessel and causing tissue damage or death.

Carotid stenosis is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT angiography, or MRI angiography. Treatment options may include lifestyle modifications (such as quitting smoking, controlling blood pressure, and managing cholesterol levels), medications to reduce the risk of clots, or surgical procedures like endarterectomy or stenting to remove or bypass the blockage.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Carotid endarterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove plaque buildup (atherosclerosis) from the carotid arteries, which are the major blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain. The surgery involves making an incision in the neck, opening the carotid artery, and removing the plaque from the inside of the artery wall. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal blood flow to the brain and reduce the risk of stroke caused by the narrowing or blockage of the carotid arteries.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

The internal carotid artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It originates from the common carotid artery and passes through the neck, entering the skull via the carotid canal in the temporal bone. Once inside the skull, it branches into several smaller vessels that supply different parts of the brain with blood.

The internal carotid artery is divided into several segments: cervical, petrous, cavernous, clinoid, and supraclinoid. Each segment has distinct clinical significance in terms of potential injury or disease. The most common conditions affecting the internal carotid artery include atherosclerosis, which can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), and dissection, which can cause severe headache, neck pain, and neurological symptoms.

It's important to note that any blockage or damage to the internal carotid artery can have serious consequences, as it can significantly reduce blood flow to the brain and lead to permanent neurological damage or even death. Therefore, regular check-ups and screening tests are recommended for individuals at high risk of developing vascular diseases.

Carotid artery injuries refer to damages or traumas that affect the carotid arteries, which are a pair of major blood vessels located in the neck that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as penetrating or blunt trauma, iatrogenic causes (during medical procedures), or degenerative diseases.

Carotid artery injuries can be categorized into three types:

1. Blunt carotid injury (BCI): This type of injury is caused by a sudden and severe impact to the neck, which can result in intimal tears, dissection, or thrombosis of the carotid artery. BCIs are commonly seen in motor vehicle accidents, sports-related injuries, and assaults.
2. Penetrating carotid injury: This type of injury is caused by a foreign object that penetrates the neck and damages the carotid artery. Examples include gunshot wounds, stab wounds, or other sharp objects that pierce the skin and enter the neck.
3. Iatrogenic carotid injury: This type of injury occurs during medical procedures such as endovascular interventions, surgical procedures, or the placement of central lines.

Symptoms of carotid artery injuries may include:

* Stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)
* Neurological deficits such as hemiparesis, aphasia, or visual disturbances
* Bleeding from the neck or mouth
* Pulsatile mass in the neck
* Hypotension or shock
* Loss of consciousness

Diagnosis of carotid artery injuries may involve imaging studies such as computed tomography angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or conventional angiography. Treatment options include endovascular repair, surgical repair, or anticoagulation therapy, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Hypertension is a medical term used to describe abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries, often defined as consistently having systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) over 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) over 80 mmHg. It is also commonly referred to as high blood pressure.

Hypertension can be classified into two types: primary or essential hypertension, which has no identifiable cause and accounts for about 95% of cases, and secondary hypertension, which is caused by underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease, hormonal disorders, or use of certain medications.

If left untreated, hypertension can lead to serious health complications such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, it is important for individuals with hypertension to manage their condition through lifestyle modifications (such as healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management) and medication if necessary, under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

The femoral artery is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower extremity of the human body. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus muscle of the thigh.

The femoral artery is located in the femoral triangle, which is bound by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the adductor longus muscle medially, and the biceps femoris muscle posteriorly. It can be easily palpated in the groin region, making it a common site for taking blood samples, measuring blood pressure, and performing surgical procedures such as femoral artery catheterization and bypass grafting.

The femoral artery gives off several branches that supply blood to the lower limb, including the deep femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery, and the profunda femoris artery. These branches provide blood to the muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues of the leg, ankle, and foot.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

The carotid body is a small chemoreceptor organ located near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery into the internal and external carotid arteries. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of respiration, blood pressure, and pH balance by detecting changes in the chemical composition of the blood, particularly oxygen levels, carbon dioxide levels, and hydrogen ion concentration (pH).

The carotid body contains specialized nerve endings called glomus cells that are sensitive to changes in these chemical parameters. When there is a decrease in oxygen or an increase in carbon dioxide or hydrogen ions, the glomus cells release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and dopamine, which activate afferent nerve fibers leading to the brainstem's nucleus tractus solitarius. This information is then integrated with other physiological signals in the brainstem, resulting in appropriate adjustments in breathing rate, depth, and pattern, as well as changes in heart rate and blood vessel diameter to maintain homeostasis.

Dysfunction of the carotid body can lead to various disorders, such as hypertension, sleep apnea, and chronic lung disease. In some cases, overactivity of the carotid body may result in conditions like primary breathing pattern disorders or pseudohypoxia, where the body responds as if it is experiencing hypoxia despite normal oxygen levels.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Atherosclerotic plaque is a deposit of fatty (cholesterol and fat) substances, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of an artery. This plaque buildup causes the artery to narrow and harden, reducing blood flow through the artery, which can lead to serious cardiovascular conditions such as coronary artery disease, angina, heart attack, or stroke. The process of atherosclerosis develops gradually over decades and can start in childhood.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, leading to an enlargement of the affected area. It's a response to various stimuli such as hormones, chronic irritation, or inflammation. Hyperplasia can be physiological, like the growth of breast tissue during pregnancy, or pathological, like in the case of benign or malignant tumors. The process is generally reversible if the stimulus is removed. It's important to note that hyperplasia itself is not cancerous, but some forms of hyperplasia can increase the risk of developing cancer over time.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. They have thick, muscular walls that can withstand the high pressure of blood being pumped out of the heart. Arteries branch off into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further divide into a vast network of tiny capillaries where the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste occurs between the blood and the body's cells. After passing through the capillary network, deoxygenated blood collects in venules, then merges into veins, which return the blood back to the heart.

The carotid sinus is a small, dilated area located at the bifurcation (or fork) of the common carotid artery into the internal and external carotid arteries. It is a baroreceptor region, which means it contains specialized sensory nerve endings that can detect changes in blood pressure. When the blood pressure increases, the walls of the carotid sinus stretch, activating these nerve endings and sending signals to the brain. The brain then responds by reducing the heart rate and relaxing the blood vessels, which helps to lower the blood pressure back to normal.

The carotid sinus is an important part of the body's autonomic nervous system, which regulates various involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion. It plays a crucial role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis and preventing excessive increases in blood pressure that could potentially damage vital organs.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Arteriosclerosis is a general term that describes the hardening and stiffening of the artery walls. It's a progressive condition that can occur as a result of aging, or it may be associated with certain risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle.

The process of arteriosclerosis involves the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances, in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this buildup can cause the artery walls to thicken and harden, reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body's organs and tissues.

Arteriosclerosis can affect any of the body's arteries, but it is most commonly found in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, the cerebral arteries that supply blood to the brain, and the peripheral arteries that supply blood to the limbs. When arteriosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, it can lead to heart disease, angina, or heart attack. When it affects the cerebral arteries, it can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). When it affects the peripheral arteries, it can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the limbs, and in severe cases, gangrene and amputation.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

A smooth muscle within the vascular system refers to the involuntary, innervated muscle that is found in the walls of blood vessels. These muscles are responsible for controlling the diameter of the blood vessels, which in turn regulates blood flow and blood pressure. They are called "smooth" muscles because their individual muscle cells do not have the striations, or cross-striped patterns, that are observed in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Smooth muscle in the vascular system is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and by hormones, and can contract or relax slowly over a period of time.

The external carotid artery is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the structures of the head and neck, excluding the brain. It originates from the common carotid artery at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, then divides into several branches that supply various regions of the head and neck, including the face, scalp, ears, and neck muscles.

The external carotid artery has eight branches:

1. Superior thyroid artery: Supplies blood to the thyroid gland, larynx, and surrounding muscles.
2. Ascending pharyngeal artery: Supplies blood to the pharynx, palate, and meninges of the brain.
3. Lingual artery: Supplies blood to the tongue and floor of the mouth.
4. Facial artery: Supplies blood to the face, nose, lips, and palate.
5. Occipital artery: Supplies blood to the scalp and muscles of the neck.
6. Posterior auricular artery: Supplies blood to the ear and surrounding muscles.
7. Maxillary artery: Supplies blood to the lower face, nasal cavity, palate, and meninges of the brain.
8. Superficial temporal artery: Supplies blood to the scalp, face, and temporomandibular joint.

The external carotid artery is an essential structure for maintaining adequate blood flow to the head and neck, and any damage or blockage can lead to serious medical conditions such as stroke or tissue necrosis.

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, which originates from the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. It can be divided into several parts, including the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The ascending aorta gives rise to the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, which supply blood to the head, neck, and upper extremities. The descending aorta travels through the thorax and abdomen, giving rise to various intercostal, visceral, and renal arteries that supply blood to the chest wall, organs, and kidneys.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Neointima is a term used in pathology and refers to the layer of tissue that forms inside a blood vessel as part of the healing process after an injury, such as angioplasty or stenting. This new tissue is composed mainly of smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix and can grow inward, potentially causing restenosis (re-narrowing) of the vessel lumen.

In simpler terms, Neointima is a type of scar tissue that forms inside blood vessels as part of the healing process after an injury, but its growth can sometimes cause problems by narrowing the vessel and restricting blood flow.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

The endothelium is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelial cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. The vascular endothelium, specifically, refers to the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, inflammation, and permeability of the vessel wall. They also contribute to the growth and repair of the vascular system and are involved in various pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes.

Carotid artery thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside the carotid artery, which is one of the major blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the head and neck. This condition can lead to serious complications such as a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," if the clot dislodges and travels to the brain, blocking the flow of blood and oxygen.

Carotid artery thrombosis can result from various factors, including atherosclerosis (the buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in the artery walls), hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetes, smoking, and genetic predisposition. Symptoms may include neck pain or stiffness, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, and sudden severe headaches. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT angiography, or MRI angiography. Treatment options may include anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications, endovascular procedures to remove the clot, or surgery to clean out the artery (carotid endarterectomy).

Angioplasty, balloon refers to a medical procedure used to widen narrowed or obstructed blood vessels, particularly the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This procedure is typically performed using a catheter-based technique, where a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into an artery, usually through the groin or wrist, and guided to the site of the narrowing or obstruction in the coronary artery.

Once the catheter reaches the affected area, a small balloon attached to the tip of the catheter is inflated, which compresses the plaque against the artery wall and stretches the artery, thereby restoring blood flow. The balloon is then deflated and removed, along with the catheter.

Balloon angioplasty is often combined with the placement of a stent, a small metal mesh tube that helps to keep the artery open and prevent it from narrowing again. This procedure is known as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary angioplasty and stenting.

Overall, balloon angioplasty is a relatively safe and effective treatment for coronary artery disease, although complications such as bleeding, infection, or re-narrowing of the artery can occur in some cases.

Calcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in various tissues of the body, commonly under the skin or in the muscles and tendons. These calcium deposits can form hard lumps or nodules that can cause pain, inflammation, and restricted mobility. Calcinosis can occur as a complication of other medical conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, kidney disease, and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood). In some cases, the cause of calcinosis may be unknown. Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to manage calcium levels, physical therapy, and surgical removal of large deposits.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) are an inbred strain of rats that were originally developed through selective breeding for high blood pressure. They are widely used as a model to study hypertension and related cardiovascular diseases, as well as neurological disorders such as stroke and dementia.

Inbred strains of animals are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or offspring) for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at all genetic loci. This means that the animals within an inbred strain are essentially genetically identical to one another, which makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on disease processes.

SHR rats develop high blood pressure spontaneously, without any experimental manipulation, and show many features of human hypertension, such as increased vascular resistance, left ventricular hypertrophy, and renal dysfunction. They also exhibit a number of behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity, impulsivity, and cognitive deficits, which make them useful for studying the neurological consequences of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

Overall, inbred SHR rats are an important tool in biomedical research, providing a valuable model for understanding the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to hypertension and related disorders.

Hypertrophy, in the context of physiology and pathology, refers to an increase in the size of an organ or tissue due to an enlargement of its constituent cells. It is often used to describe the growth of muscle cells (myocytes) in response to increased workload or hormonal stimulation, resulting in an increase in muscle mass. However, hypertrophy can also occur in other organs such as the heart (cardiac hypertrophy) in response to high blood pressure or valvular heart disease.

It is important to note that while hypertrophy involves an increase in cell size, hyperplasia refers to an increase in cell number. In some cases, both hypertrophy and hyperplasia can occur together, leading to a significant increase in the overall size and function of the organ or tissue.

American Society of Echocardiography Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Task Force (2008). "Use of Carotid Ultrasound to Identify ... A Consensus Statement from the American Society of Echocardiography Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Task Force Endorsed by the ...
October 2010). Federici M (ed.). "The relationships of markers of cholesterol homeostasis with carotid intima-media thickness ... Differences in cholesterol homeostasis affect the development of early atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness). These ... Media related to Cholesterol at Wikimedia Commons (CS1 French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia articles needing page number ... ISBN 978-0-7167-2009-6. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1964". Nobel Prize, Nobel Media. Espenshade PJ, Hughes AL ( ...
Common carotid intima- media thickness measurements in cardiovascular risk prediction: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2012 Aug 22;308(8 ...
Cheung YF, Wong SJ, Ho MH (January 2007). "Relationship between carotid intima-media thickness and arterial stiffness in ... Other vascular complications can occur such as increased wall thickness and decreased distensibility of carotid arteries, aorta ... Kawasaki disease may be further classified as a medium-sized vessel vasculitis, affecting medium- and small-sized blood vessels ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kawasaki disease. Kawasaki disease at Curlie (CS1 Spanish-language sources (es), CS1 ...
Riccioni G (2009). "The effect of antihypertensive drugs on carotid intima media thickness: an up-to-date review". Current ... Persistently elevated blood pressure leads to intimal thickening, hyperplasia of the media wall, and hyaline degeneration in ...
Riccioni G (2009). "The effect of antihypertensive drugs on carotid intima media thickness: an up-to-date review". Current ... Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-1-84628-782-4. "Cardiologists in Delhi NCR". Full Details Information. 26 March ...
"Association of specific HLA phenotypes with left ventricular mass and carotid intima-media thickness in hypertensives". Am J ...
"Multi-ethnic genetic association study of carotid intima-media thickness using a targeted cardiovascular SNP microarray". ...
"Genetic variation in the leukotriene pathway and carotid intima-media thickness: a 2-stage replication study". Stroke. 40 (3): ...
July 2007). "Torcetrapib and carotid intima-media thickness in mixed dyslipidaemia (RADIANCE 2 study): a randomised, double- ... "Phase III Carotid B-Mode Ultrasound Study to Compare Anti-Atherosclerotic Effect of Torcetrapib/Atorvastatin to Atorvastatin ... following media and physician criticism, Pfizer had subsequently planned for torcetrapib to be sold independently of Lipitor. A ...
O'Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, Manolio TA, Burke GL, Wolfson SK (January 1999). "Carotid-artery intima and media thickness ... Testing for plaque includes a carotid intima-media thickness test, (CIMT), which measures blood flow through the arteries and ... Doneen AL, Bale BF (March 2013). "Carotid intima-media thickness testing as an asymptomatic cardiovascular disease identifier ... "Effect of comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk management on longitudinal changes in carotid artery intima-media thickness ...
Furthermore, rs11556924 has also been associated with altered carotid intima-media thickness in patients with rheumatoid ... "The ZC3HC1 rs11556924 polymorphism is associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness in patients with rheumatoid ...
2010). "Silent cerebral infarction is associated with incident stroke and TIA independent of carotid intima-media thickness". ...
"Relationship of periodontal disease to carotid artery intima-media wall thickness: the atherosclerosis risk in communities ( ...
Provost, E.; Madhloum, N.; Int Panis, L.; De Boever, P.; Nawrot, T.S. (May 2015). "Carotid intima-media thickness, a marker of ... Inventing Pollution: Coal, Smoke, and Culture in Britain since 1800 (2009) Wikimedia Commons has media related to Air pollution ...
Provost EB, Madhloum N, Int Panis L, De Boever P, Nawrot TS (2015). "Carotid intima-media thickness, a marker of subclinical ... carotid IMT (intimal media thickness) measurement by ultrasound, and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Examples of physiologic ... "Fine particulate air pollution and the progression of carotid intima-medial thickness: a prospective cohort study from the ... Carotid arteries supply blood to the brain and neck. Marked narrowing of the carotid arteries can present with symptoms such as ...
Carotid stenosis may occur in patients with atherosclerosis. The intima-media thickness of the carotid artery wall is a marker ... Provost, E; Madhloum, N; Int Panis, L; De Boever, P; Nawrot, T (2015). "Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, a Marker of Subclinical ... carotid artery Right and left common carotid arteries Head and neck anatomy Carotid sheath Carotid sinus Carotid body Carotid ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Common carotid artery. Anatomy figure: 21:06-01 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate ...
"Chronic carbon monoxide exposure is associated with the increases in carotid intima-media thickness and C-reactive protein ...
Relation of parity with common carotid intima-media thickness among women of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Stroke ... Thyroid function and carotid wall thickness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:2145-2149 Völzke H, Werner A, Wallaschofski H, ... Association between high serum ferritin levels and carotid atherosclerosis in the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Stroke ...
... and the Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Patients with Dyslipidemia". Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis. 22 (11): 1158 ...
... a sub-field of computer-aided translation Intima-media thickness, a measurement of the thickness of artery walls. Also ... Carotid intimal-medial thickness. This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title IMT. If an internal link ... a Serbian football club International Marxist Tendency Islamic Movement of Turkestan IANA Media Type, a two-part identifier for ...
Various Newscasts on Carotid IMT (Intima Media Thickness) Bortel L (2005). "What does intima-media thickness tell us?". Journal ... Although carotid intima-media thickness is strongly associated with atherosclerosis, thickening of the intima-media may not ... Intima-media thickness (IMT), also called intimal medial thickness, is a measurement of the thickness of tunica intima and ... Bots ML (2006). "Carotid intima-media thickness as a surrogate marker for cardiovascular disease in intervention studies". Curr ...
"Lysophosphatidylcholine and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Young Smokers: A Role for Oxidized LDL-Induced Expression of PBMC ... Intima-media thickness, which is positively correlated with reduced blood flow, was studied in young smokers. Evidence pointed ... due to tobacco smoke's impact on oxidation of retained LDL particles in the intima of a carotid artery. which may have a ...
... as judged by carotid intima-media thickness measurements. Variant alleles involved deletions (one or two) or additions (one, ...
"Coronary artery calcification compared with carotid intima-media thickness in the prediction of cardiovascular disease ...
... and carotid intima-media thickness, in people with primary aldosteronism. In people with hyperaldosteronism due to unilateral ...
Besides, other features such as intima-media thickness, surface of the plaque and presence of ulceration are also useful in ... computerized algorithms used for evaluation of the intima-media thickness (IMT), a measure of plaque morphology, have helped ... Carotid artery stenosis is a major risk factor for stroke, and risk assessment of atherosclerotic carotid plaques is a critical ... Carotid duplex and contrast-enhanced ultrasound are two of the most common imaging techniques used to evaluate carotid artery ...
2001). "Oxidized LDL and thickness of carotid intima-media are associated with coronary atherosclerosis in middle-aged men: ... The formation of foam cells and their continued accumulation in the intima lead to the formation of fatty streaks. Continued ... Leukocytes migrate to the subendothelial space and aggregate within the intima. In the presence of elevated levels of oxidized ... cells to secrete molecules that cause monocytes to penetrate between the endothelial cells and accumulate in the intima. ...
... established and candidate risk factors in well characterized populations using the intima-media thickness of the common carotid ... Association of postprandial triglyceride and retinyl palmitate responses with asymptomatic carotid artery atherosclerosis in ...
Spence pioneered the use of carotid plaque measurement (as opposed to intima-media thickness) for research and for management ... "Reconstruction of carotid bifurcation hemodynamics and wall thickness using computational fluid dynamics and MRI". Magnetic ... The effect of drug therapies on carotid plaque volume can now be evaluated in a very cost-effective way. Development of ... With Maria Dicicco, RVT, he pioneered the measurement of total plaque area (TPA) in a patient's carotid artery using ultrasound ...
Intima-Media Thickness CME Vital demonstrates the role of ultrasound in the assessment of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness. ... of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness CME Vital demonstrates the role of ultrasound in the assessment of Carotid Intima-Media ... State the risk factors for increased carotid intima-media thickness.. *Identify the location of the CCA where the IMT ... MEDIA KIT About Us. BLOG. CAREERS WITH US. CME-Z MEMBERSHIP. CONTACT US. E-BOOK LOGIN. INSTRUCTORS & STAFF. NEWSLETTER SIGN UP ...
We aimed to analyze the association between SCH and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) using baseline data from the Brazilian ... Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness in cross-sectional analysis of the ... Keywords: Cardiovascular risk factors; Carotid intima-media thickness; Subclinical atherosclerosis; Subclinical hypothyroidism ...
Measurements of carotid intima-media thickness and of interadventitia common carotid diameter improve prediction of ... Objectives: The goal of this study was to compare the performance of several measures of carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT ... Carotid Intima Media Thickness [IMT] and IMT-Progression as Predictors of Vascular Events in a High Risk European Population) ... Results: All measures of C-IMT and the interadventitia common carotid artery diameter (ICCAD) were associated with the risk of ...
Normal value of carotid intima-media thickness-a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis: Quantitative assessment by B-mode carotid ... Hayta E, Hizmetli S, Atalar MH and Çinar Z: Association of plasma homocysteine level and carotid intima-media thickness in ... Influence of anti‑TNF therapy and homocysteine level on carotid intimamedia thickness in rheumatoid arthritis patients. * ... levels on the carotid intimamedia thickness (IMT) in patients with RA. Assessments were performed on 115 patients diagnosed ...
The role of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) Measurement and Echo-tracking in the Assessment of Preclinical Carotid Artery ... "The role of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) Measurement and Echo-tracking in the Assessment of Preclinical Carotid Artery ... "The role of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) Measurement and Echo-tracking in the Assessment of Preclinical Carotid Artery ... The role of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) Measurement and Echo-tracking in the Assessment of Preclinical Carotid Artery ...
Evaluation of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Sub-clinical Hypothyroid Patients Authors. * Farhana Rahman Senior Medical ... The intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CIMT) is an important parameter for early atherosclerotic change. ... Evaluation of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Sub-clinical Hypothyroid Patients. Bangladesh Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 19(2 ... Subclinical hypothyroidism, intima-media thickness, atherosclerosis Abstract. Objective: Endothelial dysfunction and ...
Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) determined by doppler ultrasonography is a good predictor of the presence and severity of ... Carotid artery intima-media thickness could predict the presence of coronary artery lesions. American journal of hypertension, ... Association of breast artery calcification with coronary artery disease and carotid intima-media thickness in premenopausal ... in young premenopausal women and evaluated the association of BAC with carotid intima-media thickness and standard CAD risk ...
Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) is a marker for subclinical atherosclerosis. The most recent genome-wide association meta ... Update of the effect estimates for common variants associated with carotid intima media thickness within four independent ... Update of the effect estimates for common variants associated with carotid intima media thickness within four independent ... Social-Media-Kanäle der Universitäts- und Stadtbibliothek Köln. Facebook Twitter Youtube LinkedIn ...
Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a marker of cardiovascular disease derived from ultrasound images of the carotid artery ... Associations of edge-detected and manual-traced common carotid intima-media thickness measurements with Framingham risk factors ... "Associations of edge-detected and manual-traced common carotid intima-media thickness measurements with Framingham risk factors ... Associations of edge-detected and manual-traced common carotid intima-media thickness measurements with Framingham risk factors ...
Carotid artery intima-media thickness measured by ultrasound has been shown to be correlated with the presence of ... Statins and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Reduction: An Up-to-Date Review. Author(s): Graziano Riccioni Volume 16, Issue 14, ... Abstract: Carotid artery intima-media thickness measured by ultrasound has been shown to be correlated with the presence of ... Carotid artery intima-media thickness measured by ultrasound has been shown to be correlated with the presence of ...
Carotid intima-media thickness. Carotid artery ultrasonography and measurement of the intima-media thickness is another area of ... Observational studies have shown that intima-media thickness is an independent marker of cardiovascular risk, but whether it is ... However, with contrast medium and the addition of vasodilators or dobutamine, cMRA can be used to assess myocardial viability ... What is the role of carotid artery ultrasonography in cardiac assessment?. What is the triple rule out (TRO) for cardiac ...
Ana Negreanu - București - Evaluation of early atherosclerosis in IBD patients using carotid intima media thickness. ...
Increased of the carotid intima media thickness in preeclampsia. Raul Moreira Neto, Jose Geraldo Lopes Ramos, Edin Medjedovic, ... Objectives The aim of the study was to determine carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) values in patients who developed and did ... Results Level of information and knowledge of the full sample was medium-low and no significant differences have been observed ...
Evaluation of carotid intima-media thickness and carotid arterial stiffness in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy ... This study evaluated carotid intima-media thickness and carotid arterial stiffness in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy ... Keywords: adenotonsillar hypertrophy, carotid artery stiffness, carotid intima media thickness, subclinical atherosclerosis, ...
Ultrasound carotid artery intima-media thickness assessment for progression of atherosclerosis in lipid intervention studies. ... Ultrasound carotid artery intima-media thickness assessment for progression of atherosclerosis in lipid intervention studies. ... Ultrasound carotid artery intima-media thickness assessment for progression of atherosclerosis in lipid intervention studies. ... title = "Ultrasound carotid artery intima-media thickness assessment for progression of atherosclerosis in lipid intervention ...
The aim of our study was to determine whether carotid intimamedia thickness (CIMT) and carotidfemoral pulse wave velocity (cf- ... Increased pulse wave velocity and carotid intimamedia thickness in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome ...
Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with cardivascular risk factors and has been used as a marker of early ... Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with cardivascular risk factors and has been used as a marker of early ... Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with cardivascular risk factors and has been used as a marker of early ... Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with cardivascular risk factors and has been used as a marker of early ...
The analysis showed that individuals with the T/T genotype had a significantly higher carotid IMT than individuals with the C/T ... in which data for carotid atherosclerosis and plasma SDF-1α levels were available, we observed an association of the T/T ... The coronary heart disease-related variant at the 10q11.21 locus is associated with carotid IMT and atherosclerosis. ... 10q11.21 locus and conducted a meta-analysis in these cohorts to ascertain a relationship between the polymorphism and carotid ...
Common carotid intima-media thickness, mean (SD), mm. 0.93 (0.2). 0.97 (0.2). 0.10 (0.2). .04. ... Carotid intima-media thickness progression to predict cardiovascular events in the general population (the PROG-IMT ... d Model 3 = Model 2 + impaired cerebrovascular reactivity vs normal, carotid intima-media thickness, global cognitive score, ... d Model 3 = Model 2 + impaired cerebrovascular reactivity vs normal, carotid intima-media thickness, global cognitive score, ...
carotid intima-media thickness; muscular strength; push-ups; sit-ups; young adults ... Muscular Strength and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Physically Fit Young Adults: The CHIEF Atherosclerosis Study. ... Muscular Strength and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Physically Fit Young Adults: The C ... Subclinical atherosclerosis was measured by the left carotid bulb intima-media thickness (cIMT) using high-resolution ...
Carotid intima-media thickness. Examples of Vascular Beds Which We Have Assessed. *Superficial and deep venous systems ...
Ultrasound Evaluation of Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness: Effective Early Marker of Carotid Artery Disease in Adult Head ... This integrative literature review assesses the use of ultrasound measured carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) as an ... Carotid IMT, measured by ultrasound, was significantly increased after neck radiation in all reviewed publications. Ultrasound ... Ultrasound adequately detects post-radiation carotid IMT changes and is a reliable early marker for radiation-associated CAD. ...
Vascular endothelial functions, carotid intima-media thickness, and soluble CD40 ligand levels in dipper and nondipper ... The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vascular endothelial functions, carotid intimamedia thickness ...
Smoking and obesity are established risk factors for increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). The aim of this study was ... Smoking and obesity are established risk factors for increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). The aim of this study was ... Smoking and obesity are established risk factors for increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). The aim of this study was ... Smoking and obesity are established risk factors for increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). The aim of this study was ...
... and to a control group of normal-weight children using carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Participants were 204 obese ... Mean CIMT in control children was 402.97 ± 53.18 μm (left carotid artery) and 377.85 ± 52.47 μm (right carotid artery ... Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and a carotid Doppler ultrasound scan were also acquired. The mean CIMT of obese ... right carotid artery). The mean CIMT was not significantly different in MUO and MHO children, whereas it showed a significant ...
Intima-media thickness of the carotid artery and the distribution of lipoprotein subclasses in men aged 40 to 49 years between ... Intima-media thickness of the carotid artery and the distribution of lipoprotein subclasses in men aged 40 to 49 years between ... Intima-media thickness of the carotid artery and the distribution of lipoprotein subclasses in men aged 40 to 49 years between ... Intima-media thickness of the carotid artery and the distribution of lipoprotein subclasses in men aged 40 to 49 years between ...
carotid atherosclerosis; carotid artery intima-media thickness; triglyceride-to-hdl cholesterol ratio; children; nonalcoholic ... liver and carotid ultrasonography (carotid artery intima-media thickness-cIMT) data collected. Subjects were stratified into ... liver and carotid ultrasonography (carotid artery intima-media thickness-cIMT) data collected. Subjects were stratified into ... Association of serum triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio with carotid artery intima-media thickness, insulin resistance and ...
Genome wide association and pathway analysis of segment-specific carotid intima-media thickness phenotypes: The San Antonio ... Genome wide association and pathway analysis of segment-specific carotid intima-media thickness phenotypes: The San Antonio ...
keywords = "Carotid intima media thickness, Coronary heart disease, Factor V. Leiden mutation, Resistance to protein C", ... No association between Factor V. Leiden mutation and coronary heart disease or carotid intima media thickness: The NHLBI family ... No association between Factor V. Leiden mutation and coronary heart disease or carotid intima media thickness: The NHLBI family ... No association between Factor V. Leiden mutation and coronary heart disease or carotid intima media thickness: The NHLBI family ...
  • 2010). 'The role of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) Measurement and Echo-tracking in the Assessment of Preclinical Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis in HIV-infected Patients', Infektološki glasnik , 30(1), pp. 35-41. (srce.hr)
  • Višković K, Krolo I, Brnić Z, Podoreški D, Stermberger L, Begovac J. The role of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) Measurement and Echo-tracking in the Assessment of Preclinical Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis in HIV-infected Patients. (srce.hr)
  • Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurement by B-mod ultrasound is an important tool for evaluation of early stages of atherosclerosis. (srce.hr)
  • Subclinical atherosclerosis of carotid arteries can also be detected by measuring the number and area of present plaques and arterial stiffness assessment. (srce.hr)
  • RA is characterized by a significant biological inflammatory syndrome that leads to a significant risk of atherosclerosis that can be assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In our study, we focused on the use of carotid artery intima-medial thickness as a marker for subclinical atherosclerosis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The measurement of carotid IMT is a non-invasive test usually made by external ultrasound that can identify atherosclerosis and monitor its evolution. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Ultrasound measurement of carotid artery IMT is a widely used method to assess atherosclerosis with a strong prediction of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accidents. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) is a marker for subclinical atherosclerosis. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Associations of edge-detected and manual-traced common carotid intima-media thickness measurements with Framingham risk factors: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. (duke.edu)
  • Larger randomized controlled trials with selected patients and more detailed measurements of carotid intima-media thickness are needed to determine the clinical practice implications of these findings in participants who have asymptomatic evidence of atherosclerosis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Naqvi, TZ 2008, ' Ultrasound carotid artery intima-media thickness assessment for progression of atherosclerosis in lipid intervention studies ', Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs , vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 256-264. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Naqvi, T. Z. / Ultrasound carotid artery intima-media thickness assessment for progression of atherosclerosis in lipid intervention studies . (elsevierpure.com)
  • Training of nonsonographer physicians or staff members is needed to implement carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and plaque screening by ultrasound for the assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis. (thoracickey.com)
  • Increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis and has been associated with an increased risk for the development of coronary artery disease and the occurrence of cerebrovascular accidents in asymptomatic patients of differing ages, gender, and ethnicities. (thoracickey.com)
  • Muscular Strength and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Physically Fit Young Adults: The CHIEF Atherosclerosis Study. (bvsalud.org)
  • Subclinical atherosclerosis was measured by the left carotid bulb intima-media thickness (cIMT) using high-resolution ultrasonography . (bvsalud.org)
  • Coronary artery disease-related genetic variant on chromosome 10q11 is associated with carotid intima-media thickness and atherosclerosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether chromosome 10q11.21 influences common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and atherosclerosis and whether it is associated with stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) plasma levels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The coronary heart disease-related variant at the 10q11.21 locus is associated with carotid IMT and atherosclerosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Individuals were invited by letter to attend for assessment of their medical history, risk factor status, cognitive function and psychological profile, morbidity, and carotid intima-media thickness and plaque count as indices of atherosclerosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 9. Frauchiger B, Schimid HD, Roedel C, Moosmann P, Staub D. Comparison of carotid arterial resistive indices with intima-media thickness as sonographic markers of atherosclerosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • My second study, investigated the association between several forms of sugar consumption and a marker of atherosclerosis called intima media thickness. (lu.se)
  • METHODS: Carotid B-mode ultrasound was used to image the common and internal carotid arteries, at baseline and at 12 months after enrollment. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Duplex ultrasonography of internal carotid arteries was performed. (ac.ir)
  • In men in the post-World War II birth cohort, that is, men aged 40 to 49 years, whites in the United States had significantly higher levels of intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries (IMT) than the Japanese in Japan (Electron-Beam Tomography and Risk Assessment Among Japanese and US Men in the Post World War II Birth Cohort [ERA JUMP] study). (elsevierpure.com)
  • To assess the carotid and brachial arteries' intima-media thicknesses (IMTs) in cases with intermittent (obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS)) and continuous (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) hypoxaemia together with other confounding demographic and biochemical factors. (uwi.edu)
  • INTRODUCTION We prospectively evaluated morphologic and functional changes in the carotid arteries of patients treated with unilateral neck radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. (medrxiv.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Functional and morphologic changes of the carotid arteries detected by carotid ultrasound, such as changes in global circumferential strain at 6 months and carotid IMT at 18 months, may be useful for the early detection of radiation-induced carotid artery injury, can guide future research aiming to mitigate carotid artery stenosis, and should be considered for clinical surveillance survivorship recommendations after head and neck RT. (medrxiv.org)
  • This marker measures the thickness of the wall of the carotid arteries and can predict the possibility of developing cardiovascular diseases later on in life. (lu.se)
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a marker of cardiovascular disease derived from ultrasound images of the carotid artery. (duke.edu)
  • Carotid artery intima-media thickness measured by ultrasound has been shown to be correlated with the presence of cardiovascular disease and is now accepted and used as a surrogate marker for atherosclerotic disease, an important organ damage of hypercholesterolemia. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The assessment of the thickness of the intima-media layer of the vessel wall, as well as detection of early plaques by ultrasound, is non-invasive and is the most sensitive, reliable, and safe method to detect those at risk. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The assessment of carotid plaque and CIMT with high-resolution brightness-mode (B-mode) ultrasound requires great precision. (thoracickey.com)
  • Persons who participated in the first, the last and one of the intermediate rounds of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, and who had had an ultrasound-derived measure of the carotid IMT performed at the last examination were included in the analyses. (ku.dk)
  • Ultrasound Evaluation of Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness: Effective Early Marker of Carotid Artery Disease in Adult Head and Neck Cancer Patients After Neck Radiation? (advancedpractitioner.com)
  • This integrative literature review assesses the use of ultrasound measured carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) as an early marker of CAD in adult HNC patients after neck radiation. (advancedpractitioner.com)
  • Carotid IMT, measured by ultrasound, was significantly increased after neck radiation in all reviewed publications. (advancedpractitioner.com)
  • Ultrasound adequately detects post-radiation carotid IMT changes and is a reliable early marker for radiation-associated CAD. (advancedpractitioner.com)
  • Carotid ultrasound precisely quantifies the combined thickness of the intimal and medial layers of the arterial wall. (wewell.com.hk)
  • At a baseline study visit, participants will undergo an ultrasound of the neck to evaluate carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and MRI to evaluate plaque composition. (druglib.com)
  • The intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CIMT) is an important parameter for early atherosclerotic change. (banglajol.info)
  • The aim of our study was to determine whether carotid intimamedia thickness (CIMT) and carotidfemoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), as surrogates of cardiovascular disease and arterial stiffness, are increased in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. (erdogan.edu.tr)
  • Methods and results: The study population, including 548 children (aged 6-16 years), of whom 157 were normal-weight, 118 overweight, and 273 obese, had anthropometric, laboratory, liver and carotid ultrasonography (carotid artery intima-media thickness-cIMT) data collected. (uniroma1.it)
  • We sought to evaluate the impact of ER-niacin on carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), endothelial function, and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) mobilization. (elsevierpure.com)
  • A recent study, largely focused on image interpretation, demonstrated low interobserver variability in the offline measurement of CIMT and carotid plaque identification between a core lab and newly trained clinicians. (thoracickey.com)
  • This study aims to evaluate diagnostic value of carotid artery intima‑media thickness (CIMT) and ABCD2 score for predicting cardiovascular events in long‑term follow‑up after TIA. (ac.ir)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vascular endothelial functions, carotid intimamedia thickness (cIMT), plasma sCD40L levels and circadian BP profile in patients with essential hypertension. (comu.edu.tr)
  • METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA statement of the English literature involving WRS and carotid artery intima media thickness (CIMT). (cdc.gov)
  • Carotid ultrasonography was used to assess the IMT, as a fast and easy tool for the prediction of cardiovascular events in patients with RA. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) determined by doppler ultrasonography is a good predictor of the presence and severity of CAD [3,4]. (who.int)
  • History and physical examination, peripheral venous blood sampling, carotid ultrasonography. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • ABSTRACT This study investigated whether breast arterial calcification (BAC) has an association with coronary artery diseases (CAD) in young premenopausal women and evaluated the association of BAC with carotid intima-media thickness and standard CAD risk factors. (who.int)
  • Manual tracing IMT (mt-IMT) and edge-detected IMT (ed-IMT) measurements of the far wall of the common carotid artery served as outcome variables for multivariable linear regression models using Framingham cardiovascular risk factors and ethnicity as independent predictors. (duke.edu)
  • Sub-Study: VEGF and Cardiometabolic Risk, (This is an observational, case-study of existing baseline plasma and carotid intimal-medial thickness measurements) VEGF is also closely linked to vascular disease. (druglib.com)
  • This last effect represents one of the most important targets of lipid-lowering drugs, in particular, carotid intima-media thickness, and an early-onset of atherosclerotic process. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Objective To determine IMT of carotid artery and its relationship with duration of diabetes, lipid profiles, and mean HbA 1 level. (ui.ac.id)
  • Baseline testing includes carotid artery intimal-medial thickness, carotid MRI, lipid panel, complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic chemistry panel, Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and glucose tolerance test with plasma insulin and glucose responses. (druglib.com)
  • Obesity and insulin resistance were associated positively with plasma thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor levels, but there was no association between carotid intima-media thickness and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Evaluation of carotid intima-media thick. (ogu.edu.tr)
  • Early identification of radiation-associated carotid artery disease (CAD), a well-known phenomenon, can minimize long-term sequelae. (advancedpractitioner.com)
  • Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with cardivascular risk factors and has been used as a marker of early artherosclerosis process. (ui.ac.id)
  • RÉSUMÉ Cette étude a cherché à déterminer si la calcification des artères mammaires (CAM) avait un lien avec les coronaropathies chez la femme préménopausée et à évaluer son association à l'épaisseur intima-média carotidienne et aux facteurs de risque de coronaropathie courants. (who.int)
  • We aimed to analyze the association between SCH and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). (nih.gov)
  • A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. (bvsalud.org)
  • The following risk factors were found to best predict carotid IMT: age, maximum systolic BP, average systolic BP, average BMI, minimum BMI, sex and years of smoking. (ku.dk)
  • Negative feelings (discontent) predict progress of intima-media thickness of the commom carotid artery in treated hypertensive men at high cardiovascular risk. (bvsalud.org)
  • 12] Screening should commence at 2 years trial, small very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), small high- of age if there is a family history of hypercholesterolaemia, early density lipoprotein (HDL), medium low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cardiovascular disease or if the family history is unknown. (who.int)
  • The goal of this study was to compare the performance of several measures of carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) as predictors of cardiovascular events (CVEs), and to investigate whether they add to the predictive accuracy of Framingham risk factors (FRFs). (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the progression of conventional risk factors in 933 long-term survivors from a Danish cohort with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) as predictors for attained carotid IMT during 35.6 (0.7) years of follow-up. (ku.dk)
  • To evaluate carotid intima-media thickness and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor levels in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and age-matched healthy controls, and to investigate their relationship with each other and with clinical, metabolic, and hormonal parameters. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • cysts to various disinfecting solu- poorly or not at all on media used routinely for detecting tions (29-31) complicates the eradication of free-living human pathogens from clinical samples, could be the caus- amoebae. (cdc.gov)
  • Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) can assess the cumulative effect of atherosclerotic risk factors and provides an independent predictor of future cardiovascular (CV) risk. (ku.dk)
  • n=770]) for single-nucleotide polymorphism rs501120 at the 10q11.21 locus and conducted a meta-analysis in these cohorts to ascertain a relationship between the polymorphism and carotid IMT. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A functional polymorphism in the lymphotoxin-alpha gene is associated with carotid artery wall thickness: the Diabetes Heart Study. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this prospective study was to develop a robust training protocol in intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque image acquisition for a medical resident (R1) and then to test this protocol prospectively by comparing IMT values and plaque presence from images obtained by R1 with those of an expert scanner and to develop refinement in training protocol prospectively after reviewing initial results. (thoracickey.com)
  • In this cohort there were no difference in attained carotid IMT between persons with and without DM at the last examination. (ku.dk)
  • Carotid echocardiogram is a non-invasive examination without exposure to ionizing radiation. (wewell.com.hk)
  • Carotid intima-media thickness examination and laboratory tests. (who.int)
  • Furthermore, the distribution of prediction errors was skewed to the right indicating that the prediction errors were larger among persons with high carotid IMT. (ku.dk)
  • The acute anti-inflammatory effects of statins should further be explored as a potential mediator of change in intima-media thickness. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Diminished heart rate reactivity to acute psychological stress is associated with enhanced carotid intima-media thickness through adverse health behaviors, which has been published in final form at 10.1111/psyp.12640. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the potential pathways linking intima-media thickness, smoking, body mass index (BMI), and HR stress reactivity. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • However, this study could not find any conclusive link between sugar consumption and intima media thickness. (lu.se)
  • Smoking and obesity are established risk factors for increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Carotid intima-media thickness - a potential predictor for rupture risk of intracranial aneurysms. (uib.no)
  • Findings suggest that radiation-associated carotid IMT increase occurs early and persists for years. (advancedpractitioner.com)