Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection: The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Carotid Body: A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Neck Dissection: Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Aortic Aneurysm: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Vertebral Artery Dissection: Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Amaurosis Fugax: Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carotid Body Tumor: Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Fibromuscular Dysplasia: An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to STENOSIS of small and medium-sized arteries. There is true proliferation of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and fibrous tissue. Fibromuscular dysplasia lesions are smooth stenosis and occur most often in the renal and carotid arteries. They may also occur in other peripheral arteries of the extremity.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Aortography: Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Balloon Occlusion: Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Endovascular Procedures: Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Constriction: The act of constricting.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Maxillary Artery: A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Neointima: The new and thickened layer of scar tissue that forms on a PROSTHESIS, or as a result of vessel injury especially following ANGIOPLASTY or stent placement.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Embolic Protection Devices: Vascular filters or occlusive devices that provide mechanical protection of the distal end organ from blood clots or EMBOLISM-causing debri dislodged during ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Asymptomatic Diseases: Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Doppler Effect: Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the body.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Meningeal Arteries: Arteries which supply the dura mater.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis: Direct myocardial revascularization in which the internal mammary artery is anastomosed to the right coronary artery, circumflex artery, or anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery is the most frequent choice, especially for a single graft, for coronary artery bypass surgery.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Marfan Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Hemorheology: The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

Arterial dissections complicating cerebral angiography and cerebrovascular interventions. (1/120)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Iatrogenic dissections are an uncommon complication of cerebral angiography. We retrospectively reviewed 12 cases of arterial dissections complicating cerebral angiography and cerebrovascular interventions to evaluate the clinical course of these dissections. METHODS: Cases from a large tertiary center performing a large number of neurovascular procedures were collected retrospectively. The patients' medical records and imaging studies were reviewed, with particular attention given to the cause of the dissection, the development of ischemic events resulting from the dissection, and the treatment used. RESULTS: Each of nine dissections affected a vertebral artery, each of two affected an internal carotid artery, and one affected a common carotid artery. The prevalence of iatrogenic dissections was 0.4%. Seven of the dissections were noted at the time of contrast material injection for the filming of cerebral angiograms. The other five dissections occurred during catheter or wire manipulations for interventional neuroradiologic procedures. Five of the patients in our series were treated with IV administered heparin for 24 to 48 hours. The other seven patients had recently suffered acute intracranial hemorrhage or undergone neurosurgery and could not undergo anticoagulant therapy. None of the patients developed symptoms of ischemia, but one was later found to have an asymptomatic infarct in the territory supplied by the dissected artery. CONCLUSION: Arterial dissections are an uncommon complication of cerebral angiography and cerebrovascular interventions and usually have a benign clinical course.  (+info)

Surgical treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms. (2/120)

PURPOSE: Extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms (EICAs) can be treated by carotid ligation or surgical reconstruction. In the consideration of the risk of stroke after internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion, the aim of this study was to report the results of reconstructive surgery for these aneurysms, including lesions located at the base of the skull. METHODS: From 1980 to 1997, 25 ICA reconstructions were performed for EICA: 22 male patients and 3 female patients (mean age, 54.4 years). The cause was atherosclerosis (n = nine patients), dysplasia (n = 12 patients), trauma (n = three patients), and undetermined (n = one patient). The symptoms were focal in 15 cases (12 hemispheric, three ocular), nonfocal in three cases (trouble with balance and visual blurring), and glossopharyngeal nerve compression in one case. Six cases were asymptomatic, including three cases that were diagnosed during surveillance after ICA dissection. In nine cases, the upper limit of the EICA reached the base of the skull. A combined approach with an ear, nose, and throat surgeon allowed exposure and control of the ICA. RESULTS: After operation, there were no deaths, one temporary stroke, two transient ischemic attacks, and 11 cranial nerve palsies (one with sequelae). The ICA was patent on the postoperative angiogram in all but one case. During follow-up (mean, 66 months), there were two deaths (myocardial infarction), one occurrence of focal epileptic seizure at 2 months, and one transient ischemic attack at 2 years. In December 1998, duplex scanning showed patency of the reconstructed ICA in all but one surviving patient. CONCLUSION: Surgical reconstruction is a satisfactory therapeutic choice for EICA, even when located at the base of the skull.  (+info)

Surgical treatment of 50 carotid dissections: indications and results. (3/120)

PURPOSE: This article analyzes the course of 48 patients with 49 chronic carotid dissections (who were treated surgically at our institution after a median anticoagulation period of 9 months because of a persistent high-grade stenosis or an aneurysm) and the course of one additional patient with acute carotid dissection (who underwent early operative reconstruction 12 hours after onset because of fluctuating neurologic symptoms). METHODS: All medical and surgical records and imaging studies were reviewed retrospectively. All histologic specimens were reevaluated by a single pathologist to assess the cause of dissection. Follow-up of 41 patients (85%) after 70 months (range, 1-190 months) consisted of an examination of the extracranial vessels in the neck by Doppler ultrasound scanning and a questionnaire about the patients' medical history and their personal appraisals of cranial nerve function. RESULTS: Seventy percent of the dissections had developed spontaneously; 18% were caused by trauma; 12% of all patients (22% of the women) had a fibromuscular dysplasia. Indication for surgery was a high-grade persisting stenosis and a persisting or newly developed aneurysm. Flow restoration was achieved by resection and vein graft replacement in 40 cases (80%) and thromboendarterectomy and patch angioplasty in three cases (6%). Gradual dilatation was performed and effective in two cases (4%). Five internal carotid arteries (10%) had to be clipped because dissection extended into the skull base. One patient died of intracranial bleeding. Five patients (10%) experienced the development of a recurrent minor stroke (ipsilateral, 4 patients; contralateral, 1 patient). Cranial nerve damage could not be avoided in 29 cases (58%) but were transient in most of the cases. During follow-up, one patient died of unrelated reasons, and only one patient had experienced the development of a neurologic event of unknown cause. CONCLUSION: Chronic carotid dissection can be effectively treated by surgical reconstruction to prevent further ischemic or thromboembolic complications, if medical treatment for 6 months with anticoagulation failed or if carotid aneurysms and/or high-grade carotid stenosis persisted or have newly developed.  (+info)

Endovascular management of extracranial carotid artery dissection achieved using stent angioplasty. (4/120)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dissection of the carotid artery can, in certain cases, lead to significant stenosis, occlusion, or pseudoaneurysm formation, with subsequent hemodynamic and embolic infarcts, despite anticoagulant therapy. We sought to determine the therapeutic value of stent-supported angioplasty retrospectively in this subset of patients who are poor candidates for medical therapy. METHODS: Five men and five women (age range, 37-83 years; mean age, 51.2 years) with dissection of the internal (n=9) and common (n=1) carotid artery were successfully treated with percutaneous endovascular balloon angioplasty and stent placement. The etiology was spontaneous in five, iatrogenic in three, and traumatic in two. Seven of the treated lesions were left-sided and three were right-sided. RESULTS: The treatment significantly improved dissection-related stenosis from 74+/-5.5% to 5.5+/-2.8%. Two occlusive dissections were successfully recanalized using microcatheter techniques during the acute phase. Multiple overlapping stents were needed in four patients to eliminate the inflow zone and false lumen and establish an angiographically smooth outline within the true lumen. There was one case of retroperitoneal hemorrhage, but there were no procedural transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), minor or major strokes, or deaths (0%). Clinical outcome at latest follow-up (16.5+/-1.9 months) showed significant improvements compared with pretreatment modified Rankin score (0.7+/-0.3 vs 1.8+/-0.44) and Barthel index (99.5+/-0.5 vs 80.5+/-8.9). One delayed stroke occurred in a treated patient with contralateral carotid occlusion following a hypotensive uterine hemorrhage at 8 months; the remaining nine patients have remained free of TIA or stroke. CONCLUSION: In select cases of carotid dissection associated with critical hemodynamic insufficiency or thromboembolic events that occur despite medical therapy, endovascular stent placement appears to be a safe and effective method of restoring vessel lumen integrity, with good clinical outcome.  (+info)

Traumatic bilateral internal carotid artery dissection following airbag deployment in a patient with fibromuscular dysplasia. (5/120)

This case describes a 39-yr-old male, presenting with left hemiplegia after a road traffic accident involving frontal deceleration and airbag deployment. Brain computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a right parietal lobe infarct. Contrast angiography demonstrated bilateral internal carotid artery dissection and fibromuscular dysplasia. The patient was treated with systemic heparinization. Neurological improvement, evidenced by full return of touch sensation, proprioception and nociception began 10 days after the injury. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of carotid artery dissection associated with airbag deployment. Forced neck extension in such settings may result in carotid artery dissection because of shear force injury at the junction of the extracranial and intrapetrous segments of the vessel. Clinicians should consider carotid artery injury when deterioration in neurological status occurs after airbag deployment. We propose that the risk of carotid artery dissection was increased by the presence of fibromuscular dysplasia.  (+info)

Aneurysmal forms of cervical artery dissection : associated factors and outcome. (6/120)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The natural history of aneurysmal forms of cervical artery dissection (CAD) is ill defined. The aims of this study were to assess (1) clinical and anatomic outcome of aneurysmal forms of extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) and vertebral artery (VA) dissections and (2) factors associated with aneurysmal forms of CAD. METHODS: Seventy-one consecutive patients with CAD were reviewed. Aneurysmal forms of CAD were identified from all available angiograms by 2 neuroradiologists. The frequency of arterial risk factors, of multiple vessel dissections, and of artery redundancies was compared in patients with and without aneurysm. Patients with aneurysm were invited by mail to undergo a final clinical and radiological evaluation. RESULTS: Of the 71 patients, 35 (49.3%) had a total of 42 aneurysms. Thirty aneurysms were located on a symptomatic artery (ICA, 23; VA, 7) and 12 on an asymptomatic artery (ICA, 10; VA, 2). Patients with aneurysm had multiple dissections of cervical vessels (18/35 versus 7/36; P:=0.005) and arterial redundancies (20/35 versus 11/36; P:=0.02) more frequently than patients without aneurysm. They were also more often migrainous (odds ratio=2.7 [95% CI, 0.8 to 8.5]) and tobacco users (odds ratio=2.2 [95% CI, 0.7 to 6.3]). Clinical and anatomic follow-up information was available for 35 (100%) and 33 patients (94%), respectively. During a mean follow-up of >3 years, no patient had signs of cerebral ischemia, local compression, or rupture. At follow-up, 46% of the aneurysms involving symptomatic ICA were unchanged, 36% had disappeared, and 18% had decreased in size. Resolution was more common for VA than for ICA aneurysms (83% versus 36%). None of the aneurysms located on an asymptomatic ICA had disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: Although aneurysms due to CAD frequently persist, patients carry a very low risk of clinical complications. This favorable clinical outcome should be kept in mind before potential harmful treatment is contemplated.  (+info)

Mild hyperhomocyst(e)inemia: a possible risk factor for cervical artery dissection. (7/120)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of cervical artery dissection (CAD) remains unknown in most cases. Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia [hyperH(e)], an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular disease, induces damage in endothelial cells in animal cell culture. Consecutive patients with CAD and age-matched control subjects have been studied by serum levels of homocyst(e)ine and the genotype of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). METHODS: Twenty-six patients with CAD, admitted to our Stroke Unit (15 men and 11 women; 16 vertebral arteries, 10 internal carotid arteries), were compared with age-matched control subjects. All patients underwent duplex ultrasound, MR angiography, and/or conventional angiography. RESULTS: Mean plasma homocyst(e)ine level was 17.88 micromol/L (range 5.95 to 40.0 micromol/L) for patients with CAD and 6.0+/-0.99 micromol/L for controls (P:<0.001). The genetic analysis for the thermolabile form of MTHFR in CAD patients showed heterozygosity in 54% and homozygosity in 27%; comparable figures for controls were 40% (P:=0.4) and 10% (P:=0.1), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Mild hyperH(e) might represent a risk factor for cervical artery dissection. The MTHFR mutation is not significantly associated with CAD. An interaction between different genetic and environmental factors probably takes place in the cascade of pathogenetic events leading to arterial wall damage.  (+info)

Thrombolytic therapy for acute extra-cranial artery dissection: report of two cases. (8/120)

Extra-cranial arterial dissection accounts for 10% of strokes in young people. Information on safety of thrombolytic administration in this group is limited. The literature, however, does not favor use of thrombolytics for myocardial ischemia when peripheral arterial dissection coexists. Based on the clinical and radiological features, two patients who presented with acute stroke secondary to arterial dissection were considered for thrombolysis. One of them received intra-venous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), and the other patient received intra-arterial rtPA. There were no post thrombolysis complications. This report supports feasibility of administering thrombolytics in acute ischemic strokes resulting from extra-cranial arterial dissection. Future larger studies are necessary to determine the efficacy, safety and long-term outcome in this patient population.  (+info)

Two cases are reported in which the diagnosis of a serious condition was delayed as the symptoms had been attributed to migraine. Spontaneous carotid artery dissection is a serious but treatable cause of headache that may be misdiagnosed as recent onset migraine. The importance of correctly identifying this condition is emphasised.. ...
Carotid artery dissection is a significant cause of ischemic stroke in all age groups.Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection is a common cause of ischemic stroke in patients younger than 50 years and accounts for up to 25% of ischemic strokes in young and middle-aged patients. Dissection of the internal carotid artery can occur intracranially or extracranially, with the latter being more frequent. Internal carotid artery dissection can be caused by major or minor trauma, or it can be spontaneous in which case genetic, familial, and/or heritable disorders are likely etiologies. Patients can present in a variety of settings, such as a trauma bay with multiple traumatic injuries; their physicians office with nonspecific head, neck, or face pain; or to the emergency department with a partial Horner syndrome. A high index of suspicion is required to make this difficult diagnosis. Sophisticated imaging techniques, which have improved over the last two decades, are required to confirm the ...
In this prospective observational study, we found: (1) complete recanalization occurred in 160 (60%) of 268 SICAD; (2) complete recanalization occurred within the first 6 months but not thereafter; and (3) occlusive SICAD was less likely to recanalize, whereas SICAD presenting with local symptoms and signs only was independently associated with recanalization.. The 60% complete recanalization rate of SICAD observed in this investigation is similar to the results of previous smaller ultrasound studies.10,23 Steinke et al10 observed 48 patients with 50 SICAD who were treated with anticoagulation for an average period of 51 days. Complete recanalization was found in 34 (68%) patients. Sturzenegger et al23 followed-up 43 patients with 44 SICAD during a mean interval of 15 months and reported complete recanalization in 25 (63%) of 40 patients. Desfontaines et al26 surveyed 60 patients with SICAD (spontaneous, n=50; traumatic, n=10) who were using anticoagulation in 34 cases for a mean time period of ...
Rogalewski, A. and Evers, S. (2005), Symptomatic Hemicrania Continua After Internal Carotid Artery Dissection. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 45: 167-169. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2005.05034_2.x ...
Clinical features of carotid artery dissection include ipsilateral local signs, contralateral ischemic stroke, or both. We observed two patients in whom these features were associated with renal infarcts.. A 57-year-old woman had painful Horners syndrome caused by a right internal carotid artery dissection. On days 3 and 4 she had acute abdominal pain, first on the right side and later on the left. The computed tomographic (CT) scan showed a left renal infarct. No aortic dissection or cardiac source of embolism was found. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a mild dystrophy of the ascending aorta and of the mitral valve. Cerebral angiography showed irregularities of the V3 segment of the left vertebral artery compatible with fibromuscular dysplasia. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 100 mm/h, and she complained of intense fatigue. She fully recovered within 3 months. A 53-year-old man had sudden severe abdominal pain followed by headache and difficulty in swallowing. He had 9th, 10th, ...
Spontaneous internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection (sICAD) results from an intimal tear located around the distal carotid sinus. The mechanisms causing the tear are unknown. This case-control study tested the hypotheses that head movements increase the wall stress in the cervical ICA and that the stress increase is greater in patients with sICAD than in controls. Five patients with unilateral, recanalized, left sICAD and five matched controls were investigated before and after maximal head rotation to the left and neck hyperextension after 45° head rotation to the left. The anatomy of the extracranial carotid arteries was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and used to create finite element models of the right ICA. Wall stress increased after head movements. Increases above the 80th and 90th percentile were located at the intimal side of the artery wall from 7.4 mm below to 10 mm above the cranial edge of the carotid sinus, i.e., at the same location as histologically confirmed tears in ...
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Carotid artery dissection is one of the less common, but important causes of stroke. It is of particular importance in those presenting with a stroke in the young (under 45 years of age). MRI is the diagnostic modality of choice. The T1 fat sa...
Why would you treat a carotid dissection with Heparin? Also, what is the probability of death with a carotid dissection? Thanks for any help.
A carotid dissection is a tear in the inner layer of an artery in the neck. You have one carotid artery on each side of your neck. These arteries send blood to your brain.
This stock medical exhibit illustrates the arterial supply from the heart to the brain. Three cut away views of the carotid artery illustrate the dissection of the arterial wall and a formation of a thrombus.
Dissection of the carotid and vertebral arteries is a rare entity with less than 5 new cases per 100.000 of the general population every year. However, it represents an important cause of cerebral ischaemia in young and middle-aged patients. Carotid dissection may either be associated with aortic dissection or may exclusively affect the carotid artery, either caused by trauma or occurring spontaneously.[1] US may be more than 90% sensitive in the diagnosis of carotid dissection, thus being a reliable technique to exclude the presence of this entity. Nevertheless, definite diagnosis and the extent of disease should always be evaluated with a cross-sectional imaging technique such as computed tomography angiography or magnetic resonance angiography.[2, 3] One characteristic but indirect finding of carotid dissection is the detection of a high resistance flow pattern at the initial part of the internal carotid artery, suggestive of distal occlusion or high-grade stenosis. This is explained by the ...
Il Dott. Franco Accorsi, specialista in attività angiologica e di diagnostica vascolare, crea e condivide materiale informativo sullEco color doppler.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Isolated Horner syndrome without associated cranial nerve palsies or ischemic symptoms is an important presentation of spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection (sICAD). Ultrasound is often used as a screening method in these patients because cervical MRI is not always available on an emergency basis. Current knowledge on ultrasound findings in patients with sICAD presenting with isolated Horner syndrome is limited. METHODS: Patients were recruited from prospective cervical artery dissection databases of 3 tertiary care centers. Diagnosis of sICAD was confirmed by cervical MRI and MR angiography or digital subtraction angiography in all patients. Data on Doppler sonography and color duplex sonography examinations performed within 30 days of symptom onset were analyzed. RESULTS: We identified 88 patients with Horner syndrome as the only sign of sICAD. Initial ultrasound examination was performed in 72 patients after a mean time interval from symptom onset to ...
Internal carotid artery dissection has been well recognized as a major cause of ischaemic stroke in young and middle-aged adults. However, internal carotid artery dissection induced hypoglossal nerve palsy has been seldom reported and may be difficult to diagnose in time for treatment; even angiography sometimes misses potential dissection, especially when obvious lumen geometry changing is absent. We report a 42-year-old man who presented with isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy. High-resolution MRI showed the aetiological dissected internal carotid artery. In addition, a potential genetic structural defect of the arterial wall was suggested due to an exon region mutation in the polycystic-kidney-disease type 1 gene. Hypoglossal nerve palsy is a rare manifestations of carotid dissection. High-resolution MRI may provide useful information about the vascular wall to assist in the diagnosis of dissection. High-throughput sequencing might be useful to identify potential cerebrovascular-related gene mutation,
Animal models of cervical artery dissection / Okamoto, T., Miyachi, S., Yoshida, J. -- Epidemiology of cervical artery dissection / Schievink, W.I., Roiter, V. -- Association of cervical artery dissection with connective tissue abnormalities in skin and arteries / Brandt, T., Morcher, M., Hausser, I. -- Genetic approaches in the study of risk factors for cervical artery dissection / Grond-Ginsbach, C., Debette, S., Pezzini, A. -- Environmental factors and cervical artery dissection / Caso, V., Paciaroni, M., Bogousslavsky, J. -- Traumatic cervical artery dissection / Nedeltchev, K., Baumgartner, R.W. -- Vasodilation in spontaneous cervical artery dissection / Lucas, C., Leys, D. -- Clinical manifestations of carotid dissection / Baumgartner, R.W., Bogousslavsky, J. -- Clinical manifestations of vertebral artery dissection / Arnold, M., Bousser, M.-G. -- Ultrasound assessment of cervical artery dissection / Benninger, D.H., Caso, V., Baumgartner, R.W. -- Magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic ...
Background: Spontaneous cervicocephalic artery dissection (sCAD) of more than two cervical arteries is rare.. Patients and methods: Vascular and potential sCAD risk factors, triggering events, clinical and neuroimaging findings, and outcome of patients with multiple sCAD were studied. Patients were drawn from prospective hospital-based sCAD registries.. Results: Of 740 consecutive patients with sCAD, 11 (1.5%) had three, and one had four (0.1%) sCAD. Eight of these 12 patients were women. One patient had additional dissections of the celiac trunk and hepatic artery. Vascular risk factors included hypertension (n = 1), hypercholesterolaemia (n = 6), current smoking (n = 5) and migraine (n = 6). No patient had a family history of sCAD, fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) or connective tissue disease. SCAD was preceded by a minor trauma in five and infection in four patients. Clinical manifestations included ischaemic stroke (n = 8), transient ischaemic attack (n = 3), headache (n = 9), neck pain (n = ...
Details of the image Right middle cerebral artery territory infarct from right internal carotid artery dissection Modality: CT (non-contrast)
Carotid artery dissection may occur in normal healthy vessels, as well as vessels weakened by primary arteriopathy, but is most common after trauma.1 The American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines (2011) concluded that it is reasonable to treat extracranial carotid artery dissection with antithrombotic medication for at least 3-6 months.2 There is little information on endovascular stenting, but most clinicians agree that this should be used on a case-by-case basis.3. ...
Internal carotid artery [ICA] dissection is a rare cause of vocal cord palsy. This cause is not always considered in the initial differential diagnosis and such cases often get classed as idiopathic. We report a case of right ICA dissection, where the patient had presented with symptoms of right voc
A normally healthy 52-year-old man developed a sudden-onset, left-sided frontal headache with intermittent sharp pain radiating to the left temple. A milder dull headache persisted for the next 2 weeks, when he suddenly developed slurred speech and difficulty chewing food in the left side of his mouth, leading him to present to the emergency department.. There was no history of head or neck trauma. He was a non-smoker with no known cardiovascular risk factors or other significant medical history. On examination, he had mild hypertension (148/94 mm Hg), mild lingual dysarthria and deviation of the tongue to the left, consistent with a left ...
Introduction. Cervical artery dissection (CAD) is responsible for 2% to 3% of all ischaemic strokes in the general population and 10% to 25% of ischaemic strokes in patients younger than 50 years.1,2 Arteriography has traditionally been the diagnostic tool of choice for CAD. However, new and less invasive techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerised tomography (CT) angiography, and ultrasonography studies, have replaced conventional arteriography in daily clinical practice. Despite the above, none of these new techniques has proved more sensitive than another for diagnosing CAD. As a result, conventional arteriography is still considered the gold standard.3,4. Intravenous thrombolysis is a safe treatment in the acute phase of CAD-related strokes.5-7 However, CAD-related ischaemic stroke patients treated with systemic thrombolysis show poorer clinical progress due to frequent tandem intracranial internal carotid artery/middle cerebral artery occlusions.6,8 Experience with ...
CD indicates cervical artery dissection; CI, confidence interval; CMT, cervical manipulative therapy; DC, doctor of chiropractic; ICAD, internal carotid artery dissection; non-CD-IS, ischemia from other causes; NS, not significant; OHIP, Ontario Health Insurance Program; OR, odds ratio; PCP, primary care physician; SMT, spinal manipulative therapy; TIA, transient ischemic attack; and VAD, vertebral artery dissection. ...
This page contains the article Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Chiropractic Care and Cervical Artery Dissection: No Evidence for Causation http://www.chiro.org/LINKS/ABSTRACTS/Systematic_Review_and_Meta-analysis.shtml
A new study published online by JAMA Neurology examines whether a history of migraine is associated with cervical artery dissection (CEAD), a frequent cause of ischemic (blood vessel-related) stroke in young and middle-age ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Long-term outcome of cervical artery dissection: IPSYS CeAD: study protocol, rationale, and baseline data of an Italian multicenter research collaboration. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Cary WA, Hori CN, Pham MT, Nacey CA, McGee JL, Hamou M, Berman RF, Bauer G, Nolta JA, Waldau B. Efficient Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem and Neural Progenitor Cells From Acutely Harvested Dura Mater Obtained During Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Surgery. World Neurosurg. 2015 Nov;84(5):1256-66.e1.. Jamal AL, Walker TL, Waber Nguyen AJ, Berman RF, Kempermann G, Waldau B. Transplanted Dentate Progenitor Cells Show Increased Survival in an Enriched Environment But Do Not Exert a Neurotrophic Effect on Spatial Memory Within 2 Weeks of Engraftment. Cell Transplant. 2015;24(12):2435-48.. Lu A, Shen P, Lee P, Dahlin B, Waldau B, Nidecker AE, Nundkumar A, Bobinski M. CrossFit-related cervical internal carotid artery dissection. Emerg Radiol. 2015 Aug;22(4):449-52.. Walker TL, Wierick A, Sykes AM, Waldau B, Corbeil D, Carmeliet P, Kempermann G. Prominin-1 allows prospective isolation of neural stem cells from the adult murine hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2013 Feb 13;33(7):3010-24.. Waldau B, Zomorodi AR, ...
Patients with internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) were older (p , 0.0001), more often men (p = 0.006), more frequently had a recent infection (odds ratio [OR] = 1.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-2.31]), and tended to report less often a minor neck trauma in the previous month (OR = 0.75 [0.56-1.007]) compared to patients with VAD. Clinically, patients with ICAD more often presented with headache at admission (OR = 1.36 [1.01-1.84]) but less frequently complained of cervical pain (OR = 0.36 [0.27-0.48]) or had cerebral ischemia (OR = 0.32 [0.21-0.49]) than patients with VAD. Among patients with CEAD who sustained an ischemic stroke, the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission was higher in patients with ICAD than patients with VAD (OR = 1.17 [1.12-1.22]). Aneurysmal dilatation was more common (OR = 1.80 [1.13-2.87]) and bilateral dissection less frequent (OR = 0.63 [0.42-0.95]) in patients with ICAD. Multiple concomitant dissections tended to cluster on the same artery type rather ...
A young woman 38 years of age underwent Doppler ultrasonography following the spontaneous appearance of cervical pain causing loss of sleep. The examination revealed bilateral dissection of the internal carotid arteries, confirmed by supraaortic arteriography. Two successive CT scans showed no cerebral lesions. A thrombosis of the great saphenous vein was recorded as the only vascular event in her medical history. Thrombophilia was assessed following discovery of the dissection, and upon examination a heterozygotic mutation of Factor V Leiden was revealed. This observation is the second case of carotid dissection occurring in a subject presenting a factor V mutation. At the present time, however, there are no results to justify the assumption of a direct link between these two pathologies.
From the eMedicine site: The typical presentation of VAD is a young person with severe occipital headache and posterior nuchal pain following a recent, relatively minor, head or neck injury. The trauma is generally from a trivial mechanism but is associated with some degree of cervical distortion. Focal neurologic signs attributable to ischemia of the…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arterial dissections complicating cerebral angiography and cerebrovascular interventions. AU - Cloft, Harry J.. AU - Jensen, Mary E.. AU - Kallmes, David F. AU - Dion, Jacques E.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Iatrogenic dissections are an uncommon complication of cerebral angiography. We retrospectively reviewed 12 cases of arterial dissections complicating cerebral angiography and cerebrovascular interventions to evaluate the clinical course of these dissections. METHODS: Cases from a large tertiary center performing a large number of neurovascular procedures were collected retrospectively. The patients medical records and imaging studies were reviewed, with particular attention given to the cause of the dissection, the development of ischemic events resulting from the dissection, and the treatment used. RESULTS: Each of nine dissections affected a vertebral artery, each of two affected an internal carotid artery, and one affected a common carotid artery. ...
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Learn about Cervical (Carotid or Vertebral) Artery Dissection from Cleveland Clinic, the No. 1-ranked heart program in the United States. Find out about carotid artery dissection symptoms, treatments & more.
article{cbca5c8b-b339-484a-b865-855a9238e2be, abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of ischemic events and intracranial hemorrhage in the long-term follow-up of patients with persistent and transient severe stenosis or occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) due to spontaneous dissection (ICAD). METHODS: One hundred and sixty-one consecutive patients with unilateral ICAD causing severe stenosis or occlusion were examined clinically and by ultrasound 1 year after symptom onset. Forty-six cases with persistent and 46 age- and latency-matched cases with transient (recanalization complete or less than 50% stenosis) severe stenosis or occlusion of the ICA were enrolled. Nine patients with surgical, endovascular, or fibrinolytic therapy for ICAD or associated stroke were excluded. Antithrombotic therapy was given at the discretion of the treating physician. Clinical follow-ups were done annually. RESULTS: Antithrombotic therapy and follow-up were similar in patients with permanent (6.2 +/- ...
Surgery to treat carotid artery dissection (a tear in the carotid artery) is usually a minimally invasive procedure, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Minimally invasive surgery generally causes...
The transverse cervical artery is one of three blood vessels that extend from the thyrocervical trunk, a larger artery located within the neck. It is also known as the transversa colli artery. This artery is located above the suprascapular artery, another blood vessel that forms the thyrocervical trunk. It laterally
This is a feasibility study to determine if a sufficient number of patients can be recruited throughout the United Kingdom and whether sufficient endpoints can be generated for a full scale therapeutic trial of anticoagulants versus antiplatelets in acute cervical artery dissection treatment. Read More → ...
After finishing an intense workout, in the on-site work gym, Amy collapsed, hitting her head on the back of a fire truck. Her co-workers rushed to assist her, securing an ambulance to take her to the hospital.. Amy remembers everything about her ride to the hospital that day in the December 2012, recalling how her speech sounded slurred and garbled as though intoxicated. Once in the intensive care unit, she did not realize the severity of what happened. But, it wasnt long before she discovered she could not move the left side of her body. A CT scan revealed she had experienced an ischemic stroke from a carotid artery dissection. Doctors were unable to determine what caused this, and Amys good health made it even more puzzling.. After a few weeks in the acute care hospital, Amy knew she was ready for rehabilitation. She needed the best chance of getting back, so she chose MidAmerica Rehabilitation Hospital, an inpatient rehabilitation hospital in the Encompass Health network. Amy and her mother ...
We report a case of a 45-year-old man presenting with asomatognosia, or loss of body part ownership, when he experienced difficulty acknowledging that his arm was his own. His symptoms might easily have been considered to be of psychiatric origin. Instead they turned out to be due to highly focal stroke secondary to carotid dissection, an important and often missed cause of stroke in younger patients.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Redundant internal carotid arteries have been considered a risk factor in tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, and surgical treatment of peritonsillar abscess and also a potentially treatable cause of stroke. However, an association between internal carotid artery redundancy and spontaneous dissection has not yet been clearly demonstrated. METHODS: We reviewed, for spontaneous carotid artery dissection, records of all patients admitted to our institution during the period from 1986 through 1992 with the diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack. We also reviewed 108 percutaneous cerebral arteriograms performed between September 1992 and December 1992 for presence of carotid artery redundancies. RESULTS: Thirteen patients exhibited spontaneous dissection. Of these, 8 of 13 (62%) patients and 13 of 20 (65%) internal carotid arteries, viewed to the siphon, had significant redundancies, kinks, coils, or loops. Of 108 consecutive arteriograms of patients without dissection, in which
[Endarterectomy for cervical internal carotid artery stenosis accompanied with severe aortic valve stenosis--case report].: A 75-year-old man, who had undergone
No Evidence Exists Between Chiropractic Care and Cervical Artery Dissection   Verified by a Study of 110 Million Person-Years  Mark Stud
We present a case of supraclinoid internal carotid artery dissection. Eleven months prior, the patient developed isolated periorbital pain and was diagnosed with giant-cell arteritis with iritis. The patient experienced recurrent spells concerning for transient ischaemic attacks and was transferred to our institution for endovascular intervention after head CT revealed an embolic infarct with a dense middle cerebral artery sign. Digital subtraction angiography was negative for occlusion, instead demonstrating luminal stenosis and poststenotic dilatation. He subsequently experienced acute neurological decline secondary to massive subarachnoid haemorrhage. Non-invasive vascular imaging revealed an intimal flap and a pseudoaneurysm at the site of luminal stenosis, confirming our suspicion for intracranial carotid artery dissection. Given the moribund clinical state, the family opted to withdraw care, and he quickly expired. ...
149] Theres controversy regarding the degree of risk of stroke from cervical manipulation.[14] Several chiropractors state that, the association between chiropractic therapy and vertebral arterial dissection isnt established.[sixteen] On the other hand, it has been instructed the causality between chiropractic cervical manipulation beyond the conventional range of movement and vascular accidents is possible[16] or definite.[fifteen] There may be quite low evidence supporting a small association in between inner carotid artery dissection and chiropractic neck manipulation.[a hundred and fifty] The incidence of interior carotid artery dissection adhering to cervical backbone manipulation is mysterious.[151] The literature sometimes reports helpful info to higher have an understanding of the association among cervical manipulative therapy, cervical artery dissection and stroke.[152] The minimal proof is inconclusive that chiropractic spinal manipulation therapy just isnt a explanation for ...
PubMedID: 25429756 | Binasal hemianopia due to bilateral internal carotid artery atherosclerosis. | Acta ophthalmologica | 8/1/2015
Horner syndrome is a combination of signs and symptoms caused by the disruption of a nerve pathway from the brain to the face and eye on one side of the body.. Typically, Horner syndrome results in a decreased pupil size, a drooping eyelid and decreased sweating on the affected side of your face.. Horner syndrome is the result of another medical problem, such as a stroke, tumor or spinal cord injury. In some cases, no underlying cause can be found. Theres no specific treatment for Horner syndrome, but treatment for the underlying cause may restore normal nerve function.. Horner syndrome is also known as Horner-Bernard syndrome or oculosympathetic palsy.. Horner syndrome usually affects only one side of the face. Common signs and symptoms include:. ...
The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian artery, and run through the transverse foramen of the upper six vertebrae of the neck. After exiting at the level of the first cervical vertebra, its course changes from vertical to horizontal, and then enters the skull through the foramen magnum. Inside the skull, the arteries merge to form the basilar artery, which joins the circle of Willis. In total, three quarters of the artery are outside the skull; it has a high mobility in this area due to rotational movement in the neck and is therefore vulnerable to trauma. Most dissections happen at the level of the first and second vertebrae. The vertebral artery supplies a number of vital structures in the posterior cranial fossa, such as the brainstem, the cerebellum and the occipital lobes. The brainstem harbors a number of vital functions (such as respiration) and controls the nerves of the face and neck. The cerebellum is part of the diffuse system that coordinates movement. Finally, the occipital ...
Find the best vertebral artery dissection doctors in Kolkata. Get guidance from medical experts to select vertebral artery dissection specialist in Kolkata from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
Arterial dissection is a rare vascular wall disease. ECM disorganisation is suggested to be a predisposing factor. Many ECM proteins are candidates to induce this vascular wall fragility. Some of them, such as collagen III or fibrillin 1, are clearly related to connective disorders with vascular abnormalities. For example, in the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, related to an α-1 chain mutation in collagen III, disorganisation of the collagen network results in aneurysms and dissections of the coronary and cervical arteries.5 On the other hand, Marfans syndrome, related to a fibrillin-1 mutation, leads to elastic fibre disorganisation that results in aneurysms or coronary and cervical artery dissection.6 However, ECM diseases are a heterogeneous group and most of cases are not related to a known inherited genetic disorder of connective tissue.. Skin is a connective tissue that allows non-invasive investigations of ECM diseases. Skin ECM disorganisation without identified disease was previously ...
Heres where it really becomes problematic. They report that they found a small association between chiropractic care and cervical artery dissection, but then they discount their own finding and try to rationalize it away. They say the evidence is low quality; I agree. They say they found no evidence of causation; I agree. But then they try to say there is no convincing evidence of even the association that they themselves found.. They found no evidence for causation. On the other hand, they found no evidence against it.. They say they are concerned that a false belief in a causal connection "may have significant adverse effects such as numerous episodes of litigation." On the other hand, a lack of belief might prevent justified litigation where patients were harmed or killed.. They say neck pain and headache are confounders. They say patients with headache and neck pain more frequently visit chiropractors, and patients with cervical artery dissection more frequently have neck pain and headache, ...
View details of top vertebral artery dissection hospitals in New Delhi. Get guidance from medical experts to select best vertebral artery dissection hospital in New Delhi
Carotid artery tear. Coloured lateral digital angiogram (X-ray) of a 43-year-old woman with a dissection (tear) of the left internal carotid artery (pink line, upper centre), caused by a sports injury. The spinal column can be seen (centre) along with the base of the skull (top). A dissection is a tear within the wall of a blood vessel. This allows leaked blood (haematoma) to separate the wall layers, creating a pseudoaneurysm (false aneurysm). This causes a narrowing of the artery and can completely block the flow of blood. Carotid artery dissection is the main cause of stroke in young people. - Stock Image C001/8118
Horner syndrome (Horners syndrome) results from an interruption of the sympathetic nerve supply to the eye and is characterized by the classic triad of miosis (ie, constricted pupil), partial ptosis, and loss of hemifacial sweating (ie, anhidrosis). The term Horner syndrome is commonly used in English-speaking countries, whereas the term Ber...
Vertebral artery dissection is a condition in which there is a tearing of the wall of a vessel that carries blood to the brain...
Overview of Vertebral Artery Dissection as a medical condition including introduction, prevalence, prognosis, profile, symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, and treatment
The genetic association between intronic SNPs in PHACTR1 and CAD/MI is robust, relatively strong for a genome-wide association studies finding (odds ratio for the risk allele at rs9349379 is 1.37 in the MHI Biobank) and pleiotropic (the same SNPs are also associated with coronary artery calcification and stenosis, migraine, hemodynamic indexes, and cervical artery dissection). It is different from many of the known CAD/MI-associated SNPs because it is not associated with the traditional risk factors, such as lipid levels, blood pressure, or diabetes mellitus. This observation is promising, in as much as understanding how this genetic variation influences CAD/MI risk may yield new insights into the biology of atherosclerosis and potentially, in the long-term, new therapeutic strategies.. To translate this genetic discovery, we first need to connect genetic variants with genes. Our own DNA resequencing project and a large whole-exome sequencing effort failed to identify coding variants in PHACTR1 ...
Vertebrobasilar artery stroke (VAS) is statistically linked to chiropractic expert services in individuals underneath forty five many years of age,[143] however it is in the same way affiliated with standard practitioner services, suggesting that these associations are probably spelled out by preexisting circumstances.[142][one hundred forty four] Weak to reasonably powerful evidence supports causation (instead of statistical association) among cervical manipulative therapy (CMT) and VAS.[145] There may be inadequate proof to assist a solid association or no association amongst cervical manipulation and stroke.[18] Although the biomechanical evidence is not really enough to guidance the assertion that CMT brings about cervical artery dissection (CD), clinical experiences suggest that mechanical forces have a component in a substantial range of CDs and the majority of inhabitants managed scientific tests located an association between CMT and VAS in young people.[146] It really is strongly ...
Vertebrobasilar artery stroke (VAS) is statistically related to chiropractic services in persons less than 45 many years of age,[146] however it is in the same way connected to general practitioner services, suggesting that these associations are likely stated by preexisting situations.[145][147] Weak to moderately strong evidence supports causation (rather than statistical association) in between cervical manipulative therapy (CMT) and VAS.[148] Theres insufficient proof to help a robust Affiliation or no Affiliation between cervical manipulation and stroke.[14] Even though the biomechanical evidence will not be adequate to assist the statement that CMT causes cervical artery dissection (CD), scientific studies suggest that mechanical forces have a part in a considerable number of CDs and nearly all of population controlled experiments located an association involving CMT and VAS in adolescents.[149] It truly is strongly encouraged that practitioners evaluate the plausibility of CD for a ...
Genome-wide association studies have implicated a common genetic variant in chromosome 6p24 in coronary artery disease, as well as four other vascular diseases: migraine headache, cervical artery dissection, fibromuscular ...
Horner syndrome is a nerve disorder in which the nerve pathway on one side of the face is disrupted, causing a drooping eyelid, decreased pupil size and less sweated on the side affected, states Mayo...
RiTradiology.com ดูแลรักษาโดยและเป็นของ น.พ.รัฐชัย แก้วลาย. โลโก้ RiTradiology.com เป็นลิขสิทธิ์ของ น.พ.รัฐชัย แก้วลาย. ข้อมูลส่วนตัวของคุณถือเป็นความลับและจะไม่ถูกเผยแพร่ไปยังบุคคลที่สาม. ข้อมูลใน RiTradiology.com ใช้เป็นแนวทาง, ไม่ใช่เพื่อทดแทน, การให้การวินิจฉัย, รักษาและคำแนะนำสำหรับผู้ป่วย. แพทย์ของคุณอาจให้คำแนะนำในการวินิจฉัยหรือรักษาเป็นอย่างอื่นขึ้นกับข้อมูลและสถานการณ์นั้นๆ. ...
Hi all, My 53 years old father suffered a severe ischemic stroke in the right side of the brain after a carotid dissection. Several regions of the brain was affected, including the Thalamus… He is s...
The status of the blood vessels at the time of ANY consultation, may be either healthy OR unhealthy. Unfortunately, without sophisticated equipment, there is no way of knowing whether vessels may be weak or suffering from underlying disease such as fibromuscular dysplasia or atherosclerosis (rare in the younger patient). This is one of the reasons that manipulation in particular, has been called into question. At best the science remains equivocal. A recent systematic review found no association and suggested that, "the relative risk of ICA dissection after cervical spine manipulation compared with other health care interventions for neck pain, back pain, or headache is unknown". However, critics argue that spinal manipulation to the neck may injure vessels, leading to stroke. ...
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Percutaneous treatment of femoroiliac artery dissection/rupture after TAVI using a covered-stent as a bailout procedure: a single-centre experience ...
respect for him. He was a dick! What makes you any different? Youre just as big a dick to be riled up over something that happened 14 years ago. Get over it dude. That you actually care anymore is really pathetic. ...
There are several medical and therapeutic interventions for Horner syndrome. Initially, pharmacologic testing is used to determine the presence of Horner syndrome as well as the possible location of the lesion. The use of 4-10% cocaine eye drops versus 1% Hydroxyamphetamine can help to distinguish between second and third order Horner syndrome. In general, a sympathetically denervated pupil will not dilate to cocaine, regardless of the level of the sympathetic interruption because there is a decreased amount of norepinepherine. Hydroxyamphetamine stimulates the norepinepherine release, so an eye with Horner syndrome with damaged postganglionic fibers (third-order neuron lesions) does not dilate as well as the normal pupil after hydroxyamphetamine drops (Bardorf, Van Stavern, & Garcia-Valenzuela, 2001). Because of the sensitivity of using cocaine in a pediatric population, some authors have advanced the use of 1% apraclonidine for pharmacologic testing, but this does not distinguish pre- or post- ...
|b||i|Background:|/i||/b| To investigate the correlation between tortuosity of extracranial internal carotid artery (EICA) and intraprocedural complications in patients undergo
BACKGROUND: There is a discrepancy in clinical outcomes and the achieved recanalization rates with stent retrievers in the endovascular treatment of ischemic stroke. It is our hypothesis that procedural release of embolic particulate may be one contributor to poor outcomes and is a modifiable risk. The goal of this study is to assess various treatment strategies that reduce the risk of distal emboli. METHODS: Mechanical thrombectomy was simulated in a vascular phantom with collateral circulation. Hard fragment-prone clots (HFC) and soft elastic clots (SECs) were used to generate middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions that were retrieved by the Solitaire FR devices through (1) an 8 Fr balloon guide catheter (BGC), (2) a 5 Fr distal access catheter at the proximal aspect of the clot in the MCA (Solumbra), or (3) a 6 Fr guide catheter with the tip at the cervical internal carotid artery (guide catheter, GC). Results from mechanical thrombectomy were compared with those from direct aspiration using the
Cough is one of the most common complaints encountered in every setting, however, complications associated with coughing have received relatively little attention. An exhaustive systematic review of the English literature revealed an exceedingly large and varied spectrum of cough-induced complications affecting many systems including upper airways, chest wall and thorax, abdominal wall, heart and aorta, central nervous system, eye, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital system, and emotional and psychological harm. Prospective studies and prevalence data are conspicuously missing. Reported cough-induced pathology ranges from rare (the majority) to common and from trivial (e.g. lightheadedness, subconjunctival hemorrhage) to severe and life-threatening (e.g. cervical artery dissection, rupture of a normal spleen). Other seemingly benign entities may mask a serious underlying pathology (e.g. cough headache, cough syncope). A substantial proportion of patients experience anxiety, insomnia and their ...
A direct blow to the neck, a sustained tight grip around the neck or a hyperextension injury may produce an intimal tear of the extracranial vessels. This may lead to dissection and occlusion.. The vertebral arteries arc particularly susceptible to trauma in view of their close relationship to the cervical spine at intervertebral foramina, the atlanto-axial joint and the occipito-atlantal joint. Carotid dissection may present with a painful isolated Horners syndrome.. Angiography will confirm, and exploration and/or anticoagulant therapy may halt thrombus formation.. ...
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Subject Matter Experts (SME) were involved in taking this frog dissection app from its conceptualization to its final execution. Their inputs played an important role in designing the app to be scientifically accurate and user friendly. Frog Dissection allows you to dissect a chloroformed specimen complete with dissection instruments ? pins, scalpel, marker, and forceps. Step-by-step instructions and 3D views give an extremely real feel. The best thing about this app is the 3D imaging of anatomy, which gives life like clarity and an exact picture of the specimen?s internal organ system. Each organ can be removed and rotated for a methodical view. This clear dissection sequence gives students the feel of performing a live dissection minus the hassles of a wet lab. This virtual frog dissection is perfect for those who might have formalin allergies, feel uneasy about live dissections, and/or don?t like the smell and mess of a lab ...
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Dr. William Horner: "If youre faced with two guys and you portray one as a little bit disingenuous, maybe willing to say anything to get elected, and the other one as a fool, its clear who they think would be a better president.". ...
This lateral view from an internal carotid artery angiogram demonstrates the origin of the ascending pharyngeal artery from the cervical internal carotid artery, which is an unusual but normal variant of angiographic anatomy. Normally, the ascending pharyngeal artery arising from the proximal external carotid artery. - Stock Image C007/5818
Pulmonary artery dissection is a serious complication of pulmonary arterial hypertension. To date, 63 cases have been reported in the literature, and only 8 in living patients.1 The majority are diagnosed at post-mortem examination when sudden death occurs, most commonly from cardiac tamponade as the vessel dissects into the pericardium. As well as cardiogenic shock, other features documented are chest pain (occurring in 67%), dyspnoea (82%) and central cyanosis (52%).1. To our knowledge, only six previous cases have had radiological evidence of pulmonary artery dissection.2 These demonstrated dissection in the main pulmonary trunk, which is the affected site in 80% (usually without involvement of its branches).1 ...
ABSTRACT. Extradural vertebral artery dissection is a condition with a generally good prognosis if it is promptly recognized and treated. Diagnosis and consequently therapy delay may cause extensive ischemia with catastrophic consequences, due to embolism from the thrombus in the vessel wall or its extension. Considering these aspects and also its low incidence, the identification and treatment of this condition must be immediate, all the more, so as its onset is deceitful by occipital headache and neck pain. The association between vertebral artery dissection and dental procedures has been previously noticed. This paper aims to describe the etiopathogenesis and clinical recognition of dental chair vertebral artery dissection for a prompt neurosurgical intervention, in order to have a good prognosis. ...
A 56-year-old man with a 60-pack-year history of smoking suffered a right sided stroke three months prior to the present admission. Ultrasound showed evidence of occlusion of the right internal carotid artery. Subsequent magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) was read as a focal 20 mm occlusion of the right internal carotid artery with probable distal reconstitution ...
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Carotid artery aneurysm: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on carotid artery aneurysm at PatientsLikeMe. 23 patients with carotid artery aneurysm experience fatigue, depressed mood, pain, anxious mood, and insomnia and use Amphetamine-Dextroamphetamine, Cyclobenzaprine, Handicap/Disability Parking Permit, Pregabalin, and Pyridostigmine to treat their carotid artery aneurysm and its symptoms.
The purpose of this case report is to describe a case in which early detection and proper follow-up of spontaneous vertebral artery dissection led to satisfactory outcomes.. A 34-year old white woman reported to a chiropractic clinic with a constant burning pain at the right side of her neck and shoulder with a limited ability to turn her head from side to side, periods of blurred vision, and muffled hearing. Dizziness, visual and auditory disturbances, and balance difficulty abated within 1 hour of onset and were not present at the time of evaluation. A pain drawing indicated burning pain in the suboccipital area, neck, and upper shoulder on the right and a pins and needles sensation on the dorsal surface of both forearms. Turning her head from side-to-side aggravated the pain, and the application of heat brought temporary relief. The Neck Disability Index score of 44 placed the patients pain in the most severe category.. The patient was not treated on the initial visit but was advised of the ...
A complete occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is an important cause of cerebrovascular disease. A never-symptomatic ICA occlusion has a relatively benign course, whereas symptomatic occlusion increases future risk of strokes. Ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and contrast angiography are useful diagnostic tests, and functional imaging of the brain (eg, with positron emission tomography) helps to understand haemodynamic factors involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischaemia. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in the role of extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery for the treatment of completely occluded ICA. With advances in the measurement of cerebral haemodynamics, it may be possible to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from the bypass surgery ...
Figure 2 Step-by-Step Carotid Artery Stenting. (A) Bilateral visualization using a diagnostic catheter in the right internal carotid artery. During proximal protection with flow blockage (Medtronic Invatec MoMa, Roncadelle, Italy), a standard 0.014-inch coronary wire was inserted in the dissection and could not be advanced further (arrow). A hydrophilic polymeric 0.014-inch wire (Fielder FC, Asahi-Intecc, Aichi, Japan) (arrowhead) over a coronary microcatheter (Finecross, Terumo, Tokyo, Japan) (black arrow) managed to re-enter the true lumen distally (B, C). (D) Wire progression was controlled by performing contralateral injections. Once the wire reached the midcerebral artery (E), the microcatheter was advanced (F), and the position was checked again with gentle injection of contrast medium (G). (H) The hydrophilic wire was exchanged for a standard one with a trapping balloon inside the MoMa catheter. After predilations with 3.5-mm balloons, 2 open-cell stents (Precise 7-40 mm, Cordis, Fremont, ...
Dempsey RJ, Wilbrand SM, Wesley UV, Varghese T, Kalluri H, Hermann BP. Clinical Risk Factors predisposing to Vascular Cognitive Decline in Atherosclerotic Patients. Abstract for ESOC 4th European Stroke Conference. May 16-18, 2018, Gothenburg (Sweden).. Meshram NH, Mitchell CC, Hermann BP, Wilbrand SM, Dempsey RJ, Varghese T. Comparison of Directional Strains to Principal Strain for in Vivo Carotid Plaques. Accepted for Oral presentation at the 2018 AIUM Convention, March 24-28, 2018, New York, NY.. Steffel CN, Samimi K, Varghese T, Salamat S, Wilbrand SM, Dempsey RJ, Mitchell CC. Quantitative Ultrasound Parameters for In-Vivo Characterization of Carotid Plaque. Submitted as poster to the Cardiovascular Research Center Poster Fair. December 5th 2017. UW-Madison.. Meshram N, Mitchell CC, Herman BP, Wilbrand SM, Jackson DC, Dempsey RJ, Varghese T. Carotid Plaque Instability Quantification using Strain indices from Multiple Regions of Interest in Carotid Plaque in human subjects. Cardiovascular ...
Our study illustrates that arterial dissection from golf-related stroke was more likely to be on the right side and predominantly in the extracranial vertebrobasilar system. This preference may be explained by the anatomic vulnerability of the vertebrobasilar system and the biomechanics of the golf swing.. Recent studies on ethnic differences in spontaneous vertebral artery dissection have shown that intracranial dissection is more common than extracranial dissection in East Asian populations.7 Our study of golf-related vertebral artery dissection shows that extracranial involvement is more frequent than intracranial involvement. As compared with either their intracranial segments or extracranial arteries of similar caliber, greater mobility of the extracranial segments of the carotid and vertebral arteries leads to increased susceptibility for injury by surrounding hard structures including bones, ligaments, and contracted muscles.6,8 Even with an external elastic lamina and a thickened media ...
Results Average radiation dose with PED treatment was 2840±213 mGy and 4010±708 mGy with traditional coiling techniques (p=0.048; 29% decrease with PED). Mean fluoroscopy time for PED was 56.1±5.0 min and 85.9±11.9 min for coiling cases (p=0.0087; 35% decrease with PED). These benefits existed despite more difficult arch anatomy and a trend towards greater proximal vessel tortuosity in PED cases. Contrast dye amounts were also reduced by 37.5% in PED cases (75±6 mL) versus coiling cases (120±13 mL, p=0.0008).. ...
While some chiropractors now do admit that upper neck manipulations can cause severe problems, many of them simply continue to ignore this fact. It is therefore
Diagnosis of carotid artery aneurysm (costs for program #275058) ✔ Klinik Im Park ✔ Department of Vascular Surgery ✔ BookingHealth.com
A, Measurement of internal carotid artery (ICA) calcification by semiquantitative methods. A region of interest is drawn around the calcified artery in a wide w
This is an article about the segments, branches and clinical aspects of the internal carotid arteries. Learn all about these important blood vessels here!
KAZEM FATHIE, M.D., F.A.C.S., F.I.C.S., Ph.D. THE patient whose case I shall describe had a large aneurysmal tumor of the internal carotid artery. It had
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促進交流合作、保存學術產出、推廣研究成果。. To permanently archive and promote researcher profiles and scholarly works, Library integrates the services of "NTU Repository" with "Academic Hub" to form NTU Scholars.. ...
The muscle receives blood from the ascending cervical artery, which is a small branch of the inferior thyroid artery from the thyrocervical trunk of the subclavian artery. It also receives blood from the muscular branches of the vertebral artery. The muscle also receives small muscular branches from the occipital artery as it passes it lateral aspect ...
The muscle receives blood from the ascending cervical artery, which is a small branch of the inferior thyroid artery from the thyrocervical trunk of the subclavian artery. It also receives blood from the muscular branches of the vertebral artery. The muscle also receives small muscular branches from the occipital artery as it passes it lateral aspect ...
Facial nerve dissection. Tympanic cavity. Facial canal. Internal carotid artery. Abing W, Rauchfuss A (2005). "Fetal ... An investigation based on cadaver dissections and computed tomography". Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 18 (2): 115-23. doi: ... is a Z-shaped canal running through the temporal bone from the internal acoustic meatus to the stylomastoid foramen. In humans ...
Internal carotid artery. Auditory ossicles. Tympanic cavity. Deep dissection. This article incorporates text in the public ... from which it is separated by a thin plate of bone perforated by the tympanic branch of the internal carotid artery, and by the ... deep petrosal nerve which connects the sympathetic plexus on the internal carotid artery with the tympanic plexus on the ... The anterior wall (or carotid wall) is wider above than below; it corresponds with the carotid canal, ...
Internal carotid artery. Auditory ossicles. Tympanic cavity. Deep dissection. Aditory ossicles.Incus and malleus.Deep ... dissection. Hearing Ear Ossicles hednk-023-Embryo Images at University of North Carolina Drake, Richard L.; Vogl, Wayne; ...
The internal carotid and vertebral arteries. Right side. Muscles of the palate seen from behind. Dissection of the pharyngeal ... Deep dissection of larynx, pharynx and tongue seen from behind This article incorporates text in the public domain from the ... constrictors Deep dissection of the floor of mouth. Anterior view. ...
The incidence of internal carotid artery dissection following cervical spine manipulation is unknown. The literature ... There is very low evidence supporting a small association between internal carotid artery dissection and chiropractic neck ... "The Association Between Cervical Spine Manipulation and Carotid Artery Dissection: A Systematic Review of the Literature". ... There is controversy regarding the degree of risk of vertebral artery dissection, which can lead to stroke and death, from ...
The incidence of internal carotid artery dissection following cervical spine manipulation is unknown.[151] The literature ... There is very low evidence supporting a small association between internal carotid artery dissection and chiropractic neck ... "The Association Between Cervical Spine Manipulation and Carotid Artery Dissection: A Systematic Review of the Literature". ... cervical artery dissection and stroke.[152] The limited evidence is inconclusive that chiropractic spinal manipulation therapy ...
The experts said the stroke was due to "dissection of her right internal carotid artery. Her head had been extended backwards ... These must be separated from strokes arising from the anterior circulation, which involves the carotid arteries. Vertigo, the ... Intracranial MRA is mostly sufficient to evaluate vertebrobasilar arteries, while extracranial vertebral arteries are better ... the artery involved was not part of the vertebrobasilar system and the stroke resulted from acute dissection not chronic ...
... and treatment of strangulation-induced bilateral dissection of the cervical internal carotid artery". Journal of Neurosurgery. ... Clinical symptoms of these internal injuries may include neck and sore-throat pain, voice changes (hoarse or raspy voice or the ... Victims may have internal injuries, such as laryngo-tracheal injuries, digestive tract injuries, vascular injuries, ...
Acute injury to the internal carotid artery (carotid dissection, occlusion, pseudoaneurysm formation) may be asymptomatic or ... They are almost exclusively observed when the carotid canal is fractured, although only a minority of carotid canal fractures ... Involvement of the petrous segment of the carotid canal is associated with a relatively high incidence of carotid injury. ... Resnick, Daniel K.; Subach, Brian R.; Marion, Donald W. (1997). "The Significance of Carotid Canal Involvement in Basilar ...
... of the common carotid. This artery splits into an internal and external branch, of which the latter extends dorsally and ... Dissections at Boston University by Frank Brodie describe the various bifurcations (or splittings) ...
Postganglionic lesions at the level of the internal carotid artery (e.g. a tumor in the cavernous sinus or a carotid artery ... of Horner's syndrome may occur during a migraine attack and be relieved afterwards Carotid artery dissection/carotid artery ... dissection) that releases norepinephrine. Partial Horner's syndrome: In case of a third-neuron disorder, anhidrosis is limited ...
... it is important to be oriented to the location of this ligament in cases of possible dissection of the internal carotid artery ... The cavernous section of the internal carotid artery begins at the superior aspect of the petrolingual ligament. For surgeons ... Anatomically, the petrolingual ligament demarcates two of the segments of the internal carotid artery: The petrolingual ... the posteroinferior aspect of the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus and marks the point at which the internal carotid artery ...
... carotid artery injuries MeSH C10.900.250.300.300 --- carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C10.900.250.300.400 --- carotid- ... carotid artery injuries MeSH C10.228.140.300.200.345.300 --- carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C10.228.140.300.200.345. ... carotid artery injuries MeSH C10.228.140.300.350.500.300 --- carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C10.228.140.300.350.500. ... carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C10.228.140.300.200.360 --- carotid stenosis MeSH C10.228.140.300.200.490 --- carotid ...
... carotid artery injuries MeSH C21.866.915.200.200.500 --- carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C21.866.915.200.200.550 --- ... carotid-cavernous sinus fistula MeSH C21.866.915.200.600 --- vertebral artery dissection MeSH C21.866.915.300 --- ...
... carotid artery injuries MeSH C14.907.253.123.345.300 --- carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C14.907.253.123.345.400 --- ... carotid artery injuries MeSH C14.907.253.535.500.300 --- carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C14.907.253.535.500.350 --- ... carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C14.907.055.050.575 --- vertebral artery dissection MeSH C14.907.055.090 --- aneurysm ... carotid artery, internal, dissection MeSH C14.907.253.123.360 --- carotid stenosis MeSH C14.907.253.123.490 --- carotid- ...
Superficial dissection of the left side of the neck, showing the carotid and subclavian arteries. ... The internal carotid and vertebral arteries. Right side. (Superior thyroid visible at center.) ... This artery branches from the superior thyroid artery near its bifurcation from the external carotid artery. Together with the ... The superior thyroid artery arises from the external carotid artery just below the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone ...
Inferior thyroid artery Diagram showing the origins of the main branches of the carotid arteries. The internal carotid and ... Superior thyroid artery Muscles, arteries and nerves of neck.Newborn dissection. Muscles, nerves and arteries of neck.Deep ... This artery branches from the superior thyroid artery near its bifurcation from the external carotid artery. Together with the ... The superior thyroid artery arises from the external carotid artery just below the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone ...
... tightening of the artery), aortic, carotid or vertebral artery dissection, various inflammatory diseases of the blood vessel ... Large vessel disease involves the common and internal carotid arteries, the vertebral artery, and the Circle of Willis. ... middle cerebral artery, stem, and arteries arising from the distal vertebral and basilar artery. Diseases that may form thrombi ... An embolic stroke refers to an arterial embolism (a blockage of an artery) by an embolus, a traveling particle or debris in the ...
... it shows a dissection of the left internal carotid artery, dissection of both vertebral arteries in their V1 and V2 segments ... Vertebral artery dissection is less common than carotid artery dissection (dissection of the large arteries in the front of the ... The other type, carotid artery dissection, involves the carotid arteries. Vertebral artery dissection is further classified as ... or for symptoms of carotid artery dissection to occur at the same time as those of vertebral artery dissection.[2] Some give a ...
The incidence of spontaneous carotid artery dissection is low, and incidence rates for internal carotid artery dissection have ... Internal carotid artery dissection can also be associated with an elongated styloid process (known as Eagle syndrome when the ... Lucas C, Moulin T, Deplanque D, Tatu L, Chavot D (1998). "Stroke patterns of internal carotid artery dissection in 40 patients ... Carotid artery dissection is a separation of the layers of the artery wall supplying oxygen-bearing blood to the head and brain ...
Superficial dissection of the right side of the neck, showing the carotid and subclavian arteries. Origin of maxillary artery ... "external maxillary artery" is less commonly used, and the terms "internal maxillary artery" and "maxillary artery" are ... Greater palatine artery and lesser palatine artery) Infraorbital artery Posterior superior alveolar artery Artery of pterygoid ... Branches include: Deep auricular artery Anterior tympanic artery Middle meningeal artery Inferior alveolar artery which gives ...
The facial artery anastomoses with (among others) the dorsal nasal artery of the internal carotid artery. The branches of the ... Facial artery Facial artery Facial artery Facial artery Facial artery Facial artery Facial artery Facial artery.Deep dissection ... Facial artery Facial artery Facial artery Facial artery Facial artery Facial artery ... The facial artery arises in the carotid triangle from the external carotid artery a little above the lingual artery and, ...
"THe bulbar conjunctival vessels in occlusion of the internal carotid artery". Archives of Internal Medicine. 104 (1): 53-60. ... Deep dissection. References[edit]. *^ Efron, Nathan; Al-Dossari, Munira; Pritchard, Nicola (2009-05-01). "In vivo confocal ... Carotid artery occlusion is associated with slower conjunctival blood flow and apparent capillary loss.[3] ... The blood supply to the palpebral conjunctiva (the eyelid) is derived from the external carotid artery. However, the ...
The carotid and vertebral arteries are most commonly affected. Middle and distal regions of the internal carotid arteries are ... Spontaneous dissection of the carotid and vertebral arteries. N Engl J Med. 2001;344;898-906.. ... FMD can be found in almost every artery in the human body, but most often affects the carotid, vertebral, renal arteries and ... Complications such as aneurysms, dissections, or occlusion of othe renal artery have been associated with renal artery FMD. ...
... and forms a plexus on the internal carotid artery; the inferior part travels in front of the coccyx, where it converges with ... Dissection of side wall of pelvis showing sacral and pudendal plexuses. Sacral plexus of the right side. Diagram of efferent ... The superior end of it is continued upward through the carotid canal into the skull, ...
Coronary artery disease (CAD). *Coronary artery aneurysm. *Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) ... Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 17th Edition *^ a b c d e f Neumar RW, Otto CW, Link MS, et al. (November 2010). " ...
Dissecting carotid aneurysm - In one study, 44% (65/146) of patients with internal extracranial carotid artery dissections had ... Internal carotid artery dissection is life-threatening and carries a risk that the patient will experience a disabling stroke. ... Ophthalmologic manifestations of internal carotid artery dissection. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998 Oct. 126(4):565-77. [Medline]. ... Internal carotid artery dissection (associated with sudden ipsilateral face or neck pain) [12] ...
Extracranial internal carotid artery dissections comprise 70%-80% and extracranial vertebral dissections account for about... ... Carotid and vertebral artery dissection syndromes. Thanvi, B.; Munshi, S. K.; Dawson, S. L.; Robinson, T. G. // Postgraduate ... Carotid and vertebral artery dissection. Dziewas, Rainer; Ringelstein, E. Bernd // Current Medical Literature: Stroke Review; ... Vertigo and cranial nerve palsy caused by different forms of spontaneous dissections of internal and vertebral arteries. ...
... it shows a dissection of the left internal carotid artery, dissection of both vertebral arteries in their V1 and V2 segments ... Vertebral artery dissection is less common than carotid artery dissection (dissection of the large arteries in the front of the ... The other type, carotid artery dissection, involves the carotid arteries. Vertebral artery dissection is further classified as ... or for symptoms of carotid artery dissection to occur at the same time as those of vertebral artery dissection.[2] Some give a ...
... cranial nerve palsies or ischemic symptoms is an important presentation of spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection ( ... cranial nerve palsies or ischemic symptoms is an important presentation of spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection ( ... METHODS: Patients were recruited from prospective cervical artery dissection databases of 3 tertiary care centers. Diagnosis of ... METHODS: Patients were recruited from prospective cervical artery dissection databases of 3 tertiary care centers. Diagnosis of ...
... Eur Neurol. 2000;44(4):199-204. doi: 10.1159/ ... Objective: To evaluate long-term outcome after extracranial internal carotid artery dissection (eICAD) in consideration of the ... Carotid Artery, Internal / drug effects * Carotid Artery, Internal / pathology* * Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection / ... Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection / drug therapy* * Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection / pathology * Disease Progression ...
Rogalewski, A. and Evers, S. (2005), Symptomatic Hemicrania Continua After Internal Carotid Artery Dissection. Headache: The ... Symptomatic Hemicrania Continua After Internal Carotid Artery Dissection. *Andreas Rogalewski MD and ...
... Cardiovasc ... Purpose: Treatment of choice for the internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is anticoagulation for three to 6 months. ... Carotid Artery, Internal / diagnostic imaging * Carotid Artery, Internal / surgery * Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection / ... Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carotid artery stenting in treatment of selected pts ...
We report a case of right ICA dissection, where the patient had presented with symptoms of right voc ... dissection is a rare cause of vocal cord palsy. This cause is not always considered in the initial differential diagnosis and ... Internal carotid artery [ICA] dissection is a rare cause of vocal cord palsy. This cause is not always considered in the ... Therefore an internal carotid artery dissection should be considered in a case of idiopathic vocal cord palsy, as they may ...
INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION AND DELAYED STROKE FOLLOWING RUGBY TACKLE - A CASE REPORT ... INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION AND DELAYED STROKE FOLLOWING RUGBY TACKLE - A CASE REPORT ... secondary to internal carotid artery dissection. This was as a consequence of a collision during a rugby match, and a suspected ... After initial diagnostic confusion, it later transpired he had suffered a middle cerebral artery thrombus, ...
Internal carotid artery dissection with associated perfusion deficit treated by stent placement Modality: CT (C+ arterial ... See the case: Internal carotid artery dissection with associated perfusion deficit treated by stent placement ... A young, healthy, heavily affected patient showed a dissection of his right internal carotid artery in typical location. In ... From the case: Internal carotid artery dissection with associated perfusion deficit treated by stent placement ...
Right middle cerebral artery territory infarct from right internal carotid artery dissection Modality: CT (non-contrast) ... From the case: Right middle cerebral artery territory infarct from right internal carotid artery dissection ... View full size version of Right middle cerebral artery territory infarct from right internal carotid artery dissection ... From the case: Right middle cerebral artery territory infarct from right internal carotid artery dissection. ...
Step-by-Step Carotid Artery Stenting. (A) Bilateral visualization using a diagnostic catheter in the right internal carotid ... Successful Endovascular Treatment of Unbenign Spontaneous Dissection of the Left Internal Carotid Artery Combining Advanced ... Successful Endovascular Treatment of Unbenign Spontaneous Dissection of the Left Internal Carotid Artery Combining Advanced ... Successful Endovascular Treatment of Unbenign Spontaneous Dissection of the Left Internal Carotid Artery Combining Advanced ...
However, internal carotid artery dissection induced hypoglossal nerve palsy has been seldom reported and may be difficult to ... High-resolution MRI showed the aetiological dissected internal carotid artery. In addition, a potential genetic structural ... Hypoglossal nerve palsy is a rare manifestations of carotid dissection. High-resolution MRI may provide useful information ... Internal carotid artery dissection has been well recognized as a major cause of ischaemic stroke in young and middle-aged ...
Internal carotid artery dissection at the supraclinoid portion after severe traumatic head injury in a child Posted By Junya ... www.signavitae.com/2013/10/internal-carotid-artery-dissection-at-the-supraclinoid-portion-after-severe-traumatic-head-injury-in ... but traumatic dissections are more prevalent in younger age groups. (1) Traumatic carotid artery (CA) dissection (tCAD) is a ... and traumatic carotid artery (CA) dissection (tCAD) was suspected. A direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) was also observed ( ...
Ultrasonography revealed obstruction of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA). He had no risk factor for stroke and he ... The present case is quite unusual in that persistent carotid arterial wall dissection was thought to proceed to ICA obstruction ... Cerebral angiography demonstrated an arterial wall flap suggesting ICA dissection at the craniocervical junction. He then ... He was treated under a diagnosis of retinal artery thrombosis. ... internal carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections with ...
Willett, G. M., & Wachholtz, N. A. (2011). A patient with internal carotid artery dissection. Physical therapy, 91(8), 1266- ... Willett, GM & Wachholtz, NA 2011, A patient with internal carotid artery dissection, Physical therapy, vol. 91, no. 8, pp. ... Willett, Gilbert M. ; Wachholtz, Neal A. / A patient with internal carotid artery dissection. In: Physical therapy. 2011 ; Vol ... A patient with internal carotid artery dissection. / Willett, Gilbert M.; Wachholtz, Neal A. ...
Brain Health & Dementia Risk Reduction Nabeel Saif BA, MS; George Sadek, BA; Sonia Bellara, MBBS; Hollie Hristov, FNP; and Richard S. Isaacson, MD. ...
... you can see Carotid Artery Anatomy Radiology Lovely Internal Carotid Artery Dissection and more pictures for Home Interior ... Home Decorating Style 2016 for Carotid Artery Anatomy Radiology Lovely Internal Carotid Artery Dissection, ... Carotid Artery Anatomy Radiology Lovely Internal Carotid Artery Dissection. Carotid Artery Anatomy Radiology Lovely Internal ... Carotid Artery Anatomy Radiology Lovely Internal Carotid Artery Dissection, picture size 176x175 posted by Alvin at July 23, ...
A normally healthy 52-year-old man developed a sudden-onset, left-sided frontal headache with intermittent sharp pain radiating to the left temple. A milder dull headache persisted for the next 2 weeks, when he suddenly developed slurred speech and difficulty chewing food in the left side of his mouth, leading him to present to the emergency department.. There was no history of head or neck trauma. He was a non-smoker with no known cardiovascular risk factors or other significant medical history. On examination, he had mild hypertension (148/94 mm Hg), mild lingual dysarthria and deviation of the tongue to the left, consistent with a left ...
... aortic dissection and coronary artery dissection. Cocaine induced carotid dissection has only been reported once previously. ... Internal Carotid Artery Redundancy and Dissection in a Young Cocaine Abuser. Bhat Tariq; Mark Samerneh; Mustafain Meghani; ... Tariq B, Samerneh M, Meghani M, Elsayegh S. Internal Carotid Artery Redundancy and Dissection in a Young Cocaine Abuser. ... showed mild to moderate stenosis of the distal cervical right internal carotid artery with a stable dissection. ...
Flow-diverter Stents for Internal Carotid Artery Reconstruction Following Spontaneous Dissection: A Technical Report. Clinical ... N2 - Background and Purpose: Extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in ... AB - Background and Purpose: Extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in ... Background and Purpose: Extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in ...
Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection. Vertebral Artery Dissection. Genetic predisposition. Outcome. Therapy. Additional ... CAD-group (Cervical Artery Dissection - group): consecutive patients with cervical artery dissection, with or without ... dissections in any artery, transient ischemic attack, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease ... Typical radiological aspect of dissection* in a cervical artery (carotid and/or vertebral);* Mural hematoma, pseudoaneurysm, ...
Case report: Thrombosed giant cavernous carotid artery aneurysm secondary to cervical internal carotid artery dissection: An ... Thrombosed giant cavernous carotid artery aneurysm secondary to cervical internal carotid artery dissection: An unusual entity ... We present an unusual case of an angiographically documented cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection, which led to ... This resulted in acute upstream thrombosis of the giant cavernous carotid artery aneurysm and an acute cavernous sinus syndrome ...
Middle cerebral artery dissections: Differences between isolated and extended dissections of internal carotid artery. ...
Frequently, sCAD involves multiple neck arteries, accounting for 13%-28% of the total sCAD cases. However, little is known ... Spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD) is a major cause of ischemic stroke in young adults. ... Ruptured Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysm Concurrent with Spontaneous Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Dissection: A Report ... in a Japanese patient with extracranial internal carotid artery dissection followed by extracranial vertebral artery dissection ...
  • The fibers ascend through the sympathetic chain and synapse in the superior cervical ganglion at the level of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery (C3-C4). (medscape.com)
  • The fibers then leave the carotid plexus briefly to join the abducens nerve (cranial nerve [CN] VI) in the cavernous sinus and enter the orbit through the superior orbital fissure along with the ophthalmic branch (V1) of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) via the long ciliary nerves. (medscape.com)
  • Second-order preganglionic pupillomotor fibers exit the spinal cord at the level of T1 and enter the cervical sympathetic chain, where they are in close proximity to the pulmonary apex and the subclavian artery. (medscape.com)
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