A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
Several clusters of chemoreceptive and supporting cells associated with blood vessels and nerves (especially the glossopharyngeal and vagus). The nonchromaffin paraganglia sense pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and participate in respiratory, and perhaps circulatory, control. They include the CAROTID BODY; AORTIC BODIES; the GLOMUS JUGULARE; and the GLOMUS TYMPANICUM.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Small clusters of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the ARCH OF THE AORTA; the PULMONARY ARTERIES; and the CORONARY ARTERIES. The aortic bodies sense PH; CARBON DIOXIDE; and OXYGEN concentrations in the BLOOD and participate in the control of RESPIRATION. The aortic bodies should not be confused with the PARA-AORTIC BODIES in the abdomen (which are sometimes also called aortic bodies).
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.
A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the CAROTID BODY; GLOMUS JUGULARE; GLOMUS TYMPANICUM; AORTIC BODIES; and the female genital tract. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. (From Stedman, 27th ed)
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
A diverticulum from the fourth pharyngeal pouch of an embryo, regarded by some as a rudimentary fifth pharyngeal pouch and by others as a lateral thyroid primordium. The ultimobranchial bodies of lower vertebrates contain large amounts of calcitonin. In mammals the bodies fuse with the thyroid gland and are thought to develop into the parafollicular cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.
A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
A respiratory stimulant that enhances respiration by acting as an agonist of peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid bodies. The drug increases arterial oxygen tension while decreasing arterial carbon dioxide tension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It may also prove useful in the treatment of nocturnal oxygen desaturation without impairing the quality of sleep.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.

Presynaptic action of adenosine on a 4-aminopyridine-sensitive current in the rat carotid body. (1/641)

1. Plasma adenosine concentration increases during hypoxia to a level that excites carotid body chemoreceptors by an undetermined mechanism. We have examined this further by determining the electrophysiological responses to exogenous adenosine of sinus nerve chemoafferents in vitro and of whole-cell currents in isolated type I cells. 2. Steady-state, single-fibre chemoafferent discharge was increased approximately 5-fold above basal levels by 100 microM adenosine. This adenosine-stimulated discharge was reversibly and increasingly reduced by methoxyverapamil (D600, 100 microM), by application of nickel chloride (Ni2+, 2 mM) and by removal of extracellular Ca2+. These effects strongly suggest a presynaptic, excitatory action of adenosine on type I cells of the carotid body. 3. Adenosine decreased whole-cell outward currents at membrane potentials above -40 mV in isolated type I cells recorded during superfusion with bicarbonate-buffered saline solution at 34-36 C. This effect was reversible and concentration dependent with a maximal effect at 10 microM. 4. The degree of current inhibition induced by 10 microM adenosine was voltage independent (45.39 +/- 2. 55 % (mean +/- s.e.m.) between -40 and +30 mV) and largely ( approximately 75 %), but not entirely, Ca2+ independent. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM) decreased the amplitude of the control outward current by 80.60 +/- 3.67 % and abolished the effect of adenosine. 5. Adenosine was without effect upon currents near the resting membrane potential of approximately -55 mV and did not induce depolarization in current-clamp experiments. 6. We conclude that adenosine acts to inhibit a 4-AP-sensitive current in isolated type I cells of the rat carotid body and suggest that this mechanism contributes to the chemoexcitatory effect of adenosine in the whole carotid body.  (+info)

Trigeminal and carotid body inputs controlling vascular resistance in muscle during post-contraction hyperaemia in cats. (2/641)

1. In anaesthetized cats, the effects of stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa and carotid body chemoreceptors on vascular resistance in hindlimb skeletal muscle were studied to see whether the responses were the same in active as in resting muscle. The measurements of vascular resistance were taken, first, in resting muscle, and second, in the immediate post-contraction hyperaemic phase that followed a 30 s period of isometric contractions. 2. Stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa caused reflex apnoea and vasoconstriction in muscle. The latter response was attenuated when the test was repeated during post-contraction hyperaemia. 3. Stimulations of the carotid bodies were made during a period of apnoea evoked reflexly by electrical stimulation of both superior laryngeal nerves. This apnoea prevented any effects of changes in respiration on the carotid body reflex vascular responses. Stimulation of the carotid bodies evoked hindlimb muscle vasoconstriction. In the post-contraction hyperaemic period, the response was reduced or abolished. A similar attenuation of the reflex vasoconstrictor responses occurred in decentralized muscles stimulated through their motor roots in the cauda equina. 4. Evidence is presented that the attenuation of the vasoconstrictor responses evoked by the two reflexes is a phenomenon localized to the contracting muscles themselves resulting from an interaction between sympathetic neuronal activity and the local production of metabolites. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the metabolic needs of tissues in relation to asphyxial defence mechanisms such as occur in the diving response.  (+info)

BDNF is a target-derived survival factor for arterial baroreceptor and chemoafferent primary sensory neurons. (3/641)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports survival of 50% of visceral afferent neurons in the nodose/petrosal sensory ganglion complex (NPG; Ernfors et al., 1994a; Jones et al., 1994; Conover et al., 1995; Liu et al., 1995; Erickson et al., 1996), including arterial chemoafferents that innervate the carotid body and are required for development of normal breathing (Erickson et al., 1996). However, the relationship between BDNF dependence of visceral afferents and the location and timing of BDNF expression in visceral tissues is unknown. The present study demonstrates that BDNF mRNA and protein are transiently expressed in NPG targets in the fetal cardiac outflow tract, including baroreceptor regions in the aortic arch, carotid sinus, and right subclavian artery, as well as in the carotid body. The period of BDNF expression corresponds to the onset of sensory innervation and to the time at which fetal NPG neurons are BDNF-dependent in vitro. Moreover, baroreceptor innervation is absent in newborn mice lacking BDNF. In addition to vascular targets, vascular afferents themselves express high levels of BDNF, both during and after the time they are BDNF-dependent. However, endogenous BDNF supports survival of fetal NPG neurons in vitro only under depolarizing conditions. Together, these data indicate two roles for BDNF during vascular afferent pathway development; initially, as a target-derived survival factor, and subsequently, as a signaling molecule produced by the afferents themselves. Furthermore, the fact that BDNF is required for survival of functionally distinct populations of vascular afferents demonstrates that trophic requirements of NPG neurons are not modality-specific but may instead be associated with innervation of particular organ systems.  (+info)

NADPH oxidase inhibition does not interfere with low PO2 transduction in rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells. (4/641)

The aim of the present work was to elucidate the role of NADPH oxidase in hypoxia sensing and transduction in the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor cells. We have studied the effects of several inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on the normoxic and hypoxia-induced release of [3H]catecholamines (CA) in an in vitro preparation of intact CB of the rat and rabbit whose CA deposits have been labeled by prior incubation with the natural precursor [3H]tyrosine. It was found that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI; 0.2-25 microM), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, caused a dose-dependent release of [3H]CA from normoxic CB chemoreceptor cells. Contrary to hypoxia, DPI-evoked release was only partially Ca2+ dependent. Concentrations of DPI reported to produce full inhibition of NADPH oxidase in the rat CB did not prevent the hypoxic release response in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells, as stimulation with hypoxia in the presence of DPI elicited a response equaling the sum of that produced by DPI and hypoxia applied separately. Neopterin (3-300 microM) and phenylarsine oxide (0.5-2 microM), other inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, did not promote release of [3H]CA in normoxic conditions or affect the response elicited by hypoxia. On the basis of effects of neopterin and phenylarsine oxide, it is concluded that NADPH oxidase does not appear to play a role in oxygen sensing or transduction in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells in vitro and, in the context of the present study, that DPI effects are not related to NADPH oxidase inhibition.  (+info)

Enhanced activity of carotid body chemoreceptors in rabbits with heart failure: role of nitric oxide. (5/641)

An enhanced peripheral chemoreflex has been documented in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). This study aimed to examine the characteristics of carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors in response to isocapnic hypoxia in a rabbit model of pacing-induced CHF and to evaluate the possible role that nitric oxide (NO) plays in the altered characteristics. The chemosensitive characteristics of the CB were evaluated by recording single-unit activity from the carotid sinus nerve in both an intact and a vascularly isolated preparation. It was found that the baseline discharge under normoxia (intact preparation: arterial PO2 90-95 Torr; isolated preparation: PO2 100-110 Torr) and the chemosensitivity in response to graded hypoxia (PO2 40-70 Torr) were enhanced in CHF vs. sham rabbits. These alterations were independent of the CB preparations (intact vs. isolated). NO synthase inhibition by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine increased the baseline discharge and the chemosensitivity in the intact preparation, whereas L-arginine (10(-5) M) inhibited the baseline discharge and the chemosensitivity in the isolated preparation in sham but not in CHF rabbits. S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, an NO donor, inhibited the baseline discharge and the chemosensitivity in both CB preparations in CHF rabbits but only in the isolated preparation in sham rabbits. The amount of NO produced in vitro by the CB under normoxia was less in CHF rabbits than in sham rabbits (P < 0.05). NO synthase-positive varicosities of nerve fibers within the CB were less in CHF rabbits than in sham rabbits (P < 0.05). These data indicate that an enhanced input from CB occurs in the rabbit model of pacing-induced CHF and that an impairment of NO production may contribute to this alteration.  (+info)

Nitric oxide inhibits L-type Ca2+ current in glomus cells of the rabbit carotid body via a cGMP-independent mechanism. (6/641)

Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits carotid body sensory activity. To begin to understand the cellular mechanisms associated with the actions of NO in the carotid body, we monitored the effects of NO donors on the macroscopic Ca2+ current in glomus cells isolated from rabbit carotid bodies. Experiments were performed on freshly dissociated glomus cells from adult rabbit carotid bodies using the whole cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. The NO donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 600 microM, n = 7) and spermine nitric oxide (SNO; 100 microM, n = 7) inhibited the Ca2+ current in glomus cells in a voltage-independent manner. These effects of NO donors were rapid in onset and peaked within 1 or 2 min. In contrast, the outward K+ current was unaffected by SNP (600 microM, n = 6), indicating that the inhibition by SNP was not a nonspecific membrane effect. 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO; 500 microM), an NO scavenger, prevented inhibition of the Ca2+ current by SNP (n = 7), whereas neither superoxide dismutase (SOD; 2,000 U/ml, n = 4), a superoxide scavenger, nor sodium hydrosulfite (SHS; 1 mM, n = 7), a reducing agent, prevented inhibition of the Ca2+ current by SNP. However, SNP inhibition of the Ca2+ current was reversible in the presence of either SOD or SHS. These results suggest that NO itself inhibits Ca2+ current in a reversible manner and that subsequent formation of peroxynitrites results in irreversible inhibition. SNP inhibition of the Ca2+ current was not affected by 30 microM LY 83, 583 (n = 7) nor was it mimicked by 600 microM 8-bromoguanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP; n = 6), suggesting that the effects of NO on the Ca2+ current are mediated, in part, via a cGMP-independent mechanism. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM; 2.5 mM, n = 6) prevented the inhibition of the Ca2+ current by SNP, indicating that SNP is acting via a modification of sulfhydryl groups on Ca2+ channel proteins. Norepinephrine (NE; 10 microM) further inhibited the Ca2+ current in the presence of NEM (n = 7), implying that NEM did not nonspecifically eliminate Ca2+ current modulation. Nisoldipine, an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker (2 microM, n = 6), prevented the inhibition of Ca2+ current by SNP, whereas omega-conotoxin GVIA, an N-type Ca2+ channel blocker (1 microM, n = 9), did not prevent the inhibition of Ca2+ current by SNP. These results demonstrate that NO inhibits L-type Ca2+ channels in adult rabbit glomus cells, in part, due to a modification of calcium channel proteins. The inhibition might provide one plausible mechanism for efferent inhibition of carotid body activity by NO.  (+info)

Contribution of baroreceptors and chemoreceptors to ventricular hypertrophy produced by sino-aortic denervation in rats. (7/641)

1. To test whether sino-aortic denervation (SAD)-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is a consequence of baroreceptor or chemoreceptor denervation, we compared the effects of aortic denervation (AD), carotid denervation (CD), SAD and a SAD procedure modified to spare the carotid chemoreceptors (mSAD), 6 weeks after denervation surgery in rats. A sham surgery group served as the control. 2. The blood pressure (BP) level was unaffected by AD, CD or SAD, but increased (9 %) following mSAD. The mean heart rate level was not affected. Short-term BP variability was elevated following AD (81 %), SAD (144 %) and mSAD (146 %), but not after CD. Baroreflex heart rate responses to phenylephrine were attenuated in all denervation groups. 3. Significant RVH occurred only following CD and SAD. These procedures also produced high mortality (CD and SAD) and significant increases in right ventricular pressures and haematocrit (CD). 4. Significant left ventricular hypertrophy occurred following CD, SAD and mSAD. Normalized left ventricular weight was significantly correlated with indices of BP variability. 5. These results suggest that SAD-induced RVH is a consequence of chemoreceptor, not baroreceptor, denervation. Our results also demonstrate that a mSAD procedure designed to spare the carotid chemoreceptors produced profound baroreflex dysfunction and significant left, but not right, ventricular hypertrophy.  (+info)

Contribution of peripheral chemoreception to the depression of the hypoxic ventilatory response during halothane anesthesia in cats. (8/641)

BACKGROUND: The effects of inhalational anesthetics on the hypoxic ventilatory response are complex. This study was designed to determine the contribution of peripheral chemoreception to the depression of hypoxic ventilatory response seen with halothane anesthesia. METHODS: Cats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium and alpha-chloralose and artificially ventilated. Respiratory output was evaluated by phasic inspiratory activity of the phrenic nerve. In 12 cats, this activity was measured during inhalation of an hypoxic gas mixture with halothane, 0, 0.1, and 0.8%, with intact or denervated carotid bodies. In 10 cats, a carotid body was isolated from the systemic circulation and perfused with hypoxic Krebs-Ringer solution equilibrated with halothane, 0, 0.1, and 0.8%. RESULTS: The hypoxic ventilatory response was depressed in a dose-dependent manner during halothane anesthesia. In carotid body perfusion studies, the response was significantly depressed only with halothane, 0.80%. CONCLUSION: The hypoxic ventilatory response is depressed by a high dose of halothane through a peripheral effect at the carotid body.  (+info)

The molecular mechanism of pH sensing by chemoreceptors is not clear, although it had been proposed to be mediated by a drop in intracellular pH of carotid body glomus cells, which inhibits a K+ current. Recently, pH-sensitive ion channels have been described in glomus cells that respond directly to extracellular acidosis. In this study, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms of carotid body pH-sensing by recording the responses of glomus cells isolated from rat carotid body to rapid changes in extracellular pH using whole-cell patch-clamping technique. Extracellular acidosis evoked transient inward currents in glomus cells that were evident at pH 7.0 and half-activated (pH 50) at 6.3. The current had the characteristics of ASICs. It averaged 40.7±15.7 pA (n=5) at pH 5.0 and was blocked by the ASIC channel blocker amiloride (200 μm) to 2.5±1.6 pA. Na+ free bathing solution eliminated the current and a Ca2+ free buffer enhanced (P,0.05) the current at pH 6.0 from 18.5±2.2 to ...
Afferent chemoreceptor activity was recorded from the peripheral cut end of the carotid sinus nerve in pentobarbitone anaesthetized cats. The effects of purines, peptides and ouabain on chemosensory activity were studied. Purines. It was found that intracarotid injections of adenosine: AMP; ADP; ATP; CoA;Me-adenosine analogues: N6-methyladenosine, 2-chloroadenosine, 3-deoxyudenosine but not 2-deoxyadenosine; cyclic AMP; dibutyryl cyclic AMP increased spontaneous chemoreceptor discharge. The ATP analogues, a-5- methylene ATP decreased spontaneous chemoreceptor discharge, whereas the f-y-methylene ATP caused a slight increase in discharge. Adenine and the purine nucleosides inosine and guanosine had little or no effect on the discharge. The pyrimidine nucleosides cytidine and uridine were also studied and had little or no effect on spontaneous chemoreceptor discharge. Intracarotid injection of theophylline transiently depressed spontaneous chemosensory activity and potentiated the action of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene transfer of neuronal nitric oxide synthase to carotid body reverses enhanced chemoreceptor function in heart failure rabbits. AU - Li, Yulong. AU - Li, Yi Fan. AU - Liu, Dongmei. AU - Cornish, Kurtis G.. AU - Patel, Kaushik P. AU - Zucker, Irving H. AU - Channon, Keith M.. AU - Schultz, Harold D. PY - 2005/8/5. Y1 - 2005/8/5. N2 - Our previous studies showed that decreased nitric oxide (NO) production enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity in chronic heart failure (CHF) rabbits. In the present study, we investigated the effects of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) gene transfer on CB chemoreceptor activity in CHF rabbits. The nNOS protein expression and NO production were suppressed in CBs (P,0.05) of CHF rabbits, but were increased 3 days after application of an adenovirus expressing nNOS (Ad.nNOS) to the CB. As a control, nNOS and NO levels in CHF CBs were not affected by Ad.EGFP. Baseline single-fiber discharge during normoxia and the response to hypoxia were ...
The inappropriate sustained SNA increase in OSA patients likely contributes to hypertension, organ damage, and mortality; however, it is unclear how excessive SNA develops in these patients. Several factors, including obesity and increased carotid body chemoreceptor sensitivity due to intermittent hypoxia, have been considered. Obesity could mechanically obstruct the airway and increase SNA through leptin, insulin, angiotensin, and cytokine actions; however, many OSA patients are not obese (23). Carotid body hypersensitivity as a result of intermittent hypoxia has been confirmed in animal models of OSA. In fact, plasticity of the carotid body glomus cells with long-term sensory facilitation and sensitization have been reported (18, 24) and associated with ROS and NOX2-dependent accumulation of HIF1 and the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (25). Central neuroplasticity. A provocative possibility for OSA-associated SNA dysfunction is that excessive activation of CNS nuclei induces ...
Abstract: Carbon dioxide retention is common in divers during water immersion. This puts divers at risk for carbon dioxide toxicity. The carotid body chemoreceptors contribute to the control of ventilation and when blood oxygen content is high, ventilation decreases. This results in the increased risk of carbon dioxide retention. Therefore, we are investigating the role of the carotid body chemoreceptors in ventilatory control during hyperbaric exposures when blood oxygen content is elevated ...
Increased sympathetic activity is a well-known pathophysiological mechanism in insulin resistance (IR) and hypertension (HT). The carotid bodies (CB) are peripheral chemoreceptors that classically respond to hypoxia by increasing chemosensory activity in the carotid sinus nerve (CSN), causing hyperventilation and activation of the sympathoadrenal system. Besides its role in the control of ventilation, the CB has been proposed as a glucose sensor implicated in the control of energy homeostasis. However, to date no studies have anticipated its role in the development of IR. Herein, we propose that CB overstimulation is involved in the etiology of IR and HT, core metabolic and hemodynamic disturbances of highly prevalent diseases like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and obstructive sleep apnoea. We demonstrate that CB activity is increased in IR animal models and that CSN resection prevents CB overactivation and diet-induced IR and HT. Moreover, we show that insulin triggers CB, ...
Symposium on Signalling pathways in acute oxygen sensing, held at the Novartis Foundation, London, 25-27 January 2005. Editors: Derek J. Chadwick (Organizer) and Jamie Goode.. This symposium is based on a proposal made by Jeremy Ward.. Michael Duchen Chairs introduction.. Gregg L. Semenza, Larissa A. Shimoda and Nanduri R. Prabhakar Regulation of gene expression by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor.. Discussion.. Ineke P. Stolze, David R. Mole and Peter J. Ratcliffe Regulation of HIF: prolyl hydroxylases.. Discussion.. General discussion I.. Daniel Peet and Sarah Linke Regulation of HIF: asparaginyl hydroxylation.. Discussion.. José López-Barneo, Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, José I. Piruat and María García-Fernández Oxygen-sensing by ion channels and mitochondrial function in carotid body glomus cells.. Discussion.. Keith J. Buckler, Beatrice A. Williams, Rodrigo Varas Orozco and Christopher N. Wyatt The role of TASK-like potassium channels in oxygen sensing in the carotid body.. Discussion.. Nanduri ...
jdempsey{at}wisc.edu. Question: Does the carotid body response to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) differ between neonates and adults?. Background: The carotid body is a sensory organ located near the bifurcation of the carotid artery and is responsible for detecting changes in the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood. In adult rodents, during CIH, the carotid body is theorized to evoke the reflexes that mediate cardiorespiratory changes and results in a long-lasting increase in baseline sensory activity known as sensory long-term facilitation (LTF). In contrast to adults, the carotid bodies of neonatal rodents are immature and respond poorly to hypoxia. To better understand the physiology of neonatal carotid bodies, Pawar et al. explored whether CIH evokes sensory LTF and whether the effects of CIH are reversible in neonatal carotid bodies.. Observations: CIH augmented the hypoxic sensory response in both adults and neonates; however, the neonates displayed more susceptibility to the ...
The study was approved by the Local Animal Care and Use Committee of the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Seven adult New Zealand White rabbits weighing 3860 +/− 270 g (mean +/− SD) were included. After an initial dose of intravenous thiopental, 75-100 mg, given via a marginal ear vein, a tracheostomy was performed after an anterior midline skin incision. Mechanical ventilation (ETCO(2), 4.0-5.0%) was initiated at a rate of 33 breaths/min using a mixture of oxygen and air (FIO(2) 0.30), whereas the inspired tidal volume was adjusted to maintain isocapnia throughout the experiment. Anesthesia was maintained with a continuous thiopental infusion of 10.5 +/− 0.9 mg [middle dot] kg-1[middle dot] h-1(range, 9.4-12.0) given via a right femoral vein catheter. The right femoral artery was cannulated for continuous arterial blood pressure monitoring and arterial blood gas analysis (ABL 300 Laboratory [registered sign], Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). On-line analysis of inspired and ...
The carotid body located in the bifurcation of the carotid arteries is able to detect gas changes in blood composition (PO2, PCO2/pH) and to transduce them into afferent nerve signal. The intimate...
Background K+ channels of the TASK family are believed to participate in sensory transduction by chemoreceptor (glomus) cells of the carotid body (CB). However, studies on the systemic CB-mediated ventilatory response to hypoxia and hypercapnia in TASK1- and/or TASK3-deficient mice have yielded conflicting results. We have characterized the glomus cell phenotype of TASK-null mice and studied the responses of individual cells to hypoxia and other chemical stimuli. CB morphology and glomus cell size were normal in wild-type as well as in TASK1/ or double TASK1/3/ mice. Patch-clamped TASK1/3-null glomus cells had significantly higher membrane resistance and less hyperpolarized resting potential than their wild-type counterpart. These electrical parameters were practically normal in TASK1/ cells. Sensitivity of background currents to changes of extracellular pH was drastically diminished in TASK1/3-null cells. In contrast with these observations, responsiveness to hypoxia or ...
The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during changes in arterial blood gases. Regardless this essential function, the CB has been implicated in the sensing of other physiological signals such as changes in blood flow and glucose levels. More important, malfunction of the CB chemoreceptors has been associated with the progression and deterioration of several disease states such as hypertension, heart failure, renal failure, insulin resistance, diabetes and sleep apnea. Although the mechanisms involved in the alterations of the CB function in pathophysiology are currently under intense research, the development of therapeutic approaches to restore normal CB chemoreflex function remains unsolved. Recently, elegant studies showing the effect of CB neurotomy in pathophysiology have unveiled a key role of these arterial chemoreceptors in the development of autonomic imbalance and respiratory disturbances, and suggest that
The mechanism of oxygen sensing in arterial chemoreceptors is unknown but has often been linked to mitochondrial function. A common criticism of this hypothesis is that mitochondrial function is insensitive to physiological levels of hypoxia. Here we investigate the effects of hypoxia (down to 0.5% O2) on mitochondrial function in neonatal rat type-1 cells. The oxygen sensitivity of mitochondrial [NADH] was assessed by monitoring autofluorescence and increased in hypoxia with a P50 of 15 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 133.3 Pa) in normal Tyrode or 46 mm Hg in Ca(2+)-free Tyrode. Hypoxia also depolarised mitochondrial membrane potential (m, measured using rhodamine 123) with a P50 of 3.1, 3.3 and 2.8 mm Hg in normal Tyrode, Ca(2+)-free Tyrode and Tyrode containing the Ca(2+) channel antagonist Ni(2+), respectively. In the presence of oligomycin and low carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP; 75 nm) m is maintained by electron transport working against an artificial proton leak. Under these
TY - JOUR. T1 - The human carotid body transcriptome with focus on oxygen sensing and inflammation - a comparative analysis. AU - Mkrtchian, Souren. AU - Kåhlin, Jessica. AU - Ebberyd, Anette. AU - Gonzalez, Constancio. AU - Sanchez, Diego. AU - Balbir, Alexander. AU - Kostuk, Eric W.. AU - Shirahata, Machiko. AU - Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson. AU - Eriksson, Lars I.. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - The carotid body (CB) is the key oxygen sensing organ. While the expression of CB specific genes is relatively well studied in animals, corresponding data for the human CB are missing. In this study we used five surgically removed human CBs to characterize the CB transcriptome with microarray and PCR analyses, and compared the results with mice data. In silico approaches demonstrated a unique gene expression profile of the human and mouse CB transcriptomes and an unexpected upregulation of both human and mouse CB genes involved in the inflammatory response compared to brain and adrenal gland data. Human ...
This surgery does not involve any study drug or investigational device.. The carotid body will be removed by the so called lateral approach or a combined lateral and medial approach. In all cases the target area was defined as the tissue in between the ECA and ICA, up to 5-6mm above the bifurcation point of the common carotid artery into the ECA and ICA. In a lateral approach the carotid bifurcation is not turned. A combined approach includes usually dissection of the superior thyroid vessel and turning of the carotid bifurcation. ...
Position and source of blood supply to the human carotid body displays population variations. These data are important during surgical procedures and diagnostic imaging in the neck but are only scarcely reported and altogether missing for the Kenyan population. The aim of this study was to describe the position and blood supply of the carotid body in a Kenyan populati on. A descriptive cross-sectional study at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, was designed. 136 common carotid arteries and their bifurcations were exposed by gross dissection. The carotid body was identified as a small oval structure embedded in the blood vessel adventitia. Position and source of blood supply were photographed. Data are presented by tables and macrographs. 138 carotid bodies were identified. Commonest position was carotid bifurcation (75.4%) followed by external carotid artery (10.2%), internal carotid artery (7.2%) and ascending pharyngeal artery (7.2%). Sources of arterial blood supply ...
Body types can determine what physical activities match your needs and what you would eat to supply your routines. Weight loss plan based on your body type.
The recent insights we have about food have shown that a calorie is quite a rough parameter to quantify food with. Even in the same person, a calorie had a different consequence on the body depending on the source of the calorie and the digestion of the person at that moment. There can be a huge difference between people in the way food is processed. Some can eat eight slices of pizza without gaining an ounce, while others will bloat just by looking at it. If we wish to feed ourselves correctly, we need to understand how food acts and how we process food personally, according to our body type. Food is not only a bunch of calories created to still our hunger and fool our senses; it contains information like software code written by nature to feed and upgrade our inner intelligence. Food should thus be considered medicine and the cook a doctor. This leads us to knowledge of our body type and the necessity for a proper diagnosis before choosing what to eat, as food will restore our balance ...
Study on Different Body Types between Korean-Chinese and Han-Chinese Women in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and the Social Environmental Factors - With the Focus on the Women in their 60s - - body type;social environmental factors;the Han-Chinese;the Korean-Chinese;women in their 60s;
Simple sensory activities for kids. Water play, Sand Play, and more. Sensory Play for all the senses! | See more ideas about Sensory activities, Sensory play and Sensory bins.
People tend to get sick, over and over again, due to similar causes and habitual imbalances that are unique to the person. Your body type summarizes this tendency, showing you the type of conditions and imbalances that frequently challenge your health & wellness. Using body type, you can also identify remedies likely to improve your strength and resiliency. Your body type identifies physical and mental characteristics as well as your personal strengths and weaknesses. The calculation of your body type is based on your medical history. The 3 functional body types (doshas), are Catabolic (Vata), Metabolic (Pitta), and Anabolic (Kapha). Catabolic individuals tend to break down body mass into energy. Metabolic individuals tend to burn or use energy. Anabolic individuals tend to store energy as body mass. Catabolic people tend to be easily stimulated, hyperactive, underweight and dry. Metabolic people tend to be rosy-cheeked, easily irritated, focused, driven, and easily inflamed. Anabolic people ...
Follow these simple ayurvedic tips for good sleep according to your body type or dosha. Find exercises and daily eating schedules that help too
From slimming dresses to cute summer tops, learn the best summer style for each body type, including wide hips, thick thighs, and broad shoulders!
Energy balancing is the art of living in harmony with your unique mind body type in order to remove any blockages or energetic disturbances. Learn how.
Explore Samira Avdics board Förskolans miljö inspo on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Fine motor, Sensory activities and Kids education.
Portal de Revistas Académicas Chilenas proporciona acceso abierto a las publicaciones editadas por universidades, sociedades científicas, organismos gubernamentales y ONGs editadas e Chile
Advances in experimental medicine and biology.; Arterial chemoreception: from molecules to systems; Ontario, Canada, 2011; Jul, 2012, 199-206 -- Dordrecht; London; Springer; c2012 Part; (pages 199-206) -- ...
Experimental physiology.; Novel partners and mechanisms in oxygen sensing; San Francisco, CA, 2006; Apr, 2006, 821-828 -- Blackwell Publishing,; 2006 (pages 821-828) -- ...
Just about everyone understands that exercise is good for you. Exercise helps maintain proper weight, eases stress, strengthens bones and muscles, reduces risks of most diseases, improves mental health, and more. Why is it then that less than half of all adults in the U.S. exercise on a regular basis? Maybe we just hav
https://youtu.be/z0fjTBULFj0 There are two body types and one is more prone to disease, unfortunately. Which one are you? Do you know if you are Android or Gynoid? Android (Apple …. Continue Reading about Two Body Types and One is more prone to Disease → ...
For some of us who are taller, longer-torsoed and leaner, building and maintaining muscle is a constant process, throughout the year, one that doesnt have a cutting phase.. Because we know not everybody is looking to simply lose weight, we have the Complete Hard-Gainers Plan - a comprehensive plan of attack for adding muscle size with the proper gym, diet and supplement strategies.. Weve included a sample diet and supplement plans here for easy reference, with an updated workout guide to follow for the next four weeks. Again, youll go four days on and three off, leaving ample time to recover.. EATING FOR HARD-GAINERS. If youre reading this, it more than likely applies to you: Hard-gainers are classified as longer body types, with typically fast metabolisms, lean frames, smaller joints (narrow wrists and ankles) and narrow waists. Usually, hard-gainers are longer-limbed and taller than our stockier gym friends. Thats OK - many find the lifeguard body type to be the most desirable. If ...
Hello... it is interesting reading these posts as I am just now studying the book and plan. Normally I stay away from anything which could be gimmicky.
Hi everyone! Im 17, and Ive been at around 132lbs for 5 years now. I never gain weight when I eat a lot, but I also never lose weight. This past week I did a little unhealthy experiment- rarely ea...
Im 26 years old, 54 and 195 lbs. Id say my BF% is around high 20s or even the low 30s. I want to be 160 again like i was a few years ago. my
Mudra is a part of holistic healing Ayurveda. It is very useful and easy to practice. Anyone can do it anytime. Forty-five minutes of practice is enough to get results. If you are new to mudras then follow the links to know more details like how to do, benefits and precautions.. Before practicing Mudras it is very important to find your Ayurvedic Body type To find your Ayurvedic body type follow this link. ...
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Male or female trainer? Your choice!. Train at home, outdoors or in the gym? Whichever youd prefer!. We dont dish out generic programs and beast you in the gym- we take the time to find out exactly what you need and design a bespoke plan tailored around your lifestyle to meet your needs.. Every client start with a full comprehensive assessment which gives us the foundation on which to build you personalised program. During the assessment we will find out more about your lifestyle, you medical history, your fitness level, likes, dislikes, eating habits and much more. This is so we can design a program that will not only give you the results you are looking for but in a way that can easily fit into your lifestyle and can also work around your family.. We realise that everyone is different and this is the key to creating a program that is right for you. We work with different body types realising that our clients react differently to training and eating plans thats why no two plans are ever the ...
Cassette Body Type: Threaded Standard , Threaded TrackColor: BlackDefined Color: BlackHub Drilling (spokes): 32 spokesHub/Brake Compatibility: Rim BrakeISO Diameter: 622 / road / 29Material: AlloyRear Axle Type: Standard QRRear Hub Spacing (mm): 120 mmRear Wheel Type: TrackRim: Velocity AeroRim Depth (mm): 19 mmSkewer Included: N/ASpoke Info: DT ChampionTire Type: ClincherValve: PrestaValve Length: Short 32-40mmWeight (g): 1065 gWheel Size: 700c
From the moment of conception 46 chromosones with 30,000 genes combine to determine all of your physical characteristics: sex; facial features; body type; color
A few months before I turned forty, I was looking at a photo that I had recently taken. Though I was never the thin body type and was always a big person, I was a bit taken back at what I saw: I sported quite the big belly and looked like the...
The carotid body is a small structure weighing 12 mg located in the adventitia of carotid artery bifurcation acting as a chemoreceptor. Carotid body tumour (CBT); formerly known as chemodectoma is a rare, highly vascular, mostly benign tumour arising from the paraganglia of carotid body; hence, the name (carotid paraganglioma). The high vascularity and proximity to cranial nerves and major vessels make this tumour a surgical challenge. Abundant literature has been written about CBT in the last century with a continuous debate regarding its etiology, natural history, biological behavior, proper technique of excision, and the morbidity and mortality associated with its resection. The purpose of this review article is to simplify understanding the basic and clinical aspects of this challenging neoplasm.
Hypoxic chemotransduction in the carotid body requires release of excitatory transmitters from type I cells that activate afferent sensory neurones. Transmitter release is dependent on voltage-gated Ca2+ entry which is evoked by membrane depolarization. This excitatory response to hypoxia is initiated by inhibition of specific O2 sensitive K+ channels, of which several types have been reported. Here, we discuss mechanisms which have been put forward to account for hypoxic inhibition of type I cell K+ channels. Whilst evidence indicates that one O2 sensitive K+ channel, BKCa, may be regulated by gasotransmitters (CO and H2S) in an O2-dependent manner, other studies now indicate that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) accounts for inhibition of both BKCa and leak O2 sensitive K+ channels, and perhaps also other O2sensitive K+ channels reported in different species. We propose that type I cell AMPK activation occurs as a result of inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peripheral chemoreceptor inputs to medullary inspiratory and postinspiratory neurons of cats. AU - Lawson, Edward E.. AU - Richter, Diethelm W.. AU - Ballantyne, David. AU - Lalley, Peter M.. AU - Bischoff, Annemarie. AU - Kühner, Anita. PY - 1989/9/1. Y1 - 1989/9/1. N2 - The effect of peripheral chemoreceptor activation on inspiratory and postinspiratory medullary neurons was investigated using intracellular recording techniques. Peripheral chemoreceptors were activated by injecting CO2 saturated 1 N bicarbonate solution into the lingual artery or by electrically stimulating the carotid sinus nerve. Injections of 20-300 μl bicarbonate solution evoked changes in respiratory frequency and in peak phrenic nerve discharge. The membrane potential of inspiratory alpha neurons, whether bulbospinal or not and independent of their anatomic location, was decreased during inspiration. A sequence of compound excitatory and inhibitory effects were observed when the stimulus was given ...
Hypoxic inhibition of K+ channels in type I cells is believed to be of central importance in carotid body chemotransduction. We have recently suggested that hypoxic channel inhibition is mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Here, we have further explored the modulation by AMPK of recombinant K+ channels (expressed in HEK293 cells) whose native counterparts are considered O2-sensitive in the rat carotid body. Inhibition of maxiK channels by AMPK activation with AICAR was found to be independent of [Ca2+]i and occurred regardless of whether the α subunit was co-expressed with an auxiliary β subunit. All effects of AICAR were fully reversed by the AMPK inhibitor compound C. MaxiK channels were also inhibited by the novel AMPK activator A-769662 and by intracellular dialysis with the constitutively active, truncated AMPK mutant, T172D. The molecular identity of the O2-sensitive leak K+ conductance in rat type I cells remains unclear, but shares similarities with TASK-1 and TASK-3. Recombinant
eBook The Paleo Cure Eat Right For Your Genes Body Type And Personal Health Needs Prevent And Reverse Disease Lose Weight Effortlessly And Look And Feel Better Than Ever available at ashki.barttrimmer-vergleichstest.de with Format PdF, ePub, Audiobook & Magazine. Please Create a FREE ACCOUNT to read or download The Paleo Cure Eat Right For Your Genes Body Type And Personal Health Needs Prevent And Reverse Disease Lose Weight Effortlessly And Look And Feel Better Than Ever FOR FREE.. ...
Endomorphic body type shown here. Constitutional psychology is a theory, developed in the 1940s by American psychologist William Herbert Sheldon, associating body types with human temperament types. Sheldons somatotypes and their supposed associated physical traits can be summarized as follows: Ectomorphic: characterized by long and thin muscles/limbs and low fat storage; receding chin, usually referred to as slim. Mesomorphic: characterized by medium bones, solid torso, low fat levels, wide shoulders with a narrow waist; usually referred to as muscular. Endomorphic: characterized by increased fat storage, a wide waist and a large bone structure, usually referred to as fat. - Stock Image C027/6278
Exposure to acute hypoxia elicits a ventilatory response that is subject to various time-dependent phenomena, some of which occur during hypoxia (eg. hypoxic ventilatory decline) while others appear upon return to normoxia (eg. post-hypoxic frequency decline). In addition, memory components to the response exist, associated with repeated, acute hypoxic exposures (eg. progressive augmentation). Although central mechanisms, either downstream of afferent peripheral chemoreceptor input or through the direct effects of hypoxia on the brainstem, are sufficient to elicit these phenomena, little is known about the possible contribution of mechanisms arising from the carotid body. To investigate this further, we used an arterially perfused, en bloc rat carotid body preparation. Male rats (150-250g) were deeply anaesthetized in halothane (2 ml kg-1 within a 4 l chamber) until respiration ceased and animals failed to respond to a noxious paw pinch. Animals were then transected below the diaphragm, and the ...
Figure 1. Major 02 dependent electrophysiological properties of glomus cells. A: Macroscopic inward and outward currents of glomus cells and reversible inhibition of the outward current by hypoxia (Po2 » 20 mmHg). Control and recovery traces in normoxia (Po2 = 150 mmHg) are shown superimposed. In this experiment TTX was added to block the Na+ conductance. B: Singlechannel recordings from an excised membrane patch containing at most one open 02-sensitive K+ channel. Depolarizing pulses were applied from -80 to +20 mV. Ensemble averages indicating the single-channel open probability in normoxia and hypoxia are from 15 and 22 successive recordings, respectively (modified from Refs. 11,26).. Figure 1. Major 02 dependent electrophysiological properties of glomus cells. A: Macroscopic inward and outward currents of glomus cells and reversible inhibition of the outward current by hypoxia (Po2 » 20 mmHg). Control and recovery traces in normoxia (Po2 = 150 mmHg) are shown superimposed. In this ...
Looking for Glomus cell? Find out information about Glomus cell. A fold of the mesothelium arising near the base of the mesentery in the pronephros and containing a ball of blood vessels. A prominent portion of the... Explanation of Glomus cell
Synonyms for Chemoreceptors in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Chemoreceptors. 9 words related to chemoreceptor: sense organ, sensory receptor, receptor, gustatory organ, taste bud, tastebud, carotid body, nose, olfactory organ. What are synonyms for Chemoreceptors?
Even with weight loss, to some degree, you will always maintain an overall appearance in line with your body shape. In other words, you can lose fat, become leaner and most importantly, get healthy-;but you can;t completely alter the body shape you were born with.. For that reason, knowing and understanding how to dress for your body type can be valuable information that helps you feel your best.. Since the legs are often one of the best assets of apple-shaped bodies, show them off! Choose clothes that play up those thin limbs. And if you;re someone who usually gains weight around the middle, opt for clothing that does not fit overly tight in that area. Clothing that is ruched or loose-fitting around the belly might make you most comfortable.. Eating for Your Apple Body Shape. ...
Too fat? Body starved for nutrients and crying out Im hungry even after a large meal? I feel your pain. Its my life in a nutshell!. Too skinny? Cannot gain weight no matter what you do? You overeat just to keep your pants from falling off? You hate the people who are too fat because you couldnt gain weight if your life depended on it. Yep, my son suffers the problem too!. Heres how we are coping as a family. My son juices by using a juicer that removes all the bulk (the pulps) maximizing the calories per ounce. He juices for maximum nutritional value and uses only organic fruits and vegetables, and protein from organic sources. I juice using a NutriBullet, which keeps all the pulp and fiber, thus lowering the caloric intake per ounce and giving me a fuller feeling. Both of us are enjoying the healthful benefits of juicing, however, adjusting it to our particular body type needs.. NutriBullets Life Boost Blast - Start your day with a blast of calcium and magnesium. No supplement ever ...
In Ayurveda, no two people are alike, or we can say that every person is born with a definite genetic constitution. The Prakriti, which may also be referred to as Dosha, is vital in determining our body type, behaviour patterns, needs, and our predispositions.. For the individual, basic knowledge of the Prakriti is a vital tool in helping ones most auspicious lifestyle factors that will ensure wellness and longevity â appropriate foods, herbs, exercise regimes, medicines, therapies, and even suitable professions. Knowing ones Prakriti holds the key to health, liberation, and ultimately, self-realization.. Just take a look at some of the basis, which helps to understand the importance of Prakriti in an individual:. Understanding of human life with the help of Prakriti The following factors of a human life can be applied to understand the variations in different persons by the help of Prakriti; and on the basis of this, an individual is able to understand self-better and able to live according ...
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See Blood Types, Body Types and You: Why Your Unique Genetic Code Is the Key to Losing Weight for Life by Joseph Christiano in our Christian Book store for $11.69 (Save 35%) - Overview A world-renowned health and fitness coach updates his proven weight-loss program and explains how a well-balanced eatin
Your body type shows how your strengths, as well as how your body typically goes out of balance. It also shows how your body responds to the environment. Your body type is comprised of certain qualities and affects every part of you - your physical and mental characteristics as well as your personal strengths and weaknesses. This is because your body type is based on how your body uses energy. Ayurveda has 3 body types (doshas), called Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. Vata spends energy. Pitta burns energy. Kapha stores energy. Vata people tend to be easily stimulated, hyperactive, underweight and dry. Pitta people tend to be hot, focused, driven, and easily inflamed. Kapha people are heavy, stable and grounded, but if they store too much energy, they could gain weight easily and have congestion. Learn More ...
The shape that youre in figuratively speaking is a topic of never-ending interest. What shape are you in? To find out, you must be fully aware of your body contour or type. One of the first theories of body typing was developed by psychologist William Sheldon. A tireless investigator, Sheldon categorized figures according to the relative predominance of certain body tissues. He concluded there are three basic morphological body types or somatypes. He called them ectomorph, mesomorph and endomorph.
Favorite Body Type In Your Sexual Partner: I'm sure this has been posted but I have not seen a post. Gals and guys, what's your favorite...
human respiratory system - Chemoreceptors: One way in which breathing is controlled is through feedback by chemoreceptors. There are two kinds of respiratory chemoreceptors: arterial chemoreceptors, which monitor and respond to changes in the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the arterial blood, and central chemoreceptors in...
Different physiological pathways may lead to shortness of breath including via ASIC chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, and lung receptors.[14] It is thought that three main components contribute to dyspnea: afferent signals, efferent signals, and central information processing. It is believed the central processing in the brain compares the afferent and efferent signals; and dyspnea results when a mismatch occurs between the two: such as when the need for ventilation (afferent signaling) is not being met by physical breathing (efferent signaling).[19] Afferent signals are sensory neuronal signals that ascend to the brain. Afferent neurons significant in dyspnea arise from a large number of sources including the carotid bodies, medulla, lungs, and chest wall. Chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and medulla supply information regarding the blood gas levels of O2, CO2 and H+. In the lungs, juxtacapillary (J) receptors are sensitive to pulmonary interstitial edema, while stretch receptors signal ...
Different physiological pathways may lead to shortness of breath including via ASIC chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, and lung receptors.[13]. It is thought that three main components contribute to dyspnea: afferent signals, efferent signals, and central information processing. It is believed the central processing in the brain compares the afferent and efferent signals; and dyspnea results when a mismatch occurs between the two: such as when the need for ventilation (afferent signaling) is not being met by physical breathing (efferent signaling).[17]. Afferent signals are sensory neuronal signals that ascend to the brain. Afferent neurons significant in dyspnea arise from a large number of sources including the carotid bodies, medulla, lungs, and chest wall. Chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and medulla supply information regarding the blood gas levels of O2, CO2 and H+. In the lungs, juxtacapillary (J) receptors are sensitive to pulmonary interstitial edema, while stretch receptors signal ...
Create a garden fine motor sensory activity with your preschooler! Build hand strength and explore the season of spring together.
Scientifica is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in the life sciences, environmental sciences, health sciences, and medicine. The journal is divided into the 65 subject areas.
Many people feel unhappy with their bodies because they dont fit cultural expectations regarding height, weight and general appearance. Cultural stereotypes of what constitutes an ideal body type can be so ingrained that many people feel an enormous pressure to be thinner, taller or more muscular. Media images of thin women and muscular men contribute to the societal pressure to attain an ideal body type.. However, its possible to attain a positive, healthy body image no matter what your body type. Eating right, exercising regularly and managing stress can all contribute to a positive body image. Learning to accept and enjoy your body is key to forming a good body image.. ...
Description. A comprehensive plan for matching diet and fitness regimens to body types, based on the proven system of somatotypes According to fitness guru Phil Catudal, 70 percent of people exercise the wrong way. To achieve lasting fitness and health, Catudal explains, you should work with your natural-born body type and do the optimal combination of cardio, strength training, and flexibility exercises and consume the right proportion of macronutrients for your physique. While fitness trends and fad diets will come and go, your body type (somatotype) is the one constant thats never going to change. Just Your Type helps anyone create an individualized workout thats tailored to their body shape and composition. Working harder isnt always the answer, but working smarter is. ...
All body types can gain or lose weight but the degree and rate at which they do varies... Exercise and diet for body types... body type pictures of celebrities ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
the related terms mechanosensing, mechanosignaling, and mechanotransduction refer to the sensing of physical forces by cells and their translation into a biochemical response, analogous to the processes termed chemotransduction. Among the various physical forces to which cells in vivo are constantly exposed, mechanical stimuli associated with blood flow are particularly important. Indeed, fluid shear stress and distending pressure that act on the vessel wall play a major role in vascular homeostasis. The vascular endothelium, by virtue of its location, serves as an interface between the blood and tissue for hemodynamic changes. Recent work demonstrates that the endothelium senses and integrates hemodynamic stimuli including shear to effect maintenance of vascular function and possibly modulate the onset of vascular disease. The currently accepted paradigm is that sensing of a change (either increase or decrease) in the shear force occurs via elements on the endothelial cell membrane that ...
Chemoreceptors are specialized nerve cells designed to respond to chemical stimuli. There are two types of chemoreceptors in the...
Our bodies are not all the same. There are 4 different body shapes. Each of us will fall into one or the other. Your body type is the result of your metabolism and the hormones that control it and we can recognize our own unique body type based on its sha... Read , ...
This type is genetically predisposed to great musculature gains. Usually very athletic looking, they have a good posture and are symmetric. Mesomorphs build muscle fast and loose fat rapidly if on the right diet and fitness plan. And can also gain fat rapidly if let to do no activities.. Read 5 Exercises to Get Gorgeous Legs. Cardio for Mesmomorph. Cardiovascular exercises should be done 2 to 3 times a week for about 20 to30 minutes per session.. • Intensity for cardio should be moderate to high for fat burning.. • I suggest an interval session were intervals are 45 seconds on and 15 seconds off for the 20 minute period.. • Dont go over board as it is believed that Mesomorph could loose lean mass if cardio is too long/frequent, so dont be a hamster on that treadmill!. Weights for Mesomorph. • Heavy weight performed explosively. Super sets are great and 3 to 4 exercises per body part.. • For example if your doing shoulders start with overhead press 3 sets of 15 reps.. • Superset ...
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We all have noticed or come across many significance peoples in life. You might wonder how that person is intelligence the other is so dumb. Some people eat a five-course meal with ease, even not healthy while others eat two meals and seem to be healthy and fit. Some people are overweight some are slim; some people are overactive and fast moving, while other people exude grace and stillness. The Modern science describes it as a genetics reason behind it, the characteristics and peculiarities that make every person incomparable. Ayurveda which is dating back to 1500 BCE has all answers to all of these questions with a much deeper way. 1. Five elements: Panchabhuta - ayurveda believes that universe is constituted of bhūmi (earth), ap or jala (water), tejas or agni (fire), marut, vayu or Pavan (air or wind) and vyom or shunya (space or zero) or akash (aether or void) that also include the human body. 2. Three doshas: These constitutional types are in of every human known as the doshas - Vata, Pitta and
The first thing that comes to most peoples minds when it comes to nutrition is dieting. goed, dieting and weight loss are just sub-matters of the vast amount of areas that nutrition covers. There are many important factors that go into proper nutrition. Each body type requires a certain nutrition regimen. The following article will help you determine the best nutritional plan for your body type. Once you read this valuable information, you could be on your way to having a better nutritional value.. It is important to consume proteins every day. Protein builds muscle and helps the body maintain blood, organs and skin. Proteins allow your cells to process normally and build energy metabolically. You body defends itself from disease with protein. There are many healthy and tasty sources of protein, including tofu, fish, poultry, grains and meats.. For a balanced, nutritious diet, aim for eating roughly eight ounces of lean meat every day. This will satisfy your daily protein and iron requirements. ...
Dr. Oz scoured the country for the very best weight-loss tricks - no diets required! Plus, Paula Deens son revamps your favorite Southern recipes. Learn how to cut the fat and calories of your favorite dishes in half without sacrificing flavor.
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May 20, 2010 · I have an inverted triangle body type, size 12 with 42DD bust, small waist and butt with curvaceous legs. It may sound good, but shopping is a real problem. I have a short waist (low rise pants and jeans visually correct this flaw). However, most tops are extremely too long for me.. Each cell in the human body includes many biomolecules that are interacting. A semi-ellipse represents the AND operation, a bullet-like shape depicts the OR operation, a triangle with a bubble on.. inverted triangle-shaped, and several other body types. Problem was, I couldnt find mine - outta shape. Armed with ideas, I headed for the mall. I chose the mall because there were several large.. Yeah, I know, contemporary wisdom says that if its in your size. of body shapes. I mean, if the industry can make petite, tall and plus sizes of the same article of clothing, then it should be.. People can be beautiful when they are any shape or size. Breast enhancements and other types of cosmetic surgery ...
Discover your unique skin care requirements in under three minutes…. This quiz will help you determine your dominant dosha, the building block of youre skincare routine.. From your results we will recommend your most appropriate skin care choices and email you a report providing honest advice on how you can achieve healthy glowing skin and ideal wellbeing.. Simply tick the boxes/symptoms below that best describe you and your skin ...
According to Ayurveda, optimal health is a state of balance between the three Doshas. Each has a unique set of characteristics that must be addressed through diet and lifestyle changes. Stress, poor nutrition, heavy workloads, and other factors can affect this delicate balance. Many common health concerns are actually signs of an imbalanced Dosha.. Once you figure out your body type, watch for any warning signs. An imbalanced Vata, for instance, may cause anxiety, fear, nervous, and dry skin. You might also have trouble sleeping at night and feel worried for no reason.. Each Dosha manifest itself in a specific way when out-of-balance. Depending on your body type, you may experience the following symptoms:. Common Pitta Imbalances Pitta is located in the small intestine. Thus, any imbalance will affect digestion and appetite. You may gain weight, eat more than usual, and experience mood swings. Your strengths, such as ambition and perseverance, can turn into weaknesses. For instance, Pitta people ...
Hi Guys, First time posting here. Im in a bit of a Dilemma, Im a 27 year old Man, 6ft Tall and weigh in at 238lbs. Ive got an endo-mesomorph body...
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16. Mystery bag: Give your child a drawstring bag with a few themed items from around the house (e.g., their small dino toys or kitchen objects). Instruct them to close their eyes and use only their hands to guess what the objects are.17. Smelling bottles: Fill a few spice jars with herbs or cotton ...
The size of a grain of rice, the carotid body, located between two major arteries that feed the brain with blood, has been found to control your blood pressure.
Would you like to look elegant and stunning the next time you attend a party? Then the Maxi Dress is definitely for you! Many women are attracted by the hemline that swirls and swishes around their legs! This article hopes to help you dress up beautifully in a maxi dress and also offers tips on how to pick the right maxi dress suitable for you.. A lot of women prefer to wear a long sleeve maxi dress for formal occasions. It is often quite a daunting and challenging task to pick out a long maxi dress that fits you perfectly. Wearing a maxi dress is considered as stylish and the height of Haute-Couture by fashion-experts world-over. A long maxi dress might be a bit expensive but it is still worth it as it gives you a chic and elegant look. People are ready to spend more on fashion now as is proven by the facts presented by websites like http://www.retaileconomics.co.uk/library-retail-stats-and-facts.asp.. Choosing the right dress must be based on your scale and height and body type as well as your ...
Discharge way youll lose weight permanently is to accept total responsibilities for yourself and acknowledge the fact that you have the facility to change, regardless what mother nature has given you to promote. the human genome will have an enormous impact on my ability to assess risks posed to individuals by environmental publicity to toxic agents. She chose to attend using a Bloody Mary cake while Charlene baked up a new good almond cake. Actually, you can determine the age of the teeth of its shark through its color. That doesnt mean you cant get lean; it only means that you are to have to adjust your diet and training to satisfy your body type and you may have to work harder and be more persistent than the genetically lucky ones. This knowledge will directly discuss DOEs long-term mission to understand the effects of low-level exposures to radiation and other energy-related agents, especially in terms to do with cancer risk. Every trip towards the bathroom would have just lately been a ...
At almost 60, I can confirm that the older one gets, the harder the weight is to lose. Part of it is hormonal, part is biologic. This past January, I started a drug that regularly puts 20-30# on people; at the same time, my hip gave out on me, meaning no walking or other form of cardio.. Hello a winter 45# gain in less than a month.. For me, my base is 1300 calories. Given that you should never go below 1200 calorie intake, obviously I must exercise to create any kind of deficit (and boy do I have to watch what I eat). I can do 45-60 minutes of cardio a day and burn some - but when I lost the weight a few years ago I found the ONLY successful way for me to lose and keep it off was to weight train. Get hot and sweaty pushing the iron and let the EPOC add to my time under the bar. But Im starting a paleo diet - with my nutritionist saying this is the perfect diet for my body type. Lucky, I do not really like grains and allergic to cows milk, so the restrictions of paleo play right into my ...
Aortic body detects changes in blood oxygen and carbon dioxide, but not pH, while carotid body detects all three. They do not ... Carotid bodies and aortic bodies detect changes primarily in pCO2 and H+ ion concentration. They also sense decrease in partial ... Nurse, Colin A.; Piskuric, Nikol A. (January 2013). "Signal processing at mammalian carotid body chemoreceptors". Seminars in ... These are sensitive to pH and CO 2. peripheral chemoreceptors: consists of aortic and carotid bodies. ...
Both carotid bodies and aortic bodies increase sensory discharge during hypoxia. Carotid bodies are considered the primary ... Many of the findings on to carotid body's relation to SIDS report that carotid body development is impaired by environmental ... Carotid and aortic bodies are clusters of cells located on the common carotid artery and the aortic arch, respectively. Each of ... However, because carotid and aortic bodies detect variation within the body's internal organs, they are considered ...
... s are the cell type mainly located in the carotid bodies and aortic bodies. Glomus type I cells are peripheral ... Clusters of glomus cells, of which the carotid bodies and aortic bodies are the most important, are called non-chromaffin or ... the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies signal the dorsal respiratory group in the medulla oblongata to increase the volume ... In the carotid body the respiratory chemoreceptors need a period of time postnatally in order to reach functional maturity. ...
These structures include the type I cells of the carotid body, the neuroepithelial bodies of the lungs as well as some central ... The membrane hypothesis was proposed for the carotid body in mice, and it predicts that oxygen sensing is an ion balance ... The mitochondrial hypothesis was also proposed for the carotid body of mice, but it relies on the levels of oxidative ... Lopez-Barneo, J; Lopez-Lopez, JR; Urena, J; Gonzalez, C (1988). "Chemotransduction in the carotid body: K+ current modulated by ...
"Coronary vascular and myocardial responses to carotid body stimulation in the dog". The American Journal of Physiology. 229 (3 ... Ore Body, Gallery 44, Toronto ON, Canada 2017. YVR Art Foundation Masterpiece Study Grant 2018. Emily Award "FUTURE GENERATIONS ... For her graduate thesis, Igharas presented LAND , MINE, a materials library which linked bodies and mining sites to the land. ... Igharas uses Potlatch methodology in making art, to assert the relationships between bodies and the world, and to challenge ...
The carotid body is a group of chemoreceptor cells located at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. It includes two ... "Carotid body autotransplantation in Parkinson disease: a clinical and positron emission tomography study". Journal of Neurology ... "Autotransplantation of human carotid body cell aggregates for treatment of Parkinson's disease". Neurosurgery. 53 (2): 321-328 ... "Neurotransmitters in Carotid Body Function: The Case of Dopamine - Invited Article", Arterial Chemoreceptors, Springer ...
These include: Oxygen Supplementation Reduces carotid body drive and slows respiration at a given level of exercise. Treatment ... certain therapies can affect one or more components of this cascade and therefore reduce the body's ability to utilise or ...
Peripheral chemoreceptors (carotid and aortic bodies) and central chemoreceptors (medullary neurons) primarily function to ...
... circumscribing the presence of baroreceptors to the carotid sinus, but that of chemoreceptors to the carotid body, for the ... Towards the sensory nature of the carotid body: Hering, De Castro and Heymans. Front. Neuroanat. 3: 23 (1-11) (doi:10.3389/ ... Heymans accomplished this by vivisection of two dogs, the head of one connected to its body only by nerves, and the second ... described in detail the innervation of the aorta-carotid region, ... one's body was used to cross-perfuse (supply blood) to the ...
Type I glomus cells of carotid bodies detect the change in oxygen levels and release neurotransmitters towards the carotid ... Carotid bodies contain oxygen-sensitive cells that become more active in response to hypoxia. They send input to the brainstem ... The initial increase in ventilation from HVR is initiated by the carotid bodies, which are bilaterally located at the port of ... Hormonal changes have also been associated with HVR, particularly those that affect the functioning of the carotid bodies. As ...
Another type of sustentacular cell is found with glomus cells of the carotid and aortic bodies.[citation needed] About 40% of ...
... stimuli that collectively act upon chemoreceptors located in the bilateral carotid bodies.[11] As sensory organs, the carotid ... Carotid body chemoreceptors[edit]. During sustained breath-holding while submerged, blood oxygen levels decline while carbon ... Gross, P. M; Whipp, B. J; Davidson, J. T; Koyal, S. N; Wasserman, K (1976). "Role of the carotid bodies in the heart rate ... Preliminary evidence in ducks and humans indicates that the carotid bodies are essential for these integrated cardiovascular ...
It enhances respiration by acting as an agonist of peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid bodies. The drug increases ...
These sensory axons supply the cornea, ciliary body and iris. The sympathetic root originates from the internal carotid plexus ... Perez, GM; Keyser, RB (September 1986). "Cell body counts in human ciliary ganglia". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual ... with cell bodies in the superior cervical ganglion. The axons pass through the ganglion and enter the eye without synapsing ...
Another more complex theory states that as pressure is applied to the carotid artery, baroreceptors (the body's natural blood ... A competing theory involves compression of the baroreceptors of the carotid artery, confusing the body into thinking blood ... This is accomplished by compressing one or both of the carotid arteries and/or the jugular veins, ideally with little to no ... Some argue that when pressure is applied to the carotid artery, the baroreceptors send a signal to the brain via the ...
The activated carotid body triggers the release of serotonin that attach to serotonin receptors on the surface of motoneurons, ... Reduced partial pressures of oxygen in the arteries due to intermittent hypoxia are sensed by and stimulate the carotid body, a ... Normally, exposure to hypoxia is negatively associated to physiological changes to the body, such as altitude sickness. However ... Sibigtroth, C.M.; Mitchell, G.S. (2011). "Carotid chemoafferent activity is not necessary for all phrenic long-term ...
Finally, the central processes of the neurons which innervate the carotid sinus and carotid body synapse in the caudal portion ... innervation of baroreceptor cells in the carotid sinus innervation of glomus type I chemoreceptor cells in the carotid body The ... The neuron cell bodies of the axons which form the tympanic nerve are found in the inferior salivatory nucleus and superior ... Importantly, the axons which form the tympanic nerve do not synapse in this ganglion or have their cell bodies in it. ...
There is no brachiocephalic artery for the left side of the body. The left common carotid, and the left subclavian artery, come ... Soon after it emerges, the brachiocephalic artery divides into the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery ... It occasionally arises from the aorta, the right common carotid, the subclavian or the internal mammary.[citation needed] ... on a plane anterior to the origin of the left carotid artery. It ascends obliquely upward, backward, and to the right to the ...
... stimulates chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies of the carotid arteries, which in turn, stimulates the respiratory ...
The UK Biobank Imaging Study aims to perform brain, cardiac and body magnetic resonance imaging, carotid Doppler ultrasound and ...
... vasopressin secretion in response to cardiovascular stimuli arising from chemoreceptors in the carotid body and aortic arch, ... The hypothalamus functions as a type of thermostat for the body. It sets a desired body temperature, and stimulates either heat ... Stress Invading microorganisms by increasing body temperature, resetting the body's thermostat upward. Olfactory stimuli are ... The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, important aspects of parenting and attachment behaviours, thirst, fatigue, ...
... that detect changes in the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide are located in the arterial aortic bodies and the carotid bodies ... Respiration refers to the utilization of oxygen and balancing of carbon dioxide by the body as a whole, or by individual cells ... The most important function of breathing is the supplying of oxygen to the body and balancing of the carbon dioxide levels. ... Maintenance and continuity of the human body. 12th Edition. Danvers: Wiley Kuna, Samuel T (2000). "Respiratory-related ...
Above: optic tract, optic chiasma, internal carotid artery. Inferiorly: Foramen lacerum and the junction of the body and ... The carotid siphon of the internal carotid artery, and cranial nerves III, IV, V (branches V1 and V2) and VI all pass through ... Abducens nerve Internal carotid artery accompanied by the Internal carotid plexus These nerves, with the exception of CN V2, ... aneurysms of the intracavernous carotid artery, carotid-cavernous fistula, bacterial infection causing cavernous sinus ...
... and the type 1 chief cells found in the carotid body. The gastric chief cell (also known as a zymogenic cell or peptic cell) is ...
The aortic bodies and carotid bodies contain clusters of glomus cells - peripheral chemoreceptors that detect changes in ... The stimulus can come from extoreceptors outside the body, for example light and sound, or from interoreceptors inside the body ... The cell bodies of the sensory neurons are located in the dorsal ganglia of the spinal cord. This sensory information travels ... They are found in internal organs as well as on the surface of the body to "detect and protect". Nociceptors detect different ...
... in the carotid body via glossopharyngeal nerve, aortic bodies, and the sinoatrial node, via the vagus nerve Chemically and ... Neurons that innervate the SN mediate the gag reflex, the carotid sinus reflex, the aortic reflex, the cough reflex, the ... clusters of nerve cell bodies) forming a vertical column of grey matter embedded in the medulla oblongata. Through the center ...
... the main legislative body of the Iranian government Internal carotid artery Intracranial aneurysm Islet cell antibodies (ICA), ... the first international body for cycle racing Israel Start-Up Nation, a professional cycling team, until 2018 known as Israel ... the worldwide umbrella body for co-operatives International Commission for Acoustics International Communication Association ... Cycling Academy, with ICA being the official team code used by the sport's governing body. Independent component analysis, in ...
Neurons of Hypothalamus C-cells of Thyroid Chief Cells of Parathyroid Adrenal Medullary Cells Glomus cells in Carotid Body ...
... carotid carotid bifurcation carotid body carotid canal carotid groove carotid plexus carotid sheath carotid sinus carotid ... viscera visceromotor nuclei viscus Visible Human Project visual cortex visual fields visual radiation vitreous body vitreous ... bilateral symmetry bile duct biology bipolar cells of the retina bitemporal heminopia blastomere blood blood brain barrier body ... history of anatomy Hoffmann's reflex homologous hormone horn human anatomical parts named after people human anatomy human body ...
... carotid body tumor MeSH C04.557.465.625.650.700.705.340 - glomus jugulare tumor MeSH C04.557.465.625.650.700.705.360 - glomus ... carotid body tumor MeSH C04.557.580.625.650.700.705.340 - glomus jugulare tumor MeSH C04.557.580.625.650.700.705.360 - glomus ...
Foreign bodies (such as fingers during nose-picking). *Inflammatory reaction (e.g. acute respiratory tract infections, chronic ... More rarely the maxillary or a branch of the external carotid artery can be ligated. The bleeding can also be stopped by intra- ...
Palmer hypothesized that vertebral joint misalignments, which he termed vertebral subluxations, interfered with the body's ... Chung CL, Côté P, Stern P, L'espérance G (2014). "The Association Between Cervical Spine Manipulation and Carotid Artery ... although the body of literature is still weak.[106] A 2010 Cochrane review found low quality evidence that suggests cervical ... is the statutory governmental body responsible for the regulation of chiropractic in the UK.[175][176] The U.S. CCE requires a ...
The difference between soft and hard body parts stems mostly from the fact that carbon has a very low X-ray cross section ... Since the body is made up of various substances with differing densities, Ionising and non-ionising radiation can be used to ... It can also be used to measure total body fat, though this is not common. The radiation dose received from DEXA scans is very ... The photograph of his wife's hand was the first ever photograph of a human body part using X-rays. When she saw the picture, ...
Carotid ultrasonography. *Contrast-enhanced. *3D ultrasound. *Endoscopic ultrasound. *Emergency ultrasound *FAST. *Pre-hospital ...
... medications will not remove the blockages from the body. Instead, they simply improve blood flow to the affected area.[6] ...
The brain-to-body size ratio of psittacines and corvines is comparable to that of higher primates.[73] Instead of using the ... a different arrangement of the carotid arteries, a gall bladder, differences in the skull bones, and lack the Dyck texture ... 2008). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses (2 ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-6444-5.. ... Geographical range and body size predominantly explains diet composition of Neotropical parrots rather than phylogeny.[55] ...
Two Rhesus monkeys were flown into orbit implanted with sensors to permit monitoring of carotid artery blood flow. Additionally ... A study of circadian rhythms was concerned with the synchronization of primate motor activity, body temperature and skin ...
Both lorisoids and cheirogaleid lemurs have replaced the internal carotid artery with an enlarged ascending pharyngeal artery.[ ... In some cases, strepsirrhines may anoint themselves with urine (urine washing). Body postures and gestures may be used, ... which handles basic body functions and metabolic processes. This neural pathway differs from that used by the main olfactory ... but otherwise lemurs show very little if any difference in body size or weight between sexes. This lack of sexual dimorphism is ...
The human body is at risk of accidentally induced hypothermia when large amounts of cold fluids are infused. Rapid temperature ... Surrounding structures such as the pleura and carotid artery are also at risk of damage with the potential for pneumothorax or ... It is possible to leave the ports in the patient's body for years; if this is done, the port must be accessed monthly and ... Infection, and a foreign body embolus are the two threats to the patient.[citation needed] ...
The body has several feedback mechanisms to maintain adequate blood flow and blood pressure. If blood pressure decreases, the ... the heart pumps less efficiently and provides less blood flow to the rest of the body, including the heart itself. The ...
At ambient temperatures below their body temperatures (thermal neutral zone (TNZ)), common ostriches decrease body surface ... The ophthalmic rete is analogous to the carotid rete found in mammals, as it also facilitates transfer of heat from arterial ... causing the body temperature to increase further.[62] When the body heat is allowed to increase the temperature gradient ... If the ambient temperature is lower than the thermo-neutral zone, heat is produced to maintain body temperature.[61] So, the ...
Endogenous production with full body exposure to sunlight is comparable to taking an oral dose between 250 µg and 625 µg ( ... Higher levels of calcidiol positively correlate with aorta and carotid calcified atherosclerotic plaque in African Americans ...
Whole body imaging(英语:Whole body imaging) *Full-body CT scan(英语:Full-body CT scan) ... Carotid ultrasonography(英语:Carotid ultrasonography). *超声造影成像 ...
Carotid ultrasonography. *Contrast-enhanced. *3D ultrasound. *Endoscopic ultrasound. *Emergency ultrasound *FAST. *Pre-hospital ...
... the structure of the human body), physiology (how the body works), pathology (what can go wrong with the anatomy and physiology ... Health screening begins by identifying the part of the body where the symptoms are located; the computer cross-references a ... psychology (thought and behavior) and human homeostasis (regarding mechanisms to keep body systems in balance). Knowledge of ...
Body artEdit. Being a cultural custom for long time, tongue piercing and splitting has become quite common in western countries ... The tongue receives its blood supply primarily from the lingual artery, a branch of the external carotid artery. The lingual ... In mammals such as dogs and cats, the tongue is often used to clean the fur and body by licking. The tongues of these species ... Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, Philadelphia: Holt-Saunders International ...
Carotid ultrasonography. *Contrast-enhanced. *3D ultrasound. *Endoscopic ultrasound. *Emergency ultrasound *FAST. *Pre-hospital ...
Whole body imaging *Full-body CT scan. *X-ray microtomography. *Electron beam tomography ... Carotid ultrasonography. *Contrast-enhanced. *3D ultrasound. *Endoscopic ultrasound. *Emergency ultrasound *FAST. *Pre-hospital ...
... and measured by stretch receptors in the walls of the aortic arch and carotid sinuses at beginnings of the internal carotid ... Homeostasis does not govern every activity in the body.[19][20] For instance the signal (be it via neurons or hormones) from ... The body water homeostat can be compromised by the inability to secrete ADH in response to even the normal daily water losses ... Circadian variation in body temperature, ranging from about 7002310650000000000♠37.5 °C from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m., and falling to ...
Body of hyoid bone and median ridge. Artery. Mylohyoid branch of inferior alveolar artery and submental artery of facial artery ...
The ascending cervical artery is a small branch which arises from the inferior thyroid artery as it passes behind the carotid ... and to the bodies of the vertebrae. It then anastomoses with the ascending pharyngeal and occipital arteries. ... It then turns medially behind the carotid sheath and its contents, and also behind the sympathetic trunk, the middle cervical ...
... and foreign bodies. When produced in excess, however, they may contribute to a wide range of pathological inflammatory ... as judged by carotid intima-media thickness measurements. Variant alleles involved deletions (one or two) or additions (one, ...
There is no direct connection between the internal carotid artery and the vessels of the brain.[72] Their circulatory system ... Sperm whales are prodigious feeders and eat around 3% of their body weight per day. The total annual consumption of prey by ... Goold, J.C. (1996). "Signal processing techniques for acoustic measurement of sperm whale body lengths". Journal of the ... The sperm whale's unique body is unlikely to be confused with any other species. The sperm whale's distinctive shape comes from ...
A Lewy body (stained brown) in a brain cell of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease. The brown colour is positive ... Since early in the 1980s, fetal, porcine, carotid or retinal tissues have been used in cell transplants, in which dissociated ... Dementia with Lewy bodies is another synucleinopathy and it has close pathological similarities with PD, especially with the ... This insoluble protein accumulates inside neurones forming inclusions called Lewy bodies.[51][57] According to the Braak ...
Non-specific symptoms are self-reported symptoms that do not indicate a specific disease process or involve an isolated body ... They affect the entire body rather than a specific organ or location. ...
In humans, hypoxia is detected by the peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid body and aortic body, with the carotid body ... Hypoxia[1] is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level. ... Hypoxia may be classified as either generalized, affecting the whole body, or local, affecting a region of the body. Although ... A condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen at the tissue level ...
Rebound hypertension is avoided by gradually reducing the dose (also known as "dose tapering"), thereby giving the body enough ...
The aorta (/eɪˈɔːrtə/ ay-OR-tə) is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and ... Left common carotid artery. Left subclavian artery. Descending aorta, thoracic part: Left bronchial arteries. esophageal ... The aorta, normally on the left side of the body, may be found on the right in dextrocardia, in which the heart is found on the ... entire body with exception of the respiratory zone of the lung which is supplied by the pulmonary circulation). ...
... and carotid circulation pressure, it lowers carotid blood flow and end-tidal CO2 or ETCO2 levels. It appears that epinephrine ... As a hormone, epinephrine acts on nearly all body tissues. Its actions vary by tissue type and tissue expression of adrenergic ... providing substrates for energy production within cells throughout the body.[39] ... dosage for people in a dental setting requiring local anesthesia with a peripheral vasoconstrictor is 10 µg/lb of total body ...
Carotid endarterectomy Carotid body This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy ... The internal carotid runs vertically upward in the carotid sheath, and enters the skull through the carotid canal. During this ... the external carotid artery. The cervical segment, or C1, or cervical part of the internal carotid, extends from the carotid ... Unlike the external carotid artery, the internal carotid normally has no branches in the neck. The petrous segment, or C2, of ...
The carotid body located in the bifurcation of the carotid arteries is able to detect gas changes in blood composition (PO2, ... The carotid body located in the bifurcation of the carotid arteries is able to detect gas changes in blood composition (PO2, ... Delpiano, M.A., and Acker, H., 1989, Hypoxic and hypercapnic responses of [Ca2+]o and [K+]o in the cat carotid body in vitro, ... Obeso, A., Almaraz, L., and Gonzalez, C., 1986, Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on in vitro cat carotid body, Brain Res., 371:25. ...
Experimental: Carotid body excision Patients undergoing the carotid body excision to test the hypothesis that carotid body ... Carotid Body Removal for the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension: a Pilot Study. The safety and scientific validity of this ... The carotid body will be removed by the so called lateral approach or a combined lateral and medial approach. In all cases ... This is a pilot study to assess the effectiveness, safety and feasibility of carotid body removal in patients with high blood ...
Carotid Body Denervation Prevents the Development of Insulin Resistance and Hypertension Induced by Hypercaloric Diets. ... Carotid Body Denervation Prevents the Development of Insulin Resistance and Hypertension Induced by Hypercaloric Diets ... Carotid Body Denervation Prevents the Development of Insulin Resistance and Hypertension Induced by Hypercaloric Diets ... Carotid Body Denervation Prevents the Development of Insulin Resistance and Hypertension Induced by Hypercaloric Diets ...
The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during ... The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during ... The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during ... Carotid body: a new target for rescuing neural control of cardiorespiratory balance in disease. ...
Role of Carotid Body in Intermittent Hypoxia-Related Hypertension Iturriaga, R.; Oyarce, M. a.; Dias, A. C.. Current ... Contribution of TASK-Like Potassium Channels to the Enhanced Rat Carotid Body Responsiveness to Hypoxia Ortiz, F.C. et al.. ... Contribution of TASK-Like Potassium Channels to the Enhanced Rat Carotid Body Responsiveness to Hypoxia Ortiz, F.C. et al.. ... NO modulation of carotid body chemoreception in health and disease Moya, E. A.; Alcayaga, J.; Iturriaga, R.. Respiratory ...
It appears that ouabain has two distinct actions on the carotid body chemosensory activity: a sensitizing followed by a ... A neuropharmcological study of some aspects of carotid body chemoreceptor activity in the cat ... known to be present in the carotid body as well as others present in the brain, such as 5-endorphin and cholecystokinin ... influence carotid body chemoreceptor activity. The opioid peptides act via naloxone-sensitive receptors. Ouabain. Ouabain ...
... molecular mechanisms of carotid body pH-sensing by recording the responses of glomus cells isolated from rat carotid body to ... Abstract 956: Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) Contribute to Transduction of Extracellular Acidosis in Rat Carotid Body Glomus ... Abstract 956: Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) Contribute to Transduction of Extracellular Acidosis in Rat Carotid Body Glomus ... Abstract 956: Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) Contribute to Transduction of Extracellular Acidosis in Rat Carotid Body Glomus ...
The carotid body chemoreceptors contribute to the control of ventilation and when blood oxygen content is high, ventilation ... This study will investigate the role of the carotid body chemoreceptors in ventilatory control during hyperbaric exposures when ... Therefore, we are investigating the role of the carotid body chemoreceptors in ventilatory control during hyperbaric exposures ...
The carotid body (CB) is the key oxygen sensing organ. While the expression of CB specific genes is relatively well studied in ... N2 - The carotid body (CB) is the key oxygen sensing organ. While the expression of CB specific genes is relatively well ... AB - The carotid body (CB) is the key oxygen sensing organ. While the expression of CB specific genes is relatively well ... abstract = "The carotid body (CB) is the key oxygen sensing organ. While the expression of CB specific genes is relatively well ...
It is believed that NO modulates carotid chemoreception by several mechanisms, which include the control of carotid body ... Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as an inhibitory modulator of carotid body chemosensory responses to hypoxia. ... In addition to the well-known inhibitory effect, we found that NO has a dual (dose-dependent) effect on carotid chemoreception ... During hypoxia, NO is primarily an inhibitory modulator of carotid chemoreception, while in normoxia NO increased the ...
... cells of the carotid body (CB). However, studies on the systemic CB-mediated ventilatory response to hypoxia and hypercapnia in ... cells of the carotid body (CB). However, studies on the systemic CB-mediated ventilatory response to hypoxia and hypercapnia in ...
T1 - Gene transfer of neuronal nitric oxide synthase to carotid body reverses enhanced chemoreceptor function in heart failure ... Gene transfer of neuronal nitric oxide synthase to carotid body reverses enhanced chemoreceptor function in heart failure ... Our previous studies showed that decreased nitric oxide (NO) production enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity in ... Gene transfer of neuronal nitric oxide synthase to carotid body reverses enhanced chemoreceptor function in heart failure ...
... carotid body resection along with carotid sinus nerve stimulation, vagal nerve stimulation, and renal sympathetic denervation ... The carotid body in hypertension. The finding that excessive SNA associates with chemoreceptor overactivity and hypertension ... Hypertension is critically dependent on the carotid body input in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. J Physiol. 2012;590(pt 17 ... Peripheral chemoreceptors: function and plasticity of the carotid body. Comp Physiol. 2012;2(1):141-219.. View this article via ...
Background: The carotid body is a sensory organ located near the bifurcation of the carotid artery and is responsible for ... Comparative analysis of neonatal and adult rat carotid body responses to chronic intermittent hypoxia. Pawar A, Peng YJ, Jacono ... These findings suggest that 1) it is possible to augment carotid body function in neonates with apneic episodes and 2) the ... In adult rodents, during CIH, the carotid body is theorized to evoke the reflexes that mediate cardiorespiratory changes and ...
Piruat and María García-Fernández Oxygen-sensing by ion channels and mitochondrial function in carotid body glomus cells. ... Wyatt The role of TASK-like potassium channels in oxygen sensing in the carotid body. ...
... mostly benign tumour arising from the paraganglia of carotid body; hence, the name (carotid paraganglioma). The high ... Carotid body tumour (CBT); formerly known as chemodectoma is a rare, highly vascular, ... The carotid body is a small structure weighing 12 mg located in the adventitia of carotid artery bifurcation acting as a ... The carotid body is a small structure weighing 12 mg located in the adventitia of carotid artery bifurcation acting as a ...
How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human carotid body (CB) remains poorly understood. While limited information on ... Kay JM, Laidler P (1977) Hypoxia and the carotid body. J Clin Pathol Suppl (R Coll Pathol) 11:30-44CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Hempleman SC, Warburton SJ (2013) Comparative embryology of the carotid body. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 185:3-8CrossRefGoogle ... Pepper DR, Landauer RC, Kumar P (1995) Postnatal development of CO2-O2 interaction in the rat carotid body in vitro. J Physiol ...
There is one external carotid artery on the right side of the neck and one on the left side of the neck. ... The external carotid arteries supply oxygenated blood to the head region. ... The external carotid arteries supply oxygenated blood to the head region. There is one external carotid artery on the right ... The external carotid artery is sometimes affected by carotid artery disease, which is caused by a buildup of plaque. The plaque ...
Each common carotid artery is divided into an external and internal carotid artery. These arteries transfer blood to the ... The common carotid artery is found bilaterally, with one on each side of the anterior neck. ... The common carotid artery is found bilaterally, with one on each side of the anterior neck. Each common carotid artery is ... The external carotid artery brings blood to structures outside the skull, primarily the face, and the internal carotid to ...
Ultrastructure of the carotid body in high-altitude guinea-pigs.. Edwards C, Heath D, Harris P. ...
Figure 2: Intraoperative image showing the intact carotid bifurcation after the excision of a carotid body tumor. ... Figure 1: Intraoperative image showing a carotid artery bifurcation and a type II carotid body tumor. ... J. G. Gwon, T.-W. Kwon, H. Kim, and Y.-P. Cho, "Risk factors for stroke during surgery for carotid body tumors," World Journal ... J. A. Wieneke and A. Smith, "Paraganglioma: carotid body tumor," Head and Neck Pathology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 303-306, 2009. ...
... Karine Berthet,1 Anne Claire ... D. M. Payen, P. A. Carli, C. J. L. Brun-Buisson et al., "Lower body positive pressure vs. dopamine during PEEP in humans," ... I. Linfante, R. H. Llinas, M. Selim et al., "Clinical and vascular outcome in internal carotid artery versus middle cerebral ... D. Georgiadis, O. Lanczik, S. Schwab et al., "IV thrombolysis in patients with acute stroke due to spontaneous carotid ...
... catheter-based approach for Carotid Body Modulation (CBM). Currently in its early ... It focuses on modulation of the carotid body - a key chemosensor located at the fork of the carotid artery that helps regulate ... Exclusive Interview with Cibiem, a New Player in Carotid Body Modulation. November 12th, 2012 Ronney Shantouf Cardiology, ... This Carotid Body Modulation (CBM) is a breakthrough innovation based on extensive studies and a deep understanding of the ...
Surgical Removal of Carotid Body in Patients With Systolic Heart Failure. Official Title ICMJE Surgical Removal of Carotid Body ... Procedure: Carotid body excision. Study Arms Experimental: Carotid body excision Patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral ... Surgical Removal of Carotid Body in Patients With Systolic Heart Failure (FIM). The safety and scientific validity of this ... The aim of the study is to determine safety, tolerability and feasibility of unilateral and bilateral carotid body excision in ...
Surgical management of bilateral carotid body tumors with carotid artery stenosis. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, ... Carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid stenosis: an update.. *[Carotid endarterectomy in carotid stenosis--when is ... Arterial Occlusive DiseasesCarotid Artery DiseasesCarotid Body TumorConstriction, PathologicEndarterectomyFemaleHumansMiddle ... Surgical management of bilateral carotid body tumors with carotid artery stenosis.. J Fla Med Assoc. 1988 Sep; 75(9):587-9.JF ...
Characterization of the synthesis and release of catecholamine in the rat carotid body in vitro.. Vicario I1, Rigual R, Obeso A ... released during stimulation of the rat carotid body (CB). Turnover rates and the release of CA were measured in an in vitro ...
Carotid Body Tumors (CBTs) are Paragangliomas (PGLs) located in the head and neck region which usually do not cause overt ... INTRODUCTION: Carotid Body Tumors (CBTs) are Paragangliomas (PGLs) located in the head and neck region which usually do not ... 711567 - Cardiovascular effects of whole-body heating in spontaneously hypertensive rats.. 15302987 - The role of renal ...
... the first description of the structure now known as the carotid body must be ascribed to a Swiss physiolo- gist - Albrecht von ... For a while the carotid body remained forgotten, to be rediscovered in 1833 by Mayer of Bonn who again remarked upon the ... According to Valentin (1833) and Luschka (1862), the first description of the structure now known as the carotid body must be ... Thus it is evident that the anatomists of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries regarded the structure in the carotid ...
The human carotid body is a small structure located at the upper end of the common carotid artery. It consists of nerve fibers ... The human carotid body is a small structure located at the upper end of the common carotid artery. It consists of nerve fibers ... Nerve Terminal Secretory Granule Chromaffin Cell Carotid Body Chief Cell These keywords were added by machine and not by the ... Fujita T., Kanno T., Kobayashi S. (1988) Carotid Body Chief Cells. In: The Paraneuron. Springer, Tokyo. * DOI https://doi.org/ ...
View source for Carotid body tumor risk factors. ← Carotid body tumor risk factors ... Carotid body tumor}} {{CMG}}; {{AE}} {{Sahar}} {{MV}} ==Overview== Common [[risk factors]] in the development of [[carotid body ... Carotid Body Tumor,journal=Head and Neck Pathology,volume=3,issue=4,year=2009,pages=303-306,issn=1936-055X,doi=10.1007/s12105- ... Bilateral carotid body tumor resection in a female patient,journal=International Journal of Surgery Case Reports,volume=41,year ...
Loss of Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Hif1a+/− Mice.. To further establish that carotid body sensitivity to hypoxia is ... Expression of HIF-1α in the Carotid Body.. To determine whether HIF-1α expression in the carotid body is induced by hypoxia, ... Carotid Body Morphology.. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate whether abnormalities in carotid body ... carotid body chemoreceptors played a predominant role. When carotid bodies isolated from wild-type mice were exposed to either ...
Carotid Body Volume in Three-Weeks-Old Rats Having an Episode of Neonatal Anoxia Saiki, C.; Makino, M.; Matsumoto, S.. Advances ... Adrenaline Increases Carotid Body CO~2 Sensitivity: An in vivo Study Maskell, P. D. et al.. Advances in experimental medicine ... Carotid Body Transmitters Actions on Rabbit Petrosal Ganglion in Vitro Alcayaga, J. et al.. Advances in experimental medicine ... Genetic Influence on Carotid Body Structure in DBA/2J and A/J Strains of Mice Yamaguchi, S. et al.. Advances in experimental ...
Angiotensin II in the carotid body - a friend or foe? Fung, M. L.. Experimental physiology. VOL 101; NUMBER 6, ; 2016, 675-676 ... Angiotensin II in the carotid body - a friend or foe? Fung, M. L.. Experimental physiology. VOL 101; NUMBER 6, ; 2016, 675-676 ... Angiotensin II in the carotid body - a friend or foe? Fung, Man‐Lung. Experimental physiology. Volume 101:Issue 6 (2016, June ... Blood flow in internal carotid and vertebral arteries during graded lower body negative pressure in humans Ogoh, Shigehiko et ...
Enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreflex sensitivity is common to all of these populations and is thought to contribute to these ... The carotid body chemoreceptors may play an important role in progression of CHF by contributing to respiratory instability and ... Elimination of carotid body afferents in experimental models of CHF has been shown to reduce oscillatory breathing, respiratory ... Enhanced carotid body chemoreflex sensitivity is common to all of these populations and is thought to contribute to these ...
... Journal. ... Results: In 89% of the FH patients, information on CIMT could be obtained on all twelve carotid segments, and in 7.6%, eleven ... CIMT images were recorded for 12 artery-wall combinations (near and far walls of the left and right common carotid artery (CCA ... Aim: Ultrasound protocols to measure carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) differ considerably with regard to the inclusion of ...
Ketone bodies metabolism during ischemic and reperfusion brain injuries following bilateral occlusion of common carotid ... Keywords : Brain ischemia; Reperfusion; Ketone bodies; Metabolism; Rats. · abstract in Portuguese · text in English · English ... Systemic ketone bodies levels increased similarly between test and sham groups. Group S demonstrated a significant increase in ... RESULTS: Cerebral ACT and BHB levels increased significantly in Group T after 30min of carotid occlusion (time 0). The highest ...
The relationship between carotid body chemoreceptor discharge, carotid sinus pressure and carotid body venous flow. J Physiol ( ... Carotid Body Chemoreceptor Function Is Impaired by Vecuronium during Hypoxia Nicholas Wyon, MD; Henning Joensen, MD; Yuji ... Carotid Body Chemoreceptor Function Is Impaired by Vecuronium during Hypoxia Anesthesiology 12 1998, Vol.89, 1471-1479. doi: ... Carotid Body Chemoreceptor Function Is Impaired by Vecuronium during Hypoxia You will receive an email whenever this article is ...
Abstract 495: Body Mass Index is Associated with Progression of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Black, but not in White Young ... Abstract 495: Body Mass Index is Associated with Progression of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Black, but not in White Young ... Abstract 495: Body Mass Index is Associated with Progression of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Black, but not in White Young ... Abstract 495: Body Mass Index is Associated with Progression of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Black, but not in White Young ...
MRI, CT, Carotid body tumor, Paraganglioma, Chemodectoma, PARAGANGLIOMAS, FEATURES. Downloads. * Download mr ct carotid body ... Magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging of a carotid body tumor in a dog. Kaatje Kromhout (UGent), Ingrid Gielen ( ... Kromhout K, Gielen I, De Cock H, Van Dyck K, van Bree H. Magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging of a carotid body ... "Magnetic Resonance and Computed Tomography Imaging of a Carotid Body Tumor in a Dog." ACTA VETERINARIA SCANDINAVICA 54 (2012): ...
  • Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as an inhibitory modulator of carotid body chemosensory responses to hypoxia. (uchile.cl)
  • During hypoxia, NO is primarily an inhibitory modulator of carotid chemoreception, while in normoxia NO increased the chemosensory activity. (uchile.cl)
  • The carotid body located in the bifurcation of the carotid arteries is able to detect gas changes in blood composition (PO 2 , PCO 2 /pH) and to transduce them into afferent nerve signal. (springer.com)
  • This study provides key information for future functional investigations on the human carotid body. (elsevier.com)
  • In all cases the target area was defined as the tissue in between the ECA and ICA, up to 5-6mm above the bifurcation point of the common carotid artery into the ECA and ICA. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In a lateral approach the carotid bifurcation is not turned. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A combined approach includes usually dissection of the superior thyroid vessel and turning of the carotid bifurcation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Background K+ channels of the TASK family are believed to participate in sensory transduction by chemoreceptor (glomus) cells of the carotid body (CB). (us.es)
  • Our previous studies showed that decreased nitric oxide (NO) production enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity in chronic heart failure (CHF) rabbits. (elsevier.com)
  • This is a pilot study to assess the effectiveness, safety and feasibility of carotid body removal in patients with high blood pressure (hypertension) resistant to medical treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The carotid body (CB) is the key oxygen sensing organ. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "The carotid body (CB) is the key oxygen sensing organ. (elsevier.com)
  • It is believed that NO modulates carotid chemoreception by several mechanisms, which include the control of carotid body vascular tone and oxygen delivery and reduction of the excitability of chemoreceptor cells and petrosal sensory neurons. (uchile.cl)
  • In addition to the well-known inhibitory effect, we found that NO has a dual (dose-dependent) effect on carotid chemoreception depending on the oxygen pressure level. (uchile.cl)
  • 1980). It seems, however, that glycolysis also plays an essential role in chemoreception, because lowering PO 2 stimulates glycolysis in the cat carotid body in vitro (Delpiano and Acker, 1985). (springer.com)
  • Patients undergoing the carotid body excision to test the hypothesis that carotid body excision is sufficient to attain target blood pressure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Spergel, D ., 1992, Glutamate as a metabolic substrate in O 2 chemoreception in the cat carotid body (this Symposium). (springer.com)
  • The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during changes in arterial blood gases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The principle research question is whether removal of the carotid body will lead to an improvement in the blood pressure of this patient group. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Aim of this study is to present the experience of our institution in carotid body tumors (CBTs) treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are the most common tumors of extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue and represent more than 50% of head and neck paragangliomas [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This system classifies the tumors into three groups: Group I (tumors are too small and do not involve the surrounding vessels), Group II (tumors are adherent or partially surround and compress the carotid vessels without being problematic for resection), and Group III (tumors show an intimate adherent relationship to the entire circumference of the carotid bifurcation, requiring partial or complete vessel resection and reconstruction). (hindawi.com)
  • Resection of carotid body tumors reduces arterial blood pressure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: Carotid Body Tumors (CBTs) are Paragangliomas (PGLs) located in the head and neck region which usually do not cause overt neuroendocrine symptoms and hypertension. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Knowledge of the patient's history of carotid body tumor was crucial to the accurate diagnosis in this case, as morphologic features alone are typically not sufficient to distinguish benign from malignant carotid body tumors, or other neuroendocrine lesions. (ovid.com)
  • Carotid body tumors are rare, slow-growing, hypervascular neuroendocrine tumors. (oatext.com)
  • Complete surgical excision is the gold standard therapeutic modality for the treatment of carotid body tumors. (oatext.com)
  • Carotid body tumors (CBTs), also known as paragangliomas or chemodectomas, are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms which arise near the carotid bifurcation within glomus cells derived from the embryonic neural crest. (oatext.com)
  • Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are neoplasms of the paraganglia located at the bifurcation of carotid arteries and belong to head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Paraganglioma arising from the carotid body are relatively rare tumors but constitute majority of head and neck paragangliomas (60-70%) [ 1 , 2 ]. (annexpublishers.co)
  • They most commonly occur at the carotid bifurcation, where they are referred to as carotid body tumors. (annexpublishers.co)
  • Carotid body tumors (CBT) are rare, neurogenic tumors arising from the periadventitial chemoreceptive tissue of the carotid body and are frequently associated with living at high elevation. (centralsurg.org)
  • Chemodectomas are generally benign tumors that grow from the chemoreceptor tissue of the body. (petmd.com)
  • In addition, males tend to be more predisposed to aortic body tumors, while carotid body tumors show no gender predilection. (petmd.com)
  • Aortic body tumors occur on the aortic artery near the base of the heart. (petmd.com)
  • These tumors become a health concern when their growth displaces the trachea , when they grow into the adjacent vessels, or when their growth places pressure on the atria or vena cava, impairing their functionality for conveying blood to the body and heart. (petmd.com)
  • Carotid body tumors, meanwhile, occur on the common carotid artery near the point of bifurcation -- where the artery splits into the internal and external carotid arteries. (petmd.com)
  • Because of this relation to the major arterial passages, carotid body tumors are often impossible to remove. (petmd.com)
  • Two patients with large vascular carotid body tumors underwent preoperative intravascular embolization of the major arterial feeders. (thejns.org)
  • The literature on carotid body tumors is briefly reviewed. (thejns.org)
  • About 80% of all glomus tumors are carotid body tumors or glomus jugulare tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Haller introduced glomus tumors of the head and neck into the medical record in 1762 when he described a mass at the carotid bifurcation that had a glomus body-like structure. (medscape.com)
  • Glomus tumors of the head and neck are associated with 4 primary locations, the jugular bulb, middle ear cavity, vagus nerve, and carotid body. (medscape.com)
  • Angiogram obtained in a female patient with bilateral carotid body tumors, bilateral glomus vagale tumors, and left glomus jugulare tumors with corresponding angiographically enhancing masses. (medscape.com)
  • Aim: Ultrasound protocols to measure carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) differ considerably with regard to the inclusion of the number of carotid segments and angles used. (uva.nl)
  • Abstract 495: Body Mass Index is Associated with Progression of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Black, but not in White Young Adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study. (ahajournals.org)
  • Increased Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to be predictive of future cardiovascular events in middle-age and older adults, with this outcome being detrimentally enhanced by increased body adiposity -as measured by Body Mass Index (BMI). (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, 886 subjects were recruited from a cohort of Taiwanese adolescents and young adults to study the relationship between serum levels of 4-t-OP, CVD risk factors, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • To determine the role of central adiposity in explaining sex differences in carotid intima media thickness (IMT). (bmj.com)
  • Adjustment for body mass index and for lifestyle risk factors had very little effect on the sex difference in mean intima media thickness. (bmj.com)
  • 11, 12 However, for a continuous outcome, such as carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT), the linear association can be adequately assessed with fewer numbers. (bmj.com)
  • To delineate the relationship between the distensibility of carotid artery and BRS of HR, the next step of this study was carried out to examine both carotid arterial wall characteristics and BRS of HR. Ten each of healthy young (22±1 y) and old (69±1 y) men underwent to measure ultrasonographically the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid arterial lumen diameter and its change with arterial pulse. (nii.ac.jp)
  • T2DM is characterized by vascular wall alterations with increased intima-media thickness and/or plaque accumulation in the carotid bulb where baroreceptors are located. (ahajournals.org)
  • The carotid body is a small structure weighing 12 mg located in the adventitia of carotid artery bifurcation acting as a chemoreceptor. (scirp.org)
  • The aim of the study is to determine safety, tolerability and feasibility of unilateral and bilateral carotid body excision in patients with systolic heart failure and peripheral chemoreceptor hypersensitivity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during changes in arterial blood gases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Afferent chemoreceptor activity was recorded from the peripheral cut end of the carotid sinus nerve in pentobarbitone anaesthetized cats. (bl.uk)
  • It is concluded that peptides such as methionine-enkephalin, leucine-enkephalin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, known to be present in the carotid body as well as others present in the brain, such as 5-endorphin and cholecystokinin octapeptide, influence carotid body chemoreceptor activity. (bl.uk)
  • Does it constitute the translational niche for carotid body chemoreceptor researchers? (csic.es)
  • A pH-sensitive chloride current in the chemoreceptor cell of rat carotid body. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 2. The direct effect of extracellular pH (pH(o)) on the chloride currents of isolated chemoreceptor cells of the rat carotid body was investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It is believed that NO modulates carotid chemoreception by several mechanisms, which include the control of carotid body vascular tone and oxygen delivery and reduction of the excitability of chemoreceptor cells and petrosal sensory neurons. (uchile.cl)
  • Carotid bodies are considered the primary peripheral chemoreceptor and have been shown to contribute more to a hypoxic response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid body (CB) is the main peripheral chemoreceptor that senses the arterial PO 2 , PCO 2 and pH. (conicyt.cl)
  • The carotid body (CB) is a polymodal chemoreceptor located in the carotid bifurcation, which is activated by hypoxemia, hypercapnia, acidosis, reduction of arterial blood flow, temperature change and low levels of glucose [1-4]. (conicyt.cl)
  • Carotid chemoreceptor denervation/modulation. (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • These data demonstrate that carotid chemoreceptor activation attenuates the reflex hypotension caused by combined electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and the carotid sinus nerve in conscious rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • hence, the name (carotid paraganglioma). (scirp.org)
  • Wieneke, J.A. and Smith, A. (2009) Paraganglioma: Carotid Body Tumor. (scirp.org)
  • Angiography and cervicofacial scan had confirmed the vascular nature of the lesion and suspected diagnosis of carotid paraganglioma. (annexpublishers.co)
  • The tumor was diagnosed as carotid body paraganglioma of Shamblin group I. (annexpublishers.co)
  • The interest of the carotid body tumor lay in the facts that it is the most common paraganglioma in the head and neck and seems to occur slightly more often in women and more frequently in people living at high altitudes. (annexpublishers.co)
  • Malignancy occurs in 6-12.5% of cases, which ranks carotid body paragangliomas as the most frequently occurring malignant head and neck paraganglioma [ 4 , 5 ]. (annexpublishers.co)
  • Objective This study examined the relationship between two new variables, tumor distance to base of skull (DTBOS) and tumor volume, with complications of carotid body tumor (CBT) resection, including bleeding and cranial nerve injury. (elsevier.com)
  • Unilateral Carotid Body Resection in Resistant Hypertension: A Safety and Feasibility Trial. (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • 2002) Management of Carotid Body Paragangliomas and Review of a 30-Year Experience. (scirp.org)
  • This work is dedicated to exome analysis of carotid paragangliomas for understanding the difference in causative gene set and frequency of mutations with other PGLs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The trachea and esophagus were divided and retracted cranially to expose the left carotid bifurcation and carotid sinus. (asahq.org)
  • What is the surgery proceedure to remove stenosis in the left carotid artery where it comes out at the top of the aorta? (healthtap.com)
  • Iturriaga R, Alcayaga J (2004) Neurotransmission in the carotid body: transmitters and modulators between glomus cells and petrosal ganglion nerve terminals. (springer.com)
  • For a while the carotid body remained forgotten, to be rediscovered in 1833 by Mayer of Bonn who again remarked upon the branches of the sympathetic, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves as sources of a nerve plexus which innervated the ganglion intercaroticurtl. (springer.com)
  • [2-4] In the rabbit, vecuronium administered locally close to the carotid body caused a reduction in the phrenic nerve activity during systemic hypoxic challenges. (asahq.org)
  • The aortic body, by contrast, is connected to the medulla via the vagus nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The feedback from the carotid body is sent to the cardiorespiratory centers in the medulla oblongata via the afferent branches of the glossopharyngeal nerve . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The cell bodies of this nerve are located in the petrosal ganglion. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Slight risk of bleeding, real but low risk cranial nerve injury, low risk of surgically significant carotid renarrowing. (healthtap.com)
  • they arise from the glomus bodies that run with the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical and vascular outcome in internal carotid artery versus middle cerebral artery occlusions after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator," Stroke , vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 2066-2071, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • These structures include the type I cells of the carotid body, the neuroepithelial bodies of the lungs as well as some central and peripheral neurons and vascular smooth muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Invasive carotid angiography is also needed for diagnosis and treatment of neck malformations, carotid tumours, vascular malformations and injuries as well as USG, MR angiography, CT angiography [ 1 - 6 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Selective external carotid angiogram demonstrates a vascular skull-base mass. (medscape.com)
  • Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan demonstrating a large vascular mass along the course of the left internal carotid artery and jugular vein above the level of the carotid bifurcation. (medscape.com)
  • Intravenous (IV) injections of LPS in anesthetized cats induce tachypnea, tachycardia and hypotension, but ventilatory changes are suppressed after sectioning carotid and aortic nerves. (udd.cl)
  • As transducers of patterns of variability in the surrounding environment, carotid and aortic bodies count as chemosensors in a similar way as taste buds and photoreceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, because carotid and aortic bodies detect variation within the body's internal organs, they are considered interoceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Afferent nerves carry signals back from the carotid and aortic bodies to the brainstem, which responds accordingly (e.g. increasing ventilation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Both carotid bodies and aortic bodies increase sensory discharge during hypoxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the chronic absence of the carotid body, the aortic body is able to perform a similar respiratory regulatory role, suggesting that it possesses efficacious mechanisms of signal transduction as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carotid and aortic bodies are clusters of cells located on the common carotid artery and the aortic arch, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the fact that the carotid bodies are the most relevant sites of origin of ventilatory chemoreflexes, the first report on reflex respiratory regulation was related to the aortic bodies (Heymans & Heymans, 1927) and was based on observations performed on dogs with cross-circulation, using asphyxia (i.e., hypoxia, hypercapnia and acidemia) as the stimulus. (conicyt.cl)
  • In addition, no carotid angiography was performed at risky persons (Those who had severe plaque in the carotid ostia, severe atherosclerotic calcified aortic cases, severe skeletal anomalies, major thoracic injuries, aortic surgery, aortic aneurysms with a diameter is larger than 5.0 cm). (omicsonline.org)
  • The carotid artery originates from the innominate artery on the right and directly from the aortic arch on the left. (medscape.com)
  • Thus partial HIF-1α deficiency has a dramatic effect on carotid body neural activity and ventilatory adaptation to chronic hypoxia. (pnas.org)
  • We hypothesized that HIF-1α is required for carotid body function and ventilatory adaptation to chronic hypoxia. (pnas.org)
  • LPS increases the basal frequency of carotid chemosensory discharges, but reduces ventilatory and chemosensory responses to hypoxia and nicotine injections. (udd.cl)
  • Carotid body hyperplasia and enhanced ventilatory responses to hypoxia in mice with heterozygous deficiency of PHD2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 1983) The Human Carotid Body. (scirp.org)
  • How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human carotid body (CB) remains poorly understood. (springer.com)
  • The human carotid body is a small structure located at the upper end of the common carotid artery. (springer.com)
  • This study provides key information for future functional investigations on the human carotid body. (elsevier.com)
  • Physical examination, duplex ultrasonography and computed tomography angiography revealed a mass on right carotid bifurcation measuring 15 x 15 x 11 mm that was considered as CBT. (oatext.com)
  • Response to role of the carotid body in obesity-related sympathoactivation. (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • There is one external carotid artery on the right side of the neck and one on the left side of the neck. (healthline.com)
  • Each begins at the common carotid artery and moves up the neck until it divides into the superficial temporal artery and the maxillary artery. (healthline.com)
  • The common carotid artery is found bilaterally, with one on each side of the anterior neck. (healthline.com)
  • The carotid body is located within the neck , and in close proximity to the carotid bifurcation . (radiopaedia.org)
  • relating to the carotid artery, the principal artery of the neck. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since 2009, we have performing coronary angiography followed by carotid angiography with heart diseases that are we suspect of carotid artery disease to the patients who signed informed consent form(those who had, suspicious carotid artery stenos in Carotid Doppler USG, those who had stenos in the USG, whose murmur was heard in the neck, and stroke in his history). (omicsonline.org)
  • Another rare neoplasm of the head and neck region is a carotid body tumor. (elsevier.com)
  • Interestingly, the left-side neck mass was found to be splaying the carotid bifurcation, on computed tomography imaging. (elsevier.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported instance of a thyroglossal duct carcinoma with neck metastasis accompanied by a carotid body tumor. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, the carotid body tumor in this case mimicked neck metastasis from the thyroglossal duct carcinoma. (elsevier.com)
  • The current proposal proposes to investigate the role of neurotransmitters in altered carotid body function by CIH in experimental models that may lead to novel therapeutic strategies that help preventing or retarding the deleterious consequences of CIH associated with sleep-disordered breathing. (grantome.com)
  • Kromhout K, Gielen I, De Cock H, Van Dyck K, van Bree H. Magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging of a carotid body tumor in a dog. (ugent.be)
  • Computed tomography scan demonstrates an enhancing carotid bifurcation mass. (medscape.com)
  • The external carotid artery is sometimes affected by carotid artery disease, which is caused by a buildup of plaque. (healthline.com)
  • Often, no symptoms of carotid artery disease occur before the stroke. (healthline.com)
  • Carotid artery disease is the underlying cause of approximately half of all stroke cases in the United States. (healthline.com)
  • In conclusion, these findings help support the proposed hypothesis of racial and gender divergences in the association between BMI and progression of CIMT, which suggest that race (black-white) and gender-specific mechanistic differences exist in the impact of increased body adiposity on carotid artery disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Objectives We evaluated the relationship among BMI, carotid sonographic findings, and long-term (5 years) cardiovascular events in Asian patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). (ovid.com)
  • Performing of Carotid angiography may help to reduce stroke frequency at the time of coronary angiography in patients with coronary artery disease. (omicsonline.org)
  • Atherosclerotic plaque removed at time of carotid endarterectomy (areas of ulceration with thrombus and intraplaque hemorrhage are present). (medscape.com)
  • It focuses on modulation of the carotid body - a key chemosensor located at the fork of the carotid artery that helps regulate respiratory activity. (medgadget.com)
  • Enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreflex sensitivity is common to all of these populations and is thought to contribute to these abnormal patterns by destabilizing the respiratory control system. (frontiersin.org)
  • An integrated approach with a repertoire of techniques including measurements of carotid body sensory activity, cardio-respiratory variables, neurotransmitters and second messenger pathways will be employed. (grantome.com)
  • Experiments in AIM 4 test the hypothesis that blockade of 5-HT and NADPH oxidase in the carotid body attenuate or abolish CIH-evoked long-lasting cardio- respiratory changes. (grantome.com)
  • In response to hypoxemia, hypercapnia and acidosis, carotid chemosensory discharge elicits reflex respiratory, autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments. (conicyt.cl)
  • When blood-oxygen concentration levels are low and/or the concentration of carbon dioxide is high, the carotid body is stimulated to produce nervous impulses which are transmitted to the respiratory centre in the hindbrain, thus influencing BREATHING rate and, in turn, heart rate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Carotid body monitors the blood's pH, pCO2, and pO2 and thereby modulates cardiovascular and respiratory function primarily through sympathetic tone. (blogspot.com)
  • It is interesting to notice that Stress peptide PACAP engages multiple signaling pathways within the carotid body to initiate excitatory responses in respiratory and sympathetic chemosensory afferents . (blogspot.com)
  • Our aim was to evaluate hemodynamic and respiratory responses to different levels of hypoxia and hypercapnia in conscious intact or carotid body -denervated rats . (bvsalud.org)
  • All patients underwent carotid ultrasonography. (ovid.com)
  • 156 patients underwent carotid angiography with a newly developed Femoral S catheter. (omicsonline.org)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as an inhibitory modulator of carotid body chemosensory responses to hypoxia. (uchile.cl)
  • Cerebral ACT and BHB levels increased significantly in Group T after 30min of carotid occlusion (time 0). (scielo.br)
  • The partial transient acute global brain ischemia induced by the bilateral carotid occlusion in Wistar rats triggered ketogenesis probably due to a central stimulation of catecholamine secretion. (scielo.br)
  • An increasing number of patients with symptomatic carotid artery occlusion are being referred for extracranial to intracranial bypass grafts. (thejns.org)
  • expanding the first occlusion element to occlude the common carotid artery. (google.co.uk)
  • The proposed studies assessing the role of transmitter(s) in CIH- induced sensory LTF of the carotid body and assessing the physiological significance of sensory LTF is of importance in developing novel therapeutic strategies for alleviating and/or retarding autonomic abnormalities associated with CIH. (grantome.com)
  • And the paper informs us, that these gas transmitter effects carry important clinical relevance given the importance of the carotid body in the genesis and maintenance of autonomic imbalance and breathing instability in heart failure. (blogspot.com)
  • Targeting autonomic imbalance in pathophysiology: is the carotid body the new nirvana? (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • Neural stem cells (NSCs) exist in germinal centers of the adult brain and in the carotid body (CB), an oxy- gen-sensing organ that grows under chronic hyp- oxemia. (sebbm.es)
  • [11] As sensory organs, the carotid bodies convey the chemical status of the circulating blood to brain centers regulating neural outputs to the heart and circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Healthy old (68±1 y) and young (20±0 y) men underwent a graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) for the hypovolemic stress. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The 156 patients found that are underwent carotid angiography with Femoral S catheter. (omicsonline.org)
  • subadventitial tumor, the Internal carotid artery was preserved, we did not performed a bypass with prosthetic graft or safenous vein and all cranial nerves were preserved ( Figure 2 ). (annexpublishers.co)
  • Cardiovascular responses to lower body negative pressure in the elderly : role of reduced leg compliance'Gerontology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Tsutsui Y, Sagawa S, Yamauchi K, Endo Y, Yamazaki F, Shiraki K: 'Cardiovascular responses to lower body negative pressure in the elderly: role of reduced leg compliance'Gerontology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The object of this study was to evaluate the contribution of carotid distensibilty on baroreflex sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with at least 2 additional cardiovascular risk factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • In diabetic subjects with 2 additional cardiovascular risk factors, spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity is not related to carotid distensibility. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we evaluated the potential contribution of carotid distensibilty changes on BRS in whites with T2DM with at least 2 additional other cardiovascular risk factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Each common carotid artery is divided into an external and internal carotid artery. (healthline.com)
  • In all cases the target area was defined as the tissue in between the ECA and ICA, up to 5-6mm above the bifurcation point of the common carotid artery into the ECA and ICA. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This claim, however, may be erroneous, for Tauber (1743) described a struc- ture at the bifurcation on the common carotid artery and called it the ganglion minutum. (springer.com)
  • CIMT images were recorded for 12 artery-wall combinations (near and far walls of the left and right common carotid artery (CCA), bifurcation (BIF) and internal carotid artery (ICA) segments) at 4 set angles, resulting in 48 possible measurements per patient. (uva.nl)
  • a small epithelioid structure located just above the bifurcation of the common carotid artery on each side. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Computer tomography revealed a 5/3/2.5 cm, mass on the bifurcation of the right common carotid artery. (annexpublishers.co)
  • Carotid-cavernous fistula is a potentially serious complication of such procedures, and may be more common than realized since small fistulas may close spontaneously. (thejns.org)
  • Much more common is a carotid endarterecomy, however this occurs where the internal carotid comes off the common carotid, not the aorta. (healthtap.com)
  • Carotid distensibility was measured bilaterally at the common carotid artery in 79 consecutive diabetic patients and 60 matched subjects without diabetes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Carotid distensibility was measured by automatic edge detection bilaterally at the common carotid and at the bulb level in 79 consecutive T2DM patients attending our outpatient clinic and in 60 matched control subjects. (ahajournals.org)
  • The method comprises transcervical access and blocking of blood flow through the common carotid artery (with or without blocking of blood flow through the external carotid artery), shunting blood. (google.co.uk)
  • 2. A method as in claim 1 , wherein forming the puncture opening comprises making the puncture opening directly into the common carotid artery accessed through a transcervical surgical incision. (google.co.uk)
  • 3. A method as in claim 1 , wherein forming the puncture opening comprises performing a percutaneous puncture into the common carotid artery. (google.co.uk)
  • Fujita T., Kanno T., Kobayashi S. (1988) Carotid Body Chief Cells. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms of carotid body pH-sensing by recording the responses of glomus cells isolated from rat carotid body to rapid changes in extracellular pH using whole-cell patch-clamping technique. (ahajournals.org)
  • Each of these bodies is composed of a similar collection of cells, and it is the post-transduction signal processing that differentiates their responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their long bodies usually occur in close association with type I cells, though they do not entirely encase type I cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fig. 2: Physiological responses to acute hypoxia in carotid body slices and single dissociated glomus cells from wild-type and Olfr78 −/− mice. (nature.com)
  • Buckler, K. J. & Vaughan-Jones, R. D. Effects of hypoxia on membrane potential and intracellular calcium in rat neonatal carotid body type I cells. (nature.com)
  • The ultrastructure of the glomus cells of the carotid labyrinth was investigated in the anuran, Xenopus laevis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Fitzgerald RS, Shirahata M, Chang I. "The impact of adenosine and an A2A adenosine receptor agonist on the ACh-induced increase in intracellular calcium of the glomus cells of the cat carotid body. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Regulation of a TASK-like potassium channel in rat carotid body type I cells by ATP. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 2002) Carotid Body Tumour: Case Report. (scirp.org)
  • Histopathological Appearance of Carotid Body Tumour [Image on the Internet]. (scirp.org)
  • A. Abou Zikry , Carotid body tumour, J. Egypt. (who.int)
  • tons of contaminated experiments of Schistosoma download the mammalian carotid body from China in the standard rights. (lkqatv.com)
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  • Compared to other organs, the history of the carotid body ( glomus caroticum ) is rather brief and recent. (conicyt.cl)
  • The rat carotid body and its sensory ganglion constitutively express LPS canonical receptor. (udd.cl)
  • Taste buds, olfactory bulbs, photoreceptors, and other receptors associated with the five traditional sensory modalities, by contrast, are exteroceptors in that they respond to stimuli outside the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • We hypothesize that sensory LTF is due to recruitment of certain transmitter/modulators by CIH, which otherwise play either a minor or no role in normal carotid body function. (grantome.com)
  • Studies in AIM 2 test the hypotheses that: a) 5- HT acting via 5-HT2 receptors plays a critical role in CIH evoked sensory LTF and b) CIH recruits IP-3 receptor mechanisms in eliciting 5-HT release from the carotid body. (grantome.com)
  • Can you explain how a carotid surgery to remove plaque works? (healthtap.com)
  • The study focused on the relationship between homocysteine, B-12 and carotid artery plaque. (mindandbodyfitness.net)
  • In addition and most important, carotid plaque was significantly larger among the group of patients who had deficiency of vitamin B12 In conclusion, the authors found that low blood vitamin B12 levels are a major cause of elevated homocysteine levels and increased carotid plaque area. (mindandbodyfitness.net)
  • Vitamin B12, homocysteine and carotid plaque in the era of folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products. (mindandbodyfitness.net)
  • Carotid plaque. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of this work was to determine contents and turnover rates for dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) and to identify the catecholamine (CA) released during stimulation of the rat carotid body (CB). (nih.gov)
  • Electric stimulation of the carotid sinus has been used recently in clinical trials to treat hypertensive patients resistant to pharmacological therapy. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 More recently, electric stimulation of the carotid sinus has emerged as a therapeutic tool in the management of heart failure as well. (ahajournals.org)
  • Further, 7 day administration of the PHI induced only modest increases in HVR and carotid body cell proliferation, despite marked stimulation of erythropoiesis. (ox.ac.uk)