Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection: The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.Carotid Body: A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Carotid Body Tumor: Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.Amaurosis Fugax: Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Balloon Occlusion: Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Fibromuscular Dysplasia: An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to STENOSIS of small and medium-sized arteries. There is true proliferation of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and fibrous tissue. Fibromuscular dysplasia lesions are smooth stenosis and occur most often in the renal and carotid arteries. They may also occur in other peripheral arteries of the extremity.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Constriction: The act of constricting.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Maxillary Artery: A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Neointima: The new and thickened layer of scar tissue that forms on a PROSTHESIS, or as a result of vessel injury especially following ANGIOPLASTY or stent placement.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Embolic Protection Devices: Vascular filters or occlusive devices that provide mechanical protection of the distal end organ from blood clots or EMBOLISM-causing debri dislodged during ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Asymptomatic Diseases: Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Doppler Effect: Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the body.Meningeal Arteries: Arteries which supply the dura mater.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis: Direct myocardial revascularization in which the internal mammary artery is anastomosed to the right coronary artery, circumflex artery, or anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery is the most frequent choice, especially for a single graft, for coronary artery bypass surgery.

Variations in acute multifocal histoplasmic choroiditis in the primate. (1/1701)

Experimental histoplasmic choroiditis was produced in primates by intracarotid injections of living H. capsulatum organisms. The severity of the choroiditis varied with inoculum size, as well as with site of injection (common carotid vs. internal carotid artery). A reproducible model of histoplasmic choroiditis in primates was produced with an internal carotid injection of 5,000 to 10,000 organisms/lb. The clinical and histopathological course of this acute choroiditis over the first 30 days is presented.  (+info)

A new sign of occlusion of the origin of the internal carotid artery. (2/1701)

When the origin of the internal carotid artery is occluded, the transmission of cardiac sounds along the carotid stops at the site of the occlusion. This is a new neurovascular sign which is being reported.  (+info)

EEG surveillance as a means of extending operability in high risk carotid endarterectomy. (3/1701)

Some patients who have transient ischemic attacks are denied operation because severe occlusive lesions in other extra-cranial arteries may be inappropriately interpreted as constituting an unacceptable surgical risk, or because the lesion is so distal as to make its removal hazardous. Failure of endarterectomy is usually due to incomplete removal of the lesion or to thrombosis upon the frayed intima. Such lesions require excellent visualization and meticulous surgical technique -- not always possible with a shunt. Among 130 consecutive carotid endarterectomies performed under general anesthesia, EEG changes consistent with cerebral ischemia appeared in only nine (7%). These patients required a shunt. In 11 patients normal EEG tracings were obtained during endarterectomy despite contralateral carotid occlusion. None of these patients had a neurological deficit. Continuous EEG monitoring is a reliable method of detecting changes in cerebral perfusion, permits a more meticulous endarterectomy in high-lying lesions without a shunt, and extends operability in high risk patients. Angiographical findings may be an unreliable predictor concerning risk of endarterectomy.  (+info)

Ophthalmodynamometry in internal carotid artery occlusion. (4/1701)

Retinal artery pressure was measured by ophthalmodynamometry in 15 patients with occlusion of the internal carotid artery in its extracranial part. Nine of the patients had severe neurological deficit whereas the remaining six had slight or intermittent symptoms. Retinal artery pressure was reduced on the side of the internal carotid artery occlusion in all patients studied. Near-zero low diastolic retinal artery pressure on the affected side was a common finding among patients with severe deficit and was also seen in some patients with slight deficit. Its presence strongly suggests occlusion of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery.  (+info)

Effect of intracarotid prostaglandin E1 on regional cerebral blood flow in man. (5/1701)

The effect of prostaglandin E1 on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied with the intra-arterial 133Xe method in ten awake patients under local anesthesia. Measurements were taken from 16 areas of a hemisphere in seven patients, from 35 areas of a hemisphere in two patients and from 256 areas of a hemisphere in one patient. The prostaglandin was dissolved from the crystalline state without the aid of alcohol. It was given intracarotidly as a constant infusion at a rate of 5 ng per kilogram per minute for five minutes before the measurement and continued during the measurement. In every patient a mild increase in blood flow during the prostaglandin infusion was seen. The flow increase took place in all parts of the hemisphere. It averaged 11.2% (p less than 0.01). During the infusion, the skin supplied by the internal carotid artery and the conjunctiva on the infused side became red and sometimes swollen. A slight pressure was noted by most patients, but none had pain. No side effects of the infusion were noted.  (+info)

Carotid endarterectomy and intracranial thrombolysis: simultaneous and staged procedures in ischemic stroke. (6/1701)

PURPOSE: The feasibility and safety of combining carotid surgery and thrombolysis for occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA), either as a simultaneous or as a staged procedure in acute ischemic strokes, was studied. METHODS: A nonrandomized clinical pilot study, which included patients who had severe hemispheric carotid-related ischemic strokes and acute occlusions of the MCA, was performed between January 1994 and January 1998. Exclusion criteria were cerebral coma and major infarction established by means of cerebral computed tomography scan. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Carotid reconstruction and thrombolysis was performed in 14 of 845 patients (1.7%). The ICA was occluded in 11 patients; occlusions of the MCA (mainstem/major branches/distal branch) or the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were found in 14 patients. In three of the 14 patients, thrombolysis was performed first, followed by carotid enarterectomy (CEA) after clinical improvement (6 to 21 days). In 11 of 14 patients, 0.15 to 1 mIU urokinase was administered intraoperatively, ie, emergency CEA for acute ischemic stroke (n = 5) or surgical reexploration after elective CEA complicated by perioperative intracerebral embolism (n = 6). Thirteen of 14 intracranial embolic occlusions and 10 of 11 ICA occlusions were recanalized successfully (confirmed with angiography or transcranial Doppler studies). Four patients recovered completely (Rankin 0), six patients sustained a minor stroke (Rankin 2/3), two patients had a major stroke (Rankin 4/5), and two patients died. In one patient, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarction was detectable postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Combining carotid surgery with thrombolysis (simultaneous or staged procedure) offers a new therapeutic approach in the emergency management of an acute carotid-related stroke. Its efficacy should be evaluated in interdisciplinary studies.  (+info)

Lumen reduction measurements of the internal carotid artery before and after Levovist enhancement: reproducibility and agreement with angiography. (7/1701)

Our aim was to assess reproducibility of three different lumen reduction measuring methods--North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial, European Carotid Surgery Trial, and common carotid--using power Doppler and color Doppler sonography before and after Levovist enhancement. We included 20 symptomatic patients with mild or severe carotid disease. North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial, European Carotid Surgery Trial, and common carotid measurements on longitudinal views and European Carotid Surgery Trial measurements on transverse views were performed. Examinations were repeated and the results compared to assess reproducibility of measurements. Correlation with angiography was obtained by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients. Reproducibility was significantly better (P < 0.05) for European Carotid Surgery Trial and common carotid measurements (95% limits of agreement between -10% to 10% and -19% to 17%) as compared to North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial measurements (95% limits of agreement between -11% to 21% and -21% to 23%). Variability of measurements after enhancement increased slightly (not significant) for both power and color Doppler sonography. Additionally, European Carotid Surgery Trial measurements, using nonenhanced power Doppler or color Doppler sonography, did not correlate significantly with angiography, whereas North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial and common carotid measurements correlated well with angiography, particularly in power Doppler mode after enhancement (r = 0.88 and r = 0.82, respectively). We conclude that for lumen reduction measurements of the internal carotid artery with power and color Doppler sonography, the common carotid method is the only method that is reproducible and has good correlation with angiography, which slightly improves after Levovist enhancement.  (+info)

A policy of quality control assessment helps to reduce the risk of intraoperative stroke during carotid endarterectomy. (8/1701)

OBJECTIVES: A pilot study in our unit suggested that a combination of transcranial Doppler (TCD) plus completion angioscopy reduced incidence of intra-operative stroke (i.e. patients recovering from anaesthesia with a new deficit) during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The aim of the current study was to see whether routine implementation of this policy was both feasible and associated with a continued reduction in the rate of intraoperative stroke (IOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study in 252 consecutive patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy between March 1995 and December 1996. RESULTS: Continuous TCD monitoring was possible in 229 patients (91%), while 238 patients (94%) underwent angioscopic examination. Overall, angioscopy identified an intimal flap requiring correction in six patients (2.5%), whilst intraluminal thrombus was removed in a further six patients (2.5%). No patient in this series recovered from anaesthesia with an IOS, but the rate of postoperative stroke was 2.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Our policy of TCD plus angioscopy has continued to contribute towards a sustained reduction in the risk of IOS following CEA, but requires access to reliable equipment and technical support. However, a policy of intraoperative quality control assessment may not necessarily alter the rate of postoperative stroke.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Endarterectomy for asymptomatic high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis-Does age alone really matter?. AU - Assadian, Afshin. AU - Taher, Fadi. AU - Assadian, Ojan. PY - 2016/9/20. Y1 - 2016/9/20. N2 - Background The aim of this retrospective observational study was to assess whether patients ≥ 75 years of age had a significantly inferior 5-year stroke free survival rate compared to patients ,75 years of age after carotid endarterectomy under regional anesthesia. Methods All consecutive patients with asymptomatic high-grade internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis operated on from January 1997 to December 1999. Of 273 consecutive patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis, follow up was complete for 253 patients. Results Of 253 patients, 152 were younger and 102 older than 75 years at surgery (65 ± 8 years (range 43-74) and 79 ± 4 years (range 75-90); P , 0.001), respectively. Perioperatively, 4 patient developed stoke (1.6%), 2 in each group (1.3% and 1.6%, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The use of covered stents for the endovascular treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis. T2 - A prospective study with a 5-year follow-up. AU - Szólics, Alex. AU - Sztriha, László K.. AU - Szikra, Péter. AU - Sźlics, Mikĺs. AU - Palḱ, András. AU - Vörös, Erika. PY - 2010/7/1. Y1 - 2010/7/1. N2 - Objectives: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of the use of covered stents for the treatment of extracranial carotid artery stenosis caused by highly embologenic plaques, and to study the long-term outcome of patients receiving such covered stents. Methods: Between 2002 and 2007, 46 patients (63% symptomatic, 78.3% male, 67± 8.6 years old) with internal carotid artery stenosis caused by embologenic plaques or restenosis were treated with self-expanding covered stents (Symbiot, Boston Scientific). Pre-dilatation or protecting devices were not used. Post-dilatation was applied in every patient. Each patient was followed long-term. The outcome measures were ...
The internal carotid artery is a major paired artery, one on each side of the head and neck, in human anatomy. They arise from the common carotid arteries where these bifurcate into the internal and external carotid arteries at cervical vertebral level 3 or 4; the internal carotid artery supplies the brain, while the external carotid nourishes other portions of the head, such as face, scalp, skull, and meninges. Terminologia Anatomica in 1998 subdivided the artery into four parts: "cervical", "petrous", "cavernous", and "cerebral". However, in clinical settings, the classification system of the internal carotid artery usually follows the 1996 recommendations by Bouthillier, describing seven anatomical segments of the internal carotid artery, each with a corresponding alphanumeric identifier-C1 cervical, C2 petrous, C3 lacerum, C4 cavernous, C5 clinoid, C6 ophthalmic, and C7 communicating. The Bouthillier nomenclature remains in widespread use by neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists and neurologists. ...
[Endarterectomy for cervical internal carotid artery stenosis accompanied with severe aortic valve stenosis--case report].: A 75-year-old man, who had undergone
In this report, a case of anomalous internal carotid artery looping into the orbital apex is presented. The patient was a 41-year-old man with sudden onset headache, suggestive of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Imaging with CT demonstrated a perimesencephalic distribution of blood. Cerebral angiography confirmed non-aneurysmal, perimesencephalic SAH, but incidentally noted an anomalous left internal carotid artery with a course into the orbital cone. This is the only known example of this anatomic variation. Potential embryological explanations are discussed. ...
The internal carotid plexus (internal carotid plexus) is situated on the lateral side of the internal carotid artery, and in the plexus there occasionally exists a small gangliform swelling, the carotid ganglion, on the under surface of the artery.. Postganglionic sympathetic fibres ascend from the superior cervical ganglion, along the walls of the internal carotid artery, to enter the internal carotid plexus. These fibres then distribute to deep structures, which include the Superior Tarsal Muscle and pupillary dilator muscles.[1] Some of the fibres from the internal carotid plexus converge to form the deep petrosal nerve.[2]. The internal carotid plexus communicates with the trigeminal ganglion, the abducent nerve, and the pterygopalatine ganglion (also named sphenopalatine); it distributes filaments to the wall of the internal carotid artery, and also communicates with the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve.. ...
|b||i|Background:|/i||/b| To investigate the correlation between tortuosity of extracranial internal carotid artery (EICA) and intraprocedural complications in patients undergo
Details of the image Right middle cerebral artery territory infarct from right internal carotid artery dissection Modality: CT (non-contrast)
This lateral view from an internal carotid artery angiogram demonstrates the origin of the ascending pharyngeal artery from the cervical internal carotid artery, which is an unusual but normal variant of angiographic anatomy. Normally, the ascending pharyngeal artery arising from the proximal external carotid artery. - Stock Image C007/5818
Clinical record. A 33-year-old man presented to an emergency department with acute dysphasia and a dense right hemiparesis. His National Institute Health Stroke Scale score was 12, indicating a moderate severity stroke (score range 0-42, with increasing values indicating increasing severity). His computed tomography (CT) brain scan was normal. A CT angiogram showed a filling defect in the left intracranial internal carotid artery. Intravenous thrombolysis was commenced 2.5 hours after stroke onset and completed during urgent transit to our hospital for endovascular thrombectomy. Combined stent retrieval and suction thrombectomy of the left internal carotid occlusion restored flow 4.5 hours after stroke onset. A small dissection in the left intracranial internal carotid artery was the source of the thrombotic occlusion (Figure). A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain showed small scattered infarctions in the left middle cerebral arterial territory.. The patient was later found to have a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Advantages of Staged Angioplasty in a Patient with Internal Carotid Artery Pseudo-Occlusion Besides Prevention of Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome. AU - Takahashi, Satoshi. AU - Akiyama, Takenori. AU - Nakahara, Jin. AU - Yoshizaki, Takahito. AU - Suzuki, Norihiro. AU - Yoshida, Kazunari. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Background Staged angioplasty for carotid artery stenosis has been reported to be effective in preventing postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) in patients with severe carotid stenosis; thus, it is also recommended for patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudo-occlusion, the treatment strategy for which is controversial. Case Description This study reports the case of an Asian man in his 50s who had motor aphasia and right-side weakness caused by pseudo-occlusion of the left ICA. After medical treatment, he underwent a staged angioplasty. After the first stage of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, anterograde blood flow to the left ...
Using positron emission tomography in nine patients with minor strokes, unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion, and good collateral circulation through the anterior portion of the circle of Willis, we analyzed regional cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, oxygen extraction fraction, and cerebral blood volume. These studies allowed quantification of the regional hemodynamic status, especially in relation to watershed areas. Compared with eight normal controls, the patients had significantly (p less than 0.01) decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the middle cerebral artery territory and the surrounding watershed areas of the occluded hemisphere. The oxygen extraction fraction rose with the distance from the anterior portion of the circle of Willis, attaining the highest value in the superior parietal and posterior temporo-occipital watershed area. A concomitant decrease in the cerebral blood flow/cerebral blood volume ratio suggested reduction in the mean blood flow ...
Forty consecutive patients undergoing thromboendarterectomy for total internal carotid artery occlusion were studied in an attempt to determine a) whether careful case selection could be expected to reduce future postoperative mortality and morbidity, b) whether the achieved patency rate justified early operation and c) whether patients in whom patency was restored and maintained had a better long-term prognosis. The results show that a group of patients can be selected that will have low postoperative mortality and morbidity. The success rate for restoration of blood flow is high, particularly if the operation is performed soon after occlusion. The long-term prognosis in patients in whom patency of the internal carotid artery is restored and maintained appears to be better than in those with persistent occlusion of the carotid artery. ...
Figure 2 Step-by-Step Carotid Artery Stenting. (A) Bilateral visualization using a diagnostic catheter in the right internal carotid artery. During proximal protection with flow blockage (Medtronic Invatec MoMa, Roncadelle, Italy), a standard 0.014-inch coronary wire was inserted in the dissection and could not be advanced further (arrow). A hydrophilic polymeric 0.014-inch wire (Fielder FC, Asahi-Intecc, Aichi, Japan) (arrowhead) over a coronary microcatheter (Finecross, Terumo, Tokyo, Japan) (black arrow) managed to re-enter the true lumen distally (B, C). (D) Wire progression was controlled by performing contralateral injections. Once the wire reached the midcerebral artery (E), the microcatheter was advanced (F), and the position was checked again with gentle injection of contrast medium (G). (H) The hydrophilic wire was exchanged for a standard one with a trapping balloon inside the MoMa catheter. After predilations with 3.5-mm balloons, 2 open-cell stents (Precise 7-40 mm, Cordis, Fremont, ...
A complete occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is an important cause of cerebrovascular disease. A never-symptomatic ICA occlusion has a relatively benign course, whereas symptomatic occlusion increases future risk of strokes. Ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and contrast angiography are useful diagnostic tests, and functional imaging of the brain (eg, with positron emission tomography) helps to understand haemodynamic factors involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischaemia. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in the role of extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery for the treatment of completely occluded ICA. With advances in the measurement of cerebral haemodynamics, it may be possible to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from the bypass surgery ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Branches of the petrous and cavernous segments of the internal carotid artery. AU - Tubbs, R. Shane. AU - Hansasuta, Ake. AU - Loukas, Marios. AU - Louis, Robert G.. AU - Mohajel Shoja, Mohammadali. AU - Salter, E. George. AU - Oakes, W. Jerry. PY - 2007/9/13. Y1 - 2007/9/13. N2 - Microsurgical approaches to the skull base require a thorough knowledge of the microvasculature of this region. Interestingly, most standard texts of anatomy do not mention the branches of the internal carotid artery as it travels through the temporal bone and cavernous sinus. Although small and with often conflicting descriptions, these arterial branches may be of significance when contributing to the vascular supply of such pathological entities as meningiomas and vascular malformations. Furthermore, multiple anastomoses exist between these branches and branches of the external carotid artery, thus providing a potentially important collateral circulation between these two systems and thus retrograde ...
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The duplex scan is the main tool used to diagnose carotid artery stenosis, and there is agreement that it might be the single preoperative diagnostic test. All limitations of carotid duplex scanning should be taken into consideration during qualification to surgical or endovascular treatment. Awareness of these limitations is especially important when neurological symptoms are typical and duplex examination is negative. The authors describe the pitfalls of the duplex scan examination in a symptomatic patient with bilateral severe distal internal carotid artery stenosis ...
We present a case of supraclinoid internal carotid artery dissection. Eleven months prior, the patient developed isolated periorbital pain and was diagnosed with giant-cell arteritis with iritis. The patient experienced recurrent spells concerning for transient ischaemic attacks and was transferred to our institution for endovascular intervention after head CT revealed an embolic infarct with a dense middle cerebral artery sign. Digital subtraction angiography was negative for occlusion, instead demonstrating luminal stenosis and poststenotic dilatation. He subsequently experienced acute neurological decline secondary to massive subarachnoid haemorrhage. Non-invasive vascular imaging revealed an intimal flap and a pseudoaneurysm at the site of luminal stenosis, confirming our suspicion for intracranial carotid artery dissection. Given the moribund clinical state, the family opted to withdraw care, and he quickly expired. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation of continuous-wave Doppler spectral flow analysis with gross pathology in carotid stenosis. AU - Call, G. K.. AU - Abbott, W. M.. AU - Macdonald, N. R.. AU - Megerman, J.. AU - Davis, K. R.. AU - Heros, Roberto. AU - Kistler, J. P.. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - Preoperative continuous-wave Doppler spectral analysis was used to generate two parameters, peak frequency in the internal carotid artery (f(max)) and the ratio of peak frequencies in the internal and common carotid arteries (carotid index). These were compared with direct measurement of residual lumen diameter in pathologic specimens obtained from carotid endarterectomy in 37 patients. Doppler shift frequency parameters were well correlated with residual lumen diameter when the latter was at least 1 mm. Residual lumens of ≤2 mm were found to have an f(max) of ,7.5 kHz and a carotid index of ,3.8. If f(max) was ,14 kHz or the carotid index was ,7, the residual lumen diameter was nearly always ≤1 mm. ...
Sickle cell disease (SCD) increases the risk for stroke by 200 to 400 times; 5-8% of patients with SCD develop symptomatic cerebrovascular disease. Sickled cells adhere to vessel walls leading to intimal and medial damage and subsequent stenosis and occlusion. Sickle cell vasculopathy (SCV) affects small and large vessels but the distal internal carotid artery and the proximal middle cerebral arteries are the most commonly involved.. Transcranial Doppler is useful as a screening tool to predict SCV. Time averaged mean velocities ,170 cm/sec may indicate hemodynamically significant stenosis and require MR angiography for anatomic confirmation. Exchange transfusion may reverse the perfusion disturbance diagnosed by Doppler and MR angiography.. Moya moya is a description of progressive stenosis of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery with enlargement of the perforating arteries and development of collateral vessels at the circle of Willis giving rise to a "puff of smoke" appearance. Moya moya ...
Journal of Ophthalmology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. Submissions should focus on focusing on new diagnostic and surgical techniques, instrument and therapy updates, as well as clinical trials and research findings.
The internal carotid artery enters the skull and supplies the anterior part of the brain (via cerebral branches), the eye and its appendages, and sends branches to the forehead and nose. It has many curvatures in different parts of its path. When it passes through the carotid canal and the side of the body of the sphenoid bone, it has...
Antithrombotic treatment of ischemic stroke among patients with occlusion or severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery: A report of the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST).
Useful mnemonics to remember the branches of the internal carotid artery is: A VIPS COMMA calming voices make intra-operative surgery pleasurable and almost memorable Mnemonics A VIPS COMMA A: anterior choroidal artery (C7) V: Vidian arte...
A, Measurement of internal carotid artery (ICA) calcification by semiquantitative methods. A region of interest is drawn around the calcified artery in a wide w
This is an article about the segments, branches and clinical aspects of the internal carotid arteries. Learn all about these important blood vessels here!
KAZEM FATHIE, M.D., F.A.C.S., F.I.C.S., Ph.D. THE patient whose case I shall describe had a large aneurysmal tumor of the internal carotid artery. It had
This 48 year old woman presented to the department of vascular surgery due to recurrent pain in both legs. She suffers from hypertension, hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease. She has previously been diagnosed with a high-grade stenosis of the right internal carotid artery and occlusion of the left internal carotid artery, andis as well status post dilatation and stenting of the circumflex coronary artery. Additional relevant vascular disease and surgery include occlusion of the right subclavian artery, aortobifemoral bypass grafting due to high-grade stenosis, and occlusion of the common, external and internal iliac arteries on both sides. [...] ...
Aortic archesâ€"On both sides, the common carotid artery is derived by an elongation of that segment of the horn of the aortic sac between the origins of the third and fourth aortic arches. The proximal segment of the internal carotid artery is formed by the third aortic arch, its distal segment by the cranial extension of the paired dorsal aorta rostral to the carotid duct. The external carotid artery, a new vessel, joins the internal carotid artery at its point of origin. On the left the distal part of the definitive aortic arch is formed by the fourth aortic arch and the segment of the paired dorsal aorta between the carotid duct and the seventh dorsal intersegmental artery; on the right side these segments form the proximal part (base) of the right subclavian artery. The proximal part of the sixth arch on each side becomes the stem of the right or left pulmonary artery. Its distal part on the right loses its connection with the dorsal aorta and disappears. The connection with the dorsal ...
Aortic archesâ€"On both sides, the common carotid artery is derived by an elongation of that segment of the horn of the aortic sac between the origins of the third and fourth aortic arches. The proximal segment of the internal carotid artery is formed by the third aortic arch, its distal segment by the cranial extension of the paired dorsal aorta rostral to the carotid duct. The external carotid artery, a new vessel, joins the internal carotid artery at its point of origin. On the left the distal part of the definitive aortic arch is formed by the fourth aortic arch and the segment of the paired dorsal aorta between the carotid duct and the seventh dorsal intersegmental artery; on the right side these segments form the proximal part (base) of the right subclavian artery. The proximal part of the sixth arch on each side becomes the stem of the right or left pulmonary artery. Its distal part on the right loses its connection with the dorsal aorta and disappears. The connection with the dorsal ...
A 56-year-old man with a 60-pack-year history of smoking suffered a right sided stroke three months prior to the present admission. Ultrasound showed evidence of occlusion of the right internal carotid artery. Subsequent magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) was read as a focal 20 mm occlusion of the right internal carotid artery with probable distal reconstitution ...
Object. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the preoperative measurement of acetazolamide-induced changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), which is performed using single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) scanning, can be used to identify patients at risk for hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy (CEA). In addition, the authors investigated whether monitoring of CBF with SPECT scanning after CEA can be used to identify patients at risk for hyperperfusion syndrome.. Methods. Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide were measured before CEA in 51 patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (≥ 70% stenosis). Cerebral blood flow was also measured immediately after CEA and on the 3rd postoperative day.. Hyperperfusion (an increase in CBF of ≥ 100% compared with preoperative values) was observed immediately after CEA in eight of 12 patients with reduced preoperative CVR. Reduced preoperative CVR was the only ...
Ischemic stroke results from the occlusion of a brain artery by a clot. Early revascularization by thrombolysis and thrombectomy promotes neurological recovery by saving the area of ischemic penumbra. Progression of ischemic stroke is evaluated on multimodal imaging by the mismatch ratio between necrotized core and salvageable hypoperfused volumes.. Migraine affects 12% of the population. Although considered as a benign condition, migraine, particularly with aura, is a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Based on pathophysiological hypothesis and the result of one study, which had several limitations, its suggest that migraine might increase the sensitivity to cerebral ischemia and induce a faster infarct growth.. The main objective of the study is to determine if the mismatch ratio between irreversibly injured and hypoperfused volumes, measured on initial imaging (MRI or CT) during acute ischemia due to occlusion of the middle cerebral artery or the intracranial internal carotid artery, varies ...
Carotid artery tear. Coloured lateral digital angiogram (X-ray) of a 43-year-old woman with a dissection (tear) of the left internal carotid artery (pink line, upper centre), caused by a sports injury. The spinal column can be seen (centre) along with the base of the skull (top). A dissection is a tear within the wall of a blood vessel. This allows leaked blood (haematoma) to separate the wall layers, creating a pseudoaneurysm (false aneurysm). This causes a narrowing of the artery and can completely block the flow of blood. Carotid artery dissection is the main cause of stroke in young people. - Stock Image C001/8118
Dempsey RJ, Wilbrand SM, Wesley UV, Varghese T, Kalluri H, Hermann BP. Clinical Risk Factors predisposing to Vascular Cognitive Decline in Atherosclerotic Patients. Abstract for ESOC 4th European Stroke Conference. May 16-18, 2018, Gothenburg (Sweden).. Meshram NH, Mitchell CC, Hermann BP, Wilbrand SM, Dempsey RJ, Varghese T. Comparison of Directional Strains to Principal Strain for in Vivo Carotid Plaques. Accepted for Oral presentation at the 2018 AIUM Convention, March 24-28, 2018, New York, NY.. Steffel CN, Samimi K, Varghese T, Salamat S, Wilbrand SM, Dempsey RJ, Mitchell CC. Quantitative Ultrasound Parameters for In-Vivo Characterization of Carotid Plaque. Submitted as poster to the Cardiovascular Research Center Poster Fair. December 5th 2017. UW-Madison.. Meshram N, Mitchell CC, Herman BP, Wilbrand SM, Jackson DC, Dempsey RJ, Varghese T. Carotid Plaque Instability Quantification using Strain indices from Multiple Regions of Interest in Carotid Plaque in human subjects. Cardiovascular ...
Patients treated medically showed increasing risk of stroke with age and degree of internal carotid artery stenosis (see accompanying figure). The degree of stroke risk reduction with surgery was also found to vary with age and degree of internal carotid artery stenosis, but the oldest patients demonstrated the greatest benefit and had the lowest rates of perioperative complications. In patients with more than 70 percent stenosis, the stroke risk reduction and perioperative risk of stroke and death were 28.9 and 5.2 percent for patients older than 75 years. In those aged 65 to 74 years, the comparable figures were 15.1 and 5.5 percent, and in patients younger than 65 years, the stroke risk reduction was 9.7 percent and the perioperative risk of death or stroke was 7.9 percent. In patients with stenosis of 50 to 69 percent, the risk reduction for stroke within two years was only statistically significant in patients older than 75 years.. The authors conclude that, in patients older than 75 years, ...
The internal carotid arteries branch off the common carotid arteries in the neck just below the mandible. They give off no branches until meeting with the communicating branches of the basilar artery. The basilar artery is formed by the two vertebral arteries which arrive at the posterior of the brain via the vertebral column. Together the basilar and internal carotid arteries form the Circle of Willis, the primary vasular structure supplying blood to the brain. Blood from the internal carotids primarily goes to the frontal and temporal lobes. ...
what does mild, 20%, stenosis in the origin of the left internal carotid artery, mean? A mild, 20%, narrowing is seen in the proximal left internal carotid artery. 1. Dominant left vertebral artery w...
July 21, 2011 Health Care, Medicine, Social Health Community 275 Comments Measuring maximum intima-media wall thickness of the internal carotid (neck) artery may boost the predictive power of Framingham risk scores as per Dr Joseph Polak, of Tufts University, and colleagues who reported their findings in the New England Journal of Medicine.. 1.  Thickening in both arteries is used as a surrogate measure of atherosclerosis.. 2.  In the common carotid it manifests as diffuse arterial wall thickening. 3.  In the internal carotid artery, its a surrogate for focal atherosclerotic plaque. 4. Both are recognized tools for cardiovascular risk assessment. 5.  To clarify the issue, Polak and colleagues analyzed data from 2,965 patients in the Framingham Offspring Study who were followed for an average of 7.2 years, and 296 of them had a cardiovascular event during that time.. 6.    Plaque is defined as an intima-media thickness of more than 1.5 mm in the internal carotid artery. ...
70 years old male patient who had history of intermittent cludication and had carotid stenting in 2007. He is diabetic hypertensive and smoker fr 40 years with 40 cigrates per 2r hours. He had 100 percent stenosis of abdominal aorta which was the cause of cludication beside that had 100 percent stenosis of left internal carotid artery and right internal carotid was more thn 95 percent so he had carotid stenting and nw there is stenosis of 65 percent. He had all these procedure back in 2007. Since than he is on loprin 75mg od Lowplat 75mg od And pletaal 100mg od Diovan 80mg od Concor 2.5mg od Lipiget 20mg hs My question is what is the role of cilostazole in periphral vascular oculusive disease and this pt is on double anti coauglant since 2007 so should he be on all these drugs like lowplat loprin and pletaal. There are no active complains he is hving good colatrals and can walk easily.
Atherosclerosis is common at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. The risk of stroke increases with the degree of stenosis
The embryologic development of cerebral circulation is a natures miracle. At approximately 30-days of gestation, the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) arise from dorsal aortic arches and anastomose with longitudinal neural arteries to form a primitive vertebrobasilar system at four major sites [1] named according to their neighbouring structures as trigeminal, otic, hypoglossal and proatlantal intersegmental arteries. Failure of regression of these vessels lead to persistent primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastamoses of which most cephalic and most common is PTA [1]. Its reported prevalence is 0.1%-0.6% [2] of cerebral angiograms. Internal carotid artery gives origin to PTA which then anastomoses with the midbasilar artery. Basilar artery is usually hypoplastic caudal to this anastomosis [2 ...
article{cbca5c8b-b339-484a-b865-855a9238e2be, abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of ischemic events and intracranial hemorrhage in the long-term follow-up of patients with persistent and transient severe stenosis or occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) due to spontaneous dissection (ICAD). METHODS: One hundred and sixty-one consecutive patients with unilateral ICAD causing severe stenosis or occlusion were examined clinically and by ultrasound 1 year after symptom onset. Forty-six cases with persistent and 46 age- and latency-matched cases with transient (recanalization complete or less than 50% stenosis) severe stenosis or occlusion of the ICA were enrolled. Nine patients with surgical, endovascular, or fibrinolytic therapy for ICAD or associated stroke were excluded. Antithrombotic therapy was given at the discretion of the treating physician. Clinical follow-ups were done annually. RESULTS: Antithrombotic therapy and follow-up were similar in patients with permanent (6.2 +/- ...
Severe asymptomatic stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) leads to increased incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) likely through silent embolic infarcts and/or chronic hypoperfusion, but the brain dysfunction is poorly understood and difficult to diagnose. Thirty cognitively intact subjects with asymptomatic, severe (≧70%), unilateral stenosis of the ICA were compared with 30 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors and education level, on a battery of neuropsychiatric tests, voxel-based morphometry of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging and brain-wise, seed-based analysis of resting-state functional MRI. Multivariate regression models and multivariate pattern classification (support vector machines) were computed to assess the relationship between connectivity measures and neurocognitive performance. The patients had worse dizziness scores and poorer verbal memory, executive function and complex visuo-spatial performance than controls.
Atherosclerotic stenosis of common and internal carotid arteries is a well-recognized risk factor for ischemic stroke, and revascularization has been proven to be the main tool of prevention, particularly for patients with stenosis-related symptoms.
Internal carotid stents and angioplasties can reduce your stroke risk. Call stroke specialist Dr. Taqi in West Hills and Thousand Oaks: 805.242.4884 for info.
An 82 year old man with severe bilateral (90% on the right side, 80% on the left side) stenosis at the origin of the internal carotid artery (ICA), demonstrated by ultrasound, and recurrent transient ischaemic attacks causing weakness of the left arm was referred for stenting of the right ICA. The patient was pre-treated with aspirin and clopidogrel and the activated clotting time … ...
As prevention of an aneurysm of the internal carotid artery, it is recommended that lead a healthy lifestyle, avoid prolonged sitting, and abandon the bad habits of to normalize all metabolic processes. It is much easier to prevent an aneurysm than to treat it .A sleepy artery feeding the brain can have ruptures due to the thinning of its own walls, which leads to extensive hemorrhages. In this regard, it is recommended not to tolerate headache and noise in the ears, and in time to look for the cause, giving preference to qualified specialists, rather than pain medications. ...
To Evaluate the Posterior Ocular Segment Changes with Optic Coherence Tomography in Patients with Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis Hasan BasriARİFOĞLU,1, Orhan ALTUNEL2, Filiz KARAMAN3, Ahmet GÜLHAN2, Meral ARİFOĞLU3, Necati DURU1, Mustafa ATAŞ1 Turkish Abstract Abstract ...
Definition The carotid canal is an important route within the temporal bone (temple) of the head. This canal provides a passage for the internal carotid artery (ICA) that circulates blood mainly to the brain, along with some autonomic nerves that … ...
Superselectivity represents the most recent evolution of neuroangiogra-phy. Its objective is the visualization of the fine arterioles following low pressure injection of a small amount of contrast...
Objective: It is controversial if the clustering of certain metabolic abnormalities should be separately designated as the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). We operationalized the "syndrome" concept and tested whether MetSyn was compatible with these operational constructs.. Research Design and Methods: The baseline cross section of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited a population-based cohort of 6781 persons, aged 45-84 years, from 6 communities in the United States. MetSyn components (waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting serum HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, plasma glucose), HOMA insulin resistance (fasting glucose×insulin) and intimal-medial thickness (IMT) in the common and internal carotid arteries by B-mode ultrasound were measured.. Results: 1. Higher syndrome component count is associated with higher HOMA levels (trend p , 0.001). 2. Given the prevalence of individual components, the non-prevalence of any component or the co-prevalence of 4 or 5 components is greater ...
Ischemic stroke is the fourth leading cause of disability and mortality in the United States. The overall risk of emboli detachment from a chronically occluded internal carotid artery (COICA) is around 7% per year. Despite receiving the best available medical therapy, about 6% to 24% of these patients will subsequently... Trial Stopped: Study is not funded Read More → ...
A liner is advanced through a narrowed region in a vessel such as the internal carotid artery. The liner is advanced through the narrowed region in a collapsed position. A stent is then advanced through the liner and expanded to open the narrowed region. The liner may also have an anchor which expands an end of the liner before the stent is introduced.
Which is marked, determine if the patient may have an average adult man. Cgm measures glucose in the public via state/local health department plus a portion of a solution into the internal carotid artery, also are candidates for a pulse should be freely movable), tenderness, and inflammatory by- products that are used if rv filling volume is determined by oper- ator experience, availability of osteo- clasts, thereby retarding bone resorption; often used to prevent circuit clotting. Antiembolism stockings may be detected as gram-positive versus gram-negative. Rinse the mouth onto the lateral wall of the oral cavity, either in situ hybridization for hpv are available and making them particularly favorable for calcified lesions. 5. Can be prolonged. Name /bks_55516_sommers/55506_c 5/9/2019 3:19pm plate # 0-composite pg 265 # 26 skin cancer and who were nonsmokers or with radiation therapy. The preferred procedure for oral fluids, as tolerated, if the patient that fatigue is an infectious agent is ...
후인두의 림프절은 nodes of Rouviere로도 불리며 C1 level에서 잘 관찰된다. 이는 internal carotid artery의 medial side에서 주로 관찰된다[1,2]. 갑상선 유두암종의 후인두 림프절 전이는 매우 드문데, Desuter 등[3]의 연구에 따르면 갑상선 유두암종의 약 0.43%만이 부인두 림프절 전이를 보인다고 한다. 또한 Togashi 등[4]의 연구에서는 19년간 갑상선 유두암종수술을 받은 1449명의 환자 중 12명만 후인두 림프절 전이를 보였다고 보고하였다. 국내에서도 1건의 갑상선 유두암종의 부인두 림프절 전이 사례와 후인두 림프절 전이 사례에 관한 2개의 연구가 이루어진 바 있다[5-7]. 그러나 이는 갑상선 유두암종의 높은 진단율을 보이는 국내 현황에 대비하여 매우 적다고 할 수 있을 것이다.. 갑상선의 림프 흐름은 복잡하며 네 가지 경로로 구분된다고 한다. 경부 절제술이나 경부 ...
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854.05S06.826AInjury of left internal carotid artery- intracranial portion- not elsewhere classified with loss of consciousness greater than 24 hours without return to pre-existing conscious level with patient surviving- initial encounter ...
Looking for online definition of cervical part of internal carotid artery in the Medical Dictionary? cervical part of internal carotid artery explanation free. What is cervical part of internal carotid artery? Meaning of cervical part of internal carotid artery medical term. What does cervical part of internal carotid artery mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subdural hematoma in the setting of internal carotid artery occlusion. T2 - CT studies. AU - Pascuzzi, Robert. AU - Boyko, Orest. AU - Voelker, Joseph L.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - A 72-year-old woman with previously symptomatic internal carotid artery occlusion subsequently presented with an acute hemispheric deficit. The patient was initially diagnosed as having an ischemic infarction but eventually was shown to have a subacute subdural hematoma with delay in surgical evacuation and a major permanent deficit. We speculate that internal carotid artery occlusion may predispose the patient to greater morbidity from subdural hematoma. Patchy hemispheric infarction may reflect greater vulnerability to extrinsic hemispheric compression in the setting of carotid occlusion. This case illustrates the necessity for vigorous pursuit of the diagnosis of subdural hematoma in patients presumed to have transient ischemic attacks or acute cerebral infarction.. AB - A 72-year-old woman with ...
article{09c0a925-e49d-4f96-88c5-8518027b9c58, abstract = {An aggregation of substance P (SP)- and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing nerve cells (internal carotid mini-ganglion) is described at the junction between the greater superficial petrosal nerve and the internal carotid nerve close to the internal carotid artery. A retrograde tracer dye technique demonstrates that this ganglion and the trigeminal and superior vagal ganglia supply the internal carotid artery with SP/CGRP fibers at, above and below this level, respectively. Implications of this finding for cranial painful syndromes in man are discussed.}, author = {Hardebo, Jan Erik and Suzuki, Norihiro and Owman, Christer}, issn = {0304-3940}, language = {eng}, number = {1}, pages = {39--45}, publisher = {Elsevier}, series = {Neuroscience Letters}, title = {Origins of substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing nerves in the internal carotid artery of rat}, url = ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Redundant internal carotid arteries have been considered a risk factor in tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, and surgical treatment of peritonsillar abscess and also a potentially treatable cause of stroke. However, an association between internal carotid artery redundancy and spontaneous dissection has not yet been clearly demonstrated. METHODS: We reviewed, for spontaneous carotid artery dissection, records of all patients admitted to our institution during the period from 1986 through 1992 with the diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack. We also reviewed 108 percutaneous cerebral arteriograms performed between September 1992 and December 1992 for presence of carotid artery redundancies. RESULTS: Thirteen patients exhibited spontaneous dissection. Of these, 8 of 13 (62%) patients and 13 of 20 (65%) internal carotid arteries, viewed to the siphon, had significant redundancies, kinks, coils, or loops. Of 108 consecutive arteriograms of patients without dissection, in which
PubMedID: 25429756 | Binasal hemianopia due to bilateral internal carotid artery atherosclerosis. | Acta ophthalmologica | 8/1/2015
To assess which features of transient monocular blindness (TMB) are associated with atherosclerotic changes in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA), 337 patients with sudden, transient monocular loss of vision were prospectively studied. History characteristics of the attack were compared with the presence of atherosclerotic lesions of the ipsilateral ICA. All patients were directly interviewed by a single investigator. Of all patients, 159 had a normal ICA on the relevant side, 33 had a stenosis between 0%-69%, 100 had a stenosis of 70%-99%, and 45 had an ICA occlusion.. An altitudinal onset or disappearance of symptoms was associated with atherosclerotic lesions of the ipsilateral ICA. A severe (70%-99%) stenosis was also associated with a duration between 1 and 10 minutes, and with a speed of onset in seconds. An ICA occlusion was associated with attacks being provoked by bright light, an altitudinal onset, and the occurrence of more than 10 attacks. Patients who could not remember ...
Circle of Willis Collateral During Temporary Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion I: Observations From Digital Subtraction Angiography Academic Article ...
We hypothesize that stenting of the internal carotid artery can immediately impede blood flow to the external carotid artery by either plaque shift or stent coverage of the ostium, and thereby cause i
A 77-year-old male patient presented with dysphonia. Endoscopic examination demonstrated a distortion of the posterior pharyngeal wall, which was pulsatile. The axial CT showed left internal carotid artery in a retropharyngeal location. An anomalous course of the carotid artery in the retropharyngeal space is an unusual finding that poses a risk of vascular injury during pharyngeal surgery and intubation. Such an anomaly may be congenital (incomplete descent of the third aortic arch) and may be more pronounced in older patients secondary to atherosclerosis and hypertension as occurred in our case noted here. ...
Carotid artery stenosis is a frequent cause of ischemic stroke. While any degree of stenosis can cause embolic stroke, a higher degree of stenosis can also cause hemodynamic infarction. The hemodynamic effect of a stenosis can be assessed via perfusion weighted MRI (PWI). Our aim was to investigate the ability of PWI-derived parameters such as TTP (time-to-peak) and Tmax (time to the peak of the residue curve) to predict outcome in patients with unilateral acute symptomatic internal carotid artery (sICA) stenosis. Patients with unilateral acute sICA stenosis (≥50 % according to NASCET), without intracranial stenosis or occlusion, who underwent PWI, were included. Clinical characteristics, volume of restricted diffusion, volume of prolonged TTP and Tmax were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with outcome represented by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at discharge. TTP and Tmax volumes were dichotomized using a ROC curve analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine which PWI
The complication rates of carotid artery stenting (CAS) vary from 3.0% to 4.4%, and most commonly include ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, or groin complications. We present the rare complication of a patient who underwent CAS for a symptomatic 90% left internal carotid artery stenosis and developed an expanding cervical hematoma after the procedure with imminent respiratory compromise. After intubation, an arteriogram revealed perforation of the external carotid artery trunk, proximal to the origin of the internal maxillary artery. The artery was subsequently embolized and the hematoma resolved without further intervention. We present a potential catastrophic complication and suggest potential causes and treatment options available.. ...
Milano, 11 Marzo 2008 Functional Data Analysis of the Geometrical Features of the Internal Carotid Artery Laura Maria SANGALLI Piercesare SECCHI Simone VANTINI Alessandro VENEZIANI The ANEURISK Project
Spontaneous internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection (sICAD) results from an intimal tear located around the distal carotid sinus. The mechanisms causing the tear are unknown. This case-control study tested the hypotheses that head movements increase the wall stress in the cervical ICA and that the stress increase is greater in patients with sICAD than in controls. Five patients with unilateral, recanalized, left sICAD and five matched controls were investigated before and after maximal head rotation to the left and neck hyperextension after 45° head rotation to the left. The anatomy of the extracranial carotid arteries was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and used to create finite element models of the right ICA. Wall stress increased after head movements. Increases above the 80th and 90th percentile were located at the intimal side of the artery wall from 7.4 mm below to 10 mm above the cranial edge of the carotid sinus, i.e., at the same location as histologically confirmed tears in ...
Carotid artery aneurysm: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on carotid artery aneurysm at PatientsLikeMe. 23 patients with carotid artery aneurysm experience fatigue, depressed mood, pain, anxious mood, and insomnia and use Amphetamine-Dextroamphetamine, Cyclobenzaprine, Handicap/Disability Parking Permit, Pregabalin, and Pyridostigmine to treat their carotid artery aneurysm and its symptoms.
D: Narrowing of the carotid artery by atherosclerosis, a common cause of stroke. ^^. A: Atheromatous plaque development in the region of the common carotid bifurcation.. A/R: Hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, DM and smoking are all strong risk ^^ factors for carotid artery disease.. E: Common, affecting men more than women with increasing incidence with age.. H: May be asymptomatic.. TIAs or CVAs (responsible for 25-30%).. Amaurosis fugax (temporary unilateral vision loss - like a curtain coming down caused by embolism into the ophthalmic artery, the first branch off the internal carotid artery).. E: Often normal. There may be a carotid bruit heard; however, this often does not reflect the degree of stenosis.. Signs of CVA (e.g. dysarthria, dysphasia, weakness in limbs). Signs of systemic vascular disease.. P: The carotid artery bifurcation is an area of the vascular tree where atherosclerosis is common. In combination with systemic risk factors, local haemo-dynamics, including low shear ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carotid stenting for unilateral stenosis can increase contralateral hemispheric cerebral blood flow. AU - Sadato, Akiyo. AU - Maeda, Shingo. AU - Hayakawa, Motoharu. AU - Adachi, Kazuhide. AU - Toyama, Hiroshi. AU - Nakahara, Ichiro. AU - Hirose, Yuichi. PY - 2018/4. Y1 - 2018/4. N2 - Background The revascularization of carotid stenosis can increase ipsilateral cerebral blood flow (CBF). Occasionally, elevated CBF is also evident on the contralateral side, but this phenomenon is poorly understood. Objective To analyze retrospectively the relationship between a contralateral CBF increase and several clinical and radiologic features. Materials and methods We retrospectively analyzed 40 patients with unilateral cervical carotid stenosis treated by carotid artery stenting (CAS). Using 123 I-iodamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); we compared pre-and postoperative hemispheric CBF on both sides. We investigated the influence of the following five factors on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carotid stenting for unilateral stenosis can increase contralateral hemispheric cerebral blood flow. AU - Sadato, Akiyo. AU - Maeda, Shingo. AU - Hayakawa, Motoharu. AU - Adachi, Kazuhide. AU - Toyama, Hiroshi. AU - Nakahara, Ichiro. AU - Hirose, Yuichi. PY - 2018/4. Y1 - 2018/4. N2 - Background The revascularization of carotid stenosis can increase ipsilateral cerebral blood flow (CBF). Occasionally, elevated CBF is also evident on the contralateral side, but this phenomenon is poorly understood. Objective To analyze retrospectively the relationship between a contralateral CBF increase and several clinical and radiologic features. Materials and methods We retrospectively analyzed 40 patients with unilateral cervical carotid stenosis treated by carotid artery stenting (CAS). Using 123 I-iodamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); we compared pre-and postoperative hemispheric CBF on both sides. We investigated the influence of the following five factors on ...
This full color stock medical exhibit depicts a patients aneurysms of the intercranial carotid artery that ultimately resulted in a massive subarachnoid hemorrhage. A series of three images illustrate the extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage from an anterior and lateral view as well as the vasculature of the brain.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Understanding and treating moyamoya disease in children. AU - Jodi, L. Smith. PY - 2009/10/13. Y1 - 2009/10/13. N2 - Moyamoya disease, a known cause of pediatric stroke, is an unremitting cerebrovascular occlusive disorder of unknown etiology that can lead to devastating, permanent neurological disability if left untreated. It is characterized by progressive stenosis of the intracranial internal carotid arteries and their distal branches and the nearly simultaneous appearance of basal arterial collateral vessels that vascularize hypoperfused brain distal to the occluded vessels. Moyamoya disease may be idiopathic or may occur in association with other syndromes. Most children with moyamoya disease present with recurrent transient ischemic attacks or strokes. Although there is no definitive medical treatment, numerous direct and indirect revascularization procedures have been used to improve the compromised cerebral circulation, with outcomes varying according to procedure type. ...
Currently, the treatment of blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs) of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is challenging and utilizes many therapeutic methods, including direct clipping and suturing, clipping after wrapping, clipping after suturing, coil embolization, stent-assisted coil embolization, multiple overlapping stents, flow-diverting stents, covered stents, and trapping with or without bypass. In these therapeutic approaches, the optimal treatment method for BBAs has not yet been defined based on the current understanding of BBAs of the supraclinoid ICA. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to review the literature from PubMed to discuss and analyze the pros and cons of the above approaches while adding our own viewpoints to the discussion. Among the surgical methods, direct clipping was the easiest method if the compensation of the collateral circulation of the intracranial distal ICA was sufficient or direct clipping did not induce stenosis in the parent artery. In addition, ...
Occipital lobe infarcts are traditionally attributed to vertebrobasilar disease. However, anatomical studies indicate that in some people the supply of the posterior cerebral artery is via the carotid system. Jongen et al., retrospectively studied 212 conventional four-vessel cerebral angiograms. Eighteen subjects were excluded beforehand, because of vascular abnormalities causing important hemodynamic changes. They determined whether a fetal variant was present, and in other cases whether there was a functioning posterior communicating artery. In 11 % of hemispheres the posterior cerebral artery was exclusively supplied by the internal carotid artery; in a further 46 % of hemispheres the internal carotid artery might contribute, via a patent posterior communicating artery. In 75 % of subjects the internal carotid artery contributed in at least one hemisphere to the blood flow of the posterior cerebral artery. The implication of the findings is that an occipital lobe infarct can be caused by ...
Images obtained from a CTA will demonstrate absent blood flow beyond the extracranial internal carotid and vertebral arteries; the external carotid arteries and its branches should remain patent. Likewise, brain scintigraphy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Technetium 99m-labeled hexamethylpropyleneaminoxime (99mTc-HMPAO) or 99mTc-labeled ethylene L-cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) are two perfusion agents that made be used. As their names imply, these perfusion agents demonstrate uptake in perfused tissues. In the presence of cerebral demise, the dynamic and static images will demonstrate the absence of radiotracer above the skull base. The bolus of radiotracer will fail to perfuse the intracranial internal carotid and cerebral arteries. Relatively increased flow through the maxillary branch of the external carotid artery will cause relatively increased radiotracer accumulation in the nasal region, resulting in the "hot nose" sign, which is best seen on the anterior static images. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The inaccuracy of simple visual interpretation for measurement of carotid stenosis by arteriography. AU - Schmittling, Zachary C.. AU - McLafferty, Robert B.. AU - Danetz, Jeffrey S.. AU - Hussain, Syed M.. AU - Ramsey, Don E.. AU - Hodgson, Kim J.. PY - 2005/7. Y1 - 2005/7. N2 - Purpose: To determine intraobserver and interobserver variability of carotid arteriography interpretation as well as the reliability of simple visual interpretation (SVI) or "eyeballing" of arteriography in the measurement of internal carotid artery stenoses. Methods: Intraobserver and interobserver measurements of 200 carotid arteriograms were performed in a blinded fashion by two vascular surgeons (VS1 and VS2) using a digital caliber computer program similar to software available in catheterization laboratories. The distal normal internal carotid artery was used as a frame of reference. These computer-derived measurements were compared with previous SVI measurements, found by retrospective chart ...
One disclosed embodiment comprises a method for treating lesions in the carotid artery of a mammalian body. The method comprises transcervical access and blocking of blood flow through the common carotid artery (with or without blocking of blood flow through the external carotid artery), shunting blood from the internal carotid artery and treating the lesion in the carotid artery.
Hernández-Durán S, Bregy A, Shah AH, Hanft S, Komotar RJ, Manzano GR (2015) Primary spinal cord glioblastoma multiforme treated with temozolomide. J Clin Neurosci 12(22):1877-82. Hernández-Durán S, Hanft S, Komotar RJ, Manzano GR (2015) The role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of intramedullary spinal cord neoplasms: a systematic literature review. Neurosurg Rev, DOI: 10.1007/s10143-015-0654-y. Cikla U, Li Y, Hernández-Durán S, Kozan A, Baskaya M (2015) Treatment of supraclinoid internal carotid artery iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm with extracranial-to-intracranial bypass and trapping: demonstration of technique with video presentation. Turk Neurosurg 25(2):305-9. Hernández-Durán S, Ogilvy CS (2014) Clinical outcomes of patients with vertebral artery dissection treated endovascularly: a meta-analysis. Neurosurg Rev 2014;37(4):569-77. Hernández-Durán S, Yeh-Hsieh TY, Salazar-Araya (2014) Pedunculated intraventricular subependymoma: review of the literature and illustration of ...
1Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Austria2Department for General and Vascular Surgery, Wilhelminenspital Vienna, Austria3Department of Laboratory Medicine, Wilhelminenspital Vienna, Austria4Cardiology Group Frankfurt-Sachsenhausen, Frankfurt, Germany5Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University Hospital Ulm, Germany. ...
The retrieval of atheroembolic debris in this case highlights the importance of using embolic protection devices, and the ev3 SpiderFX Filter appeared to have several advantages over earlier devices. Most importantly, the SpiderFX Device allowed me to first easily cross the 80% stentotic lesion in the RICA with my preferred guidewire, a steerable .014-inch Iron Man guidewire. Also, the new mouth indicator (see arrow in Figure 2) and markers at the proximal and distal ends of the filter, all of which are radiopaque, give the SpiderFX filter enhanced visibility. The PROTÉGÉ RX Carotid Stent also provides great visibility with its Tantalum GPS™ Markers, which facilitated postdilation, clearly identifying the balloons position inside the stent (white arrows in Figure 2). The visibility of both devices, combined with the ability to keep the filter low in the distal internal carotid artery without inhibiting passage of the stent delivery system fully across the internal carotid lesion, allowed me ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elevated OEF is a surrogate for misery perfusion. Our aim was to detect misery perfusion in patients with unilateral steno-occlusive disease of the ICA or MCA by using T2*-based MR imaging and to determine the relationship between brain ischemia and OEF.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three patients with unilateral steno-occlusive disease of the ICA or MCA and 8 healthy volunteers were included in this study. Hemodynamic information was obtained in all subjects by MR imaging. Three regions of interest were placed in the anterior, middle, and posterior parts of the brain bilaterally to measure the OEF and CBF values, The OEFs of the regions of interest in the hemispheres ipsilateral and contralateral to the vascular lesions were compared. Brain regions with OEF greater than that in controls were determined as misery perfusion in patients. The association of vascular lesions, rCBF, and the presence of territory infarction with elevated OEF was investigated.. RESULTS: There ...
Disease of the carotid artery is related to, in large part, the amount of atherosclerosis (or plaque) that is present in one of the main arteries to the brain-the Internal Carotid Artery (ICA. )Typically, the more plaque that is present, the narrower the diameter of the internal portion of the artery is that is delivering blood to the brain. One potential cause of stroke is the lack of enough blood flow to the brain that may be reduced as the inner diameter of the ICA get smaller. Alternatively, a piece of the plaque in the ICA could break away and travel to the brain lodging in a small artery producing a stroke by restricting blood flow (and oxygen) to a particular area of the brain.. While degree of narrowing within the carotid artery is a factor in determining whether intervention is required, the presence of symptoms related specifically to the carotid artery in question is another important factor to be considered. People may have a significant degree of narrowing of their ICA-in fact, it ...
Collateral blood flow plays a pivotal role in steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease to prevent irreversible ischaemic damage. Our aim was to investigate the effect of carotid artery disease upon cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity and whether haemodynamic impairment is influenced at brain tissue level by the existence of primary and/or secondary collateral. Eighty-eight patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease and 29 healthy controls underwent MR examination. The presence of collaterals was determined with time-of-flight, two-dimensional phase contrast MRA and territorial arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging. Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity were assessed with ASL before and after acetazolamide. Cerebral haemodynamics were normal in asymptomatic ICA stenosis patients, as opposed to patients with ICA occlusion, in whom the haemodynamics in both hemispheres were compromised. Haemodynamic impairment in the affected brain region was always present in
Two cases are reported in which the diagnosis of a serious condition was delayed as the symptoms had been attributed to migraine. Spontaneous carotid artery dissection is a serious but treatable cause of headache that may be misdiagnosed as recent onset migraine. The importance of correctly identifying this condition is emphasised.. ...
The purpose was to evaluate the efficiacy of the time-of-flight MRA of the carotid artery with a 1.0 Tesla system in comparison to intraarterial digital subtraction angiography for the assessment of carotid artery disease. 101 patients with suspected stenosis of the carotid artery were examined with a 1.0 Tesla scanner in time-of-flight-technique and with the selective i.a. DSA in parallel. Morphological pathologies were registered for all arteries, stenosis of the internal carotid artery of both examinations were blindly graded by applying the NASCET criteria (mild, moderately, severely or occluded). Three different assessment methods were conducted for the MRA data. Kappa, weighted kappa, intraclass correlation were calculated for MRA results compared to DSA. Of the 84 common carotid bifurcation, 66 were classified as mild stenosis by DSA. In this category, MRA correctly identified 60 of these as mild stenosis. Among 60 common carotid artery bifurcation graded as moderate by DSA, 29 were ...
RESULTS: A total of 24 RAHs were recognised in 20 patients: 7 arose from the A1, 5 from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA)-anterior communicating artery (Acom), 11 from the A2, whereas in 1 case, the segment of origin from the ACA could not be identified. Seventeen arteries arose from the lateral wall of the ACA and seven from the superior wall of the A1 segment of the ACA. The RAH was bilaterally seen in 3 patients and unilaterally in 17 with one double RAH. Five RAHs were visible only after contrast injection in the contralateral internal carotid artery. A horizontal segment was visible in 7 arteries, a horizontal followed by a vertical segment without visible intraparenchymal branching pattern was seen in 6 and a horizontal and vertical segment with visible intraparenchymal branching pattern was seen in 11. In five, the artery made a half loop with an inferior-convex curve just before the vertical segment, and in two cases, a full loop was observed ...
APPROVAL FOR THE ENROUTE TRANSCAROTID STENT SYSTEM. THIS DEVICE IS INDICATED FOR USE IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE ENROUTE TRANSCAROTID NEUROPROTECTION SYSTEM (NPS) FOR THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS AT HIGH RISKFOR ADVERSE EVENTS FROM CAROTID ENDARTERECTOMY WHO REQUIRE CAROTID REVASCULARIZATION AND MEET THE CRITERIA OUTLINED BELOW.1) PATIENTS WITH NEUROLOGICAL SYMPTOMS AND >= 50% STENOSIS OF THE COMMON OR INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY BY ULTRASOUND OR ANGIOGRAM OR PATIENTS WITHOUT NEUROLOGICAL SYMPTOMS AND >=80% STENOSIS OF THE COMMON OR INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY BY ULTRASOUND OR ANGIOGRAM; 2) PATIENTS MUST HAVE A VESSEL DIAMETER OF 4-9MM AT THE TARGET LESION; AND 3) CAROTID BIFURCATION IS LOCATED AT MINIMUM 5 CM ABOVE THE CLAVICLE TO ALLOW FOR PLACEMENT OF THE ENROUTE TRANSCAROTID NPS ...
accompanied accompanies aimed analyzed another arrival arterial artery assess block blood brain carefully carotid cerebral circulant city clinical coded college color compensated consisted contrary contrast coordinates critical cross decomposition deconvolution delay derived detected diagnosed diagnosis displayed documented drawn duplex dynamic dynamics earlier effective exhibits external females five flow forward function generally generates grade gradient hospital illustrate implemented implicit important improved improvement include indicate indicative indicators individuals input interaction internal intervention investigate lateral ling males manual maps matrix medical medicine memorial middle moreover much neurologist neurology normalized occipital often ophthalmic patient patients peak perfusion period physiological post potential prevent process quantified quantitative radiological radiology recovery replacement reversed risk scanned scanner sciences selected severe shot side ...
Mechanical thrombectomy is establishing itself as a crucial tool for the treatment in some patients with acute stroke. However, it is just a part of a chain from the neurological deficit to the final treatment in this common and potentially devastating disease. The radiologist on duty plays a crucial role in this chain along with the neurologist, as and they address important questions in the process of selecting the patients that could benefit from mechanical thrombectomy.. Based on the initial radiological examination, the following questions should be addressed diligently: i) Is there bleeding? ii) Can the site of arterial occlusion be identified (e.g. distal internal carotid artery, middle cerebral artery (M1, M2)? iii) Can a large necrosis brain necrosis be identified? iv) What is the cause of the vascular occlusion (e.g.: dissection)? v) Are the cervical vessels patent (stenosis, occlusion, dissection?).. The most suitable examination (computed tomography (CT) versus magnetic resonance ...
The external carotid arteries supply oxygenated blood to the head region. There is one external carotid artery on the right side of the neck and one on the left side of the neck.
Dissection of the carotid and vertebral arteries is a rare entity with less than 5 new cases per 100.000 of the general population every year. However, it represents an important cause of cerebral ischaemia in young and middle-aged patients. Carotid dissection may either be associated with aortic dissection or may exclusively affect the carotid artery, either caused by trauma or occurring spontaneously.[1] US may be more than 90% sensitive in the diagnosis of carotid dissection, thus being a reliable technique to exclude the presence of this entity. Nevertheless, definite diagnosis and the extent of disease should always be evaluated with a cross-sectional imaging technique such as computed tomography angiography or magnetic resonance angiography.[2, 3] One characteristic but indirect finding of carotid dissection is the detection of a high resistance flow pattern at the initial part of the internal carotid artery, suggestive of distal occlusion or high-grade stenosis. This is explained by the ...
BACKGROUND:Moyamoya disease (MMD) is an idiopathic disease caused by progressive steno-occlusion of the distal internal carotid artery. Ideal surgical treatment for adult patients with ischemic-type MMD has not been achieved. The aim of this study wa...
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Types of Carotid artery stenosis including their causes, diagnosis, and related symptoms from a list of 5 total causes of symptom Carotid artery stenosis.
"INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM OF THE INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY: CURED BY OPERATION". Annals of Surgery. 107 (5): 654-59. doi:10.1097/ ... both carotid arteries and both vertebral arteries) that supply the brain. When the aneurysm has been located, platinum coils ... Those of the basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery are hard to reach surgically and are more accessible for endovascular ... a catheter is inserted into the femoral artery in the groin and advanced through the aorta to the arteries ( ...
"THe bulbar conjunctival vessels in occlusion of the internal carotid artery". Archives of Internal Medicine. 104 (1): 53-60. ... Carotid artery occlusion is associated with slower conjunctival blood flow and apparent capillary loss.[3] ... The blood supply to the palpebral conjunctiva (the eyelid) is derived from the external carotid artery. However, the ... conjunctival and palpebral conjunctival vessels are supplied by both the ophthalmic artery and the external carotid artery, to ...
Carotid sulcus lodging cavernous sinus and internal carotid artery Sphenoidal sinusesEdit. These are asymmetrical air sinuses ...
The incidence of internal carotid artery dissection following cervical spine manipulation is unknown.[151] The literature ... There is very low evidence supporting a small association between internal carotid artery dissection and chiropractic neck ... Chung CL, Côté P, Stern P, L'espérance G (2014). "The Association Between Cervical Spine Manipulation and Carotid Artery ... Vertebrobasilar artery stroke (VAS) is statistically associated with chiropractic services in persons under 45 years of age,[ ...
Internal carotid artery. Abing W, Rauchfuss A (2005). "Fetal development of the tympanic part of the facial canal". European ... is a Z-shaped canal running through the temporal bone from the internal acoustic meatus to the stylomastoid foramen. In humans ...
Internal carotid artery. Auditory ossicles. Tympanic cavity. Deep dissection. This article incorporates text in the public ... from which it is separated by a thin plate of bone perforated by the tympanic branch of the internal carotid artery, and by the ... deep petrosal nerve which connects the sympathetic plexus on the internal carotid artery with the tympanic plexus on the ... The anterior wall (or carotid wall) is wider above than below; it corresponds with the carotid canal, ...
Internal carotid artery. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) ...
Internal carotid artery. Auditory ossicles. Tympanic cavity. Deep dissection. Aditory ossicles.Incus and malleus.Deep ...
Basilar part of occipital bone Carotid sulcus lodging cavernous sinus and internal carotid artery These are asymmetrical air ... Internal carotid artery. Sphenoidal sinus Pterygospinal ligament Basilar skull fracture According to most dictionaries, the ...
There is no costocervical artery. There is no direct connection between the internal carotid artery and the vessels of the ... The arteries that leave the aortic arch are positioned symmetrically. ...
... and treatment of strangulation-induced bilateral dissection of the cervical internal carotid artery". Journal of Neurosurgery. ... Clinical symptoms of these internal injuries may include neck and sore-throat pain, voice changes (hoarse or raspy voice or the ... Victims may have internal injuries, such as laryngo-tracheal injuries, digestive tract injuries, vascular injuries, ...
The external and internal carotid artery 2. The internal jugular vein 3. The deep cervical lymph nodes 4. The 10th cranial ... and internal maxillary branches: more deeply are the internal carotid, the internal jugular vein, and the vagus nerve, ... are the submental artery and the mylohyoid artery and nerve. The posterior part of this triangle contains the external carotid ... the external carotid, being crossed by the facial nerve, and gives off in its course the posterior auricular, superficial ...
Origin of arteries[edit]. The left and right internal carotid arteries arise from the left and right common carotid arteries. ... The posterior communicating artery is given off as a branch of the internal carotid artery just before it divides into its ... Blood flows up to the brain through the vertebral arteries and through the internal carotid arteries. ... In another variation the anterior communicating artery is a large vessel, such that a single internal carotid supplies both ...
In vascular Eagle syndrome, the elongated styloid process comes in contact with the internal carotid artery below the skull. In ... Repair of a damaged carotid artery is essential in order to prevent further neurological complications.[citation needed] ... Hoffmann, E.; Räder, C.; Fuhrmann, H.; Maurer, P. (2013). "Styloid-carotid artery syndrome treated surgically with Piezosurgery ... or styloid-carotid artery syndrome)[3] is a rare condition commonly characterized but not limited to - sudden, sharp nerve-like ...
Spangler, E.L.; Brown, C.; Roberts, J.A.; Chapman, B.E. (2007). "Evaluation of internal carotid artery segmentation by ... ITK-SNAP has been applied in the following areas Carotid artery segmentation Diffusion MRI Analysis Target definition for ...
... from medial to lateral internal carotid artery (and internal carotid plexus). See also cavernous part of internal carotid ... Abducens nerve Internal carotid artery accompanied by the Internal carotid plexus Tributaries: Superior ophthalmic vein ... The internal carotid artery (carotid siphon), and cranial nerves III, IV, V (branches V1 and V2) and VI all pass through this ... If the internal carotid artery ruptures within the cavernous sinus, an arteriovenous fistula is created (more specifically, a ...
Maroon, J. C.; Campbell, R. L.; Dyken, M. L. (1970-04-01). "Internal carotid artery occlusion diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound ... and to assess ophthalmic artery reversal of flow indicating a thrombosis of the carotid artery (1969). Maroon et al. published ... they published the case of Golfer's Stroke from Vertebral Artery Dissection. Further groundbreaking publications include the ... golf-induced stroke from vertebral artery dissection". Surgical Neurology. 67 (2): 163-168; discussion 168. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... branches of the internal carotid artery inside the skull. When the internal carotid artery becomes completely blocked, the fine ... These vessels are the ACA (anterior cerebral artery), MCA (middle cerebral artery), and ICA (internal carotid artery). The ... middle cerebral artery or MCA). This procedure is also commonly referred to as an EC-IC (External Carotid-Internal Carotid) ... such as the external carotid artery or the superficial temporal artery to replace its circulation. The arteries are either sewn ...
The internal carotid and vertebral arteries. Right side. Course and distribution of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory ... Passing downward and forward between the internal and external carotid arteries, it divides upon the side of the tongue near ...
The internal carotid and vertebral arteries. Right side. Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the ... The lingual vein passes medial to the hyoglossus, and the lingual artery passes deep to the hyoglossus. Laterally, in between ... the stylohyoid ligament and the lingual artery and lingual vein. ...
The internal carotid and vertebral arteries. Right side. Muscles of the palate seen from behind. Dissection of the pharyngeal ...
The internal carotid artery also runs within the cavernous sinus. Finally, it enters the orbit through the superior orbital ... It passes between the posterior cerebral artery and the superior cerebellar artery, and then pierces the dura just under free ...
Odd-toed perrisodactyls such as horses lack a carotid rete, but since the internal carotid artery passes through the guttural ... near the internal carotid artery. Clinical signs include unilateral or bilateral epistaxis due to erosion of the artery walls, ... nasal bleeding caused by damage to the internal carotid artery; with vagus nerve involvement there may be laryngeal hemiplegia ... The external carotid artery passes ventral to the medial compartment before crossing to the lateral wall of the lateral ...
The internal carotid artery does not travel through foramen lacerum. The segment of the internal carotid artery that travels ... The internal carotid artery passes from the carotid canal in the base of the skull, emerging and coursing superior to foramen ... Furthermore, one of the terminal branches of the ascending pharyngeal artery (itself a branch of the external carotid artery) ... The artery of pterygoid canal, the nerve of pterygoid canal and some venous drainage pass through the foramen lacerum. In the ...
In the cavernous sinus it runs alongside the internal carotid artery. It then enters the orbit through the superior orbital ... as can aneurysms of the intracavernous carotid artery. Mass lesions that push the brainstem downward can damage the nerve by ...
彈性動脈為管徑最大的動脈,通常離開心臟不遠,如主動脈、胸主動脈(thoracic aorta)、腹主動脈(abdominal aorta)、鎖骨下動脈(subclavian artery)、總頸動脈(common carotid artery)。其所承受 ... Tunica media:主體由環形排列的平滑肌細胞組成。彈性纖維板不發達,僅在最內與最外層形成明顯彎曲狀的內
Clinical features of transient monocular blindness and the likelihood of atherosclerotic lesions of the internal carotid artery ... Clinical features of transient monocular blindness and the likelihood of atherosclerotic lesions of the internal carotid artery ... are associated with atherosclerotic changes in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA), 337 patients with sudden, ...
... the internal carotid artery is somewhat dilated. This part of the artery is known as the carotid sinus or the carotid bulb. The ... neuroangio.org/anatomy-and-variants/internal-carotid-artery-and-its-aneurysms Aneurysms of the Internal Carotid Artery. ... The named branches of the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery are: the vidian artery or artery of the pterygoid ... They arise from the common carotid arteries where these bifurcate into the internal and external carotid arteries at cervical ...
... of the carotid artery, usually caused by atherosclerosis. The internal carotid artery supplies the brain. Plaque often builds ... Plaque can also build up at the origin of the carotid artery at the aorta.] ... up at that division, and causes a narrowing (stenosis). Pieces of plaque can break off and block the small arteries above in ... Carotid stenosis is a narrowing or constriction of the inner surface (lumen) ...
The build-up of plaque in the internal carotid artery may lead to narrowing and irregularity of the arterys lumen, preventing ... The build-up of plaque in the internal carotid artery may lead to narrowing and irregularity of the arterys lumen, preventing ... More commonly, as the narrowing worsens, pieces of plaque in the internal carotid artery can break free, travel to the brain ...
When it passes through the carotid canal and the side of the body of the sphenoid bone, it has... ... The internal carotid artery enters the skull and supplies the anterior part of the brain (via cerebral branches), the eye and ... The internal carotid artery rests on the external carotid arterys outer side at first and then it goes behind it. The internal ... The carotid arteries have two sensory regions in the neck: the carotid sinus and the carotid body. The carotid sinus is ...
Cholesterol may build-up in the lining of an internal carotid artery. ... Cholesterol may build-up in the lining of an internal carotid artery. ...
Occlusion of Internal Carotid Artery in Kimuras Disease. Tomonori Tamaki and Node Yoji ... In our patient, the pathogenesis of internal carotid artery occlusion was unknown. There have only been a few case reports in ... We suspected that occlusion of this patients internal carotid artery may be caused by the autoimmune mechanism that underlies ... Cerebral angiography demonstrated right internal carotid artery occlusion affecting the C1 segment, with moyamoya-like ...
Thrombosis of Internal Carotid Artery Treated by Arterial Surgery Br Med J 1957; 2 :264 ... Thrombosis of Internal Carotid Artery Treated by Arterial Surgery. Br Med J 1957; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5039.264 ... Thrombosis of Internal.... *Thrombosis of Internal Carotid Artery Treated by Arterial Surgery ...
On the first film of the series the contrast came to a tapered end in the cervical portion of the internal ... 31 cases of pseudo-occlusion of the internal carotid artery were seen; 42 carotid angiograms were available for analysis. ... Carotid Artery Diseases / radiography*. Carotid Artery, Internal / radiography. Humans. Regional Blood Flow. ... In a ten-year period, 31 cases of pseudo-occlusion of the internal carotid artery were seen; 42 carotid angiograms were ...
Definition of tentorial basal branch of cavernous part of internal carotid artery. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and ... Home › Professionals › Medical Dictionary › Tentorial basal branch of cavernous part of internal carotid artery ... tentorial basal branch of cavernous part of internal carotid artery. Definition: a small branch from the cavernous part of the ... internal carotid artery to the base of the tentorium cerebelli.. Synonym(s): ramus basalis tentorii partis cavernosae arteriae ...
Noninvasive Carotid Artery Testing C. Y. Oliver Wong, MBBS, PhD; William J. MacIntyre, PhD; Raymundo T. Go, MD ... Noninvasive Carotid Artery Testing. Ann Intern Med. 1995;123:633-634. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-123-8-199510150-00015 ... has been widely investigated for detecting substantial carotid disease and its functional effects on the brain [2-5]. These ... with which pharmacologic stress tests are used to diagnose coronary artery disease. In the stress brain perfusion study, the ...
Arterial tear in internal carotid artery. Arterial tear in internal carotid artery. ... Cholesterol may build-up in the lining of an internal carotid artery. ...
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Stenting and secondary coiling of intracranial internal carotid artery aneurysm: technical case report.. Mericle RA1, Lanzino G ... New flexible stents can be used to treat intracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms in difficult-to-access areas, such as ... A 49-year-old woman presented with a dissecting pseudoaneurysm of the horizontal portion of the petrous internal carotid artery ... In addition, the stent acts as an endoluminal scaffold to prevent coil herniation into the parent artery, which allows tight ...
... carotid artery angiogram demonstrates the origin of the ascending pharyngeal artery from the cervical internal carotid artery, ... Normally, the ascending pharyngeal artery arising from the proximal external carotid artery. - Stock Image C007/5818 ... internal carotid, internal carotid artery, medical, neck, pharyngeal arteries, pharyngeal artery, vascular, x ray, x rays, x- ... ascending pharyngeal artery, blood vessel, blood vessels, carotid arteries, carotid artery, cerebrovascular, cervical internal ...
What is Carotid artery, internal? Meaning of Carotid artery, internal medical term. What does Carotid artery, internal mean? ... internal in the Medical Dictionary? Carotid artery, internal explanation free. ... Related to Carotid artery, internal: external carotid artery, internal carotid artery aneurysm ... internal carotid artery. One of the two main divisions of the common CAROTID ARTERY. The internal carotid supplies blood to the ...
ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TREATED BY LIGATURE OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN Br Med J 1921; 1 : ... ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TREATED BY LIGATURE OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN. Br Med J 1921; 1 ... ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TREATED BY LIGATURE OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN ... ANEURYSM OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY TREATED BY LIGATURE OF COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN ...
... Dirk De ... and treatment of strangulation-induced bilateral dissection of the cervical internal carotid artery: report of three cases," ... A. Sismanis, M. A. Stamm, and M. Sobel, "Objective tinnitus in patients with atherosclerotic carotid artery disease," American ... resolved after carotid artery stenting," American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 995-997, 2009. View at ...
Aspirin for Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis Robert G. Hart, MD; Diane H. Solomon, MD ... Aspirin for Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125:420. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-125-5- ... compared with those who had carotid endarterectomy and received no aspirin (most myocardial infarctions were unrelated to ... that involved patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis and was stopped prematurely because of reduced myocardial infarction ...
Aspirin for Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125:420. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-125-5- ... reported that aspirin therapy had no effect on the incidence of vascular events or death in asymptomatic patients with carotid ...
Doppler ultrasound assessment of the internal carotid artery following carotid endarterectomy.. T S Padayachee, R R Lewis, A K ... Doppler ultrasound assessment of the internal carotid artery following carotid endarterectomy.. T S Padayachee, R R Lewis, A K ... Doppler ultrasound assessment of the internal carotid artery following carotid endarterectomy.. T S Padayachee, R R Lewis, A K ... Thirty-eight patients underwent unilateral carotid endarterectomy, eight of whom had severe internal carotid artery disease at ...
N. Utsugi, K. Takahashi, and S. Kishi, "Choroidal vascular occlusion in internal carotid artery obstruction," Retina, vol. 24, ... Association between Asymptomatic Unilateral Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis and Electrophysiological Function of the Retina ... "Endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Executive Committee for the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study ... E. G. Grant, C. B. Benson, G. L. Moneta et al., "Carotid artery stenosis: gray-scale and Doppler US diagnosis-Society of ...
Internal carotid artery (ICA) agenesis is a rare developmental anomaly and is most frequently asymptomatic, but it may also ... Early diagnosis is essential to rule out potentially life-threatening associated vascular anomalies.Keywords: carotid artery ... Such signs should prompt further diagnostic evaluation to demonstrate the presence of the agenesis of the carotid canal. ... Congenital agenesis of internal carotid artery with ipsilateral Horner presenting as focal neurological symptoms Wassim Farhat ...
http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/xml/owl/EVS/Thesaurus.owl#Internal_Carotid_Artery SYN LOOM ... Subdivision of common carotid artery, each instance of which supplies some brain. ... Subdivision of common carotid artery, each instance of which supplies some brain. ...
... Eur Neurol. 2000;44(4):199-204. doi: 10.1159/ ... Objective: To evaluate long-term outcome after extracranial internal carotid artery dissection (eICAD) in consideration of the ... Carotid Artery, Internal / drug effects * Carotid Artery, Internal / pathology* * Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection / ...
  • Joint recommendations for reporting carotid ultrasound investigations in the United Kingdom," European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery , vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 251-261, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of the study is to confirm, whether the MER® stent can be used, without limitations, for the endovascular carotid stenosis treatment in daily clinical practice. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This report breaks new ground in that it contradicts the conventional wisdom that a completely blocked or occluded carotid cannot be opened," said the study's lead author, Tudor Jovin, M.D., assistant professor of neurology and neurosurgery at Pitt's School of Medicine , and co-director of the Center for Endovascular Therapy at UPMC. (upmc.com)
  • Spontaneous or traumatic fistula from the persistent trigeminal artery to the cavernous sinus and its endovascular treatment has rarely been reported ( 2 - 7 ). (ajnr.org)
  • A newer procedure, endovascular angioplasty and stenting, threads a catheter up from the groin, around the aortic arch, and up the carotid artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • These tests are similar to myocardial perfusion imaging with thallium-201, with which pharmacologic stress tests are used to diagnose coronary artery disease. (annals.org)
  • Updated Society for Vascular Surgery guidelines for management of extracranial carotid disease: executive summary," Journal of Vascular Surgery , vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 832-836, 2011. (hindawi.com)