An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
An acquired or spontaneous abnormality in which there is communication between CAVERNOUS SINUS, a venous structure, and the CAROTID ARTERIES. It is often associated with HEAD TRAUMA, specifically basilar skull fractures (SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR). Clinical signs often include VISION DISORDERS and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION.
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CAVERNOUS SINUS of the brain. Infections of the paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, and THROMBOPHILIA are associated conditions. Clinical manifestations include dysfunction of cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI, marked periorbital swelling, chemosis, fever, and visual loss. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p711)
Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.
An abnormal passage communicating between any component of the respiratory tract or between any part of the respiratory system and surrounding organs.
A recess on each side in the wall of the HYPOPHARYNX.
Acute inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to infections by BACTERIA; FUNGI; or other microorganisms. Symptoms include tender swelling, FEVER, and often with LEUKOCYTOSIS.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).
A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).
An abnormal passage or communication leading from an internal organ to the surface of the body.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities involving ARTERIES; VEINS; or venous sinuses in the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and MENINGES.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
An abnormal passage or communication between a bronchus and another part of the body.
An abnormal passage between two or more BLOOD VESSELS, between ARTERIES; VEINS; or between an artery and a vein.
A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.
An abnormal anatomical passage connecting the RECTUM to the outside, with an orifice at the site of drainage.
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
An abnormal passage in any part of the URINARY TRACT between itself or with other organs.
Abnormal passage communicating with the ESOPHAGUS. The most common type is TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA between the esophagus and the TRACHEA.
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CRANIAL SINUSES, large endothelium-lined venous channels situated within the SKULL. Intracranial sinuses, also called cranial venous sinuses, include the superior sagittal, cavernous, lateral, petrous sinuses, and many others. Cranial sinus thrombosis can lead to severe HEADACHE; SEIZURE; and other neurological defects.
The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Abnormal passage communicating with the PANCREAS.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the RECTUM and the VAGINA.
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
An abnormal anatomical passage between the URINARY BLADDER and the VAGINA.
Inflammatory diseases of the THYROID GLAND. Thyroiditis can be classified into acute (THYROIDITIS, SUPPURATIVE), subacute (granulomatous and lymphocytic), chronic fibrous (Riedel's), chronic lymphocytic (HASHIMOTO DISEASE), transient (POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS), and other AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS subtypes.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
An abnormal anatomical passage that connects the VAGINA to other organs, such as the bladder (VESICOVAGINAL FISTULA) or the rectum (RECTOVAGINAL FISTULA).

Endovascular arterial occlusion accomplished using microcoils deployed with and without proximal flow arrest: results in 19 patients. (1/104)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prior to their relatively recent FDA approval, detachable balloons for endovascular arterial occlusion had been available on only a limited basis. We evaluated the feasibility of permanent endovascular carotid and vertebral artery occlusion using microcoils deployed with and without proximal flow arrest in 19 patients. METHODS: Permanent endovascular occlusion was performed in 19 arteries of 19 patients. The treated lesions included nine aneurysms, one carotid-cavernous fistula/pseudoaneurysm, seven neoplasms, and two dissections. Nondetachable balloons were used to arrest proximal blood flow during occlusion of only six arteries. Anticoagulation (heparin, 5000 U IV) was used during occlusion of 18 arteries. Three to 88 coils were used per lesion. Complex fibered platinum microcoils were used for all cases, and GDCs were also used in two patients. RESULTS: Sixteen patients had no new neurologic deficits after arterial occlusion. No patient had an acute event that suggested an embolic complication. Coils provided rapid and durable arterial occlusion in 17 patients. In both patients with acute carotid artery rupture, large numbers of coils placed during flow arrest failed to produce complete occlusion, which was accomplished subsequently with detachable balloons. One of these patients incurred a fatal hemispheric infarct after occlusion. One patient treated for a ruptured posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm by vertebral artery occlusion continued to have progressive neurologic deficits. One patient with a cavernous aneurysm had upper extremity weakness and mild dysphasia 24 hours after internal carotid artery occlusion. CONCLUSION: In our small series, microcoils were found to be safe and effective for neurovascular occlusion. When both intravenous heparin (5000 U IV bolus) and heparinized catheter flush solutions (5000 U/L) are used, flow arrest during coil placement is unnecessary to prevent clinically apparent embolic complications.  (+info)

Management of a rare complication of endovascular treatment of direct carotid cavernous fistula. (2/104)

A 30-year-old woman with direct carotid cavernous fistula underwent endovascular treatment with detachable balloons via a transarterial route. The patient returned with diplopia 1 year after therapy. On cranial MR imaging, one of the balloons was detected in the proximal portion of the superior ophthalmic vein and was deflated percutaneously with a 22-gauge Chiba needle under CT guidance. The patient's symptoms resolved after balloon deflation. This case report presents a unique complication of endovascular treatment of direct carotid cavernous fistula and its management.  (+info)

Cavernous sinus and inferior petrosal sinus flow signal on three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography. (3/104)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Venous flow signal in the cavernous sinus and inferior petrosal sinus has been shown on MR angiograms in patients with carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). We, however, identified flow signal in some patients without symptoms and signs of CCF. This review was performed to determine the frequency of such normal venous flow depiction at MR angiography. METHODS: Twenty-five 3D time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiograms obtained on two different imaging units (scanners A and B) were reviewed with attention to presence of venous flow signal in the cavernous sinus or inferior petrosal sinus or both. Twenty-five additional MR angiograms were reviewed in patients who had also had cerebral arteriography to document absence of CCF where venous MR angiographic signal was detected, as well as to gain insight into venous flow patterns that might contribute to MR angiographic venous flow signal. Differences in scanning technique parameters were reviewed. RESULTS: Nine (36%) of the 25 MR angiograms obtained on scanner A but only one (4%) of the 25 obtained on scanner B showed flow signal in the cavernous or inferior petrosal sinus or both in the absence of signs of CCF. On review of 25 patients who had both MR angiography and arteriography, three patients with venous signal at MR angiography failed to exhibit CCF at arteriography. CONCLUSION: Identification of normal cavernous sinus or inferior petrosal sinus venous signal on 3D TOF MR angiograms may occur frequently, and is probably dependent on technical factors that vary among scanners. The exact factors most responsible, however, were not elucidated by this preliminary review.  (+info)

Direct carotid-cavernous sinus fistula due to ruptured intracavernous aneurysm treated with electrodetachable coils--case report. (4/104)

A 66-year-old female developed exophthalmos, impaired visual acuity (perception of light), and diplopia one day after sudden onset of headache. Neurological examination revealed proptosis, chemosis, impaired vision, and ophthalmoplegia. Carotid angiography showed direct carotid-cavernous sinus fistula concomitant with an intracavernous aneurysm on the right side. Intraaneurysmal embolization using the Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) via the transarterial route was performed and complete occlusion of the fistula successfully achieved. The neurological deficits resolved completely by 6 months after embolization. Intraaneurysmal GDC embolization via the transarterial route may be an alternative for the treatment of direct carotid-cavernous sinus fistula due to rupture of intracavernous aneurysm.  (+info)

Carotid and transcranial color-coded duplex sonography in different types of carotid-cavernous fistula. (5/104)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) may undergo direct or indirect shunting. Ultrasonography has value that is complementary to angiography in the assessment and follow-up of these patients. The aim of this study was to characterize findings provided by carotid duplex sonography (CDS) and transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCD) in patients with different types of CCF. METHODS: CDS and TCCD were independently performed by technologists and neurologists. Digital subtraction or MR angiography was interpreted by a neuroradiologist. Ultrasonographic studies were categorized into 4 types: I, direct shunting only; II, direct shunting with a carotid aneurysm; III, indirect shunting only; and IV, mixed (direct and indirect) shunting. In addition to carotid and intracranial flow velocities, volume, and pulsatility, other direct and indirect ultrasound signs of shunting were evaluated. The direct sign of CCF was a mosaic flash detected by TCCD. Alteration of hemodynamic parameters on CDS and demonstration of draining veins with the use of TCCD were considered indirect signs. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (8 men, 7 women) were included in the study. According to angiographic results, patients in ultrasonographic classification types I (n=7) and II (n=3) corresponded to type A of Barrow's classification. Patients with type III (n=8) were Barrow's type C. Type IV (n=1) had a combination of Barrow's types A and C. On ultrasound, both direct and indirect signs were seen in types I, II, and IV CCF. The presence of a 2-colored oval mass divided by a zone of separation without turbulence differentiated type I from type II CCF. All patients with type III CCF had indirect signs, and only 1 patient had direct signs on TCCD. Abnormal TCCD findings were most commonly seen through the transorbital window (100%), followed by the transtemporal window (63%) and transforaminal window (40%). CONCLUSIONS: If only indirect ultrasonographic signs of CCF are present, TCCD can be used to predict an indirect CCF type on the basis of the origin of the fistula. With direct communication between carotid artery and cavernous sinus, both direct and indirect ultrasonographic signs can be found. The combination of CDS/TCCD may provide a noninvasive and reliable way to classify patients with CCF.  (+info)

Transvenous embolization of carotid-cavernous sinus fistula associated with a primitive trigeminal artery--case report. (6/104)

A 58-year-old female presented with right conjunctival chemosis and right abducens nerve paresis. Cerebral angiography demonstrated a right carotid-cavernous sinus fistula associated with persistent primitive trigeminal artery. The fistula was treated by introducing detachable coils through the transvenous approach, as the detachable balloon was not available. Follow-up angiography performed 14 days after the embolization revealed complete disappearance of the carotid-cavernous sinus fistula due to thrombosis, which was presumably accelerated by the coils. Transvenous coil embolization should be considered as an alternative treatment for high-flow carotid-cavernous sinus fistula, but only if transarterial balloon embolization is not successful or unavailable.  (+info)

Extracranial carotid artery aneurysms: Texas Heart Institute experience. (7/104)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aneurysms of the extracranial carotid artery (ECA) are rare. Large single-institution series are seldom reported and usually are not aneurysm type-specific. Thus, information about immediate and long-term results of surgical therapy is sparse. This review was conducted to elucidate etiology, presentation, and treatment for ECA aneurysms. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the case records of the Texas Heart Institute/St Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Houston, and found 67 cases of ECA aneurysms treated surgically (the largest series to date) between 1960 and 1995: 38 pseudoaneurysms after previous carotid surgery and 29 atherosclerotic or traumatic aneurysms. All aneurysms were surgically explored, and all were repaired except two: a traumatic distal internal carotid artery aneurysm and an infected pseudoaneurysm in which the carotid artery was ligated. RESULTS: Four deaths (three fatal strokes and one myocardial infarction) and two nonfatal strokes were directly attributed to a repaired ECA aneurysm (overall mortality/major stroke incidence, 9%); there was one minor stroke (incidence, 1.5%). The incidence of cranial nerve injury was 6% (four cases). During long-term follow-up (1.5 months-30 years; mean, 5.9 years), 19 patients died, mainly of cardiac causes (11 myocardial infarctions). CONCLUSION: The potential risks of cerebral ischemia and rupture as well as the satisfactory long-term results achieved with surgery strongly argue in favor of surgical treatment of ECA aneurysms.  (+info)

Carotid-cavernous fistulas: diagnosis with spiral CT angiography. (8/104)

Four cases in which the diagnosis of carotid-cavernous fistula was made by using CT angiography are illustrated. The diagnosis was confirmed by digital subtraction angiography in all four instances. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the CT angiographic appearance of carotid-cavernous fistulas.  (+info)

The cavernous sinus is a venous structure located in the middle cranial fossa, which is a depression in the skull that houses several important nerves and blood vessels. The cavernous sinus is situated on either side of the sphenoid bone, near the base of the skull, and it contains several important structures:

* The internal carotid artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the brain
* The abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI), which controls lateral movement of the eye
* The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III), which controls most of the muscles that move the eye
* The trochlear nerve (cranial nerve IV), which controls one of the muscles that moves the eye
* The ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which transmit sensory information from the face and head

The cavernous sinus is an important structure because it serves as a conduit for several critical nerves and blood vessels. However, it is also vulnerable to various pathological conditions such as thrombosis (blood clots), infection, tumors, or aneurysms, which can lead to serious neurological deficits or even death.

A Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula (CCSF) is an abnormal connection between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, a venous structure in the skull. This connection can be either direct or indirect. Direct CCSFs are caused by trauma or rupture of an aneurysm, while indirect CCSFs are usually spontaneous and associated with conditions such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, or connective tissue disorders.

Symptoms of a CCSF may include headache, eye redness, protrusion of the eyeball, double vision, hearing disturbances, and pulsatile tinnitus (a rhythmic sound in the ear). The severity of symptoms can vary depending on the size of the fistula and the pressure within the cavernous sinus.

Treatment options for CCSF include endovascular repair with stenting or coiling, surgical closure, or observation, depending on the type and size of the fistula and the presence of symptoms.

An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein. This connection causes blood to flow directly from the artery into the vein, bypassing the capillary network that would normally distribute the oxygen-rich blood to the surrounding tissues.

Arteriovenous fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, disease, or as a planned surgical procedure for patients who require hemodialysis, a treatment for advanced kidney failure. In hemodialysis, the arteriovenous fistula serves as a site for repeated access to the bloodstream, allowing for efficient removal of waste products and excess fluids.

The medical definition of an arteriovenous fistula is:

"An abnormal communication between an artery and a vein, usually created by surgical means for hemodialysis access or occurring as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or disease processes such as vasculitis or neoplasm."

Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a medical condition that refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the cavernous sinuses, which are located near the base of the brain and are important for draining blood from the face and brain. This condition can occur as a complication of an infection in the facial area or sinuses, or it can be associated with other medical conditions such as cancer or trauma.

Symptoms of cavernous sinus thrombosis may include headache, fever, eye pain, swelling or bulging of the eyes, double vision, and decreased vision. If left untreated, this condition can lead to serious complications such as meningitis, brain abscess, or even death. Treatment typically involves administering antibiotics to treat any underlying infection and anticoagulants to prevent further clot formation. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot.

A fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two organs, vessels, or body parts that usually do not connect. It can form as a result of injury, infection, surgery, or disease. A fistula can occur anywhere in the body but commonly forms in the digestive system, genital area, or urinary system. The symptoms and treatment options for a fistula depend on its location and underlying cause.

A respiratory tract fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the respiratory tract (which includes the nose, throat, windpipe, and lungs) and another organ or structure, such as the skin, digestive tract, or blood vessels. This condition can lead to complications such as air leakage, infection, and difficulty breathing. The causes of respiratory tract fistulas vary and can include trauma, surgery, infection, or cancer. Treatment depends on the location and severity of the fistula and may involve surgical repair, antibiotics, or other therapies.

The pyriform (or piriform) sinus refers to a pair of narrow, funnel-shaped spaces located at the base of the tongue, near the epiglottis, in the upper part of the larynx. These sinuses are lined with respiratory epithelium and are part of the digestive tract, as they connect to the esophagus through the upper esophageal sphincter. The pyriform sinuses play a role in the initial stages of swallowing, directing food and liquids into the esophagus. They can also serve as a potential site for the entrapment and growth of foreign bodies or abnormal tissue, such as in the case of a pyriform sinus fistula or diverticulum.

Suppurative thyroiditis is a rare type of thyroid gland inflammation that is caused by a bacterial infection. It is characterized by the formation of pus (suppuration) within the thyroid tissue. The infection can result from a direct spread of bacteria from adjacent structures, such as the upper respiratory tract or neck, or through the bloodstream due to an underlying infection elsewhere in the body.

Suppurative thyroiditis primarily affects people with pre-existing conditions that weaken the immune system, making them more susceptible to bacterial infections. These conditions may include diabetes, HIV/AIDS, or alcoholism. Additionally, it can occur in individuals who have recently undergone surgical procedures on the thyroid gland or after a traumatic injury to the area.

Symptoms of suppurative thyroiditis include fever, chills, painful swallowing, neck pain and swelling, difficulty breathing, hoarseness, and symptoms related to bacteremia (bacterial infection in the blood) if the infection spreads. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies like ultrasound or CT scan, and laboratory tests to identify the causative organism. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics to eliminate the bacterial infection and possible surgical drainage of the infected thyroid tissue in severe cases.

Carotid artery diseases refer to conditions that affect the carotid arteries, which are the major blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the head and neck. The most common type of carotid artery disease is atherosclerosis, which occurs when fatty deposits called plaques build up in the inner lining of the arteries.

These plaques can cause the arteries to narrow or become blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain and increasing the risk of stroke. Other carotid artery diseases include carotid artery dissection, which occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining of the artery, and fibromuscular dysplasia, which is a condition that affects the muscle and tissue in the walls of the artery.

Symptoms of carotid artery disease may include neck pain or pulsations, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or "mini-strokes," and strokes. Treatment options for carotid artery disease depend on the severity and type of the condition but may include lifestyle changes, medications, endarterectomy (a surgical procedure to remove plaque from the artery), or angioplasty and stenting (procedures to open blocked arteries using a balloon and stent).

The carotid arteries are a pair of vital blood vessels in the human body that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. Each person has two common carotid arteries, one on each side of the neck, which branch off from the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

The right common carotid artery originates from the brachiocephalic trunk, while the left common carotid artery arises directly from the aortic arch. As they ascend through the neck, they split into two main branches: the internal and external carotid arteries.

The internal carotid artery supplies oxygenated blood to the brain, eyes, and other structures within the skull, while the external carotid artery provides blood to the face, scalp, and various regions of the neck.

Maintaining healthy carotid arteries is crucial for overall cardiovascular health and preventing serious conditions like stroke, which can occur when the arteries become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque or fatty deposits (atherosclerosis). Regular check-ups with healthcare professionals may include monitoring carotid artery health through ultrasound or other imaging techniques.

The internal carotid artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It originates from the common carotid artery and passes through the neck, entering the skull via the carotid canal in the temporal bone. Once inside the skull, it branches into several smaller vessels that supply different parts of the brain with blood.

The internal carotid artery is divided into several segments: cervical, petrous, cavernous, clinoid, and supraclinoid. Each segment has distinct clinical significance in terms of potential injury or disease. The most common conditions affecting the internal carotid artery include atherosclerosis, which can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), and dissection, which can cause severe headache, neck pain, and neurological symptoms.

It's important to note that any blockage or damage to the internal carotid artery can have serious consequences, as it can significantly reduce blood flow to the brain and lead to permanent neurological damage or even death. Therefore, regular check-ups and screening tests are recommended for individuals at high risk of developing vascular diseases.

Dura Mater is the thickest and outermost of the three membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. It provides protection and support to these delicate structures. The other two layers are called the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater, which are thinner and more delicate than the Dura Mater. Together, these three layers form a protective barrier around the central nervous system.

Therapeutic embolization is a medical procedure that involves intentionally blocking or obstructing blood vessels to stop excessive bleeding or block the flow of blood to a tumor or abnormal tissue. This is typically accomplished by injecting small particles, such as microspheres or coils, into the targeted blood vessel through a catheter, which is inserted into a larger blood vessel and guided to the desired location using imaging techniques like X-ray or CT scanning. The goal of therapeutic embolization is to reduce the size of a tumor, control bleeding, or block off abnormal blood vessels that are causing problems.

Carotid stenosis is a medical condition that refers to the narrowing or constriction of the lumen (inner space) of the carotid artery. The carotid arteries are major blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. Carotid stenosis usually results from the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances, on the inner walls of the artery. This process is called atherosclerosis.

As the plaque accumulates, it causes the artery to narrow, reducing blood flow to the brain. Severe carotid stenosis can increase the risk of stroke, as a clot or debris from the plaque can break off and travel to the brain, blocking a smaller blood vessel and causing tissue damage or death.

Carotid stenosis is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT angiography, or MRI angiography. Treatment options may include lifestyle modifications (such as quitting smoking, controlling blood pressure, and managing cholesterol levels), medications to reduce the risk of clots, or surgical procedures like endarterectomy or stenting to remove or bypass the blockage.

The sphenoid sinuses are air-filled spaces located within the sphenoid bone, which is one of the bones that make up the skull base. These sinuses are located deep inside the skull, behind the eyes and nasal cavity. They are paired and separated by a thin bony septum, and each one opens into the corresponding nasal cavity through a small opening called the sphenoethmoidal recess. The sphenoid sinuses vary greatly in size and shape between individuals. They develop during childhood and continue to grow until early adulthood. The function of the sphenoid sinuses, like other paranasal sinuses, is not entirely clear, but they may contribute to reducing the weight of the skull, resonating voice during speech, and insulating the brain from trauma.

An intestinal fistula is an abnormal communication or connection between the intestines (or a portion of the intestine) and another organ or the skin surface. This connection forms a tract or passage, allowing the contents of the intestines, such as digestive enzymes, bacteria, and waste materials, to leak into other body areas or outside the body. Intestinal fistulas can develop due to various reasons, including inflammatory bowel diseases (like Crohn's disease), infections, complications from surgery, radiation therapy, or trauma. They can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, skin irritation, and infection. Treatment of intestinal fistulas often involves a combination of medical management, nutritional support, and surgical intervention.

The coronary sinus is a large vein that receives blood from the heart's muscle tissue. It is located on the posterior side of the heart and is a part of the cardiovascular system. The coronary sinus collects oxygen-depleted blood from the myocardium (the heart muscle) and drains it into the right atrium, where it will then be pumped to the lungs for oxygenation.

The coronary sinus is an essential structure in medical procedures such as cardiac catheterization and electrophysiological studies. It is also a common site for the implantation of pacemakers and other cardiac devices.

Cranial sinuses are a part of the venous system in the human head. They are air-filled spaces located within the skull and are named according to their location. The cranial sinuses include:

1. Superior sagittal sinus: It runs along the top of the brain, inside the skull, and drains blood from the scalp and the veins of the brain.
2. Inferior sagittal sinus: It runs along the bottom of the brain and drains into the straight sinus.
3. Straight sinus: It is located at the back of the brain and receives blood from the inferior sagittal sinus and great cerebral vein.
4. Occipital sinuses: They are located at the back of the head and drain blood from the scalp and skull.
5. Cavernous sinuses: They are located on each side of the brain, near the temple, and receive blood from the eye and surrounding areas.
6. Sphenoparietal sinus: It is a small sinus that drains blood from the front part of the brain into the cavernous sinus.
7. Petrosquamosal sinuses: They are located near the ear and drain blood from the scalp and skull.

The cranial sinuses play an essential role in draining blood from the brain and protecting it from injury.

A cutaneous fistula is a type of fistula that occurs when a tract or tunnel forms between the skin (cutaneous) and another organ or structure, such as the gastrointestinal tract, vagina, or urinary system. Cutaneous fistulas can result from various medical conditions, including infections, inflammatory diseases, surgical complications, trauma, or malignancies.

Cutaneous fistulas may present with symptoms such as drainage of fluid or pus from the skin, pain, redness, swelling, or irritation around the affected area. The treatment for cutaneous fistulas depends on their underlying cause and can range from conservative management with antibiotics and wound care to surgical intervention.

It is essential to seek medical attention if you suspect a cutaneous fistula, as untreated fistulas can lead to complications such as infection, sepsis, or tissue damage. A healthcare professional can provide an accurate diagnosis and develop an appropriate treatment plan based on the individual's needs.

Cerebral angiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels in the brain after injecting a contrast dye into them. This procedure helps doctors to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels).

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and threaded through the body to the blood vessels in the neck or brain. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow through the brain's blood vessels.

Cerebral angiography provides detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, allowing doctors to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be causing symptoms or increasing the risk of stroke. Based on the results of the cerebral angiography, doctors can develop a treatment plan to address these issues and prevent further complications.

Central nervous system (CNS) vascular malformations are abnormal tangles or masses of blood vessels in the brain or spinal cord. These malformations can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life). They can vary in size, location, and symptoms, which may include headaches, seizures, weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and vision problems.

There are several types of CNS vascular malformations, including:

1. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These are tangles of arteries and veins with a direct connection between them, bypassing the capillary network. AVMs can cause bleeding in the brain or spinal cord, leading to stroke or neurological deficits.
2. Cavernous malformations: These are clusters of dilated, thin-walled blood vessels that form a sac-like structure. They can rupture and bleed, causing symptoms such as seizures, headaches, or neurological deficits.
3. Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs): These are benign vascular malformations characterized by an abnormal pattern of veins that drain blood from the brain. DVAs are usually asymptomatic but can be associated with other vascular malformations.
4. Capillary telangiectasias: These are small clusters of dilated capillaries in the brain or spinal cord. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally during imaging studies.
5. Moyamoya disease: This is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the narrowing or blockage of the internal carotid arteries and their branches. This can lead to decreased blood flow to the brain, causing symptoms such as headaches, seizures, and strokes.

The diagnosis of CNS vascular malformations typically involves imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and sometimes angiography. Treatment options may include observation, medication, surgery, or endovascular procedures, depending on the type, location, and severity of the malformation.

The carotid sinus is a small, dilated area located at the bifurcation (or fork) of the common carotid artery into the internal and external carotid arteries. It is a baroreceptor region, which means it contains specialized sensory nerve endings that can detect changes in blood pressure. When the blood pressure increases, the walls of the carotid sinus stretch, activating these nerve endings and sending signals to the brain. The brain then responds by reducing the heart rate and relaxing the blood vessels, which helps to lower the blood pressure back to normal.

The carotid sinus is an important part of the body's autonomic nervous system, which regulates various involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion. It plays a crucial role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis and preventing excessive increases in blood pressure that could potentially damage vital organs.

A bronchial fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the bronchial tree (the airways in the lungs) and the surrounding tissues, such as the pleural space (the space between the lungs and the chest wall), blood vessels, or other organs. This condition can result from various causes, including lung injury, infection, surgery, or certain diseases such as cancer or tuberculosis.

Bronchial fistulas can lead to symptoms like coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. They may also cause air leaks, pneumothorax (collapsed lung), or chronic infections. Treatment for bronchial fistulas depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition but often involves surgical repair or closure of the abnormal connection.

A vascular fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the artery and vein, which usually results from a surgical procedure to create access for hemodialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease. This communication allows blood to flow directly from the artery into the vein, bypassing the capillary network and causing high-flow conditions in the affected area. Over time, the increased pressure and flow can lead to various complications such as venous hypertension, stenosis, aneurysm formation, or even heart failure if left untreated. Vascular fistulas may also occur spontaneously due to certain medical conditions like vasculitis, trauma, or infection, although this is less common.

Barium sulfate is a medication that is commonly used as a contrast material in medical imaging procedures, such as X-rays and CT scans. It works by coating the inside of the digestive tract, making it visible on an X-ray or CT scan and allowing doctors to see detailed images of the stomach, intestines, and other parts of the digestive system.

Barium sulfate is a white, chalky powder that is mixed with water to create a thick, milky liquid. It is generally safe and does not cause significant side effects when used in medical imaging procedures. However, it should not be taken by individuals who have a known allergy to barium or who have certain digestive conditions, such as obstructions or perforations of the bowel.

It's important to note that while barium sulfate is an important tool for medical diagnosis, it is not a treatment for any medical condition and should only be used under the direction of a healthcare professional.

A rectal fistula is an abnormal connection or tunnel that develops between the rectum, which is the lower end of the colon, and another organ or the skin surface surrounding the anus. This condition often results from inflammation, infection, trauma, or surgery in the anal area. The fistula can cause symptoms such as pain, discharge, irritation, and swelling around the anus. In some cases, it may also lead to complications like abscesses or recurrent infections if not treated promptly and effectively. Treatment options typically include surgical intervention to close the fistula and promote healing of the affected tissues.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, is responsible for controlling the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which enables the eye to move outward. Abducens nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can result in various symptoms, primarily affecting eye movement.

Here are some medical definitions related to abducens nerve diseases:

1. Abducens Nerve Palsy: A condition characterized by weakness or paralysis of the abducens nerve, causing difficulty in moving the affected eye outward. This results in double vision (diplopia), especially when gazing towards the side of the weakened nerve. Abducens nerve palsy can be congenital, acquired, or caused by various factors such as trauma, tumors, aneurysms, infections, or diseases like diabetes and multiple sclerosis.
2. Sixth Nerve Palsy: Another term for abducens nerve palsy, referring to the weakness or paralysis of the sixth cranial nerve.
3. Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (INO): A neurological condition affecting eye movement, often caused by a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the abducens nucleus with the oculomotor nucleus. INO results in impaired adduction (inward movement) of the eye on the side of the lesion and nystagmus (involuntary eye movements) of the abducting eye on the opposite side when attempting to look towards the side of the lesion.
4. One-and-a-Half Syndrome: A rare neurological condition characterized by a combination of INO and internuclear ophthalmoplegia with horizontal gaze palsy on the same side, caused by damage to both the abducens nerve and the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF). This results in limited or no ability to move the eyes towards the side of the lesion and impaired adduction of the eye on the opposite side.
5. Brainstem Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brainstem, which can affect the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves, leading to various neurological symptoms such as diplopia (double vision), ataxia (loss of balance and coordination), and facial weakness. Brainstem encephalitis can be caused by infectious agents, autoimmune disorders, or paraneoplastic syndromes.
6. Multiple Sclerosis (MS): An autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system, including the brainstem and optic nerves. MS can cause various neurological symptoms, such as diplopia, nystagmus, and INO, due to damage to the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves.
7. Wernicke's Encephalopathy: A neurological disorder caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, often seen in alcoholics or individuals with malnutrition. Wernicke's encephalopathy can affect the brainstem and cause various symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, confusion, and oculomotor abnormalities.
8. Pontine Glioma: A rare type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells in the pons (a part of the brainstem). Pontine gliomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, facial weakness, and difficulty swallowing due to their location in the brainstem.
9. Brainstem Cavernous Malformation: A benign vascular lesion that arises from the small blood vessels in the brainstem. Brainstem cavernous malformations can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, and facial weakness due to their location in the brainstem.
10. Pituitary Adenoma: A benign tumor that arises from the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain. Large pituitary adenomas can compress the optic nerves and cause various visual symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, and decreased vision.
11. Craniopharyngioma: A benign tumor that arises from the remnants of the Rathke's pouch, a structure that gives rise to the anterior pituitary gland. Craniopharyngiomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the optic nerves and pituitary gland.
12. Meningioma: A benign tumor that arises from the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, and seizures depending on their location in the brain or spinal cord.
13. Chordoma: A rare type of malignant tumor that arises from the remnants of the notochord, a structure that gives rise to the spine during embryonic development. Chordomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the brainstem and spinal cord.
14. Metastatic Brain Tumors: Malignant tumors that spread from other parts of the body to the brain. Metastatic brain tumors can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment depending on their location in the brain.
15. Other Rare Brain Tumors: There are many other rare types of brain tumors that can cause diplopia or other neurological symptoms, including gliomas, ependymomas, pineal region tumors, and others. These tumors require specialized diagnosis and treatment by neuro-oncologists and neurosurgeons with expertise in these rare conditions.

In summary, diplopia can be caused by various brain tumors, including pituitary adenomas, meningiomas, chordomas, metastatic brain tumors, and other rare types of tumors. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience diplopia or other neurological symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

A gastric fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the stomach and another organ or the skin surface. This condition can occur as a result of complications from surgery, injury, infection, or certain diseases such as cancer. Symptoms may include persistent drainage from the site of the fistula, pain, malnutrition, and infection. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the fistula and management of any underlying conditions.

A urinary fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the urinary tract and another organ or tissue, such as the bladder, ureter, or kidney, and the skin, vagina, or intestine. This condition can lead to urine leakage through the abnormal opening, causing discomfort, infection, and other complications if not treated promptly and effectively. Urinary fistulas can be caused by various factors, including surgery, injury, radiation therapy, inflammation, or cancer. The type and location of the fistula will determine the specific symptoms and treatment options.

An esophageal fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the esophagus (the tube that carries food and liquids from the throat to the stomach) and another organ, such as the trachea (windpipe) or the skin. This condition can result from complications of certain medical conditions, including cancer, prolonged infection, or injury to the esophagus.

Esophageal fistulas can cause a variety of symptoms, including difficulty swallowing, coughing, chest pain, and fever. They can also lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia or sepsis, if left untreated. Treatment for an esophageal fistula typically involves surgical repair of the abnormal connection, along with management of any underlying conditions that may have contributed to its development.

Carotid endarterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove plaque buildup (atherosclerosis) from the carotid arteries, which are the major blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain. The surgery involves making an incision in the neck, opening the carotid artery, and removing the plaque from the inside of the artery wall. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal blood flow to the brain and reduce the risk of stroke caused by the narrowing or blockage of the carotid arteries.

Pharyngeal diseases refer to conditions that affect the pharynx, which is the part of the throat that lies behind the nasal cavity and mouth, and above the esophagus and larynx. The pharynx plays a crucial role in swallowing, speaking, and breathing. Pharyngeal diseases can cause symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, pain during swallowing, swollen lymph nodes, and earaches.

Some common pharyngeal diseases include:

1. Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the pharynx, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
2. Tonsillitis: Inflammation of the tonsils, which are two masses of lymphoid tissue located on either side of the back of the throat.
3. Epiglottitis: Inflammation of the epiglottis, a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe during swallowing to prevent food and liquids from entering the lungs.
4. Abscesses: A collection of pus in the pharynx caused by a bacterial infection.
5. Cancer: Malignant tumors that can develop in the pharynx, often caused by smoking or heavy alcohol use.
6. Dysphagia: Difficulty swallowing due to nerve damage, muscle weakness, or structural abnormalities in the pharynx.
7. Stridor: Noisy breathing caused by a narrowed or obstructed airway in the pharynx.

Treatment for pharyngeal diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, pain relievers, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Ophthalmoplegia is a medical term that refers to the paralysis or weakness of the eye muscles, which can result in double vision (diplopia) or difficulty moving the eyes. It can be caused by various conditions, including nerve damage, muscle disorders, or neurological diseases such as myasthenia gravis or multiple sclerosis. Ophthalmoplegia can affect one or more eye muscles and can be partial or complete. Depending on the underlying cause, ophthalmoplegia may be treatable with medications, surgery, or other interventions.

Cranial nerves are a set of twelve pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and skull, rather than the spinal cord. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory information (such as sight, smell, hearing, and taste) to the brain, as well as controlling various muscles in the head and neck (including those involved in chewing, swallowing, and eye movement). Each cranial nerve has a specific function and is named accordingly. For example, the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) transmits visual information from the eyes to the brain, while the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) controls parasympathetic functions in the body such as heart rate and digestion.

A biliary fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the biliary system (which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver) and another organ or structure, usually in the abdominal cavity. This connection allows bile, which is a digestive fluid produced by the liver, to leak out of its normal pathway and into other areas of the body.

Biliary fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammation in the biliary system. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and clay-colored stools. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the fistula, such as draining an infection or repairing damaged tissue, and diverting bile flow away from the site of the leak. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the fistula.

Intracranial sinus thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within the intracranial venous sinuses, which are responsible for draining blood from the brain. The condition can lead to various neurological symptoms and complications, such as increased intracranial pressure, headaches, seizures, visual disturbances, and altered consciousness. Intracranial sinus thrombosis may result from various factors, including hypercoagulable states, infections, trauma, and malignancies. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent potential long-term neurological damage or even death.

The middle cranial fossa is a depression or hollow in the skull that forms the upper and central portion of the cranial cavity. It is located between the anterior cranial fossa (which lies anteriorly) and the posterior cranial fossa (which lies posteriorly). The middle cranial fossa contains several important structures, including the temporal lobes of the brain, the pituitary gland, the optic chiasm, and the cavernous sinuses. It is also where many of the cranial nerves pass through on their way to the brain.

The middle cranial fossa can be further divided into two parts: the anterior and posterior fossae. The anterior fossa contains the optic chiasm and the pituitary gland, while the posterior fossa contains the temporal lobes of the brain and the cavernous sinuses.

The middle cranial fossa is formed by several bones of the skull, including the sphenoid bone, the temporal bone, and the parietal bone. The shape and size of the middle cranial fossa can vary from person to person, and abnormalities in its structure can be associated with various medical conditions, such as pituitary tumors or aneurysms.

Cerebral veins are the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the brain to the dural venous sinuses, which are located between the layers of tissue covering the brain. The largest cerebral vein is the superior sagittal sinus, which runs along the top of the brain. Other major cerebral veins include the straight sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and cavernous sinus. These veins receive blood from smaller veins called venules that drain the surface and deep structures of the brain. The cerebral veins play an important role in maintaining normal circulation and pressure within the brain.

The sphenoid bone is a complex, irregularly shaped bone located in the middle cranial fossa and forms part of the base of the skull. It articulates with several other bones, including the frontal, parietal, temporal, ethmoid, palatine, and zygomatic bones. The sphenoid bone has two main parts: the body and the wings.

The body of the sphenoid bone is roughly cuboid in shape and contains several important structures, such as the sella turcica, which houses the pituitary gland, and the sphenoid sinuses, which are air-filled cavities within the bone. The greater wings of the sphenoid bone extend laterally from the body and form part of the skull's lateral walls. They contain the superior orbital fissure, through which important nerves and blood vessels pass between the cranial cavity and the orbit of the eye.

The lesser wings of the sphenoid bone are thin, blade-like structures that extend anteriorly from the body and form part of the floor of the anterior cranial fossa. They contain the optic canal, which transmits the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery between the brain and the orbit of the eye.

Overall, the sphenoid bone plays a crucial role in protecting several important structures within the skull, including the pituitary gland, optic nerves, and ophthalmic arteries.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

A pancreatic fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the pancreas and another organ, often the digestive system. It usually occurs as a complication following trauma, surgery, or inflammation of the pancreas (such as pancreatitis). The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes, and when these enzymes escape the pancreas through a damaged or disrupted duct, they can cause irritation and inflammation in nearby tissues, leading to the formation of a fistula.

Pancreatic fistulas are typically characterized by the drainage of pancreatic fluid, which contains high levels of digestive enzymes, into other parts of the body. This can lead to various symptoms, including abdominal pain, swelling, fever, and malnutrition. Treatment may involve surgical repair of the fistula, as well as supportive care such as antibiotics, nutritional support, and drainage of any fluid collections.

The common carotid artery is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the head and neck. It originates from the brachiocephalic trunk or the aortic arch and divides into the internal and external carotid arteries at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage. The common carotid artery is an important structure in the circulatory system, and any damage or blockage to it can have serious consequences, including stroke.

The carotid body is a small chemoreceptor organ located near the bifurcation of the common carotid artery into the internal and external carotid arteries. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of respiration, blood pressure, and pH balance by detecting changes in the chemical composition of the blood, particularly oxygen levels, carbon dioxide levels, and hydrogen ion concentration (pH).

The carotid body contains specialized nerve endings called glomus cells that are sensitive to changes in these chemical parameters. When there is a decrease in oxygen or an increase in carbon dioxide or hydrogen ions, the glomus cells release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and dopamine, which activate afferent nerve fibers leading to the brainstem's nucleus tractus solitarius. This information is then integrated with other physiological signals in the brainstem, resulting in appropriate adjustments in breathing rate, depth, and pattern, as well as changes in heart rate and blood vessel diameter to maintain homeostasis.

Dysfunction of the carotid body can lead to various disorders, such as hypertension, sleep apnea, and chronic lung disease. In some cases, overactivity of the carotid body may result in conditions like primary breathing pattern disorders or pseudohypoxia, where the body responds as if it is experiencing hypoxia despite normal oxygen levels.

A rectovaginal fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the rectum (the lower end of the colon, leading to the anus) and the vagina. This type of fistula can result from various causes, such as childbirth injuries, surgery complications, Crohn's disease, radiation therapy, or infections. The condition may lead to symptoms like fecal matter passing through the vagina, recurrent vaginal infections, discomfort during sexual intercourse, and skin irritation around the vaginal area. Treatment options typically involve surgical repair of the fistula, depending on its size, location, and underlying cause.

An abscess is a localized collection of pus caused by an infection. It is typically characterized by inflammation, redness, warmth, pain, and swelling in the affected area. Abscesses can form in various parts of the body, including the skin, teeth, lungs, brain, and abdominal organs. They are usually treated with antibiotics to eliminate the infection and may require drainage if they are large or located in a critical area. If left untreated, an abscess can lead to serious complications such as sepsis or organ failure.

The maxillary sinuses, also known as the antrums of Highmore, are the largest of the four pairs of paranasal sinuses located in the maxilla bones. They are air-filled cavities that surround the nasolacrimal duct and are situated superior to the upper teeth and lateral to the nasal cavity. Each maxillary sinus is lined with a mucous membrane, which helps to warm, humidify, and filter the air we breathe. Inflammation or infection of the maxillary sinuses can result in conditions such as sinusitis, leading to symptoms like facial pain, headaches, and nasal congestion.

The Sella Turcica, also known as the Turkish saddle, is a depression or fossa in the sphenoid bone located at the base of the skull. It forms a housing for the pituitary gland, which is a small endocrine gland often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes several essential hormones. The Sella Turcica has a saddle-like shape, with its anterior and posterior clinoids forming the front and back of the saddle, respectively. This region is of significant interest in neuroimaging and clinical settings, as various conditions such as pituitary tumors or other abnormalities may affect the size, shape, and integrity of the Sella Turcica.

The oculomotor nerve, also known as the third cranial nerve (CN III), is responsible for controlling several important eye movements and functions. Oculomotor nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can lead to various symptoms related to eye movement and function. Here's a medical definition of oculomotor nerve diseases:

Oculomotor nerve diseases are a group of medical disorders characterized by the dysfunction or damage to the oculomotor nerve (CN III), resulting in impaired eye movements, abnormalities in pupillary response, and potential effects on eyelid position. These conditions can be congenital, acquired, or traumatic in nature and may lead to partial or complete paralysis of the nerve. Common oculomotor nerve diseases include oculomotor nerve palsy, third nerve ganglionopathies, and compressive oculomotor neuropathies caused by various pathologies such as aneurysms, tumors, or infections.

A vesicovaginal fistula is an abnormal opening or connection between the bladder and the vagina, resulting in the continuous involuntary discharge of urine into the vaginal vault. This condition most commonly occurs as a result of complications during childbirth, particularly in developing countries with limited access to medical care. It can also be caused by surgery, radiation therapy, infection, or injury.

The symptoms of vesicovaginal fistula include constant urinary leakage from the vagina, frequent urinary tract infections, and a foul odor. The condition can lead to social isolation, depression, and other psychological issues due to its impact on a woman's quality of life. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the fistula, which can be complex and may require specialized medical care.

Thyroiditis is a general term that refers to inflammation of the thyroid gland. It can be caused by various factors such as infections, autoimmune disorders, or medications. Depending on the cause and severity, thyroiditis may lead to overproduction (hyperthyroidism) or underproduction (hypothyroidism) of thyroid hormones, or it can result in a temporary or permanent loss of thyroid function.

There are several types of thyroiditis, including:

1. Hashimoto's thyroiditis - an autoimmune disorder where the body attacks and damages the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
2. Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (De Quervain's thyroiditis) - often follows a viral infection and results in painful inflammation of the thyroid gland, causing hyperthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism.
3. Silent thyroiditis - an autoimmune disorder similar to Hashimoto's thyroiditis but without symptoms like pain or tenderness; it can cause temporary hyperthyroidism and later hypothyroidism.
4. Postpartum thyroiditis - occurs in women after childbirth, causing inflammation of the thyroid gland leading to hyperthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism.
5. Acute suppurative thyroiditis - a rare bacterial infection that causes painful swelling and redness of the thyroid gland, usually requiring antibiotics for treatment.

Symptoms of thyroiditis depend on whether it leads to hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism symptoms include rapid heartbeat, weight loss, heat intolerance, anxiety, and tremors. Hypothyroidism symptoms include fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, dry skin, and depression. Treatment varies depending on the type of thyroiditis and its severity.

The external carotid artery is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the structures of the head and neck, excluding the brain. It originates from the common carotid artery at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, then divides into several branches that supply various regions of the head and neck, including the face, scalp, ears, and neck muscles.

The external carotid artery has eight branches:

1. Superior thyroid artery: Supplies blood to the thyroid gland, larynx, and surrounding muscles.
2. Ascending pharyngeal artery: Supplies blood to the pharynx, palate, and meninges of the brain.
3. Lingual artery: Supplies blood to the tongue and floor of the mouth.
4. Facial artery: Supplies blood to the face, nose, lips, and palate.
5. Occipital artery: Supplies blood to the scalp and muscles of the neck.
6. Posterior auricular artery: Supplies blood to the ear and surrounding muscles.
7. Maxillary artery: Supplies blood to the lower face, nasal cavity, palate, and meninges of the brain.
8. Superficial temporal artery: Supplies blood to the scalp, face, and temporomandibular joint.

The external carotid artery is an essential structure for maintaining adequate blood flow to the head and neck, and any damage or blockage can lead to serious medical conditions such as stroke or tissue necrosis.

A vaginal fistula is an abnormal opening or connection between the vagina and another organ, such as the bladder (resulting in a vesicovaginal fistula), the rectum (resulting in a rectovaginal fistula), or the colon (resulting in a colovaginal fistula). This condition can lead to various complications, including chronic urinary or fecal incontinence, infection, and difficulty with sexual intercourse.

Vaginal fistulas are often caused by obstetric trauma, such as prolonged labor, or may be the result of surgery, radiation therapy, injury, or infection. Symptoms can vary depending on the size and location of the fistula but typically include abnormal discharge, pain, and foul-smelling odor. Treatment usually involves surgical repair of the fistula, although smaller fistulas may sometimes heal on their own with proper care and management.

"Endovascular treatment of carotid cavernous sinus fistula: A systematic review". World Journal of Radiology. 5 (4): 143-155. ... Angiography is used on rare occasions for TBIs i.e. when there is suspicion of an aneurysm, carotid sinus fistula, traumatic ... It can still be found in the root of the term 'carotid'. Thomas Sydenham (1624-89) mentioned the term 'coma' in several cases ...
... carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas, macular degeneration Craniocervical instability: caused by trauma(s) to the head and neck ...
... carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C21.866.915.200.200.550 - carotid-cavernous sinus fistula MeSH C21.866.915.200.600 - ... carotid artery injuries MeSH C21.866.915.200.200.500 - ...
External Manual Carotid Compression is Effective in Patients with Cavernous Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistulaetreatment. The ... cavernous sinus DAVFs). Most commonly found adjacent to dural sinuses in the following locations: Transverse (lateral) sinus, ... and it is associated with transverse-sigmoid sinus DAVFs. Carotid-cavernous DAVFs, on the other hand, are more closely ... Type II fistulas need to be treated to prevent hemorrhage. The treatment may involve embolization of the draining sinus as well ...
... carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C10.228.140.300.200.345.350 - carotid-cavernous sinus fistula MeSH C10.228.140.300. ... carotid stenosis MeSH C10.228.140.300.200.490 - carotid-cavernous sinus fistula MeSH C10.228.140.300.200.600 - moyamoya disease ... carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C10.228.140.300.350.500.350 - carotid-cavernous sinus fistula MeSH C10.228.140.300. ... carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C10.900.250.300.400 - carotid-cavernous sinus fistula MeSH C10.900.250.650 - ...
... carotid-cavernous fistula, bacterial infection causing cavernous sinus thrombosis, aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis, ... an arteriovenous fistula is created (more specifically, a carotid-cavernous fistula). Lesions affecting the cavernous sinus may ... Both sides of cavernous sinus is connected to each other via intercavernous sinuses. The cavernous sinus lies in between the ... Cavernous sinus syndrome is a medical emergency, requiring prompt medical attention, diagnosis, and treatment. Cavernous sinus ...
... carotid stenosis MeSH C14.907.253.123.490 - carotid-cavernous sinus fistula MeSH C14.907.253.123.620 - moyamoya disease MeSH ... carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C14.907.253.123.345.400 - carotid-cavernous sinus fistula MeSH C14.907.253.123.353 - ... carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C14.907.253.535.500.350 - carotid-cavernous sinus fistula MeSH C14.907.253.535.600 - ... cavernous sinus thrombosis MeSH C14.907.355.350.850.213.669.562 - lateral sinus thrombosis MeSH C14.907.355.350.850.213.669.750 ...
Carotid cavernous fistula (H70.1) Mastoid fistula Craniosinus fistula: between the intracranial space and a paranasal sinus ( ... Fistula of appendix (K60) Anal and rectal fissures and fistulas (K60.3) Anal fistula (K60.5) Anorectal fistula (fecal fistula, ... A fistula (PL: fistulas or fistulae /-li, -laɪ/; from Latin fistula, "tube, pipe") in anatomy is an abnormal connection between ... Female genital tract fistula, unspecified (Q18.0) Sinus, fistula and cyst of branchial cleft Congenital preauricular fistula: A ...
... and trigeminal nerve sensory loss Carotid-cavernous fistula - classic triad of chemosis, pulsatile proptosis, and ocular bruit ... and lid lag Cavernous sinus thrombosis, associated with infection of the paranasal sinuses, proptosis, periorbital oedema, ...
Direct fistulas occur when the Internal Carotid artery (ICA) itself fistulizes into the Cavernous sinus whereas indirect is ... A carotid-cavernous fistula results from an abnormal communication between the arterial and venous systems within the cavernous ... As arterial blood under high pressure enters the cavernous sinus, the normal venous return to the cavernous sinus is impeded ... They may have a history of similar episodes in the past.[citation needed] Carotid cavernous fistulae may form following closed ...
Paranasal sinuses Maxillary Ethmoid Sphenoid Frontal Dural venous sinuses Anterior midline Cavernous Superior petrosal Inferior ... Superior sagittal Straight Confluence of sinuses Lateral Transverse Sigmoid Inferior Occipital Arterial sinuses Carotid sinus ... It is however distinct from a fistula, which is a tract connecting two epithelial surfaces. If left untreated, infections ... Sinus cavities lighten the skull. Sinus cavities allow space to accommodate for growth Sinus cavities may serve as shock ...
... dural arteriovenous fistula, embolisation of brain tumours such as meningioma, cavernous sinus haemangioma, for Wada test, and ... At the cavernous (C4) and ophthalmic segments (C6) of the internal carotid artery, Caldwell and lateral views are taken. At the ... To image the vessels of the neck such as common carotid, internal and external carotid arteries, AP, lateral, and 45 degrees ... Neck extension can help to navigate into tortous cerival part of the internal carotid artery. At the level of carotid ...
... orbital cellulitis and carotid-cavernous fistula. The best imaging modality for idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease is ... while MRA may show narrowing of cavernous sinus internal carotid artery (ICA).[citation needed] Ultrasonographic findings On ... In Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, findings include enhancement and fullness of the anterior cavernous sinus and superior orbital fissure ... involvement Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is a variant of orbital pseudotumor in which there is extension into the cavernous sinus ...
... carotid cavernous fistula) Malformation (congenital, vascular) Immediate treatment is very important, and it typically involves ... Branson, Sara V.; McClintic, Elysa; Yeatts, R. Patrick (2018). "Septic Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Associated With Orbital ... Complications include hearing loss, blood infection, meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, cerebral abscess, and blindness. ... Orbital cellulitis occurs commonly from bacterial infection spread via the paranasal sinuses, usually from a previous sinus ...
Abnormal causes of asymmetry included invasion by nasopharyngeal melanoma, angiofibroma, carotid-cavernous fistula with ... that connects the pterygoid plexus with the cavernous sinus. The importance of this passage lies in the fact that an infected ... thrombus from an extracranial source may reach the cavernous sinus. The mean area of the foramen is small, which may suggest ...
... sinus carotid siphon carpus cartilage caruncle catheter cauda cauda equina caudal caudate caudate nucleus cava cavernous sinus ... fields of Forel filiform papillae filum filum terminale fimbriae finger fingernail first thoracic ganglion fissure fistula ... system carina carotid carotid bifurcation carotid body carotid canal carotid groove carotid plexus carotid sheath carotid ... ciliary nerves shoulder shoulder blade shin sight sigmoid colon sigmoid sinus Simian crease simian shelf sinoatrial node sinus ...
Headache attributed to dural arteriovenous fistula Headache attributed to cavernous angioma Headache attributed to ... angiitis Carotid or vertebral artery pain Headache or facial or neck pain attributed to arterial dissection Post-endarterectomy ... sinuses, teeth, mouth or other facial or cervical structures Headache attributed to somatization disorder Headache attributed ... headache Carotid angioplasty headache Headache attributed to intracranial endovascular procedures Angiography headache Headache ...
... the ethmoid sinus, the sphenoidal sinus, and the maxillary sinus. Surgeons use this method to reach the cavernous sinus, ... with small CSF fistulas or small defects. The local or regional vascularized flaps are pieces of tissue relatively close to the ... the middle third lies at the level of the petrous segments of the internal carotid artery (ICA), and the inferior third extends ... The lateral approach is then used to reach the medial cavernous sinus and petrous apex. Lastly, the inferior approach is used ...
... deafness Caudal duplication Caudal regression syndrome Causalgia Cavernous hemangioma Cavernous lymphangioma Cavernous sinus ... Cold urticaria Cole carpenter syndrome Coleman-Randall syndrome Colitis Collagen disorder Collagenous colitis Collaural fistula ... Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency Carnosinase deficiency Carnosinemia Caroli disease Carotenemia Carotid artery ... cerebellar hypoplasia Cerebral calcifications opalescent teeth phosphaturia Cerebral cavernous malformation Cerebral cavernous ...
Dural Cavernous Sinus Fistulas: Diagnosis and Endovascular Therapy (Springer, 2009) p. 109 Gerald Leinwand, 1927: High Tide of ... Moniz had discovered a safe method of detecting brain tumors by injecting contrast into the cervical carotid artery. In his ...
"Endovascular treatment of carotid cavernous sinus fistula: A systematic review". World Journal of Radiology. 5 (4): 143-155. ... Angiography is used on rare occasions for TBIs i.e. when there is suspicion of an aneurysm, carotid sinus fistula, traumatic ... It can still be found in the root of the term carotid. Thomas Sydenham (1624-89) mentioned the term coma in several cases ...
... is a specific type of dural arteriovenous fistula characterized by abnormal arteriovenous shunting within the cavernous sinus ... encoded search term (Carotid-Cavernous Fistula) and Carotid-Cavernous Fistula What to Read Next on Medscape ... A carotid-cavernous fistula results in high-pressure arterial blood entering the low-pressure venous cavernous sinus. This ... Balloon-assisted coiling of the cavernous sinus to treat direct carotid cavernous fistula. A single center experience of 13 ...
Direct carotid cavernous sinus fistulae: vessel reconstruction using flow-diverting implants. Clin Neuroradiol. 2016 Apr 29. ... Thaher F, Hickmann AK: Evaluation of complications related to CSF fistulas and opened frontal sinus. Accepted for publication: ... Evaluation of Complications Related to CSF Fistulas and Opened Frontal Sinus.". F. Thaher, N. Hopf, AK. Hickmann, P. Kurucz, M ... High-Grade Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas : Use of Kaneka ED Coils with the Marathon Microcatheter for Transvenous Coil ...
9 dural venous sinus occlusions, 8 dural arteriovenous fistulas, and 6 carotid cavernous fistulas. The sensitivity of CTA was ...
CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA FISTULA DEL SENO CAVERNOSO DE LA CAROTIDA FÓRNICE (CÉREBRO) FORNIX (BRAIN) FORNIX (CEREBRO) ... CAVERNOUS SINUS THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS DEL SENO CAVERNOSO TROMBOSE DO SEIO LATERAL LATERAL SINUS THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS DEL SENO ... CAROTID ARTERY INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DE LA ARTERIA CAROTIDA LINFOMA DE CÉLULA DO MANTO LYMPHOMA, MANTLE-CELL LINFOMA DE CELULAS ... CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL, DISSECTION DISECCION DE LA ARTERIA CAROTIDA INTERNA DISSECAÇÃO DA ARTÉRIA VERTEBRAL VERTEBRAL ARTERY ...
CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA FISTULA DEL SENO CAVERNOSO DE LA CAROTIDA FÓRNICE (CÉREBRO) FORNIX (BRAIN) FORNIX (CEREBRO) ... CAVERNOUS SINUS THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS DEL SENO CAVERNOSO TROMBOSE DO SEIO LATERAL LATERAL SINUS THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS DEL SENO ... CAROTID ARTERY INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DE LA ARTERIA CAROTIDA LINFOMA DE CÉLULA DO MANTO LYMPHOMA, MANTLE-CELL LINFOMA DE CELULAS ... CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL, DISSECTION DISECCION DE LA ARTERIA CAROTIDA INTERNA DISSECAÇÃO DA ARTÉRIA VERTEBRAL VERTEBRAL ARTERY ...
CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA FISTULA DEL SENO CAVERNOSO DE LA CAROTIDA FÓRNICE (CÉREBRO) FORNIX (BRAIN) FORNIX (CEREBRO) ... CAVERNOUS SINUS THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS DEL SENO CAVERNOSO TROMBOSE DO SEIO LATERAL LATERAL SINUS THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS DEL SENO ... CAROTID ARTERY INJURIES TRAUMATISMOS DE LA ARTERIA CAROTIDA LINFOMA DE CÉLULA DO MANTO LYMPHOMA, MANTLE-CELL LINFOMA DE CELULAS ... CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL, DISSECTION DISECCION DE LA ARTERIA CAROTIDA INTERNA DISSECAÇÃO DA ARTÉRIA VERTEBRAL VERTEBRAL ARTERY ...
Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula (2) * Papillomavirus Infections (2) * Polymers (1) * Polyvinyls (1) ...
Enomoto T, Sato A, Maki Y. Carotid-cavernous sinus fistula caused by rupture of a primitive trigeminal artery aneurysm. Case ... Persistent primitive trigeminal artery associated with a cavernous carotid aneurysm. Case report and literature review. J ... The persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most common foetal carotid-basilar anastomosis which may persist into adult life ... The persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most common foetal carotid-basilar anastomosis which may persist into adult life ...
Cavernous sinus disease (giant carotid aneurysm, fistula, or thrombosis). *. Intraorbital structural lesions (eg, orbital ... Cavernous sinus disease and orbital mucormycosis require immediate MRI imaging for timely treatment. ...
Full text: Available Index: AIM (Africa) Main subject: Cesarean Section / Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula Type of study: ... Full text: Available Index: AIM (Africa) Main subject: Cesarean Section / Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula Type of study: ... Humans; Cesarean Section; Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula; General Surgery; Vaginal Diseases; Anesthesia, Obstetrical ... BackgroundThe obstetric fistula is a chronic maternal morbidity of global public health concern. The condition is preventable ...
Bilateral Traumatic Carotid-Cavernous Fistula. 1981 March;10(1). Anatomical Study of Cavernous Sinus. 1984 December;13(4). ... And in the serial coronal section of the cavernous sinus in 10 half heads, the structures of the lateral wall have been studied ... In the microsurgical dissection of the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus, interrelationships of its nerves have been studied ... The venous sinus was found between the two layers of the lateral wall. The neurosurgical significance of the lateral wall of ...
Milind Vaidya is a specialist in Carotid Cavernous Fistula Treatment, Petrosal Sinus Sampling, Carotid Body Tumour Embolization ... Tonsillectomy in Thane Adenoidectomy in Thane Septoplasty in Thane Tympanoplasty in Thane Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery ... Carotid endarterectomy in Thane Pericardiectomy in Thane Pulmonary lobectomy in Thane Gingivectomy in Thane Gastrostomy in ... Brain Arteriovenous Fistula Embolization, Foot Drop, Laminectomy. Dr. Milind Vaidyas profile page has the full list of ...
A carotid cavernous sinus fistula can develop secondary to head trauma or iatrogenic injury, or it can occur spontaneously. The ... Carotid cavernous sinus fistula presents with pulsatile exophthalmos, bruit, chemosis, engorgement of epibulbar veins, ... the valveless venous system allows spread of infected emboli to the cavernous sinus and can cause cavernous sinus thrombosis. ... 5] Graves disease was the cause in 65.6% of cases, while carotid cavernous fistula caused 17.1%, pseudotumor (see the image ...
Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula. 63-year-old male presented with a two-month history of left eye swelling Associated with pain ... Cavernous Sinus Aneurysm. At times, painful diplopia is present. Usually the patient has a preceding history of cancer. [ ... Diplopia indicated a possible tumor mass involving the cavernous sinus. [kjim.org] ... Diplopia during endoscopic sinus surgery is caused by surgical trauma or local anesthetics. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] ...
Article: "Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula," Bobby S. Korn, M.D., Ph.D., and Kang Zhang, M.D., Ph.D., N Engl J Med 2011; 364:e15 ... Article: "Usefulness of C-Arm Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Endovascular Treatment of Traumatic Carotid Cavernous Fistulas: ... Article: (Abstract) "Sinus Wall Reconstruction for Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum and Dehiscence: A Standardized Surgical Procedure ... Article: "Carotid Endarterectomy Relieves Pulsatile Tinnitus Associated with Severe Ipsilateral Carotid Stenosis," J Kirkby- ...
carotid-cavernous sinus fistula *carotid-vertebral artery anastomoses *cavernous sinus *central pontine myelinolysis * ... congenital sinus tumor *corticotrophic adenoma *craniopharyngioma *Cushing disease *cystic sellar mass *Dandy-Walker syndrome * ... syndromes of paranasal sinuses *syringomyelia / hydromyelia *thyroid calcifications *thyroid carcinoma *thyroid carcinoma risk ...
Carotid Cavernous Fistula Management. *IPSS (Inferior Petrosal Sinus Sampling). *Head and Neck Tumour Management ...
Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistulas. *. Vascular Malformations and Tumors of Blood Vessels. *. Vasculitis. ...
... for cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) avoids the risk of cranial nerve palsy, unlike entire sinus packing, ... External carotid artery embolization of dural arteriovenous malformations involving the cavernous sinus. Outcome and role of ... A case of recurrent cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula arising after superselective shunt occlusion and detected by ... A case of recurrent cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula arising after superselective shunt occlusion and detected by ...
Cavernous sinus thrombosis. *Carotid-cavernous fistula. *Orbital cellulitis. *Mucormycosis. *Orbital fractures. *Orbital ...
Carotid-Cavernous Fistula and Management (1 hou :0 min) Interventions in Acute Ischaemic Stroke (1 hou :37 min) ... Cavernous Sinuses Imaging Anatomy and Pathologies A Case-Based review Notes Tips and Tricks for Differentiation of Posterior ... Cavernous Sinuses Imaging Anatomy and Pathologies A Case-Based review (1 hou :6 min) ... Hemodialysis AV Fistula Residents Guide to Preop Mapping and Endovascular Salvage of Failed AVF (35 min, 0 sec) ...
Direct Carotid-Cavernous Fistula Tranvenous Onyx Embolization. *Direct Transorbital Puncture for Treatment of Cavernous Sinus ... Cavernous Sinus Dural Fistula Occluded Inferior Petrosal Sinus Access. *Cavernous Sinus Fistula Access via Occluded SUPERIOR ... Torcular Fistula Massive Venous Congestion and Superselective Embolization. *Trauma - Carotid Cave Sphenoid Sinus ... Archives Dural Fistula Embolization - Protecting the Anterior Spinal Artery. *Archives Dural Fistula Sagittal Sinus with ...
Carotid Cavernous Fistula. Brain Aneurysm. Cerebral Cavernous Malformation. Dural Arteriovenous Fistula. Extracranial/ ... Dural Arteriovenous Fistula. Extracranial/Intracranial Vascular Disease. Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Moyamoya Disease. Sinus ...
Carotid cavernous fistula in CNS choriocarcinoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008 Apr; 50(4):893-5. PMID: 17366524. ... Oblique transsphenoethmoidal approach to the cavernous sinus. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2008 Oct; 48(10):433-8; discussion 438-9 ... Rumboldt Z, Beros V, Klanfar Z, Rumboldt Z, Beros V, Klanfar Z. Multiple cerebral aneurysms and a dural arteriovenous fistula ... Rumboldt Z, Castillo M, Solander S, Rumboldt Z, Castillo M, Solander S. Bilateral congenital absence of the internal carotid ...
Diseases & Conditions Carotid-Cavernous Fistula (CCF) * 20021190085-overviewDiseases & Conditions. Diseases & Conditions ... Sick sinus syndrome without permanent pacemaker. Cautions. IDDM, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular insufficiency, ... such as sinus bradycardia, second or third degree AV block), certain types of heart disease (such as severe heart failure, ...
FUP0144A : EMBOLIZATION OF CARATICO-CAVERNOUS FISTULA - First Qtr 6000 FUP0144B : EMBOLIZATION OF CARATICO-CAVERNOUS FISTULA - ... FUP0124A : CORTICAL VENOUS SINUS THROMBOLYSIS - First Qtr 2500 FUP0124B : CORTICAL VENOUS SINUS THROMBOLYSIS - Next 3 Qtrs 1000 ... FUP0095A : CAROTID ARTERY BYPASS WITH SYNTHETIC GRAFT - First Qtr 3500 FUP0095B : CAROTID ARTERY BYPASS WITH SYNTHETIC GRAFT - ... FUP0096A : NECK VASCULAR INJURY - CAROTID VESSELS - First Qtr 3500 FUP0096B : NECK VASCULAR INJURY - CAROTID VESSELS - Next 3 ...
Giorgianni A, Agosti E, Terrana A. Emergency endovascular treatment of cavernous internal carotid artery acute bleeding with ... Pérez-Piñas Sabaté J, Carmona A. Anatomical variations in the human paranasal sinus region studied by CT. J Anat. 2000; 197:221 ... which potentially can result in fistulas, cerebrospinal fluid leak, pneumocephalus, cerebral herniation, meningitis, or death 7 ... vascularised flaps play a role in the conservative management of bleeding from the cavernous tract of the internal carotid ...
  • Penetrating head injury can lead to fistula formation by direct laceration of intracavernous vessels. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic inflammatory disease can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract and may lead to fistula formation. (mrimaster.com)
  • Trauma or surgery near the anus may lead to fistula formation. (mrimaster.com)
  • Case reports of dural arteriovenous fistulas were first published in the 1930s. (medscape.com)
  • High-Grade Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas : Use of Kaneka ED Coils with the Marathon Microcatheter for Transvenous Coil Embolization. (klinikum-stuttgart.de)
  • Direct CCFs are high-flow fistulas with a direct connection between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the cavernous sinus. (medscape.com)
  • The cavernous sinus is a network of venous channels traversed by the intracranial portion of the internal carotid artery. (medscape.com)
  • The internal carotid artery gives rise to several intracavernous branches. (medscape.com)
  • The external carotid artery provides several branches to the dura of the cavernous sinus and forms anastomoses with the branches of the internal carotid artery. (medscape.com)
  • Type A fistulas consist of a direct connection between the intracavernous internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. (medscape.com)
  • Type B fistulas consist of a dural shunt between intracavernous branches of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. (medscape.com)
  • Type D fistulas are a combination of types B and C, with dural shunts between internal and external carotid artery branches and the cavernous sinus. (medscape.com)
  • Indirect CCFs result from a dural branch rupture of the carotid artery caused by a genetic condition or a comorbidity such as hypertension. (medscape.com)
  • The persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most common foetal carotid-basilar anastomosis which may persist into adult life. (viamedica.pl)
  • Association between an aplastic basilar artery, unaccompanied by a primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis, and multiple aneurysms on the dominant posterior communicating artery. (viamedica.pl)
  • Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and time-of-flight (TOF) angiography suggested CSDAVF [ Figure 1a and b ], and cerebral DSA revealed the CSDAVF fed by branches of the internal carotid artery and external carotid artery. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Subsequently, typical ultrasound findings in cervical artery dissection, dural fistula, glomus tumor and vasculitis are reported. (karger.com)
  • DSA also revealed that the CSDAVF had multiple shunted pouches located in bilateral compartments of the CS and draining into bilateral SOVs, inferior petrosal sinuses (IPSs), and superficial middle cerebral veins (SMCVs) [ Figure 1c - f ]. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Dr. Milind Vaidya is a specialist in Carotid Cavernous Fistula Treatment, Petrosal Sinus Sampling, Carotid Body Tumour Embolization, Brain Arteriovenous Fistula Embolization, Foot Drop, Laminectomy. (myupchar.com)
  • 4 ] Transvenous embolization (TVE) provides effective treatment for cavernous sinus DAVF (CSDAVF). (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • The venous sinus was found between the two layers of the lateral wall. (jkns.or.kr)
  • Dural CCFs are low-flow fistulas resulting from communications of cavernous arterial branches and the cavernous sinus. (medscape.com)
  • These vessels branch to provide arterial blood to the nerves and dura of the cavernous sinus and the pituitary gland. (medscape.com)
  • The first chapters deal with physical and technical principles of ultrasound, arterial wall imaging, endothelial function testing and modern assessment of atherosclerotic obstruction of the carotid and vertebro-basilar systems. (karger.com)
  • And in the serial coronal section of the cavernous sinus in 10 half heads, the structures of the lateral wall have been studied. (jkns.or.kr)
  • Superselective shunt occlusion (SSSO) for cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) avoids the risk of cranial nerve palsy, unlike entire sinus packing, but requires paying attention to recurrence. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • The carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is a specific type of dural arteriovenous fistula characterized by abnormal arteriovenous shunting within the cavernous sinus. (medscape.com)
  • An anorectal fistula, also known simply as a fistula, is an abnormal connection between the epithelialized surface of the anal canal and (usually) the perianal skin. (mrimaster.com)
  • In the microsurgical dissection of the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus, interrelationships of its nerves have been studied in 100 Korean adult half heads. (jkns.or.kr)
  • Anorectal fistulas often result from an infection in the anal glands that are located in the anus. (mrimaster.com)
  • Repeated cycles of infection and healing might be a sign of a fistula. (mrimaster.com)
  • Types B, C, and D tend to be lower-flow and lower-pressure fistulas with a slower progression of signs and symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is a cerebral vascular malformation characterized by direct communication between dural arteries and either a dural sinus or cortical vein. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Neurovascular ultrasound increases the reliability of assessing occlusive cerebrovascular disease, including the detection of instable carotid plaques, the delineation of cerebral perfusion and therapeutic options such as ultrasound-enhanced sonothrombolysis. (karger.com)
  • Blunt head injury can lead to shearing of intracavernous arteries, causing the development of a fistula. (medscape.com)
  • On T2-weighted images, anorectal fistulas typically appear as hyperintense (bright) linear or curvilinear structures due to the fluid content within the tract. (mrimaster.com)
  • Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR) or T2-weighted images with fat saturation are used to suppress the signal from fat, which enhances the visibility of fluid-filled structures like fistulas and abscesses. (mrimaster.com)
  • This makes STIR/T2 fat-sat imaging particularly useful for identifying the presence of small amounts of fluid and differentiating fistulas from surrounding structures. (mrimaster.com)
  • Also of interest are two additional dissections of the upper cervical internal carotids, to showcase the spectrum of dissection consequences. (neuroangio.org)
  • MR Imaging Evaluation of Perianal Fistulas: Spectrum of Imaging Features. (mrimaster.com)
  • The most common treatment, where the fistula tract is cut open and allowed to heal from the inside out. (mrimaster.com)
  • This is a less invasive treatment option where fibrin glue is injected into the fistula to seal the tract. (mrimaster.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics, surgical outcomes and factors influencing surgical outcomes of women presenting with obstetric fistulas at a Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia . (bvsalud.org)
  • A plug that is made of biologically derived material is used to block the internal opening of the fistula. (mrimaster.com)
  • Direct carotid-cavernous fistulas are characterized by the triad of pulsatile proptosis, chemosis, and intracranial whistling. (medscape.com)
  • Success rate for fistula repair was 83%at 2 weeks post-operative.Study findings were inadequate to show a significant association between successful repair and factors in the model. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anatomical Study of Cavernous Sinus. (jkns.or.kr)
  • The image below depicts a type D carotid-cavernous fistula. (medscape.com)
  • Type-D caroticocavernous fistula: the eye demonstrates proptosis, chemosis, and scleral edema. (medscape.com)
  • Spontaneous rupture of a carotid-cavernous aneurysm leads to an abrupt onset of a direct C-C fistula. (medscape.com)
  • 1. Traumatic aneurysm and carotid-cavernous fistula following transsphenoidal approach to a pituitary adenoma: treatment by transcranial operation. (nih.gov)
  • 2. False aneurysm of cavernous carotid artery and carotid cavernous fistula: complications following transsphenoidal surgery. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Cavernous aneurysm and pituitary adenoma: management of dual intrasellar lesions. (nih.gov)
  • 6. Successful Coil Embolization of Pediatric Carotid Cavernous Fistula Due to Ruptured Posttraumatic Giant Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Combined Endovascular and Endoscopic Approach for Treatment of Concomitant Sphenoid Sinus Giant Traumatic Aneurysm and Direct Carotid Cavernous Fistulas. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Combined Endoscopic Endonasal and Bilateral Subfrontal Approach for a Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma Associated with an Internal Carotid Artery-Superior Hypophyseal Artery Aneurysm. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm embedded within pituitary adenoma. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm after radiotherapy presenting with external ophthalmoplegia. (nih.gov)
  • Arterial rupture may be preceded by aneurysm, arteriovenous fistulae, or dissection but also may occur spontaneously. (nih.gov)
  • Current treatment options for carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae are surgery and coil embolization, with embolization being the most common. (medscape.com)
  • The left eye bulge, redness, and congestion due to carotid-cavernous fistula shows complete resolution after embolization. (neuroandvascular.com)
  • Carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae are rare, but serious, vascular anomalies which may develop following traumatic injury to the skull base. (medscape.com)
  • This case study reports the diagnosis and treatment of a carotid-cavernous sinus fistula that developed several months after a traumatic head injury. (medscape.com)
  • Traumatic carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae (CCSF) are uncommon, yet dangerous, vascular anomalies in the skull base that result from craniomaxillofacial trauma (Fattahi et al. (medscape.com)
  • Sonographic Clue in Non-traumatic Carotid-cavernous Fistula: Report of a Case and Literature Review. (medscape.com)
  • Cavernous sinus syndrome describes symptoms comprising ophthalmoplegia, chemosis, proptosis, Horner syndrome , and/or trigeminal sensory loss evoked by vascular, inflammatory, traumatic, congenital, or neoplastic processes affecting the cavernous sinus near the midline of the frontotemporal part at the base of the skull. (medscape.com)
  • 3. [Successful treatment using detachable coils for traumatic carotid cavernous fistula as a complication of transsphenoidal surgery for a pituitary adenoma: a case report]. (nih.gov)
  • Traumatic carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae occur more commonly in males than in females. (medscape.com)
  • Spontaneous carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae typically occur in middle-aged to elderly individuals, while traumatic carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae occur most commonly in young persons. (medscape.com)
  • Rodrigues T, Willinsky R, Agid R, TerBrugge K, Krings T. Management of dural carotid cavernous fistulas: a single-centre experience. (medscape.com)
  • Venous obstruction may be caused by a retrobulbar tumor, thyroid ophthalmopathy, superior vena cava syndrome, congestive heart failure, thrombosis of the cavernous sinus or orbital vein, vasculitis involving the episcleral or orbital vein, and jugular vein obstruction. (medscape.com)
  • Yu JS, Lei T, Chen JC, He Y, Chen J, Li L. Diagnosis and endovascular treatment of spontaneous direct carotid-cavernous fistula. (medscape.com)
  • We are reporting three cases of spontaneous direct carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs) associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) out of a series of 147 direct CCFs. (nih.gov)
  • There are numerous diseases evoking cavernous sinus syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • The latter are further divided into specific short-lasting or long-lasting headache or eye pain syndromes, pain referred to the eye from other pathologic processes (secondary eye pain) sometimes distant from structures concerned with vision, and pain from orbital, superior orbital fissure, cavernous sinus, or intracranial infiltrative, neoplastic, or inflammatory disease processes with normal ophthalmologic and neuro-ophthalmologic exam. (entokey.com)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and orbital echography often help to confirm the diagnosis, demonstrating extraocular muscle enlargement, dilation of one or both superior ophthalmic veins, and enlargement of the affected cavernous sinus. (medscape.com)
  • It may occur as a complication of spreading infection from the ethmoid, sphenoid, or frontal sinuses or from midfacial, dental, or orbital infections. (medscape.com)
  • The signs and symptoms frequently found in patients with cavernous sinus lesions include visual loss, proptosis, ocular and conjunctival congestion, elevation of ocular pressure, ophthalmoplegia, and pain. (medscape.com)
  • Diagnosing a carotid-cavernous fistula begins with an ocular examination. (neuroandvascular.com)
  • Primary tumors are the most frequent neoplasm responsible for a cavernous sinus syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Occasionally, cavernous sinus syndrome is the first manifestation of a systemic neoplasm (leukemia, lymphoma). (medscape.com)
  • An idiopathic inflammation of the walls of the cavernous sinuses is referred to as Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Sarcoid or Wegener granulomatosis may also predispose to cavernous sinus syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Feasibility of Noninvasive Diagnosis and Treatment Planning in a Case Series with Carotid-Cavernous Fistula using High-Resolution Time-Resolved MR-Angiography with Stochastic Trajectories (TWIST) and Extended Parallel Acquisition Technique (ePAT 6) at 3 T. Clin Neuroradiol . (medscape.com)
  • Carotid-Cavernous Fistulae: A Review of Clinical Presentation, Therapeutic Options, and Visual Prognosis. (medscape.com)
  • A patient presented with signs and symptoms of a left carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). (elsevierpure.com)
  • Thin-Section MR Imaging for Carotid Cavernous Fistula. (medscape.com)
  • Your specialist could order imaging scans to examine your eye, near blood vessels and the cavernous sinus area. (neuroandvascular.com)
  • A 35 year lady had a left eye bulge, redness, congestion due to carotid cavernous fistula. (neuroandvascular.com)
  • Karaman E, Isildak H, Haciyev Y, Kaytaz A, Enver O. Carotid-cavernous fistula after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. (medscape.com)
  • 11. Carotid-Cavernous Fistula After Transsphenoidal Surgery: A Rare but Challenging Complication. (nih.gov)
  • She has special interests in open and endoscopic skull base surgery: Benign and malignant neoplasms of the sinuses and skull base. (bcm.edu)
  • Classification and treatment of spontaneous carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas. (medscape.com)
  • The definitive treatment of a carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is indicated in most cases, as neglecting a CCF can result in blindness/ decreased vision, or sometimes bleeding/ hemorrhage in the brain. (neuroandvascular.com)
  • MRI or CT scans classically show an enlarged superior ophthalmic vein cavernous sinus enlargement. (neuroandvascular.com)
  • This might still be used in an extremely large tumour with extensive invasion of nearby structures like the cavernous sinus and a large suprasellar component. (medscape.com)
  • Balloon-assisted coiling of the cavernous sinus to treat direct carotid cavernous fistula. (medscape.com)
  • Carotid-Cavernous Fistula: A Rare but Treatable Cause of Rapidly Progressive Vision Loss. (medscape.com)
  • A CCF results in an increase in pressure in the cavernous sinus which compresses the nearby nerves that control eye movements and sensations in parts of your head and face. (neuroandvascular.com)
  • Henderson AD, Miller NR. Carotid-cavernous fistula: current concepts in aetiology, investigation, and management. (medscape.com)
  • An Eye with a Heartbeat: Carotid Cavernous Fistula-a Case Report. (medscape.com)