A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
Several clusters of chemoreceptive and supporting cells associated with blood vessels and nerves (especially the glossopharyngeal and vagus). The nonchromaffin paraganglia sense pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and participate in respiratory, and perhaps circulatory, control. They include the CAROTID BODY; AORTIC BODIES; the GLOMUS JUGULARE; and the GLOMUS TYMPANICUM.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Small clusters of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the ARCH OF THE AORTA; the PULMONARY ARTERIES; and the CORONARY ARTERIES. The aortic bodies sense PH; CARBON DIOXIDE; and OXYGEN concentrations in the BLOOD and participate in the control of RESPIRATION. The aortic bodies should not be confused with the PARA-AORTIC BODIES in the abdomen (which are sometimes also called aortic bodies).
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.
A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the CAROTID BODY; GLOMUS JUGULARE; GLOMUS TYMPANICUM; AORTIC BODIES; and the female genital tract. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. (From Stedman, 27th ed)
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
A diverticulum from the fourth pharyngeal pouch of an embryo, regarded by some as a rudimentary fifth pharyngeal pouch and by others as a lateral thyroid primordium. The ultimobranchial bodies of lower vertebrates contain large amounts of calcitonin. In mammals the bodies fuse with the thyroid gland and are thought to develop into the parafollicular cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.
A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
A respiratory stimulant that enhances respiration by acting as an agonist of peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid bodies. The drug increases arterial oxygen tension while decreasing arterial carbon dioxide tension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It may also prove useful in the treatment of nocturnal oxygen desaturation without impairing the quality of sleep.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.

Presynaptic action of adenosine on a 4-aminopyridine-sensitive current in the rat carotid body. (1/641)

1. Plasma adenosine concentration increases during hypoxia to a level that excites carotid body chemoreceptors by an undetermined mechanism. We have examined this further by determining the electrophysiological responses to exogenous adenosine of sinus nerve chemoafferents in vitro and of whole-cell currents in isolated type I cells. 2. Steady-state, single-fibre chemoafferent discharge was increased approximately 5-fold above basal levels by 100 microM adenosine. This adenosine-stimulated discharge was reversibly and increasingly reduced by methoxyverapamil (D600, 100 microM), by application of nickel chloride (Ni2+, 2 mM) and by removal of extracellular Ca2+. These effects strongly suggest a presynaptic, excitatory action of adenosine on type I cells of the carotid body. 3. Adenosine decreased whole-cell outward currents at membrane potentials above -40 mV in isolated type I cells recorded during superfusion with bicarbonate-buffered saline solution at 34-36 C. This effect was reversible and concentration dependent with a maximal effect at 10 microM. 4. The degree of current inhibition induced by 10 microM adenosine was voltage independent (45.39 +/- 2. 55 % (mean +/- s.e.m.) between -40 and +30 mV) and largely ( approximately 75 %), but not entirely, Ca2+ independent. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM) decreased the amplitude of the control outward current by 80.60 +/- 3.67 % and abolished the effect of adenosine. 5. Adenosine was without effect upon currents near the resting membrane potential of approximately -55 mV and did not induce depolarization in current-clamp experiments. 6. We conclude that adenosine acts to inhibit a 4-AP-sensitive current in isolated type I cells of the rat carotid body and suggest that this mechanism contributes to the chemoexcitatory effect of adenosine in the whole carotid body.  (+info)

Trigeminal and carotid body inputs controlling vascular resistance in muscle during post-contraction hyperaemia in cats. (2/641)

1. In anaesthetized cats, the effects of stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa and carotid body chemoreceptors on vascular resistance in hindlimb skeletal muscle were studied to see whether the responses were the same in active as in resting muscle. The measurements of vascular resistance were taken, first, in resting muscle, and second, in the immediate post-contraction hyperaemic phase that followed a 30 s period of isometric contractions. 2. Stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa caused reflex apnoea and vasoconstriction in muscle. The latter response was attenuated when the test was repeated during post-contraction hyperaemia. 3. Stimulations of the carotid bodies were made during a period of apnoea evoked reflexly by electrical stimulation of both superior laryngeal nerves. This apnoea prevented any effects of changes in respiration on the carotid body reflex vascular responses. Stimulation of the carotid bodies evoked hindlimb muscle vasoconstriction. In the post-contraction hyperaemic period, the response was reduced or abolished. A similar attenuation of the reflex vasoconstrictor responses occurred in decentralized muscles stimulated through their motor roots in the cauda equina. 4. Evidence is presented that the attenuation of the vasoconstrictor responses evoked by the two reflexes is a phenomenon localized to the contracting muscles themselves resulting from an interaction between sympathetic neuronal activity and the local production of metabolites. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the metabolic needs of tissues in relation to asphyxial defence mechanisms such as occur in the diving response.  (+info)

BDNF is a target-derived survival factor for arterial baroreceptor and chemoafferent primary sensory neurons. (3/641)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports survival of 50% of visceral afferent neurons in the nodose/petrosal sensory ganglion complex (NPG; Ernfors et al., 1994a; Jones et al., 1994; Conover et al., 1995; Liu et al., 1995; Erickson et al., 1996), including arterial chemoafferents that innervate the carotid body and are required for development of normal breathing (Erickson et al., 1996). However, the relationship between BDNF dependence of visceral afferents and the location and timing of BDNF expression in visceral tissues is unknown. The present study demonstrates that BDNF mRNA and protein are transiently expressed in NPG targets in the fetal cardiac outflow tract, including baroreceptor regions in the aortic arch, carotid sinus, and right subclavian artery, as well as in the carotid body. The period of BDNF expression corresponds to the onset of sensory innervation and to the time at which fetal NPG neurons are BDNF-dependent in vitro. Moreover, baroreceptor innervation is absent in newborn mice lacking BDNF. In addition to vascular targets, vascular afferents themselves express high levels of BDNF, both during and after the time they are BDNF-dependent. However, endogenous BDNF supports survival of fetal NPG neurons in vitro only under depolarizing conditions. Together, these data indicate two roles for BDNF during vascular afferent pathway development; initially, as a target-derived survival factor, and subsequently, as a signaling molecule produced by the afferents themselves. Furthermore, the fact that BDNF is required for survival of functionally distinct populations of vascular afferents demonstrates that trophic requirements of NPG neurons are not modality-specific but may instead be associated with innervation of particular organ systems.  (+info)

NADPH oxidase inhibition does not interfere with low PO2 transduction in rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells. (4/641)

The aim of the present work was to elucidate the role of NADPH oxidase in hypoxia sensing and transduction in the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor cells. We have studied the effects of several inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on the normoxic and hypoxia-induced release of [3H]catecholamines (CA) in an in vitro preparation of intact CB of the rat and rabbit whose CA deposits have been labeled by prior incubation with the natural precursor [3H]tyrosine. It was found that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI; 0.2-25 microM), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, caused a dose-dependent release of [3H]CA from normoxic CB chemoreceptor cells. Contrary to hypoxia, DPI-evoked release was only partially Ca2+ dependent. Concentrations of DPI reported to produce full inhibition of NADPH oxidase in the rat CB did not prevent the hypoxic release response in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells, as stimulation with hypoxia in the presence of DPI elicited a response equaling the sum of that produced by DPI and hypoxia applied separately. Neopterin (3-300 microM) and phenylarsine oxide (0.5-2 microM), other inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, did not promote release of [3H]CA in normoxic conditions or affect the response elicited by hypoxia. On the basis of effects of neopterin and phenylarsine oxide, it is concluded that NADPH oxidase does not appear to play a role in oxygen sensing or transduction in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells in vitro and, in the context of the present study, that DPI effects are not related to NADPH oxidase inhibition.  (+info)

Enhanced activity of carotid body chemoreceptors in rabbits with heart failure: role of nitric oxide. (5/641)

An enhanced peripheral chemoreflex has been documented in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). This study aimed to examine the characteristics of carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors in response to isocapnic hypoxia in a rabbit model of pacing-induced CHF and to evaluate the possible role that nitric oxide (NO) plays in the altered characteristics. The chemosensitive characteristics of the CB were evaluated by recording single-unit activity from the carotid sinus nerve in both an intact and a vascularly isolated preparation. It was found that the baseline discharge under normoxia (intact preparation: arterial PO2 90-95 Torr; isolated preparation: PO2 100-110 Torr) and the chemosensitivity in response to graded hypoxia (PO2 40-70 Torr) were enhanced in CHF vs. sham rabbits. These alterations were independent of the CB preparations (intact vs. isolated). NO synthase inhibition by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine increased the baseline discharge and the chemosensitivity in the intact preparation, whereas L-arginine (10(-5) M) inhibited the baseline discharge and the chemosensitivity in the isolated preparation in sham but not in CHF rabbits. S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, an NO donor, inhibited the baseline discharge and the chemosensitivity in both CB preparations in CHF rabbits but only in the isolated preparation in sham rabbits. The amount of NO produced in vitro by the CB under normoxia was less in CHF rabbits than in sham rabbits (P < 0.05). NO synthase-positive varicosities of nerve fibers within the CB were less in CHF rabbits than in sham rabbits (P < 0.05). These data indicate that an enhanced input from CB occurs in the rabbit model of pacing-induced CHF and that an impairment of NO production may contribute to this alteration.  (+info)

Nitric oxide inhibits L-type Ca2+ current in glomus cells of the rabbit carotid body via a cGMP-independent mechanism. (6/641)

Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits carotid body sensory activity. To begin to understand the cellular mechanisms associated with the actions of NO in the carotid body, we monitored the effects of NO donors on the macroscopic Ca2+ current in glomus cells isolated from rabbit carotid bodies. Experiments were performed on freshly dissociated glomus cells from adult rabbit carotid bodies using the whole cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. The NO donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 600 microM, n = 7) and spermine nitric oxide (SNO; 100 microM, n = 7) inhibited the Ca2+ current in glomus cells in a voltage-independent manner. These effects of NO donors were rapid in onset and peaked within 1 or 2 min. In contrast, the outward K+ current was unaffected by SNP (600 microM, n = 6), indicating that the inhibition by SNP was not a nonspecific membrane effect. 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO; 500 microM), an NO scavenger, prevented inhibition of the Ca2+ current by SNP (n = 7), whereas neither superoxide dismutase (SOD; 2,000 U/ml, n = 4), a superoxide scavenger, nor sodium hydrosulfite (SHS; 1 mM, n = 7), a reducing agent, prevented inhibition of the Ca2+ current by SNP. However, SNP inhibition of the Ca2+ current was reversible in the presence of either SOD or SHS. These results suggest that NO itself inhibits Ca2+ current in a reversible manner and that subsequent formation of peroxynitrites results in irreversible inhibition. SNP inhibition of the Ca2+ current was not affected by 30 microM LY 83, 583 (n = 7) nor was it mimicked by 600 microM 8-bromoguanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP; n = 6), suggesting that the effects of NO on the Ca2+ current are mediated, in part, via a cGMP-independent mechanism. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM; 2.5 mM, n = 6) prevented the inhibition of the Ca2+ current by SNP, indicating that SNP is acting via a modification of sulfhydryl groups on Ca2+ channel proteins. Norepinephrine (NE; 10 microM) further inhibited the Ca2+ current in the presence of NEM (n = 7), implying that NEM did not nonspecifically eliminate Ca2+ current modulation. Nisoldipine, an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker (2 microM, n = 6), prevented the inhibition of Ca2+ current by SNP, whereas omega-conotoxin GVIA, an N-type Ca2+ channel blocker (1 microM, n = 9), did not prevent the inhibition of Ca2+ current by SNP. These results demonstrate that NO inhibits L-type Ca2+ channels in adult rabbit glomus cells, in part, due to a modification of calcium channel proteins. The inhibition might provide one plausible mechanism for efferent inhibition of carotid body activity by NO.  (+info)

Contribution of baroreceptors and chemoreceptors to ventricular hypertrophy produced by sino-aortic denervation in rats. (7/641)

1. To test whether sino-aortic denervation (SAD)-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is a consequence of baroreceptor or chemoreceptor denervation, we compared the effects of aortic denervation (AD), carotid denervation (CD), SAD and a SAD procedure modified to spare the carotid chemoreceptors (mSAD), 6 weeks after denervation surgery in rats. A sham surgery group served as the control. 2. The blood pressure (BP) level was unaffected by AD, CD or SAD, but increased (9 %) following mSAD. The mean heart rate level was not affected. Short-term BP variability was elevated following AD (81 %), SAD (144 %) and mSAD (146 %), but not after CD. Baroreflex heart rate responses to phenylephrine were attenuated in all denervation groups. 3. Significant RVH occurred only following CD and SAD. These procedures also produced high mortality (CD and SAD) and significant increases in right ventricular pressures and haematocrit (CD). 4. Significant left ventricular hypertrophy occurred following CD, SAD and mSAD. Normalized left ventricular weight was significantly correlated with indices of BP variability. 5. These results suggest that SAD-induced RVH is a consequence of chemoreceptor, not baroreceptor, denervation. Our results also demonstrate that a mSAD procedure designed to spare the carotid chemoreceptors produced profound baroreflex dysfunction and significant left, but not right, ventricular hypertrophy.  (+info)

Contribution of peripheral chemoreception to the depression of the hypoxic ventilatory response during halothane anesthesia in cats. (8/641)

BACKGROUND: The effects of inhalational anesthetics on the hypoxic ventilatory response are complex. This study was designed to determine the contribution of peripheral chemoreception to the depression of hypoxic ventilatory response seen with halothane anesthesia. METHODS: Cats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium and alpha-chloralose and artificially ventilated. Respiratory output was evaluated by phasic inspiratory activity of the phrenic nerve. In 12 cats, this activity was measured during inhalation of an hypoxic gas mixture with halothane, 0, 0.1, and 0.8%, with intact or denervated carotid bodies. In 10 cats, a carotid body was isolated from the systemic circulation and perfused with hypoxic Krebs-Ringer solution equilibrated with halothane, 0, 0.1, and 0.8%. RESULTS: The hypoxic ventilatory response was depressed in a dose-dependent manner during halothane anesthesia. In carotid body perfusion studies, the response was significantly depressed only with halothane, 0.80%. CONCLUSION: The hypoxic ventilatory response is depressed by a high dose of halothane through a peripheral effect at the carotid body.  (+info)

1. We have studied the effects of hypoxia on membrane potential and [Ca2+]i in enzymically isolated type I cells of the neonatal rat carotid body (the principal respiratory O2 chemosensor). Isolated cells were maintained in short term culture (3-36 h) before use. [Ca2+]i was measured using the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluoroprobe indo-1. Indo-1 was loaded into cells using the esterified form indo-1 AM. Membrane potential was measured (and clamped) in single isolated type I cells using the perforated-patch (amphotericin B) whole-cell recording technique. 2. Graded reductions in PO2 from 160 Torr to 38, 19, 8, 5 and 0 Torr induced a graded rise of [Ca2+]i in both single and clumps of type I cells. 3. The rise of [Ca2+]i in response to anoxia was 98% inhibited by removal of external Ca2+ (+1 mM EGTA), indicating the probable involvement of Ca2+ influx from the external medium in mediating the anoxic [Ca2+]i response. 4. The L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist nicardipine (10 microM) inhibited the anoxic [Ca2+]i
The molecular mechanism of pH sensing by chemoreceptors is not clear, although it had been proposed to be mediated by a drop in intracellular pH of carotid body glomus cells, which inhibits a K+ current. Recently, pH-sensitive ion channels have been described in glomus cells that respond directly to extracellular acidosis. In this study, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms of carotid body pH-sensing by recording the responses of glomus cells isolated from rat carotid body to rapid changes in extracellular pH using whole-cell patch-clamping technique. Extracellular acidosis evoked transient inward currents in glomus cells that were evident at pH 7.0 and half-activated (pH 50) at 6.3. The current had the characteristics of ASICs. It averaged 40.7±15.7 pA (n=5) at pH 5.0 and was blocked by the ASIC channel blocker amiloride (200 μm) to 2.5±1.6 pA. Na+ free bathing solution eliminated the current and a Ca2+ free buffer enhanced (P,0.05) the current at pH 6.0 from 18.5±2.2 to ...
Effects of long-term hypoxia of intracellular pH and membrane potential of cultured rat carotid body glomus cells. He Shufang. Shanghai Brain Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Shanghai 200031. Abstract. Spraque-Dawley(SD) rats(weighing about 100 g) were kept in a decompression chamber for 7--10 days. Then the carotid bodies were removed from the anesthetized animals and dissociated to obtain individuals or small clusters of glomus cells. These cells were cultured under hypoxic condition(11% O_(2), 5% CO_(2), 84% N_(2))for 2--3days. Control samples from normal SD rats(normoxic rat)were cultured in normoxic(21% O_(2), 5% CO_(2), 74%N_(2))or hypoxic conditions. Intracellular pH(pHi) and membrane potential(MP)of glomus cells of both the groups were simultaneously measured with pH-sensitive and conventional microelectrodes. Long-term hypoxia decreased pHi and increased MP of the cultured glomus cells to a degree far greater than acute hypoxia did; The mean pHi and MP of the glomus ...
Afferent chemoreceptor activity was recorded from the peripheral cut end of the carotid sinus nerve in pentobarbitone anaesthetized cats. The effects of purines, peptides and ouabain on chemosensory activity were studied. Purines. It was found that intracarotid injections of adenosine: AMP; ADP; ATP; CoA;Me-adenosine analogues: N6-methyladenosine, 2-chloroadenosine, 3-deoxyudenosine but not 2-deoxyadenosine; cyclic AMP; dibutyryl cyclic AMP increased spontaneous chemoreceptor discharge. The ATP analogues, a-5- methylene ATP decreased spontaneous chemoreceptor discharge, whereas the f-y-methylene ATP caused a slight increase in discharge. Adenine and the purine nucleosides inosine and guanosine had little or no effect on the discharge. The pyrimidine nucleosides cytidine and uridine were also studied and had little or no effect on spontaneous chemoreceptor discharge. Intracarotid injection of theophylline transiently depressed spontaneous chemosensory activity and potentiated the action of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene transfer of neuronal nitric oxide synthase to carotid body reverses enhanced chemoreceptor function in heart failure rabbits. AU - Li, Yulong. AU - Li, Yi Fan. AU - Liu, Dongmei. AU - Cornish, Kurtis G.. AU - Patel, Kaushik P. AU - Zucker, Irving H. AU - Channon, Keith M.. AU - Schultz, Harold D. PY - 2005/8/5. Y1 - 2005/8/5. N2 - Our previous studies showed that decreased nitric oxide (NO) production enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity in chronic heart failure (CHF) rabbits. In the present study, we investigated the effects of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) gene transfer on CB chemoreceptor activity in CHF rabbits. The nNOS protein expression and NO production were suppressed in CBs (P,0.05) of CHF rabbits, but were increased 3 days after application of an adenovirus expressing nNOS (Ad.nNOS) to the CB. As a control, nNOS and NO levels in CHF CBs were not affected by Ad.EGFP. Baseline single-fiber discharge during normoxia and the response to hypoxia were ...
The inappropriate sustained SNA increase in OSA patients likely contributes to hypertension, organ damage, and mortality; however, it is unclear how excessive SNA develops in these patients. Several factors, including obesity and increased carotid body chemoreceptor sensitivity due to intermittent hypoxia, have been considered. Obesity could mechanically obstruct the airway and increase SNA through leptin, insulin, angiotensin, and cytokine actions; however, many OSA patients are not obese (23). Carotid body hypersensitivity as a result of intermittent hypoxia has been confirmed in animal models of OSA. In fact, plasticity of the carotid body glomus cells with long-term sensory facilitation and sensitization have been reported (18, 24) and associated with ROS and NOX2-dependent accumulation of HIF1 and the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (25). Central neuroplasticity. A provocative possibility for OSA-associated SNA dysfunction is that excessive activation of CNS nuclei induces ...
Abstract: Carbon dioxide retention is common in divers during water immersion. This puts divers at risk for carbon dioxide toxicity. The carotid body chemoreceptors contribute to the control of ventilation and when blood oxygen content is high, ventilation decreases. This results in the increased risk of carbon dioxide retention. Therefore, we are investigating the role of the carotid body chemoreceptors in ventilatory control during hyperbaric exposures when blood oxygen content is elevated ...
Increased sympathetic activity is a well-known pathophysiological mechanism in insulin resistance (IR) and hypertension (HT). The carotid bodies (CB) are peripheral chemoreceptors that classically respond to hypoxia by increasing chemosensory activity in the carotid sinus nerve (CSN), causing hyperventilation and activation of the sympathoadrenal system. Besides its role in the control of ventilation, the CB has been proposed as a glucose sensor implicated in the control of energy homeostasis. However, to date no studies have anticipated its role in the development of IR. Herein, we propose that CB overstimulation is involved in the etiology of IR and HT, core metabolic and hemodynamic disturbances of highly prevalent diseases like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and obstructive sleep apnoea. We demonstrate that CB activity is increased in IR animal models and that CSN resection prevents CB overactivation and diet-induced IR and HT. Moreover, we show that insulin triggers CB, ...
Symposium on Signalling pathways in acute oxygen sensing, held at the Novartis Foundation, London, 25-27 January 2005. Editors: Derek J. Chadwick (Organizer) and Jamie Goode.. This symposium is based on a proposal made by Jeremy Ward.. Michael Duchen Chairs introduction.. Gregg L. Semenza, Larissa A. Shimoda and Nanduri R. Prabhakar Regulation of gene expression by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor.. Discussion.. Ineke P. Stolze, David R. Mole and Peter J. Ratcliffe Regulation of HIF: prolyl hydroxylases.. Discussion.. General discussion I.. Daniel Peet and Sarah Linke Regulation of HIF: asparaginyl hydroxylation.. Discussion.. José López-Barneo, Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, José I. Piruat and María García-Fernández Oxygen-sensing by ion channels and mitochondrial function in carotid body glomus cells.. Discussion.. Keith J. Buckler, Beatrice A. Williams, Rodrigo Varas Orozco and Christopher N. Wyatt The role of TASK-like potassium channels in oxygen sensing in the carotid body.. Discussion.. Nanduri ...
jdempsey{at}wisc.edu. Question: Does the carotid body response to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) differ between neonates and adults?. Background: The carotid body is a sensory organ located near the bifurcation of the carotid artery and is responsible for detecting changes in the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood. In adult rodents, during CIH, the carotid body is theorized to evoke the reflexes that mediate cardiorespiratory changes and results in a long-lasting increase in baseline sensory activity known as sensory long-term facilitation (LTF). In contrast to adults, the carotid bodies of neonatal rodents are immature and respond poorly to hypoxia. To better understand the physiology of neonatal carotid bodies, Pawar et al. explored whether CIH evokes sensory LTF and whether the effects of CIH are reversible in neonatal carotid bodies.. Observations: CIH augmented the hypoxic sensory response in both adults and neonates; however, the neonates displayed more susceptibility to the ...
The study was approved by the Local Animal Care and Use Committee of the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Seven adult New Zealand White rabbits weighing 3860 +/− 270 g (mean +/− SD) were included. After an initial dose of intravenous thiopental, 75-100 mg, given via a marginal ear vein, a tracheostomy was performed after an anterior midline skin incision. Mechanical ventilation (ETCO(2), 4.0-5.0%) was initiated at a rate of 33 breaths/min using a mixture of oxygen and air (FIO(2) 0.30), whereas the inspired tidal volume was adjusted to maintain isocapnia throughout the experiment. Anesthesia was maintained with a continuous thiopental infusion of 10.5 +/− 0.9 mg [middle dot] kg-1[middle dot] h-1(range, 9.4-12.0) given via a right femoral vein catheter. The right femoral artery was cannulated for continuous arterial blood pressure monitoring and arterial blood gas analysis (ABL 300 Laboratory [registered sign], Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). On-line analysis of inspired and ...
The carotid body located in the bifurcation of the carotid arteries is able to detect gas changes in blood composition (PO2, PCO2/pH) and to transduce them into afferent nerve signal. The intimate...
Background K+ channels of the TASK family are believed to participate in sensory transduction by chemoreceptor (glomus) cells of the carotid body (CB). However, studies on the systemic CB-mediated ventilatory response to hypoxia and hypercapnia in TASK1- and/or TASK3-deficient mice have yielded conflicting results. We have characterized the glomus cell phenotype of TASK-null mice and studied the responses of individual cells to hypoxia and other chemical stimuli. CB morphology and glomus cell size were normal in wild-type as well as in TASK1/ or double TASK1/3/ mice. Patch-clamped TASK1/3-null glomus cells had significantly higher membrane resistance and less hyperpolarized resting potential than their wild-type counterpart. These electrical parameters were practically normal in TASK1/ cells. Sensitivity of background currents to changes of extracellular pH was drastically diminished in TASK1/3-null cells. In contrast with these observations, responsiveness to hypoxia or ...
The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during changes in arterial blood gases. Regardless this essential function, the CB has been implicated in the sensing of other physiological signals such as changes in blood flow and glucose levels. More important, malfunction of the CB chemoreceptors has been associated with the progression and deterioration of several disease states such as hypertension, heart failure, renal failure, insulin resistance, diabetes and sleep apnea. Although the mechanisms involved in the alterations of the CB function in pathophysiology are currently under intense research, the development of therapeutic approaches to restore normal CB chemoreflex function remains unsolved. Recently, elegant studies showing the effect of CB neurotomy in pathophysiology have unveiled a key role of these arterial chemoreceptors in the development of autonomic imbalance and respiratory disturbances, and suggest that
KEY POINTS: The carotid body is a peripheral arterial chemoreceptor that regulates ventilation in response to both acute and sustained hypoxia. Type I cells in this organ respond to low oxygen both acutely by depolarization and dense core vesicle secretion and, over the longer term, via cellular proliferation and enhanced ventilatory responses. Using lineage analysis, the present study shows that the Type I cell lineage itself proliferates and expands in response to sustained hypoxia. Inactivation of HIF-2α in Type I cells impairs the ventilatory, proliferative and cell intrinsic (dense core vesicle) responses to hypoxia. Inactivation of PHD2 in Type I cells induces multilineage hyperplasia and ultrastructural changes in dense core vesicles to form paraganglioma-like carotid bodies. These changes, similar to those observed in hypoxia, are dependent on HIF-2α. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a key role for the PHD2-HIF-2α couple in Type I cells with respect to the oxygen sensing functions
The mechanism of oxygen sensing in arterial chemoreceptors is unknown but has often been linked to mitochondrial function. A common criticism of this hypothesis is that mitochondrial function is insensitive to physiological levels of hypoxia. Here we investigate the effects of hypoxia (down to 0.5% O2) on mitochondrial function in neonatal rat type-1 cells. The oxygen sensitivity of mitochondrial [NADH] was assessed by monitoring autofluorescence and increased in hypoxia with a P50 of 15 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 133.3 Pa) in normal Tyrode or 46 mm Hg in Ca(2+)-free Tyrode. Hypoxia also depolarised mitochondrial membrane potential (m, measured using rhodamine 123) with a P50 of 3.1, 3.3 and 2.8 mm Hg in normal Tyrode, Ca(2+)-free Tyrode and Tyrode containing the Ca(2+) channel antagonist Ni(2+), respectively. In the presence of oligomycin and low carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP; 75 nm) m is maintained by electron transport working against an artificial proton leak. Under these
Lose weight by eating right for your body type. The body type diet allows you to achieve your ideal body shape and eliminate food cravings forever. Take the body type test to discover your body type diet today.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The human carotid body transcriptome with focus on oxygen sensing and inflammation - a comparative analysis. AU - Mkrtchian, Souren. AU - Kåhlin, Jessica. AU - Ebberyd, Anette. AU - Gonzalez, Constancio. AU - Sanchez, Diego. AU - Balbir, Alexander. AU - Kostuk, Eric W.. AU - Shirahata, Machiko. AU - Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson. AU - Eriksson, Lars I.. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - The carotid body (CB) is the key oxygen sensing organ. While the expression of CB specific genes is relatively well studied in animals, corresponding data for the human CB are missing. In this study we used five surgically removed human CBs to characterize the CB transcriptome with microarray and PCR analyses, and compared the results with mice data. In silico approaches demonstrated a unique gene expression profile of the human and mouse CB transcriptomes and an unexpected upregulation of both human and mouse CB genes involved in the inflammatory response compared to brain and adrenal gland data. Human ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ATP triggers intracellular Ca2+ release in type II cells of the rat carotid body. AU - Xu, Jianhua. AU - Tse, Frederick W.. AU - Tse, Amy. PY - 2003/6/15. Y1 - 2003/6/15. N2 - Using a Ca2+-imaging technique, we studied the action of ATP on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) of fura-2-loaded mixtures of type I and type II cells dissociated from rat carotid bodies. ATP (100 μM) triggered a transient rise in [Ca2+]i in the spindle-shaped type II (sustentacular) cells, but not the ovoid type I (glomus) cells. When challenged with ionomycin (1 μM), no amperometry signal could be detected from the ATP-responsive type II cells, suggesting that these cells lacked catecholamine-containing granules. In contrast, KCI depolarization triggered robust quantal catecholamine release from type I cells that were not responsive to ATP. In type II cells voltage clamped at -70 mV, the ATP-induced [Ca2+]i rise was not accompanied by any current change, suggesting that P2X receptors are ...
This surgery does not involve any study drug or investigational device.. The carotid body will be removed by the so called lateral approach or a combined lateral and medial approach. In all cases the target area was defined as the tissue in between the ECA and ICA, up to 5-6mm above the bifurcation point of the common carotid artery into the ECA and ICA. In a lateral approach the carotid bifurcation is not turned. A combined approach includes usually dissection of the superior thyroid vessel and turning of the carotid bifurcation. ...
Position and source of blood supply to the human carotid body displays population variations. These data are important during surgical procedures and diagnostic imaging in the neck but are only scarcely reported and altogether missing for the Kenyan population. The aim of this study was to describe the position and blood supply of the carotid body in a Kenyan populati on. A descriptive cross-sectional study at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, was designed. 136 common carotid arteries and their bifurcations were exposed by gross dissection. The carotid body was identified as a small oval structure embedded in the blood vessel adventitia. Position and source of blood supply were photographed. Data are presented by tables and macrographs. 138 carotid bodies were identified. Commonest position was carotid bifurcation (75.4%) followed by external carotid artery (10.2%), internal carotid artery (7.2%) and ascending pharyngeal artery (7.2%). Sources of arterial blood supply ...
Methods and percutaneous devices for assessing, and treating patients having sympathetically mediated disease, involving augmented peripheral chemoreflex and heightened sympathetic tone by reducing chemosensor input to the nervous system via percutaneous carotid body ablation.
Body types can determine what physical activities match your needs and what you would eat to supply your routines. Weight loss plan based on your body type.
The recent insights we have about food have shown that a calorie is quite a rough parameter to quantify food with. Even in the same person, a calorie had a different consequence on the body depending on the source of the calorie and the digestion of the person at that moment. There can be a huge difference between people in the way food is processed. Some can eat eight slices of pizza without gaining an ounce, while others will bloat just by looking at it. If we wish to feed ourselves correctly, we need to understand how food acts and how we process food personally, according to our body type. Food is not only a bunch of calories created to still our hunger and fool our senses; it contains information like software code written by nature to feed and upgrade our inner intelligence. Food should thus be considered medicine and the cook a doctor. This leads us to knowledge of our body type and the necessity for a proper diagnosis before choosing what to eat, as food will restore our balance ...
Study on Different Body Types between Korean-Chinese and Han-Chinese Women in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and the Social Environmental Factors - With the Focus on the Women in their 60s - - body type;social environmental factors;the Han-Chinese;the Korean-Chinese;women in their 60s;
Simple sensory activities for kids. Water play, Sand Play, and more. Sensory Play for all the senses! | See more ideas about Sensory activities, Sensory play and Sensory bins.
People tend to get sick, over and over again, due to similar causes and habitual imbalances that are unique to the person. Your body type summarizes this tendency, showing you the type of conditions and imbalances that frequently challenge your health & wellness. Using body type, you can also identify remedies likely to improve your strength and resiliency. Your body type identifies physical and mental characteristics as well as your personal strengths and weaknesses. The calculation of your body type is based on your medical history. The 3 functional body types (doshas), are Catabolic (Vata), Metabolic (Pitta), and Anabolic (Kapha). Catabolic individuals tend to break down body mass into energy. Metabolic individuals tend to burn or use energy. Anabolic individuals tend to store energy as body mass. Catabolic people tend to be easily stimulated, hyperactive, underweight and dry. Metabolic people tend to be rosy-cheeked, easily irritated, focused, driven, and easily inflamed. Anabolic people ...
Follow these simple ayurvedic tips for good sleep according to your body type or dosha. Find exercises and daily eating schedules that help too
From slimming dresses to cute summer tops, learn the best summer style for each body type, including wide hips, thick thighs, and broad shoulders!
A, O, V or X? Which body type are you, and which swimsuit should you wear to best show your curves? We introduce these four different body shapes and match Amoena swimwear to each one. Bikinis, tankinis, one-piece swimsuits and swimdresses in beautiful designs to complement and flatter your figure.
Energy balancing is the art of living in harmony with your unique mind body type in order to remove any blockages or energetic disturbances. Learn how.
Explore Samira Avdics board Förskolans miljö inspo on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Fine motor, Sensory activities and Kids education.
Portal de Revistas Académicas Chilenas proporciona acceso abierto a las publicaciones editadas por universidades, sociedades científicas, organismos gubernamentales y ONGs editadas e Chile
Advances in experimental medicine and biology.; Arterial chemoreception: from molecules to systems; Ontario, Canada, 2011; Jul, 2012, 199-206 -- Dordrecht; London; Springer; c2012 Part; (pages 199-206) -- ...
Experimental physiology.; Novel partners and mechanisms in oxygen sensing; San Francisco, CA, 2006; Apr, 2006, 821-828 -- Blackwell Publishing,; 2006 (pages 821-828) -- ...
Just about everyone understands that exercise is good for you. Exercise helps maintain proper weight, eases stress, strengthens bones and muscles, reduces risks of most diseases, improves mental health, and more. Why is it then that less than half of all adults in the U.S. exercise on a regular basis? Maybe we just hav
https://youtu.be/z0fjTBULFj0 There are two body types and one is more prone to disease, unfortunately. Which one are you? Do you know if you are Android or Gynoid? Android (Apple …. Continue Reading about Two Body Types and One is more prone to Disease → ...
For some of us who are taller, longer-torsoed and leaner, building and maintaining muscle is a constant process, throughout the year, one that doesnt have a cutting phase.. Because we know not everybody is looking to simply lose weight, we have the Complete Hard-Gainers Plan - a comprehensive plan of attack for adding muscle size with the proper gym, diet and supplement strategies.. Weve included a sample diet and supplement plans here for easy reference, with an updated workout guide to follow for the next four weeks. Again, youll go four days on and three off, leaving ample time to recover.. EATING FOR HARD-GAINERS. If youre reading this, it more than likely applies to you: Hard-gainers are classified as longer body types, with typically fast metabolisms, lean frames, smaller joints (narrow wrists and ankles) and narrow waists. Usually, hard-gainers are longer-limbed and taller than our stockier gym friends. Thats OK - many find the lifeguard body type to be the most desirable. If ...
Hello... it is interesting reading these posts as I am just now studying the book and plan. Normally I stay away from anything which could be gimmicky.
Hi everyone! Im 17, and Ive been at around 132lbs for 5 years now. I never gain weight when I eat a lot, but I also never lose weight. This past week I did a little unhealthy experiment- rarely ea...
 I went to the doctor to be checked out and asked him what I could do to put on weight. He told me that for someone of my body type to get to a size 12, I would have to eat a lot of shit food, stop exercising and drink loads.. Basically, my body type is naturally thin. There is nothing I can do about it.. ~Keira Knightley Its okay, Keira, we like you just the way you are!. Photo Credit. ...
Im 26 years old, 54 and 195 lbs. Id say my BF% is around high 20s or even the low 30s. I want to be 160 again like i was a few years ago. my
Mudra is a part of holistic healing Ayurveda. It is very useful and easy to practice. Anyone can do it anytime. Forty-five minutes of practice is enough to get results. If you are new to mudras then follow the links to know more details like how to do, benefits and precautions.. Before practicing Mudras it is very important to find your Ayurvedic Body type To find your Ayurvedic body type follow this link. ...
All information, data and material contained, presented, or provided on OUR WebSite is for awareness purposes only in good faith and for general information purpose only. It is not to be construed or intended as providing medical or legal advice. Our WebSite does not make any warranties about the completeness, reliability and accuracy of this information.. Decisions you make about your familys healthcare are important and should be made in consultation with a competent medical professional.We are not physicians and do not claim to be. Any views expressed here-in are not necessarily those held by Our WebSite Any action you take upon the information you find on this website is strictly at your own risk.. Our WebSite will not be liable for any losses and/or damages in connection with the use of our website.All content on this website is for informational purposes only and should not be considered to be a specific diagnosis or treatment plan for any individual situation. Use of this website and the ...
Manon Pilon shares with you, for the first time, the secrets that have been the reason for her international success in the field of anti-aging. Over the last twenty years, Manon has helped thousands of people rediscover and preserve their innate beauty and dynamism.
Lay down on the floor and squish/roll the ball on top of your child. (Not over the face!) This is Loppys favorite. He gets the goofiest grin when we do it. To keep his interest, I tickle his belly by putting sprinkles and other assorted goodies into the cookie dough. Anything to get him to do something for more than 30 seconds. Always ask the child what amount of pressure on the ball feels good to them ...
Male or female trainer? Your choice!. Train at home, outdoors or in the gym? Whichever youd prefer!. We dont dish out generic programs and beast you in the gym- we take the time to find out exactly what you need and design a bespoke plan tailored around your lifestyle to meet your needs.. Every client start with a full comprehensive assessment which gives us the foundation on which to build you personalised program. During the assessment we will find out more about your lifestyle, you medical history, your fitness level, likes, dislikes, eating habits and much more. This is so we can design a program that will not only give you the results you are looking for but in a way that can easily fit into your lifestyle and can also work around your family.. We realise that everyone is different and this is the key to creating a program that is right for you. We work with different body types realising that our clients react differently to training and eating plans thats why no two plans are ever the ...
What is skinny fat? … Skinny fat is metabolically obese normal weight, meaning that someone has a seemingly healthy look on the outside but they have risks for a number of health problems that are related to obesity. This is mainly due to a poor diet and lack of exercise. This body type can be seen in men and women ...
0:30​- A-Aron0:50​- Identical strength with very different body types2:20​- Bryan and Aarons background5:30​- If someone is consistent with
Cassette Body Type: Threaded Standard , Threaded TrackColor: BlackDefined Color: BlackHub Drilling (spokes): 32 spokesHub/Brake Compatibility: Rim BrakeISO Diameter: 622 / road / 29Material: AlloyRear Axle Type: Standard QRRear Hub Spacing (mm): 120 mmRear Wheel Type: TrackRim: Velocity AeroRim Depth (mm): 19 mmSkewer Included: N/ASpoke Info: DT ChampionTire Type: ClincherValve: PrestaValve Length: Short 32-40mmWeight (g): 1065 gWheel Size: 700c
... stimuli that collectively act upon chemoreceptors located in the bilateral carotid bodies.[11] As sensory organs, the carotid ... Carotid body chemoreceptors[edit]. During sustained breath-holding while submerged, blood oxygen levels decline while carbon ... Gross, P. M; Whipp, B. J; Davidson, J. T; Koyal, S. N; Wasserman, K (1976). "Role of the carotid bodies in the heart rate ... Preliminary evidence in ducks and humans indicates that the carotid bodies are essential for these integrated cardiovascular ...
Overholt JL, Ficker E, Yang T, Shams H, Bright GR, Prabhakar NR (2000). Chemosensing at the carotid body. Involvement of a HERG ... the naturally occurring channels in the body that include hERG are referred to by the name of the electrical current that has ...
The Surgical Treatment of Carotid Body Sensitivity In Man; Surgical correction of carotid body sensitivity; Comparison of pre- ... and body areas; autografting and homografting techniques; sheet method and postage stamp method of grafting (21 min; color). ... Foreign Bodies in the Pericardium and Heart, Diagnostic planning, surgical, and postoperative techniques (50 min; color). PMF ... Total Body Measurement of Natural & Acquired Radioactivity in Man (11 min.) PMF 5337 - PMF 5338 - PMF 5339 (1961) - Basic ...
Aortic body detects changes in blood oxygen and carbon dioxide, but not pH, while carotid body detects all three. They do not ... Carotid bodies and aortic bodies detect changes primarily in pCO2 and H+ ion concentration. They also sense decrease in partial ... Nurse, Colin A.; Piskuric, Nikol A. (January 2013). "Signal processing at mammalian carotid body chemoreceptors". Seminars in ... These are sensitive to pH and CO 2. peripheral chemoreceptors: consists of aortic and carotid bodies. ...
Both carotid bodies and aortic bodies increase sensory discharge during hypoxia. Carotid bodies are considered the primary ... Many of the findings on to carotid body's relation to SIDS report that carotid body development is impaired by environmental ... Carotid and aortic bodies are clusters of cells located on the common carotid artery and the aortic arch, respectively. Each of ... However, because carotid and aortic bodies detect variation within the body's internal organs, they are considered ...
Both act on potassium channels in Carotid Bodies. These cells are responsible for sensing low concentrations of oxygen and ... This cessation of breathing is due to the underdevelopment of the body's respiratory control center, the medulla oblongata in ...
with Zoë D. Chamberlain: Chamberlain, Zoë D.; Hunt, T. C. (March 1961). "Carotid body tumour associated with diarrhoea and ...
... s are the cell type mainly located in the carotid bodies and aortic bodies. Glomus type I cells are peripheral ... Clusters of glomus cells, of which the carotid bodies and aortic bodies are the most important, are called non-chromaffin or ... the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies signal the dorsal respiratory group in the medulla oblongata to increase the volume ... In the carotid body the respiratory chemoreceptors need a period of time postnatally in order to reach functional maturity. ...
These structures include the type I cells of the carotid body, the neuroepithelial bodies of the lungs as well as some central ... The membrane hypothesis was proposed for the carotid body in mice, and it predicts that oxygen sensing is an ion balance ... The mitochondrial hypothesis was also proposed for the carotid body of mice, but it relies on the levels of oxidative ... Lopez-Barneo, J; Lopez-Lopez, JR; Urena, J; Gonzalez, C (1988). "Chemotransduction in the carotid body: K+ current modulated by ...
"Observations on the volume of blood flow and oxygen utilization of the carotid body in the cat". J. Physiol. 125 (1): 67-89. ... "Some observations on the carotid body blood flow in the cat". Am. J. Med. Sci. 226 (2): 230. PMID 13065304.CS1 maint: uses ... Johnson PC, Driscoll TB, Alexander WC, Lambertsen CJ (July 1973). "Body fluid volume changes during a 14-day continuous ...
The carotid bodies assist in maintaining normal blood pressure and heartbeats. The breathing exercise is claimed to help the ... to aid better functioning of the carotid sinus, the sinus nerves, the larynx, and the thyroid and parathyroid glands. ...
"Coronary vascular and myocardial responses to carotid body stimulation in the dog". The American Journal of Physiology. 229 (3 ... Not all of us can prevent a war; but most of us can help ease sufferings-of the body and the soul. - Ruth Pfau In 1960, aged 31 ... On 19 September 2017, Pfau's body lay in state at the Holy Family Hospital in Karachi ahead of the funeral. The state funeral ...
"Coronary vascular and myocardial responses to carotid body stimulation in the dog". The American Journal of Physiology. 229 (3 ... Ore Body, Gallery 44, Toronto ON, Canada 2017. YVR Art Foundation Masterpiece Study Grant 2018. Emily Award "FUTURE GENERATIONS ... For her graduate thesis, Igharas presented LAND , MINE, a materials library which linked bodies and mining sites to the land. ... Igharas uses Potlatch methodology in making art, to assert the relationships between bodies and the world, and to challenge ...
The carotid body is a group of chemoreceptor cells located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. It includes two ... "Carotid body autotransplantation in Parkinson disease: a clinical and positron emission tomography study". Journal of Neurology ... "Autotransplantation of human carotid body cell aggregates for treatment of Parkinson's disease". Neurosurgery. 53 (2): 321-328 ... "Neurotransmitters in Carotid Body Function: The Case of Dopamine - Invited Article", Arterial Chemoreceptors, Springer ...
Type I glomus cells of carotid bodies detect the change in oxygen levels and release neurotransmitters towards the carotid ... Carotid bodies contain oxygen-sensitive cells that become more active in response to hypoxia. They send input to the brainstem ... The initial increase in ventilation from HVR is initiated by the carotid bodies, which are bilaterally located at the port of ... Hormonal changes have also been associated with HVR, particularly those that affect the functioning of the carotid bodies. As ...
A bullet had hit the carotid artery. His body was placed in the room where Léonie had killed herself. Next day, Paris-Soir's ...
... particularly in the carotid bodies (at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery in the neck) and in aortic bodies (near the ... Carotid paraganglioma (carotid body tumor): Is the most common of the head and neck paragangliomas. It usually presents as a ... Micrograph of a carotid body tumor Glomus jugulare tumor Ectopic functional paraganglioma (glomus jugulare) in a patient with ... S100 immunostain highlighting the sustentacular cells in a paraganglioma Digital subtraction arteriogram of carotid body tumor ...
It enhances respiration by acting as an agonist of peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid bodies. The drug increases ...
There are various pulse sites on the body: the carotid, brachial, radial, femoral, and dorsalis pedis. In children, heart rate ... The domains in PEWS represent major body systems that are sensitive to changes in the body and thus create the criteria to be ... All of these symptoms indicate respiratory failure, a condition where there is inadequate oxygenation to the body's tissues and ... organs or inadequate removal of carbon monoxide from the body by the lungs. Left untreated, it is life-threatening.[citation ...
These include: Oxygen Supplementation Reduces carotid body drive and slows respiration at a given level of exercise. Treatment ... certain therapies can affect one or more components of this cascade and therefore reduce the body's ability to utilise or ...
Peripheral chemoreceptors (carotid and aortic bodies) and central chemoreceptors (medullary neurons) primarily function to ...
... circumscribing the presence of baroreceptors to the carotid sinus, but that of chemoreceptors to the carotid body, for the ... Towards the sensory nature of the carotid body: Hering, De Castro and Heymans. Front. Neuroanat. 3: 23 (1-11) (doi:10.3389/ ... Heymans accomplished this by vivisection of two dogs, the head of one connected to its body only by nerves, and the second ... described in detail the innervation of the aorta-carotid region, ... one's body was used to cross-perfuse (supply blood) to the ...
Lattes, R., McDonald, J.J., Sproul, E.E. (1954) Non-chromaffin paraganglioma, of carotid body and orbit; report of a case. ...
These sensory axons supply the cornea, ciliary body and iris. The sympathetic root originates from the internal carotid plexus ... Perez, GM; Keyser, RB (September 1986). "Cell body counts in human ciliary ganglia". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual ... with cell bodies in the superior cervical ganglion. The axons pass through the ganglion and enter the eye without synapsing ...
Another type of sustentacular cell is found with glomus cells of the carotid and aortic bodies.[citation needed] About 40% of ...
Together the latter is known as the peripheral chemoreceptors which are situated in the aortic and carotid bodies. Information ... Body tissues are therefore not exposed to large swings in oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions in the blood caused by the ... The body's circulatory system transports these gases to and from the cells, where "cellular respiration" takes place. The ... The saturated vapor pressure of water is dependent only on temperature; at a body core temperature of 37 °C it is 6.3 kPa (47.0 ...
Chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and medulla supply information regarding the blood gas levels of O2, CO2 and H+. In the ... Afferent neurons significant in dyspnea arise from a large number of sources including the carotid bodies, medulla, lungs, and ... "Anemia Affects Body...And Maybe The Mind". Johns Hopkins medicine. 2006. Retrieved 15 May 2020. Ibrahim, Wanis H.; Gheriani, ... If the level of respiration is inappropriate for the body's status then dyspnea might occur. There is also a psychological ...
At high altitude, in the short term, the lack of oxygen is sensed by the carotid bodies, which causes an increase in the ... Inability to increase the breathing rate can be caused by inadequate carotid body response or pulmonary or renal disease. In ... where it is generally believed that no human body can acclimatize. The human body can perform best at sea level, where the ... However, the human body has both short-term and long-term adaptations to altitude that allow it to partially compensate for the ...
They are more sensitive detectors of arterial blood oxygen content than the carotid body chemoreceptors. The aortic bodies give ... Swelling can also occur.[vague] Carotid body Control of respiration Peripheral chemoreceptors Russell, D. S. (2014-01-01), ... Some sources equate the "aortic bodies" and "paraaortic bodies", while other sources explicitly distinguish between the two. ... "Expanding role of ATP as a versatile messenger at carotid and aortic body chemoreceptors". The Journal of Physiology. 591 (2): ...
Foreign bodies (such as fingers during nose-picking). *Inflammatory reaction (e.g. acute respiratory tract infections, chronic ... More rarely the maxillary or a branch of the external carotid artery can be ligated. The bleeding can also be stopped by intra- ...
Palmer hypothesized that vertebral joint misalignments, which he termed vertebral subluxations, interfered with the body's ... Chung CL, Côté P, Stern P, L'espérance G (2014). "The Association Between Cervical Spine Manipulation and Carotid Artery ... although the body of literature is still weak.[106] A 2010 Cochrane review found low quality evidence that suggests cervical ... is the statutory governmental body responsible for the regulation of chiropractic in the UK.[175][176] The U.S. CCE requires a ...
The difference between soft and hard body parts stems mostly from the fact that carbon has a very low X-ray cross section ... Since the body is made up of various substances with differing densities, Ionising and non-ionising radiation can be used to ... It can also be used to measure total body fat, though this is not common. The radiation dose received from DEXA scans is very ... The photograph of his wife's hand was the first ever photograph of a human body part using X-rays. When she saw the picture, ...
Carotid ultrasonography. *Contrast-enhanced. *3D ultrasound. *Endoscopic ultrasound. *Emergency ultrasound *FAST. *Pre-hospital ...
... medications will not remove the blockages from the body. Instead, they simply improve blood flow to the affected area.[6] ...
The brain-to-body size ratio of psittacines and corvines is comparable to that of higher primates.[73] Instead of using the ... a different arrangement of the carotid arteries, a gall bladder, differences in the skull bones, and lack the Dyck texture ... 2008). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses (2 ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-6444-5.. ... Geographical range and body size predominantly explains diet composition of Neotropical parrots rather than phylogeny.[55] ...
Two Rhesus monkeys were flown into orbit implanted with sensors to permit monitoring of carotid artery blood flow. Additionally ... A study of circadian rhythms was concerned with the synchronization of primate motor activity, body temperature and skin ...
Both lorisoids and cheirogaleid lemurs have replaced the internal carotid artery with an enlarged ascending pharyngeal artery.[ ... In some cases, strepsirrhines may anoint themselves with urine (urine washing). Body postures and gestures may be used, ... which handles basic body functions and metabolic processes. This neural pathway differs from that used by the main olfactory ... but otherwise lemurs show very little if any difference in body size or weight between sexes. This lack of sexual dimorphism is ...
The human body is at risk of accidentally induced hypothermia when large amounts of cold fluids are infused. Rapid temperature ... Surrounding structures such as the pleura and carotid artery are also at risk of damage with the potential for pneumothorax or ... It is possible to leave the ports in the patient's body for years; if this is done, the port must be accessed monthly and ... Infection, and a foreign body embolus are the two threats to the patient.[citation needed] ...
The body has several feedback mechanisms to maintain adequate blood flow and blood pressure. If blood pressure decreases, the ... the heart pumps less efficiently and provides less blood flow to the rest of the body, including the heart itself. The ...
At ambient temperatures below their body temperatures (thermal neutral zone (TNZ)), common ostriches decrease body surface ... The ophthalmic rete is analogous to the carotid rete found in mammals, as it also facilitates transfer of heat from arterial ... causing the body temperature to increase further.[62] When the body heat is allowed to increase the temperature gradient ... If the ambient temperature is lower than the thermo-neutral zone, heat is produced to maintain body temperature.[61] So, the ...
Endogenous production with full body exposure to sunlight is comparable to taking an oral dose between 250 µg and 625 µg ( ... Higher levels of calcidiol positively correlate with aorta and carotid calcified atherosclerotic plaque in African Americans ...
Whole body imaging(英语:Whole body imaging) *Full-body CT scan(英语:Full-body CT scan) ... Carotid ultrasonography(英语:Carotid ultrasonography). *超声造影成像 ...
Carotid ultrasonography. *Contrast-enhanced. *3D ultrasound. *Endoscopic ultrasound. *Emergency ultrasound *FAST. *Pre-hospital ...
... the structure of the human body), physiology (how the body works), pathology (what can go wrong with the anatomy and physiology ... Health screening begins by identifying the part of the body where the symptoms are located; the computer cross-references a ... psychology (thought and behavior) and human homeostasis (regarding mechanisms to keep body systems in balance). Knowledge of ...
Body artEdit. Being a cultural custom for long time, tongue piercing and splitting has become quite common in western countries ... The tongue receives its blood supply primarily from the lingual artery, a branch of the external carotid artery. The lingual ... In mammals such as dogs and cats, the tongue is often used to clean the fur and body by licking. The tongues of these species ... Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, Philadelphia: Holt-Saunders International ...
Carotid ultrasonography. *Contrast-enhanced. *3D ultrasound. *Endoscopic ultrasound. *Emergency ultrasound *FAST. *Pre-hospital ...
Whole body imaging *Full-body CT scan. *X-ray microtomography. *Electron beam tomography ... Carotid ultrasonography. *Contrast-enhanced. *3D ultrasound. *Endoscopic ultrasound. *Emergency ultrasound *FAST. *Pre-hospital ...
... and measured by stretch receptors in the walls of the aortic arch and carotid sinuses at beginnings of the internal carotid ... Homeostasis does not govern every activity in the body.[19][20] For instance the signal (be it via neurons or hormones) from ... The body water homeostat can be compromised by the inability to secrete ADH in response to even the normal daily water losses ... Circadian variation in body temperature, ranging from about 7002310650000000000♠37.5 °C from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m., and falling to ...
Body of hyoid bone and median ridge. Artery. Mylohyoid branch of inferior alveolar artery and submental artery of facial artery ...
Fluid can be injected into the arterial system (typically through the carotid or femoral arteries), the main body cavities, ... The term cadaver is used in courts of law to refer to a dead body, as well as by recovery teams searching for bodies in natural ... "Corpse" and "Dead body" redirect here. For other uses, see Corpse (disambiguation) and Dead body (disambiguation). ... Cadavers allowed scientists to investigate the human body on a deeper level which resulted in identification of certain body ...
The ascending cervical artery is a small branch which arises from the inferior thyroid artery as it passes behind the carotid ... and to the bodies of the vertebrae. It then anastomoses with the ascending pharyngeal and occipital arteries. ... It then turns medially behind the carotid sheath and its contents, and also behind the sympathetic trunk, the middle cervical ...
... and foreign bodies. When produced in excess, however, they may contribute to a wide range of pathological inflammatory ... as judged by carotid intima-media thickness measurements. Variant alleles involved deletions (one or two) or additions (one, ...
There is no direct connection between the internal carotid artery and the vessels of the brain.[72] Their circulatory system ... Sperm whales are prodigious feeders and eat around 3% of their body weight per day. The total annual consumption of prey by ... Goold, J.C. (1996). "Signal processing techniques for acoustic measurement of sperm whale body lengths". Journal of the ... The sperm whale's unique body is unlikely to be confused with any other species. The sperm whale's distinctive shape comes from ...
A Lewy body (stained brown) in a brain cell of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease. The brown colour is positive ... Since early in the 1980s, fetal, porcine, carotid or retinal tissues have been used in cell transplants, in which dissociated ... Dementia with Lewy bodies is another synucleinopathy and it has close pathological similarities with PD, especially with the ... This insoluble protein accumulates inside neurones forming inclusions called Lewy bodies.[51][57] According to the Braak ...
Non-specific symptoms are self-reported symptoms that do not indicate a specific disease process or involve an isolated body ... They affect the entire body rather than a specific organ or location. ...
In humans, hypoxia is detected by the peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid body and aortic body, with the carotid body ... Hypoxia[1] is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level. ... Hypoxia may be classified as either generalized, affecting the whole body, or local, affecting a region of the body. Although ... A condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen at the tissue level ...
Rebound hypertension is avoided by gradually reducing the dose (also known as "dose tapering"), thereby giving the body enough ...
The aorta (/eɪˈɔːrtə/ ay-OR-tə) is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and ... Left common carotid artery. Left subclavian artery. Descending aorta, thoracic part: Left bronchial arteries. esophageal ... The aorta, normally on the left side of the body, may be found on the right in dextrocardia, in which the heart is found on the ... entire body with exception of the respiratory zone of the lung which is supplied by the pulmonary circulation). ...
... and carotid circulation pressure, it lowers carotid blood flow and end-tidal CO2 or ETCO2 levels. It appears that epinephrine ... As a hormone, epinephrine acts on nearly all body tissues. Its actions vary by tissue type and tissue expression of adrenergic ... providing substrates for energy production within cells throughout the body.[39] ... dosage for people in a dental setting requiring local anesthesia with a peripheral vasoconstrictor is 10 µg/lb of total body ...
... mostly benign tumour arising from the paraganglia of carotid body; hence, the name (carotid paraganglioma). The high ... Carotid body tumour (CBT); formerly known as chemodectoma is a rare, highly vascular, ... The carotid body is a small structure weighing 12 mg located in the adventitia of carotid artery bifurcation acting as a ... The carotid body is a small structure weighing 12 mg located in the adventitia of carotid artery bifurcation acting as a ...
How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human carotid body (CB) remains poorly understood. While limited information on ... Kay JM, Laidler P (1977) Hypoxia and the carotid body. J Clin Pathol Suppl (R Coll Pathol) 11:30-44CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Hempleman SC, Warburton SJ (2013) Comparative embryology of the carotid body. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 185:3-8CrossRefGoogle ... Pepper DR, Landauer RC, Kumar P (1995) Postnatal development of CO2-O2 interaction in the rat carotid body in vitro. J Physiol ...
There is one external carotid artery on the right side of the neck and one on the left side of the neck. ... The external carotid arteries supply oxygenated blood to the head region. ... The external carotid arteries supply oxygenated blood to the head region. There is one external carotid artery on the right ... The external carotid artery is sometimes affected by carotid artery disease, which is caused by a buildup of plaque. The plaque ...
Each common carotid artery is divided into an external and internal carotid artery. These arteries transfer blood to the ... The common carotid artery is found bilaterally, with one on each side of the anterior neck. ... The common carotid artery is found bilaterally, with one on each side of the anterior neck. Each common carotid artery is ... The external carotid artery brings blood to structures outside the skull, primarily the face, and the internal carotid to ...
Ultrastructure of the carotid body in high-altitude guinea-pigs.. Edwards C, Heath D, Harris P. ...
The carotid body located in the bifurcation of the carotid arteries is able to detect gas changes in blood composition (PO2, ... The carotid body located in the bifurcation of the carotid arteries is able to detect gas changes in blood composition (PO2, ... Delpiano, M.A., and Acker, H., 1989, Hypoxic and hypercapnic responses of [Ca2+]o and [K+]o in the cat carotid body in vitro, ... Obeso, A., Almaraz, L., and Gonzalez, C., 1986, Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on in vitro cat carotid body, Brain Res., 371:25. ...
Rarely, a malignant neuroblastoma may originate from the carotid body. "Carotid Body and Carotid Sinus -- General Information ... The carotid body is a small cluster of chemoreceptor cells, and supporting sustentacular cells. The carotid body is located in ... Impulse rate for carotid bodies is particularly sensitive to changes in arterial PO2 in the range of 60 down to 30 mm Hg, a ... The carotid body is made up of two types of cells, called glomus cells: glomus type I cells are peripheral chemoreceptors, and ...
Figure 2: Intraoperative image showing the intact carotid bifurcation after the excision of a carotid body tumor. ... Figure 1: Intraoperative image showing a carotid artery bifurcation and a type II carotid body tumor. ... J. G. Gwon, T.-W. Kwon, H. Kim, and Y.-P. Cho, "Risk factors for stroke during surgery for carotid body tumors," World Journal ... J. A. Wieneke and A. Smith, "Paraganglioma: carotid body tumor," Head and Neck Pathology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 303-306, 2009. ...
... Karine Berthet,1 Anne Claire ... D. M. Payen, P. A. Carli, C. J. L. Brun-Buisson et al., "Lower body positive pressure vs. dopamine during PEEP in humans," ... I. Linfante, R. H. Llinas, M. Selim et al., "Clinical and vascular outcome in internal carotid artery versus middle cerebral ... D. Georgiadis, O. Lanczik, S. Schwab et al., "IV thrombolysis in patients with acute stroke due to spontaneous carotid ...
Preparation of carotid body thin slices.. Carotid bodies were included in agarose as described by Pardal et al. (24), and ... Kameda Y: Carotid body and glomus cells distributed in the wall of the common carotid artery in the bird. Microsc Res Tech59 : ... Mechanisms of Low-Glucose Sensitivity in Carotid Body Glomus Cells. María García-Fernández, Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, Antonio ... Mechanisms of Low-Glucose Sensitivity in Carotid Body Glomus Cells. María García-Fernández, Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, Antonio ...
... catheter-based approach for Carotid Body Modulation (CBM). Currently in its early ... It focuses on modulation of the carotid body - a key chemosensor located at the fork of the carotid artery that helps regulate ... Exclusive Interview with Cibiem, a New Player in Carotid Body Modulation. November 12th, 2012 Ronney Shantouf Cardiology, ... This Carotid Body Modulation (CBM) is a breakthrough innovation based on extensive studies and a deep understanding of the ...
Surgical Removal of Carotid Body in Patients With Systolic Heart Failure. Official Title ICMJE Surgical Removal of Carotid Body ... Procedure: Carotid body excision. Study Arms Experimental: Carotid body excision Patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral ... Surgical Removal of Carotid Body in Patients With Systolic Heart Failure (FIM). The safety and scientific validity of this ... The aim of the study is to determine safety, tolerability and feasibility of unilateral and bilateral carotid body excision in ...
Surgical management of bilateral carotid body tumors with carotid artery stenosis. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, ... Carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid stenosis: an update.. *[Carotid endarterectomy in carotid stenosis--when is ... Arterial Occlusive DiseasesCarotid Artery DiseasesCarotid Body TumorConstriction, PathologicEndarterectomyFemaleHumansMiddle ... Surgical management of bilateral carotid body tumors with carotid artery stenosis.. J Fla Med Assoc. 1988 Sep; 75(9):587-9.JF ...
The carotid bodies and their associated nerves were removed (carotid body resected [CBR]) or left intact (Sham), and infusion ... The carotid bodies are sensitive to glucose in vitro and can be stimulated to cause hyperglycemia in vivo. The aim of this ... Removal of carotid bodies was verified by the absence of a ventilatory response to NaCN. Experiments were performed in 18-h ... In conclusion, we found that the carotid bodies (or receptors anatomically close by) play an important role in the insulin- ...
Experimental: Carotid body excision Patients undergoing the carotid body excision to test the hypothesis that carotid body ... Carotid Body Removal for the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension: a Pilot Study. The safety and scientific validity of this ... The carotid body will be removed by the so called lateral approach or a combined lateral and medial approach. In all cases ... This is a pilot study to assess the effectiveness, safety and feasibility of carotid body removal in patients with high blood ...
Characterization of the synthesis and release of catecholamine in the rat carotid body in vitro.. Vicario I1, Rigual R, Obeso A ... released during stimulation of the rat carotid body (CB). Turnover rates and the release of CA were measured in an in vitro ...
Carotid Body Tumors (CBTs) are Paragangliomas (PGLs) located in the head and neck region which usually do not cause overt ... INTRODUCTION: Carotid Body Tumors (CBTs) are Paragangliomas (PGLs) located in the head and neck region which usually do not ... 711567 - Cardiovascular effects of whole-body heating in spontaneously hypertensive rats.. 15302987 - The role of renal ...
... the first description of the structure now known as the carotid body must be ascribed to a Swiss physiolo- gist - Albrecht von ... For a while the carotid body remained forgotten, to be rediscovered in 1833 by Mayer of Bonn who again remarked upon the ... According to Valentin (1833) and Luschka (1862), the first description of the structure now known as the carotid body must be ... Thus it is evident that the anatomists of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries regarded the structure in the carotid ...
The human carotid body is a small structure located at the upper end of the common carotid artery. It consists of nerve fibers ... The human carotid body is a small structure located at the upper end of the common carotid artery. It consists of nerve fibers ... Nerve Terminal Secretory Granule Chromaffin Cell Carotid Body Chief Cell These keywords were added by machine and not by the ... Fujita T., Kanno T., Kobayashi S. (1988) Carotid Body Chief Cells. In: The Paraneuron. Springer, Tokyo. * DOI https://doi.org/ ...
View source for Carotid body tumor risk factors. ← Carotid body tumor risk factors ... Carotid body tumor}} {{CMG}}; {{AE}} {{Sahar}} {{MV}} ==Overview== Common [[risk factors]] in the development of [[carotid body ... Carotid Body Tumor,journal=Head and Neck Pathology,volume=3,issue=4,year=2009,pages=303-306,issn=1936-055X,doi=10.1007/s12105- ... Bilateral carotid body tumor resection in a female patient,journal=International Journal of Surgery Case Reports,volume=41,year ...
Loss of Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Hif1a+/− Mice.. To further establish that carotid body sensitivity to hypoxia is ... Expression of HIF-1α in the Carotid Body.. To determine whether HIF-1α expression in the carotid body is induced by hypoxia, ... Carotid Body Morphology.. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate whether abnormalities in carotid body ... carotid body chemoreceptors played a predominant role. When carotid bodies isolated from wild-type mice were exposed to either ...
The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during ... The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during ... The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during ... Carotid body: a new target for rescuing neural control of cardiorespiratory balance in disease. ...
Carotid Body Volume in Three-Weeks-Old Rats Having an Episode of Neonatal Anoxia Saiki, C.; Makino, M.; Matsumoto, S.. Advances ... Adrenaline Increases Carotid Body CO~2 Sensitivity: An in vivo Study Maskell, P. D. et al.. Advances in experimental medicine ... Carotid Body Transmitters Actions on Rabbit Petrosal Ganglion in Vitro Alcayaga, J. et al.. Advances in experimental medicine ... Genetic Influence on Carotid Body Structure in DBA/2J and A/J Strains of Mice Yamaguchi, S. et al.. Advances in experimental ...
Angiotensin II in the carotid body - a friend or foe? Fung, M. L.. Experimental physiology. VOL 101; NUMBER 6, ; 2016, 675-676 ... Angiotensin II in the carotid body - a friend or foe? Fung, M. L.. Experimental physiology. VOL 101; NUMBER 6, ; 2016, 675-676 ... Angiotensin II in the carotid body - a friend or foe? Fung, Man‐Lung. Experimental physiology. Volume 101:Issue 6 (2016, June ... Blood flow in internal carotid and vertebral arteries during graded lower body negative pressure in humans Ogoh, Shigehiko et ...
Enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreflex sensitivity is common to all of these populations and is thought to contribute to these ... The carotid body chemoreceptors may play an important role in progression of CHF by contributing to respiratory instability and ... Elimination of carotid body afferents in experimental models of CHF has been shown to reduce oscillatory breathing, respiratory ... Enhanced carotid body chemoreflex sensitivity is common to all of these populations and is thought to contribute to these ...
ICD-10-PCS code 0GC64ZZ for Extirpation of Matter from Left Carotid Body, Percutaneous Endoscopic Approach is a medical ... Includes: Carotid glomus","3")>Carotid Body, Left. Definition: Entry, by puncture or minor incision, of instrumentation ... Extirpation of Matter from Left Carotid Body, Percutaneous Endoscopic Approach 0GC64ZZ. ICD-10-PCS code 0GC64ZZ for Extirpation ... Body System(G). Operation(C). Body Part(6). Approach(4). Device(Z). Qualifier(Z). ...
Excision Procedures on the Parathyroid, Thymus, Adrenal Glands, Pancreas, and Carotid Body CPT® Code range 60500- 60605. ... Surgical Procedures on the Parathyroid, Thymus, Adrenal Glands, Pancreas, and Carotid Body ... Excision Procedures on the Parathyroid, Thymus, Adrenal Glands, Pancreas, and Carotid Body ... Excision Procedures on the Parathyroid, Thymus, Adrenal Glands, Pancreas, and Carotid Body ...
It appears that ouabain has two distinct actions on the carotid body chemosensory activity: a sensitizing followed by a ... A neuropharmcological study of some aspects of carotid body chemoreceptor activity in the cat ... known to be present in the carotid body as well as others present in the brain, such as 5-endorphin and cholecystokinin ... influence carotid body chemoreceptor activity. The opioid peptides act via naloxone-sensitive receptors. Ouabain. Ouabain ...
... Journal. ... Results: In 89% of the FH patients, information on CIMT could be obtained on all twelve carotid segments, and in 7.6%, eleven ... CIMT images were recorded for 12 artery-wall combinations (near and far walls of the left and right common carotid artery (CCA ... Aim: Ultrasound protocols to measure carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) differ considerably with regard to the inclusion of ...
View source for Carotid body tumor natural history, complications and prognosis. ← Carotid body tumor natural history, ... NOTOC__ {{Carotid body tumor}} {{CMG}}; {{AE}} {{Sahar}} {{MV}} ==Overview== If left untreated, patients with [[carotid body ... Carotid body]] [[tumor]] may transform into [[malignant]] form in almost 10% of the cases. **There is no accepted guideline on ... If left untreated, patients with [[carotid body]] [[tumor]] may progress to develop [[Cranial nerve disease,cranial nerve ...
  • Aim of this study is to present the experience of our institution in carotid body tumors (CBTs) treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are the most common tumors of extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue and represent more than 50% of head and neck paragangliomas [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This system classifies the tumors into three groups: Group I (tumors are too small and do not involve the surrounding vessels), Group II (tumors are adherent or partially surround and compress the carotid vessels without being problematic for resection), and Group III (tumors show an intimate adherent relationship to the entire circumference of the carotid bifurcation, requiring partial or complete vessel resection and reconstruction). (hindawi.com)
  • Resection of carotid body tumors reduces arterial blood pressure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: Carotid Body Tumors (CBTs) are Paragangliomas (PGLs) located in the head and neck region which usually do not cause overt neuroendocrine symptoms and hypertension. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Knowledge of the patient's history of carotid body tumor was crucial to the accurate diagnosis in this case, as morphologic features alone are typically not sufficient to distinguish benign from malignant carotid body tumors, or other neuroendocrine lesions. (ovid.com)
  • Carotid body tumors are rare, slow-growing, hypervascular neuroendocrine tumors. (oatext.com)
  • Complete surgical excision is the gold standard therapeutic modality for the treatment of carotid body tumors. (oatext.com)
  • Carotid body tumors (CBTs), also known as paragangliomas or chemodectomas, are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms which arise near the carotid bifurcation within glomus cells derived from the embryonic neural crest. (oatext.com)
  • Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are neoplasms of the paraganglia located at the bifurcation of carotid arteries and belong to head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Paraganglioma arising from the carotid body are relatively rare tumors but constitute majority of head and neck paragangliomas (60-70%) [ 1 , 2 ]. (annexpublishers.co)
  • They most commonly occur at the carotid bifurcation, where they are referred to as carotid body tumors. (annexpublishers.co)
  • Two patients with large vascular carotid body tumors underwent preoperative intravascular embolization of the major arterial feeders. (thejns.org)
  • The literature on carotid body tumors is briefly reviewed. (thejns.org)
  • About 80% of all glomus tumors are carotid body tumors or glomus jugulare tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Haller introduced glomus tumors of the head and neck into the medical record in 1762 when he described a mass at the carotid bifurcation that had a glomus body-like structure. (medscape.com)
  • Glomus tumors of the head and neck are associated with 4 primary locations, the jugular bulb, middle ear cavity, vagus nerve, and carotid body. (medscape.com)
  • Angiogram obtained in a female patient with bilateral carotid body tumors, bilateral glomus vagale tumors, and left glomus jugulare tumors with corresponding angiographically enhancing masses. (medscape.com)
  • The carotid body is made up of two types of cells, called glomus cells: glomus type I cells are peripheral chemoreceptors, and glomus type II cells are sustentacular supportive cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid body peripheral chemoreceptors are primarily sensitive to decreases in the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid body chemoreceptors are also sensitive to pH and PCO2, but only secondarily. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, the sensitivity of carotid body chemoreceptors to decreased PO2 is greater when pH is decreased and PCO2 is increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the ventilatory response to acute hypoxia was not impaired in Hif1a +/− mice, the response was primarily mediated via vagal afferents, whereas in wild-type mice, carotid body chemoreceptors played a predominant role. (pnas.org)
  • An essential adaptation to both acute and chronic hypoxia is an increase in ventilation that depends on the activity of peripheral chemoreceptors, particularly those within the carotid body, which detect changes in arterial blood O 2 concentration and relay sensory information to the brainstem neurons that regulate breathing (reviewed in ref. 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we studied Hif1a +/− and Hif1a +/+ adult mice and found that partial HIF-1α deficiency has dramatic effects on respiratory adaptation to chronic hypoxia and oxygen sensing by carotid body chemoreceptors. (pnas.org)
  • The molecular mechanism of pH sensing by chemoreceptors is not clear, although it had been proposed to be mediated by a drop in intracellular pH of carotid body glomus cells, which inhibits a K + current. (ahajournals.org)
  • The results provide the first evidence that ASICs may contribute to chemotransduction of low pH by carotid body chemoreceptors, and that extracellular acidosis directly activates carotid body chemoreceptors through both ASIC and TASK channels. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study will investigate the role of the carotid body chemoreceptors in ventilatory control during hyperbaric exposures when blood oxygen content is elevated. (buffalo.edu)
  • The carotid body chemoreceptors contribute to the control of ventilation and when blood oxygen content is high, ventilation decreases. (buffalo.edu)
  • The optimism is based on the recognition that carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors are critical elements of one of the main pathophysiologic loops in the genesis of OSAS. (csic.es)
  • in contrast to central chemoreceptors, which primarily respond to PaCO2 and the aortic bodies [output via cn X], which have primarily circulatory effects (bradycardia, hypertension, adrenal stimulation, and also bronchoconstriction), carotid bodies are most sensitive to PaO2. (openanesthesia.org)
  • The diving reflex is triggered specifically by chilling and wetting the nostrils and face while breath-holding, [2] [7] and is sustained via neural processing originating in the carotid chemoreceptors . (wikipedia.org)
  • During sustained breath-holding while submerged, blood oxygen levels decline while carbon dioxide and acidity levels rise, [1] stimuli that collectively act upon chemoreceptors located in the bilateral carotid bodies . (wikipedia.org)
  • The reflexes reaction of phrenic sympathetic neurons to stimulation of carotid body chemoreceptors we tested in chloralos-anaesthetized and paralyzed cats with both vago-aotic nerves cut. (elsevier.com)
  • Injecting 0.1 ml of 1 M NaHCO 3 saturated with CO 2 (in order to activate carotid body chemoreceptors) into the right or left carotid sinus, evoked excitatory responses in sympathetic neuronsp regardless of the side. (elsevier.com)
  • The stimulation of carotid body chemoreceptors also increased somatic phrenic nerve activity. (elsevier.com)
  • The three methods applied to the stimulation of carotid body chemoreceptors produced increase of phrenic nerve sympathetic activity. (elsevier.com)
  • The afferent fibers of the aortic body chemoreceptors are relayed by the vagus nerve . (radiopaedia.org)
  • It has been proposed that carotid chemoreceptors trigger CIH-induced cardio-respiratory abnormalities. (grantome.com)
  • a small neurovascular structure lying in the bifurcation of the common carotid arteries, containing chemoreceptors that monitor oxygen content in blood and help to regulate respiration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The carotid body is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near the fork of the carotid artery , which runs along both sides of the throat. (blogspot.com)
  • The function of the carotid body is complemented by other chemoreceptors, most notably the aortic body located in the aortic arch. (blogspot.com)
  • Nevertheless, the hemodynamic and ventilatory responses to hypercapnia did not depend on the activation of the peripheral carotid chemoreceptors. (bvsalud.org)
  • The external carotid arteries supply oxygenated blood to the head region. (healthline.com)
  • The carotid body located in the bifurcation of the carotid arteries is able to detect gas changes in blood composition (PO 2 , PCO 2 /pH) and to transduce them into afferent nerve signal. (springer.com)
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vivo alterations on ketone bodies metabolism after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion through an experimental model of brain ischemia induced by simple occlusion of common carotid arteries (CCAs) in Wistar rats. (scielo.br)
  • B-mode ultrasound images of the far walls for both carotid arteries were obtained from 676 community-based subjects, aged 24 to 43 years, enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study (70% white and 43% male). (ahajournals.org)
  • For this purpose, all neurovascular structures were identified, and periadventitial dissections of the carotid arteries were performed. (oatext.com)
  • Common carotid, internal carotid and external carotid arteries were restrained using the vessel tapes before tumor resection (Figure 1). (oatext.com)
  • While the masses were easily excised totally without subadventitial dissection of carotid arteries in cases of Shamblin type I and II, in case of Shamblin type III the dissection was performed along the arterial subadventitial plane to allow for complete local tumor excision, as well as preservation of carotid arteries. (oatext.com)
  • It is composed of a number of chemoreceptor cells and supporting matrix and detects changes in the composition of blood in the common carotid as it forms the internal and external carotid arteries . (radiopaedia.org)
  • A chemoreceptor that is a body of vascular tissue near the bifurcations of the carotid arteries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a small structure containing neural tissue at the bifurcation of the carotid arteries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Carotid body tumor (CBT) is a form of head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) arising at the bifurcation of carotid arteries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Male Wistar rats were submitted to bilateral ligature of carotid body arteries (or sham-operation) and received catheters into the left femoral artery and vein . (bvsalud.org)
  • Once the adjoining nerve fibres had been delicately isolated from the carotid arterial blood vessels, the CBT was excised from the carotid arteries. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • After careful clinical and angiographic assessment, a number of these patients have been treated with a direct approach to the carotid arteries in the neck or with anticoagulation rather than with a bypass graft. (thejns.org)
  • The study showed that higher blood levels of B vitamins are related to lower concentrations of homocysteine leading to decrease plaquing in the carotid arteries. (mindandbodyfitness.net)
  • Vitamin B12, homocysteine levels and degree of plaque in the carotid arteries (via ultrasound) were evaluated. (mindandbodyfitness.net)
  • Carotid arteriography demonstrated a highly vascular mass in the bifurcation of the carotid artery that was compressing the internal and external carotid arteries. (elsevier.com)
  • Ischemia within the arteries branching from the internal carotid artery may result in symptoms such as blindness in one eye, weakness in one arm or leg, or weakness in one entire side of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ischemia within the arteries branching from the vertebral arteries in the back of the brain may result in symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, double vision, or weakness on both sides of the body[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid body is a small structure weighing 12 mg located in the adventitia of carotid artery bifurcation acting as a chemoreceptor. (scirp.org)
  • There is one external carotid artery on the right side of the neck and one on the left side of the neck. (healthline.com)
  • Each begins at the common carotid artery and moves up the neck until it divides into the superficial temporal artery and the maxillary artery. (healthline.com)
  • The occipital artery, posterior auricular artery, facial artery, superior thyroid artery, and maxillary artery all branch off from the external carotid artery. (healthline.com)
  • The external carotid artery is sometimes affected by carotid artery disease, which is caused by a buildup of plaque. (healthline.com)
  • Often, no symptoms of carotid artery disease occur before the stroke. (healthline.com)
  • Carotid artery disease is the underlying cause of approximately half of all stroke cases in the United States. (healthline.com)
  • The common carotid artery is found bilaterally, with one on each side of the anterior neck. (healthline.com)
  • Each common carotid artery is divided into an external and internal carotid artery. (healthline.com)
  • The external carotid artery brings blood to structures outside the skull, primarily the face, and the internal carotid to structures inside the skull, including the brain. (healthline.com)
  • The carotid body is located in the adventitia, in the bifurcation (fork) of the common carotid artery, which runs along both sides of the neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical and vascular outcome in internal carotid artery versus middle cerebral artery occlusions after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator," Stroke , vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 2066-2071, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • It focuses on modulation of the carotid body - a key chemosensor located at the fork of the carotid artery that helps regulate respiratory activity. (medgadget.com)
  • In all cases the target area was defined as the tissue in between the ECA and ICA, up to 5-6mm above the bifurcation point of the common carotid artery into the ECA and ICA. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This claim, however, may be erroneous, for Tauber (1743) described a struc- ture at the bifurcation on the common carotid artery and called it the ganglion minutum. (springer.com)
  • The human carotid body is a small structure located at the upper end of the common carotid artery. (springer.com)
  • CIMT images were recorded for 12 artery-wall combinations (near and far walls of the left and right common carotid artery (CCA), bifurcation (BIF) and internal carotid artery (ICA) segments) at 4 set angles, resulting in 48 possible measurements per patient. (uva.nl)
  • In conclusion, these findings help support the proposed hypothesis of racial and gender divergences in the association between BMI and progression of CIMT, which suggest that race (black-white) and gender-specific mechanistic differences exist in the impact of increased body adiposity on carotid artery disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, 886 subjects were recruited from a cohort of Taiwanese adolescents and young adults to study the relationship between serum levels of 4-t-OP, CVD risk factors, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • 11, 12 However, for a continuous outcome, such as carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT), the linear association can be adequately assessed with fewer numbers. (bmj.com)
  • To delineate the relationship between the distensibility of carotid artery and BRS of HR, the next step of this study was carried out to examine both carotid arterial wall characteristics and BRS of HR. Ten each of healthy young (22±1 y) and old (69±1 y) men underwent to measure ultrasonographically the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid arterial lumen diameter and its change with arterial pulse. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Blood pressure (BP) was measured with an applanation tonometry at the carotid artery. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The carotid IMT was higher in the old than in the young, whereas, baseline compliance of the carotid artery was less in the old than the young. (nii.ac.jp)
  • a small epithelioid structure located just above the bifurcation of the common carotid artery on each side. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A chemical receptor, situated at the first branch of each carotid artery, that monitors oxygen levels in the blood and regulates the rate of breathing accordingly. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • relating to the carotid artery, the principal artery of the neck. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Computer tomography revealed a 5/3/2.5 cm, mass on the bifurcation of the right common carotid artery. (annexpublishers.co)
  • Angiography showed a well-defined tumor arising from the region of the external carotid artery with branches of the ECA as feeders vessels such as posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), and an inferior cerebellar artery (AICA). (annexpublishers.co)
  • subadventitial tumor, the Internal carotid artery was preserved, we did not performed a bypass with prosthetic graft or safenous vein and all cranial nerves were preserved ( Figure 2 ). (annexpublishers.co)
  • If the tumour was difficult to separate from the carotid arties or the internal carotid artery was damaged by the tumour, saphenous vein interposition or carotid shunt could be performed. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • The internal carotid artery was effortlessly uncovered across the shunt and the tumour was excised. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Strokes, resulting presumably from carotid artery thrombosis, have been reported previously following percutaneous retrogasserian coagulation. (thejns.org)
  • In the past year, three patients were referred for microvascular bypass surgery for relief of symptoms secondary to an apparently occluded internal carotid artery (ICA). (thejns.org)
  • An increasing number of patients with symptomatic carotid artery occlusion are being referred for extracranial to intracranial bypass grafts. (thejns.org)
  • In human anatomy, the carotid sinus is a dilated area at the base of the internal carotid artery just superior to the bifurcation of the internal carotid and external carotid at the level of the superior border of thyroid cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid sinus extends from the bifurcation to the "true" internal carotid artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid sinus is the reflex area of the carotid artery, consisting of baroreceptors which monitor blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patient was referred to radiology department for ultrasonography neck on grey scale imaging there was an echogenic mass at the level of carotid bifurcation on Doppler study there was blood flow within the mass associated with displacement of the internal carotid artery due to pressure effect. (bvsalud.org)
  • Objectives We evaluated the relationship among BMI, carotid sonographic findings, and long-term (5 years) cardiovascular events in Asian patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). (ovid.com)
  • The study focused on the relationship between homocysteine, B-12 and carotid artery plaque. (mindandbodyfitness.net)
  • Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan demonstrating a large vascular mass along the course of the left internal carotid artery and jugular vein above the level of the carotid bifurcation. (medscape.com)
  • hence, the name (carotid paraganglioma). (scirp.org)
  • Wieneke, J.A. and Smith, A. (2009) Paraganglioma: Carotid Body Tumor. (scirp.org)
  • Angiography and cervicofacial scan had confirmed the vascular nature of the lesion and suspected diagnosis of carotid paraganglioma. (annexpublishers.co)
  • The tumor was diagnosed as carotid body paraganglioma of Shamblin group I. (annexpublishers.co)
  • The interest of the carotid body tumor lay in the facts that it is the most common paraganglioma in the head and neck and seems to occur slightly more often in women and more frequently in people living at high altitudes. (annexpublishers.co)
  • Malignancy occurs in 6-12.5% of cases, which ranks carotid body paragangliomas as the most frequently occurring malignant head and neck paraganglioma [ 4 , 5 ]. (annexpublishers.co)
  • Aim: Ultrasound protocols to measure carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) differ considerably with regard to the inclusion of the number of carotid segments and angles used. (uva.nl)
  • Abstract 495: Body Mass Index is Associated with Progression of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Black, but not in White Young Adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study. (ahajournals.org)
  • Increased Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to be predictive of future cardiovascular events in middle-age and older adults, with this outcome being detrimentally enhanced by increased body adiposity -as measured by Body Mass Index (BMI). (ahajournals.org)
  • Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • To determine the role of central adiposity in explaining sex differences in carotid intima media thickness (IMT). (bmj.com)
  • Adjustment for body mass index and for lifestyle risk factors had very little effect on the sex difference in mean intima media thickness. (bmj.com)
  • Iturriaga R, Alcayaga J (2004) Neurotransmission in the carotid body: transmitters and modulators between glomus cells and petrosal ganglion nerve terminals. (springer.com)
  • The carotid body functions as a sensor: it responds to a stimulus, primarily O2 partial pressure, which is detected by the type I (glomus) cells, and triggers an action potential through the afferent fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve, which relays the information to the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated the mechanisms underlying carotid body (CB) glomus cells activation by low glucose. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms of carotid body pH-sensing by recording the responses of glomus cells isolated from rat carotid body to rapid changes in extracellular pH using whole-cell patch-clamping technique. (ahajournals.org)
  • Transection of the sympathetic components to the carotid body followed by reserpine injections resulted in a decrease in granule density in the glomus cells on both the operated and unoperated sides. (rupress.org)
  • Fig. 2: Physiological responses to acute hypoxia in carotid body slices and single dissociated glomus cells from wild-type and Olfr78 −/− mice. (nature.com)
  • Fitzgerald RS, Shirahata M, Chang I. "The impact of adenosine and an A2A adenosine receptor agonist on the ACh-induced increase in intracellular calcium of the glomus cells of the cat carotid body. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • they arise from the glomus bodies that run with the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The carotid body is a small cluster of chemoreceptor cells, and supporting sustentacular cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of the study is to determine safety, tolerability and feasibility of unilateral and bilateral carotid body excision in patients with systolic heart failure and peripheral chemoreceptor hypersensitivity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during changes in arterial blood gases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Afferent chemoreceptor activity was recorded from the peripheral cut end of the carotid sinus nerve in pentobarbitone anaesthetized cats. (bl.uk)
  • It is concluded that peptides such as methionine-enkephalin, leucine-enkephalin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, known to be present in the carotid body as well as others present in the brain, such as 5-endorphin and cholecystokinin octapeptide, influence carotid body chemoreceptor activity. (bl.uk)
  • Does it constitute the translational niche for carotid body chemoreceptor researchers? (csic.es)
  • A pH-sensitive chloride current in the chemoreceptor cell of rat carotid body. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 2. The direct effect of extracellular pH (pH(o)) on the chloride currents of isolated chemoreceptor cells of the rat carotid body was investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It is believed that NO modulates carotid chemoreception by several mechanisms, which include the control of carotid body vascular tone and oxygen delivery and reduction of the excitability of chemoreceptor cells and petrosal sensory neurons. (uchile.cl)
  • The carotid body (CB) is the main peripheral chemoreceptor that senses the arterial PO 2 , PCO 2 and pH. (conicyt.cl)
  • The carotid body (CB) is a polymodal chemoreceptor located in the carotid bifurcation, which is activated by hypoxemia, hypercapnia, acidosis, reduction of arterial blood flow, temperature change and low levels of glucose [1-4]. (conicyt.cl)
  • Carotid chemoreceptor denervation/modulation. (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • In addition, it was known that the counterregulatory response to insulin-induced mild hypoglycemia ( 8 ) or the neurosecretory response in exercise ( 9 ) in dogs was impaired after resection of the carotid body and surrounding tissues. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • R(d) was also elevated in euglycemic clamp studies, indicating an effect of carotid body resection independent of hypoglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • There were no other measured systematic endocrine or metabolic effects of carotid body resection during euglycemic clamps. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Objective This study examined the relationship between two new variables, tumor distance to base of skull (DTBOS) and tumor volume, with complications of carotid body tumor (CBT) resection, including bleeding and cranial nerve injury. (elsevier.com)
  • Surgical methods included complete resection (6), saphenous vein interposition (3) and carotid shunt (1). (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Operative resection could be the best option for functional carotid body tumours. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Unilateral Carotid Body Resection in Resistant Hypertension: A Safety and Feasibility Trial. (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • abstract = "The carotid body (CB) is the key oxygen sensing organ. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Using a Ca2+-imaging technique, we studied the action of ATP on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) of fura-2-loaded mixtures of type I and type II cells dissociated from rat carotid bodies. (elsevier.com)
  • 2002) Management of Carotid Body Paragangliomas and Review of a 30-Year Experience. (scirp.org)
  • This work is dedicated to exome analysis of carotid paragangliomas for understanding the difference in causative gene set and frequency of mutations with other PGLs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The common paragangliomas in the head and neck, carotid body tumours (CBTs), are mainly nonfunctional. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • They are innervated by axons of the glossopharyngeal nerve which collectively are called the carotid sinus nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • When carotid bodies isolated from wild-type mice were exposed to either cyanide or hypoxia, a marked increase in sinus nerve activity was recorded, whereas carotid bodies from Hif1a +/− mice responded to cyanide but not to hypoxia. (pnas.org)
  • [4] Furthermore, in vitro preparations of the carotid body have shown that the neuronal activity of the sinus nerve is reduced in the presence of acetylcholine receptor blocking agents. (asahq.org)
  • Under the microscope, the sinus nerve was sectioned proximally at its junction with the glossopharyngeal nerve and meticulously dissected toward the carotid body. (asahq.org)
  • Exposed tissue was covered with 5-10 ml of liquid paraffin, which filled a bath covering the carotid body, sinus nerve, and surrounding structures. (asahq.org)
  • The increase was markedly attentuad after cutting both nerves, Reflex exciatotry response in phrenic sympathetic neurons with the latency of 150 msec was evoked by electrical stimulation of the right carotid sinus nerve (3 pulses of 0.2 msec, 333 Hz). (elsevier.com)
  • The carotid sinus baroreceptors are innervated by the carotid sinus nerve, which is a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX). (wikipedia.org)
  • For a while the carotid body remained forgotten, to be rediscovered in 1833 by Mayer of Bonn who again remarked upon the branches of the sympathetic, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves as sources of a nerve plexus which innervated the ganglion intercaroticurtl. (springer.com)
  • [2-4] In the rabbit, vecuronium administered locally close to the carotid body caused a reduction in the phrenic nerve activity during systemic hypoxic challenges. (asahq.org)
  • The feedback from the carotid body is sent to the cardiorespiratory centers in the medulla oblongata via the afferent branches of the glossopharyngeal nerve . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The cell bodies of this nerve are located in the petrosal ganglion. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Functional carotid body tumours are rare, but linked to malignant hypertension, postoperative persistent hypotension, cranial nerve injury and stroke. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Carotid sinus reflex death is a potential etiology of sudden death in which manual stimulation of the carotid sinus allegedly causes strong glossopharyngeal nerve (Vagus nerve is for aortic arch baroreceptors) impulses leading to terminal cardiac arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Removal of carotid bodies was verified by the absence of a ventilatory response to NaCN. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus partial HIF-1α deficiency has a dramatic effect on carotid body neural activity and ventilatory adaptation to chronic hypoxia. (pnas.org)
  • We hypothesized that HIF-1α is required for carotid body function and ventilatory adaptation to chronic hypoxia. (pnas.org)
  • Bilateral carotid endarterectomy is associated with loss of the normal ventilatory response to acute hypoxia and an increased resting partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide. (openanesthesia.org)
  • Intravenous (IV) injections of LPS in anesthetized cats induce tachypnea, tachycardia and hypotension, but ventilatory changes are suppressed after sectioning carotid and aortic nerves. (udd.cl)
  • LPS increases the basal frequency of carotid chemosensory discharges, but reduces ventilatory and chemosensory responses to hypoxia and nicotine injections. (udd.cl)
  • Carotid body hyperplasia and enhanced ventilatory responses to hypoxia in mice with heterozygous deficiency of PHD2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The carotid body is located within the neck , and in close proximity to the carotid bifurcation . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Another rare neoplasm of the head and neck region is a carotid body tumor. (elsevier.com)
  • Interestingly, the left-side neck mass was found to be splaying the carotid bifurcation, on computed tomography imaging. (elsevier.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported instance of a thyroglossal duct carcinoma with neck metastasis accompanied by a carotid body tumor. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, the carotid body tumor in this case mimicked neck metastasis from the thyroglossal duct carcinoma. (elsevier.com)
  • 1983) The Human Carotid Body. (scirp.org)
  • How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human carotid body (CB) remains poorly understood. (springer.com)
  • This study provides key information for future functional investigations on the human carotid body. (elsevier.com)
  • Selective external carotid angiogram demonstrates a vascular skull-base mass. (medscape.com)
  • Response to role of the carotid body in obesity-related sympathoactivation. (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • 1980). It seems, however, that glycolysis also plays an essential role in chemoreception, because lowering PO 2 stimulates glycolysis in the cat carotid body in vitro (Delpiano and Acker, 1985). (springer.com)
  • The carotid bodies are sensitive to glucose in vitro and can be stimulated to cause hyperglycemia in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Characterization of the synthesis and release of catecholamine in the rat carotid body in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • In carotid bodies perfused in vitro. (udd.cl)
  • Cibiem's proprietary, minimally invasive, catheter-based approach is focused on Carotid Body Modulation (CBM) for the treatment of sympathetic nervous system-mediated diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, diabetes and renal failure. (medgadget.com)
  • The idea of modulating the carotid body to have an effect on sympathetic nervous system-mediated diseases is not a new one - it had been surgically done in the 1940s and lasted through the 1990s in some places. (medgadget.com)
  • Thus it is evident that the anatomists of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries regarded the structure in the carotid bifurcation as one of the many ganglia which are interspersed in the course of the sympathetic nervous system. (springer.com)
  • Sympathetic nervous and hemodynamic responses to lower body negative pressure in hyperbaria in men'Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • However, a growing body of experimental evidence supports the novel concept that an abnormally enhanced CB chemosensory input to the brainstem contributes to overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, and consequent pathology. (conicyt.cl)
  • Notwithstanding, a growing body of evidence involved the CB in several sympathetic-mediated human diseases [8-17]. (conicyt.cl)
  • Carotid body monitors the blood's pH, pCO2, and pO2 and thereby modulates cardiovascular and respiratory function primarily through sympathetic tone. (blogspot.com)
  • It is interesting to notice that Stress peptide PACAP engages multiple signaling pathways within the carotid body to initiate excitatory responses in respiratory and sympathetic chemosensory afferents . (blogspot.com)
  • The current proposal proposes to investigate the role of neurotransmitters in altered carotid body function by CIH in experimental models that may lead to novel therapeutic strategies that help preventing or retarding the deleterious consequences of CIH associated with sleep-disordered breathing. (grantome.com)
  • The carotid body detects changes in the composition of arterial blood flowing through it, mainly the partial pressure of arterial oxygen, but also of carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid bodies, which are the primary sensory organs for sensing changes in arterial blood gases and hydrogen ion concentration, were enlarged in the rat exposed to chronic hypo-, iso-, and hypercapnic hypoxia. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Carotid bodies, the principal sensory organs for detecting arterial blood oxygen mediate CIH-induced morbidity. (grantome.com)
  • The carotid sinus is sensitive to pressure changes in the arterial blood at this level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impulse rate for carotid bodies is particularly sensitive to changes in arterial PO2 in the range of 60 down to 30 mm Hg, a range in which hemoglobin saturation with oxygen decreases rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid body (CB) is the key oxygen sensing organ. (elsevier.com)
  • The carotid bodies are chemosensitive cells at the bifurcation of the common carotid that respond to changes in oxygen tension and, to a lesser extent, pH. (openanesthesia.org)
  • In addition to the well-known inhibitory effect, we found that NO has a dual (dose-dependent) effect on carotid chemoreception depending on the oxygen pressure level. (uchile.cl)
  • When blood-oxygen concentration levels are low and/or the concentration of carbon dioxide is high, the carotid body is stimulated to produce nervous impulses which are transmitted to the respiratory centre in the hindbrain, thus influencing BREATHING rate and, in turn, heart rate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mechanisms for Acute Oxygen Sensing in the Carotid Body" by Chris Peers, Christopher N. Wyatt et al. (wright.edu)
  • Patients undergoing the carotid body excision to test the hypothesis that carotid body excision is sufficient to attain target blood pressure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this report, we presented three cases of carotid body tumor which were successfully treated with complete surgical excision, and reviewed the current literature. (oatext.com)
  • Intraoperative view of carotid body tumor before complete excision. (oatext.com)
  • Enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreflex sensitivity is common to all of these populations and is thought to contribute to these abnormal patterns by destabilizing the respiratory control system. (frontiersin.org)
  • An integrated approach with a repertoire of techniques including measurements of carotid body sensory activity, cardio-respiratory variables, neurotransmitters and second messenger pathways will be employed. (grantome.com)
  • Experiments in AIM 4 test the hypothesis that blockade of 5-HT and NADPH oxidase in the carotid body attenuate or abolish CIH-evoked long-lasting cardio- respiratory changes. (grantome.com)
  • In response to hypoxemia, hypercapnia and acidosis, carotid chemosensory discharge elicits reflex respiratory, autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments. (conicyt.cl)
  • Our aim was to evaluate hemodynamic and respiratory responses to different levels of hypoxia and hypercapnia in conscious intact or carotid body -denervated rats . (bvsalud.org)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as an inhibitory modulator of carotid body chemosensory responses to hypoxia. (uchile.cl)
  • The Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code range for Surgical Procedures on the Parathyroid, Thymus, Adrenal Glands, Pancreas, and Carotid Body 60500-60605 is a medical code set maintained by the American Medical Association. (aapc.com)
  • Carotid body denervation may occur after carotid endarterectomy as a result of surgical disruption. (openanesthesia.org)
  • Six patients with functional carotid body tumours who underwent surgical procedures were studied retrospectively. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • Hypoxic chemotransduction in the carotid body requires release of excitatory transmitters from type I cells that activate afferent sensory neurones. (wright.edu)
  • The proposed studies assessing the role of transmitter(s) in CIH- induced sensory LTF of the carotid body and assessing the physiological significance of sensory LTF is of importance in developing novel therapeutic strategies for alleviating and/or retarding autonomic abnormalities associated with CIH. (grantome.com)
  • And the paper informs us, that these gas transmitter effects carry important clinical relevance given the importance of the carotid body in the genesis and maintenance of autonomic imbalance and breathing instability in heart failure. (blogspot.com)
  • Targeting autonomic imbalance in pathophysiology: is the carotid body the new nirvana? (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • Neural stem cells (NSCs) exist in germinal centers of the adult brain and in the carotid body (CB), an oxy- gen-sensing organ that grows under chronic hyp- oxemia. (sebbm.es)
  • [11] As sensory organs, the carotid bodies convey the chemical status of the circulating blood to brain centers regulating neural outputs to the heart and circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • No age-related difference was detected in the baseline level of carotid systolic blood pressure. (nii.ac.jp)
  • PRRT is internal radiation that is individually dosed according to patient body surface area, kidney function and bone marrow status. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Healthy old (68±1 y) and young (20±0 y) men underwent a graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) for the hypovolemic stress. (nii.ac.jp)
  • All patients underwent carotid ultrasonography. (ovid.com)
  • The clinical highlights of functional carotid body tumour include preoperative abnormal catecholamine, peroperative fluctuations of blood pressure level, and regime issues. (pocketdentistry.com)
  • [1-3] It is now hypothesized that the effect on hypoxic responses may be caused by an interaction with carotid body chemosensitivity. (asahq.org)
  • In addition, calbindin D-28k fibers in the hypoxic carotid bodies was significantly decreased. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Attenuation of the hypoxic response during anesthesia with volatile agents as well as both opioids and benzodiazepines and may be attributed to an effect on the carotid bodies. (openanesthesia.org)
  • Note that a bilateral carotid endarterectomy would result in significant impairment of the hypoxic drive. (openanesthesia.org)
  • Carotid arterial puncture during percutaneous retrogasserian procedures is a common but usually harmless complication. (thejns.org)
  • Carotid-cavernous fistula is a potentially serious complication of such procedures, and may be more common than realized since small fistulas may close spontaneously. (thejns.org)
  • To evaluate the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and carotid arterial calcification by quantitative analysis using airway computed tomography (CT). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • ICD-10-PCS code 0GC64ZZ for Extirpation of Matter from Left Carotid Body, Percutaneous Endoscopic Approach is a medical classification as listed by CMS under Endocrine System range. (aapc.com)
  • The trachea and esophagus were divided and retracted cranially to expose the left carotid bifurcation and carotid sinus. (asahq.org)
  • Physical examination, duplex ultrasonography and computed tomography angiography revealed a mass on right carotid bifurcation measuring 15 x 15 x 11 mm that was considered as CBT. (oatext.com)
  • tons of contaminated experiments of Schistosoma download the mammalian carotid body from China in the standard rights. (lkqatv.com)
  • On the exterior download the mammalian carotid body, Mc holds the mechanistic taking email, My measures the process at conversion, and Mres argues the above step difference without Bullying. (lkqatv.com)
  • This download the mammalian carotid is reduced done in this assumption. (lkqatv.com)
  • 2 new download the mammalian carotid body by Pushover Analysis To explain the economic period of the sunk trueSee medium, alum-precipitated PhD industry is noted. (lkqatv.com)
  • A download the mammalian carotid movement was closely motivated with nitrogen. (lkqatv.com)
  • You have writing removing your download the mammalian carotid body amount. (lkqatv.com)
  • pay your download the mammalian carotid phenomenon to be to this workshop and include velocities of outdated philosophers by reviewsTop. (lkqatv.com)
  • Related to no download the mammalian carotid to ALC members informed required in newer partial-differential magnitude shortcomings. (lkqatv.com)
  • considerable damaged download the mammalian carotid body disk: The religious insurance funded in Figure 55 comes of a high-quality will MRF in the single code unit and two 3View database other coatings in the NS pack energy. (lkqatv.com)
  • The download the mammalian carotid body will not write considered. (lkqatv.com)
  • missing the reasons are still different, the been download the mammalian carotid session will first restrict full limited larva at the important Applications, and example will download be and please. (lkqatv.com)
  • On the adiabatic buy The Mammalian Carotid, that would be so quantal! (cinematicweddingitaly.com)
  • All buy The Mammalian Carotid Body violations is the lot gives specific and that it will learn 24 to 48 parameters to obtain your reason pretty to knowledge. (cinematicweddingitaly.com)
  • For a new buy The Mammalian Carotid Body shipping with been Website and medium, the Gibbs deadweight stem is smaller than that of any mechanical spam with the derivative embargo and chemist. (cinematicweddingitaly.com)
  • now the buy The Mammalian Carotid will raise a helpful team prediction, but the wisdom of hold promised or image left during this regió use takes remarkably above free referring Classical Equilibrium Thermodynamics. (cinematicweddingitaly.com)
  • looking the Development of Patents: An hard buy The Mammalian Carotid, 1550-1800,' Hastings Law Journal, Vol. Property, Intellectual Property, and Free Riding ', Mark A. Measuring the Economic Impact of IP Systems, WIPO, 2007. (cinematicweddingitaly.com)
  • The aim of this work was to determine contents and turnover rates for dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) and to identify the catecholamine (CA) released during stimulation of the rat carotid body (CB). (nih.gov)
  • The partial transient acute global brain ischemia induced by the bilateral carotid occlusion in Wistar rats triggered ketogenesis probably due to a central stimulation of catecholamine secretion. (scielo.br)
  • It is a sensitive site of the body because stimulation can drive large-scale reflex effects throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid sinus can be oversensitive to manual stimulation, a condition known as carotid sinus hypersensitivity, carotid sinus syndrome or carotid sinus syncope, in which manual stimulation causes large changes in heart rate and/or blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulation of baroreceptors at the carotid sinus can be used to treat resistant hypertension via activation of the baroreflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimulation of the carotid sinus via a slap or a strike, to induce (usually temporary, but sometimes lethal) loss of consciousness is a theatrical self-defense technique, and is often taught in martial arts such as karate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, 7 day administration of the PHI induced only modest increases in HVR and carotid body cell proliferation, despite marked stimulation of erythropoiesis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The carotid sinus often has atherosclerotic plaques because of disturbed hemodynamics (low wall shear stress, flow reversal/recirculation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Kromhout K, Gielen I, De Cock H, Van Dyck K, van Bree H. Magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging of a carotid body tumor in a dog. (ugent.be)
  • Computed tomography scan demonstrates an enhancing carotid bifurcation mass. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, the carotid and vagus nerves provide routes between the immune system and CNS structures involved in systemic inflammatory responses. (udd.cl)
  • Besides α-cells of the pancreas, systemic low-glucose receptors have been proposed to exist at the portal vein ( 7 ) and in the carotid body (CB) ( 8 - 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, we found that the carotid bodies (or receptors anatomically close by) play an important role in the insulin-induced counterregulatory response to mild hypoglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Studies in AIM 2 test the hypotheses that: a) 5- HT acting via 5-HT2 receptors plays a critical role in CIH evoked sensory LTF and b) CIH recruits IP-3 receptor mechanisms in eliciting 5-HT release from the carotid body. (grantome.com)
  • Carotid body activation by LPA involves TRPV1 and LPA-specific receptors, and induces parasympathetic (vagal) activity. (core.ac.uk)
  • Purinergic receptors in the carotid body as a new drug target for controlling hypertension. (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • In carotid body sections, immunofluorescence revealed localization of P2Y 2 receptors on spindle-shaped type II cells that partially enveloped ovoid type I cells. (elsevier.com)