Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.

Vitronectin inhibits the thrombotic response to arterial injury in mice. (1/264)

Vitronectin (VN) binds to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and integrins and may play an important role in the vascular response to injury by regulating fibrinolysis and cell migration. However, the role of VN in the earliest response to vascular injury, thrombosis, is not well characterized. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that variation in vitronectin expression alters the thrombotic response to arterial injury in mice. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) injury was used to induce platelet-rich thrombi in mouse carotid arteries. Wild-type (VN +/+, n = 14) and VN-deficient (VN -/-, n = 15) mice, matched for age and gender, were studied. Time to occlusion after FeCl3 injury was determined by application of a Doppler flowprobe to the carotid artery. Occlusion times of VN -/- mice were significantly shorter than those of VN +/+ mice (6.0 +/- 1.2 minutes v 17.8 +/- 2.3 minutes, respectively, P < .001). Histologic analysis of injured arterial segments showed that thrombi from VN +/+ and VN -/- mice consisted of dense platelet aggregates. In vitro studies of murine VN +/+ and VN -/- platelets showed no significant differences in ADP-induced aggregation, but a trend towards increased thrombin-induced aggregation in VN -/- platelets. Purified, denatured VN inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, whereas native VN did not. Thrombin times of plasma from VN -/- mice (20.5 +/- 2.1 seconds, n = 4) were significantly shorter than those of VN +/+ mice (34.2 +/- 6.7 seconds, n = 4, P < .01), and the addition of purified VN to VN -/- plasma prolonged the thrombin time into the normal range, suggesting that VN inhibits thrombin-fibrinogen interactions. PAI-1-deficient mice (n = 6) did not demonstrate significantly enhanced arterial thrombosis compared with wild-type mice (n = 6), excluding a potential indirect antithrombin function of VN mediated by interactions with PAI-1 as an explanation for the accelerated thrombosis observed in VN -/- mice. These results suggest that vitronectin plays a previously unappreciated antithrombotic role at sites of arterial injury and that this activity may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting platelet-platelet interactions and/or thrombin procoagulant activity.  (+info)

Transcranial Doppler directed dextran therapy in the prevention of carotid thrombosis: three hour monitoring is as effective as six hours. (2/264)

BACKGROUND: Six hours' monitoring by transcranial Doppler (TCD) has been successful in directing Dextran therapy in patients at high risk of thrombotic stroke after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). OBJECTIVES: Is 3 h of routine monitoring as effective as 6 h in the prevention of early postoperative thrombotic stroke? DESIGN: Prospective, consecutive study in all patients with an accessible cranial window. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-six patients undergoing CEA underwent 3 h of postoperative monitoring by TCD. Any patient with > 25 emboli detected in any 10 min period or those with emboli that distorted the arterial waveform were commenced on an incremental infusion of dextran 40. RESULTS: The majority of patients destined to embolise will do so within the first 2 postoperative hours. Dextran therapy was instituted in nine patients (5%) and rapidly controlled this phase of embolisation although the dose had to be increased in three (33%). No patient suffered a postoperative carotid thrombosis but one suffered a minor stroke on day 5 and was found to have profuse embolisation on TCD; high dose dextran therapy was again instituted, the embolus count rate fell rapidly and he made a good recovery thereafter. Overall, the death and disabling stroke rate was 1.2% and the death/any stroke rate was 2.4%. CONCLUSION: Three hours of postoperative TCD monitoring is as effective as 6 h in the prevention of postoperative carotid thrombosis.  (+info)

Inhibitory effects of nimodipine on platelet aggregation and thrombosis. (3/264)

AIM: To study the inhibitory effects of nimodipine (Nim) on rat platelet aggregation and arterial thrombosis in vivo. METHODS: The aggregation rate of platelets induced by ADP and inhibition rate of Nim were measured by the change of light transmission. Effect of Nim on arterial occlusion time was measured by electric stimulation. Effect of Nim on the contents of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and TXB2 in serum was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Nim 4.5, 9, 18, and 36 ig for 4 d restrained the platelet aggregation. The IC50 (95% confidence limits) was 26 (9-44) Nim 4.5, 9, and 18 ig for 4 d markedly prolonged the time of thrombotic occlusion in carotid artery induced by electric stimulation. Nim 9 and 18 improved the imbalance of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha/TXB2 in serum after thrombosis. CONCLUSION: Nim was a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation, which was partially concerned with the improved balance of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha/TXB2.  (+info)

Recently occluded intracranial and extracranial carotid arteries. Relevance of the unstable atherosclerotic plaque. (4/264)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is now widely accepted that thrombotic coronary artery occlusion usually follows rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque. The significance of such instability in arteries supplying the brain is less well appreciated. We therefore describe the clinical and pathological features of recent, symptomatic internal carotid artery occlusion to examine the pathogenetic role of plaque instability at both extracranial and intracranial sites. METHODS: Cases were selected from a consecutive series of 188 adult neuropathology autopsies. In 90 of these, the principal neuropathological abnormality was cerebral infarction, in 14 cases due to recent occlusion of 1 or more segments of the internal carotid artery. In each case, a full systemic, cardiovascular, and neuropathological autopsy was performed. Plaque instability was assessed by the presence or absence of a large, necrotic, lipid core; a thin, fibrous cap; and superficial inflammation. RESULTS: Of the 14 cases, 3 showed extracranial (carotid sinus), 7 intracranial, and 4 both extracranial and intracranial carotid artery occlusion. In 6 of the 7 occluded carotid sinuses, thrombus overlay an ulcerated, unstable, atherosclerotic plaque. In 1 extracranial and all 11 intracranial occlusions, there was either no atheroma or a mildly stenotic, stable, fibrous plaque, and in these cases, the cause of occlusion was embolism (8 cases), giant-cell arteritis (1 case), and unknown (3 cases). CONCLUSIONS: Coronary-type rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque is the usual cause of fatal occlusion of the carotid sinus, but other causes usually underlie intracranial carotid occlusion. The nature and consequences of intracranial atherosclerosis require further study.  (+info)

Asymptomatic embolization predicts stroke and TIA risk in patients with carotid artery stenosis. (5/264)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Improved methods of identifying patients at high risk of thromboembolism would allow improved targeting of therapy. One such situation is carotid artery stenosis. This is associated with an increased risk of stroke, which can be reduced by carotid endarterectomy. However, the risk-benefit ratio is low in patients with tight asymptomatic stenosis and moderate symptomatic stenosis. Most stroke in patients with carotid stenosis is believed to be embolic. Therefore, the detection of asymptomatic cerebral emboli using Doppler ultrasound may allow identification of a high-risk group. METHODS: Transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to record for 1 hour the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery in 111 patients with >60% carotid artery stenosis (69 symptomatic, 42 asymptomatic). The Doppler audio signal was recorded onto digital audio tape for later analysis for embolic signals (ES) by an individual blinded to clinical details. In 67 subjects the relationship between ES and angiographically determined plaque ulceration was investigated. All subjects were followed up prospectively, and the relationship between ES and risk of future ipsilateral carotid artery territory ischemic events (TIA and stroke) was determined. RESULTS: ES were detected in 41(36.9%) subjects. In symptomatic patients there was a significant inverse relationship between the number of ES per hour and time elapsed since last symptoms (Spearman's rho=-0.2558, P=0.034). ES were more common in subjects with plaque ulceration, with a relative risk of 4. 94 (95% CI, 1.23 to 19.84; P=0.025) after controlling for both symptomatic status and degree of stenosis. The presence of ES at entry was predictive of TIA and stroke risk during follow up in both symptomatic (P=0.02) and asymptomatic patients (P=0.007). Considering all 111 patients, the presence of asymptomatic embolization was predictive of a further ischemic event, with an adjusted OR of 8.10 (95% CI, 1.58 to 41.57; P=0.01) after controlling for other cardiovascular risk factors, degree of stenosis, symptomatic status, and aspirin or warfarin use. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic embolization in patients with carotid artery stenosis correlates with known markers of increased stroke risk and is an independent predictor of future stroke risk in patients with both symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis. It may allow identification of a high-risk group of patients who will particularly benefit from carotid endarterectomy. A large multicenter study is now required to confirm these findings.  (+info)

Effects of citicoline combined with thrombolytic therapy in a rat embolic stroke model. (6/264)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We sought to evaluate the effects of the combination of cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline) and thrombolysis on infarct size, clinical outcome, and mortality in a rat embolic stroke model. METHODS: Eighty-three Sprague-Dawley rats were embolized in the carotid territory with a single fibrin embolus and randomly assigned to the following treatment groups: (1) control (saline), (2) citicoline 250 mg/kg, (3) citicoline 500 mg/kg, (4) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) 5 mg/kg, (5) rtPA 5 mg/kg plus citicoline 250 mg/kg, and (6) rtPA 5 mg/kg plus citicoline 500 mg/kg. rtPA was administered as a continuous intravenous infusion over 45 minutes starting 45 minutes after embolization; citicoline was given intraperitoneally 30 minutes and 24, 48, and 72 hours after embolization. At 96 hours, the brains were fixed and stained by hematoxylin-eosin, and infarct volumes were measured. Neurological scores were determined daily. RESULTS: The median infarct size, measured as percentage of the affected hemisphere, in the control group was 37% (interquartile range, 26% to 69%) compared with 22% (5% to 52%; P=NS) in group 2, 11% (5% to 34%; P=NS) in group 3, 24% (12% to 31%; P=NS) in group 4, 11% (3% to 22%; P=0.02) in the combined group 5, and 19% (9% to 51%; P=NS) in group 6. The infarct size was significantly reduced in the combined citicoline+rtPA-treated groups to a median of 13% (5% to 30%; P<0.01). Citicoline 500 mg/kg and citicoline combined with rtPA also promoted functional recovery. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the combination of low-dose citicoline and rtPA significantly reduced infarct size in this focal ischemia model.  (+info)

Delayed hypovolemic hypotension exacerbates the hemodynamic and histopathologic consequences of thromboembolic stroke in rats. (7/264)

Abnormalities in cerebrovascular reactivity or hemodynamic reserve are risk factors for stroke. The authors determined whether hemodynamic reserve is reduced in an experimental model of thromboembolic stroke. Nonocclusive common carotid artery thrombosis (CCAT) was produced in rats by a rose bengal-mediated photochemical insult, and moderate hypotension (60 mm Hg/30 min) was induced 1 hour later by hemorrhage. Alterations in local cerebral blood flow (ICBF) were assessed immediately after the hypotensive period by 14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography, and histopathologic outcome was determined 3 days after CCAT. Compared to normotensive CCAT rats (n = 5), induced hypotension after CCAT (n = 7) led to enlarged regions of severe ischemia (i.e., mean ICBF < 0.24 mL/g/min) in the ipsilateral hemisphere. For example, induced hypotension increased the volume of severely ischemic sites from 16 +/- 4 mm3 (mean +/- SD) to 126 +/- 99 mm3 (P < 0.05). Histopathologic data also showed a larger volume of ischemic damage with secondary hypotension (n = 7) compared to normotension (22 +/- 15 mm3 versus 5 +/- 5 mm3, P < .05). Both hypotension-induced decreases in ICBF and ischemic pathology were commonly detected within cortical anterior and posterior borderzone areas and within the ipsilateral striatum and hippocampus. In contrast to CCAT, mechanical ligation of the common carotid artery plus hypotension (n = 8) did not produce significant histopathologic damage. Nonocclusive CCAT with secondary hypotension therefore predisposes the post-thrombotic brain to hemodynamic stress and structural damage.  (+info)

Brief myocardial ischemia attenuates platelet thrombosis in remote, damaged, and stenotic carotid arteries. (8/264)

BACKGROUND: Brief antecedent periods of coronary artery occlusion improve subsequent vessel patency in damaged and stenotic coronary arteries via release of adenosine from ischemic/reperfused myocardium and resultant adenosine receptor stimulation. However, the site of receptor stimulation-circulating blood-borne elements (ie, platelets) versus vessel-wall components of the culprit artery-remains unclear. If platelet adenosine receptors are involved, then the benefits of brief coronary occlusion (1) should be manifested systemically and improve patency at a remote site and (2) should be inhibited by an antagonist of adenosine A(2) receptors, whereas, in contrast, (3) brief vascular occlusion not associated with appreciable adenosine release should be ineffective in improving vessel patency. METHODS AND RESULTS: In Protocol 1, anesthetized rabbits received 5 minutes of transient coronary occlusion, 5 minutes of transient bilateral carotid occlusion (purported to cause negligible adenosine release from the brain), or no intervention. All rabbits then underwent injury plus stenosis of the left carotid artery, resulting in repeated cyclic variations in carotid blood flow (CFVs). Carotid patency during the initial 2 hours after stenosis (assessed by quantifying the nadir of the CFVs and area of the flow-time profile) was significantly enhanced with antecedent coronary-but not carotid-occlusion versus controls. In Protocol 2, improvement in carotid patency after brief coronary occlusion was corroborated in anesthetized dogs. However, the benefits of brief coronary occlusion were abrogated by the A(2)/A(1) antagonist CGS 15943. CONCLUSIONS: Brief antecedent coronary artery occlusion enhanced vessel patency in remote, damaged, and stenotic carotid arteries, largely due to adenosine receptor stimulation on circulating elements.  (+info)

Carotid artery thrombosis is often caused by atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque in the arteries that can lead to the formation of blood clots. Other risk factors for carotid artery thrombosis include high blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity.

Diagnosis of carotid artery thrombosis typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT or MRI scans, and Doppler studies to visualize the blood flow in the neck and brain. Treatment options for carotid artery thrombosis include anticoagulation medications to prevent further clotting, medications to dissolve the clot, and surgery to remove the clot or repair the affected artery.

In severe cases, carotid artery thrombosis can lead to stroke or brain damage if not treated promptly. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

There are several types of thrombosis, including:

1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, which can cause swelling, pain, and skin discoloration.
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A clot breaks loose from another location in the body and travels to the lungs, where it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
3. Cerebral thrombosis: A clot forms in the brain, which can cause stroke or mini-stroke symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking.
4. Coronary thrombosis: A clot forms in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
5. Renal thrombosis: A clot forms in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage or failure.

The symptoms of thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot. Some common symptoms include:

1. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. Warmth or discoloration of the skin
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs
5. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking if the clot has formed in the brain
6. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat
7. Feeling of anxiety or panic

Treatment for thrombosis usually involves medications to dissolve the clot and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Prevention measures include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, avoiding long periods of immobility, and managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.

The most common carotid artery disease is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque in the inner lining of the arteries. This buildup can lead to a narrowing or blockage of the arteries, reducing blood flow to the brain and increasing the risk of stroke. Other conditions that can affect the carotid arteries include:

1. Carotid artery stenosis: A narrowing of the carotid arteries caused by atherosclerosis or other factors.
2. Carotid artery dissection: A tear in the inner lining of the arteries that can cause bleeding and blockage.
3. Carotid artery aneurysm: A bulge in the wall of the arteries that can lead to rupture and stroke.
4. Temporal bone fracture: A break in the bones of the skull that can cause damage to the carotid arteries and result in stroke or other complications.

Carotid artery diseases are typically diagnosed using imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Treatment options for carotid artery diseases depend on the underlying condition and its severity, but may include lifestyle changes, medications, surgery, or endovascular procedures.

Prevention of carotid artery diseases is key to reducing the risk of stroke and other complications. This includes managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes, as well as maintaining a healthy lifestyle and getting regular check-ups with your doctor.

There are two main types of carotid stenosis:

1. Internal carotid artery stenosis: This type of stenosis occurs when the internal carotid artery, which supplies blood to the brain, becomes narrowed or blocked.
2. Common carotid artery stenosis: This type of stenosis occurs when the common carotid artery, which supplies blood to the head and neck, becomes narrowed or blocked.

The symptoms of carotid stenosis can vary depending on the severity of the blockage and the extent of the affected area. Some common symptoms include:

* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Vertigo (a feeling of spinning)
* Blurred vision or double vision
* Memory loss or confusion
* Slurred speech
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body

If left untreated, carotid stenosis can lead to a stroke or other serious complications. Treatment options for carotid stenosis include medications to lower cholesterol and blood pressure, as well as surgical procedures such as endarterectomy (removing plaque from the artery) or stenting (placing a small mesh tube in the artery to keep it open).

In conclusion, carotid stenosis is a serious medical condition that can lead to stroke and other complications if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected limb. In some cases, the clot can break loose and travel to the lungs, causing a potentially life-threatening condition called Pulmonary Embolism (PE).

Treatment for venous thrombosis typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing and to prevent new clots from forming. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava, the large vein that carries blood from the lower body to the heart, to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.

Prevention of venous thrombosis includes encouraging movement and exercise, avoiding long periods of immobility, and wearing compression stockings or sleeves to compress the veins and improve blood flow.

Coronary Thrombosis can cause a range of symptoms including chest pain, shortness of breath, lightheadedness and fatigue. The severity of the symptoms depends on the location and size of the clot. In some cases, the condition may be asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during a medical examination or imaging test.

Diagnosis of Coronary Thrombosis is typically made using electrocardiogram (ECG), blood tests and imaging studies such as angiography or echocardiography. Treatment options include medications to dissolve the clot, surgery to open or bypass the blocked artery or other interventional procedures such as angioplasty or stenting.

Prevention of Coronary Thrombosis includes managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking and diabetes through lifestyle changes and medications. Early detection and treatment can help reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

There are several types of intracranial thrombosis, including:

1. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST): This type of thrombosis occurs when a blood clot forms in the veins that drain blood from the brain. CVST is more common in young adults and is often associated with certain risk factors, such as cancer, infection, or trauma.
2. Cerebral arterial thrombosis (CAT): This type of thrombosis occurs when a blood clot forms in an artery that supplies blood to the brain. CAT is more common in older adults and is often associated with risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or heart disease.
3. Pial sinus thrombosis: This type of thrombosis occurs when a blood clot forms in the pial sinuses, which are specialized blood vessels that surround the brain. Pial sinus thrombosis is more common in children and young adults.

The symptoms of intracranial thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot, but may include:

1. Headache: A severe headache is often the first symptom of intracranial thrombosis. The headache may be sudden and severe, or it may develop gradually over time.
2. Confusion: Patients with intracranial thrombosis may experience confusion, disorientation, or difficulty concentrating.
3. Weakness or numbness: Patients may experience weakness or numbness in their arms, legs, or face on one side of the body.
4. Vision problems: Intracranial thrombosis can cause vision problems, such as blurred vision, double vision, or loss of peripheral vision.
5. Speech difficulties: Patients may experience difficulty speaking or understanding speech.
6. Seizures: In some cases, intracranial thrombosis can cause seizures.
7. Fever: Patients with intracranial thrombosis may develop a fever, especially if the clot is infected.
8. Weakness in the limbs: Patients may experience weakness or paralysis in their arms or legs.
9. Difficulty swallowing: Patients may have difficulty swallowing or experience drooling.
10. Change in mental status: Patients with intracranial thrombosis may exhibit changes in their mental status, such as lethargy, agitation, or confusion.

If you or someone you know is experiencing these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Intracranial thrombosis can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and treated with anticoagulant medications, thrombolysis, or surgery. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients.

1. Atrial fibrillation (a type of irregular heartbeat)
2. Heart disease or valve problems
3. Blood clots in the legs or lungs
4. Infective endocarditis (an infection of the heart valves)
5. Cancer and its treatment
6. Trauma to the head or neck
7. High blood pressure
8. Atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries)

When a blockage occurs in one of the blood vessels of the brain, it can deprive the brain of oxygen and nutrients, leading to cell death and potentially causing a range of symptoms including:

1. Sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
2. Sudden confusion or trouble speaking or understanding speech
3. Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
4. Sudden severe headache
5. Dizziness or loss of balance
6. Fainting or falling

Intracranial embolism and thrombosis can be diagnosed through a variety of imaging tests, including:

1. Computed tomography (CT) scan
2. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
3. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
4. Cerebral angiography
5. Doppler ultrasound

Treatment options for intracranial embolism and thrombosis depend on the underlying cause of the blockage, but may include:

1. Medications to dissolve blood clots or prevent further clotting
2. Surgery to remove the blockage or repair the affected blood vessel
3. Endovascular procedures, such as angioplasty and stenting, to open up narrowed or blocked blood vessels
4. Supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and pain management, to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Types of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:

1. Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is a condition where plaque builds up inside the arteries, leading to narrowing or blockages that can restrict blood flow to certain areas of the body.
2. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): PAD is a condition where the blood vessels in the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain or cramping in the affected limbs.
3. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): CAD is a condition where the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart, become narrowed or blocked, leading to chest pain or a heart attack.
4. Carotid Artery Disease: Carotid artery disease is a condition where the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, become narrowed or blocked, leading to stroke or mini-stroke.
5. Renal Artery Stenosis: Renal artery stenosis is a condition where the blood vessels that supply the kidneys become narrowed or blocked, leading to high blood pressure and decreased kidney function.

Symptoms of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:

1. Pain or cramping in the affected limbs
2. Weakness or fatigue
3. Difficulty walking or standing
4. Chest pain or discomfort
5. Shortness of breath
6. Dizziness or lightheadedness
7. Stroke or mini-stroke

Treatment for Arterial Occlusive Diseases:

1. Medications: Medications such as blood thinners, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and blood pressure medications may be prescribed to treat arterial occlusive diseases.
2. Lifestyle Changes: Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
3. Endovascular Procedures: Endovascular procedures such as angioplasty and stenting may be performed to open up narrowed or blocked blood vessels.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat arterial occlusive diseases, such as bypass surgery or carotid endarterectomy.

Prevention of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:

1. Maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Quit smoking and avoid exposure to secondhand smoke
3. Exercise regularly
4. Manage high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes
5. Avoid excessive alcohol consumption
6. Get regular check-ups with your healthcare provider

Early detection and treatment of arterial occlusive diseases can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and prevent complications such as heart attack or stroke.

Symptoms of CAID may include sudden weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking, dizziness, and loss of vision in one eye. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and Doppler ultrasound.

Treatment for CAID usually involves medications to dissolve blood clots and prevent further complications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the damaged artery. Preventive measures include avoiding trauma to the neck and head, controlling high blood pressure, and managing underlying medical conditions that increase the risk of CAID.

The carotid arteries are located on either side of the neck and supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain, making them a critical part of the vascular system. Internal dissection of the carotid artery can lead to serious complications if left untreated, so prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for preventing long-term damage.

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Carotid artery disease Arterial spasm (TIA) Diabetes mellitus Collagen diseases Venous occlusive disease Thrombosis Use of ... Emboli and thrombi Central retinal artery occlusion Cardiac myxoma Cranial arteritis Sickle cell attack Occlusive vascular ...
The carotid siphon of the internal carotid artery, and cranial nerves III, IV, V (branches V1 and V2) and VI all pass through ... carotid-cavernous fistula, bacterial infection causing cavernous sinus thrombosis, aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis, ... Abducens nerve Internal carotid artery accompanied by the internal carotid plexus These nerves, with the exception of CN V2, ... If the internal carotid artery ruptures within the cavernous sinus, an arteriovenous fistula is created (more specifically, a ...
... carotid artery diseases MeSH C10.228.140.300.200.331 - carotid artery thrombosis MeSH C10.228.140.300.200.345 - carotid artery ... carotid artery injuries MeSH C10.900.250.300.300 - carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C10.900.250.300.400 - carotid- ... carotid artery injuries MeSH C10.228.140.300.350.500.300 - carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C10.228.140.300.350.500. ... carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C10.228.140.300.200.360 - carotid stenosis MeSH C10.228.140.300.200.490 - carotid- ...
... and to assess ophthalmic artery reversal of flow indicating a thrombosis of the carotid artery (1969). Maroon et al. published ... Maroon, J. C.; Campbell, R. L.; Dyken, M. L. (1970-04-01). "Internal carotid artery occlusion diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound ... they published the case of Golfer's Stroke from Vertebral Artery Dissection. Further groundbreaking publications include the ... golf-induced stroke from vertebral artery dissection". Surgical Neurology. 67 (2): 163-168, discussion 168. doi:10.1016/j. ...
With Decreased Blood Pressure but Not With Improved Brachial Artery Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation or Carotid Artery ... Stiffness: a 2-Year, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 21 (12): 2072- ... and there was no effect on common carotid artery stiffness. Mean arterial pressure Cold pressor test Hypertension ... Systemic pulse pressure (SPP) (usually measured at upper right arm artery) = Psystolic - Pdiastolic e.g. normal 120mmHg - ...
... angiitis Carotid or vertebral artery pain Headache or facial or neck pain attributed to arterial dissection Post-endarterectomy ... attributed to intracranial endovascular procedures Angiography headache Headache attributed to cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT ...
... migraine attack and be relieved afterwards Carotid artery dissection/carotid artery aneurysm/trauma Cavernous sinus thrombosis ... Postganglionic lesions at the level of the internal carotid artery (e.g. a tumor in the cavernous sinus or a carotid artery ...
... thromboses, or fistulas. Of these, 76% had intimal dissections, pseudoaneurysms, or a combination of the two. Sports-related ... The incidence of spontaneous carotid artery dissection is low, and incidence rates for internal carotid artery dissection have ... Carotid artery dissection is a separation of the layers of the artery wall supplying oxygen-bearing blood to the head and brain ... and carotid artery ligation.[citation needed] 70% of patients with carotid arterial dissection are between the ages of 35 and ...
in high-risk patients with narrowing of the carotid arteries, the process of "Treating Arteries" was associated with a >80% ... In 2015, he received the Research Excellence Award from the Canadian Society for Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular ... With Maria Dicicco, RVT, he pioneered the measurement of total plaque area (TPA) in a patient's carotid artery using ultrasound ... for research and for management of patients with carotid artery disease. (.). This has evolved to the use of 3-D plaque volume ...
The syndrome has been associated with occlusion of the common carotid artery, internal carotid artery, and less frequently the ... High clinical suspicion should be kept for painless vision loss in patients with atherosclerosis, deep venous thrombosis, ... Retinal artery occlusion (such as central retinal artery occlusion or branch retinal artery occlusion) leads to rapid death of ... The retinal arteries may show spontaneous pulsations.[citation needed] If carotid occlusive disease results in ophthalmic ...
The other type, carotid artery dissection, involves the carotid arteries. Vertebral artery dissection is further classified as ... Kim YK, Schulman S (April 2009). "Cervical artery dissection: pathology, epidemiology and management". Thrombosis Research. 123 ... Vertebral artery dissection is less common than carotid artery dissection (dissection of the large arteries in the front of the ... or for symptoms of carotid artery dissection to occur at the same time as those of vertebral artery dissection. Some give a ...
These vessels are the ACA (anterior cerebral artery), MCA (middle cerebral artery), and ICA (internal carotid artery). The ... Blood flow is blocked by constriction and blood clots (thrombosis). A collateral circulation develops around the blocked ... such as the external carotid artery or the superficial temporal artery to replace its circulation. The arteries are either sewn ... branches of the internal carotid artery inside the skull. When the internal carotid artery becomes completely blocked, the fine ...
Complicated plaques with signs indicative of intra-plaque haemorrhage in an ipsilateral carotid artery are detected in 1 in 4 ... Patent foramen ovale (PFO): Deep vein thrombosis may result in paradoxical embolism in patients with PFO. About 40% of patients ... Varicella zoster virus), thrombophilia, cancer-related thrombosis, migraine, Fabry disease and other genetic, autoimmune or ... luminal stenosis in arteries supplying the area of ischaemia No other specific cause of stroke identified (e.g., arteritis, ...
An embolus lodging in the brain from either the heart or a carotid artery will most likely be the cause of a stroke due to ... Alternative link: [1] MDGuidelines > Arterial Embolism And Thrombosis From The Medical Disability Advisor by Presley Reed, MD. ... Embolism can be classified based on where it enters the circulation, either in arteries or in veins. Arterial embolism are ... deep vein thrombosis.[citation needed] Arterial embolism can cause occlusion in any part of the body. It is a major cause of ...
... of carotid artery 433.2 Occlusion and stenosis of vertebral artery 434 Occlusion of cerebral arteries 434.0 Cerebral thrombosis ... of carotid artery 443.22 Dissection of iliac artery 443.23 Dissection of renal artery 443.24 Dissection of vertebral artery ... 452 Portal vein thrombosis 453 Other venous embolism and thrombosis 453.4 Deep vein thrombosis, unspec. 453.41 Deep vein ... 435.0 Basilar artery syndrome 435.1 Vertebral artery syndrome 435.2 Subclavian steal syndrome 435.3 Vertebrobasilar artery ...
Carotid ultrasonography is often used to screen for carotid artery stenosis, as it is more readily available, is noninvasive, ... In-situ thrombosis, an obstruction that forms directly in the cerebral vasculature unlike the remote embolism previously ... Confirming a diagnosis of carotid artery stenosis is important because the treatment for this condition, carotid endarterectomy ... Another common culprit of TIA is an atherosclerotic plaque located in the common carotid artery, typically by the bifurcation ...
... usually at the carotid artery) for a period of 10 seconds. These possible causes are remembered as the 6 Hs and the 6 Ts. See ... Hyperkalemia or Hypokalemia Hypoglycemia Hypothermia Tablets or Toxins Cardiac Tamponade Tension pneumothorax Thrombosis (e.g ...
CVCs can be mistakenly placed in an artery during insertion (for example, the carotid artery or vertebral artery when placed in ... For patients with central venous access, a wide variation in the incidence of vein thrombosis (1 to 66 percent) is reported and ... "Catheter-related upper extremity venous thrombosis". Retrieved 11 February 2016. (Orphaned articles from March ... thrombosis, misplacement, and bleeding. Penumothorax can occur during insertion of the catheter. The use of ultrasound guidance ...
... carotid artery diseases MeSH C14.907.253.123.331 - carotid artery thrombosis MeSH C14.907.253.123.345 - carotid artery injuries ... intracranial embolism and thrombosis MeSH C14.907.355.350.850.213.206 - carotid artery thrombosis MeSH C14.907.355.350.850.213. ... intracranial embolism and thrombosis MeSH C14.907.355.830.850.213.206 - carotid artery thrombosis MeSH C14.907.355.830.850.213. ... intracranial embolism and thrombosis MeSH C14.907.253.378.206 - carotid artery thrombosis MeSH C14.907.253.378.300 - ...
... internal carotid artery, cavernous sinus, trigeminal nerve, pituitary gland, and the anterior ethmoidal cells.: 500 The ... A potential complication of sphenoidal sinusitis is cavernous sinus thrombosis.[citation needed] If a fast-growing tumor erodes ...
Recurrent right hemiplegia, with ocular lesions, due to bilateral carotid artery disorders. Symptoms, which included headache, ... Budd-Chiari syndrome (supra-hepatic venous thrombosis). Her cure was recognised on 31 May 1963. Visited Lourdes: 5 June 1958. ...
... carotid, or renal artery disease All people with a Framingham risk score of 10%-20% All people who have previously experienced ... Additional mechanisms of peripheral artery disease including arterial spasm, thrombosis, and fibromuscular dysplasia. The ... Peripheral artery disease most commonly affects the legs, but other arteries may also be involved - such as those of the arms, ... Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an abnormal narrowing of arteries other than those that supply the heart or brain. When ...
Thrombi can occlude veins (venous thrombosis) or arteries (arterial thrombosis). The etiology of thrombosis is described by ... "Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery". 8 August 2021. Retrieved 2022-03-29. "Carotid Endarterectomy". ... Peripheral Artery Disease, and Pulmonary Embolism. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) results from the stenosis of coronary arteries ... Ultrasonic duplex scanning was developed to primarily determine the extent of atherosclerosis in carotid arteries. Since then, ...
... which has resulted in patients with femoral thrombosis being denied proper treatment. Therefore, the terms subsartorial artery ... "Accuracy of the advanced trauma life support guidelines for predicting systolic blood pressure using carotid, femoral, and ... The femoral artery is a large artery in the thigh and the main arterial supply to the thigh and leg. The femoral artery gives ... Illustration depicting main leg arteries (anterior view). Femoral artery - deep dissection. Femoral artery - deep dissection. ...
... due to tobacco smoke's impact on oxidation of retained LDL particles in the intima of a carotid artery. which may have a ... Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 36 (6): 1090-100. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.306964. PMC 4882253. PMID 27127201. Li X, Shao Y, ... "Lysophosphatidylcholine and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Young Smokers: A Role for Oxidized LDL-Induced Expression of PBMC ... Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 38 (3): 599-609. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.117.310626. PMC 5823772. PMID 29371247. Lauber, K; Bohn ...
Ischemia within the arteries branching from the internal carotid artery may result in symptoms such as blindness in one eye, ... It can be either caused by thrombosis or embolism.[citation needed] Global brain ischemia occurs when blood flow to the brain ... Ischemia within the arteries branching from the vertebral arteries in the back of the brain may result in symptoms such as ... endarterectomy and carotid stenting may be performed if the patient has a significant amount of plaque in the carotid arteries ...
In particular, he worked on the criteria of arterial stenosis of limbs and carotids, Carotid pre-thrombosis, the Pressure- ... In 1981, he invented an interface process which allows for the first time the visualization of supra-aortic arteries by B-Mode ... In 1978, he published the first observations of carotid plaque regression. In 1980 he described the Fistula Flow Ratio (French ... and completing Coronary artery bypass surgery, more and more necessary for the aging population. Several randomized controlled ...
Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency Carnosinase deficiency Carnosinemia Caroli disease Carotenemia Carotid artery ... gigantism jaw cysts Cerebral hypoxia Cerebral malformations hypertrichosis claw hands Cerebral palsy Cerebral thrombosis ... synostosis syndactyly jejunal atresia Coronaro-cardiac fistula Coronary arteries congenital malformation Coronary artery ... Caudal duplication Caudal regression syndrome Causalgia Cavernous hemangioma Cavernous lymphangioma Cavernous sinus thrombosis ...
Laranjeira, Manuel; Sadasivan, Balaji; Ausman, James I. (October 1990), "Direct surgery for carotid bifurcation artery ... "Thrombolytic therapy and posterior circulation extracranial-intracranial bypass for acute basilar artery thrombosis: Case ... "Posterior inferior to posterior inferior cerebellar artery anastomosis combined with trapping for vertebral artery aneurysm", ... "Superficial temporal and occipital artery bypass pedicles to superior, anterior inferior, and posterior inferior cerebellar ...
... of the carotid arteries. These arteries are the large blood vessels in your neck that feed your brain. Transcranial Doppler ( ... cerebral venous sinus thrombosis). Nonpenetrating and penetrating cranial trauma can also be common causes of intracerebral ... Carotid duplex: A carotid duplex is an ultrasound study that assesses whether or not you have atherosclerosis (narrowing) ... angiopathy Intracranial neoplasm Coagulopathy Hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic stroke Cerebral venous thrombosis ...
These findings were observed in ligated carotid arteries of mice to mimic the effects of d-flow. Within 24 hours, pre-existing ... Teruel-Montoya R, Rosendaal FR, Martínez C (February 2015). "MicroRNAs in hemostasis". Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. ... 87% of the cases are ischemic strokes, which results from blockage in the artery of the brain that carries oxygen-rich blood. ... Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 16 (11): 2233-2245. doi:10.1111/jth.14290. PMID 30207063. Nourse J, Danckwardt S ( ...
2006). "Transendothelial migration of ferric ion in FeCl3 injured murine common carotid artery". Thromb. Res. 118 (2): 275-280 ... Used in an animal thrombosis model. Used in an experimental energy storage systems. Historically it was used to make direct ...
... thrombosis or embolism due to atherosclerosis of a large artery, (2) embolism of cardiac origin, (3) occlusion of a small blood ... Flint AC, Duckwiler GR, Budzik RF, Liebeskind DS, Smith WS (2007). "Mechanical thrombectomy of intracranial internal carotid ... The disruption to blood supply can come from many causes, including: Thrombosis (obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot ... If cerebral infarction is caused by a thrombus occluding blood flow to an artery supplying the brain, definitive therapy is ...
SLC22A5 Carotid intimal medial thickness 1; 609338; PPARG Carpal tunnel syndrome, familial; 115430; TTR Carpenter syndrome; ... F9 Thrombosis, hyperhomocysteinemic; 236200; CBS Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, familial; 274150; ADAMTS13 Thryoid ... COL7A1 Transposition of the great arteries, dextro-looped 1; 608808; MED13L Treacher Collins mandibulofacial dysostosis; 154500 ...
Renal artery stenosis (RAS) may be associated with a localized abdominal bruit to the left or right of the midline (unilateral ... Wallbach M, Koziolek MJ (September 2018). "Baroreceptors in the carotid and hypertension-systematic review and meta-analysis of ... Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 25 (5): 932-943. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000160548.78317.29. PMID 15731494. Navar LG (December ... This condition is believed to be due to calcification of the arteries resulting in abnormally high blood pressure readings with ...
... the left common carotid artery and/or the left subclavian artery from the innominate artery or the right common carotid artery ... stent graft thrombosis, or infection. An endoleak is a leak into the aneurysm sac after endovascular repair. Five types of ... the calibre/tortuosity of the iliac arteries and the relationship of the neck of the aneurysm to the renal arteries are ... prohibitively small femoral arteries, or circumferential calcification of the femoral or iliac arteries.[citation needed] In ...
The patients were instructed to compress the carotid artery and jugular vein with the contralateral hand for ten seconds ... occurring in response to thrombosis and collateral revascularization of a venous sinus. Cerebral angiography is the diagnostic ... Carotid-cavernous DAVFs, on the other hand, are more closely associated with pulsatile exophthalmos. DAVFs may also be ... Type I dural arteriovenous fistulas are supplied by meningeal arteries and drain into a meningeal vein or dural venous sinus. ...
"Phase III Carotid B-Mode Ultrasound Study to Compare Anti-Atherosclerotic Effect of Torcetrapib/Atorvastatin to Atorvastatin ... Some types of HDL are great at plucking cholesterol from LDL and artery walls while other types are indifferent to cholesterol ... Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 24 (3): 490-497. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000118278.21719.17. PMID 14739125. Clark, RW; Ruggeri RB ... July 2007). "Torcetrapib and carotid intima-media thickness in mixed dyslipidaemia (RADIANCE 2 study): a randomised, double- ...
Carotid atherosclerosis involves the major branch arteries that provide blood to the brain. Carotid artery disease incurs an ... Vascular narrowing, thrombosis, aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms are commonly encountered complications over the life of an AVF or ... Carotid artery disease can be typically addressed with open surgical techniques (carotid endarterectomy) or though endovascular ... Dissections can also arise in virtually any other artery. Carotid artery dissection, for example, places patients at increased ...
Local and distant structures (such as ear, brain, carotid artery, or heart) can also refer pain to the teeth.: 80, 81 Other non ... Ludwig's angina and cavernous sinus thrombosis are rare but serious complications of odontogenic infections. Severe infections ...
... where carotid ultrasound is commonly used for assessing blood flow and potential or suspected stenosis in the carotid arteries ... It is used in ultrasonography of deep venous thrombosis, wherein absence of vein compressibility is a strong indicator of ... ISBN 978-2-225-63679-0. Saxena, A; Ng, EYK; Lim, ST (28 May 2019). "Imaging modalities to diagnose carotid artery stenosis: ... By calculating the frequency shift of a particular sample volume, flow in an artery or a jet of blood flow over a heart valve, ...
The next most common sites of cerebral aneurysm occurrence are in the internal carotid artery. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are ... Aneurysms can also be a nidus (starting point) for clot formation (thrombosis) and embolization. As an aneurysm increases in ... It consists of passing a catheter into the femoral artery in the groin, through the aorta, into the brain arteries, and finally ... The legs, including the popliteal arteries. The kidney, including renal artery aneurysm and intraparenchymal aneurysms. ...
This same venous artery allowed for an exchange of waste products from the blood back into the lungs to be exhaled. In order to ... Galen also believed in the existence of a group of blood vessels he called the rete mirabile in the carotid sinus. Both of ... Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 9: 118-129. doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04312.x. PMID 21781247. S2CID 12092592. Kuusela ... He declared that the venous artery carried air from the lungs into the left ventricle of the heart to mix with created blood ...
... loud ejection systolic murmur can be best heard at the right second intercostal space and radiates to the carotid artery in the ... The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score and the Thrombosis in Myocardial Infarction performed at time of admission ... Less than 20% of all cases of chest pain admissions are found to be due to coronary artery disease. The rate of chest pain as a ... Chun AA, McGee SR (September 2004). "Bedside diagnosis of coronary artery disease: a systematic review". The American Journal ...
Thrombi at the split of the internal carotid artery in the neck may cause watershed infarcts between the territories of the ... Altogether, these considerations suggest that the watershed infarcts in carotid thrombosis are caused by microembolization from ... anterior cerebral artery and the middle cerebral artery. The resulting watershed infarcts in carotid artery blockages have ... The resulting traveling clot is known as an embolus (plural emboli). The wall of internal carotid artery just distal to the ...
The first mention of carotid artery hypersensitivity". International Journal of Cardiology. 134 (3): 297-301. doi:10.1016/j. ... Postphlebitic syndrome is venous insufficiency that develops following deep vein thrombosis. Deep vein thrombosis is a ... In contrast to veins, arteries carry blood away from the heart. Veins are less muscular than arteries and are often closer to ... The difference between veins and arteries is their direction of flow (out of the heart by arteries, returning to the heart for ...
The use of high-resolution MRI to detect thrombosis and lipid-rich carotid artery plaques in a patient with homozygous familial ... The use of high-resolution MRI to detect thrombosis and lipid-rich carotid artery plaques in a patient with homozygous familial ...
Carotid thrombosis. Care must be exercised in cases of carotid thrombosis. Very slow flow rates may be missed if the timing of ... carotid bulb). ec = external carotid artery; f = facial artery; l = lingual artery; ic = internal carotid artery; im = internal ... carotid bulb). ec = external carotid artery; f = facial artery; l = lingual artery; ic = internal carotid artery; im = internal ... CCA = common carotid artery, D = narrowed diameter, ECA = external carotid artery, ICA = internal carotid artery, and N = ...
... and carotid artery stenosis.. ** Includes history of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. †† Body mass index ≥30 kg/m ... Includes coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, ...
Click here to learn more about the Coalition to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis and DVT Awareness Month, which is held each March ... At this time, carotid artery stenting exists as an alternative (likely inferior) to carotid endarterectomy and the comparative ... Leading authority challenges the safety and efficacy of carotid artery stents compared to carotid endarterectomy Susan C. Fagan ... Protected carotid-artery stenting versus endarterectomy in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 2004;351:1493-1501.. ...
58 Carotid Artery Disease. 59 Ischemic Stroke. 60 Hemorrhagic Stroke and Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis. 61 Deep Vein ... 20 Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery. 21 Myocarditis. 22 LV dysfunction and Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Etiologies and Evaluation. 23 ... Thrombosis 62 Pulmonary Embolism. 63 Hypercoagulable States. 64 Adult Congenital Heart Disease. 65 Cardiac Tumors. 66 ...
Deep Vein Thrombosis. *Aneurysms. *Carotid Artery Stenosis. *Chronic Venous Insufficiency. *Varicose Veins ...
Carotid Artery Thrombosis C14.907.355.350.850.213.206 C14.907.355.590.213.206. Catalytic Domain G6.184.603.60.125 G6.184. ... Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis C14.907.355.350.850.213 C14.907.355.590.213. Intracranial Thrombosis C14.907.355.350. ... Umbilical Arteries A16.254.789.641 A16.378.693.641. Umbilical Cord A16.254.789 A16.378.693. Umbilical Veins A16.254.789.807 ... Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis C10.228.140.300.525.669.750 C10.228.140.300.525.425.500.750. C14.907.253.566.586.750 C14.907.253.566. ...
The carotid arteries are located in the neck. They supply blood directly to the brain. ... Carotid duplex is an ultrasound test that shows how well blood is flowing through the carotid arteries. ... This test checks blood flow in the carotid arteries. It can detect:. *Blood clotting (thrombosis) ... Scan - carotid duplex; Carotid ultrasound; Carotid artery ultrasound; Ultrasound - carotid; Vascular ultrasound - carotid; ...
Although its pathophysiology and treatment closely resemble that of its sister condition, carotid artery dissection (CAD), the ... Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is an increasingly recognized cause of stroke in patients younger than 45 years. ... Prabhu V, Kizer J, Patil A, Hellbusch L, Taylon C, Leibrock L. Vertebrobasilar thrombosis associated with nonpenetrating ... Traumatic and spontaneous carotid and vertebral artery dissection in a level 1 trauma center. J Clin Neurosci. 2012 Aug. 19(8): ...
Overexpression of decorin reduces neointimal thickening in balloon-injured carotid arteries of rats by decreasing the volume of ... Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology, 24(1), 67-72 (2003-11-15) ...
Association of breast artery calcification with coronary artery disease and carotid intima-media thickness in premenopausal ... Prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation in patients with thrombosis in Tunisia. A. Ajem, A. Slama, F.B.H. Slama and T. Mehjoub ...
Bilateral carotid artery dissection with thyrotoxicosis C. R. Campos, M. Basso, E. F. Evaristo, F. I. Yamamoto, M. Scaff ... Intra-arterial thrombolysis of complete deep cerebral venous thrombosis M. Liebetrau, T. E. Mayer, R. Bruning, C. Opherk, G. F ... Age effects of coronary artery bypass graft on cognitive status change among elderly male twins G. G. Potter, B. L. Plassman, M ...
As a vascular surgeon, Ankur Chandra, MD, has expertise in open and endovascular treatment of complex aortic and carotid artery ... including varicose veins and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). ... as endovascular treatment of all aspects of peripheral artery ...
Is the therapeutic hypothermia a risk factor for stent thrombosis?. Speaker: Doctor G. Jimenez Britez (Barcelona, ES) ... Strategies of treatment in patients with concomitant carotid and coronary artery disease. ...
Carotid Artery Thromboses Carotid Thrombosis Thrombosis, Carotid Thrombosis, Carotid Artery External Carotid Artery Thrombosis ... Carotid Artery Thromboses. Carotid Thrombosis. Common Carotid Artery Thrombosis. External Carotid Artery Thrombosis. Internal ... Thrombosis, Carotid. Thrombosis, Carotid Artery. Thrombosis, Common Carotid Artery. Thrombosis, External Carotid Artery. ... Carotid Artery Thrombosis - Preferred Concept UI. M0003543. Scope note. Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ...
15 CAROTID ARTERY SURG-RTLF 14 FLU OR PNEUMONIA 4 03041042986060986004129971009737710 4478 436 9988 E8799 5990 0417 0418 2768 ... XNS08 CEREBRAL THROMBOSIS 4 02 1081003 2020201 ASF 01021090984102484004529972997737702 29690 3109 ... MAT26 CAROTID ARTERY PROB 19 BOWEL BLOCKAGE 33 DISORIENTED 34 OTHER HEALTH FACILITY 4 05072082685102585006079977997275109 490 ... REF26 HARDENING OF ARTERIES 35 HOSPITALIZED AT DEATH 14 FLU OR PNEUMONIA 34 OTHER HEALTH FACILITY 4 02 0062702 2010201 081585 ...
Graves VB, Strother CM, Partington CR, Rappe A. Flow dynamics of lateral carotid artery aneurysms and their effects on coils ... Seven of nine small aneurysms and two of 18 large aneurysms with subtotal obliteration had further thrombosis (Table 3and Table ... and the balloon would need to be overinflated to transiently occlude the internal carotid artery at the level of the aneurysm ... The aneurysms with wider necks allowed prolapse of the coil into the parent artery that led to the prevention of complete ...
Atherosclerosis is a disease of large and medium-sized muscular arteries and is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, ... Carotid artery intima-media thickness. B-mode ultrasonography of the common and internal carotid arteries is a noninvasive ... and platelet-rich thrombosis at sites of endothelial disruption. The relative deficiency of endothelium-derived nitric oxide ... Which brachial artery findings on ultrasonography are characteristic of noncoronary atherosclerosis?. Which carotid artery ...
Neck CTA revealed thrombosis of the bilateral common carotid arteries. Carotid ultrasound showed thrombosis in the bilateral ... Intracranial large artery embolism due to carotid thrombosis caused by a neck massager: A case report. ... BACKGROUND: There are few reported cases of intracranial large artery embolism due to carotid thrombosis caused by a neck ... common carotid arteries (approximately 2 cm below the proximal end of the carotid sinus), and contrast-enhanced ultrasound did ...
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis. 2015; 22(8): 845 [Pubmed] , [DOI]. 5. Coagulation activation, depletion of platelet ... 16] CAIMT was measured [Figure 1] at the right and left common carotid arteries (3 cm before the carotid bifurcation), carotid ... Carotid ultrasound. Examination of the carotid arteries was performed with a 7-MHz B-mode ultrasound system (Philips-HD7 ... Figure 1: Measurement of intima media thickness at right carotid bifurcation (RT CC BULB) and right common carotid artery (RT ...
Sheila N. Blumberg manages conditions such as aortic aneurysm, varicose veins, and carotid artery disease. Learn more. ... Carotid Artery Disease , Chronic Venous Insufficiency , Deep Vein Thrombosis , Lymphedema , Stroke , Thoracic Outlet Syndrome ... I work with patients confronting a wide variety of blood vessel conditions, including aortic aneurysm, carotid artery disease, ... Antegrade Superficial Femoral Artery Access for Lower Extremity Arterial Disease is Safe and Effective in the Outpatient ...
View other providers who treat Carotid Artery Disease Cerebral Artery Thrombosis ...
Carotid Artery Disease. Cerebral Artery Thrombosis. Certifications:. General Surgery, 2010. Vascular Surgery, 2012 ...
... the size of a saucer on his left groin where they made the incision on the 17th to run that catheter up to his carotid artery ... She asked me if David had a lump in his groin...they are worried about a deep vein thrombosis or a clot forming where they went ... the size of a saucer on his left groin where they made the incision on the 17th to run that catheter up to his carotid artery ... the size of a saucer on his left groin where they made the incision on the 17th to run that catheter up to his carotid artery ...
Thrombosis. *Arterio-Venous Shunt, rat. *FeCl3-induced carotid artery *Platelet aggregation assay ... Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). CAR-A02-1. Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury (CIRI) Model. Transient middle ... cerebral artery occlusion. (tMCAO). CAR-A03-1. Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH) Model. Collagenase intraparenchymal infusion (ICH ...
Carotid Artery Disease. *Deep Vein Thrombosis. *Peripheral Arterial Disease. *Spider Veins. *TransCarotid Artery ...
Carotid artery disease (risk factor for stroke). *Critical limb-threatening ischemia. *Deep vein thrombosis and large clots ... Care teams at Ascension sites of care provide stroke screening and prompt care to open a carotid artery blockage to help ... A bulge in this artery can cause sudden pain in your tummy that does not go away. You may also feel your pulse in your chest. ... The abdominal aorta is a primary artery that carries blood from your heart to your abdomen and to the rest of your body. ...
  • [ 1 ] About 15% of acute ischemic strokes are associated with extracranial carotid stenosis resulting from atherosclerosis. (
  • The factors that determine the risk of a carotid plaque resulting in a stroke include luminal stenosis, plaque composition, and plaque morphology. (
  • The detection of a clinically significant carotid stenosis represents an important first step in the prevention of cerebral infarction. (
  • [ 7 , 9 ] Duplex carotid ultrasound remains useful in the initial evaluation of symptomatic patients who present with nonspecific symptoms that may be related to stenotic or embolic carotid stenosis. (
  • The clincial management of coronary artery disease , peripheral arterial stenosis, and hypertension are likely to delay the development of carotid artery stenosis. (
  • There is good evidence in support of an evaluation for carotid stenosis prior to coronary artery bypass surgery. (
  • Endarterectomy versus stenting in patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis. (
  • Atherosclerosis is a disease of large and medium-sized muscular arteries and is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, and the buildup of lipids, cholesterol, calcium, and cellular debris within the intima of the vessel wall. (
  • Noncoronary atherosclerosis refers to atherosclerotic disease affecting large and medium-sized noncoronary arteries (eg, extracranial cerebrovascular disease, lower extremity occlusive disease, aneurysmal disease). (
  • This study attempts to identify the factors responsible for atherosclerosis in CRF patients using carotid artery intima media thickness (CAIMT) as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. (
  • [1] Carotid artery intima media thickness (CAIMT) is increasingly used as a surrogate marker of early atherosclerosis and it was shown that CAIMT is a strong predictor of future myocardial infarction and stroke. (
  • Arterial thrombosis is directly related to atherosclerosis and represents the leading cause of mortality in the world, commonly manifesting as acute myo- cardial infarction (AMI), cerebrovascular accident (CVA)/transient ischemic attack (TIA), and peripheral arterial obstructive disease(1,3). (
  • It is ranked as the third most common cause of death in the United States, after heart disease and cancer, and about one third of all strokes are related to carotid occlusive disease. (
  • The process of carotid arterial narrowing represents a long-term chronic disease. (
  • As a vascular surgeon, Ankur Chandra, MD, has expertise in open and endovascular treatment of complex aortic and carotid artery disease, as well as endovascular treatment of all aspects of peripheral artery disease (PAD). (
  • In addition, the effect and mechanism of TCM in improving TMAO-induced kidney injury, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis and osteoporosis were summarized. (
  • I work with patients confronting a wide variety of blood vessel conditions, including aortic aneurysm, carotid artery disease, varicose veins, lymphedema, arterial disease that interferes with walking, and diabetic wounds, such as foot ulcers. (
  • The clinical indications for Doppler ultrasound studies included Diabetes Foot Syndrome (DFS), Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT), peripheral arterial disease, and leg swellings. (
  • In a randomized controlled trial of 250 patients with vertebral artery (n = 132) or extracranial carotid (n = 118) dissections who were randomly assigned to antiplatelet therapy versus anticoagulation therapy within 7 days of symptom onset, the investigators found no difference between either agent in preventing stroke and death after 3 months. (
  • [4] The CAIMT can be easily, safely, reliably, and inexpensively measured with B-mode ultrasound, and the predictive value of this measurement is increased when CAIMT is measured at different extracranial carotid sites. (
  • Purpose To report our experience with intraoperative complications involving the internal carotid artery (ICA) during trans-sphenoidal surgery and their outcome with reconstructive endovascular management. (
  • Intraoperative injuries of the internal carotid artery (ICA) have a high morbidity and mortality when they occur during trans-sphenoidal surgery. (
  • Hemodynamics analyses of arterial expansions with implications to thrombosis and restenosis. (
  • Objectives: To determine and compare the carotid arterial structural wall changes and blood flow velocities of adults with co-existing DM and HTN with age-and sex-matched non-diabetic, non-hypertensive controls. (
  • A subsequent European study found that CASs are not nearly as effective as carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and are associated with unacceptably high rates of stroke ( 2 ). (
  • At this time, carotid artery stenting exists as an alternative (likely inferior) to carotid endarterectomy and the comparative risk to benefit ratios of each in an individual patient is still difficult to discern. (
  • Protected carotid-artery stenting versus endarterectomy in high-risk patients. (
  • Of special interest are sudden expansion flows, which may occur in straight artery segments such as the common carotid after endarterectomy or end-to-end anastomoses. (
  • The main goal of this computational study is to establish surgical guidelines for optimal geometries of carotid endarterectomy reconstructions that may measurably reduce postoperative complications, that is, thrombosis, stroke, and/or restenosis. (
  • For prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and thromboembolic disorders. (
  • Carotid duplex is an ultrasound test that shows how well blood is flowing through the carotid arteries. (
  • Carotid ultrasound showed thrombosis in the bilateral common carotid arteries (approximately 2 cm below the proximal end of the carotid sinus), and contrast-enhanced ultrasound did not suggest enhancement. (
  • After 1 wk of treatment with aspirin 200 mg and atorvastatin 40 mg, a carotid ultrasound reexamination showed that the thrombosis had significantly reduced. (
  • In addition, he treats the full spectrum of venous disorders, including varicose veins and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). (
  • The use of carotid duplex ultrasonography has been widely recommended as a screening examination. (
  • However, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has recommended against the usefulness of carotid duplex ultrasonography as a screening test in asymptomatic individuals. (
  • The detection of a carotid bruit is a common physical examination finding that may lead to a referral for carotid duplex ultrasonography. (
  • Noninvasive modalities that can identify carotid plaque include ultrasonography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. (
  • Carotid duplex ultrasonography, computed tomographic angiography (CTA), or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the carotid artery may be most appropriate in a specific case (see the images below). (
  • These vascular changes can be detected using carotid ultrasonography. (
  • Therefore, carotid ultrasonography should be mandatory in individuals at risk for early detection and possible prevention of atherosclerotic complications. (
  • It is assumed that critical hemodynamic factors play an important role in the onset, localization and degree of post-operative complications, for example, thrombosis and restenosis. (
  • Computed tomography angiography (CTA) indicated M3 segment embolism of the right middle cerebral artery. (
  • Bost US and MRI offer insight into the nature of carotid plaques based on the amount of lipid material in the plaque and the presence of ulcerations. (
  • Their carotid arteries were examined bilaterally for plaques, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and flow velocities -peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) using 4-12MHz linear array transducer. (
  • Is the therapeutic hypothermia a risk factor for stent thrombosis? (
  • Neck CTA revealed thrombosis of the bilateral common carotid arteries. (
  • The carotid arteries are located in the neck. (
  • The device sends sound waves to the arteries in your neck. (
  • Your provider hears an abnormal sound called a bruit over the carotid neck arteries. (
  • BACKGROUND: There are few reported cases of intracranial large artery embolism due to carotid thrombosis caused by a neck massager. (
  • CONCLUSION: Neck massager may cause carotid artery thrombosis. (
  • Thrombosis represents the underlying mechanism of cardiovascular diseases, which are often important health problems(1). (
  • 1 , 2 The presentation of this potentially fatal complication includes severe perioperative or postoperative bleeding, a false aneurysm of the ICA or a carotid cavernous fistula. (
  • Considering transient 3-D laminar blood flow in partially occluded, in-plane, rigid-wall carotid artery bifurcations, the results presented include time-averaged indicators of "disturbed flow", such as the wall shear stress, spatial wall shear stress gradient, and wall shear stress angle deviation. (
  • Although duplex imaging helps in the detection of carotid lesions in asymptomatic patients, the cost and risk associated with potentially unnecessary follow-up testing and the risk of unnecessary surgical procedures are arguments againt the wider application of carotid sonography in asymptomatic indivduals. (
  • Carotid sonography: protocol and technical considerations. (
  • The artery is free of any significant blockage, narrowing, or other problem. (
  • Care teams at Ascension sites of care provide stroke screening and prompt care to open a carotid artery blockage to help prevent stroke. (
  • Kim YK, Schulman S. Cervical artery dissection: pathology, epidemiology and management. (
  • Provenzale JM, Sarikaya B. Comparison of test performance characteristics of MRI, MR angiography, and CT angiography in the diagnosis of carotid and vertebral artery dissection: a review of the medical literature. (
  • The goals of carotid imaging are early detection, clinical staging, surgical road mapping, and postoperative therapeutic surveillance (see the images below). (
  • There was no postoperative vascular graft thrombosis. (
  • Saeed AB, Shuaib A, Al-Sulaiti G, Emery D. Vertebral artery dissection: warning symptoms, clinical features and prognosis in 26 patients. (
  • CONCLUSIONS Reconstructing the carotid artery using an SFV is very effective due to the ease in harvesting the vessel and its optimal size and length for carotid artery replacement. (
  • to analyze the concept of thrombosis and identify its applications, Vanessa Monteiro Mantovani2 defining attributes, antecedents, consequences, and empirical references. (
  • The usefulness of carotid artery screening has been demonstrated in patients prior to elective surgery. (
  • METHODS Ten patients with malignant tumours involving the carotid artery underwent carotid artery resection and reconstruction with the SFV. (
  • Risk factors for ICA rupture included two patients with carotid dehiscence, one with sphenoid septal attachment to the ICA, two with revision surgery, one with prior radiation to the tumor, one with bromocriptine treatment and two with acromegaly. (
  • Sudden unilateral deafness due to a right vertebral artery dissection. (
  • A bulge in this artery can cause sudden pain in your tummy that does not go away. (
  • ClotCare is a member organization of the Coalition to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis. (
  • Click here to learn more about the Coalition to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis and DVT Awareness Month, which is held each March. (
  • Clinical import of Horner syndrome in internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection. (
  • The sound waves bounce off the blood vessels and form images or pictures of the insides of the arteries. (
  • This test checks blood flow in the carotid arteries. (
  • A normal result means there is no problem with the blood flow in the carotid arteries. (
  • An abnormal result means the artery may be narrowed, or something is changing the blood flow in the carotid arteries. (
  • Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. (
  • Using minimally invasive techniques, surgeons open arteries to improve your blood flow to your hands, feet, and brain. (
  • The abdominal aorta is a primary artery that carries blood from your heart to your abdomen and to the rest of your body. (
  • Anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents are the drugs of choice (DOCs) to prevent thromboembolic disorders associated with vertebral artery dissection (VAD). (
  • Comparison of carotid imaging methods. (
  • The selection of an initial carotid imaging study remains controversial. (
  • A complete medical history should be obtained before performing carotid imaging. (
  • Carotid and vertebral artery dissections: three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography and MR imaging versus conventional angiography. (