Carotid Body: A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.Carotid Body Tumor: Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Sodium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Paraganglia, Nonchromaffin: Several clusters of chemoreceptive and supporting cells associated with blood vessels and nerves (especially the glossopharyngeal and vagus). The nonchromaffin paraganglia sense pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and participate in respiratory, and perhaps circulatory, control. They include the CAROTID BODY; AORTIC BODIES; the GLOMUS JUGULARE; and the GLOMUS TYMPANICUM.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Aortic Bodies: Small clusters of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the ARCH OF THE AORTA; the PULMONARY ARTERIES; and the CORONARY ARTERIES. The aortic bodies sense PH; CARBON DIOXIDE; and OXYGEN concentrations in the BLOOD and participate in the control of RESPIRATION. The aortic bodies should not be confused with the PARA-AORTIC BODIES in the abdomen (which are sometimes also called aortic bodies).Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Domperidone: A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection: The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Sympathectomy: The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal: A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the CAROTID BODY; GLOMUS JUGULARE; GLOMUS TYMPANICUM; AORTIC BODIES; and the female genital tract. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. (From Stedman, 27th ed)Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Ultimobranchial Body: A diverticulum from the fourth pharyngeal pouch of an embryo, regarded by some as a rudimentary fifth pharyngeal pouch and by others as a lateral thyroid primordium. The ultimobranchial bodies of lower vertebrates contain large amounts of calcitonin. In mammals the bodies fuse with the thyroid gland and are thought to develop into the parafollicular cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain: Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Paraganglioma: A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Purinergic P2X Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Almitrine: A respiratory stimulant that enhances respiration by acting as an agonist of peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid bodies. The drug increases arterial oxygen tension while decreasing arterial carbon dioxide tension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It may also prove useful in the treatment of nocturnal oxygen desaturation without impairing the quality of sleep.Cystathionine gamma-Lyase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.

Presynaptic action of adenosine on a 4-aminopyridine-sensitive current in the rat carotid body. (1/641)

1. Plasma adenosine concentration increases during hypoxia to a level that excites carotid body chemoreceptors by an undetermined mechanism. We have examined this further by determining the electrophysiological responses to exogenous adenosine of sinus nerve chemoafferents in vitro and of whole-cell currents in isolated type I cells. 2. Steady-state, single-fibre chemoafferent discharge was increased approximately 5-fold above basal levels by 100 microM adenosine. This adenosine-stimulated discharge was reversibly and increasingly reduced by methoxyverapamil (D600, 100 microM), by application of nickel chloride (Ni2+, 2 mM) and by removal of extracellular Ca2+. These effects strongly suggest a presynaptic, excitatory action of adenosine on type I cells of the carotid body. 3. Adenosine decreased whole-cell outward currents at membrane potentials above -40 mV in isolated type I cells recorded during superfusion with bicarbonate-buffered saline solution at 34-36 C. This effect was reversible and concentration dependent with a maximal effect at 10 microM. 4. The degree of current inhibition induced by 10 microM adenosine was voltage independent (45.39 +/- 2. 55 % (mean +/- s.e.m.) between -40 and +30 mV) and largely ( approximately 75 %), but not entirely, Ca2+ independent. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mM) decreased the amplitude of the control outward current by 80.60 +/- 3.67 % and abolished the effect of adenosine. 5. Adenosine was without effect upon currents near the resting membrane potential of approximately -55 mV and did not induce depolarization in current-clamp experiments. 6. We conclude that adenosine acts to inhibit a 4-AP-sensitive current in isolated type I cells of the rat carotid body and suggest that this mechanism contributes to the chemoexcitatory effect of adenosine in the whole carotid body.  (+info)

Trigeminal and carotid body inputs controlling vascular resistance in muscle during post-contraction hyperaemia in cats. (2/641)

1. In anaesthetized cats, the effects of stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa and carotid body chemoreceptors on vascular resistance in hindlimb skeletal muscle were studied to see whether the responses were the same in active as in resting muscle. The measurements of vascular resistance were taken, first, in resting muscle, and second, in the immediate post-contraction hyperaemic phase that followed a 30 s period of isometric contractions. 2. Stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa caused reflex apnoea and vasoconstriction in muscle. The latter response was attenuated when the test was repeated during post-contraction hyperaemia. 3. Stimulations of the carotid bodies were made during a period of apnoea evoked reflexly by electrical stimulation of both superior laryngeal nerves. This apnoea prevented any effects of changes in respiration on the carotid body reflex vascular responses. Stimulation of the carotid bodies evoked hindlimb muscle vasoconstriction. In the post-contraction hyperaemic period, the response was reduced or abolished. A similar attenuation of the reflex vasoconstrictor responses occurred in decentralized muscles stimulated through their motor roots in the cauda equina. 4. Evidence is presented that the attenuation of the vasoconstrictor responses evoked by the two reflexes is a phenomenon localized to the contracting muscles themselves resulting from an interaction between sympathetic neuronal activity and the local production of metabolites. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the metabolic needs of tissues in relation to asphyxial defence mechanisms such as occur in the diving response.  (+info)

BDNF is a target-derived survival factor for arterial baroreceptor and chemoafferent primary sensory neurons. (3/641)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports survival of 50% of visceral afferent neurons in the nodose/petrosal sensory ganglion complex (NPG; Ernfors et al., 1994a; Jones et al., 1994; Conover et al., 1995; Liu et al., 1995; Erickson et al., 1996), including arterial chemoafferents that innervate the carotid body and are required for development of normal breathing (Erickson et al., 1996). However, the relationship between BDNF dependence of visceral afferents and the location and timing of BDNF expression in visceral tissues is unknown. The present study demonstrates that BDNF mRNA and protein are transiently expressed in NPG targets in the fetal cardiac outflow tract, including baroreceptor regions in the aortic arch, carotid sinus, and right subclavian artery, as well as in the carotid body. The period of BDNF expression corresponds to the onset of sensory innervation and to the time at which fetal NPG neurons are BDNF-dependent in vitro. Moreover, baroreceptor innervation is absent in newborn mice lacking BDNF. In addition to vascular targets, vascular afferents themselves express high levels of BDNF, both during and after the time they are BDNF-dependent. However, endogenous BDNF supports survival of fetal NPG neurons in vitro only under depolarizing conditions. Together, these data indicate two roles for BDNF during vascular afferent pathway development; initially, as a target-derived survival factor, and subsequently, as a signaling molecule produced by the afferents themselves. Furthermore, the fact that BDNF is required for survival of functionally distinct populations of vascular afferents demonstrates that trophic requirements of NPG neurons are not modality-specific but may instead be associated with innervation of particular organ systems.  (+info)

NADPH oxidase inhibition does not interfere with low PO2 transduction in rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells. (4/641)

The aim of the present work was to elucidate the role of NADPH oxidase in hypoxia sensing and transduction in the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor cells. We have studied the effects of several inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on the normoxic and hypoxia-induced release of [3H]catecholamines (CA) in an in vitro preparation of intact CB of the rat and rabbit whose CA deposits have been labeled by prior incubation with the natural precursor [3H]tyrosine. It was found that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI; 0.2-25 microM), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, caused a dose-dependent release of [3H]CA from normoxic CB chemoreceptor cells. Contrary to hypoxia, DPI-evoked release was only partially Ca2+ dependent. Concentrations of DPI reported to produce full inhibition of NADPH oxidase in the rat CB did not prevent the hypoxic release response in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells, as stimulation with hypoxia in the presence of DPI elicited a response equaling the sum of that produced by DPI and hypoxia applied separately. Neopterin (3-300 microM) and phenylarsine oxide (0.5-2 microM), other inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, did not promote release of [3H]CA in normoxic conditions or affect the response elicited by hypoxia. On the basis of effects of neopterin and phenylarsine oxide, it is concluded that NADPH oxidase does not appear to play a role in oxygen sensing or transduction in the rat and rabbit CB chemoreceptor cells in vitro and, in the context of the present study, that DPI effects are not related to NADPH oxidase inhibition.  (+info)

Enhanced activity of carotid body chemoreceptors in rabbits with heart failure: role of nitric oxide. (5/641)

An enhanced peripheral chemoreflex has been documented in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). This study aimed to examine the characteristics of carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors in response to isocapnic hypoxia in a rabbit model of pacing-induced CHF and to evaluate the possible role that nitric oxide (NO) plays in the altered characteristics. The chemosensitive characteristics of the CB were evaluated by recording single-unit activity from the carotid sinus nerve in both an intact and a vascularly isolated preparation. It was found that the baseline discharge under normoxia (intact preparation: arterial PO2 90-95 Torr; isolated preparation: PO2 100-110 Torr) and the chemosensitivity in response to graded hypoxia (PO2 40-70 Torr) were enhanced in CHF vs. sham rabbits. These alterations were independent of the CB preparations (intact vs. isolated). NO synthase inhibition by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine increased the baseline discharge and the chemosensitivity in the intact preparation, whereas L-arginine (10(-5) M) inhibited the baseline discharge and the chemosensitivity in the isolated preparation in sham but not in CHF rabbits. S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, an NO donor, inhibited the baseline discharge and the chemosensitivity in both CB preparations in CHF rabbits but only in the isolated preparation in sham rabbits. The amount of NO produced in vitro by the CB under normoxia was less in CHF rabbits than in sham rabbits (P < 0.05). NO synthase-positive varicosities of nerve fibers within the CB were less in CHF rabbits than in sham rabbits (P < 0.05). These data indicate that an enhanced input from CB occurs in the rabbit model of pacing-induced CHF and that an impairment of NO production may contribute to this alteration.  (+info)

Nitric oxide inhibits L-type Ca2+ current in glomus cells of the rabbit carotid body via a cGMP-independent mechanism. (6/641)

Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits carotid body sensory activity. To begin to understand the cellular mechanisms associated with the actions of NO in the carotid body, we monitored the effects of NO donors on the macroscopic Ca2+ current in glomus cells isolated from rabbit carotid bodies. Experiments were performed on freshly dissociated glomus cells from adult rabbit carotid bodies using the whole cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. The NO donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 600 microM, n = 7) and spermine nitric oxide (SNO; 100 microM, n = 7) inhibited the Ca2+ current in glomus cells in a voltage-independent manner. These effects of NO donors were rapid in onset and peaked within 1 or 2 min. In contrast, the outward K+ current was unaffected by SNP (600 microM, n = 6), indicating that the inhibition by SNP was not a nonspecific membrane effect. 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO; 500 microM), an NO scavenger, prevented inhibition of the Ca2+ current by SNP (n = 7), whereas neither superoxide dismutase (SOD; 2,000 U/ml, n = 4), a superoxide scavenger, nor sodium hydrosulfite (SHS; 1 mM, n = 7), a reducing agent, prevented inhibition of the Ca2+ current by SNP. However, SNP inhibition of the Ca2+ current was reversible in the presence of either SOD or SHS. These results suggest that NO itself inhibits Ca2+ current in a reversible manner and that subsequent formation of peroxynitrites results in irreversible inhibition. SNP inhibition of the Ca2+ current was not affected by 30 microM LY 83, 583 (n = 7) nor was it mimicked by 600 microM 8-bromoguanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP; n = 6), suggesting that the effects of NO on the Ca2+ current are mediated, in part, via a cGMP-independent mechanism. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM; 2.5 mM, n = 6) prevented the inhibition of the Ca2+ current by SNP, indicating that SNP is acting via a modification of sulfhydryl groups on Ca2+ channel proteins. Norepinephrine (NE; 10 microM) further inhibited the Ca2+ current in the presence of NEM (n = 7), implying that NEM did not nonspecifically eliminate Ca2+ current modulation. Nisoldipine, an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker (2 microM, n = 6), prevented the inhibition of Ca2+ current by SNP, whereas omega-conotoxin GVIA, an N-type Ca2+ channel blocker (1 microM, n = 9), did not prevent the inhibition of Ca2+ current by SNP. These results demonstrate that NO inhibits L-type Ca2+ channels in adult rabbit glomus cells, in part, due to a modification of calcium channel proteins. The inhibition might provide one plausible mechanism for efferent inhibition of carotid body activity by NO.  (+info)

Contribution of baroreceptors and chemoreceptors to ventricular hypertrophy produced by sino-aortic denervation in rats. (7/641)

1. To test whether sino-aortic denervation (SAD)-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is a consequence of baroreceptor or chemoreceptor denervation, we compared the effects of aortic denervation (AD), carotid denervation (CD), SAD and a SAD procedure modified to spare the carotid chemoreceptors (mSAD), 6 weeks after denervation surgery in rats. A sham surgery group served as the control. 2. The blood pressure (BP) level was unaffected by AD, CD or SAD, but increased (9 %) following mSAD. The mean heart rate level was not affected. Short-term BP variability was elevated following AD (81 %), SAD (144 %) and mSAD (146 %), but not after CD. Baroreflex heart rate responses to phenylephrine were attenuated in all denervation groups. 3. Significant RVH occurred only following CD and SAD. These procedures also produced high mortality (CD and SAD) and significant increases in right ventricular pressures and haematocrit (CD). 4. Significant left ventricular hypertrophy occurred following CD, SAD and mSAD. Normalized left ventricular weight was significantly correlated with indices of BP variability. 5. These results suggest that SAD-induced RVH is a consequence of chemoreceptor, not baroreceptor, denervation. Our results also demonstrate that a mSAD procedure designed to spare the carotid chemoreceptors produced profound baroreflex dysfunction and significant left, but not right, ventricular hypertrophy.  (+info)

Contribution of peripheral chemoreception to the depression of the hypoxic ventilatory response during halothane anesthesia in cats. (8/641)

BACKGROUND: The effects of inhalational anesthetics on the hypoxic ventilatory response are complex. This study was designed to determine the contribution of peripheral chemoreception to the depression of hypoxic ventilatory response seen with halothane anesthesia. METHODS: Cats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium and alpha-chloralose and artificially ventilated. Respiratory output was evaluated by phasic inspiratory activity of the phrenic nerve. In 12 cats, this activity was measured during inhalation of an hypoxic gas mixture with halothane, 0, 0.1, and 0.8%, with intact or denervated carotid bodies. In 10 cats, a carotid body was isolated from the systemic circulation and perfused with hypoxic Krebs-Ringer solution equilibrated with halothane, 0, 0.1, and 0.8%. RESULTS: The hypoxic ventilatory response was depressed in a dose-dependent manner during halothane anesthesia. In carotid body perfusion studies, the response was significantly depressed only with halothane, 0.80%. CONCLUSION: The hypoxic ventilatory response is depressed by a high dose of halothane through a peripheral effect at the carotid body.  (+info)

*Carotid body

... but not quite as much as the carotid body. The carotid body functions as a sensor: it responds to a stimulus, primarily O2 ... The carotid body contains the most vascularized tissue in the human body[citation needed]. The thyroid gland is very vascular, ... The carotid body (carotid glomus or glomus caroticum) is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near ... The carotid body is made up of two types of cells, called glomus cells: glomus type I cells are peripheral chemoreceptors, and ...

*HERG

Overholt JL, Ficker E, Yang T, Shams H, Bright GR, Prabhakar NR (2000). "Chemosensing at the carotid body. Involvement of a ... the naturally occurring channels in the body that include hERG are referred to by the name of the electrical current that has ...

*Chemoreceptor

Aortic body detects changes in blood oxygen and carbon dioxide, but not pH, while carotid body detects all three. They do not ... Carotid bodies and aortic bodies detect changes primarily in oxygen. They also sense increases in CO2 partial pressure and ... Nurse, Colin A. (2013). "Signal processing at mammalian carotid body chemoreceptors". Semin Cell Dev Biol. 24: 22-30. doi: ... such as the taste receptor in a taste bud or in an internal peripheral chemoreceptor such as the carotid body (ex, in ...

*Peripheral chemoreceptors

Many of the findings on to carotid body's relation to SIDS report that carotid body development is impaired by environmental ... Both carotid and aortic bodies increase sensory discharge during hypoxia. Carotid bodies are considered the primary peripheral ... Carotid and aortic bodies are clusters of cells located on the common carotid artery and the aortic arch, respectively. Each of ... However, because carotid and aortic bodies detect variation within the body's internal organs, they are considered ...

*Glomus cell

... mainly located in the carotid bodies and aortic bodies, that helps the body regulate breathing. When there is a decrease in the ... Clusters of glomus cells, of which the carotid bodies and aortic bodies are the most important, are called non-chromaffin or ... the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies signal the medulla oblongata (specifically the dorsal inspiratory center in the ... Allen, A. M. (1 August 1998). "Angiotensin AT1 receptor-mediated excitation of rat carotid body chemoreceptor afferent activity ...

*Hypoxia in fish

These structures include the type I cells of the carotid body, the neuroepithelial bodies of the lungs as well as some central ... The membrane hypothesis was proposed for the carotid body in mice, and it predicts that oxygen sensing is an ion balance ... The mitochondrial hypothesis was also proposed for the carotid body of mice, but it relies on the levels of oxidative ... Lopez-Barneo, J; Lopez-Lopez, JR; Urena, J; Gonzalez, C (1988). "Chemotransduction in the carotid body: K+ current modulated by ...

*Christian J. Lambertsen

"Observations on the volume of blood flow and oxygen utilization of the carotid body in the cat". J. Physiol. 125 (1): 67-89. ... "Some observations on the carotid body blood flow in the cat". Am. J. Med. Sci. 226 (2): 230. PMID 13065304. CS1 maint: Uses ... Johnson PC, Driscoll TB, Alexander WC, Lambertsen CJ (July 1973). "Body fluid volume changes during a 14-day continuous ...

*Simhasana

The carotid bodies assist in maintaining normal blood pressure and heartbeats. The breathing exercise is claimed to help the ... to aid better functioning of the carotid sinus, the sinus nerves, the larynx, and the thyroid and parathyroid glands. ...

*Common raven physiology

In the carotid body, the bird's chemoreceptors detect low oxygen and stimulate breathing during hypoxia. Also, if breathing is ... The kidneys of a common raven filter about eleven times its total body water daily, and more than 95% of the filtered water is ... Specifically, the avian heart evolved to pump more blood throughout a bird's body while it is engaged in flight. During ... Through this mechanism, arterial blood remains warm before reaching the body's periphery. Ravens have a high metabolic rate ...

*Hypoxic ventilatory response

Type I glomus cells of carotid bodies detect the change in oxygen levels and release neurotransmitters towards the carotid ... Carotid bodies contain oxygen-sensitive cells that become more active in response to hypoxia. They send input to the brainstem ... The initial increase in ventilation from HVR is initiated by the carotid bodies, which are bilaterally located at the port of ... Hormonal changes have also been associated with HVR, particularly those that affect the functioning of the carotid bodies. As ...

*Medullary inspiratory neuron

Inputs to this neuron come from the peripheral chemoreceptors, carotid body, aortic body, and central chemoreceptors. It ...

*Diving reflex

Gross, P. M; Whipp, B. J; Davidson, J. T; Koyal, S. N; Wasserman, K (1976). "Role of the carotid bodies in the heart rate ... Preliminary evidence indicates that the bilateral carotid bodies detect the decreasing oxygen and rising carbon dioxide levels ... However, breath-hold time is reduced when the whole body is exposed to cold water as the metabolic rate increases to compensate ... This is especially useful in infants in whom the diving reflex is well-preserved, allowing the valsalva maneuver or carotid ...

*Exercise intolerance

These include: Oxygen Supplementation Reduces carotid body drive and slows respiration at a given level of exercise. Treatment ... certain therapies can affect one or more components of this cascade and therefore reduce the body's ability to utilise or ...

*Edith E. Sproul

Lattes, R., McDonald, J.J., Sproul, E.E. (1954) Non-chromaffin paraganglioma, of carotid body and orbit; report of a case. ...

*List of Christian Nobel laureates

de Castro, F. (2009) Towards the sensory nature of the carotid body: Hering, De Castro and Heymans. Front. Neuroanat. 3: 23 (1- ...

*Almitrine

It enhances respiration by acting as an agonist of peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid bodies. The drug increases ...

*Glossopharyngeal nerve

Sensory fibers arise from the carotid sinus and carotid body at the common carotid artery bifurcation, ascend in the sinus ... It receives visceral sensory fibers from the carotid bodies, carotid sinus. It supplies parasympathetic fibers to the parotid ... This component of CN IX innervates the baroreceptors of the carotid sinus and chemoreceptors of the carotid body. Peripheral ... Taste from the posterior one-third of the tongue and information from carotid baroreceptors and carotid body chemoreceptors ...

*Effects of high altitude on humans

At high altitude, in the short term, the lack of oxygen is sensed by the carotid bodies, which causes an increase in the ... Inability to increase the breathing rate can be caused by inadequate carotid body response or pulmonary or renal disease. In ... where it is generally believed that no human body can acclimatize. The human body can perform best at sea level, where the ... However, the human body has both short-term and long-term adaptations to altitude that allow it to partially compensate for the ...

*Breathing

Together the latter are known as the peripheral chemoreceptors which are situated in the aortic and carotid bodies. Information ... The body's circulatory system transports these gasses to and from the cells, where "cellular respiration" takes place. The ... The saturated vapor pressure of water is dependent only on temperature; at a body core temperature of 37 °C it is 6.3 kPa (47.0 ... so that the air is very nearly saturated with water vapor and is at almost body temperature by the time it reaches the larynx. ...

*Cardiac neural crest cells

They may also contribute to the creation of the carotid body, the organ which monitors oxygen in the blood and regulates ... They migrate throughout the body and create a large number of differentiated cells such as neurons, glial cells, pigment- ...

*Intermittent hypoxia

The activated carotid body triggers the release of serotonin that attach to serotonin receptors on the surface of motoneurons, ... Reduced partial pressures of oxygen in the arteries due to intermittent hypoxia are sensed by and stimulate the carotid body, a ... Normally, exposure to hypoxia is negatively associated to physiological changes to the body, such as altitude sickness. However ... Sibigtroth, C.M.; Mitchell, G.S. (2011). "Carotid chemoafferent activity is not necessary for all phrenic long-term ...

*Nitrogen

This may happen with few warning symptoms, since the human carotid body is a relatively poor and slow low-oxygen (hypoxia) ... The human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and ... Nitrogen dissolves in the blood and body fats. Rapid decompression (as when divers ascend too quickly or astronauts decompress ...

*Paraganglioma

... particularly in the carotid bodies (at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery in the neck) and in aortic bodies (near the ... Carotid paraganglioma (carotid body tumor): Is the most common of the head and neck paragangliomas. It usually presents as a ... Micrograph of a carotid body tumor Glomus jugulare tumor Ectopic functional paraganglioma (glomus jugulare) in a patient with ... "Aberrant internal carotid artery , Radiology Case , Radiopaedia.org". radiopaedia.org. Retrieved 2017-05-02. da Silva, RA; ...

*Doxapram

... stimulates chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies of the carotid arteries, which in turn, stimulates the respiratory ...

*Control of ventilation

... that detect changes in the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide are located in the arterial aortic bodies and the carotid bodies ... The most important function of breathing is the supplying of oxygen to the body and the removal of its waste product of carbon ... Respiration refers to the utilization of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide by the body as a whole, or by individual cells in ... Maintenance and continuity of the human body. 12th Edition. Danvers: Wiley Kuna, Samuel T (2000). "Respiratory-related ...

*Brain ischemia

Operative procedures such as carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting may be performed if the patient has a significant ... The main symptoms involve impairments in vision, body movement, and speaking. The causes of brain ischemia vary from sickle ... Ischemia within the arteries branching from the internal carotid artery may result in symptoms such as blindness in one eye, ... Symptoms of brain ischemia can include unconsciousness, blindness, problems with coordination, and weakness in the body. Other ...
The molecular mechanism of pH sensing by chemoreceptors is not clear, although it had been proposed to be mediated by a drop in intracellular pH of carotid body glomus cells, which inhibits a K+ current. Recently, pH-sensitive ion channels have been described in glomus cells that respond directly to extracellular acidosis. In this study, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms of carotid body pH-sensing by recording the responses of glomus cells isolated from rat carotid body to rapid changes in extracellular pH using whole-cell patch-clamping technique. Extracellular acidosis evoked transient inward currents in glomus cells that were evident at pH 7.0 and half-activated (pH 50) at 6.3. The current had the characteristics of ASICs. It averaged 40.7±15.7 pA (n=5) at pH 5.0 and was blocked by the ASIC channel blocker amiloride (200 μm) to 2.5±1.6 pA. Na+ free bathing solution eliminated the current and a Ca2+ free buffer enhanced (P,0.05) the current at pH 6.0 from 18.5±2.2 to ...
Afferent chemoreceptor activity was recorded from the peripheral cut end of the carotid sinus nerve in pentobarbitone anaesthetized cats. The effects of purines, peptides and ouabain on chemosensory activity were studied. Purines. It was found that intracarotid injections of adenosine: AMP; ADP; ATP; CoA;Me-adenosine analogues: N6-methyladenosine, 2-chloroadenosine, 3-deoxyudenosine but not 2-deoxyadenosine; cyclic AMP; dibutyryl cyclic AMP increased spontaneous chemoreceptor discharge. The ATP analogues, a-5- methylene ATP decreased spontaneous chemoreceptor discharge, whereas the f-y-methylene ATP caused a slight increase in discharge. Adenine and the purine nucleosides inosine and guanosine had little or no effect on the discharge. The pyrimidine nucleosides cytidine and uridine were also studied and had little or no effect on spontaneous chemoreceptor discharge. Intracarotid injection of theophylline transiently depressed spontaneous chemosensory activity and potentiated the action of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene transfer of neuronal nitric oxide synthase to carotid body reverses enhanced chemoreceptor function in heart failure rabbits. AU - Li, Yulong. AU - Li, Yi Fan. AU - Liu, Dongmei. AU - Cornish, Kurtis G.. AU - Patel, Kaushik P. AU - Zucker, Irving H. AU - Channon, Keith M.. AU - Schultz, Harold D. PY - 2005/8/5. Y1 - 2005/8/5. N2 - Our previous studies showed that decreased nitric oxide (NO) production enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity in chronic heart failure (CHF) rabbits. In the present study, we investigated the effects of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) gene transfer on CB chemoreceptor activity in CHF rabbits. The nNOS protein expression and NO production were suppressed in CBs (P,0.05) of CHF rabbits, but were increased 3 days after application of an adenovirus expressing nNOS (Ad.nNOS) to the CB. As a control, nNOS and NO levels in CHF CBs were not affected by Ad.EGFP. Baseline single-fiber discharge during normoxia and the response to hypoxia were ...
The inappropriate sustained SNA increase in OSA patients likely contributes to hypertension, organ damage, and mortality; however, it is unclear how excessive SNA develops in these patients. Several factors, including obesity and increased carotid body chemoreceptor sensitivity due to intermittent hypoxia, have been considered. Obesity could mechanically obstruct the airway and increase SNA through leptin, insulin, angiotensin, and cytokine actions; however, many OSA patients are not obese (23). Carotid body hypersensitivity as a result of intermittent hypoxia has been confirmed in animal models of OSA. In fact, plasticity of the carotid body glomus cells with long-term sensory facilitation and sensitization have been reported (18, 24) and associated with ROS and NOX2-dependent accumulation of HIF1 and the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (25). Central neuroplasticity. A provocative possibility for OSA-associated SNA dysfunction is that excessive activation of CNS nuclei induces ...
Abstract: Carbon dioxide retention is common in divers during water immersion. This puts divers at risk for carbon dioxide toxicity. The carotid body chemoreceptors contribute to the control of ventilation and when blood oxygen content is high, ventilation decreases. This results in the increased risk of carbon dioxide retention. Therefore, we are investigating the role of the carotid body chemoreceptors in ventilatory control during hyperbaric exposures when blood oxygen content is elevated ...
Increased sympathetic activity is a well-known pathophysiological mechanism in insulin resistance (IR) and hypertension (HT). The carotid bodies (CB) are peripheral chemoreceptors that classically respond to hypoxia by increasing chemosensory activity in the carotid sinus nerve (CSN), causing hyperventilation and activation of the sympathoadrenal system. Besides its role in the control of ventilation, the CB has been proposed as a glucose sensor implicated in the control of energy homeostasis. However, to date no studies have anticipated its role in the development of IR. Herein, we propose that CB overstimulation is involved in the etiology of IR and HT, core metabolic and hemodynamic disturbances of highly prevalent diseases like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and obstructive sleep apnoea. We demonstrate that CB activity is increased in IR animal models and that CSN resection prevents CB overactivation and diet-induced IR and HT. Moreover, we show that insulin triggers CB, ...
Symposium on Signalling pathways in acute oxygen sensing, held at the Novartis Foundation, London, 25-27 January 2005. Editors: Derek J. Chadwick (Organizer) and Jamie Goode.. This symposium is based on a proposal made by Jeremy Ward.. Michael Duchen Chairs introduction.. Gregg L. Semenza, Larissa A. Shimoda and Nanduri R. Prabhakar Regulation of gene expression by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor.. Discussion.. Ineke P. Stolze, David R. Mole and Peter J. Ratcliffe Regulation of HIF: prolyl hydroxylases.. Discussion.. General discussion I.. Daniel Peet and Sarah Linke Regulation of HIF: asparaginyl hydroxylation.. Discussion.. José López-Barneo, Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, José I. Piruat and María García-Fernández Oxygen-sensing by ion channels and mitochondrial function in carotid body glomus cells.. Discussion.. Keith J. Buckler, Beatrice A. Williams, Rodrigo Varas Orozco and Christopher N. Wyatt The role of TASK-like potassium channels in oxygen sensing in the carotid body.. Discussion.. Nanduri ...
jdempsey{at}wisc.edu. Question: Does the carotid body response to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) differ between neonates and adults?. Background: The carotid body is a sensory organ located near the bifurcation of the carotid artery and is responsible for detecting changes in the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood. In adult rodents, during CIH, the carotid body is theorized to evoke the reflexes that mediate cardiorespiratory changes and results in a long-lasting increase in baseline sensory activity known as sensory long-term facilitation (LTF). In contrast to adults, the carotid bodies of neonatal rodents are immature and respond poorly to hypoxia. To better understand the physiology of neonatal carotid bodies, Pawar et al. explored whether CIH evokes sensory LTF and whether the effects of CIH are reversible in neonatal carotid bodies.. Observations: CIH augmented the hypoxic sensory response in both adults and neonates; however, the neonates displayed more susceptibility to the ...
The study was approved by the Local Animal Care and Use Committee of the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Seven adult New Zealand White rabbits weighing 3860 +/− 270 g (mean +/− SD) were included. After an initial dose of intravenous thiopental, 75-100 mg, given via a marginal ear vein, a tracheostomy was performed after an anterior midline skin incision. Mechanical ventilation (ETCO(2), 4.0-5.0%) was initiated at a rate of 33 breaths/min using a mixture of oxygen and air (FIO(2) 0.30), whereas the inspired tidal volume was adjusted to maintain isocapnia throughout the experiment. Anesthesia was maintained with a continuous thiopental infusion of 10.5 +/− 0.9 mg [middle dot] kg-1[middle dot] h-1(range, 9.4-12.0) given via a right femoral vein catheter. The right femoral artery was cannulated for continuous arterial blood pressure monitoring and arterial blood gas analysis (ABL 300 Laboratory [registered sign], Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). On-line analysis of inspired and ...
The carotid body located in the bifurcation of the carotid arteries is able to detect gas changes in blood composition (PO2, PCO2/pH) and to transduce them into afferent nerve signal. The intimate...
Background K+ channels of the TASK family are believed to participate in sensory transduction by chemoreceptor (glomus) cells of the carotid body (CB). However, studies on the systemic CB-mediated ventilatory response to hypoxia and hypercapnia in TASK1- and/or TASK3-deficient mice have yielded conflicting results. We have characterized the glomus cell phenotype of TASK-null mice and studied the responses of individual cells to hypoxia and other chemical stimuli. CB morphology and glomus cell size were normal in wild-type as well as in TASK1/ or double TASK1/3/ mice. Patch-clamped TASK1/3-null glomus cells had significantly higher membrane resistance and less hyperpolarized resting potential than their wild-type counterpart. These electrical parameters were practically normal in TASK1/ cells. Sensitivity of background currents to changes of extracellular pH was drastically diminished in TASK1/3-null cells. In contrast with these observations, responsiveness to hypoxia or ...
The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during changes in arterial blood gases. Regardless this essential function, the CB has been implicated in the sensing of other physiological signals such as changes in blood flow and glucose levels. More important, malfunction of the CB chemoreceptors has been associated with the progression and deterioration of several disease states such as hypertension, heart failure, renal failure, insulin resistance, diabetes and sleep apnea. Although the mechanisms involved in the alterations of the CB function in pathophysiology are currently under intense research, the development of therapeutic approaches to restore normal CB chemoreflex function remains unsolved. Recently, elegant studies showing the effect of CB neurotomy in pathophysiology have unveiled a key role of these arterial chemoreceptors in the development of autonomic imbalance and respiratory disturbances, and suggest that
The mechanism of oxygen sensing in arterial chemoreceptors is unknown but has often been linked to mitochondrial function. A common criticism of this hypothesis is that mitochondrial function is insensitive to physiological levels of hypoxia. Here we investigate the effects of hypoxia (down to 0.5% O2) on mitochondrial function in neonatal rat type-1 cells. The oxygen sensitivity of mitochondrial [NADH] was assessed by monitoring autofluorescence and increased in hypoxia with a P50 of 15 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 133.3 Pa) in normal Tyrode or 46 mm Hg in Ca(2+)-free Tyrode. Hypoxia also depolarised mitochondrial membrane potential (m, measured using rhodamine 123) with a P50 of 3.1, 3.3 and 2.8 mm Hg in normal Tyrode, Ca(2+)-free Tyrode and Tyrode containing the Ca(2+) channel antagonist Ni(2+), respectively. In the presence of oligomycin and low carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP; 75 nm) m is maintained by electron transport working against an artificial proton leak. Under these
TY - JOUR. T1 - The human carotid body transcriptome with focus on oxygen sensing and inflammation - a comparative analysis. AU - Mkrtchian, Souren. AU - Kåhlin, Jessica. AU - Ebberyd, Anette. AU - Gonzalez, Constancio. AU - Sanchez, Diego. AU - Balbir, Alexander. AU - Kostuk, Eric W.. AU - Shirahata, Machiko. AU - Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson. AU - Eriksson, Lars I.. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - The carotid body (CB) is the key oxygen sensing organ. While the expression of CB specific genes is relatively well studied in animals, corresponding data for the human CB are missing. In this study we used five surgically removed human CBs to characterize the CB transcriptome with microarray and PCR analyses, and compared the results with mice data. In silico approaches demonstrated a unique gene expression profile of the human and mouse CB transcriptomes and an unexpected upregulation of both human and mouse CB genes involved in the inflammatory response compared to brain and adrenal gland data. Human ...
This surgery does not involve any study drug or investigational device.. The carotid body will be removed by the so called lateral approach or a combined lateral and medial approach. In all cases the target area was defined as the tissue in between the ECA and ICA, up to 5-6mm above the bifurcation point of the common carotid artery into the ECA and ICA. In a lateral approach the carotid bifurcation is not turned. A combined approach includes usually dissection of the superior thyroid vessel and turning of the carotid bifurcation. ...
Position and source of blood supply to the human carotid body displays population variations. These data are important during surgical procedures and diagnostic imaging in the neck but are only scarcely reported and altogether missing for the Kenyan population. The aim of this study was to describe the position and blood supply of the carotid body in a Kenyan populati on. A descriptive cross-sectional study at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, was designed. 136 common carotid arteries and their bifurcations were exposed by gross dissection. The carotid body was identified as a small oval structure embedded in the blood vessel adventitia. Position and source of blood supply were photographed. Data are presented by tables and macrographs. 138 carotid bodies were identified. Commonest position was carotid bifurcation (75.4%) followed by external carotid artery (10.2%), internal carotid artery (7.2%) and ascending pharyngeal artery (7.2%). Sources of arterial blood supply ...
Body types can determine what physical activities match your needs and what you would eat to supply your routines. Weight loss plan based on your body type.
Study on Different Body Types between Korean-Chinese and Han-Chinese Women in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and the Social Environmental Factors - With the Focus on the Women in their 60s - - body type;social environmental factors;the Han-Chinese;the Korean-Chinese;women in their 60s;
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People tend to get sick, over and over again, due to similar causes and habitual imbalances that are unique to the person. Your body type summarizes this tendency, showing you the type of conditions and imbalances that frequently challenge your health & wellness. Using body type, you can also identify remedies likely to improve your strength and resiliency. Your body type identifies physical and mental characteristics as well as your personal strengths and weaknesses. The calculation of your body type is based on your medical history. The 3 functional body types (doshas), are Catabolic (Vata), Metabolic (Pitta), and Anabolic (Kapha). Catabolic individuals tend to break down body mass into energy. Metabolic individuals tend to burn or use energy. Anabolic individuals tend to store energy as body mass. Catabolic people tend to be easily stimulated, hyperactive, underweight and dry. Metabolic people tend to be rosy-cheeked, easily irritated, focused, driven, and easily inflamed. Anabolic people ...
Follow these simple ayurvedic tips for good sleep according to your body type or dosha. Find exercises and daily eating schedules that help too
Energy balancing is the art of living in harmony with your unique mind body type in order to remove any blockages or energetic disturbances. Learn how.
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Advances in experimental medicine and biology.; Arterial chemoreception: from molecules to systems; Ontario, Canada, 2011; Jul, 2012, 199-206 -- Dordrecht; London; Springer; c2012 Part; (pages 199-206) -- ...
Experimental physiology.; Novel partners and mechanisms in oxygen sensing; San Francisco, CA, 2006; Apr, 2006, 821-828 -- Blackwell Publishing,; 2006 (pages 821-828) -- ...
https://youtu.be/z0fjTBULFj0 There are two body types and one is more prone to disease, unfortunately. Which one are you? Do you know if you are Android or Gynoid? Android (Apple …. Continue Reading about Two Body Types and One is more prone to Disease → ...
For some of us who are taller, longer-torsoed and leaner, building and maintaining muscle is a constant process, throughout the year, one that doesnt have a "cutting phase.". Because we know not everybody is looking to simply lose weight, we have the Complete Hard-Gainers Plan - a comprehensive plan of attack for adding muscle size with the proper gym, diet and supplement strategies.. Weve included a sample diet and supplement plans here for easy reference, with an updated workout guide to follow for the next four weeks. Again, youll go four days on and three off, leaving ample time to recover.. EATING FOR HARD-GAINERS. If youre reading this, it more than likely applies to you: Hard-gainers are classified as "longer" body types, with typically fast metabolisms, lean frames, smaller joints (narrow wrists and ankles) and narrow waists. Usually, hard-gainers are longer-limbed and taller than our stockier gym friends. Thats OK - many find the "lifeguard" body type to be the most desirable. If ...
Hello... it is interesting reading these posts as I am just now studying the book and plan. Normally I stay away from anything which could be gimmicky.
Hi everyone! Im 17, and Ive been at around 132lbs for 5 years now. I never gain weight when I eat a lot, but I also never lose weight. This past week I did a little unhealthy experiment- rarely ea...
Im 26 years old, 54 and 195 lbs. Id say my BF% is around high 20s or even the low 30s. I want to be 160 again like i was a few years ago. my
Mudra is a part of holistic healing Ayurveda. It is very useful and easy to practice. Anyone can do it anytime. Forty-five minutes of practice is enough to get results. If you are new to mudras then follow the links to know more details like how to do, benefits and precautions.. Before practicing Mudras it is very important to find your Ayurvedic Body type To find your Ayurvedic body type follow this link. ...
Male or female trainer? Your choice!. Train at home, outdoors or in the gym? Whichever youd prefer!. We dont dish out generic programs and beast you in the gym- we take the time to find out exactly what you need and design a bespoke plan tailored around your lifestyle to meet your needs.. Every client start with a full comprehensive assessment which gives us the foundation on which to build you personalised program. During the assessment we will find out more about your lifestyle, you medical history, your fitness level, likes, dislikes, eating habits and much more. This is so we can design a program that will not only give you the results you are looking for but in a way that can easily fit into your lifestyle and can also work around your family.. We realise that everyone is different and this is the key to creating a program that is right for you. We work with different body types realising that our clients react differently to training and eating plans thats why no two plans are ever the ...
A few months before I turned forty, I was looking at a photo that I had recently taken. Though I was never the thin body type and was always a big person, I was a bit taken back at what I saw: I sported quite the big belly and looked like the...
From the moment of conception 46 chromosones with 30,000 genes combine to determine all of your physical characteristics: sex; facial features; body type; color
The carotid body is a small structure weighing 12 mg located in the adventitia of carotid artery bifurcation acting as a chemoreceptor. Carotid body tumour (CBT); formerly known as chemodectoma is a rare, highly vascular, mostly benign tumour arising from the paraganglia of carotid body; hence, the name (carotid paraganglioma). The high vascularity and proximity to cranial nerves and major vessels make this tumour a surgical challenge. Abundant literature has been written about CBT in the last century with a continuous debate regarding its etiology, natural history, biological behavior, proper technique of excision, and the morbidity and mortality associated with its resection. The purpose of this review article is to simplify understanding the basic and clinical aspects of this challenging neoplasm.
Hypoxic chemotransduction in the carotid body requires release of excitatory transmitters from type I cells that activate afferent sensory neurones. Transmitter release is dependent on voltage-gated Ca2+ entry which is evoked by membrane depolarization. This excitatory response to hypoxia is initiated by inhibition of specific O2 sensitive K+ channels, of which several types have been reported. Here, we discuss mechanisms which have been put forward to account for hypoxic inhibition of type I cell K+ channels. Whilst evidence indicates that one O2 sensitive K+ channel, BKCa, may be regulated by gasotransmitters (CO and H2S) in an O2-dependent manner, other studies now indicate that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) accounts for inhibition of both BKCa and leak O2 sensitive K+ channels, and perhaps also other O2sensitive K+ channels reported in different species. We propose that type I cell AMPK activation occurs as a result of inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and
Hypoxic inhibition of K+ channels in type I cells is believed to be of central importance in carotid body chemotransduction. We have recently suggested that hypoxic channel inhibition is mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Here, we have further explored the modulation by AMPK of recombinant K+ channels (expressed in HEK293 cells) whose native counterparts are considered O2-sensitive in the rat carotid body. Inhibition of maxiK channels by AMPK activation with AICAR was found to be independent of [Ca2+]i and occurred regardless of whether the α subunit was co-expressed with an auxiliary β subunit. All effects of AICAR were fully reversed by the AMPK inhibitor compound C. MaxiK channels were also inhibited by the novel AMPK activator A-769662 and by intracellular dialysis with the constitutively active, truncated AMPK mutant, T172D. The molecular identity of the O2-sensitive leak K+ conductance in rat type I cells remains unclear, but shares similarities with TASK-1 and TASK-3. Recombinant
Endomorphic body type shown here. Constitutional psychology is a theory, developed in the 1940s by American psychologist William Herbert Sheldon, associating body types with human temperament types. Sheldons somatotypes and their supposed associated physical traits can be summarized as follows: Ectomorphic: characterized by long and thin muscles/limbs and low fat storage; receding chin, usually referred to as slim. Mesomorphic: characterized by medium bones, solid torso, low fat levels, wide shoulders with a narrow waist; usually referred to as muscular. Endomorphic: characterized by increased fat storage, a wide waist and a large bone structure, usually referred to as fat. - Stock Image C027/6278
Exposure to acute hypoxia elicits a ventilatory response that is subject to various time-dependent phenomena, some of which occur during hypoxia (eg. hypoxic ventilatory decline) while others appear upon return to normoxia (eg. post-hypoxic frequency decline). In addition, memory components to the response exist, associated with repeated, acute hypoxic exposures (eg. progressive augmentation). Although central mechanisms, either downstream of afferent peripheral chemoreceptor input or through the direct effects of hypoxia on the brainstem, are sufficient to elicit these phenomena, little is known about the possible contribution of mechanisms arising from the carotid body. To investigate this further, we used an arterially perfused, en bloc rat carotid body preparation. Male rats (150-250g) were deeply anaesthetized in halothane (2 ml kg-1 within a 4 l chamber) until respiration ceased and animals failed to respond to a noxious paw pinch. Animals were then transected below the diaphragm, and the ...
Figure 1. Major 02 dependent electrophysiological properties of glomus cells. A: Macroscopic inward and outward currents of glomus cells and reversible inhibition of the outward current by hypoxia (Po2 » 20 mmHg). Control and recovery traces in normoxia (Po2 = 150 mmHg) are shown superimposed. In this experiment TTX was added to block the Na+ conductance. B: Singlechannel recordings from an excised membrane patch containing at most one open 02-sensitive K+ channel. Depolarizing pulses were applied from -80 to +20 mV. Ensemble averages indicating the single-channel open probability in normoxia and hypoxia are from 15 and 22 successive recordings, respectively (modified from Refs. 11,26).. Figure 1. Major 02 dependent electrophysiological properties of glomus cells. A: Macroscopic inward and outward currents of glomus cells and reversible inhibition of the outward current by hypoxia (Po2 » 20 mmHg). Control and recovery traces in normoxia (Po2 = 150 mmHg) are shown superimposed. In this ...
Looking for Glomus cell? Find out information about Glomus cell. A fold of the mesothelium arising near the base of the mesentery in the pronephros and containing a ball of blood vessels. A prominent portion of the... Explanation of Glomus cell
Synonyms for Chemoreceptors in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Chemoreceptors. 9 words related to chemoreceptor: sense organ, sensory receptor, receptor, gustatory organ, taste bud, tastebud, carotid body, nose, olfactory organ. What are synonyms for Chemoreceptors?
Too fat? Body starved for nutrients and crying out "Im hungry" even after a large meal? I feel your pain. Its my life in a nutshell!. Too skinny? Cannot gain weight no matter what you do? You overeat just to keep your pants from falling off? You hate the people who are too fat because you couldnt gain weight if your life depended on it. Yep, my son suffers the problem too!. Heres how we are coping as a family. My son juices by using a juicer that removes all the bulk (the pulps) maximizing the calories per ounce. He juices for maximum nutritional value and uses only organic fruits and vegetables, and protein from organic sources. I juice using a NutriBullet, which keeps all the pulp and fiber, thus lowering the caloric intake per ounce and giving me a fuller feeling. Both of us are enjoying the healthful benefits of juicing, however, adjusting it to our particular body type needs.. NutriBullets Life Boost Blast - Start your day with a blast of calcium and magnesium. No supplement ever ...
In Ayurveda, no two people are alike, or we can say that every person is born with a definite genetic constitution. The Prakriti, which may also be referred to as Dosha, is vital in determining our body type, behaviour patterns, needs, and our predispositions.. For the individual, basic knowledge of the Prakriti is a vital tool in helping ones most auspicious lifestyle factors that will ensure wellness and longevity â appropriate foods, herbs, exercise regimes, medicines, therapies, and even suitable professions. Knowing ones Prakriti holds the key to health, liberation, and ultimately, self-realization.. Just take a look at some of the basis, which helps to understand the importance of Prakriti in an individual:. Understanding of human life with the help of Prakriti The following factors of a human life can be applied to understand the variations in different persons by the help of Prakriti; and on the basis of this, an individual is able to understand self-better and able to live according ...
See Blood Types, Body Types and You: Why Your Unique Genetic Code Is the Key to Losing Weight for Life by Joseph Christiano in our Christian Book store for $11.69 (Save 35%) - Overview A world-renowned health and fitness coach updates his proven weight-loss program and explains how a well-balanced eatin
Your body type shows how your strengths, as well as how your body typically goes out of balance. It also shows how your body responds to the environment. Your body type is comprised of certain qualities and affects every part of you - your physical and mental characteristics as well as your personal strengths and weaknesses. This is because your body type is based on how your body uses energy. Ayurveda has 3 body types (doshas), called Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. Vata spends energy. Pitta burns energy. Kapha stores energy. Vata people tend to be easily stimulated, hyperactive, underweight and dry. Pitta people tend to be hot, focused, driven, and easily inflamed. Kapha people are heavy, stable and grounded, but if they store too much energy, they could gain weight easily and have congestion. Learn More ...
The shape that youre in figuratively speaking is a topic of never-ending interest. What shape are you in? To find out, you must be fully aware of your body contour or type. One of the first theories of body typing was developed by psychologist William Sheldon. A tireless investigator, Sheldon categorized figures according to the relative predominance of certain body tissues. He concluded there are three basic morphological body types or somatypes. He called them ectomorph, mesomorph and endomorph.
Favorite Body Type In Your Sexual Partner: I'm sure this has been posted but I have not seen a post. Gals and guys, what's your favorite...
human respiratory system - Chemoreceptors: One way in which breathing is controlled is through feedback by chemoreceptors. There are two kinds of respiratory chemoreceptors: arterial chemoreceptors, which monitor and respond to changes in the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the arterial blood, and central chemoreceptors in...
Different physiological pathways may lead to shortness of breath including via ASIC chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, and lung receptors.[13]. It is thought that three main components contribute to dyspnea: afferent signals, efferent signals, and central information processing. It is believed the central processing in the brain compares the afferent and efferent signals; and dyspnea results when a "mismatch" occurs between the two: such as when the need for ventilation (afferent signaling) is not being met by physical breathing (efferent signaling).[17]. Afferent signals are sensory neuronal signals that ascend to the brain. Afferent neurons significant in dyspnea arise from a large number of sources including the carotid bodies, medulla, lungs, and chest wall. Chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and medulla supply information regarding the blood gas levels of O2, CO2 and H+. In the lungs, juxtacapillary (J) receptors are sensitive to pulmonary interstitial edema, while stretch receptors signal ...
Scientifica is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in the life sciences, environmental sciences, health sciences, and medicine. The journal is divided into the 65 subject areas.
Many people feel unhappy with their bodies because they dont fit cultural expectations regarding height, weight and general appearance. Cultural stereotypes of what constitutes an ideal body type can be so ingrained that many people feel an enormous pressure to be thinner, taller or more muscular. Media images of thin women and muscular men contribute to the societal pressure to attain an "ideal" body type.. However, its possible to attain a positive, healthy body image no matter what your body type. Eating right, exercising regularly and managing stress can all contribute to a positive body image. Learning to accept and enjoy your body is key to forming a good body image.. ...
All body types can gain or lose weight but the degree and rate at which they do varies... Exercise and diet for body types... body type pictures of celebrities ...
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the related terms mechanosensing, mechanosignaling, and mechanotransduction refer to the sensing of physical forces by cells and their translation into a biochemical response, analogous to the processes termed chemotransduction. Among the various physical forces to which cells in vivo are constantly exposed, mechanical stimuli associated with blood flow are particularly important. Indeed, fluid shear stress and distending pressure that act on the vessel wall play a major role in vascular homeostasis. The vascular endothelium, by virtue of its location, serves as an interface between the blood and tissue for hemodynamic changes. Recent work demonstrates that the endothelium senses and integrates hemodynamic stimuli including shear to effect maintenance of vascular function and possibly modulate the onset of vascular disease. The currently accepted paradigm is that "sensing" of a change (either increase or decrease) in the shear force occurs via elements on the endothelial cell membrane that ...
Chemoreceptors are specialized nerve cells designed to respond to chemical stimuli. There are two types of chemoreceptors in the...
Our bodies are not all the same. There are 4 different body shapes. Each of us will fall into one or the other. Your body type is the result of your metabolism and the hormones that control it and we can recognize our own unique body type based on its sha... Read , ...
This type is genetically predisposed to great musculature gains. Usually very athletic looking, they have a good posture and are symmetric. Mesomorphs build muscle fast and loose fat rapidly if on the right diet and fitness plan. And can also gain fat rapidly if let to do no activities.. Read 5 Exercises to Get Gorgeous Legs. Cardio for Mesmomorph. Cardiovascular exercises should be done 2 to 3 times a week for about 20 to30 minutes per session.. • Intensity for cardio should be moderate to high for fat burning.. • I suggest an interval session were intervals are 45 seconds on and 15 seconds off for the 20 minute period.. • Dont go over board as it is believed that Mesomorph could loose lean mass if cardio is too long/frequent, so dont be a hamster on that treadmill!. Weights for Mesomorph. • Heavy weight performed explosively. Super sets are great and 3 to 4 exercises per body part.. • For example if your doing shoulders start with overhead press 3 sets of 15 reps.. • Superset ...
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We all have noticed or come across many significance peoples in life. You might wonder how that person is intelligence the other is so dumb. Some people eat a five-course meal with ease, even not healthy while others eat two meals and seem to be healthy and fit. Some people are overweight some are slim; some people are overactive and fast moving, while other people exude grace and stillness. The Modern science describes it as a genetics reason behind it, the characteristics and peculiarities that make every person incomparable. Ayurveda which is dating back to 1500 BCE has all answers to all of these questions with a much deeper way. 1. Five elements: Panchabhuta - ayurveda believes that universe is constituted of bhūmi (earth), ap or jala (water), tejas or agni (fire), marut, vayu or Pavan (air or wind) and vyom or shunya (space or zero) or akash (aether or void) that also include the human body. 2. Three doshas: These constitutional types are in of every human known as the doshas - Vata, Pitta and
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Hi Guys, First time posting here. Im in a bit of a Dilemma, Im a 27 year old Man, 6ft Tall and weigh in at 238lbs. Ive got an endo-mesomorph body...
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16. Mystery bag: Give your child a drawstring bag with a few themed items from around the house (e.g., their small dino toys or kitchen objects). Instruct them to close their eyes and use only their hands to guess what the objects are.17. Smelling bottles: Fill a few spice jars with herbs or cotton ...
The size of a grain of rice, the carotid body, located between two major arteries that feed the brain with blood, has been found to control your blood pressure.
Would you like to look elegant and stunning the next time you attend a party? Then the Maxi Dress is definitely for you! Many women are attracted by the hemline that swirls and swishes around their legs! This article hopes to help you dress up beautifully in a maxi dress and also offers tips on how to pick the right maxi dress suitable for you.. A lot of women prefer to wear a long sleeve maxi dress for formal occasions. It is often quite a daunting and challenging task to pick out a long maxi dress that fits you perfectly. Wearing a maxi dress is considered as stylish and the height of Haute-Couture by fashion-experts world-over. A long maxi dress might be a bit expensive but it is still worth it as it gives you a chic and elegant look. People are ready to spend more on fashion now as is proven by the facts presented by websites like http://www.retaileconomics.co.uk/library-retail-stats-and-facts.asp.. Choosing the right dress must be based on your scale and height and body type as well as your ...
Discharge way youll lose weight permanently is to accept total responsibilities for yourself and acknowledge the fact that you have the facility to change, regardless what mother nature has given you to promote. the human genome will have an enormous impact on my ability to assess risks posed to individuals by environmental publicity to toxic agents. She chose to attend using a Bloody Mary cake while Charlene baked up a new good almond cake. Actually, you can determine the age of the teeth of its shark through its color. That doesnt mean you cant get lean; it only means that you are to have to adjust your diet and training to satisfy your body type and you may have to work harder and be more persistent than the "genetically lucky" ones. This knowledge will directly discuss DOEs long-term mission to understand the effects of low-level exposures to radiation and other energy-related agents, especially in terms to do with cancer risk. Every trip towards the bathroom would have just lately been a ...
At almost 60, I can confirm that the older one gets, the harder the weight is to lose. Part of it is hormonal, part is biologic. This past January, I started a drug that regularly puts 20-30# on people; at the same time, my hip gave out on me, meaning no walking or other form of cardio.. Hello a winter 45# gain in less than a month.. For me, my "base" is 1300 calories. Given that you should never go below 1200 calorie intake, obviously I must exercise to create any kind of deficit (and boy do I have to watch what I eat). I can do 45-60 minutes of cardio a day and burn some - but when I lost the weight a few years ago I found the ONLY successful way for me to lose and keep it off was to weight train. Get hot and sweaty pushing the iron and let the EPOC add to my time under the bar. But Im starting a paleo diet - with my nutritionist saying this is the perfect diet for my body type. Lucky, I do not really like grains and allergic to cows milk, so the restrictions of paleo play right into my ...
It is defined as an eating pattern where one alternates between periods of eating and fasting. The focus during intermittent fasting is on the timing of consumption of your healthy meals. The advantage that it offers is that there is no fixed period for which you have to fast and eat. You can create a timetable as per your metabolism and body type. It is an excellent way to boost your immune system and promoting the growth of neurons, enhancing memory performance.. Sleep-inducing foods. ...
8. TAKE A STANCE. Try a shoulder-width stance. If you cant stay reasonably upright and get to parallel, widen your stance slightly until you find the right position for you and your body type. Generally, if you have longer legs, youll need a wider stance. Your feet should be angled out at 30 degrees. This means if straight ahead is 12 oclock, your right foot should be at 2 oclock and the left one at 10 oclock. And they should stay flat on the floor and unmoving throughout the set.. 9. FACE FORWARD. Some squatters look up to help them keep their torsos upright. Doing so is certainly superior to looking down. (Never do that with a bar on your back.) However, its best to look straight ahead. This is the safest position for your neck and the best way to keep your back tensed. The middle of a heavy set is no time to alter your form, so ignore mirrors after your warmup sets. Dont close your eyes, but dont let your reflection affect your form. To analyze your technique, have someone record your ...
Dr. Berg understands that healthy weight loss is fast weight loss. For a specialized healthy weight loss plan based on your body type visit his website today.
Dr Oz shared supplements and diet combinations that can help you target weight loss to the bodys problem areas, with results in 7 days. Find your body type.
So you just cant gain muscle--so whats the problem? Kyle Leon claims its because youre not training for your body type, which he explains in his program Somanabolic Muscle Maximizer.
Dr. Berg understands that healthy weight loss is fast weight loss. For a specialized healthy weight loss plan based on your body type visit his website today.
Gay Forums - Hey i'm a 23 year old full time college guy. My body type is skinny with some muscular tone. I work out (usually) 3 times a week chest and arms some days t
Many athletes may wonder why they are not able to lift more than the person next to them. Lets look at different body types and how to work with your genetic musculature to make strength gains.
This chic, yet incredibly comfortable nursing top is beautiful on all body types. The fabric flows and the vertical breastfeeding opening is discreet. Product Details - Long-sleeved version of our best-selling Sara top. - This nursing top is soft, lightweight and incredibly flattering with an elastic hem to complete
In an interview with the publication, Kate said it was the decision to open up the magazine to women of all body types and all ages that made her "proud" to return to the cover.. "To have an issue that focuses on that is really an amazing moment for me because I think its important for everyone to be the best they can be, but not to strive to be a company or industrys idea of perfect," she said. "For SI to emphasise every different type of perfect is really inspiring. Those are the campaigns I want to do and the career I want to have - to inspire women to love themselves.". ...
By Health.com - About health and how to lead a healthy life. Lot of diet tips and tips for healthy living. Latest news about health, general information about diseases and its cure,About Ayurveda and its origin,Ayurvedhic Body Types and its Dietary tips,
Different body types, ages and other circumstances can have influence in the result. Results for children should be compared to the typical values of other children the same age ...
Most people understand their genetics play a role in determining their hair and eye colour, height and body type. Although, are you aware that it also plays a role in the following?
Your body shape isnt just something to squeeze into clothes. It may say quite a bit about your health. Learn what body types are prone to health problems.
Two years ago we found out about an organisation called The Family Hope Centre which assesses Tobys stage of development and gives him an individual program to follow. This program incorporates sensory activities, learning activities, physical exercises and much much more. It has been amazing to see how much progress Toby has made in these two years and i just wish we had known about this earlier. But we are where we are. The treatments offered to Toby - as well as his program of development which we undertake with him at home 5 days a week - include Molli suits, which stimulate his muscles to help to increase his low tone; Breathing jackets, which help to maintain his breathing in a regular pattern and decreases his bouts of ataxia; and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy which can help develop his brain pathways and even help neuron development.. However, this is not funded in any way by the NHS and as we have seen amazing benefits and progress it is something we really want to continue whilst Toby is ...
tary movement, and we know approximately, but with less accuracy, the sensory area-i. e., the region essential to sensory processes. It will be seen from the accompanying diagrams that all the posterior half of the brain surface is, we may say roughly, sensory; and that it has been provisionally subdivided into regions for vision, hearing, tasting, etc.[1] If the surface at these points were crushed, pressed upon, replaced by a foreign growth, or removed by accident, there would be a corresponding mental loss-blindness, deafness, etc.. It is important to notice what a large part of the cortex is concerned with sensory processes, for it suggests in the strongest way that sensation must play some very great part in our mental life, and this modern psychology now most clearly recognizes. In fact, the extent of our sensory activity determines in great. ...
A glomus cell (type I) is a peripheral chemoreceptor, mainly located in the carotid bodies and aortic bodies, that helps the body regulate breathing. When there is a decrease in the bloods pH, a decrease in oxygen (pO2), or an increase in carbon dioxide (pCO2), the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies signal the medulla oblongata (specifically the dorsal inspiratory center in the medulla oblongata) to increase the volume and rate of breathing. The glomus cells have a high metabolic rate and good blood perfusion and thus are sensitive to changes in arterial blood gas tension. Glomus cells are very similar structurally to neurons, and they are indeed derived from the neural crest, while type II glomus cells are sustentacular cells having a similar function to neuroglia. Autonomic ganglia innervate the glomus cells, and some presynaptic sympathetic ganglia synapse with glomus cells. The nerve fibers pick up the signals sent by glomus cells and transmit them to the central nervous system for ...
The major new finding obtained from conscious rats was the clear-cut demonstration that chemoreceptors, as well as baroreceptors, were transiently activated during combined electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and the carotid sinus nerve in conscious rats. The results have shown that when the carotid bifurcation was intact (ie, in the CONT group), combined electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and the carotid sinus nerve elicited a significant hypotensive response. This finding is in line with results obtained in dogs21,22 and drug-resistant hypertensive patients.1,2 Nevertheless, unlike the results seen in dogs23 and drug-resistant hypertensive patients,4 HR did not significantly decrease in intact conscious rats (the CONT group).. It is of interest to note that bilateral carotid body denervation (as in the CHEMO-X group) hampered the hemodynamic influences of the carotid chemoreceptors during combined electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and the carotid sinus nerve in conscious ...
This study was performed to determine whether stimulation of the carotid chemoreceptors increases total or regional cerebral blood flow and whether activation of arterial chemoreceptors contributes to cerebral vasodilation during systemic hypoxemia. In anesthetized and ventilated dogs, carotid chemoreceptors were stimulated with nicotine or hypoxic and hypercapnic blood. To measure total and regional cerebral blood flow, we used labeled 15-mu microspheres. Stimulation of chemoreceptors did not increase cerebral blood flow or produce significant redistribution of cerebral blood flow, even though the chemoreflex was intact in these animals (as manifested by vasoconstriction in muscle, kidney, and small bowel) and the cerebral vessels dilated in response to systemic hypercapnia. In other studies in anesthetized, ventilated dogs and rhesus monkeys, cerebral vasodilator responses to systemic hypoxemia were observed before and after denervation of carotid and aortic chemoreceptors. Systemic hypoxemia ...
Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of Sudden Infant Death. A defect in cardiorespiratory control has been suggested. Chronic exposure to nicotine during fetal development of rat induced postnatal developmental disorders on central neural pathways [1], autonomic function [2], carotid body chemorecep-tors [3], ventilatory response to hyperoxia [4]. The interrelation between all these sparse data has to be investigated. We hypothesized that exposure to nicotine might impair or delay the development of respiratory control pathways, ie, of the carotid body chemoafferent pathway, causing an abnormal response to ventila-tory challenges. On the 5th day of gestation, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received a transdermal patch delivering, either 50 mg of nicotine free base over 21 days, or excipient. At birth, male pups were selected and analysed at postnatal day 3, 7, 11, 14, 21 and 68. The in vivo tyrosine hydroxylase activity was determined in offspring carotid bodies and brainstem ...
Rationale: Peripheral chemoreflex contributes to regulation of arterial blood pressure and chemoreceptors respond not only to hypoxia but they are also continuously activated by normal ambient oxygen concentration. Stimulation of chemoreceptors activates sympathetic traffic and this response may be altered in subjects with essential hypertension... Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of deactivation of carotid body chemoreceptors on sympathetic activity directly measured as MSNA (muscle sympathetic nerve activity) in young subjects with mild to moderate untreated hypertension.. Methods: Twelve patients with essential hypertension (36±9 years, all men, BMI 29±4 kg/m2,) and 8 controls (37±7, men BMI 27±5kg/m2) participated in the study. None of the patients or controls received any medications. MSNA (burst/minute and mean burst amplitude - au), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), ECG, hemoglobin saturation with oxygen ...
Blair Johnson arrived at the Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences after obtaining a PhD from Indiana University and serving as a postdoctoral research fellow at the Mayo Clinic. At Indiana University, he studied vascular function in response to various stressors such as food intake and exercise. During his time at the Mayo Clinic, he studied topics that centered on the reflex control of hemodynamics and metabolism. Specifically, he conducted projects that examined the physiological responses to blood loss in addition to studies that examined the role of the carotid body chemoreceptors in controlling ventilation during hyperthermia and blood glucose regulation during prolonged aerobic exercise. His current research interests are based on his previous work at Mayo and include physiological responses to carotid body stimulation as well as hemodynamic responses to simulated blood loss. ...
Physical activity reduces the risk for disease, improves overall health, and quality of life. Group exercise classes are large contributors for meeting physical activity recommendations. Improving long-term adherence to group exercise classes is essential in order to receive health and fitness benefits. Many contributing factors affect adherence rates including the role of the instructor. The instructor has great influence over the decision to return to a group exercise class. It is important to find out what qualities and characteristics are preferred among those who take classes to increase long-term adherence. Another important factor relating to adherence is body type, appearance and attractiveness of the instructor. These factors have been influential in other areas including performance enhancement consulting, counseling, teacher ratings, and willingness to accept health advice. However, little research has been done to determine if body type, appearance and attractiveness influence adherence to
Abstract. The carotid body (CB) is in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during changes in arterial blood gases. Regardless this essential function, the CB has been implicated in the sensing of other physiological signals such as changes in blood flow and glucose levels. More important, malfunction of the CB chemoreceptors has been associated with the progression and deterioration of several disease states such as hypertension, heart failure, renal failure, insulin resistance, diabetes and sleep apnea. Although the mechanisms involved in the alterations of the CB function in pathophysiology are currently under intense research, the development of therapeutic approaches to restore normal CB chemoreflex function remains unsolved. Recent studies showing the effect of CB denervation in pathophysiology have unveiled a key role of these arterial chemoreceptors in the development of autonomic imbalance and respiratory disturbances, and suggest that targeting the CB could ...
A common view on health, especially in Asian cultures, is that the root cause of maladies and diseases, especially cancer, is from an "acidic" body type, and that the key to good health and longevity is to achieve an "alkaline" body type through diet. This is often shared and spread on social media without second thought.. There are entire industries devoted to making products, such as alkaline water, based on this concept, along with countless internet memes and articles.. This view has been popularized by a Japanese doctor, who allegedly tested 100 cancer patients and found their blood to be acidic. The details are not known, however this sounds like a small retrospective cohort observational study. It is unclear if this study has been published in a peer-reviewed journal, or replicated independently, as I could not find it. Supposedly from this he infers causation and declares that an acidic body type is the root of all evil. Really? Assuming that his findings are true (doubtful for reasons ...
The ultrastructure of the glomus cells of the carotid labyrinth was investigated in the anuran, Xenopus laevis. These cells show many catecholamine containing granules. About 50 cells in groups of 3-5 are located near the sinusoids. Morphologically,
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In the concluding part of the three-part series, Shikha Sharma tells us more about the Kapha Prakriti and its fire element to guide us to better health.
X. The Sensory System A. Introduction 1. Receptors detect environmental changes and stimuli. 2. Different receptors are sensitive to and receive different sensory stimuli. a. Chemoreceptors - medulla in the lower brain stem, aortic and carotid bodies detect O2, CO2, and H+ levels in the blood. Receptors of the small intestine detect H+ levels in the lumen. b. Pain receptors - located in the skin and internal organs. c. Thermoreceptors - sense heat (temperature) in the skin and control body temperature in the hypothalmus of the brain. d. Mechanoreceptors - sense stretch and pressure within the skin, muscles, and joints. e. Photoreceptors - light sensitive neurons in the retina of the eye.
Electroplating industry. Get Sodium Cyanide market Sample Research Report with complete TOC at https://market.biz/report/global-sodium-cyanide-market-gir/25773/#requestforsample. This research report is divided into subsequent fragments:. Fragment 1, focuses on objective of Sodium Cyanide market covering the definition, product classification, type, product images, growth statistics and presence of Sodium Cyanide market on global scale;. Fragment 2, studies the Sodium Cyanide market player, their sales volume, supply and demand analysis, profile information and their market dividend in 2016 and 2017;. Fragment 3, comprehensive market scenario of the top dominant market players of Sodium Cyanide market based on their annual revenue;. Fragment 4, Sodium Cyanide market segmentation based on regions and sales volume in each region and market profits from 2012 to 2017;. Fragment 5,6,7,8 and 9 chief countries with their Sodium Cyanide market profits 2017;. Fragment 10 and 11 studies the different ...
From these findings, several perioperative anesthetic implications2 can be anticipated during resection. First, because a carotid body paraganglioma is a neuroendocrine tumor, release of catecholamines or association with a pheochromocytoma should be suspected. Endocrine evaluation will determine if preoperative α-blockade is needed to prevent intraoperative hypertensive crises. The tumor blush from the neoplastic vascular proliferation is indicative of an increased risk of profuse hemorrhage. Consequently, tumor biopsy is contraindicated. Preoperative tumor embolization should be considered3 and the need for rapid blood transfusion anticipated. The ICA plaque may lead to cerebrovascular accidents by obstruction of cerebral blood flow and by embolic stroke from plaque dislodgement during ICA dissection. Finally, tumor invasion may lead to carotid sinus hypersensitivity, and carotid sinus manipulation may precipitate severe bradycardia ...
In contrast to Escherichia coli, a model organism for chemotaxis that has 5 chemoreceptors and a single chemosensory pathway, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 has a much more complex chemosensory network, which consists of 26 chemoreceptors feeding into four chemosensory pathways. While several chemoreceptors were rigorously linked to specific pathways in a series of experimental studies, for most of them this information is not available. Thus, we addressed the problem computationally. Protein-protein interaction network prediction, coexpression data mining, and phylogenetic profiling all produced incomplete and uncertain assignments of chemoreceptors to pathways. However, comparative sequence analysis specifically targeting chemoreceptor regions involved in pathway interactions revealed conserved sequence patterns that enabled us to unambiguously link all 26 chemoreceptors to four pathways. Placing computational evidence in the context of experimental data allowed us to conclude that three ...
Central chemoreceptors of the central nervous system, located on the ventrolateral medullary surface in the vicinity of the exit of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, are sensitive to the pH of their environment. These act to detect the changes in pH of nearby cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that are indicative of altered oxygen or carbon dioxide concentrations available to brain tissues. An increase in carbon dioxide causes tension of the arteries, often resulting from decreased CO2 output (hypercapnia), indirectly causes the blood to become more acidic; the cerebrospinal fluid pH is closely comparable to plasma, as carbon dioxide easily diffuses across the blood-brain barrier. However, a change in plasma pH alone will not stimulate central chemoreceptors as H+ are not able to diffuse across the blood-brain barrier into the CSF. Only CO2 levels affect this as it can diffuse across, reacting with H2O to form carbonic acid and thus decrease pH. Central chemoreception remains, in this way, distinct from ...
Looking for online definition of vallecula for petrosal ganglion in the Medical Dictionary? vallecula for petrosal ganglion explanation free. What is vallecula for petrosal ganglion? Meaning of vallecula for petrosal ganglion medical term. What does vallecula for petrosal ganglion mean?
Carotid sinus reflex interactions were studied in 10 dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. The right and left carotid sinus regions were isolated and perfused at controlled pressures. Pressure in the right and left carotid sinuses were independently varied, and the resulting steady-state reflex changes in arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory frequency, tidal volume, and total ventilation were measured. Reflex changes when carotid sinus pressure was changed on one side were strongly influenced by pressure in the contralateral carotid sinus (P less than 0.05). Right carotid sinus gain was found to be 0.628 +/- 0.058 at a left carotid sinus pressure of 50 mmHg and 0.148 +/- 0.027 when left carotid sinus pressure was 200 mmHg. Similar results were found for left carotid sinus gain. Suppression was also found for heart rate, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and total ventilation. The hypothesis that rapid resetting of one carotid sinus baroreflex might influence responses from the other ...
Recently watched Everest. A nice movie, and it brings me to this topic. Physiology of high altitude and humans body adaptation (acclimatization): High altitude has low concentration of atmospheric oxygen. Thats what we know. Hypoxia leads to hypoxic stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors (carotid bodies) which causes hyperventilation -| respiratory alkalosis. - Hyperventilation is the most…

Carotid Body Tumours: A ReviewCarotid Body Tumours: A Review

... mostly benign tumour arising from the paraganglia of carotid body; hence, the name (carotid paraganglioma). The high ... Carotid body tumour (CBT); formerly known as chemodectoma is a rare, highly vascular, ... The carotid body is a small structure weighing 12 mg located in the adventitia of carotid artery bifurcation acting as a ... The carotid body is a small structure weighing 12 mg located in the adventitia of carotid artery bifurcation acting as a ...
more infohttps://scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=54805

British Library EThOS: A neuropharmcological study of some aspects of carotid body chemoreceptor activity in the catBritish Library EThOS: A neuropharmcological study of some aspects of carotid body chemoreceptor activity in the cat

It appears that ouabain has two distinct actions on the carotid body chemosensory activity: a sensitizing followed by a ... A neuropharmcological study of some aspects of carotid body chemoreceptor activity in the cat ... known to be present in the carotid body as well as others present in the brain, such as 5-endorphin and cholecystokinin ... influence carotid body chemoreceptor activity. The opioid peptides act via naloxone-sensitive receptors. Ouabain. Ouabain ...
more infohttp://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.661090

Abstract 956: Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) Contribute to Transduction of Extracellular Acidosis in Rat Carotid Body Glomus...Abstract 956: Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) Contribute to Transduction of Extracellular Acidosis in Rat Carotid Body Glomus...

... molecular mechanisms of carotid body pH-sensing by recording the responses of glomus cells isolated from rat carotid body to ... Abstract 956: Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) Contribute to Transduction of Extracellular Acidosis in Rat Carotid Body Glomus ... Abstract 956: Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) Contribute to Transduction of Extracellular Acidosis in Rat Carotid Body Glomus ... Abstract 956: Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) Contribute to Transduction of Extracellular Acidosis in Rat Carotid Body Glomus ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/116/Suppl_16/II_189.1

Carotid body tumors: A report of three cases and current literature reviewCarotid body tumors: A report of three cases and current literature review

carotid body tumors, management, surgical excision. Introduction. Carotid body tumors (CBTs), also known as paragangliomas or ... Intraoperative view of carotid body tumor before complete excision.. Figures 2a and 2b. Intraoperative view of carotid body ... Intraoperative view of carotid body tumor before complete excision.. Figures 2a and 2b. Intraoperative view of carotid body ... Common carotid, internal carotid and external carotid arteries were restrained using the vessel tapes before tumor resection ( ...
more infohttps://www.oatext.com/carotid-body-tumors-a-report-of-three-cases-and-current-literature-review.php

Neuroradiology On the Net: aprile 2007Neuroradiology On the Net: aprile 2007

Diagnosis: Carotid body (paraganglioma) tumor. Carotid body tumor is a rare type of head and neck tumor composed of ... In head and neck, the glomus tumors are seen at the carotid bifurcation (carotid body tumor) as seen in this case, at the ... A classic finding of the carotid body tumor is splaying of the internal and external carotid arteries. On both enhanced CT and ... Carotid body tumors are well encapsulated and highly vascular benign tumors and can occur in a wide range of ages, from ...
more infohttp://neuroradiologyonthenet.blogspot.com/2007_04_01_archive.html

STATdx - CNIX (Glossopharyngeal Nerve)STATdx - CNIX (Glossopharyngeal Nerve)

Viscerosensory to carotid body & sinus. IMAGING ANATOMY. *. Overview. *. Intraaxial Segment. *. Cisternal Segment. ...
more infohttps://app.statdx.com/document/cnix-glossopharyngeal-nerve/d14ba95d-56dc-4577-aa7c-5398b9cc353f

Carotid artery stent placement for symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis | Guidance and guidelines | NICECarotid artery stent placement for symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis | Guidance and guidelines | NICE

Evidence-based recommendations on carotid artery stent placement for symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis (narrowed ... Endorsing bodies. This interventional procedures guidance is endorsed by Healthcare Improvement Scotland as required by the ... Carotid artery stent placement for symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis. Interventional procedures guidance [IPG389]. ... NICE has also published guidance on carotid artery stent placement for asymptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis (NICE ...
more infohttps://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/IPG389

Carotid body - WikipediaCarotid body - Wikipedia

... but not quite as much as the carotid body. The carotid body functions as a sensor: it responds to a stimulus, primarily O2 ... The carotid body contains the most vascularized tissue in the human body[citation needed]. The thyroid gland is very vascular, ... The carotid body (carotid glomus or glomus caroticum) is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near ... The carotid body is made up of two types of cells, called glomus cells: glomus type I cells are peripheral chemoreceptors, and ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carotid_body

Hypoxia Regulates MicroRNA Expression in the Human Carotid Body | SpringerLinkHypoxia Regulates MicroRNA Expression in the Human Carotid Body | SpringerLink

How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human carotid body (CB) remains poorly understood. While limited information on ... Kay JM, Laidler P (1977) Hypoxia and the carotid body. J Clin Pathol Suppl (R Coll Pathol) 11:30-44CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Hempleman SC, Warburton SJ (2013) Comparative embryology of the carotid body. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 185:3-8CrossRefGoogle ... Pepper DR, Landauer RC, Kumar P (1995) Postnatal development of CO2-O2 interaction in the rat carotid body in vitro. J Physiol ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-91137-3_3

Evidence for Glucose Uptake in the Rabbit Carotid Body | SpringerLinkEvidence for Glucose Uptake in the Rabbit Carotid Body | SpringerLink

The carotid body located in the bifurcation of the carotid arteries is able to detect gas changes in blood composition (PO2, ... The carotid body located in the bifurcation of the carotid arteries is able to detect gas changes in blood composition (PO2, ... Delpiano, M.A., and Acker, H., 1989, Hypoxic and hypercapnic responses of [Ca2+]o and [K+]o in the cat carotid body in vitro, ... Obeso, A., Almaraz, L., and Gonzalez, C., 1986, Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on in vitro cat carotid body, Brain Res., 371:25. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4615-2966-8_16

Ultrastructure of the carotid body in high-altitude guinea-pigs.  - PubMed - NCBIUltrastructure of the carotid body in high-altitude guinea-pigs. - PubMed - NCBI

Ultrastructure of the carotid body in high-altitude guinea-pigs.. Edwards C, Heath D, Harris P. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5074826

Multidisciplinary Management of Carotid Body Tumors in a Tertiary Urban InstitutionMultidisciplinary Management of Carotid Body Tumors in a Tertiary Urban Institution

Figure 2: Intraoperative image showing the intact carotid bifurcation after the excision of a carotid body tumor. ... Figure 1: Intraoperative image showing a carotid artery bifurcation and a type II carotid body tumor. ... J. G. Gwon, T.-W. Kwon, H. Kim, and Y.-P. Cho, "Risk factors for stroke during surgery for carotid body tumors," World Journal ... J. A. Wieneke and A. Smith, "Paraganglioma: carotid body tumor," Head and Neck Pathology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 303-306, 2009. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijvm/2015/969372/

Carotid Body Chief Cells | Springer for Research & DevelopmentCarotid Body Chief Cells | Springer for Research & Development

The human carotid body is a small structure located at the upper end of the common carotid artery. It consists of nerve fibers ... The human carotid body is a small structure located at the upper end of the common carotid artery. It consists of nerve fibers ... Nerve Terminal Secretory Granule Chromaffin Cell Carotid Body Chief Cell These keywords were added by machine and not by the ... Fujita T., Kanno T., Kobayashi S. (1988) Carotid Body Chief Cells. In: The Paraneuron. Springer, Tokyo. * DOI https://doi.org/ ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-4-431-68066-6_19

Exclusive Interview with Cibiem, a New Player in Carotid Body Modulation | MedgadgetExclusive Interview with Cibiem, a New Player in Carotid Body Modulation | Medgadget

... catheter-based approach for Carotid Body Modulation (CBM). Currently in its early ... It focuses on modulation of the carotid body - a key chemosensor located at the fork of the carotid artery that helps regulate ... Exclusive Interview with Cibiem, a New Player in Carotid Body Modulation. November 12th, 2012 Ronney Shantouf Cardiology, ... This Carotid Body Modulation (CBM) is a breakthrough innovation based on extensive studies and a deep understanding of the ...
more infohttps://www.medgadget.com/2012/11/exclusive-interview-with-cibiem-a-new-player-in-carotid-body-modulation.html

Explore the British Library Search - Carotid BodyExplore the British Library Search - Carotid Body

Carotid Body Volume in Three-Weeks-Old Rats Having an Episode of Neonatal Anoxia Saiki, C.; Makino, M.; Matsumoto, S.. Advances ... Adrenaline Increases Carotid Body CO~2 Sensitivity: An in vivo Study Maskell, P. D. et al.. Advances in experimental medicine ... Carotid Body Transmitters Actions on Rabbit Petrosal Ganglion in Vitro Alcayaga, J. et al.. Advances in experimental medicine ... Genetic Influence on Carotid Body Structure in DBA/2J and A/J Strains of Mice Yamaguchi, S. et al.. Advances in experimental ...
more infohttp://explore.bl.uk/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?ct=facet&fctN=facet_jtitle&fctV=Advances+in+experimental+medicine+and+biology&rfnGrp=1&rfnGrpCounter=1&indx=1&fn=search&dscnt=0&scp.scps=scope%3A

Explore the British Library Search - Carotid BodyExplore the British Library Search - Carotid Body

Role of Carotid Body in Intermittent Hypoxia-Related Hypertension Iturriaga, R.; Oyarce, M. a.; Dias, A. C.. Current ... Contribution of TASK-Like Potassium Channels to the Enhanced Rat Carotid Body Responsiveness to Hypoxia Ortiz, F.C. et al.. ... Contribution of TASK-Like Potassium Channels to the Enhanced Rat Carotid Body Responsiveness to Hypoxia Ortiz, F.C. et al.. ... NO modulation of carotid body chemoreception in health and disease Moya, E. A.; Alcayaga, J.; Iturriaga, R.. Respiratory ...
more infohttp://explore.bl.uk/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do?srt=date&srtChange=true&rfnGrpCounter=2&indx=1&fn=search&dscnt=0&vl

Surgical Removal of Carotid Body in Patients With Systolic Heart Failure - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.govSurgical Removal of Carotid Body in Patients With Systolic Heart Failure - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Surgical Removal of Carotid Body in Patients With Systolic Heart Failure. Official Title ICMJE Surgical Removal of Carotid Body ... Procedure: Carotid body excision. Study Arms Experimental: Carotid body excision Patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral ... Surgical Removal of Carotid Body in Patients With Systolic Heart Failure (FIM). The safety and scientific validity of this ... The aim of the study is to determine safety, tolerability and feasibility of unilateral and bilateral carotid body excision in ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01653821?view=results

Resection of carotid body tumors reduces arterial blood pressure. An underestimated neuroendocrine syndrome.Resection of carotid body tumors reduces arterial blood pressure. An underestimated neuroendocrine syndrome.

Carotid Body Tumors (CBTs) are Paragangliomas (PGLs) located in the head and neck region which usually do not cause overt ... INTRODUCTION: Carotid Body Tumors (CBTs) are Paragangliomas (PGLs) located in the head and neck region which usually do not ... 711567 - Cardiovascular effects of whole-body heating in spontaneously hypertensive rats.. 15302987 - The role of renal ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Resection-carotid-body-tumors-reduces/24862677.html

Carotid Body Removal for the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension: a Pilot Study - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.govCarotid Body Removal for the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension: a Pilot Study - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Experimental: Carotid body excision Patients undergoing the carotid body excision to test the hypothesis that carotid body ... Carotid Body Removal for the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension: a Pilot Study. The safety and scientific validity of this ... The carotid body will be removed by the so called lateral approach or a combined lateral and medial approach. In all cases ... This is a pilot study to assess the effectiveness, safety and feasibility of carotid body removal in patients with high blood ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01729988?show_rss=Y&sel_rss=mod14

Carotid Body tumor Archives - THANC FoundationCarotid Body tumor Archives - THANC Foundation

Carotid Body tumor Articles. * An Interesting Clinical Problem-solving Case: a Malignant Carotid Body Tumor. Diagnostics ... THANC presents an uncommon and intriguing case of a malignant carotid body tumor (CBT) in the Clinical…. Read More ...
more infohttps://thancfoundation.org/articles/carotid-body-tumor/

Phosphoinositides and Signal Transduction in the Cat Carotid Body | Springer for Research & DevelopmentPhosphoinositides and Signal Transduction in the Cat Carotid Body | Springer for Research & Development

W.J. Wang, G.F. Cheng, B.G. Dinger, and S.J. Fidone, Effects of hypoxia on cyclic nucleotide formation in rabbit carotid body ... Metabolic Acidosis Carotid Body Respiratory Acidosis Signal Transduction Process Phosphoinositide Metabolism These keywords ... We have previously reported that there are measurable amounts of PLC activity in the cat carotid body in the normoxic condition ... M. Pokorski and R. Strosznajder, PO2-dependence of phospholipase C in the cat carotid body, in: "Neurobiology and Cell ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-9847-0_65

Characterization of the synthesis and release of catecholamine in the rat carotid body in vitro.  - PubMed - NCBICharacterization of the synthesis and release of catecholamine in the rat carotid body in vitro. - PubMed - NCBI

Characterization of the synthesis and release of catecholamine in the rat carotid body in vitro.. Vicario I1, Rigual R, Obeso A ... released during stimulation of the rat carotid body (CB). Turnover rates and the release of CA were measured in an in vitro ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10712237?dopt=Abstract

Volatile Anaesthetic Depression of the Carotid Body Chemoreflex-Mediated Ventilatory Response to Hypoxia: Directions for Future...Volatile Anaesthetic Depression of the Carotid Body Chemoreflex-Mediated Ventilatory Response to Hypoxia: Directions for Future...

... separately perfused carotid body or to the whole animal).. (b) Any study in which the carotid body was physically isolated and ... the activity of the carotid body and of the other two tissues mentioned above increases such that the carotid body glomus cells ... H. L. Price and J. Widdicombe, "Actions of cyclopropane on carotid sinus baroreceptors and carotid body," The Journal of ... a) Any study in which recordings were taken from the carotid sinus nerve (the afferent nerve of the carotid body; anaesthetic ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2014/394270/

Carotid Body Denervation Prevents the Development of Insulin Resistance and Hypertension Induced by Hypercaloric Diets |...Carotid Body Denervation Prevents the Development of Insulin Resistance and Hypertension Induced by Hypercaloric Diets |...

Carotid Body Denervation Prevents the Development of Insulin Resistance and Hypertension Induced by Hypercaloric Diets. ... Carotid Body Denervation Prevents the Development of Insulin Resistance and Hypertension Induced by Hypercaloric Diets ... Carotid Body Denervation Prevents the Development of Insulin Resistance and Hypertension Induced by Hypercaloric Diets ... Carotid Body Denervation Prevents the Development of Insulin Resistance and Hypertension Induced by Hypercaloric Diets ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/62/8/2905.short

Carotid body: a new target for rescuing neural control of cardiorespiratory balance in disease | Frontiers Research TopicCarotid body: a new target for rescuing neural control of cardiorespiratory balance in disease | Frontiers Research Topic

The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during ... The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during ... The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during ... Carotid body: a new target for rescuing neural control of cardiorespiratory balance in disease. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/2694/carotid-body-a-new-target-for-rescuing-neural-control-of-cardiorespiratory-balance-in-disease
  • Kromhout K, Gielen I, De Cock H, Van Dyck K, van Bree H. Magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging of a carotid body tumor in a dog. (ugent.be)
  • Cibiem's proprietary, minimally invasive, catheter-based approach is focused on Carotid Body Modulation (CBM) for the treatment of sympathetic nervous system-mediated diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, diabetes and renal failure. (medgadget.com)
  • Of the different medical conditions such as congestive heart failure, hypertension, renal failure, or diabetes - where do you feel carotid body modulation will have the greatest impact and why? (medgadget.com)
  • However, the idea of inventing a minimally-invasive, catheter-based medical device to modulate the carotid body is truly novel and could fundamentally change the way we treat diseases like heart failure, hypertension, diabetes and renal failure - all conditions that are not optimally addressed or managed by the current drug therapies or standard of care. (medgadget.com)
  • This is a pilot study to assess the effectiveness, safety and feasibility of carotid body removal in patients with high blood pressure (hypertension) resistant to medical treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Iturriaga R, Alcayaga J (2004) Neurotransmission in the carotid body: transmitters and modulators between glomus cells and petrosal ganglion nerve terminals. (springer.com)
  • 2 Since activation of PLC may be part of the general mechanism by which the carotid body stimuli induce physiologic effects, we now extended that study by characterization of the effects on phosphoinositide metabolism of two further natural carotid body stimuli, respiratory and metabolic acidosis. (springer.com)
  • M. Pokorski and R. Strosznajder, PO 2 -dependence of phospholipase C in the cat carotid body, in: "Neurobiology and Cell Physiology," P.G. Data, H. Acker, and S. Lahiri, ed. (springer.com)
  • Pokorski M., Strosznajder R. (1992) Phosphoinositides and Signal Transduction in the Cat Carotid Body. (springer.com)
  • Spergel, D ., 1992, Glutamate as a metabolic substrate in O 2 chemoreception in the cat carotid body (this Symposium). (springer.com)
  • Normally acute hypoxaemia is detected by the carotid bodies, generating neural afferent signals to the central nervous system respiratory control mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Most body tissues suffer impaired function or harm during hypoxic exposure, but the carotid body is among the few organs that shows an adaptive response (with the other organs being pulmonary arterioles and the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidney) [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A. Gomez-Nino, B. Dinger, C. Gonzalez, and S.J. Fidone, Differential stimulus coupling to dopamine and norepinephrine stores in rabbit carotid body type I cells, Brain Res. (springer.com)
  • What is unclear is the precise site in the chemoreflex pathway (from carotid body glomus cell to integrative sites in the brain) at which anaesthetics might exert this depressive action. (hindawi.com)
  • Dr. Levin and Mr. Gelfand recently participated in an interview with Medgadget , answering questions about Cibiem and the potential role of Carotid Body Modulation for well known chronic diseases. (medgadget.com)
  • Fujita T., Kanno T., Kobayashi S. (1988) Carotid Body Chief Cells. (springer.com)
  • Delpiano M.A. (1993) Evidence for Glucose Uptake in the Rabbit Carotid Body. (springer.com)
  • Related to no download the mammalian carotid to ALC members informed required in newer partial-differential magnitude shortcomings. (lkqatv.com)
  • Histopathological Appearance of Carotid Body Tumour [Image on the Internet]. (scirp.org)
  • This report describes the magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomographic (CT) appearance of a carotid body tumor. (ugent.be)
  • Haem reversibly binds O2 with an affinity similar to that of the carotid body, suggesting that haem containing proteins may have a role in O2, potentially this could be one of the complexes involved in oxidative-phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a comprehensive review of the role of the carotid bodies in chemoreflex control, see Whipp and Wasserman [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • in formal terms, the naturally occurring channels in the body that include hERG are referred to by the name of the electrical current that has been measured in that cell type, so, for example, in the heart, the correct name is IKr. (wikipedia.org)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the American Journal of Neuroradiology web site. (ajnr.org)
  • The principle research question is whether removal of the carotid body will lead to an improvement in the blood pressure of this patient group. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The main symptoms involve impairments in vision, body movement, and speaking. (wikipedia.org)